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1

Endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we examined the effects of endogenous ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, in comparison with that of two cannabinoid agonists, an ingredient of Cannabis sativa ?8-tetrahydrocannabinol (?8-THC) and the synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist HU-210. 2-AG at a dose of 10 ?g per mouse (i.c.v.) significantly inhibited both jumping and forepaw tremor as

Taku Yamaguchi; Yumi Hagiwara; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Takayuki Sugiura; Keizo Waku; Yukihiro Shoyama; Shigenori Watanabe; Tsuneyuki Yamamoto

2001-01-01

2

Examining the effect of the CaMKII inhibitor administration in the locus coeruleus on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats.  

PubMed

Drug addiction is an occurrence with physiological, psychological, and social outcomes. Repeated drug exposure causes neuronal adaptations and dependency. It has been shown that CaMKII? enzyme contributes to morphine dependency. The locus coeruleus nucleus has been implied in the morphine withdrawal syndrome. This research focuses on the behavioral and molecular adaptations that occur in the locus coeruleus neurons in response to the chronic morphine exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were injected by morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg/s.c.) at an interval of 12 h for a period of nine subsequent days. On the tenth day, naloxone (1 mg/kg/i.p.) was injected 2 h after the morphine administration. Somatic withdrawal signs were investigated for 30 min. We concluded that the inhibition of CaMKII? by administration of KN-93, the specific inhibitor of this enzyme, significantly attenuated some of the withdrawal signs. In molecular method, the expression of CaMKII? protein has been enhanced in locus coeruleus of the morphine dependent rats. These findings indicate that CaMKII? may be involved in the modulation of the naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome, and treatment with KN-93 may have some effects on this system. PMID:22004981

Navidhamidi, M; Semnanian, S; Javan, M; Goudarzvand, M; Rohampour, K; Azizi, H

2012-01-15

3

Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal  

SciTech Connect

To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

4

Orexin type 1 receptor antagonism in Lateral Paragigantocellularis nucleus attenuates naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms in rats.  

PubMed

Orexin neuropeptides have been reported to be involved in morphine induced physical dependence and withdrawal. The Lateral Paragigantocellularis (LPGi) is a key brain region implicated in the expression of somatic signs of morphine withdrawal syndrome. Orexin A and orexin type 1 receptor have been found in LPGi neurons but the effect of orexin on the expression of opiate dependence and withdrawal phenomena in this brain structure has not been studied yet. In this study, the effect of intra-LPGi administration of SB 334867 (selective orexin type 1 receptor antagonist) on the behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal syndrome was investigated. Male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were rendered dependent by adding morphine sulfate (Temad, Tehran, Iran) to their drinking water in increasing concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3mg/ml for every 48 h and 0.4 mg/ml during the next 15 days. Behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal were assessed in a transparent cylindrical Plexiglas test chamber (30 cm diameter, 50 cm height) for 25 min. One group of animals received intra-LPGi injection of SB 334867 (0.2 ?l, 100 ?M) immediately before naloxone. In the control group, SB-334867 vehicle (DMSO 1%, 0.2 ?l) was microinjected into LPGi. Our results indicate that intra-LPGi administration of SB 334867 significantly decreases naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal signs. Thus, it seems that orexin might have a pivotal role in the expression of morphine withdrawal signs through affecting orexin type 1 receptor in LPGi nucleus. PMID:24211689

Ahmadi-Soleimani, S Mohammad; Ghaemi-Jandabi, Masoumeh; Azizi, Hossein; Semnanian, Saeed

2014-01-13

5

Respiratory control of sympathetic nerve activity during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe and compare the changes in phrenic nerve discharge and vasomotor sympathetic output produced by 1) acute administration of morphine in naive rats and 2) naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. Lumbar or splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge and phrenic nerve discharge were recorded along with mean arterial pressure and end-expiratory CO2 in vagotomized, urethane-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats. Acute injection of morphine (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced resting mean arterial pressure, resting phrenic nerve discharge amplitude, the sympathetic baroreflex and the central respiratory drive of sympathetic nerve discharge. Subsequent administration of naloxone (1 mg/kg) reversed all cardiorespiratory effects of morphine and produced an overshoot, suggesting acute withdrawal. Morphine-dependent rats displayed a prolonged central inspiratory phase and a higher threshold for apnea. Naloxone-induced withdrawal was associated with an increase of mean arterial pressure and phrenic nerve discharge amplitude and a large reduction in the inspiratory phase. Withdrawal produced three distinct effects on sympathetic nerve discharge: 1) sensitization of the baroreflex, 2) large increase in the central respiratory drive and 3) selective increase in a respiratory-independent component of the splanchnic sympathetic outflow. It is concluded that the increase in central respiratory drive is a significant component of the sympathoactivation associated with naloxone-induced withdrawal. PMID:8474034

Baraban, S C; Stornetta, R L; Guyenet, P G

1993-04-01

6

Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor.  

PubMed

There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. PMID:25582704

García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

2015-02-15

7

Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal causes an increase in impulsivity in morphine-dependent rats.  

PubMed

Opiate dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in both humans and animals. Although the state of withdrawal appears to contribute to this effect, a causal relationship has not been shown. Here, we test whether precipitating withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats through naloxone can cause increased impulsivity. Rats were trained on a delay discounting task and then randomly assigned to either a dependent group that received a nightly 30?mg/kg subcutaneous dose of morphine or a naive group that received nightly saline. Once dependence was established, 2-day test delay discounting curves were determined 1?h after three doses of naloxone (0, 0.25, 0.5?mg/kg). In dependent rats both doses of naloxone caused increased preference for the small reward at short delays. Naloxone had no effect on delay discounting in naive rats. We conclude that precipitating withdrawal in dependent rats can cause increased impulsivity. PMID:25350729

Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Brisebois, Allyson D; Yong, Hyunchoong; Franklin, Keith B J

2014-10-27

8

Clonidine infusions into the locus coeruleus attenuate behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonidine, an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, suppresses signs of opiate withdrawal in animals and in man. Electrical or chemical\\u000a stimulation of the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) increases noradrenergic activity and brain concentration of the noradrenergic\\u000a metabolite MHPG, and produces many signs of opiate withdrawal. Thus, clonidine's ability to attenuate withdrawal might be\\u000a due to the reduction of noradrenergic neuronal activity originating in

J. R. Taylor; J. D. Elsworth; E. J. Garcia; S. J. Grant; R. H. Roth; D. E. Redmond

1988-01-01

9

Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

2014-01-01

10

Effects of Exogenous Cholecystokinin Octapeptide on Acquisition of Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal Induced Conditioned Place Aversion in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a gut-brain peptide, regulates a variety of physiological behavioral processes. Previously, we reported that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated morphine-induced conditioned place preference, but the possible effects of CCK-8 on aversively motivated drug seeking remained unclear. To investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous CCK on negative components of morphine withdrawal, we evaluated the effects of CCK receptor antagonists

Hailei Yu; Di Wen; Chunling Ma; Yanxin Meng; Shujin Li; Zhiyu Ni; Bin Cong

2012-01-01

11

Glucocorticoid receptors participate in the opiate withdrawal-induced stimulation of rats NTS noradrenergic activity and in the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major molecular substrate of addictive properties of drugs of abuse. Hence, we performed a series of experiments to further characterize the role of GR signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation) as well as GR expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The role of GR signalling was assessed by i.p. pretreatment of the selective GR antagonist, mifepristone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with mifepristone or vehicle 30 min before naloxone and physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, GR expression and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. KEY RESULTS Mifepristone alleviated the somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal. Mifepristone attenuated the increase in the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol (MHPG), in the PVN, and the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Mifepristone antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and the expression of c-Fos expression induced by morphine withdrawal. Finally, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced up-regulation of GR in the NTS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by GR signalling. Overall, the present data suggest that drugs targeting the GR may ameliorate stress and aversive effects associated with opiate withdrawal. PMID:22364199

Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Hidalgo, Juana M; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

2012-01-01

12

Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Receptor-1 on the Catecholaminergic Response to Morphine Withdrawal in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc)  

PubMed Central

Stress induces the release of the peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and also increases dopamine (DA) levels in brain regions receiving dense VTA input. Since the role of stress in drug addiction is well established, the present study examined the possible involvement of CRF1 receptor in the interaction between morphine withdrawal and catecholaminergic pathways in the reward system. The effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on signs of withdrawal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and activation of VTA dopaminergic neurons, were investigated in rats pretreated with vehicle or CP-154,526 (selective CRF1R antagonist). CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss and suppressed some of withdrawal signs. Pretreatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover at NAc or plasma corticosterone levels that were seen during morphine withdrawal. However, blockade of CRF1 receptor significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, DA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 in the NAc. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the number of TH containing neurons expressing c-Fos in the VTA after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Altogether, these results support the idea that VTA dopaminergic neurons are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF1 receptors are involved in the activation of dopaminergic pathways which project to NAc. PMID:23071721

Almela, Pilar; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Mora, Lucía; Hidalgo, Juana; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

2012-01-01

13

Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the expression of withdrawal diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice.  

PubMed

The withdrawal syndrome after the cessation of ?-opioid receptor agonists remains an obstacle in the clinical treatment of pain. We recently showed that peripheral opioid receptors play a significant role in the withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of morphine-induced withdrawal symptoms, especially the peripheral oriented body-weight loss that accompanied diarrhea, in mice. Withdrawal signs were precipitated by the injection of naloxone 1 day after the slow-release emulsion administration of morphine. Withdrawal body-weight loss and diarrhea precipitated by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were significantly suppressed by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), olanzapine (5-HT2/D2 receptor antagonist) and fullerene (a free radical scavenger), whereas neither ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) nor atropine (a muscarine receptor antagonist) significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated diarrhea. 5-HT3-receptors (but not 5-HT2-receptors) are known to play a significant role in 5-HT-induced diarrhea. Therefore, we also examined the effects of ritanserin and fullerene on 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice. Ritaserin significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice, but not saline-treated mice. These results suggest that peripheral 5-HT2-receptor function could be altered in morphine-dependent mice, and the blockade of 5-HT2 receptor or free radical scavengers may be useful for the treatment of opioid-withdrawal diarrhea. PMID:25034809

Mori, Tomohisa; Komiya, Sachiko; Ohya, Jumpei; Uzawa, Naoki; Sugiyama, Koichi; Saitoh, Yusuke; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

2014-10-01

14

Spironolactone decreases the somatic signs of opiate withdrawal by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR).  

PubMed

Pharmacological evidence has accumulated showing that glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) facilitate several responses to different drugs of abuse. Recent findings have attributed a prominent role to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in modulating behavior during the addictive process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MR blockade on: brain stress system responses to naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, the somatic signs of abstinence; the effects of morphine withdrawal on noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), c-Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser31 levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2); and finally, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. The role of MR signaling was assessed with i.p. pretreatment with the MR antagonist, spironolactone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later rats were pretreated with spironolactone or vehicle 30min before naloxone. The physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression and the HPA axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. Spironolactone attenuated the somatic signs of withdrawal that were seen after naloxone administration to chronic morphine treated animals. On the other hand, pretreatment with spironolactone resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression or HPA axis activity that occurred during morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that somatic signs of opiate withdrawal are modulated by MR signaling. However, blockade of MR did not significantly alter the brain stress system response to morphine withdrawal. PMID:25308750

Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

2014-12-01

15

Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

2014-01-01

16

Acute Administration of Pioglitazone Attenuates Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Rat: A Novel Role of Pioglitazone.  

PubMed

Long-term exposure to opiates such is morphine induces dependence.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the acute administration of pioglitazone, a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors gamma (PPAR-?), on the morphine withdrawal syndrome in the rat.Male Wistar rats (200-250?g) were selected randomly and divided into 8 groups including 2 non-dependent groups and 6 morphine-dependent groups which were received additive doses of morphine subcutaneously at an interval of 12?h for 9 continuous days. On the ninth day, only the morning dose of morphine was injected and 2?h later, morphine withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone and then ten distinct withdrawal behaviors were recorded for 45?min. Pioglitazone (5, 10, 20 and 40?mg/kg) was gavaged 2?h before naloxone injection. It is worth noting that 1?h before the pioglitazone (40?mg/kg) gavage, GW-9662 (2?mg/kg), a selective PPAR-? antagonist, was administrated in order to evaluate the possible role of the PPAR-?.The results of this study showed that administration of pioglitazone (40?mg/kg) decreased all withdrawal signs and the statistical analysis indicated that pioglitazone could attenuate the total withdrawal scores significantly. Administration of GW-9662 had no significant effect on pioglitazone attenuation effect on morphine withdrawal symptoms.Taking together, it was concluded that acute oral administration of pioglitazone prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms and GW-9662 could not revert its effect on morphine withdrawal syndrome. It seems that pioglitazone suppresses morphine withdrawal syndrome through PPAR-? independent mechanisms. PMID:24504689

Ghavimi, H; Azarfardian, A; Maleki-Dizaji, N; Hassanzadeh, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Charkhpour, M

2014-02-01

17

GC-MS-based plasma metabolomic investigations of morphine dependent rats at different states of euphoria, tolerance and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.  

PubMed

Long-term or excessive application of morphine leads to tolerance and addiction, which hindered its conventional applications as a drug. Although tremendous progress has been made on the mechanisms of morphine, crucial evidence elaborating the neurobiological basis of tolerance and dependence is still lacking. To further explore the physiological adaptions during morphine's application, a systematic screening of small molecules in blood has been carried out. The plasma of morphine dependent rats was collected at different time points with or without naloxone treatment, and was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and the Student's t Tests with the false discovery rate (FDR) correction were conducted on the normalized data for the distinction of groups and the identification of the most contributed metabolites. Clear separation is observed between different treatments, and 29 out of 41 metabolites changes significantly compared with the corresponding controls. The concentration of threonine, glycine, serine, beta-d-glucose and oxalic acid are consistently changed in all morphine treated groups compared with controls. Through this experiment we find characteristic metabolites in different dependent states and discuss the possible compensation effects. The interpretation of these metabolites would throw light on the biological effects of morphine and reveal the possibilities to become marker of morphine addiction. PMID:25472920

Liu, Ruoxu; Cheng, Jianhua; Yang, Jingwen; Ding, Xinghua; Yang, Shuguang; Dong, Fangting; Guo, Ning; Liu, Shaojun

2014-12-01

18

Comparison of simultaneous administration of lithium with L-NAME or L-arginine on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.  

PubMed

Due to the claim that chronic administration of lithium or L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor reduces morphine withdrawal syndrome, the effects of chronic administration of lithium, L-NAME, or L-arginine (L-Arg), a precursor of NO, alone or co-administration of lithium with L-Arg or L-NAME, on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome and physical dependence development to morphine in mice chronically treated with morphine, were evaluated. Morphine dependency was induced by the intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of morphine (10 mg/kg), once daily for 7 days. Physical dependence to morphine was observed by precipitating an abstinence syndrome with naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). Chronic administration of L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p., once daily, for 7 days after 10 days of receiving only tap water and food prior to naloxone), decreased all withdrawal signs significantly, while L-Arg (200 mg/kg, as above) increased only some withdrawal signs significantly in morphine-dependent mice. Chronic administration of lithium (600 mg/kg, in drinking water) alone or co-administration of lithium (as above) with L-NAME (10 mg/kg) or L-Arg (200 mg/kg, i.p., once daily) for 7 days after 10 days of receiving only lithium (as above) and food, decreased all withdrawal signs and physical dependence significantly in morphine-dependent mice. The results obtained indicate that co-administration of L-NAME with lithium increases the effect of lithium or L-NAME alone, on withdrawal signs, but this increase is not significantly different as compared to chronic lithium or L-NAME administration alone; while co-administration of L-Arg with lithium decreases the effects of lithium on withdrawal signs and this decrease is not significant as compared to chronic lithium administration alone. These findings indicate that nitric oxide may be involved in modulation of naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome, and treatment with lithium could have some effect on this system. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404337

Dehpour, A. R.; Sadr, S. Sh.; Nouroddini, M.; Shadan, F.; Nourozi, A.; Farahani, M.; Sahebgharani, M.

2000-03-01

19

Effects of morphine and morphine withdrawal on adrenergic neurons of the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla.  

PubMed

In urethane anesthetized rats, iontophoretic application of morphine or alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha-MNE) inhibited (80-100%) the discharges of all putative adrenergic (C1) cells of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The effect of morphine was blocked selectively by naloxone while that of alpha-MNE was blocked selectively by the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan. Putative C1 cells were inhibited (75-100%) by low i.v. doses of clonidine (10-15 micrograms/kg). Most cells (7/10) were also inhibited by morphine i.v. (81% at 7 mg/kg). Two cells were slightly excited at doses below 2 mg/kg and inhibited at higher doses. Three cells were excited only. All effects of morphine i.v. were reversed by naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.v.). Intravenous administration of naloxone to morphine-dependent rats increased significantly the firing rate of all putative C1 adrenergic cells (from 5.8 +/- 0.9 spikes/s to 12.3 +/- 1.5 spikes/s; n = 8). During withdrawal these cells could still be inhibited (80-100%) by i.v. injection of clonidine (15 micrograms/kg). C-Fos expression induced by naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal was examined in the brainstem of freely moving morphine-dependent rats pretreated with clonidine or saline before injection of the opioid antagonist. The locus coeruleus (LC) of the same rats was examined for comparison. Morphine withdrawal without clonidine treatment significantly increased the number of Fos-like-immunoreactive (Fos-LIR) cells in the RVLM and LC. Clonidine pretreatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the number of withdrawal-activated Fos-LIR cells in LC by 81%. In the RVLM this reduction averaged 37% for all cell types and 48% for C1 adrenergic cells. Further, a very large proportion of RVLM neurons that expressed c-Fos during morphine withdrawal (83%) were immunoreactive for alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors. This study suggests that, like noradrenergic cells of the LC, C1 adrenergic neurons of the RVLM are: (i) inhibited by both opiate and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists; and (ii) activated during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Since C1 cells are considered essential to sympathetic tone generation, their inhibition by morphine may contribute to the hypotensive effects of this opioid agonist in non-dependent individuals. Their excitation during opiate withdrawal may also contribute to the autonomic activation that characterizes this syndrome. Finally, inhibition of C1 cells by clonidine may contribute to the clinically recognized efficacy of this drug to attenuate autonomic signs of opiate withdrawal. PMID:7542145

Baraban, S C; Stornetta, R L; Guyenet, P G

1995-04-10

20

Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine  

PubMed Central

Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes, despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC). Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent) received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC) for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent) received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28), all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC) at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS) was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg) and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods. PMID:25250285

Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Motaghinejad, Ozra

2014-01-01

21

Hyperlocomotion and paw tremors are two highly quantifiable signs of SR141716-precipitated withdrawal from delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that marijuana abstinence leads to clinically significant withdrawal symptoms in humans. In mouse models, following chronic treatment with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), administration of the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (rimonabant) elicited varying behavioral responses, depending on mouse strain and dosing regimen. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were injected s.c. with THC (25 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily for 4.5 days. SR141716 (15 mg/kg) was administrated i.p. 4 h following the last THC treatment. During a 2-h observation period immediately following the SR141716 challenge, the total locomotor, ambulatory and stereotypic activities of THC-treated mice were 4.1, 3.3, and 3.8 times those of vehicle-treated mice, respectively. The number of paw tremors elicited in THC-treated mice was 111+/-11 during the 45 min immediately following SR141716, whereas only 1.1+/-0.4 was associated with vehicle-treated animals. In contrast, the number of scratching bouts was higher in vehicle-treated (182+/-20) vs THC-treated (17+/-4) mice. The present study is the first to demonstrate hyperlocomotion as an explicit sign of THC abstinence in mice. Together with paw tremors, the two unambiguous withdrawal signs may permit highly quantitative investigation of THC abstinence in C57BL/6 mice and may facilitate investigation of the mechanisms involved via both pharmacological and genetic manipulations, and ultimately potential treatments for cannabis dependence. PMID:19733208

Huang, Peng; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Unterwald, Ellen M; Cowan, Alan

2009-11-01

22

The differential profiles of withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine and beta-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine or ?-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) were compared in ICR mice. Naloxone (10mg/kg) was post-treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 3h after either a single or repeated (1 time/day for 3 days) i.c.v. injections with opioids. Withdrawal symptoms such as jumping frequency, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor were observed for 30 min immediately after naloxone treatment. Withdrawal symptoms (jumping, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor) observed in the group treated with morphine was persistently increased during 3 days. On the other hand, withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss and rearing in ?-endorphin-treated group were increased after a single injection with ?-endorphin, but gradually decreased after the repeated injection. Furthermore, no jumping behavior, penile licking and paw tremor in ?-endorphin-treated group were observed throughout the whole period of time. In addition, the hypothalamic changes of several signal molecules such as pERK, pCaMK-II?, c-FOS and pCREB expression were observed during the presence or absence of withdrawal responses induced by morphine or ?-endorphin administered once or repeatedly. Both hypothalamic pCaMK-II? and c-FOS expressions were increased by naloxone treatment in acutely administered morphine group, whereas only pCaMK-II? expression was elevated by naloxone treatment in repeatedly administered morphine group. In contrast with the findings in morphine-treated group, only pCaMK-II? expression was decreased by naloxone treatment in repeatedly administered ?-endorphin group. Our results suggest that profiles of the withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine and ?-endorphin administered supraspinally appear to be differentially regulated. The pCaMK-II? and the c-FOS protein expression may play important roles for the regulation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms such as jumping, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor induced by morphine-treated group, whereas the phosphorylation of hypothalamic pCaMK-II? appears to be involved only in the regulation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss and rearing in ?-endorphin-treated group. PMID:22626645

Park, S-H; Sim, Y-B; Kang, Y-J; Kim, C-H; Kwon, M-S; Suh, H-W

2012-08-30

23

Opiate withdrawal  

MedlinePLUS

... and it can shorten the length of detoxification (detox). It may also be used for long-term ... have widely advertised treatments for opiate withdrawal called detox under anesthesia or rapid opiate detox. Such programs ...

24

Involvement of Noradrenergic Transmission in the PVN on CREB Activation, TORC1 Levels, and Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity during Morphine Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Experimental and clinical findings have shown that administration of adrenoceptor antagonists alleviated different aspects of drug withdrawal and dependence. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in CREB activation and phosphorylated TORC1 levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal as well as the HPA axis activity arises from ?1- and/or ?-adrenoceptor activation. The effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on CREB phosphorylation (pCREB), phosphorylated TORC1 (pTORC1), and HPA axis response were measured by Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay in rats pretreated with prazosin (?1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (?-adrenoceptor antagonist). In addition, the effects of morphine withdrawal on MHPG (the main NA metabolite at the central nervous system) and NA content and turnover were evaluated by HPLC. We found an increase in MHPG and NA turnover in morphine-withdrawn rats, which were accompanied by increased pCREB immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone concentrations. Levels of the inactive form of TORC1 (pTORC1) were decreased during withdrawal. Prazosin but not propranolol blocked the rise in pCREB level and the decrease in pTORC1 immunoreactivity. In addition, the HPA axis response to morphine withdrawal was attenuated in prazosin-pretreated rats. Present results suggest that, during acute morphine withdrawal, NA may control the HPA axis activity through CREB activation at the PVN level. We concluded that the combined increase in CREB phosphorylation and decrease in pTORC1 levels might represent, in part, two of the mechanisms of CREB activation at the PVN during morphine withdrawal. PMID:22355339

Martín, Fátima; Núñez, Cristina; Marín, M. Teresa; Laorden, M. Luisa; Kovács, Krisztina J.; Milanés, M. Victoria

2012-01-01

25

29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

2010-07-01

26

29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

2011-07-01

27

Effect of nicotine on the tobacco withdrawal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the ability of nicotine to alleviate the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal were measured in 100 smokers who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for tobacco dependence and a past history of tobacco withdrawal. After 2 evenings of baseline measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either nicotine or placebo gum in a double blind manner.

John R. Hughes; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Roy W. Pickensl; Dean Krahn; Shlomo Malin; Alice Luknic

1984-01-01

28

Clorazepate Use May Prevent Alcohol Withdrawal Convulsions  

PubMed Central

Clorazepate dipotassium was administered orally for the five-day prophylactic treatment of potential, incipient and overt withdrawal signs and symptoms in 226 patients on admission to an inpatient alcohol treatment unit. Conservative estimates based on these patients' histories and on literature reports predicted that between 7 and 40 (3% to 18%) of these persons would be expected to have a withdrawal convulsion. No patients experienced convulsions. This complete absence of seizures suggests that clorazepate is effective in counteracting convulsive and other manifestations of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. PMID:2887072

Haddox, Victor G.; Waldron, Lester E.; Bidder, T. George; Derby, Patricia; Achen, Susan M. W.

1987-01-01

29

Clorazepate use may prevent alcohol withdrawal convulsions.  

PubMed

Clorazepate dipotassium was administered orally for the five-day prophylactic treatment of potential, incipient and overt withdrawal signs and symptoms in 226 patients on admission to an inpatient alcohol treatment unit. Conservative estimates based on these patients' histories and on literature reports predicted that between 7 and 40 (3% to 18%) of these persons would be expected to have a withdrawal convulsion. No patients experienced convulsions. This complete absence of seizures suggests that clorazepate is effective in counteracting convulsive and other manifestations of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. PMID:2887072

Haddox, V G; Bidder, T G; Waldron, L E; Derby, P; Achen, S M

1987-06-01

30

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

LakeMichigan Lake Ontario Lake Erie La keHuron Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Total aquaculture withdrawals Surface-water aquaculture withdrawals Groundwater aquaculture withdrawals TOTALWITHDRAWALSM aine Puerto Rico U.S.Virgin Islands Aquaculture withdrawals by source and State, 2005. Estimated Use

31

Effects of oxytocin on nicotine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Development of medications that attenuate symptoms of nicotine withdrawal may be useful for facilitating smoking cessation. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXY) decreases withdrawal signs and other addiction-related effects of several drugs of abuse in animals, but has not been examined in a preclinical model of nicotine addiction. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of OXY on nicotine withdrawal in rats, measured as increases in somatic signs and elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior) during antagonist-precipitated withdrawal from a chronic nicotine infusion. Effects of OXY on baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats were also evaluated. OXY (0.06 - 1.0mg/kg, i.p.) blocked withdrawal-induced elevations in somatic signs in nicotine-dependent rats without affecting somatic signs in non-dependent rats. In contrast, OXY did not affect nicotine withdrawal-induced elevations in ICSS thresholds. Relatively high doses of OXY (0.75 or 2.0mg/kg) elevated baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats. These findings demonstrate that OXY blocks somatic signs but not elevations in ICSS thresholds during antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The ability of higher OXY doses to elevate baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats may reflect an aversive and/or motoric effect. These data suggest that OXY-based medications may be useful for treating the somatic component of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome, but may not be effective in attenuating withdrawal-induced anhedonia. PMID:24239789

Manbeck, Katherine E; Shelley, David; Schmidt, Clare E; Harris, Andrew C

2014-01-01

32

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

33

A Case of Withdrawal Psychosis from Internet Addiction Disorder  

PubMed Central

Similar to substance use disorder, patients with Internet addiction disorder (IAD) show excessive use, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. We report a case of a patient with withdrawal psychosis who showed persecutory delusion and disorganized behaviors in addition to common withdrawal symptoms such as agitation and irritability. A 25-year-old male developed a full-blown psychotic episode within one day after discontinuing an Internet game that he had been playing for at least eight hours a day for two years. Upon admission, he had no abnormal brain imaging findings and laboratory tests. With antipsychotic medication (quetiapine up to 800 mg), his psychotic symptoms rapidly subsided and after four days of treatment, he no longer showed any signs of psychosis. This case report suggests that brief psychosis can develop during withdrawal from long-term excessive use of an Internet and the central pathology beneath the IAD is more likely a form of addiction than impulse control. PMID:24843379

Paik, Ahyoung; Oh, Daeyoung

2014-01-01

34

Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC. PMID:18991893

Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

2008-10-01

35

Student Withdrawal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the problem of students withdrawing from courses before completion and in the process attempts to devise ways that Mendocino College can aid students complete their courses. The report uses findings from two research reports. The first report was completed at the Florida Community College (FCC), which discovered that 75% of…

Hayward, Craig

36

[Ambulatory alcohol withdrawal].  

PubMed

Alcohol addiction is a common problem in daily life as well as in medicine. Apart from inpatient therapy programs, ambulatory withdrawal is a relatively new option, which may be done safely, efficient and cost-effective close to the domicile an without stigmatisation of the patient. PMID:25257113

Grehl, Oliver

2014-10-01

37

Scopolamine withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

As travel by air and ship becomes increasingly popular, more and more travelers are using transdermal scopolamine to avoid motion sickness. In fact, it has become almost fashionable for ocean travelers to sit on the sun deck with a patch behind the ear. This article describes withdrawal symptoms in a patient who used transdermal scopolamine beyond the recommended 3 days. PMID:2296571

Saxena, K; Saxena, S

1990-01-01

38

Vital Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 16-23) lets learners measure each other's vital signsâthe signs that help doctors understand what's going on in a patient body. Learners measure human body temperature, respiration rate, and pulse, and compare them to vital signs of other mammals large and small, such as a cow and a rabbit. A "think it over" writing exercise finishes the activity.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2002-01-01

39

Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling  

PubMed Central

Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [3H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of ?4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of ?4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Einstein, Emily B.; Lopez, Maria B.; McClure-Begley, Tristan D.; Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

2013-01-01

40

Social Withdrawal in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

2013-01-01

41

Social withdrawal in childhood.  

PubMed

Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

Rubin, Kenneth H; Coplan, Robert J; Bowker, Julie C

2009-01-01

42

Dollar Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use number sense and mental math strategies to estimate the price of a sign. Learners pretend they are in charge of making signs for businesses and must calculate the cost of three orders using estimation. This activity provides an opportunity for learners to practice making estimates of the sum of more than two numbers. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Children's Museum of Houston

2014-09-19

43

Hypomania and mania after withdrawal of tricyclic antidepressants.  

PubMed

Seven patients who had been maintained on tricyclic antidepressants developed signs of hypomania or mania shortly (two-seven days) after drug withdrawal. Three patients responded promptly to treatment with neuroleptics. One patient receiving lithium and three others who received no further drug treatment experienced more gradual resolution of symptoms. Tricyclic withdrawal is accompanied by changes in the turnover rate of individual neurotransmitters as well as by shifts in the equilibrium between various transmitter systems. These events may be accompanied by alterations in mood. Although relapse to depression is more common, hypomania or mania may also occur. PMID:7446789

Mirin, S M; Schatzberg, A F; Creasey, D E

1981-01-01

44

The neonatal withdrawal inventory: a simplified score of newborn withdrawal.  

PubMed

A new method for the rapid assessment of neonatal withdrawal was tested. Three studies with 80 newborns compared the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of the Neonatal Withdrawal Inventory (NWI) with that of the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System (NASS), a widely used neonatal withdrawal scale. Interrater reliability for raters assessing neonatal withdrawal with the NWI (range, 0.89-0.98) was superior to that demonstrated by the same raters using the NASS (range, 0.70-0.88). With the NASS as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the NWI were 100% at syndrome detection and treatment threshold levels. With use of the NWI, the severity of neonatal withdrawal could be accurately assessed in 10 minutes under case-blinded conditions. The NWI's advantages include brevity, ease of administration, and flexibility. The NWI's simplicity and accuracy commend its wider use as a clinical and experimental tool. PMID:9584937

Zahorodny, W; Rom, C; Whitney, W; Giddens, S; Samuel, M; Maichuk, G; Marshall, R

1998-04-01

45

American Sign Language  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections, and Deafness American Sign Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

46

Vital Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

Brown, Lester R.

1993-01-01

47

Wilderness Sign  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wilderness sign beside a mountain hiking trail in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. This image was taken while the photographer was participating in the 2009 Joint Annual Meeting of these leading scientific societies: Mycological Society of America, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, ...

48

Administration of a Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonist Following Chronic ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Physical Withdrawal in the Absence of a Dysphoric State.  

E-print Network

??The selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 has been shown to precipitate physical signs of withdrawal in ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-dependent rats; however, the affective state associated… (more)

Ford, Brittany

2010-01-01

49

Behavioral effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on morphine withdrawal symptoms.  

PubMed

Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30 min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control rats and the administration of URB597 (all doses except 0.03 mg/kg) reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that the administration of URB597 modulated morphine withdrawal symptoms. This finding shows that endocannabinoids interact with the opioid system during the morphine withdrawal period and that potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid system by URB597 may be a new target strategy for the management of morphine addiction. PMID:21763761

Shahidi, Siamak; Hasanein, Parisa

2011-08-10

50

Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals  

E-print Network

Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals Louisiana New Hampshire Florida Idaho Washington Oregon Nevada California New,000 9,000 to 13,000 Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. Estimated Use

51

Endocannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Protracted Nicotine Withdrawal: Effect of FAAH Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg\\/rat\\/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed

Andrea Cippitelli; Giuseppe Astarita; Andrea Duranti; Giovanni Caprioli; Massimo Ubaldi; Serena Stopponi; Marsida Kallupi; Gianni Sagratini; Fernando Rodrìguez de Fonseca; Daniele Piomelli; Roberto Ciccocioppo

2011-01-01

52

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2012-07-01

53

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2011-07-01

54

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2010-07-01

56

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2014-07-01

57

Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration  

Cancer.gov

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

58

Role of ?7- and ?4-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Affective and Somatic Aspects of Nicotine Withdrawal: Studies in Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

To assess which nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in the aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal, brain reward function and the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were assessed in mice that lack ?7 and ?4 nAChR subunits. Brain reward function was assessed with the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, in which elevations in ICSS thresholds reflect an anhedonic mood state. At 3–6 h of spontaneous nicotine/saline withdrawal, thresholds were elevated in nicotinewithdrawing ?7+/+ and ?4+/+, but not ?7?/? or ?4?/?, mice compared with saline-withdrawing mice, indicating a delay in the onset of withdrawal in the knockout mice. From 8 to 100 h of withdrawal, thresholds in ?7+/+ and ?7?/? mice were equally elevated, whereas thresholds in ?4+/+ and ?4?/? mice returned to baseline levels. Somatic signs were attenuated in nicotine-withdrawing ?4?/?, but not ?7?/?, mice. Administration of a low dose of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine induced threshold elevations in ?7?/?, but not ?7+/+, mice, whereas the highest dose tested only elevated thresholds in ?7+/+ mice. Mecamylamine-induced threshold elevations were similar in ?4?/? and ?4+/+ mice. In conclusion, null mutation of the ?7 and ?4 nAChR subunits resulted in a delayed onset of the anhedonic aspects of the spontaneous nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Previous findings of attenuated somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in ?4?/?, but not ?7?/?, mice were confirmed in the present study, indicating an important role for ?4-containing nAChRs in the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. The mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal data suggest that compensatory adaptations may occur in constitutive ?7?/? mice or that mecamylamine may interact with other receptors besides nAChRs in these mice. In summary, the present results indicate an important role for ?7 and ?4-containing nAChRs in the anhedonic or somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:22009521

Stoker, Astrid K.; Olivier, Berend; Markou, Athina

2011-01-01

59

Comparison of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, phospholipase A2 inhibitor and free radical scavengers as attenuators of opioid withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome after morphine cessation remains a severe obstacle in the clinical treatment of morphine. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in morphine withdrawal in humans. The mechanisms that underlie expression of morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome are, however, not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the mechanism of the expression of morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome in mice. Morphine-dependent mice showed marked body weight loss and several withdrawal signs after naloxone challenge. Pretreatment with a NOS inhibitor, such as N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 7-nitroindazole, but not aminoguanidine, significantly attenuated the expression of morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome. Furthermore, mepacrine (a phospholipase A2 inhibitor) significantly attenuated the morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome in a manner that was different than that with a NOS inhibitor. These results suggest that nNOS and phospholipase A2, which might increase free radicals, play an important role in the expression of morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome. On the contrary, free radical scavengers (including fullerenes, ascorbate-2-phosphate, and DL-alpha-tocopheryl phosphate) attenuated the expression of the morphine-induced withdrawal syndrome. These results indicate that free radicals play an important role in the expression of physical dependence on morphine, and fullerenes could be a potential clinical tool in the relief of morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:17989510

Mori, Tomohisa; Ito, Shinobu; Matsubayashi, Kenji; Sawaguchi, Toshiko

2007-12-01

60

Signing off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dress for success At a recent physics teachers meeting a colleague commented to me on the generally poor state of the throng's sartorial elegance. It's not that she thought they should all be clothes horses or catwalk models but certain rules seem to have been ignored. This didn't just apply to the older people in the crowd. In the interests of physics we drew up a few basic rules that seemed to have gone awry and we present them here for the benefit of new members of the profession: Trousers should meet shoes, or at least come within 2 cm of the laces. NB. Pedal pushers are not acceptable male attire. Sandals and socks should also be avoided. One of the few equations that all of the general public know (like E = mc2) is Socks + Sandals = Beard. Hair should be washed at least once a week (whether it needs to be or not), combing should take place more frequently. Particular styles are not important, but avoid hiding receding hair using the comb-over. If your jacket/cardigan frays at the elbow throw it away. Patching it up with leather patches is not decorous or clever. NB. Carpet samples are not an acceptable alternative. If you are watching a re-run of a 1970s television show one afternoon and you find yourself thinking how much you admire the actors' dress sense then it is time to go clothes shopping. Colours should match and complement each other. Some combinations should be banned, for example brown jacket with orange shirts are a no-no. Under no circumstances should you try to match brown tweed with anything, unless it's the inside of your dustbin. Men and ties. It is very common to want to wear one's old school or college tie to show off your origins and this is to be commended. However, it is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Ironing should be done on all outer garments, though there is no need to iron creases (fore and aft) so sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

2001-05-01

61

Endocannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Protracted Nicotine Withdrawal: Effect of FAAH Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg/rat/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed at 16 and 34 hours following removal of nicotine patches, respectively. Further behavioral manifestations including decrease in locomotor activity and increased weight gain also occurred during withdrawal. Expression of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal was accompanied by fluctuation in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in several brain structures including the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, levels of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol were not significantly altered. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular degradation of AEA, by URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced withdrawal-induced anxiety as assessed by the elevated plus maze test and the shock-probe defensive burying paradigm, but did not prevent the occurrence of somatic signs. Together, the results indicate that pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing endocannabinoid signaling may offer therapeutic advantages to treat the negative affective state produced by nicotine withdrawal, which is critical for the maintenance of tobacco use. PMID:22140525

Cippitelli, Andrea; Astarita, Giuseppe; Duranti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Stopponi, Serena; Kallupi, Marsida; Sagratini, Gianni; Rodrìguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Piomelli, Daniele; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2011-01-01

62

49 CFR 365.207 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal. 365.207 Section 365.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...AUTHORITY How To Oppose Requests for Authority § 365.207 Withdrawal. A protestant wishing to...

2012-10-01

63

49 CFR 365.123 - Applicant withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Applicant withdrawal. 365.123 Section 365.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...AUTHORITY How To Apply for Operating Authority § 365.123 Applicant withdrawal. If the applicant...

2013-10-01

64

49 CFR 365.207 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal. 365.207 Section 365.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...AUTHORITY How To Oppose Requests for Authority § 365.207 Withdrawal. A protestant wishing to...

2011-10-01

65

49 CFR 365.123 - Applicant withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Applicant withdrawal. 365.123 Section 365.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...AUTHORITY How To Apply for Operating Authority § 365.123 Applicant withdrawal. If the applicant...

2010-10-01

66

49 CFR 365.207 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal. 365.207 Section 365.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...AUTHORITY How To Oppose Requests for Authority § 365.207 Withdrawal. A protestant wishing to...

2010-10-01

67

49 CFR 365.207 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal. 365.207 Section 365.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...AUTHORITY How To Oppose Requests for Authority § 365.207 Withdrawal. A protestant wishing to...

2013-10-01

68

49 CFR 107.711 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal. 107.711 Section 107.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...PROCEDURES Approvals, Registrations and Submissions § 107.711 Withdrawal. An application may...

2010-10-01

69

5 CFR 362.207 - Withdrawal and readmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal and readmission. 362.207 Section 362.207 ...Administration § 362.207 Withdrawal and readmission. (a) Withdrawal . (1...withdraws from the Program. (b) Readmission . (1) If a Fellow or Senior...

2010-01-01

70

29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

2010-07-01

71

29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

2011-07-01

72

Signing off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

2001-09-01

73

How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money  

E-print Network

How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money you may withdraw money at any time, the TFSA is not meant to be a substitute for a chequing or bank-style savings account. Processing fees may apply to withdrawals. Use the TFSA for money you don't anticipate

Northern British Columbia, University of

74

A Detection Model of College Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

2011-01-01

75

Varenicline enhances dopamine release facilitation more than nicotine after long-term nicotine treatment and withdrawal  

PubMed Central

An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2–3 months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at ?6?2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in ?6?2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:25692023

Perez, Xiomara A; Khroyan, Taline V; McIntosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

2015-01-01

76

l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.  

PubMed

l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

2012-12-01

77

Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Withdrawal syndrome may influence patient's motivation for participation in addiction treatment programs. Management of the symptoms can improve the success rate of addiction treatment programs. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse. Methods In the present clinical trial, 81 patients were assigned into case and control groups. The control group was treated with methadone and placebo for 4 weeks. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis for the same interval. Occurrence of withdrawal syndrome was compared between groups on days 3, 7, and 14 after beginning of the treatment, and the possible signs and symptoms of withdrawal syndrome were checked. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was used for evaluation of withdrawal syndrome in the patients. Findings Patients in the case group experienced less severe withdrawal syndrome compared to those in the control group; chiefly bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia. Conclusion The present study showed that rosemary can be used as an optional extra drug for treatment of withdrawal syndrome during treatment programs for opium addiction and possibly addiction to other opioids. PMID:24494164

Solhi, Hassan; Salehi, Bahman; Alimoradian, Abbas; Pazouki, Shirin; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Saleh, Ali Mohammad; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

2013-01-01

78

Activation of brain NOP receptors attenuates acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal symptoms in the rat  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Alcohol withdrawal, refers to a cluster of symptoms that may occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic or prolonged ingestion. These symptoms make alcohol abstinence difficult and increase the risk of relapse in recovering alcoholics. In previous studies, we demonstrated that treatment with N/OFQ significantly reduces alcohol consumption and attenuates alcohol-seeking behaviour induced by environmental conditioning factors or by stress in rats. In the present study we evaluated whether activation of brain NOP receptors may also attenuate alcohol withdrawal signs in rats. METHODS For this purpose animals were subjected to a 6 day chronic alcohol intoxication (by intragastric administration) and at 8, 10 and 12 hours following cessation of alcohol exposure they were treated intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 ?g/rat). Somatic withdrawal signs were scored after ICV treatment. In a subsequent experiment, to evaluate N/OFQ effects on alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety another group of rats was subjected to ethanol intoxication and after one week was tested for anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the last experiment an additional group of rats was tested for anxiety elicited by acute ethanol intoxication (hangover anxiety). For this purpose, animals received an acute dose (3.0 g/kg) of 20% alcohol and 12-h later were tested in the EPM following ICV N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0?g/rat). RESULTS Results showed that N/OFQ significantly reduced the expression of somatic withdrawal signs and reversed anxiety-like behaviors associated with both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. N/OFQ did not affect anxiety scores in nondependent animals. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system may represent a promising target for the development of new treatments to ameliorate alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:21223310

Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Stopponi, Serena; Braconi, Simone; Clementi, Stefano; Ubaldi, Massimo; Martin-Fardon, Rèmi; Weiss, Friedbert; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2010-01-01

79

Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement.  

PubMed

Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12?h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery. PMID:25324788

Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

2014-01-01

80

19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bonded warehouses for: (A) Delivery to individuals departing directly...withdraw may be used only for delivery at the port where withdrawn and...to withdraw may not be used for delivery to a location for retention or splitting...

2013-04-01

81

19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.  

...bonded warehouses for: (A) Delivery to individuals departing directly...withdraw may be used only for delivery at the port where withdrawn and...to withdraw may not be used for delivery to a location for retention or splitting...

2014-04-01

82

19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...bonded warehouses for: (A) Delivery to individuals departing directly...withdraw may be used only for delivery at the port where withdrawn and...to withdraw may not be used for delivery to a location for retention or splitting...

2012-04-01

83

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: how to predict, prevent, diagnose and treat it.  

PubMed

(1) When people who are physically dependent on alcohol stop drinking, they experience an alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The symptoms generally resolve spontaneously within a week, but more severe forms may be associated with generalised seizures, hallucinations and delirium tremens, which can be fatal. (2) We carried out a literature review in order to obtain answers to the following questions: how to predict or rapidly diagnose a severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome; how to prevent and treat this syndrome; how to manage severe forms; and how to deal with the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. (3) The main risk factors for severe withdrawal syndrome are: chronic heavy drinking; a history of generalised seizures; and a history of delirium tremens. (4) Anxiety, agitation, tremor, excessive sweating, altered consciousness and hallucinations are signs of a severe withdrawal syndrome. (5) Individual support and effective communication seem to reduce the risk of severe withdrawal syndrome. (6) Oral benzodiazepines are the best-assessed drugs for preventing a severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome, particularly the risk of seizures. When given for a maximum of 7 days, the adverse effects are usually mild. (7) Clinical trials of other antiepileptics suggest they are less effective than benzodiazepines, and their addition to benzodiazepine therapy offers no tangible advantage. (8) Betablockers increase the risk of hallucinations, and clonidine increases the risk of nightmares, and the efficacy of these two drugs is not well documented. Neuroleptics increase the risk of seizures. There are no convincing data to support the use of magnesium sulphate or meprobamate (the latter carries a risk of serious adverse effects). Acamprosate, naltrexone and disulfiram are not beneficial in alcohol withdrawal. (9) Gradual withdrawal, i.e. ingestion of decreasing amounts of alcohol, has not been compared with other methods but is generally not recommended. (10) There are no specific recommendations on hydration. Note that excessive water-sodium intake carries a risk of pulmonary oedema in patients with heart disease. (11) As vitamin B1 deficiency is frequent and can lead to serious complications in alcohol-dependent patients, oral vitamin B1 supplementation is widely recommended, despite the absence of comparative trials. High doses must be used to compensate for poor absorption. Intravenous administration is best if patients have very poor nutritional status or severe complications such as Gayet-Wernicke encephalopathy (a medical emergency), even though rare anaphylactic reactions have been reported after vitamin B1 injection. (12) Planned alcohol withdrawal in specialised hospital units has been extensively studied. Outpatient withdrawal may be more appropriate for patients who are at low risk of developing severe withdrawal syndrome. (13) A large proportion of alcohol-dependent patients were excluded from trials of withdrawal strategies. These include elderly patients, patients with serious psychiatric or somatic disorders, and patients who are also dependent on other substances. (14) An oral benzodiazepine is the best-assessed treatment for a single episode of generalised seizures or hallucinations during alcohol withdrawal. (15) In randomised comparative trials benzodiazepines were more effective than neuroleptics in preventing delirium-related mortality. Currently, with appropriate fluid-electrolyte support, continuous monitoring of vital signs, and respiratory support if necessary, the mortality rate for delirium tremens is under 3%. (16) In practice, patients who are attempting to stop drinking alcohol need close personal support and communication, and a reassuring environment, as well as regular monitoring for early signs of a withdrawal syndrome; the latter may require benzodiazepine therapy. PMID:17323538

2007-02-01

84

Industrial withdrawals by source and State, 2005. EXPLANATION  

E-print Network

Industrial withdrawals by source and State, 2005. EXPLANATION Water withdrawals, in million gallonsHuron Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Total industrial withdrawals Surface-water industrial withdrawals Groundwater industrial withdrawals WEST EAST Haw aiiAlaskaOregon W ashington California Nevada

85

Nicotine withdrawal and ?-opioid receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The synthesis and release of dynorphin are increased in the caudate\\/putamen (CPU) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of nicotine-withdrawn\\u000a mice, suggesting a role in the nicotine abstinence syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study aims to investigate the consequences of enhanced dynorphinergic activity on ?-opioid receptor (KOPr) expression,\\u000a coupling, and function in CPU and NAc following chronic nicotine administration and withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Mice were injected with

Michael J. McCarthy; Hailing Zhang; Norton H. Neff; Maria Hadjiconstantinou

2010-01-01

86

[Corticotherapy withdrawal in older people].  

PubMed

Synthetic glucocorticoids treatment for their antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities for more than 3 weeks decreases corticotropic axis and induces a risk of adrenal insufficiency upon treatment withdrawal. Dose, duration and unknown individual factors play a role in the occurrence of adrenal insufficiency. Serum cortisol at 7-8 am, possibly completed by an 1-24 ACTH stimulation test makes the diagnosis. A scheme for care of patients is included with a progressive decrease of synthetic glucocorticoids dose, a replacement of this medication with physiological doses of hydrocortisone (in case of adrenal insufficiency) and a follow-up of endogenous secretion for detection of adrenal function recovery. PMID:24333814

Retornaz, Frédérique; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Farcet, Anaïs; Oliver, Charles

2013-12-01

87

The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of

David J. Allsop; Melissa M. Norberg; Jan Copeland; Shanlin Fu; Alan J. Budney

2011-01-01

88

Mechanisms of Withdrawal-Associated Increases in Heroin Self-Administration: Pharmacologic Modulation of Heroin vs. Food Choice in Heroin-Dependent Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-hr heroin self-administration sessions. One hr after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys chose between heroin (0-0.1 mg/kg/inj) and food (1 gm pellets) during 2-hr choice sessions. Under these conditions, heroin maintained a dose-dependent increase in heroin choice, such that monkeys responded primarily for food when low heroin doses were available (0- 0.01 mg/kg/inj) and primarily for heroin when higher heroin doses were available (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/injection). Periods of spontaneous withdrawal were intermittently introduced by omitting one 21-hr heroin self-administration session, and test drugs were administered during these withdrawal periods. Untreated withdrawal robustly increased heroin choice during choice sessions. Withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice were completely suppressed by the mu opioid agonist morphine (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/hr IV), but not by the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist clonidine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/hr IV), the dopamine/norepinephrine releaser amphetamine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/hr IV), or the kappa opioid antagonist 5?-guanidinonaltrindole (1.0 mg/kg IM). The corticotropin releasing factor 1 antagonist antalarmin (1.0-10 mg/kg/day IM) produced a morphine-like suppression of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice in one of three monkeys. These results suggest that mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in the relative reinforcing efficacy of opioid agonists may be different from mechanisms of many other somatic, mood-related and motivational signs of opioid withdrawal. PMID:18704098

Negus, S. Stevens; Rice, Kenner C.

2008-01-01

89

Acute withdrawal: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range in severity from mild "hangover" to fatal delirium tremens (DTs). Tremor, hallucinosis, and seizures usually occur within 48 hours of abstinence. Seizures tend to be generalized without focality, occurring singly or in a brief cluster, but status epilepticus is not unusual. DTs usually appears after 48 hours of abstinence and consists of marked inattentiveness, agitation, hallucinations, fluctuating level of alertness, marked tremulousness, and sympathetic overactivity. The mainstay of treatment for alcohol withdrawal is benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy, which can be used to control mild early symptoms, to prevent progression to DTs, or to treat DTs itself. Alternative less evidence-based pharmacotherapies include phenobarbital, anticonvulsants, baclofen, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-blockers, alpha-2-agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockers. Treatment of DTs is a medical emergency requiring heavy sedation in an intensive care unit, with close attention to autonomic instability, fever, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalance. Frequent comorbid disorders include hypoglycemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. PMID:25307572

Brust, John C M

2014-01-01

90

The Effect of Intermittent Alcohol Vapor or Pulsatile Heroin on Somatic and Negative Affective Indices during Spontaneous Withdrawal in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Once dependent on alcohol or opioids, negative affect may accompany withdrawal. Dependent individuals are hypothesized to “self-medicate” in order to cope with withdrawal, which promotes escalated drug or alcohol use. Objectives The current study aimed to develop a reliable animal model to assess symptoms that occur during spontaneous alcohol and opioid withdrawal. Methods Dependence was induced using intermittent alcohol exposure or pulsatile heroin delivery and assessed for the presence of withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal by measuring somatic signs, behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and air-puff induced 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Additional animals subjected to eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure were evaluated for altered somatic signs, operant alcohol self-administration and 22-kHz USV production, as well as performance in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Results During spontaneous withdrawal from pulsatile heroin or intermittent alcohol vapor, animals displayed increased somatic withdrawal signs, FST immobility and 22-kHz USV production, but did not show any behavioral change in the EPM unless the duration of exposure was extended to four weeks. Following eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure, animals displayed somatic withdrawal signs, escalated alcohol self-administration and increased 22-kHz USVs. Conclusions These paradigms provide consistent methods to evaluate the behavioral ramifications, and neurobiological substrates, of alcohol and opioid dependence during spontaneous withdrawal. As immobility in the FST and percent open-arm time in the EPM were dissociable, with 22-kHz USVs paralleling immobility in the FST, assessment of air-puff induced 22-kHz USVs could provide an ethologically-valid alternative to the FST. PMID:22461104

Williams, Angela M.; Reis, Daniel J.; Powell, Alexa S.; Neira, Louis J.; Nealey, Kathryn A.; Ziegler, Cole E.; Kloss, Nina; Bilimoria, Jessica L.; Smith, Chelsea E.; Walker, Brendan M.

2012-01-01

91

Measuring the incentive value of escalating doses of heroin in heroin-dependent Fischer rats during acute spontaneous withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Rationale/objectives Although continued heroin use and relapse are thought to be motivated, in part, by the positive incentive-motivational value attributed to heroin, little is understood about heroin’s incentive value during the relapse-prone state of withdrawal. This study uses place preference to measure the incentive value attributed to escalating-dose heroin in the context of heroin dependence. Methods Male Fischer rats were exposed chronically to escalating doses of heroin in the homecage and during place preference conditioning sessions. Conditioned preference for the context paired with escalating-dose heroin was tested after homecage exposure was discontinued and rats entered acute spontaneous withdrawal. Individuals’ behavioral and locomotor responses to heroin and somatic withdrawal signs were recorded. Results Conditioned preference for the heroin-paired context was strong in rats that received chronic homecage exposure to escalating-dose heroin and were tested in acute withdrawal. Behavioral responses to heroin (e.g., stereotypy) varied widely across individuals, with rats that expressed stronger heroin preference also expressing stronger behavioral activation in response to heroin. Individual differences in preference were also related to locomotor responses to heroin but not to overt somatic withdrawal signs. Conclusions Escalating doses of heroin evoked place preference in rats, suggesting that positive incentive-motivational value is attributed to this clinically relevant pattern of drug exposure. This study offers an improved preclinical model for studying dependence and withdrawal and provides insight into individual vulnerabilities to addiction-like behavior. PMID:21748254

Reed, Brian; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

2011-01-01

92

5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a...

2010-01-01

93

5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in...

2012-01-01

94

5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.  

...2014-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in...

2014-01-01

95

5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a...

2011-01-01

96

29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor...REGULATIONS ANNULMENT OR WITHDRAWAL OF CERTIFICATES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENT-LEARNERS...528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. (a) An authorized...

2010-07-01

97

21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food...Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject...

2010-04-01

98

28 CFR 29.10 - Owner withdrawal from the program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Owner withdrawal from the program. 29.10 Section 29.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.10 Owner withdrawal from the program. An owner may withdraw from the...

2010-07-01

99

Vitiligo: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments U - W Vitiligo Signs, symptoms Vitiligo: Signs and symptoms Vitiligo causes loss of color. ... amount of color loss or type of vitiligo. Vitiligo has types and subtypes If you are diagnosed ...

100

Shingles: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more ... painful before the shingles appeared. Learn more about shingles: Shingles Shingles: Who gets, causes Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, ...

101

Rosacea: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Rosacea Signs, symptoms Rosacea: Signs and symptoms Rosacea causes more than a ... ophthalmologist (doctor who specializes in treating eye diseases). Rosacea can affect quality of life Rosacea can affect ...

102

Oxazepam versus Clomethiazol in Alcohol Withdrawal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacological management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome associated with alcohol dependence is heterogeneous; however, according to the guidelines, clomethiazol is the standard medication in Germany. Benzodiazepines offer another safe possibility of treating alcohol withdrawal. In a retrospective study, alcohol-dependent patients treated either with oxazepam (n = 141) or clomethiazol (n = 357) were assessed with respect to the course

Walter de Millas; Florian Ganzer; Silke Kuhn; Christian Haasen

2010-01-01

103

Withdrawal and Tolerance Phenomenon in Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenological similarities between gambling and substance dependence have led to the conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder. Tolerance and withdrawal are important features of both disorders, suggesting commonalities in the neurobiological processes associated with neuroadaptational underpinnings. However, there are few empirical studies supporting the presence of tolerance and withdrawal reported in the gambling literature. Moreover, there are

Alex Blaszczynski; Michael Walker; Louise Sharpe; Lia Nower

2008-01-01

104

Opiate Withdrawal in the Fetal Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offspring of women exposed to opiate drugs such as heroin and methadone during pregnancy have a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Infants also show opiate withdrawal. In this study, we examined the behavioral effects of precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent fetal rats at gestational day (GD) 20. The dam was implanted on GD 14 with a pellet containing 75.0 mg

Kathy L Jones; Gordon A Barr

2000-01-01

105

American Sign Language Browser  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Sign Language (ASL) Browser, developed by the Communication Technology Laboratory at Michigan State University, indexes video clips that demonstrate thousands of ASL signs. To view a video clip illustrating an ASL sign, users select a word or phrase from 1 of 26 alphabetical lists. Written instructions explaining how to make each sign accompany every video clip. Each clip in this visual dictionary is a Quicktime movie of about 100K.

106

[An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].  

PubMed

This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group. PMID:21226286

Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

2010-12-01

107

Physical withdrawal in rats tolerant to ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol precipitated by a cannabinoid receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) was produced in rats by twice daily injections (15 mg\\/kg i.p.) for 6.5 days. Administration of the cannabinoid antagonist SR141716A (i.p. or i.c.v.) induced a profound precipitated withdrawal syndrome in ?9-THC-tolerant animals. The syndrome was characterized by a disorganized pattern of constantly changing brief sequences of motor behavior. Autonomic signs were not evident. THC-tolerant animals that

Kang Tsou; Saundra L. Patrick; J. Michael Walker

1995-01-01

108

MILLIKAN CHAPTER 3 NATURAL SIGNS AND INTENTIONAL SIGNS  

E-print Network

, not natural law but statistical frequencies at the source end of the information channel appearMILLIKAN CHAPTER 3 PART II NATURAL SIGNS AND INTENTIONAL SIGNS CHAPTER THREE LOCAL NATURAL SIGNS AND INFORMATION Intentional signs are signs that can be false or unsatisfied. Natural signs cannot. Black clouds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

2006-11-06

110

29 CFR 102.58 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act for the Prevention of Unfair Labor Practices 1 Back-Pay Proceedings § 102.58 Withdrawal. Any compliance specification and notice of hearing may be withdrawn...

2010-07-01

111

75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997...Approach to Define the Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal...

2010-04-30

112

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2014-01-01

113

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2011-01-01

114

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2013-01-01

115

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2012-01-01

116

21 CFR 314.530 - Withdrawal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Accelerated Approval of New Drugs for Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.530 Withdrawal procedures....

2010-04-01

117

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

118

The Role of ?6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Nicotine Reward and Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

The ?6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is involved in nicotine-stimulated dopamine release in the striatum. It is expressed in brain regions and coexpressed with nAChR subtypes implicated in nicotine dependence behaviors; hence, this subunit may play a role in nicotine dependence. Using the ?6-selective antagonist ?-conotoxin H9A;L15A (MII[H9A;L15A]), we determined the role of ?6* nAChRs in the pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine. We measured effects of pretreatment with MII[H9A;L15A] on analgesia, locomotion, and body temperature after a single injection of nicotine. Effects of MII[H9A;L15A] on nicotine reward were measured using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. We further measured physical (somatic signs and hyperalgesia) and affective [anxiety-related behavior and conditioned place aversion (CPA)] nicotine withdrawal behaviors after extended nicotine exposure. Results showed that MII[H9A;L15A] did not block acute nicotine effects on the behaviors measured. Conversely, MII[H9A:l15A] blocked the expression of nicotine CPP, as well as withdrawal-associated CPA and anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not withdrawal-induced somatic signs or hyperalgesia. These results suggest a role for the ?6 nAChR subunit in nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal but not acute nicotine-induced or physical withdrawal behaviors. PMID:19644040

McIntosh, J. M.; Brunzell, D. H.; Sanjakdar, S. S.; Damaj, M. I.

2009-01-01

119

Signs of Duchenne  

MedlinePLUS

Signs of Duchenne If a boy has a combination of the traits listed below, he should be tested for Duchenne: Has a hard time lifting his head or ... hollow back) These are the common signs of Duchenne. Learn more about How Duchenne is Identified , or ...

120

Sign-a-Palooza  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

2010-01-01

121

Ghost Signs of Louisville  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the altogether mysterious "ghost sign?" Simply put, it is a painted advertisement on a building, most prominent prior to the 1930s. Many of these advertisements appear on brick walls in urban settings. This unique collection came out of a partnership between the University of Louisville Libraries and the school's Fine Arts department. Students in a course titled Documentary Photography explored different neighborhoods in Louisvlle, and they took over 200 photographs of various ghost signs. 122 of those images were selected for inclusion in this digital collection, and they are all available here. Visitors can browse the images at their leisure and also use the interactive map of sign collections. Some of the signs are particularly interesting, such as the H.G. Young Druggist sign and the one for the Acme Wholesale Furnace supply.

2012-05-25

122

Neurotoxic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Withdrawal: Expression Profiling Reveals Importance of Gender Over Withdrawal Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

While women are more vulnerable than men to many of the medical consequences of alcohol abuse, the role of sex in the response to ethanol is controversial. Neuroadaptive responses that result in the hyperexcitability associated with withdrawal from chronic ethanol likely reflect gene expression changes. We have examined both genders for the effects of withdrawal on brain gene expression using

Joel G Hashimoto; Kristine M Wiren

2008-01-01

123

L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice  

PubMed Central

L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, L-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether L-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether L-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. L-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5 h. L-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that L-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.

2013-01-01

124

The gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is endogenous inhibitory transmitter that, when administered in pharmacological doses, has sedative-hypnotic properties. It is used in anaesthesia for the treatment of narcolepsy/catalepsy and in alcohol/opioid detoxification treatment regimens. Based on its purported anabolic effects, GHB use became established among bodybuilders. As the euphorigenic effects of GHB became publicised, attendees at dance clubs and rave parties began to use it alone or in combination with other psychoactive drugs. Following the ban of GHB in 1990, several precursor products (e.g. gamma-butyrolactone, butanediol) became widely used as replacement drugs until their ultimate proscription from lawful use in 2000. GHB and its precursors, like most sedative-hypnotic agents, can induce tolerance and produce dependence. Although many GHB users will experience a mild withdrawal syndrome upon drug discontinuation, those with chronic heavy GHB use can experience severe withdrawal. This syndrome clinically resembles the withdrawal syndrome noted from alcohol and other sedative-hypnotic drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines). Distinct clinical features of GHB withdrawal are its relatively mild and brief autonomic instability with prolonged psychotic symptoms. Patients with fulminant GHB withdrawal require aggressive treatment with cross-tolerant sedative hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines. PMID:15298492

Tarabar, Asim F; Nelson, Lewis S

2004-01-01

125

Signs of Labor  

MedlinePLUS

... for labor > Signs of labor Get ready for labor Use a birth plan to make choices about childbirth. Take a ... of labor can help you feel ready for labor and birth. You may be close to starting labor if ...

126

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

127

Warning Signs of Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... ask for help? Signs a Child is Being Bullied Look for changes in the child. However, be ...

128

Acne: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Acne scars Actinic keratosis Alopecia areata Atopic dermatitis Basal cell ... skin. When a nodule heals, it leaves an acne scar. Acne cyst An acne cyst forms when the ...

129

Monotherapy with reboxetine in amphetamine withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Amphetamine withdrawal can induce a condition with the symptoms of major depression. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with antecedents of abuse of amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives from age 16 to age 41, who in the 5 years since withdrawal presented recurrent depression resistant to treatment. She was treated with maximum doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lithium, but there was no remission of symptoms. On being treated with reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, euthymia was achieved, without negative after effects. Several studies have shown that noradrenaline plays an important role in the modulation of the response to amphetamines. The findings in this case suggest that reboxetine may constitute an interesting alternative for the treatment of amphetamine withdrawal syndrome (AWS). PMID:16631296

Molina, Juan de Dios; de Pablo, Silvia; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; González-Parra, Silvia

2006-09-30

130

Neurotoxic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Withdrawal: Expression Profiling Reveals Importance of Gender Over Withdrawal Severity  

PubMed Central

While women are more vulnerable than men to many of the medical consequences of alcohol abuse, the role of sex in the response to ethanol is controversial. Neuroadaptive responses that result in the hyperexcitability associated with withdrawal from chronic ethanol likely reflect gene expression changes. We have examined both genders for the effects of withdrawal on brain gene expression using mice with divergent withdrawal severity that have been selectively bred from a genetically heterogeneous population. A total of 295 genes were identified as ethanol regulated from each gender of each selected line by microarray analyses. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the arrays revealed that the transcriptional response correlated with sex rather than with the selected withdrawal phenotype. Consistent with this, gene ontology category over-representation analysis identified cell death and DNA/RNA binding as targeted classes of genes in females, while in males, protein degradation, and calcium ion binding pathways were more altered by alcohol. Examination of ethanol-regulated genes and these distinct signaling pathways suggested enhanced neurotoxicity in females. Histopathological analysis of brain damage following ethanol withdrawal confirmed elevated cell death in female but not male mice. The sexually dimorphic response was observed irrespective of withdrawal phenotype. Combined, these results indicate a fundamentally distinct neuroadaptive response in females compared to males during chronic ethanol withdrawal and are consistent with observations that female alcoholics may be more vulnerable than males to ethanol-induced brain damage associated with alcohol abuse. PMID:17593928

Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M

2011-01-01

131

The right to withdraw from research.  

PubMed

The right to withdraw from participation in research is recognized in virtually all national and international guidelines for research on human subjects. It is therefore surprising that there has been little justification for that right in the literature. We argue that the right to withdraw should protect research participants from information imbalance, inability to hedge, inherent uncertainty, and untoward bodily invasion, and it serves to bolster public trust in the research enterprise. Although this argument is not radical, it provides a useful way to determine how the right should be applied in various cases. PMID:21338028

Schaefer, G Owen; Wertheimer, Alan

2010-12-01

132

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence Theodore J. Cicero*, Bruce Nock, Edward R. Meyer  

E-print Network

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence in the rat Theodore J. Cicero In earlier studies, it was shown that there were gender differences in several aspects of the pharmacological observations with spontaneous withdrawal, we found no gender differences in the naloxone- precipitated

Steinbach, Joe Henry

133

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

134

5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. 831.1207 Section 831.1207... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability...

2010-01-01

135

20 CFR 404.640 - Withdrawal of an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claimant's earnings; and (4) The conditions in paragraphs (b) (2) and (3) of this section are met. (d) Effect of withdrawal. If we approve a request to withdraw an application, the application will be considered as though...

2010-04-01

136

77 FR 43967 - Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...via an account ownership and control report (``OCR...collect certain ownership, control, and related information for...trading account ownership and control information through a separate...to withdraw the OCR NPRM. Concurrent with this withdrawal,...

2012-07-26

137

18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341.13 Conservation...341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed tariff publications. A proposed tariff publication...

2010-04-01

138

27 CFR 19.585 - Production and withdrawal records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production and withdrawal records. 19.585...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.585 Production and withdrawal records. (a)...

2012-04-01

139

27 CFR 19.585 - Production and withdrawal records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production and withdrawal records. 19.585...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.585 Production and withdrawal records. (a)...

2013-04-01

140

27 CFR 19.585 - Production and withdrawal records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production and withdrawal records. 19.585...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.585 Production and withdrawal records. (a)...

2011-04-01

141

27 CFR 19.585 - Production and withdrawal records.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production and withdrawal records. 19.585...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.585 Production and withdrawal records. (a)...

2014-04-01

142

27 CFR 19.996 - Withdrawal of spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits. 19.996 Section 19.996 Alcohol, Tobacco...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Uses, Withdrawals and...

2010-04-01

143

Computational triadic algebras of signs  

SciTech Connect

We present a finite model of Peirce`s ten classes of signs. We briefly describe Peirce`s taxonomy of signs; we prove that any finite collection of signs can be extended to a finite algebra of signs in which all interpretants are themselves being interpreted; and we argue that Peirce`s ten classes of signs can be defined using constraints on algebras of signs. The paper opens the possibility of defining multimodal cognitive agents using Peirce`s classes of signs, and is a first step towards building a computational logic of signs based on Peirce`s taxonomies.

Zadrozny, W. [T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

144

27 CFR 19.538 - Withdrawal of spirits by the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits by the United States. 19.538 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfer and Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax § 19.538 Withdrawal...

2010-04-01

145

The Meaning of Signs:  

PubMed Central

This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

Stein, Claudia

2006-01-01

146

Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2012-01-01

147

Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan  

E-print Network

Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning

148

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

149

76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the ANPRM because...CFR part 121 to develop and implement an SMS. The FAA may initiate additional rulemaking in the future to consider SMS for other product/service...

2011-03-17

150

Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

Shainline, Michael

151

Signing the Alphabet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson you will review several sources to help you learn the signs for each letter of the American Alphabet as well as the numbers 1 through 10. Using signs to spell individual words is known as finger spelling. It talkes lots of practice to become a good finger speller. Before we begin learning the letters, we\\'ll start with an overview of finger spelling. Use the link below to read about some facts and tips on finger spelling: Fingerspelling Quiz One of ...

Hemingway, Mark

2008-10-15

152

Withdrawal symptoms from phenytoin, carbamazepine and sodium valproate.  

PubMed Central

A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of possible withdrawal symptoms from phenytoin, carbamazepine and sodium valproate is reported in patients with active epilepsy, on combination therapy. There was an increase in seizures on reduction and withdrawal of carbamazepine, but there was no convincing evidence of withdrawal symptoms from any of these drugs. PMID:3144581

Duncan, J S; Shorvon, S D; Trimble, M R

1988-01-01

153

APPEAL FOR LATE WITHDRAWAL Office of Admissions and the Registrar  

E-print Network

APPEAL FOR LATE WITHDRAWAL Office of Admissions and the Registrar PO Box 757480 Fairbanks, AK 99775 classes AFTER · Appeals for late withdrawals must be submitted within 20 class days after the beginning evidence is required. · Acceptable serious and compelling reasons for an Appeal for Late Withdrawal may

Hartman, Chris

154

REQUEST TO WITHDRAW DEGREE/DIPLOMA APPLICATION FORM  

E-print Network

REQUEST TO WITHDRAW DEGREE/DIPLOMA APPLICATION FORM This form is used for students who have completed a Degree/Diploma Application and now need to withdraw the application for any reason. Students who withdraw their Degree/Diploma Applications are required to submit another application for their anticipated

Lu, Yi

155

21 CFR 312.38 - Withdrawal of an IND.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of an IND. 312.38 Section 312.38 Food and Drugs...APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application (IND) § 312.38 Withdrawal of an IND. (a) At any time a sponsor may withdraw...

2010-04-01

156

Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

2006-01-01

157

Stroke Warning Signs  

MedlinePLUS

THINK YOU ARE HAVING A STROKE? CALL 9-1-1 IMMEDIATELY! F.A.S.T. is an easy way to remember the sudden signs of stroke. When you ... A.S.T. PSA (opens in new window) Understanding Stroke About Stroke Why Getting Quick Treatment Is Important ...

158

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE  

E-print Network

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE /RENEWAL WEB SITE ALBANIA University of Tirana 11.12.2001 www.unitir.edu.al/ ALBANIA University "Aleksander Moisiu Durres " 15.05.2010 www.uamd.edu.al/ ALBANIA Universiteti Pavaresia of Vlore 20.04.2010 www.unipavaresia.edu.al/ ALBANIA Polis Universiteti 21.03.2014 www

Di Pillo, Gianni

159

Sign Language Web Pages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

2006-01-01

160

Derivative Sign Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

Clark, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

161

Signing in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

Ashby, Rachael

2013-01-01

162

Physics and Astronomy Department Withdrawal Policy In accordance with university policy, the Physics and Astronomy department permits withdrawals from  

E-print Network

Physics and Astronomy Department Withdrawal Policy In accordance with university policy, the Physics and Astronomy department permits withdrawals from P&A courses up to the withdrawal deadline with associated, co-requisite labs. Physics 101/102, 111/112, 121/122, 220/222, 230/232/ 240/242 Astronomy 115

Bland, Roger

163

Handspeak: A Sign Language Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently renamed and updated, this "practical sign language online dictionary" features approximately 2,800 signs and is being added to on a regular basis. Visitors can use a search engine to find American Sign Language (ASL) signs for words or browse by an alphabetical index as well as by a limited subject index. Also included here are four fables told in sign language, a description of International Sign Language (ISL), and some brief, bullet-point discussions of SL culture and language. Note: the signs are demonstrated in stop-action GIF animation, so users need browsers that support this application.

164

Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30% and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The total absolute error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we considered a reference scenario where per capita withdrawals were kept constant in time. Although there are large variations from region to region, this resulted in a European average increase of water withdrawals of 16%. If we extrapolate the average reduction in per capita withdrawals seen between 2000 and 2008, we forecast a reduction in average total water withdrawals of 4%. Considering a scenario where all countries converge to an optimal water use efficiency, we see an average decrease of 28%.

Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

2014-02-01

165

Placing subway signs Pragmatical properties of signs at work  

E-print Network

in situation these semiotics properties. Keywords Subway signs, Ethnography, Placement Work, Pragmatics traditional semiotics that generally interprets isolated signs. The work of R. Scollon and S.W. Scollon (2003

Boyer, Edmond

166

Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice  

PubMed Central

Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25-30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30-90 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P<0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions. PMID:23181090

Ghannadi, A.; Hajhashemi, V.; Abrishami, R.

2012-01-01

167

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments E - H Hidradenitis suppurativa Signs and symptoms Hidradenitis suppurativa: Signs and symptoms Hidradenitis suppurativa : In its ... suppurativa: Who gets and causes. Learn more about hidradenitis suppurativa: Hidradenitis suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa: Who gets and ...

168

3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Presidents have issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon...use of signing statements to raise constitutional objections to statutory provisions...issuing such statements can be abused. Constitutional signing statements should not...

2010-01-01

169

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

170

Herpes Simplex: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Signs, symptoms Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms Herpes simplex: If a ... 6 weeks (the first outbreak) Learn more about herpes simplex: Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: Who gets and ...

171

Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia – an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 18–80 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation. Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 6–12 months PRM treatment. Methods Data from a prospective 6–12-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary), adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]). Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM. Results Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as “good” or “very good” was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production. Conclusion Results support the efficacy and safety of PRM in primary insomnia patients aged 20–80 throughout 6–12 months of continuous therapy. PRM discontinuation even after 12 months was not associated with adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, or suppression of endogenous melatonin production. PMID:21845053

Lemoine, Patrick; Garfinkel, Doron; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

2011-01-01

172

INFINITY construction contract signed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

2010-01-01

173

Recognition and treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes.  

PubMed

The alcohol withdrawal syndromes are generally self-limited processes from which spontaneous recovery can be anticipated. To achieve this outcome, the various types of withdrawal must be managed in such a way as to prevent the occurrence of life-threatening situations. This begins with a good initial evaluation, followed by the appropriate pharmacologic and behavioral steps to control the severity of withdrawal symptoms and to manage complications. Once the withdrawal process is completed, the patient can then be entered into a long-term treatment program. PMID:6335250

Holloway, H C; Hales, R E; Watanabe, H K

1984-12-01

174

31 CFR 281.6 - Withdrawals from Treasury accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.6 Withdrawals from Treasury accounts....

2013-07-01

175

31 CFR 281.6 - Withdrawals from Treasury accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.6 Withdrawals from Treasury accounts....

2011-07-01

176

31 CFR 281.6 - Withdrawals from Treasury accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.6 Withdrawals from Treasury accounts....

2012-07-01

177

21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

178

18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

2011-04-01

179

18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

2010-04-01

180

18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

2012-04-01

181

18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.  

...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

2014-04-01

182

18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

2013-04-01

183

Impaired fear conditioning but enhanced seizure sensitivity in rats given repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated experience of withdrawal from chronic alcohol treatment increases sensitivity to seizures. It has been argued by analogy that negative affective consequences of withdrawal also sensitize, but repeated experience of withdrawal from another sedative-hypnotic drug, diazepam, results in amelioration of withdrawal anxiety and aversiveness. We tested whether giving rats repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol altered their ability to acquire

D. N. Stephens; G. Brown; T. Duka; T. L. Ripley

2001-01-01

184

Dextromethorphan psychosis, dependence and physical withdrawal.  

PubMed

As part of a synthesis of evidence regarding the abuse and addiction liability of dextromethorphan (DM), an over-the-counter cough medicine available in over 140 preparations, an uncommonly published case of dextromethorphan dependence (addiction) is described, with specific, rarely published complications. The individual was interviewed and several medical databases were also reviewed (Medline, 1966-present; PubMed) for all content relating to the Keywords: dextromethorphan, abuse, dependence, cough medicine, addiction, withdrawal, psychosis. The patient evidenced history suggesting substance dependence, substance-induced psychosis and substance withdrawal in relation to DM. A literature review revealed that DM has specific serotonergic and sigma-1 opioidergic properties. Dextrorphan (DOR), the active metabolite of DM, has similar properties; however, DOR is a weaker sigma opioid receptor agonist, and a stronger NMDA receptor antagonist. DM and DOR display specific biological features of addiction, and are capable of inducing specific psychiatric sequelae. A specific, reproducible toxidrome with significant psychiatric effects occurred, when DM was abused at greater than indicated doses, with more profound and potentially life-threatening effects at even higher doses. DM withdrawal appears evident. DM's active metabolite, DOR, has pharmacodynamic properties and intoxication effects similar to dissociatives, and may be more responsible for the dissociative effect that this DM abuser sought. However, it is this same metabolite that may be fraught with the potentially life-threatening psychoses and dissociative-induced accidents, as well as addiction. While DM has been hypothesized as the most commonly abused dissociative, health-care providers seem largely unaware of its toxidrome and addiction liability. PMID:16318953

Miller, Shannon C

2005-12-01

185

Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.  

PubMed

This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture. PMID:22316934

Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

2012-01-01

186

Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in glioma patients after long-term seizure freedom: design of a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is common in patients with a glioma. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but may cause side effects and may negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Besides antiepileptic drugs, anti-tumour treatment, which currently consists of surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, may contribute to seizure control as well. In glioma patients with seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy the question emerges whether AEDs should be continued, particularly in the case where anti-tumour treatment has been successful. We propose to explore the possibility of AED withdrawal in glioma patients with long-term seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy and without signs of tumour progression. Methods/Design We initiate a prospective, observational study exploring the decision-making process on the withdrawal or continuation of AEDs in low-grade and anaplastic glioma patients with stable disease and prolonged seizure freedom after anti-tumour treatment, and the effects of AED withdrawal or continuation on seizure freedom. We recruit participants through the outpatient clinics of three tertiary referral centers for brain tumour patients in The Netherlands. The patient and the treating physician make a shared decision to either withdraw or continue AED treatment. Over a one-year period, we aim to include 100 glioma patients. We expect approximately half of the participants to be willing to withdraw AEDs. The primary outcome measures are: 1) the outcome of the shared-decision making on AED withdrawal or continuation, and decision related arguments, and 2) seizure freedom at 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. We will also evaluate seizure type and frequency in case of seizure recurrence, as well as neurological symptoms, adverse effects related to AED treatment or withdrawal, other anti-tumour treatments and tumour progression. Discussion This study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients. PMID:25124385

2014-01-01

187

Impaired DRL 30 performance during amphetamine withdrawal.  

PubMed

Repeated administration of psychomotor stimulants may produce an impulsive state that could contribute to the cycle of drug abstinence and relapse seen in human drug addicts. We have previously reported that the inhibitory effects of dopamine (DA) on the firing rate of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons were reduced in rats after repeated amphetamine treatment suggesting impaired mPFC DA function. Here, we used a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) operant conditioning task, which is dependent on mPFC DA, to test impulsivity and inhibitory control. Food-restricted rats were trained to inhibit a nose poke response for 30s before a subsequent nose poke would result in a food reward (DRL 30). Once training was completed, rats received 5 days of no treatment, daily i.p. saline injections or daily i.p. injections of 5mg/kg amphetamine. Nine days of DRL 30 test performance began following a 3-day withdrawal from treatment. The percent of training active hole nose pokes was significantly increased and the percent of training efficiency was significantly decreased in rats withdrawn from repeated amphetamine administration as compared to saline or nai;ve rats. This suggests that impulsivity is increased during amphetamine withdrawal, which we hypothesize is associated with disrupted DA function in the mPFC. PMID:12842301

Peterson, Jayms D; Wolf, Marina E; White, Francis J

2003-07-14

188

40 CFR 123.64 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. 123.64 Section 123.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.64 Procedures for withdrawal of State...

2011-07-01

189

40 CFR 123.63 - Criteria for withdrawal of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Criteria for withdrawal of State programs. 123.63 Section 123.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.63 Criteria for withdrawal of State...

2011-07-01

190

40 CFR 123.63 - Criteria for withdrawal of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Criteria for withdrawal of State programs. 123.63 Section 123.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.63 Criteria for withdrawal of State...

2010-07-01

191

40 CFR 123.64 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. 123.64 Section 123.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.64 Procedures for withdrawal of State...

2010-07-01

192

5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.  

...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

2014-01-01

193

5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

2010-01-01

194

5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

2012-01-01

195

5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

2011-01-01

196

5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

2013-01-01

197

77 FR 11554 - Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab) Following...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...decision withdrawing approval of the breast cancer indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...DATES: Withdrawal of AVASTIN's breast cancer indication was effective November...

2012-02-27

198

27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. 19.532...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfer and Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532...

2010-04-01

199

Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.  

PubMed

End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects. PMID:23428025

Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

2013-01-01

200

Control of morphine-withdrawal hypothermia by conditional stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male rats were given increasing doses of morphine sulfate to cause addiction. Each injection was paired with a bell. After a number of pairings, the bell acquired conditional-stimulus property in that, like morphine, it prevented withdrawal hypothermia during 72 h of withholding morphine. In another group the withdrawal hypothermia was precipitated by withholding of morphine injections. The bell reversed that

Mark Roffman; Cherjerla Reddy; Harbans Lal

1973-01-01

201

Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety

Beng-Siang Khor; Mohd Fadzly Amar Jamil; Mohamad Ilham Adenan; Alexander Chong Shu-Chien

2011-01-01

202

Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status. PMID:25024850

Kugasia, Irfanali R.; Shabarek, Nehad

2014-01-01

203

Alcohol, barbiturate and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes: clinical management.  

PubMed Central

The symptoms and clinical management of alcohol, barbiturate and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes are discussed in this article. People who suffer alcohol withdrawal should be admitted to hospital if they have medical or surgical complications or severe symptoms; supportive care and pharmacotherapy, especially diazepam loading, are the essential components of treatment. Barbiturate withdrawal requires pharmacotherapy and admission to hospital for patients who have taken more than 0.4 g/d of secobarbital or an equivalent amount of another barbiturate for 90 days or longer, or 0.6 g/d or an equivalent dose for 30 days or longer, or who have had withdrawal seizures or delirium; phenobarbital loading is recommended. Regular benzodiazepine therapy that has lasted at least 3 months should be gradually stopped. Short-acting agents should be replaced with long-acting ones, such as diazepam, to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Most of these patients can be managed on an outpatient basis. PMID:2898972

Sellers, E M

1988-01-01

204

Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment  

PubMed Central

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

205

Validity and generalizability of the Withdrawal Assessment Tool1 (WAT1) for monitoring iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in pediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill pediatric patients frequently receive prolonged analgesia and sedation to provide pain relief and facilitate intensive care therapies. Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome occurs when these drugs are stopped abruptly or weaned too rapidly. We investigated the validity and generalizability of the Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1 (WAT-1) in children during weaning of analgesics and sedatives. Of 308 children initially supported on mechanical

Linda S. Franck; Lisa A. Scoppettuolo; David Wypij; Martha A. Q. Curley

206

Effects of Extended Cocaine Access and Cocaine Withdrawal on Choice Between Cocaine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Chronic drug use may lead to sufficient drug intake to produce dependence and the emergence of abstinence signs during withdrawal. Although withdrawal can increase the reinforcing effects of some drugs (eg opioids), the impact of withdrawal on the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine is less clear. This study used a novel cocaine vs food choice procedure to examine the relative reinforcing strength of cocaine before, during, and after exposure to graded levels of extended cocaine access. Responding in four rhesus monkeys was maintained by cocaine (0–0.1?mg/kg/injection) and food delivery under a concurrent-choice schedule during daily 2-h sessions. Under baseline conditions, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Subsequently, subjects were exposed to and withdrawn from periods of extended cocaine access, which was accomplished by implementing daily 21-h supplemental sessions of cocaine self-administration in addition to daily choice sessions. During supplemental sessions, cocaine (0.1?mg/kg/injection) was available under a fixed-ratio 10/time-out X schedule, and the duration of the time-out was varied from 30 to 7.5?min. Cocaine intake increased 10-fold to >11?mg/kg/day during exposure to supplemental sessions with the shortest post-injection time-out. However, parameters of cocaine choice were not significantly affected either during or after extended cocaine access. These results do not support the hypothesis that cocaine withdrawal increases the reinforcing strength of cocaine. This differs from results with the opioid agonist heroin and suggests that withdrawal may have different functions in the maintenance of opioid and stimulant abuse. PMID:19776729

Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

2010-01-01

207

Cardiac arrest due to baclofen withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man presented with postcervical traumatic complete quadriparesis under intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) for refractory spasticity. Less than 24 h after having his baclofen pump substituted, he develops hyperthermia, seizures, cognitive depression, acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and cardiovascular instability leading to mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. He was transferred to an intensive care unit with diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia leading to septic shock. He evolved with progressive clinical worsening and multisystem organ failure and cardiac arrest in non-shockable rhythm (pulseless electrical activity)--4 min resuscitation with return of spontaneous circulation. Considering the possible diagnosis of baclofen withdrawal syndrome and, in suspicion of ITB delivery disruption, the catheter system was surgically explored and a leaking tubule attachment was found. Despite aggressive cardiovascular, respiratory and renal support therapy, clinical improvement occurred only after restoration of intrathecal drug delivery. He was discharged from the hospital after 56 days, having returned to baseline status. PMID:24827663

Cardoso, Ana Luísa; Quintaneiro, Claudio; Seabra, Helena; Teixeira, Carla

2014-01-01

208

Quetiapine dependence and withdrawal: a case report.  

PubMed

Quetiapine is a new-generation antipsychotic medication approved in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related disorders. There are reports about the abuse and possible dependence of quetiapine. We present the first case of definite quetiapine dependence. This is a 37-year-old male who applied to the addiction unit because he could not control quetiapine use. He had a history of alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence as well as cannabis abuse. He reported to have a rush on quetiapine and suffered from its withdrawal when he tried to wean off the medication. This case and similar other suggest that while quetiapine may be beneficial in the treatment of some patients with addictive disorders, we should be cautious when using quetiapine to treat patients with drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:21660879

Yargic, Ilhan; Caferov, Ceyhun

2011-07-01

209

Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

2007-01-01

210

Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

Stokoe, William C.

211

Automatic Recognition of Road Signs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

2002-11-01

212

Withdrawal: said to be unreliable yet it remains popular.  

PubMed

Coitus interruptus, or withdrawal as a contraceptive technique does not make use of artificial devices, however it does have several disadvantages: 1) men discharge a small amount of semen before ejaculation, 2) men withdraw their penis late and inseminate the female, and 3) side effects include loss of sexual interests, limited arousal and pleasure from foreplay, impotency, development of defense mechanisms, body pain, and difficulty in urinating. In the Philippines, withdrawal has a high prevalence rate of 13% among married women (15-44 years of age). In rural areas it is the most popular method (13.7%). In urban areas it ranks third in popularity (8.6%). The popularity of withdrawal seems to be due to 3 factors: 1) fear of side effects and health risks from artificial contraception, 2) the need for privacy of couples (many couples prefer a method about which they could be discreet), and 3) the combined effectiveness of withdrawal (51%) and the rhythm method (62%) is 81%. Efforts should not be made to discourage the use of withdrawal. A qualitative research project on the practice of withdrawal is being conducted by the Population Center Foundation in Bulacan Province with the objective being to gain deeper insight into the practice. PMID:12263977

Young, V

1981-01-01

213

Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

2011-01-01

214

Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Five States, including Colorado (552 Mgal/d), Kansas (384 Mgal/d), Oklahoma (126 Mgal/d), Kentucky (102 Mgal/d), and Ohio (100 Mgal/d), accounted for 81 percent of estimated stream-valley aquifer withdrawals identified in this report. Of the total withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers, about 63 percent (984 Mgal/d) were used for irrigation, 26 percent (400 Mgal/d) for public-supply, and 11 percent (177 Mgal/d) for self-supplied industrial uses. The largest estimated water withdrawals were from stream-valley aquifers associated with the South Platte (404 Mgal/d), Arkansas (395 Mgal/d), and Ohio (221 Mgal/d) Rivers.

Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

2008-01-01

215

Liquid withdrawal from capillary tubes: explicit and implicit analytical solution for constant and dynamic contact angle.  

PubMed

In a preceding paper, we derived analytical solutions for the displacement of a gas by a liquid in horizontal and inclined capillary tubes where the tube inlet is connected to a liquid reservoir of constant pressure. We considered quite general models for the dynamic contact angle and were able to derive implicit equations for the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. These solutions allowed us to identify five different flow scenarios for liquid withdrawal that differed in the direction of flow and the sign of the acceleration of the gas-liquid interface. In this paper, we consider the special case where the dynamic contact angle is determined by a nonequilibrium Young force that depends linearly on the capillary number. Thus we can derive explicit and the more traditional implicit analytical solutions for both the position and the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. We also construct diagrams that allow us to predict which of the five flow scenarios will occur depending on the nondimensional parameters that define the problem. The diagrams can be combined with diagrams previously obtained for infiltration and the entire parameter space subdivided into regions that are associated with either liquid withdrawal, liquid infiltration, or metastable and stable equilibrium states. Our solutions are also valid within the limit where the contact angle is constant. PMID:20691978

Hilpert, Markus

2010-11-01

216

A within-subject comparison of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence from cannabis, tobacco, and both substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been characterized, but its clinical significance remains uncertain. One method of assessing the significance of cannabis withdrawal is to compare it directly to an established withdrawal syndrome. The present study was a within-subject comparison of cannabis, tobacco, and combined cannabis and tobacco withdrawal among users of both substances. Participants (N=12) completed three 5-day periods of

R. G. Vandrey; A. J. Budney; J. R. Hughes; A. Liguori

2008-01-01

217

Massive exacerbation of multiple sclerosis after withdrawal and early restart of treatment with natalizumab.  

PubMed

We present a 46-year-old woman with a relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) that began 3months after withdrawal from long-term treatment with natalizumab. Shortly after restart of a single dose of natalizumab she developed a fulminant MS rebound with stupor and tetraparesis. Cerebral MRI showed massive progression in the number of lesions and tumefactive lesions with ring gadolinium-enhancement. Stereotactic brain biopsy revealed acute demyelination and B-cell dominated inflammation. The patient improved during therapeutic plasma exchange. We speculate that early restart of natalizumab in the case of a relapse may worsen disease evolution possibly by modifying regulatory immune effector processes during an inflammatory rebound phase. A restart of natalizumab in MS patients suffering from a recent relapse or with signs of active inflammation should be considered with caution. PMID:25150761

Beume, Lena-Alexandra; Dersch, Rick; Fuhrer, Hannah; Stich, Oliver; Rauer, Sebastian; Niesen, Wolf D

2015-02-01

218

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

2014-07-01

219

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

2012-07-01

220

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

2011-07-01

221

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

2013-07-01

222

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

2010-07-01

223

Venlafaxine and Serious Withdrawal Symptoms: Warning to Drivers  

PubMed Central

Venlafaxine is a widely used serotonin- and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor-type antidepressant that causes serious adverse effects in at least 5% of cases. Serious withdrawal symptoms may occur within hours of cessation or reduction of the usual dosage and may affect motor and coordination skills to such a degree that patients should be explicitly urged either to adhere to a strict medication routine or not to drive a car. Recent clinical evidence about withdrawal symptoms is presented that may indicate incidents in noradrenergic activity irrespective of dosage. Objective To present clinical information and a brief review of severe venlafaxine withdrawal symptoms that may occur within hours after cessation and affect the ability to drive a motor vehicle or use heavy or dangerous machinery. Method Review of own and third-party clinical records. Search in PubMed and other databases with terms: venlafaxine, discontinuation, withdrawal, syndrome, serotonin, noradrenaline, noradrenergic, serotonergic, seizures, epilepsy. PMID:16369248

Campagne, Daniel M.

2005-01-01

224

7 CFR 283.9 - Withdrawal of appeal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...OF QUALITY CONTROL (âQCâ) CLAIMS Appeals of QC Claims of $50,000 or More § 283...to pay the full amount of the claim. By withdrawing an...

2010-01-01

225

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2014-04-01

226

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2013-04-01

227

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2012-04-01

228

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2011-04-01

229

9 CFR 500.6 - Withdrawal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of inspection. 500.6 Section 500.6...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2012-01-01

230

31 CFR 25.302 - Application withdrawal; effect of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdraw the prepayment application at any time prior to its approval. Even after a Borrower's prepayment application has been approved, the Borrower is not obligated to prepay its Eligible FMS Loans or Eligible FMS...

2010-07-01

231

Astronaut's tool for withdrawing/replacing computer cards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Symmetrical tool allows astronauts to withdraw and replace Apollo Telescope Mount control computer cards. It is easily manipulated by a gloved hand, provides positive locking of a withdrawn card, and has a visible locking device.

West, R. L.

1969-01-01

232

38 CFR 20.204 - Rule 204. Withdrawal of Appeal.  

...the withdrawal at the following address: Director, Management and Administration (014), Board of Veterans' Appeals, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20420. (3) When effective. Until the appeal is transferred to the Board, an...

2014-07-01

233

18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.  

...principles among others: (1) That allocations, diversions, or withdrawals of water be based on the common law principles of riparian rights which entitles landholders in any watershed to draw upon the natural stream flow in reasonable amounts and be...

2014-04-01

234

18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...principles among others: (1) That allocations, diversions, or withdrawals of water be based on the common law principles of riparian rights which entitles landholders in any watershed to draw upon the natural stream flow in reasonable amounts and be...

2013-04-01

235

18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...principles among others: (1) That allocations, diversions, or withdrawals of water be based on the common law principles of riparian rights which entitles landholders in any watershed to draw upon the natural stream flow in reasonable amounts and be...

2012-04-01

236

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2013-04-01

237

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2014-04-01

238

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2012-04-01

239

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2010-04-01

240

30 CFR 36.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 36.13 Withdrawal of...

2014-07-01

241

30 CFR 36.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 36.13 Withdrawal of...

2012-07-01

242

30 CFR 36.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 36.13 Withdrawal of...

2011-07-01

243

30 CFR 36.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 36.13 Withdrawal of...

2010-07-01

244

30 CFR 36.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 36.13 Withdrawal of...

2013-07-01

245

7 CFR 56.25 - Withdrawal of Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.25 Withdrawal of Application. An application for...

2010-01-01

246

20 CFR 416.1555 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representative. 416.1555 Section 416.1555 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1555 Withdrawing charges against a...

2010-04-01

247

30 CFR 35.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to rescind for cause,...

2010-07-01

248

Severity of Alcohol Withdrawal and Genetic Risk for  

E-print Network

Severity of Alcohol Withdrawal and Genetic Risk for Alcohol Dependence Symposium Friday, September USA Sponsored by: Portland Alcohol Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University Charleston Alcohol Research Center, Medical University of South Carolina Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs

Chapman, Michael S.

249

31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

2013-07-01

250

31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

2012-07-01

251

31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

2014-07-01

252

31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

2014-07-01

253

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2010-04-01

254

Signs and Symptoms of COPD  

MedlinePLUS

... Why is shortness of breath a symptom of COPD? Shortness of breath (or breathlessness ) is a common ... better or worse. Signs and Symptoms of COPD COPD MINI-SERIES #2 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ...

255

Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... or a few days. If you have a reaction to the oil, you can have these signs ( ...

256

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

257

Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

258

The effect of vitamin C on morphine self-administration in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent studies have shown that addiction may be caused by abnormality of neurotransmission in the brain. Two neurotransmitters that involve into morphine addiction are dopamine and glutamate. The glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems are also involved in morphine tolerance and morphine withdrawal syndrome signs. Ascorbic acid (AA), as the antioxidant releases from the glutamatergic neurons, modulates the action of the dopamine and glutamate systems. In this study, the effect of AA on morphine self-administration and morphine withdrawal symptoms has been investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250 - 300g) were anesthetized with ketamine (11%) and xailazine (15%). The cannula was inserted into the right jugular vein, and it was fixed subcutaneously on the skull. After surgery the animals were placed in individual home cages, and they were allowed to recover from the operation for five days, before the test. The animals were subjected to self-administration morphine for12 consecutive days, two-hour/sessions. The number of infusions and number of active and passive lever pressings were recorded. Results: An intra peritoneal injection of Ascorbic acid (AA) (400 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 minutes before morphine self-administration, produced a significant decrease in 12 days self-administration of morphine and withdrawal syndrome signs (P < 0.05). The morphine withdrawal signs (MWS) were recorded after naloxone precipitation, which decreased significantly with the injection of AA (400,700mg/kg), (<0.05). The number of self-infusions and the number of active lever pressings had significantly decreased after AA injection (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The chronic administration of AA may prevent the development of tolerance and physical dependence on morphine self-administration via the glutamatergic system. PMID:25250292

Talkhooncheh, Mahboobeh; Alaei, Hojjat Allah; Ramshini, Effat; Shahidani, Somaei

2014-01-01

259

Status Cataplecticus Precipitated by Abrupt Withdrawal of Venlafaxine  

PubMed Central

Status cataplecticus is a rare manifestation of narcolepsy with cataplexy episodes recurring for hours or days, without a refractory period, in the absence of emotional triggers. This case highlights a narcoleptic patient who developed status cataplecticus after abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. Citation: Wang J; Greenberg H. Status cataplecticus precipitated by abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):715-716. PMID:23853567

Wang, Janice; Greenberg, Harly

2013-01-01

260

Withdrawal symptoms: individual differences and similarities across addictive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined withdrawal symptoms and their intensities across a range of traditional and non-traditional addictive substances\\/losses (i.e., alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, food, and social\\/love relationship). Study one administered the Withdrawal Symptom Survey to Alcoholics Anonymous members and college students. Seven symptoms (irritability, restlessness, impatience, anxiousness, trouble concentrating, depression, and anger) were rated in the top 10 of symptom intensity

David G. Gilbert; Brenda O. Gilbert; Vicki L. Schultz

1998-01-01

261

Managing benzodiazepine withdrawal during pregnancy: case-based guidelines.  

PubMed

Substance use disorders during pregnancy pose serious risks for both the mother and the fetus, demanding careful monitoring by the patient's medical providers. Sedative-hypnotic use, in particular, is common but remains poorly studied. Management of withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepine use during pregnancy presents unique challenges to the treating physician. We present two pregnant patients with dependence on sedative-hypnotic agents, outline principles of benzodiazepine withdrawal, and suggest guidelines for detoxification during pregnancy. PMID:24271083

Gopalan, Priya; Glance, Jody B; Azzam, Pierre N

2014-04-01

262

A management model for specification of groundwater withdrawal permits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Massachusetts Water Management Act was enacted in 1986 to preserve the State's water resources. The intent of the Act was to allow for sustained economic growth while protecting the natural environment by minimizing the occurrence of low stream flows. As a result of the act, a permit must be obtained for new water withdrawals (including increases on existing withdrawals) of more than 0.1 million gallons per day (0.00438 m3/s). The permits specify the degree to which applicants may withdraw water, and reserve the right to curtail use during low flow seasons. A linear programming model is presented that is capable of assisting regulatory agencies in specifying details of permits for groundwater use. The model links ground water withdrawals with surface streamflow, considering consumptive use and interbasin transfers. The optimization minimizes the depletion of streamflow below a standard while honoring the statistical distribution of allowed withdrawals permitted each applicant. The results specify the amount and timing of allowed withdrawals throughout the year.

Mueller, Frederick A.; Male, James W.

1993-05-01

263

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend’s withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class. PMID:18193479

Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

2013-01-01

264

Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons  

PubMed Central

Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 ?mol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 ?mol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

2013-01-01

265

Tolerance and sensitization to chronic escalating-dose heroin following extended withdrawal in Fischer rats: possible role of mu-opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

Rationale/objectives Heroin addiction is characterized by recurrent cycles of drug use, abstinence and relapse. It is likely that neurobiological changes during chronic heroin exposure persist across withdrawal and impact behavioral responses to re-exposure. We hypothesized that, after extended withdrawal, heroin-withdrawn rats would express behavioral tolerance and/or sensitization in response to heroin re-exposure and that these responses might be associated with altered mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) activity. Methods Male Fischer rats were exposed chronically to escalating doses of heroin (7.5–75mg/kg/day), experienced acute spontaneous withdrawal and extended (10-day) abstinence, and were re-exposed chronically to heroin. Homecage behaviors and locomotor activity in response to heroin, as well as somatic withdrawal signs, were recorded. Separate groups of rats were sacrificed after extended abstinence and MOPr expression and G-protein coupling were analyzed using [3H]DAMGO and [35S]GTP?S assays. Results The depth of behavioral stupor was lower during the initial days of heroin re-exposure compared to the initial days of the first exposure period. Behavioral responses (e.g., stereotypy) and locomotion were elevated in response to heroin re-exposure at low doses. Rats conditioned for heroin place preference during the chronic re-exposure period expressed heroin preference during acute withdrawal; this preference was stronger than rats conditioned during chronic heroin exposure that followed chronic saline and injection-free periods. Extended withdrawal was associated with increased MOPr expression in the caudate-putamen and frontal and cingulate cortices. No changes in G-protein coupling were identified. Conclusions Aspects of tolerance/sensitization to heroin are present even after extended abstinence and may be associated with altered MOPr density. PMID:22829433

Seip-Cammack, Katharine M.; Reed, Brian; Zhang, Yong; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

2012-01-01

266

Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on acute and chronic effects of morphine.  

PubMed

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known to participate in different vegetative functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ANP on nociception itself, pain sensitivity to morphine, and the development of acute and chronic tolerance to morphine. Morphine withdrawal signs were also evaluated by injecting naloxone. In adult, male NMRI mice, ANP administered SC or ICV did not affect pain sensitivity itself in a heat-radiant tail-flick test. Peptide treatment, however, depressed the acute nociceptive effect of a single dose of morphine (4 mg/kg, SC) after both SC (20-200 ng/animal) and ICV (5, 10, 20, or 200 ng/animal) ANP administration. ANP given SC and ICV attenuated the development of acute morphine tolerance. Acute morphine tolerance was assessed by giving a bolus injection of morphine (60 mg/kg) 24 h before the pain sensitivity to a challenge dose of morphine (4 mg/kg) was measured. ICV treatment with ANP also blocked the development of chronic morphine tolerance, but did not affect the appearance of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndromes. ANP seems to act differently on the development of tolerance to and dependence upon morphine. PMID:1409804

Azarov, A V; Szabó, G; Telegdy, G

1992-09-01

267

Report of the Withdrawal Office: The Who, When, Why, and How of Withdrawal at University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Spring Semester 1981. Research Report #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the first semester's work of the Withdrawal Office of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, are presented in four reports. A brief historical overview and introduction by Deborah Hazel Johnson describes the objectives of implementing a withdrawal procedure, the purposes of the Withdrawal Office, and procedures that were used…

Johnson, Deborah Hazel; And Others

268

Skin signs in anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and of the psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugo-like body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrhoeic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell’s sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions by drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the “hidden” signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:20808514

2009-01-01

269

COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF FOUR SMOKING WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOM SCALES  

PubMed Central

Aims Examine the association of person-specific trajectories of withdrawal symptoms of urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger during the first 7 days after smoking cessation with abstinence at end of treatment (EOT) and 6 months. Design Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to model person-specific trajectory parameters (level, slope, curvature and volatility) for withdrawal symptoms. Setting University-based smoking cessation trials. Participants Treatment seeking smokers in clinical trials of transdermal nicotine versus nicotine spray (n=514) and bupropion versus placebo (n=421) Measurements Self-reported withdrawal symptoms for 7 days after the planned quit date, and 7 day point prevalence and continuous abstinence at EOT and 6 months. Findings In regressions that included trajectory parameters for one group of withdrawal symptoms, both urge-to-smoke and negative affect were predictive of abstinence while physical symptoms and hunger were generally not predictive. In stepwise regressions that included the complete set of trajectory parameters across withdrawal symptoms (for urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger), with a single exception, only the trajectory parameters for urge-to-smoke were predictive. Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was 0.594 for covariates alone, and 0.670 for covariates plus urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters. Conclusion Among a number of different withdrawal symptoms (urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger) urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters (level, slope, and volatility) over the first 7 days of smoking cessation show the strongest prediction of both short and long term relapse. Other withdrawal symptoms increase the predictive ability by negligible amounts. PMID:22321019

Javitz, Harold S.; Lerman, Caryn; Swan, Gary E.

2012-01-01

270

Signed Networks in Social Media  

E-print Network

Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the classical theory of structural balance tends to capture certain common patterns of interaction, but that it is also at odds with some of the fundamental phenomena we observe --- particularly related to the evolving, directed nature of these on-line networks. We then develop an alternate theory of status that better explains the observed edge signs and provides insights into the underlying social mechanisms. Our work provides one of the first large-scale evaluations of theories of signed networks using on-line datasets, as ...

Leskovec, Jure; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-01-01

271

Animated American Sign Language Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Randy Stine, an ASL enthusiast, this site is designed to help users learn about ASL and the Deaf community. The heart of the site is the Dictionary, a collection of basic words that are signed in a brief video sequence, a simple, but very clever idea. The Dictionary also contains the signs for A to Z and 0 to 9. Users will also find a large number of resources for and about the Deaf community. These include related links, articles, services, and non-profit agencies.

272

Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

2001-01-01

273

What Do the Signs Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As students progress through primary school, they are introduced to a growing collection of notation and symbols. From a teaching perspective, before introducing new mathematical symbols it is important to consider the role they play. If students cannot see a meaningful relationship between these signs and symbols and mathematical concepts, coming…

Heath, Bryony

2010-01-01

274

How informed is signed consent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assurance that patients fully understand the information given to them before they sign the consent form for operation has never been validated in this country. One hundred patients were interviewed by an independent medical observer in one surgical unit in a teaching hospital between two and five days after their operation. Although all the patients interviewed were fully aware

D J Byrne; A Napier; A Cuschieri

1988-01-01

275

Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

1995-01-01

276

Structural Analysis of Sign Bridge  

E-print Network

been found in many sign support structures composed of welded round hollow structural shapes (HSS). The purpose of the research conducted was to provide fatigue life estimates for these structures, which could-Mast Luminaire Support Structures, Fatigue Life Prediction, Finite Element Analysis 18. Distribution Statement

Foley, Christopher M.

277

An automatic sign recognition and translation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sign is something that suggests the presence of a fact, condition, or quality. Signs are everywhere in our lives. They make our lives easier when we are familiar with them. But sometimes they pose problems. For example, a tourist might not be able to understand signs in a foreign country. This paper discusses problems of automatic sign recognition and

Jie Yang; Jiang Gao; Ying Zhang; Xilin Chen; Alex Waibel

2001-01-01

278

Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

2013-01-01

279

Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

Mesch, Johanna

2013-01-01

280

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sign to each station in a different class. (In addition to the U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have been assigned to the Department of the Army; call sign block AFA through AKZ has...

2010-10-01

281

Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

Ktejik, Mish

2013-01-01

282

Estimated Withdrawals and Use of Water in Colorado, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future health and economic welfare of the people and environment of Colorado depend on a continuous supply of fresh water. Detailed, comprehensive information on the use of water from Colorado's diverse surface-water and groundwater resources is important to water managers and planners by providing information they need to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP), Statewide water withdrawal and water-use data have been collected or estimated and summarized in this report by county and by four-digit hydrologic unit code for the following seven water-use categories: irrigation (crop and golf course), public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied industrial, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power generation. A summary for instream water use for hydroelectric power generation also is included. This report is published in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. In 2005, an estimated 13,581.22 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater and surface-water sources in Colorado for the seven water-use categories. Withdrawals from surface water represented about 11,035 Mgal/d, or 81.3 percent of the total, whereas withdrawals from groundwater sources represented an estimated 2,546 Mgal/d or 18.7 percent of the total. Irrigation (combined crop and golf course) totaled 12,362.49 Mgal/d or 91 percent of the total water withdrawals in the State of Colorado. Crop irrigation accounted for 99.7 percent (12,321.85 Mgal/d) of the irrigation, whereas the 243 turf golf courses in Colorado accounted for 0.3 percent (40.64 Mgal/d) of the total irrigation water withdrawals. Total withdrawals for the other water-use categories were public supply, 864.17 Mgal/d; self-supplied domestic, 34.43 Mgal/d; self-supplied industrial, 142.44 Mgal/d; livestock, 33.06 Mgal/d; mining, 21.42 Mgal/d (includes both fresh and saline water); and thermoelectric, 123.21 Mgal/d. The counties with the largest total withdrawals (greater than 500 Mgal/d) were Mesa, Weld, Rio Grande, Montrose, Gunnison, and Saguache. Counties with the smallest total withdrawals (less than 5 Mgal/d) were Clear Creek, Gilpin, and San Juan. Four-digit hydrologic unit codes with the greatest withdrawals were 1019 (South Platte River Basin), 1301 (Rio Grande Basin), and 1102 (Arkansas River Basin); the high withdrawal rates were driven by crop irrigation withdrawals. Total instream water use for hydroelectric power generation was 5,253.60 Mgal/d. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated for 2004 for the bedrock and overlying alluvial aquifers in the Denver Basin for irrigation, public supply, commercial/industrial, household use only, and domestic/livestock water-use categories. Withdrawals were estimated for input into the USGS Denver Basin model by using the equations in the Senate Bill 96-074 groundwater model. The greatest withdrawals were for public supply. The smallest withdrawals were for household-use-only wells. Douglas County had the greatest groundwater withdrawals (183.98 Mgal/d), whereas Broomfield County had the smallest (3.09 Mgal/d). Of the seven Denver Basin aquifers, the Lower Arapahoe aquifer had the greatest total estimated withdrawals (287.11 Mgal/d), with Douglas County having the greatest public-supply withdrawal of any county (95.29 Mgal/d) from this aquifer. The Upper Dawson aquifer was the least used of the Denver Basin aquifers, based on estimated withdrawals of 17.64 Mgal/d. As part of the Colorado Statewide Water Supply Initiative (SWSI), forecasts of future water demand were made based on information such as population, climate, and then-current (2000) water-use information and did not include the effects of future water conservation. Categories compared between estimates in the SWSI baseline forecasted water demand and the USGS water-use compilation were limited to county population and w

Ivahnenko, Tamara; Flynn, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

283

Evaluation of alternative sign replacement strategies  

E-print Network

SHEETING MATERIALS There are four sign-related factors that aA'ect a driver's visibility (7): 1. Brightness, or the amount of light reflected from the sign that reaches the driver's eye, 2. Contrast: internal (background-legend) and external (sign... warning signs (nine with symbol legends and four with word legends), three white-on-red regulatory signs, and two white-on-green guide signs. In addition, flve of the signs were tested in two different sizes. The tests were conducted at 55 mph and 30 mph...

McCaleb, James Bradley

2012-06-07

284

The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression. PMID:21524372

Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

2011-05-01

285

Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

1987-11-01

286

The effect of benzodiazepine withdrawal on the dexamethasone suppression test.  

PubMed

Recent studies of the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) suggest lack of specificity for the diagnosis of melancholia. An earlier study showed that high doses of benzodiazepines lead to DST normalisation in depressed patients. This present study examines the effect of benzodiazepine withdrawal on the DST in a middle aged, non-depressed group. Forty-eight volunteers from a double blind placebo-controlled trial of triazolam 0.5 mg and lormetazepam 2 mg all suppressed normally when given the DST on the sixth day of withdrawal following 25 days of drug. PMID:3364208

Weppner, G J

1988-02-01

287

Impact of Medicare Managed Care Market Withdrawal on Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

The 2001 Survey of Involuntary Disenrollees was conducted to investigate the impact of Medicare+Choice (M+C) plan withdrawals on Medicare beneficiaries. Eighty-four percent of a total of 4,732 beneficiaries whose Medicare managed care (MMC) plan stopped serving them at the end of 2000 responded to the survey Their responses indicated that the withdrawal of plans from Medicare affected beneficiaries in terms of concerns about getting and paying for care, increased payments for premiums and out-of-pocket costs, and changes in health care arrangements. Of particular concern were the impacts on those in vulnerable subgroups such as the disabled, less educated, and minorities. PMID:12545601

Booske, Bridget C.; Lynch, Judith; Riley, Gerald

2002-01-01

288

Impact of Medicare managed care market withdrawal on beneficiaries.  

PubMed

The 2001 Survey of Involuntary Disenrollees was conducted to investigate the impact of Medicare+Choice (M+C) plan withdrawals on Medicare beneficiaries. Eighty-four percent of a total of 4,732 beneficiaries whose Medicare managed care (MMC) plan stopped serving them at the end of 2000 responded to the survey. Their responses indicated that the withdrawal of plans from Medicare affected beneficiaries in terms of concerns about getting and paying for care, increased payments for premiums and out-of-pocket costs, and changes in health care arrangements. Of particular concern were the impacts on those in vulnerable subgroups such as the disabled, less educated, and minorities. PMID:12545601

Booske, Bridget C; Lynch, Judith; Riley, Gerald

2002-01-01

289

Intranasal Oxytocin Blocks Alcohol Withdrawal in Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The neuropeptide, oxytocin, has been reported to block tolerance formation to alcohol and decrease withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent rodents. Numerous recent studies in human subjects indicate that oxytocin administered by the intranasal route penetrates into and exerts effects within the brain. Methods In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, intranasal oxytocin (24 IU/dose, N=7)) or placebo (N=4) was given BID for 3 days in alcohol dependent subjects admitted to a research unit for medical detoxification using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA) score-driven PRN administration of lorazepam. Subjects rated themselves on the Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Checklist (AWSC) each time CIWA scores were obtained. Subjects also completed the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), an Alcohol Craving Visual Analog Scale (ACVAS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) on inpatient days 2 and 3. Results All subjects had drunk heavily each day for at least 2 weeks prior to study and had previously experienced withdrawal upon stopping/decreasing alcohol consumption. Oxytocin was superior to placebo in reducing alcohol withdrawal as evidenced by: less total lorazepam required to complete detoxification (3.4 mg [4.7, SD] vs. 16.5 [4.4], p=.0015), lower mean CIWA scores on admission day 1 (4.3 [2.3] vs. 11.8 [0.4], p<.0001) and day 2 (3.4 [2.2] vs. 11.1 [3.6], p<.002), lower AWSC scores on days 1 and 2 (p<.02; p=.07), lower ACVAS ratings (p=.01) and lower POMS Tension/Anxiety subscale scores on day 2 (p<.01). Conclusions This is the first demonstration that oxytocin treatment may block alcohol withdrawal in human subjects. Our results are consistent with previous findings in rodents that oxytocin inhibits neuroadaptation to and withdrawal from alcohol. Oxytocin could have advantages over benzodiazepines in managing alcohol withdrawal because it may reverse rather than maintain sedative-hypnotic tolerance. It will be important to test whether oxytocin treatment is effective in reducing drinking in alcohol dependent outpatients. PMID:23025690

Pedersen, Cort A.; Smedley, Kelly L.; Leserman, Jane; Jarskog, L. Fredrik; Rau, Shane W.; Kampov-Polevoi, Alexei; Casey, Robin L.; Fender, Trace; Garbutt, JC

2012-01-01

290

[Treatment of postoperative alcohol withdrawal syndrome after esophageal resection].  

PubMed

Prophylaxis and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome following esophagectomy consists of substitution with alcohol (1-2 g/kg/d), monotherapy with Midazolam (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/h) und Clonidin (1-2 mg/d). Out of 218 patients undergoing esophagectomy from X/86 till III/90 52 were classified as alcoholics and divided in 3 comparable groups. The Midazolamgroup showed the best results as far as withdrawal symptoms, time at the ICU, ventilation time, respiratory complications, delirium tremens and mortality are concerned. Patients in the Clonidin-group needed extensive supplimentary sedation. PMID:1983500

Huber, F T; Bartels, H; Siewert, J R

1990-01-01

291

Clozapine withdrawal symptoms in a Parkinson's disease patient.  

PubMed

Abrupt clozapine withdrawal can cause rebound psychosis and severe somatic symptoms in psychiatric patients. We report on the case of an advanced Parkinson's disease patient who developed myoclonus, tremor, rigidity, hyperreflexia, and stupor after abrupt clozapine withdrawal. The patient's symptoms resolved with treatment with cyproheptadine. This clinical picture suggests serotonergic rebound as an explanation for the patient's symptoms, although other pharmacological mechanisms are possible. Clozapine should be gradually withdrawn over a period of 1 to 2 weeks when possible, and abruptly discontinued only when necessary. PMID:12465085

Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Borra, Sujatha; Hauser, Robert A

2002-11-01

292

Chronic Pruritus: a Paraneoplastic Sign  

PubMed Central

Chronic itch could be a presenting sign of malignancy. Pruritus of lymphoma is the common prototype of paraneoplastic itch and can precede other clinical signs by weeks and months. Paraneopalstic pruritus has also been associated with solid tumors and is an important clinical symptom in paraneoplastic skin diseases such as erythroderma, Grovers disease, malignant acanthosis nigricans, generalized granuloma annulare, Bazex syndrome and dermatomyositis. In any case with high index of suspicion a thorough work-up is required. This review highlights the association between itch and malignancy and presents new findings related to pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of itch associated with malignancy. Combinative therapies reducing itch sensitization and transmission using selective serotonin and neuroepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Kappa opioids and Neuroleptics are of prime importance in reducing this bothersome symptom. PMID:21054705

Yosipovitch, Gil

2011-01-01

293

The pivotal sign of CANVAS.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old woman complained about insecure gait since age 55. Clinical examination revealed signs of cerebellar ataxia, bilateral vestibulopathy, and peripheral sensory impairment. Sensory nerve action potentials were absent. The visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VVOR) was impaired (video on the Neurology(®) Web site at www.neurology.org, figure 1) and the diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia (figure 2) with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) was made.(1) CANVAS is considered to be a recessive disorder with a mean age at onset of 60 years.(2) VVOR impairment is its characteristic clinical sign.(2) It can only be elicited if both smooth-pursuit eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex are deficient. Normally, both are redundant at low head velocities.(2.) PMID:24166963

Petersen, Jens Alexander; Wichmann, Werner W; Weber, Konrad Peter

2013-10-29

294

25 CFR 117.18 - Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds.  

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.18 Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds. The withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds...

2014-04-01

295

25 CFR 117.18 - Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.18 Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds. The withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds...

2011-04-01

296

25 CFR 117.18 - Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.18 Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds. The withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds...

2012-04-01

297

25 CFR 117.18 - Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.18 Withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds. The withdrawal and payment of segregated trust funds...

2013-04-01

298

36 CFR 1226.16 - Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority? 1226.16 Section 1226...ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTING DISPOSITION § 1226.16 Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority? (a) When...

2010-07-01

299

48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19.506...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

2010-10-01

300

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2014-10-01

301

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2010-10-01

302

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2011-10-01

303

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2013-10-01

304

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2012-10-01

305

42 CFR 426.523 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. 426.523 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.523 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2010-10-01

306

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2014-10-01

307

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2011-10-01

308

42 CFR 426.523 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review.  

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. 426.523 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.523 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2014-10-01

309

42 CFR 426.523 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. 426.523 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.523 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2011-10-01

310

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2013-10-01

311

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2012-10-01

312

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2010-10-01

313

42 CFR 426.523 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. 426.523 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.523 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2013-10-01

314

42 CFR 426.523 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. 426.523 Section 426...AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.523 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2012-10-01

315

25 CFR 1200.20 - How can a tribe withdraw additional funds?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How can a tribe withdraw additional funds? 1200.20 Section 1200.20 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.20 How can a tribe...

2011-04-01

316

25 CFR 1200.20 - How can a tribe withdraw additional funds?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How can a tribe withdraw additional funds? 1200.20 Section 1200.20 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.20 How can a tribe...

2010-04-01

317

25 CFR 1200.13 - How does a tribe apply to withdraw funds?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How does a tribe apply to withdraw funds? 1200.13 Section 1200.13 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.13 How does a...

2010-04-01

318

25 CFR 1200.13 - How does a tribe apply to withdraw funds?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How does a tribe apply to withdraw funds? 1200.13 Section 1200.13 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.13 How does a...

2011-04-01

319

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2012-01-01

320

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2013-01-01

321

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2010-01-01

322

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2011-01-01

323

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2014-01-01

324

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter range and capital investments...

2010-05-14

325

9 CFR 82.25 - Denial and withdrawal of permits and special permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Denial and withdrawal of permits and special permits. 82.25 Section 82.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.25 Denial and withdrawal of permits and special...

2010-01-01

326

76 FR 27332 - Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing AGENCY...proposal to withdraw approval of the breast cancer indication for bevacizumab (Avastin...the metastatic [[Page 27333

2011-05-11

327

38 CFR 36.4353 - Withdrawal of authority to close loans on the automatic basis.  

...requirements, lender involvement in sale of veteran's entitlement, etc.). (4) A continuation of actions that have led to previous withdrawal of automatic authority justifies withdrawal of automatic authority for the next longer period of...

2014-07-01

328

42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

2010-10-01

329

42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

2011-10-01

330

42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.  

...2014-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

2014-10-01

331

42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

2012-10-01

332

27 CFR 19.431 - Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. 19.431 Section...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts... Spirits Withdrawn on Production Gauge § 19.431 Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. A...

2012-04-01

333

27 CFR 19.431 - Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge.  

...Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. 19.431 Section...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts... Spirits Withdrawn on Production Gauge § 19.431 Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. A...

2014-04-01

334

27 CFR 19.431 - Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. 19.431 Section...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts... Spirits Withdrawn on Production Gauge § 19.431 Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. A...

2013-04-01

335

27 CFR 19.431 - Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. 19.431 Section...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts... Spirits Withdrawn on Production Gauge § 19.431 Withdrawal of spirits on production gauge. A...

2011-04-01

336

42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

2013-10-01

337

20 CFR 408.360 - Can you cancel your request to withdraw your application?  

...application? 408.360 Section 408.360 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.360 Can you cancel your request to withdraw...

2014-04-01

338

78 FR 78716 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Roxarsone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0002] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Roxarsone AGENCY...Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal approval of five new animal drug applications (NADAs) for...

2013-12-27

339

75 FR 65642 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole Hydrochloride...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2010-N-0511] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of eight new animal drug applications (NADAs). In a...

2010-10-26

340

75 FR 55334 - Schmid Laboratories, Inc. et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of Five New Drug Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Laboratories, Inc. et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of Five New Drug Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of five new drug applications (NDAs) from...

2010-09-10

341

76 FR 22713 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No...FDA-2011-N-0033] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone...the voluntary withdrawal of approval of eight new animal drug applications...

2011-04-22

342

75 FR 71135 - Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Roche Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application AGENCY: Food and...Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for ACCUTANE...the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, approval of NDA 18-662,...

2010-11-22

343

78 FR 70062 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Carbarsone; Roxarsone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0002] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Carbarsone; Roxarsone...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of three new animal drug applications (NADAs) for...

2013-11-22

344

78 FR 78716 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Roxarsone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0002] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Roxarsone AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of five new animal drug applications (NADAs) for...

2013-12-27

345

75 FR 24719 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Coumaphos; Novobiocin; Buquinolate and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2010-N-0002] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Coumaphos; Novobiocin...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of three new animal drug applications (NADAs). In a...

2010-05-05

346

77 FR 5028 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-N-0003] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of 20 new animal drug applications (NADAs) at the...

2012-02-01

347

77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2012-N-0981] Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) and three...

2012-10-03

348

34 CFR 685.307 - Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program.  

...2014-07-01 false Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program...Standards, and Payments for Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.307 Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan...

2014-07-01

349

34 CFR 685.307 - Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program...Standards, and Payments for Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.307 Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan...

2013-07-01

350

77 FR 20585 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California, New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2040-AF33 Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...regulations to withdraw human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to certain waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and...

2012-04-05

351

76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...is withdrawing the federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes System in...

2011-09-16

352

76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...proposing to withdraw Federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes in Wisconsin....

2011-03-16

353

Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

1994-05-03

354

CERN single sign on solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

Ormancey, E.

2008-07-01

355

Bidirectional selection for susceptibility to ethanol withdrawal seizures in Mus musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using within-family selection from a genetically heterogeneous population of HS\\/Ibg mice, lines and replicates have been selected for high (withdrawal seizure prone; WSP) and low (withdrawal seizure resistant; WSR) susceptibility to convulsions after withdrawal from chronic exposure to ethanol. Two nonselected control lines (withdrawal-seizure control; WSC) have also been maintained. The response was bidirectional in both replicates across 11 selected

John C. Crabbe; Ann Kosobud; Emmett R. Young; Brenda R. Tam; John D. McSwigan

1985-01-01

356

Downregulation of cAMP response element-binding protein by lentiviral vector-mediated RNAi attenuates morphine withdrawal syndromes in rats.  

PubMed

cAMP response element-binding protein(CREB) and the cAMP cascade play a pivotal role in the opiate-dependence. The blockade of this cascade is believed to attenuate signs of physical opiate withdrawal. A lentiviral vector (LV) expressing a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence CREB in vitro and in vivo was used in this study. The effect of the shRNA on the regulation of the relevant protein expression and the signs of opiate withdrawal were subsequently evaluated in rats undergoing chronic morphine treatment. In cultured primary locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, the designed lentiviral vectors were successfully infected into the cells and led to 70% knockdown in CREB expression. In cells treated with chronic morphine, the expression of CREB, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) were increased, while in cells infected with LV-CREB3, treated with chronic morphine treatment failed to increase the expressions of CREB and AC. Consistently, in the rat model for chronic morphine treatment, morphine increased the expression of CREB, AC and PKA in LC neurons. However, in rats received bilateral microinjections of LV-CREB3 into the LC, morphine did not alter the levels of these proteins. Moreover, microinjection of LV-CREB3 significantly attenuated the appearance of certain withdrawal behaviors. In conclusion, the lentiviral vectors expressing CREB shRNA inhibited the increase of CREB and AC expression induced by chronic morphine treatment both in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition was associated with the alleviation of some withdrawal behaviors. These findings suggested that lentivirus-mediated RNA interference could be useful for opiate-dependence therapy. PMID:22580231

Wu, Qiang; Cao, Minghui; Wang, Tinghuai; Jiang, Ping; Zhou, Kewen

2012-07-15

357

46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2010-10-01

358

46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2011-10-01

359

46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

...FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2014-10-01

360

26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2014-04-01

361

46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2013-10-01

362

26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2010-04-01

363

26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2013-04-01

364

26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2011-04-01

365

26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2012-04-01

366

46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of...under agreement) or under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the Act...nonqualified withdrawal under the second sentence of section 607(g)(4) of the...

2012-10-01

367

How do we withhold or withdraw life-sustaining therapy?  

PubMed

Nurse managers face many issues that concern withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy in acute care. The author offers a framework for clinical decision making, an overview of the legal and ethical principles involved, and strategies to enrich communication between patients, families, and the health care team. PMID:15116442

Rieth, K A

1999-10-01

368

Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

2012-01-01

369

Regulates Cell Cycle Withdrawal of Late Multipotent Progenitor Cells  

E-print Network

p27Kip1 Regulates Cell Cycle Withdrawal of Late Multipotent Progenitor Cells in the Mammalian, Washington 98104 The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, p27Kip1 , is necessary for the timing of cell cell types. In vitro analyses show that p27Kip1 accumulation in retinal cells correlates with cell

Reh, Thomas A.

370

14 CFR 161.319 - Withdrawal or revision of restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Review, and Approval Requirements for Stage 3 Restrictions § 161.319 Withdrawal...application. (b) A subsequent amendment to a Stage 3 restriction that was in effect after October 1, 1990, or an amendment to a Stage 3 restriction previously approved by...

2012-01-01

371

14 CFR 161.319 - Withdrawal or revision of restriction.  

...Review, and Approval Requirements for Stage 3 Restrictions § 161.319 Withdrawal...application. (b) A subsequent amendment to a Stage 3 restriction that was in effect after October 1, 1990, or an amendment to a Stage 3 restriction previously approved by...

2014-01-01

372

14 CFR 161.319 - Withdrawal or revision of restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Review, and Approval Requirements for Stage 3 Restrictions § 161.319 Withdrawal...application. (b) A subsequent amendment to a Stage 3 restriction that was in effect after October 1, 1990, or an amendment to a Stage 3 restriction previously approved by...

2011-01-01

373

14 CFR 161.319 - Withdrawal or revision of restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Review, and Approval Requirements for Stage 3 Restrictions § 161.319 Withdrawal...application. (b) A subsequent amendment to a Stage 3 restriction that was in effect after October 1, 1990, or an amendment to a Stage 3 restriction previously approved by...

2010-01-01

374

14 CFR 161.319 - Withdrawal or revision of restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Review, and Approval Requirements for Stage 3 Restrictions § 161.319 Withdrawal...application. (b) A subsequent amendment to a Stage 3 restriction that was in effect after October 1, 1990, or an amendment to a Stage 3 restriction previously approved by...

2013-01-01

375

Voluntary Withdrawal: Why Don't They Return?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that influence voluntary withdrawal from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are investigated. A survey based on a cohort of students admitted for the first time in fall 1977 was conducted with a response rate of approximately 50 percent. Major and minor reasons for not returning to the university are tabulated for males and…

Ironside, Ellen M.

376

Alcohol and withdrawal: from animal research to clinical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The withdrawal syndrome in alcohol-dependent patients appears to be a major stressful event whose intensity increases with repetition of detoxifications according to a kindling process. Disturbances in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neural processes are reflected in a perturbed physical state while disturbances in the balance between positive and negative reinforcements are reflected in a perturbed mood state. Our

Ph. De Witte; E. Pinto; M. Ansseau; P. Verbanck

2003-01-01

377

Erythromelalgia: An Uncommon Presentation Precipitated by Aspirin Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder frequently associated with myeloproliferative disorders. We describe a case of elderly patient diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder in remission. The patient was on aspirin for secondary prevention of stroke and was taken off aspirin and developed erythromelalgia within two weeks of withdrawal of aspirin. After restarting aspirin, patient's symptoms improved within 2 weeks. PMID:22844295

Khalid, Fatima; Hassan, Syed; Qureshi, Sophia; Qureshi, Waqas; Amer, Syed

2012-01-01

378

Intrathecal baclofen overdose followed by withdrawal: clinical and EEG features.  

PubMed

Intrathecal baclofen therapy is increasingly used to alleviate medically intractable spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, and generalized dystonia. Complications like overdose or withdrawal can occur and could be the result of pump malfunction (device-related) or refilling and programming mistakes (human errors). This report describes a case, with emphasis on electroencephalographic changes, of a 12-year old male on long-term intrathecal baclofen therapy who had sequential occurrence of both acute inadvertent baclofen overdose followed by withdrawal symptoms. During baclofen intoxication, electroencephalography documented periodic generalized epileptiform discharges, occasionally followed by intermittent electro-decremental responses on a background of diffuse delta slowing (1-2 Hz). During withdrawal, mild generalized slowing during wakefulness was observed along with the appearance of high-amplitude, sharply contoured delta activity resembling frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity in sleep. To our knowledge, this temporal profile of electroencephalographic features during baclofen intoxication followed by withdrawal has not been described before in pediatric patients. It is important for treating physicians to recognize the evolution of this electroencephalographic pattern in order to avoid misinterpretation of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:16243227

Darbari, Farzana P; Melvin, Joseph J; Piatt, Joseph H; Adirim, Terry A; Kothare, Sanjeev V

2005-11-01

379

Electroacupuncture Treatment Normalized Sleep Disturbance in Morphine Withdrawal Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disturbance is considered as an important symptom of acute and protracted opiate with- drawal. Current results suggest that sleep disturbance may be taken as a predictor of relapse. Appropriate sleep enhancement therapy will be in favor of the retention in treatment for opiate addicts. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in suppres- sing morphine withdrawal

Yi-Jing Li; Fei Zhong; Peng Yu; Ji-Sheng Han; Cai-Lian Cui; Liu-Zhen Wu

380

Valuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals  

E-print Network

death benefit (GMDB), viscosity solution, impulse control, fully implicit penalty method AcknowledgmentValuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals A. C. B´elanger , P. A insurance fee associated with the guaranteed minimum death benefit (GMDB) clause included in many variable

Forsyth, Peter A.

381

News Agency Coverage of the United States Withdrawal from UNESCO.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine news coverage of the U.S. withdrawal from Unesco. News reports distributed by the Associated Press, United Press International, New York Times News Service, and Washington Post-Los Angeles Times News Service were studied to determine how adequate a foundation they were providing Americans for independent judgment…

Giffard, C. Anthony

382

48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approval. 44.305-3 Section 44.305-3 Federal Acquisition...Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.305-3 Withholding or withdrawing...by the clauses prescribed in 44.204; or (4) Small business...days after completing the in-plant review (1) inform the...

2013-10-01

383

48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approval. 44.305-3 Section 44.305-3 Federal Acquisition...Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.305-3 Withholding or withdrawing...by the clauses prescribed in 44.204; or (4) Small business...days after completing the in-plant review (1) inform the...

2011-10-01

384

48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approval. 44.305-3 Section 44.305-3 Federal Acquisition...Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.305-3 Withholding or withdrawing...by the clauses prescribed in 44.204; or (4) Small business...days after completing the in-plant review (1) inform the...

2010-10-01

385

48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approval. 44.305-3 Section 44.305-3 Federal Acquisition...Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.305-3 Withholding or withdrawing...by the clauses prescribed in 44.204; or (4) Small business...days after completing the in-plant review (1) inform the...

2012-10-01

386

75 FR 32770 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...announced the submission of a pesticide petition (PP 8E7400) by Monsanto Company, 1300 I Street, NW., Suite 450 East, Washington...to 0.05 parts per million (ppm). On January 20, 2010, Monsanto notified EPA that it was withdrawing this petition....

2010-06-09

387

Withdrawal of Visual Feedback Improves Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Withdrawal of Visual Feedback Improves Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease William G. Ondo, MD, Pankaj Satija, MD Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology presenting feature of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We assessed a simple writing paradigm in 40 PD patients

Lichtarge, Olivier

388

U.S. Withdraws from Education Reform in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the withdrawal of the United States government from educational reform in Iraq. It has however, through the U.S. Agency for International Development, awarded a two-year National Capacity Development contract, which is aimed at helping Iraq's government ministries to function better. This article discusses how security…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

389

Cross-National Patterns of Labor Force Withdrawal*  

E-print Network

Cross-National Patterns of Labor Force Withdrawal* Timothy M. Smeeding Center for Policy Research States increased by 6.1 and 7.3 years. Similar at birth changes, and often larger ones, can be found women) have been leaving the labor force earlier and earlier in these same countries (OECD 1995a, Table

Huang, Jianyu

390

Who benefits from the US withdrawal of the Kyoto protocol?  

E-print Network

Who benefits from the US withdrawal of the Kyoto protocol? Rahhal Lahrach CREM, University of Caen words: power indices, bargaining, environment, Kyoto protocol, empirical game theory. JEL Classification on the Global Warming. In 1997, a collective decision mechanism has been adopted in Kyoto. The "Kyoto Protocol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdrawal. (a)(1) No later than thirty days prior to the pre-hearing conference (see § 304.31 of this part), any PRP associated with the facility which is the subject of the referred claim may move to intervene in the arbitral proceeding...

2010-07-01

392

Comparison of cannabis and tobacco withdrawal: Severity and contribution to relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This naturalistic telephone survey study compared perceptions of withdrawal severity in 67 daily cannabis users and 54 daily tobacco cigarette smokers who made quit attempts during the prior 30 days. A Withdrawal Symptom Checklist assessed the severity of abstinence symptoms and a Likert scale assessed perceived relations between abstinence symptoms and relapse. A composite Withdrawal Discomfort Score did not differ

Alan J. Budney; Ryan G. Vandrey; John R. Hughes; Jeff D. Thostenson; Zoran Bursac

2008-01-01

393

Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n?=?90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal. PMID:24118963

2013-01-01

394

Withdrawal time in excellent or very poor bowel preparation qualities  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate association(s) between withdrawal time and polyp detection in various bowel preparation qualities. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of screening colonoscopies performed between January 2005 and June 2011 for patients with average risk of colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria included patients with a personal history of adenomatous polyps or colon cancer, prior colonic resection, significant family history of colorectal cancer, screening colonoscopy after other abnormal screening tests such as flexible sigmoidoscopy or barium enema, and screening colonoscopies during in-patient care. All procedures were performed or directly supervised by gastroenterologists. Main measurements were number of colonic segments with polyps and total number of colonic polyps. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of 8331 colonoscopies showed longer withdrawal time was associated with more colonic segments with polyps in good (adjusted OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.13-1.19), fair (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.17), and poor (OR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.11-1.26) bowel preparation qualities. A higher number of total polyps was associated with longer withdrawal time in good (OR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.13-1.18), fair (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.16), and poor (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.13-1.29) bowel preparation qualities. Longer withdrawal time was not associated with more colonic segments with polyps or greater number of colonic polyps in bowel preparations with excellent (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 0.99-1.26; OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.99-1.24, respectively) and very poor (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.99-1.12; OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.99-1.10, respectively) qualities. CONCLUSION: Longer withdrawal time is not associated with higher polyp number detected in colonoscopies with excellent or very poor bowel preparation quality. PMID:24891931

Widjaja, David; Bhandari, Manoj; Loveday-Laghi, Vivian; Glandt, Mariela; Balar, Bhavna

2014-01-01

395

Genome-wide examination of myoblast cell cycle withdrawal duringdifferentiation  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal and cardiac myocytes cease division within weeks of birth. Although skeletal muscle retains limited capacity for regeneration through recruitment of satellite cells, resident populations of adult myocardial stem cells have not been identified. Because cell cycle withdrawal accompanies myocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line previously used to characterize myocyte differentiation, also would provide a model for studying cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. C2C12 cells were differentiated in culture medium containing horse serum and harvested at various time points to characterize the expression profiles of known cell cycle and myogenic regulatory factors by immunoblot analysis. BrdU incorporation decreased dramatically in confluent cultures 48 hr after addition of horse serum, as cells started to form myotubes. This finding was preceded by up-regulation of MyoD, followed by myogenin, and activation of Bcl-2. Cyclin D1 was expressed in proliferating cultures and became undetectable in cultures containing 40 percent fused myotubes, as levels of p21(WAF1/Cip1) increased and alpha-actin became detectable. Because C2C12 myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle during myocyte differentiation following a course that recapitulates this process in vivo, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify other gene products involved in this process. Using microarrays containing approximately 10,000 minimally redundant mouse sequences that map to the UniGene database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we compared gene expression profiles between proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells and verified candidate genes demonstrating differential expression by RT-PCR. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed groups of gene products involved in cell cycle withdrawal, muscle differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, we identified several genes, including DDAH2 and Ly-6A, whose expression specifically was up-regulated during cell cycle withdrawal coincident with early myoblast differentiation.

Shen, Xun; Collier, John Michael; Hlaing, Myint; Zhang, Leanne; Delshad, Elizabeth H.; Bristow, James; Bernstein, Harold S.

2002-12-02

396

Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

Cagle, Keith Martin

2010-01-01

397

[Electric signs of experimental pericarditis].  

PubMed

Utilizing 25 mongrel dogs, we studied the electrocardiographic (direct and surface records) and lesional changes induced by the instillation of 7.5% Methyl-salicilate solution and by the acute pericardial effusion produced by the injection of 50 ml of mixed blood-saline solution. Ten unipolar records on the parietal pericardium, right atrium, right and left intraventricular unipolar leads and cavitary tensional curves were obtained. Light and electronic microscopy changes were analized in 11 cases. The anatomical data showed pericardial hemorrhage and injury of 3 to 6 lines of superficial myocytes. On ECG (direct and surface leads) an elevation of RST-T was observed from chest and pericardial unipolar leads and depressed ST in the chambers of the heart, and from a VR and a VL. RST-T displacement as well as developing negative T waves were outstanding on the rigth chest leads (V5R to V3R), on the left (V4-to V6), in DII, DIII, aVF and abdominal leads. A straight RST-T elevation with notch at the juntional point was observed, suggesting atrial injury. No alteration of intrinsic or intrinsicoid velocity were apparent. All of these signs, together with depressed ST in leads aVR and unipolar right chamber leads are signs which suggest pericardial involvement. The P wave became bimodal on the middle chest leads and +/- on right chest leads indicating atrial damage (68%). Thus, an RST-T upward displacement in V3R-V4R, can be a sign of pericarditis as well as right ventricular infarction. The pressure curves were altered only by artificial acute effusion: RA = 20.6, pericardial sac 20.6 and late diastolic of RV = 13.2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3159363

Medrano, G A; de Micheli, A; Osornio Vargas, A; Rentería, V

1985-01-01

398

A Double Blind, within Subject Comparison of Spontaneous Opioid Withdrawal from Buprenorphine versus Morphine  

PubMed Central

Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical ?-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of buprenorphine withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0–100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation. PMID:24227768

Smith, Michael T.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Campbell, Claudia M.; Strain, Eric C.

2014-01-01

399

Short turn radius colonoscope in an anatomical model: Retroflexed withdrawal and detection of hidden polyps  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the new RetroView™ colonoscope and compare its ability to detect simulated polyps “hidden” behind colonic folds with that of a conventional colonoscope, utilizing anatomic colon models. METHODS: Three anatomic colon models were prepared, with twelve simulated polyps “hidden” behind haustral folds and five placed in easily viewed locations in each model. Five blinded endoscopists examined two colon models in random order with the conventional or RetroView™ colonoscope, utilizing standard withdrawal technique. The third colon model was then examined with the RetroView™ colonoscope withdrawn initially in retroflexion and then in standard withdrawal. Polyp detection rates during standard and retroflexed withdrawal of the conventional and RetroView™ colonoscopes were determined. Polyp detection rates for combined standard and retroflexed withdrawal (combination withdrawal) with the RetroView™ colonoscope were also determined. RESULTS: For hidden polyps, retroflexed withdrawal using the RetroView™ colonoscope detected more polyps than the conventional colonoscope in standard withdrawal (85% vs 12%, P = 0.0001). For hidden polyps, combination withdrawal with the RetroView™ colonoscope detected more polyps than the conventional colonoscope in standard withdrawal (93% vs 12%, P ? 0.0001). The RetroView™ colonoscope in “combination withdrawal” was superior to other methods in detecting all (hidden + easily visible) polyps, with successful detection of 80 of 85 polyps (94%) compared to 28 (32%) polyps detected by the conventional colonoscope in standard withdrawal (P < 0.0001) and 67 (79%) polyps detected by the RetroView™ colonoscope in retroflexed withdrawal alone (P < 0.01). Continuous withdrawal of the colonoscope through the colon model while retroflexed was achieved by all endoscopists. In a post-test survey, four out of five colonoscopists reported that manipulation of the colonoscope was easy or very easy. CONCLUSION: In simulated testing, the RetroView™ colonoscope increased detection of hidden polyps. Combining standard withdrawal with retroflexed withdrawal may become the new paradigm for “complete screening colonoscopy”. PMID:25593483

McGill, Sarah K; Kothari, Shivangi; Friedland, Shai; Chen, Ann; Park, Walter G; Banerjee, Subhas

2015-01-01

400

Short turn radius colonoscope in an anatomical model: Retroflexed withdrawal and detection of hidden polyps  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the new RetroView™ colonoscope and compare its ability to detect simulated polyps “hidden” behind colonic folds with that of a conventional colonoscope, utilizing anatomic colon models. METHODS: Three anatomic colon models were prepared, with twelve simulated polyps “hidden” behind haustral folds and five placed in easily viewed locations in each model. Five blinded endoscopists examined two colon models in random order with the conventional or RetroView™ colonoscope, utilizing standard withdrawal technique. The third colon model was then examined with the RetroView™ colonoscope withdrawn initially in retroflexion and then in standard withdrawal. Polyp detection rates during standard and retroflexed withdrawal of the conventional and RetroView™ colonoscopes were determined. Polyp detection rates for combined standard and retroflexed withdrawal (combination withdrawal) with the RetroView™ colonoscope were also determined. RESULTS: For hidden polyps, retroflexed withdrawal using the RetroView™ colonoscope detected more polyps than the conventional colonoscope in standard withdrawal (85% vs 12%, P = 0.0001). For hidden polyps, combination withdrawal with the RetroView™ colonoscope detected more polyps than the conventional colonoscope in standard withdrawal (93% vs 12%, P ? 0.0001). The RetroView™ colonoscope in “combination withdrawal” was superior to other methods in detecting all (hidden + easily visible) polyps, with successful detection of 80 of 85 polyps (94%) compared to 28 (32%) polyps detected by the conventional colonoscope in standard withdrawal (P < 0.0001) and 67 (79%) polyps detected by the RetroView™ colonoscope in retroflexed withdrawal alone (P < 0.01). Continuous withdrawal of the colonoscope through the colon model while retroflexed was achieved by all endoscopists. In a post-test survey, four out of five colonoscopists reported that manipulation of the colonoscope was easy or very easy. CONCLUSION: In simulated testing, the RetroView™ colonoscope increased detection of hidden polyps. Combining standard withdrawal with retroflexed withdrawal may become the new paradigm for “complete screening colonoscopy”.

McGill, Sarah K; Kothari, Shivangi; Friedland, Shai; Chen, Ann; Park, Walter G; Banerjee, Subhas

2015-01-01

401

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2012-07-01

402

30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

2013-07-01

403

30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

2011-07-01

404

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2011-07-01

405

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2010-07-01

406

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2013-07-01

407

Cooperative Sign Language Tutoring: A Multiagent Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sign languages can be learned effectively only with frequent feedback from an expert in the field. The expert needs to watch a performed sign, and decide whether the sign has been performed well based on his/her previous knowledge about the sign. The expert's role can be imitated by an automatic system, which uses a training set as its knowledge base to train a classifier that can decide whether the performed sign is correct. However, when the system does not have enough previous knowledge about a given sign, the decision will not be accurate. Accordingly, we propose a multiagent architecture in which agents cooperate with each other to decide on the correct classification of performed signs. We apply different cooperation strategies and test their performances in varying environments. Further, through analysis of the multiagent system, we can discover inherent properties of sign languages, such as the existence of dialects.

Y?ld?r?m, Ilker; Aran, Oya; Yolum, P?nar; Akarun, Lale

408

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

409

Cutaneous signs of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Cutaneous signs of diabetes mellitus are extremely valuable to both the clinician and the researcher. Lesions such as necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic dermopathy, carotenemia idiopathic bullous eruptions of granuloma anulare alert the physician to consider the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Xanthomas reflect the status of glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetic dermopathy might be a useful monitor of angiopathic changes in the heart, kidney and brain. Finally, the accessibility of the skin makes it an ideal organ for studying the pathogenesis of diabetes and the effect of medications on the vascular and neurological complications of diabetes. PMID:797552

Stawiski, M A; Voorhees, J J

1976-09-01

410

Eagle's syndrome: signs and symptoms.  

PubMed

Eagle's syndrome, an uncommon sequela of an elongated styloid process, can manifest itself as a sensation of a foreign body in the throat and a retrogoniac or anterolateral neck pain often referred to the TMJ and the ear. When treating patients affected by temporomandibular disorders (TMD), complaining of atypical orofacial pain, and with a concomitant radiographic finding of a bilaterally elongated styloid, the possible coexistence of Eagle's syndrome should always be considered. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy for Eagle's syndrome and to help the clinician in differential diagnosis with other conditions that can provide similar signs and symptoms. PMID:23461263

Costantinides, Fulvia; Vidoni, Gabriele; Bodin, Christiane; Di Lenarda, Roberto

2013-01-01

411

The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

Keune, A., E-mail: anne.keune@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies (Switzerland)

2012-09-15

412

Similarities & Differences in Two Brazilian Sign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

mparison of sign language used by Urubu-Kaapor Indians in the Amazonian jungle (UKSL) and sign language used by deaf people in Sao Paulo (SPSL). In the former situation, deaf people are more integrated and accepted into their community than in Sao Paulo, because most hearing individuals are able and willing to use sign language to communicate with…

Ferreira-Brito, Lucinda

1984-01-01

413

A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

2011-01-01

414

Signs, involutions and Jacquet modules  

E-print Network

Let $G$ be a connected reductive $p$-adic group and let $\\theta$ be an automorphism of $G$ of order at most two. Suppose $\\pi$ is an irreducible smooth representation of $G$ that is taken to its dual by $\\theta$. The space $V$ of $\\pi$ then carries a non-zero bilinear form $(\\mspace{7mu},\\mspace{6mu})$, unique up to scaling, with the invariance property $(\\pi(g)v, \\pi({}^{\\theta}g)w) = (v,w)$, for $g \\in G$ and $v, w \\in V$. The form is easily seen to be symmetric or skew-symmetric and we set $\\varepsilon_\\theta(\\pi) = \\pm1$ accordingly. We use Cassleman's pairing (in commonly observed circumstances) to express $\\varepsilon_\\theta(\\pi)$ in terms of certain Jacquet modules of $\\pi$ and thus, via the Langlands classification, reduce the problem of determining the sign to the case of tempered representations. For the transpose-inverse involution of the general linear group, we show that the associated signs are always one.

Roche, Alan

2012-01-01

415

Cutaneous signs of classical dermatomyositis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic immune myopathies (IIM) are an heterogeneous group of autoimmune muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle involvement. Dermatomyositis (DM) is the most common form of IIM. It is a multisystem disorder characterized by symmetric proximal, extensor, inflammatory myopathy, vascular involvement and a characteristic cutaneous eruption. Six types of DM have been identified: idiopathic, juvenile (JDM), cancer-related other autoimmune diseases-related, iatrogenic DM and amyopathic DM. Cutaneous manifestations of DM are the most important aspect of this disease and can precede from several months to years muscle or systemic involvement. Three groups of signs have been described: pathognomonic, highly characteristic and compatible. Although differences exist among the different clinical presentation of skin lesions, they share common histological findings including the presence of interface dermatitis with epidermal atrophy, basement membrane degeneration, vacuolar alteration of basal keratinocytes, and dermal changes consisting of interstitial mucin deposition and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. DM is a serious disease; the correct evaluation of any skin lesion suggesting an early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Skin signs may, also, represent a marker of treatment efficacy even though systemic symptoms worsening may not always be followed by more severe skin lesions. PMID:25014587

Auriemma, M; Capo, A; Meogrossi, G; Amerio, P

2014-10-01

416

Height-dependent difference in the expression of naloxone-induced withdrawal jumping behavior in morphine dependent rats.  

PubMed

Opiate withdrawal syndrome may motivate opiate seeking and taking. Thus, development of an effective medical treatment for these symptoms is a primary research goal and strongly relies on improved experimental models. Opiate withdrawal syndrome is characterized by several behavioral signs such as wet dog shake, teeth chattering, sniffing, scratching, chewing, diarrhea, rearing, ptosis and jumping. The goal of present study was to evaluate the impact of the cylindrical chamber height on the expression of jumping behavior in morphine dependent rats. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) with an interval of 12 h for 9 days. On day 10, 2 h after morphine injection, rats were injected with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Naloxone-induced jumping was monitored during a period of 30 min in a clear cylindrical Plexiglas test chamber with the floor covered by woodchip. The chambers had the same diameter (35 cm), but the heights of chambers were different (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 cm). Incidence and frequency of jumping decreased with increasing the height of the test chambers (P<0.05). Altogether, these findings highlight the possibility of detecting height-dependent difference in the expression of naloxone-induced jumping behavior in morphine dependent rats. PMID:22465245

Azizi, Hossein; Ranjbar-Slamloo, Yadollah; Semnanian, Saeed

2012-05-01

417

Antinociceptive effect of nifedipine and verapamil tested on rats chronically exposed to nicotine and after its withdrawal.  

PubMed

Antinociceptive effect of nifedipine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and verapamil (10 mg/kg s.c.) was examined in rats chronically exposed to nicotine (6 mg/kg/day via Alzet osmotic pump for 28 days) and after nicotine withdrawal. Sham operated rats served as control for testing DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide, a solvent for nifedipine), nifedipine and verapamil alone. Nociception was measured by the tail-flick technique. Nifedipine, but not verapamil, injected to control rats produced a ceiling tail-flick latency (20 sec) 30 min after the injection, lasting for 10 min. In rats exposed to chronic nicotine for 3 days, nifedipine treatment exhibited ceiling tail-flick latency within 10 min lasting for 80 min. Tested in rats exposed to nicotine for 3 weeks, nifedipine treatment produced this effect 25 min after the injection lasting for 60 min. Nicotine withdrawal abolished this effect. Verapamil did not exhibit any significant changes in tail-flick latencies. These data support our hypothesis that smoking patients treated with nifedipine could be at a potential risk in developing a high pain threshold and missing the first sign of heart attack--a chest pain. PMID:9129120

Zbuzek, V K; Cohen, B; Wu, W

1997-01-01

418

Engineering Program Sign-up | 2014 Page 1 ENGINEERING PROGRAM SIGN-UP (EPS) SYSTEM  

E-print Network

Engineering Program Sign-up | 2014 Page 1 ENGINEERING PROGRAM SIGN-UP (EPS) SYSTEM Students who want to apply for a second-year major program in Engineering will sign up via will sign up via in the EPS System. You need to do that even if you applied for a specific major program back when you first

Calgary, University of

419

Sign-Sign Algorithm for Unbiased IIR Filtering in Impulsive Noise  

E-print Network

Sign-Sign Algorithm for Unbiased IIR Filtering in Impulsive Noise H. C. So Department of Computer : ithcso@cityu.edu.hk February 22, 2006 Index terms : Adaptive Algorithm, Infinite Impulse Response Filtering, Impulsive Noise Abstract : A new equation-error based sign-sign algorithm, which is derived from

So, Hing-Cheung

420

Withdrawing from participating in a biobank--a comparative study.  

PubMed

The development of biobanks worldwide is considered to hold great promise for the provision of new insights into the connection between genes and environment and to have a positive impact on public health. There is, however, a constant tension between the rights of individuals on one hand and the progress of research on the other hand. One of the rights developed to protect the autonomy and free will of participants and reflecting the basic principles regulating medical research according to the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki is the right to be able to withdraw from the biobank at any time as an expression of the participant's free will and autonomy. There are two important problems to withdrawing, namely the 'what' and 'when'--what can be withdrawn and when can it be withdrawn. PMID:19180978

Gertz, Renate

2008-12-01

421

Water withdrawals, use, discharge, and trends in Florida, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the quantities of water withdrawn, consumed, and discharged in 1995, and indicates trends in water use. Overall, the report provides a basis for estimating water budgets and projecting future water needs. Data are presented on water withdrawals in Florida for each of the following water use categories: public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial self-supplied (including mining uses), agricultural self-supplied (including irrigation and nonirrigation uses), recreational irrigation, and power generation. The only instream use of water presented in this report is for hydroelectric power generation. Within each category, withdrawal data are presented by source (ground or surface water), and where sufficient data are available, seasonal and historical patterns of water use are described. Data also are presented by county and water management district for each water use category. Information about specific public-supply water systems and domestic and industrial wastewater facilities is included in the appendixes.

Marella, R.L.

1999-01-01

422

Using selective withdrawal to encapsulate pancreatic islets for immunoisolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply selective-withdrawal for encapsulating insulin-producing pancreatic islets within thin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coats. Islets placed in an aqueous PEG solution are drawn into the selective-withdrawal spout which then breaks up, leaving the islets surrounded by a thin, 20?m, polymer coat. These coats, whose thickness is independent of the size of the encapsulated islet, are photo-crosslinked to form hydrogel capsules. We can apply multiple coats of varying chemical composition. These coats provide a semi-permeable membrane which allows the islets to respond to changes in glucose concentration by producing insulin in a manner similar to that of unencapsulated islets. Furthermore, the hydrogel capsules exclude large molecules the size of the smallest antibodies. Our results suggest that this microencapsulation technique may be useful for the transplantation of islets for treatment of Type I diabetes.

Wyman, Jason; Murphy, William; Mrksich, Milan

2005-11-01

423

Life sign decision support algorithms.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need in the military for a system that interprets data from a suite of wearable physiological sensors to infer a soldier's current clinical state on the battlefield. The Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM) concept is envisioned by the US Army to address this need. Life sign detection is a key component. The future WPSM system will consist of a body-worn network of biosensors with a central processing control unit containing firmware for assessing the soldier's physiological status. In the present application, the system will diagnose a Dead, Alive, or Unknown (DAU) physiological state, and this information will be made available to field medics and others over separate communication channels. This paper describes the various modules in the DAU determination algorithms and how they interact with each other, as well as a simulator system built for parametric studies of the overall system. PMID:15361056

Savell, C Thomas; Borsotto, Maurizio; Reifman, Jaques; Hoyt, Reed W

2004-01-01

424

Effects of agmatine on ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of agmatine, which is an endogenous polyamine metabolite formed by decarboxylation of l-arginine, have been investigated on the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were used in the study. Ethanol (7.2% v\\/v) was given to the rats by a liquid diet for 21 days. Agmatine (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg\\/kg) and saline were injected to

?. Tayfun Uzbay; Özgür Ye?ilyurt; Turgay Çelik; Hakan Ergün; A?k?n I??mer

2000-01-01

425

The effect of bupropion on nicotine craving and withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objectives: Bupropion has demonstrated efficacy for smoking cessation. Given the importance of nicotine craving and withdrawal in the\\u000a smoking cessation process, the current study examined the effects of bupropion on these parameters during smoking abstinence.\\u000a Methods: During a 2-day Baseline phase with ad lib smoking, 91 non-depressed smokers (who were not trying to quit permanently) were\\u000a administered measures

Saul Shiffman; J. Andrew Johnston; Moise Khayrallah; Celeste A. Elash; Chad J. Gwaltney; Jean A. Paty; Maryann Gnys; Gary Evoniuk; J. DeVeaugh-Geiss

2000-01-01

426

Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine withdrawal in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether azathioprine can prevent relapse in ulcerative colitis. DESIGN--One year placebo controlled double blind trial of withdrawal or continuation of azathioprine. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of five hospitals. SUBJECTS--79 patients with ulcerative colitis who had been taking azathioprine for six months or more. Patients in full remission for two months or more (67), and patients with chronic low grade or

A. B. Hawthorne; R. F. Logan; C. J. Hawkey; P. N. Foster; A. T. Axon; E. T. Swarbrick; B. B. Scott; J. E. Lennard-Jones

1992-01-01

427

Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability,\\u000a avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India\\u000a during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age?=?13.35 years). Peer nominations of peer relations and socioemotional behaviors were gathered, along with self-reports\\u000a of reasons for

Julie C. Bowker; Radhi Raja

2011-01-01

428

Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.  

PubMed

Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper. PMID:23686524

Nirenberg, Melissa J

2013-08-01

429

Drug-induced regulation of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca sup 2+ channel antagonist binding sites in the brain and heart  

SciTech Connect

The ability of drugs to regulate the voltage-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} channels were assessed by determining the bind of ({sup 3}H)dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists in the heart and brain following administration of these drugs to rats and mice. Mice and rats implanted with morphine pellets for 3 days showed an increase in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, compared to non-treated or placebo treated controls. No increase in dihydropyridine binding sites was observed in the heart. The significance of the increase in binding to physical dependence on morphine is implied from the findings that pretreatment with Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonist drugs led to an attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in both dependent rats and mice. Administration of other drugs, known to depress the CNS, was undertaken to determine whether the changes observed with morphine was a nonspecific response of the brain to depressant drugs. Prolonged administration of reserpine to rats resulted in no changes in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, even though the {beta}-adrenergic receptors in this tissue are upregulated. However, reserpine decreased the density of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in the heart of this is accompanied by concomitant increases in {beta}-adrenergic receptors.

Ramkumar, V.

1987-01-01

430

Phytotherapy of opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Development of tolerance and dependence is a major problem associated with opioid treatment. Withdrawal syndrome is common between medical and illicit users of these agents. Phytomedicine has shown promise in the treatment of this complicated psychosomatic condition. In this study, the effects of plant extracts and active components on morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome are discussed. Proper keywords were used to search through PubMed, Google Scholar, and SciVerse, as well as two local scientific databases, www.iranmedex.com and www.SID.com. All relevant results (original articles, meeting abstracts, patents, etc.) published from 2000 to 2013 were chosen for final review. A total of 35 plant species were studied on this subject. Plants from Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families were especially effective. A few studies were carried out on human subjects and the rest in animal models. Opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome remain an intimidating challenge. Nonetheless, plants and their derivatives are suitable sources for their treatment. Although there are several plants shown to be effective in animal models, few clinical studies are available. PMID:24151030

Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Dashti, Saeedeh; Doosti, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2014-06-01

431

Neural Effects of Positive and Negative Incentives during Marijuana Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms. PMID:23690923

Filbey, Francesca M.; Dunlop, Joseph; Myers, Ursula S.

2013-01-01

432

Delayed multifocal recurrent stress-induced cardiomyopathy after antidepressants withdrawal.  

PubMed

Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is an acute disease characterized by a large left ventricular apical dyskinesia ("apical ballooning"), triggered by intense emotional or physical stress, acute illnesses or, rarely, by alcohol or opiates withdrawal. Connection to stress and apical asynergy suggest a catecholamine-mediated pathogenesis. We recently observed a typical apical stress-induced cardiomyopathy, arising two weeks after a long-lasting antidepressant treatment withdrawal and recurring, a week later, with evidence of inferior wall akinesia. The reported case has several unusual features: 1) both episodes were not preceded by relevant triggering event (except antidepressant discontinuation); 2) early heterozonal relapse was observed; 3) the latency between antidepressant discontinuation and stress-induced cardiomyopathy onset is unusually long. The lack of relevant triggering stress and the evidence of multifocal asynergies could support the hypothesis of a non-catecholaminergic pathogenesis. Moreover, the long latency after antidepressant withdrawal may suggest that prolonged antidepressant treatments may have delayed pathological consequences, possibly related to their known neuroplastic effects. PMID:24794783

Marabotti, Claudio; Venturini, Elio; Marabotti, Alberto; Pingitore, Alessandro

2014-01-01

433

Effects of lorazepam tolerance and withdrawal on GABA[sub A] receptor operated chloride channels in mice selected for differences in ethanol withdrawal severity  

SciTech Connect

Withdrawal seizure prone (WSP) and withdrawal seizure resistant (WSR) mice were treated with 5 mg/kg lorazepam for 7 days via implanted osmotic mini pumps. Following chronic drug treatment, brains were assayed for GABA-mediated chloride flux (GABA-Cl[sup [minus

Allan, A.M.; Baier, L.D.; Zhang, Xiaoying (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States))

1992-01-01

434

Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms in Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ?1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ?10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ? moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment. PMID:20510550

Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.

2010-01-01

435

Bush Signs CAFTA into law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This past Tuesday, President Bush signed into law the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), but only after a rather protracted period of difficult and contentious debate in Congress. After signing the bill, Bush remarked that the agreement would defend against âÂÂforces that oppose democracy, seek to limit economic freedom and want to drive a wedge between the United States and the rest of the Americas." Essentially, CAFTA eliminates a number of tariffs and opens up the region to goods and services originating in the United States. A number of critics emerged during the process of approving CAFTA, including those in organized labor and other industries, many of whom claimed that the agreement would result in fewer jobs in the sugar and textile industries. As CAFTA only squeaked by in the House during the approval process, a number of commentators have suggested that this does not bode well for other free trade agreements with Thailand and Bahrain that have been under development as of late.The first link leads to a Los Angeles Times piece that provides coverage of the recent passage of CAFTA into law. The second link leads to an online article from this WednesdayâÂÂs San Francisco Chronicle about CAFTA, along with some informed commentary from Jon Haverman, a research fellow with the Public Policy Institute of California. The third link will lead visitors to a helpful news article from the Detroit News which discusses the potential effects that the passage of CAFTA may have on various labor groups. The fourth link leads to a Financial Times article (requiring a free trial subscription) that looks at the broader transformation of organized labor, with specific reference to CAFTA. The fifth link leads to a very helpful page maintained by the International Trade Administration within the US Department of Commerce where users can read official factsheets and press releases about CAFTA. The sixth and final link leads to a statement issued by AFL-CIO President John Sweeney on the passage of CAFTA by the House of Representatives.

436

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Grades 1 to 6: Prediction from Early Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament  

PubMed Central

From 1092 children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we identified three trajectory patterns of social withdrawal from teacher reports in Grades 1-6: A Normative consistently low group (86%); a Decreasing group (5%) with initially high withdrawal that decreased; and an Increasing group (9%) with initially low withdrawal that increased. Prediction models supported the role of early dysregulated temperament, insensitive parenting, and attachment. Preschool shy temperament was a specific pathway to decreasing withdrawal, and poor inhibitory control, to increasing withdrawal. Children on the increasing pathway were more lonely, solitary, and excluded by peers. Results suggest differentiated pathways to varying trajectories of social withdrawal and highlight the importance of identification of longitudinal patterns in relation to risk. PMID:18793064

Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Oxford, Monica L.

2015-01-01

437

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease? The signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease ( ... will have signs and symptoms of the disease. Heart Disease Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the major ...

438

CDC Vital Signs: HIV Among Youth in the US  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs Secondhand Smoke About Vital Signs Vital Signs Social Media Other Vital Signs Issues Related Links Download this ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social Media Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

439

CDC Vital Signs: More People Walk to Better Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs Secondhand Smoke About Vital Signs Vital Signs Social Media Other Vital Signs Issues Related Links Download this ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social Media Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

440

Characterization of tobacco withdrawal symptoms: transdermal nicotine reduces hunger and weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate assessment of both tobacco withdrawal and the impact of the nicotine patch on withdrawal may be compromised\\u000a by attrition of subjects, or by subjects smoking during withdrawal. To reduce these occurrences, 211 participants were provided\\u000a with intensive cessation counseling while trying to quit smoking with either nicotine (21?mg) or placebo transdermal patches.\\u000a Subject attrition was low, with 80.5%

Douglas E. Jorenby; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Stevens S. Smith; Michael C. Fiore; Sharon Allen; Joni Jensen; Timothy B. Baker

1996-01-01

441

A case of withdrawal from the GHB precursors gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.  

PubMed

We describe a case of withdrawal from the gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) precursors gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol. Symptoms included visual hallucinations, tachycardia, tremor, nystagmus, and diaphoresis. Administration of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital successfully treated the withdrawal symptoms. As predicted from the metabolism of gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol to GHB, the symptoms were nearly identical to those reported from GHB withdrawal. Because GHB is now illegal in the United States, individuals have begun abusing the legal and easier to acquire GHB precursors. More frequent cases of both abuse and withdrawal from these GHB precursors can be expected. PMID:11399385

Schneir, A B; Ly, B T; Clark, R F

2001-07-01

442

Application for Drawal of Temporary / Advance / Final withdrawal from CPG / GPF / CPF A/c No.  

E-print Network

Application for Drawal of Temporary / Advance / Final withdrawal from CPG / GPF / CPF A/c No. Bank...........................(Rupees....................................... Only) to Shri............................... chargeable to........................CPG/GPF/CPF

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

443

Ground-water withdrawals from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, 1956-1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Withdrawals and site data for wells with a pump capacity of 100 ,000 gallons per day or greater in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey are stored in computer files for 1956-80. The data are aggregated by computer into tables, graphs and maps to show the distribution of ground-water withdrawals. Withdrawals are reported by type of use and aquifer for each county in the Coastal Plain. Public-supply wells withdraw the largest quantity of ground water in the Coastal Plain, followed by industrial and agricultural wells. In 1980 public-supply withdrawals were about 280 million gallons per day; the maximum monthly rate was about 355 million gallons per day in July, and the lowest was about 215 million gallons per day in February. Average industrial withdrawals were about 65 million gallons per day. Ground-water withdrawals used for agriculture vary significantly during the year. In 1980, about 75 percent of the agricultural withdrawals occurred from June through September. Several aquifers are used as sources of water supply in the Coastal Plain. Five regional aquifers are the major sources of water for public-supply, industrial, or agricultural use. In decreasing order of withdrawals in 1980, in million gallons per day, they are: The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, 243; Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, 70; Atlantic City 800-foot sand, 21; Englishtown aquifer, 12; and the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer system, 5. (USGS)

Vowinkel, E.F.

1984-01-01

444

8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives...excessive membership dues for persons given assistance; and ...experience. (b) Requests for recognition. An organization...

2010-01-01

445

8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives...excessive membership dues for persons given assistance; and ...experience. (b) Requests for recognition. An organization...

2010-01-01

446

Are Tobacco Dependence and Withdrawal Related Amongst Heavy Smokers? Relevance to Conceptualizations of Dependence  

PubMed Central

Measured tobacco dependence is typically only modestly related to tobacco withdrawal severity amongst regular smokers making a quit attempt. The weak association between dependence and withdrawal is notable because it conflicts with core theories of dependence and because both measures predict cessation outcomes, suggesting they both index a common dependence construct. This study used data from a smoking cessation comparative effectiveness trial (N = 1504) to characterize relations of tobacco dependence with craving and negative affect withdrawal symptoms using multiple dependence measures and analytic methods to detect both additive and interactive effects and to determine whether withdrawal meaningfully mediates the influence of dependence on smoking cessation. We conclude: (1) while univariate analyses suggest dependence and withdrawal measures are only modestly interrelated, more powerful analytic techniques show they are, in fact, meaningfully related and their shared variance is associated with cessation likelihood; (2) there are clear differences between craving and negative affective withdrawal symptoms, with the former more related to smoking heaviness and the latter related to trait measures of negative affect; moreover, craving more strongly mediates dependence effects on cessation; (3) both craving and negative affect withdrawal symptoms are strongly related to a pattern of regular smoking that is sensitive to the passage of time and powerfully affected by smoking cues. These findings support models that accord an important role for associative processes and withdrawal symptoms, especially craving, in drug dependence. The findings also support the use of withdrawal variables as criteria for the evaluation of dependence measures. PMID:22642839

Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Cook, Jessica W.; Smith, Stevens S.; Loh, Wei-Yin; Bolt, Daniel

2013-01-01

447

78 FR 72088 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals; Withdrawal AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Department of...

2013-12-02

448

Early Steroid Withdrawal in Pediatric Renal Transplantation at a Single Center: Preliminary Report .  

E-print Network

??Steroids have been a cornerstone in renal transplant immunosuppression despite cardiovascular risk and growth impairment in children. New immunosuppressive drugs have allowed early withdrawal or… (more)

Valenzuela, M.

2008-01-01

449

Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Affective Patterns of Tobacco Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background The complex concordance and discordance across and within anxiety and depressive symptoms complicates understanding of the relation between emotional symptoms and manifestations of tobacco withdrawal. The goal of this study was to parse the broad variation in anxiety and depressive symptoms into conceptually discrete components and explore their relative predictive influence on affective patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal. Methods We employed a within-participant experimentally-manipulated tobacco abstinence design involving: (i) a baseline visit at which past-week depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed; and (ii) two counterbalanced experimental visits—one after ad lib smoking and one after 16-hours of tobacco abstinence—at which state affect was assessed. Participants were community-dwelling adults (N=187) smoking 10+ cig/day for at least two years without an active mood disorder. Results Anxiety-related general distress symptoms (e.g., tension, nervousness) predicted greater abstinence-induced increases in various negative affective states but not changes in positive affect (?s .17 – .33). Depression-related general distress symptoms (e.g., sadness, worthlessness) predicted greater abstinence-induced increases in acute depressed affect only (?s .24 – .25). Anhedonic symptoms (e.g., diminished interest, lack of pleasure) predicted larger abstinence-induced decreases in acute positive affect only (?s .17 – .20). Anxious Arousal symptoms (e.g., shakiness, heart racing) predicted larger abstinence-induced increases in fatigue and depressive affect (?s .15 – .24). Conclusion Different components of anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with unique affective patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal. These results provide insight into the affective mechanisms underlying tobacco dependence and could inform smoking cessation treatment approaches tailored to individuals with emotional distress. PMID:23896304

Leventhal, Adam M.; Ameringer, Katherine J.; Osborn, Elly; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Langdon, Kirsten J.

2014-01-01

450

Sign Detection Theory and Its Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers characterization of sign-transmission which is more general than conventional signal-transmission theory. Concepts and terminology, formal description of individual communications process, reconciliation with classical signal-detection theory, applications of sign-detection formalism to information retrieval on MEDLINE database, and a…

Heine, M. H.

1984-01-01

451

The earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

;Neurofibrillary Tangles #12;Alzheimer's Disease-Tangles #12;Brain Areas Affected by AD Frontal Lobe: BehaviorThe earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease Sterling Johnson, PhD Professor Wisconsin Alzheimers "Earliest Signs of Alzheimer's Disease" · FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: NONE · UNLABELED/UNAPPROVED USES DISCLOSURE

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

452

Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

2011-01-01

453

Fatigue Risks in the Connections of Sign  

E-print Network

mrogram Fatigue Risks in the Connections of Sign archP Support Structures Phase 1 Reseahway SPR. Report No. WHRP 08-05 2. Government Accession No 3. Recipient's Catalog No 4. Title and Subtitle Fatigue. Abstract Wisconsin sought to assess the risk of fatigue-induced fracture in its existing sign support

Foley, Christopher M.

454

Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

Weisenberg, Julia

2009-01-01

455

Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-01-01

456

Sign Language Varieties in Costa Rica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a preliminary examination of several sign language varieties in use in Costa Rica and attempts to explain the relationship among these varieties. Based on comparative lexical data, it is postulated that at least four distinct sign languages exist in Costa Rica. Implications for future research are also discussed. (eight references) (JL)

Woodward, James

1991-01-01

457

Sign Language Subtitling by Highly Comprehensible "Semantroids"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a new method of sign language subtitling aimed at young deaf children who have not acquired reading skills yet, and can communicate only via signs. The method is based on: 1) the recently developed concept of "semantroid[TM]" (an animated 3D avatar limited to head and hands); 2) the design, development, and psychophysical evaluation…

Adamo-Villani, Nicolleta; Beni, Gerardo

2007-01-01

458

World-line approach to Sign Problems  

E-print Network

World-line approach to Sign Problems Shailesh Chandrasekharan Duke University #12;Outline XY model + chemical potential world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! Two component bosons + Abelian world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! more flavors + solving sign problems

Aarts, Gert

459

Bimodal Communication, Signing Skill, and Tenseness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the use of bimodal communication (BC), sign language with spoken English, by hearing college students in five scenarios and during informal discussions between scenarios. The results indicated that varying signing ability affected signers' BC rate and that skilled signers adapted the amount of BC they used to the social situation. (three…

Messing, Lynn

1994-01-01

460

THE PARADOX OF SIGN LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiotemporal cognition, while the sequential patterns can be traced to normal historical development. We attribute the paucity of sequential morphology in sign languages to their youth. This research both brings sign languages much closer to spoken languages in their morphological structure and shows how the medium of communication contributes to the structure of languages.* PMID:22223926

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy

2011-01-01

461

Sharing Vital Signs between mobile phone applications.  

PubMed

We propose a communication library, ShareVital-Signs, for the standardized exchange of vital sign information between health applications running on mobile platforms. The library allows an application to request one or multiple vital signs from independent measurement applications on the Android OS. Compatible measurement applications are automatically detected and can be launched from within the requesting application, simplifying the work flow for the user and reducing typing errors. Data is shared between applications using intents, a passive data structure available on Android OS. The library is accompanied by a test application which serves as a demonstrator. The secure exchange of vital sign information using a standardized library like ShareVitalSigns will facilitate the integration of measurement applications into diagnostic and other high level health monitoring applications and reduce errors due to manual entry of information. PMID:25570781

Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A; Scheffer, Cornie

2014-08-01

462

Automated extraction of signs from continuous sign language sentences using Iterated Conditional Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of signs in sentences requires a training set constructed out of signs found in continuous sentences. Currently, this is done manually, which is a tedious process. In this work, we consider a framework where the modeler just provides multiple video sequences of sign language sentences, constructed to contain the vocabulary of interest. We learn the models of the recurring

Sunita Nayak; Sudeep Sarkar; Barbara Loeding

2009-01-01

463

The Sign "Institute" and Its Derivatives: A Family of Culturally Important ASL Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sign "institute" is the source of a family of ASL signs that are used to refer to residential schools for deaf children and to other institutions. The members of the "institute" sign family--although initialized--are well-established within the Deaf community and, importantly, are used to refer to highly-valued aspects of Deaf culture. This is…

Kowalsky, Jilly; Meier, Richard P.

2013-01-01

464

Sign Vocabulary in Deaf Toddlers Exposed to Sign Language since Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical comprehension and production is directly evaluated for the first time in deaf signing children below the age of 3 years. A Picture Naming Task was administered to 8 deaf signing toddlers (aged 2-3 years) who were exposed to Sign Language since birth. Results were compared with data of hearing speaking controls. In both deaf and hearing…

Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Di Renzo, Alessio; Gulli, Tiziana; Volterra, Virginia

2014-01-01

465

Workplace Concepts in Sign and Text. A Computerized Sign Language Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a dictionary of essential vocabulary, signs, and illustrations of workplace activities to be used to train deaf or hearing-impaired adults. It contains more than 500 entries with workplace-relevant vocabulary, each including an illustration of the signed word or phrase in American Sign Language, a description of how to make the…

Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

466

End of the barbexaclone era: an experience of treatment withdrawal.  

PubMed

Barbexaclone is a salt compound of phenobarbital and propylhexedrine (a drug with indirect sympathomimetic properties). Due to the presence of the psychostimulating agent, propylhexedrine, this drug has less of a sedative effect and is well tolerated, compared to phenobarbital. Barbexaclone was widely used in Turkey until 2009 when its production ended, however, it gave rise to an epidemic for which we were not prepared. Since then, no standardised management protocol has been developed and each patient has been evaluated individually, thereby creating tailor-made solutions based on the extent of each patient's supply of remaining drug (from a few tablets to a stock which might last for six months). The rate of seizure freedom was 37.7% under barbexaclone treatment and dropped to 32.2% in the follow-up period after discontinuation of the drug. In the majority of cases, a new antiepileptic drug was added and this was commonly levetiracetam, a more expensive drug. In this article, we share our experiences of a general problem: the withdrawal of an antiepileptic drug from the market. Although there was prior notification regarding barbexaclone withdrawal, it was not possible to contact all patients since such a database is not available in Turkey. Although no conclusions regarding the efficacy of the drug or comparison of efficacy with other antiepileptic drugs is provided, it is nonetheless noteworthy to share these experiences since some patients had lost seizure control for reasons that could not be explained. PMID:23981808

Bolukbasi, Feray; Delil, Sakir; Bulus, Eser; Senturk, Asli; Yeni, Naz; Karaagac, Naci

2013-09-01

467

[Acute gamma-butyrolactone poisoning with withdrawal syndrome].  

PubMed

Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a solvent that are part of many consumer products and in most countries can be legally purchased in the form of almost pure substance. After ingestion GBL is rapidly converted to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). In recent years, GBL became a legal alternative to GHB, which is used widely since 1990s as a club drug and date rape drug. It is believed that abuse of GBL is not frequent in Europe, except for certain specific groups, mainly in urban centers in the west of the continent. We present a case of acute GBL poisoning with the withdrawal syndrome in 23-year-old man living in a rural area in eastern Poland. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) because of coma of unknown origin. On admission erosions of the lips and mouth was seen. Ethyl alcohol was not present in blood sample, urine screening tests for drugs were negative. During his stay in the ICU patient required ventilatory support, was periodically agitated with muscular jerks and opisthotonos. The later medical history revealed that the patient from two years used GBL, which purchased as wheels cleaner. The tolerance developed, and the interruption of use of substance triggered symptoms of withdrawal. GBL abuse occurs in different social groups and is at risk for acute toxicity and the development of physical dependence. PMID:22010460

Chwaluk, Pawe?; Rejmak, Grazyna

2011-01-01

468

Signs of Life on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some images, but were absent in the other or altered their shape. What sources of energy, in principle, could be used by life in the high temperature oxigenless atmosphere? The objects found are large enough, they are not micro-organisms. It is most natural to assume that, like on Earth, Venusian fauna is heterotrophic, and the source of its life is hypothetical autotrophic flora. There is enough light for flora's photosynthesis. Since the critical temperature of water on Venus is about 320°C and the temperature at the surface is about 460°C, the metabolism of organisms on Venus (if any) should be built without water, on the basis of some other liquid medium. Based on data analyzed it has been suggested that because of the limited energy capacity of the Venusian fauna, the temporal characteristics of their physical actions can be much longer than that of the Earth.

Ksanfomality, L.

2012-04-01

469

Diabetes and parkinsonian signs in older persons.  

PubMed

We examined the relation of type 2 diabetes mellitus to parkinsonian signs in older persons. Participants were 1030 women and men (mean age 80.3 y, education 14.5 y, Mini-Mental State Examination 27.9) without dementia or Parkinson disease, enrolled in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an epidemiologic study of aging. We used separate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and education, to examine the relation of diabetes, identified by history and medication inspection, to each of the scores of global parkinsonian signs and 4 separate parkinsonian signs. Diabetes was present in 140 (14%) participants. Most participants had mild parkinsonian signs. Diabetes was associated with a more severe global parkinsonian signs score (beta=0.20, SE=0.10, P=0.05) and postural reflex impairment-gait disturbance (beta=0.40, SE=0.17, P=0.02), but not with bradykinesia, rigidity, or tremor. Associations were no longer significant after controlling for vascular risk factors or conditions, particularly body mass index and congestive heart failure. Overall, there was no evidence that vascular variables modified the relation of diabetes to parkinsonian signs. In summary, we found that diabetes was associated with parkinsonian signs, especially postural reflex impairment-gait disturbance, and that vascular factors may play a role in this association. PMID:17545740

Arvanitakis, Zoe; Wilson, Robert S; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, David A

2007-01-01

470

Effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine gum as individual versus combined treatments for tobacco withdrawal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine gum and transdermal nicotine have been shown to relieve withdrawal and double success rates over placebo in trials of smoking cessation. This study tested whether combining the two methods would relieve withdrawal more effectively compared to either treatment alone. Twenty-eight smokers served as their own controls in each of four conditions: active gum + active patch (double active), active

K. O. Fagerström; N. G. Schneider; E. Lunell

1993-01-01

471

What Are They Thinking? Students' Affective Reasoning and Attitudes about Course Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this mixed-methods study we identify situations that impact students' decisions to withdraw from a course and examine their affective reasoning and attitudes toward course withdrawal. Exploring students' decision-making processes through the lens of self-authorship, we show that students frequently seek information from people with whom they…

Wheland, Ethel R.; Butler, Kevin A.; Qammar, Helen; Katz, Karyn Bobkoff; Harris, Rose

2012-01-01

472

?1 Adrenergic Receptors in the Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis Mediate Differential Responses to Opiate Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative physical and affective aspects of opioid abstinence contribute to the prolongation of substance abuse. Withdrawal treatment is successful only in a subset of subjects, yet little is known about the neurobiological causes of these individual differences. Here, we compare the somatic and motivational components of opioid withdrawal in animals with high reactivity (HR) vs low reactivity (LR) to

Marco Cecchi; Nancy Capriles; Stanley J Watson; Huda Akil

2007-01-01

473

78 FR 41850 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans for North Carolina: Partial Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...partial withdrawal of the direct final approval of revisions...EPA stated in the direct final rule that if EPA...effect. DATES: This partial withdrawal is effective...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sara Waterson, Air...28747), EPA published a direct final rulemaking to...

2013-07-12

474

78 FR 41851 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans for Georgia: Partial Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...partial withdrawal of the direct final approval of revisions...EPA stated in the direct final rule that if EPA...effect. DATES: The partial withdrawal is effective...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sara Waterson, Air...28744), EPA published a direct final rulemaking to...

2013-07-12

475

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. 426.480 Section 426.480 Public...DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an...

2013-10-01

476

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. 426.480 Section 426.480 Public...DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an...

2010-10-01

477

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. 426.480 Section 426.480 Public...DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an...

2012-10-01

478

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. 426.480 Section 426.480 Public...DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an...

2011-10-01

479

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. 426.480 Section 426.480 Public...DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an...

2014-10-01

480

An Exploration of Potential Factors Affecting Student Withdrawal from an Undergraduate Music Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the degree withdrawal patterns of undergraduate music education majors, with a specific focus on the individual experiences of students withdrawing from the major. Data from recently withdrawn students (N = 14) were assembled using a qualitative methodology that included semistructured interviews,…

Gavin, Russell B.

2012-01-01

481

75 FR 54073 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposing to withdraw the definition of ``multiple source drug...Program; Multiple Source Drug Definition'' final rule published in...the AMP final rule and the definition of multiple source drug that...Safety Improvement Act. This document would withdraw the...

2010-09-03

482

IBM United States Withdrawal Announcement 908-175, dated August 05, 2008  

E-print Network

1 Hardware withdrawal: Cisco MDS Models AC1, PA2, and selected features Table of contents 1 Effective November 1, 2008, IBM will withdraw from marketing the following Cisco MDS 9000 products resold by IBM: · Cisco MDS Enhanced Port Analyzer · Cisco MDS Accessories ordering model · Cisco MDS 9000

483

Paying Attention to and Not Neglecting Social Withdrawal and Social Isolation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary outlines the origins, history, and current status of research related to children's social withdrawal and social isolation. Early research related to children's peer relationships is first explored, followed by a discussion of the relative "neglect" of social withdrawal prior to the 1980s. Increased research attention since that…

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.

2004-01-01

484

40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2012-07-01

485

40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2011-07-01

486

40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2011-07-01

487

40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2013-07-01

488

40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2012-07-01

489

40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2013-07-01

490

40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2010-07-01

491

40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2010-07-01

492

Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and…

Katz, Shaina J.; Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najmanm, Jake M.

2011-01-01

493

Minimizing Tolerance and Withdrawal to Prolonged Pediatric Sedation: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midazolam and fentanyl infusions are commonly used for prolonged sedation and analgesia in the pediatric intensive care setting. Tolerance and withdrawal are major concerns when these infusions are used for days or weeks. Here, we review the current approaches to prolonged pediatric sedation using midazolam and fentanyl and discuss newer strategies to avoid tolerance and withdrawal syndromes. We report the

Hannah H. Cho; James P. OConnell; Maureen F. Cooney; Mario A. Inchiosa

2007-01-01

494

Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal in mice  

E-print Network

Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal to stress responsivity during cocaine withdrawal (WD). Recent studies suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the CeA is a downstream effector protein for CRF after acute "binge" cocaine

495

Onset of Dyskinesia and Changes in Postural Task Performance during the Course of Neuroleptic Withdrawal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of neuroleptic withdrawal on postural task performance of 20 adults with mental retardation was examined. Assessments were conducted at baseline and monthly intervals, extending to one year following complete medication withdrawal, when significant changes in amount of postural motion and sequential pattern of postural movement…

Newell, Karl M.; Ko, Young G.; Sprague, Robert L.; Mahorney, Steven L.; Bodfish, James W.

2002-01-01

496

Description and characterization of the ACRR's programmable transient rod withdrawal mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

To satisfy experiment needs for Sandia's Advanced Reactor Safety Program, a programmable Transient Rod Withdrawal (TRW) mode has been developed for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). The programmable mode is a modification of the existing continuous-withdrawal TRW mode and permits speed and direction changes during the pulse sequence. Basically, a TRW operation is similar to a routine pulse operation

K. R. Boldt; W. H. Sullivan; H. L. Kefauver

1980-01-01

497

Work–Family Conflict and Job Withdrawal Intentions: The Moderating Effect of Cultural Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interactive effects of individual cultural orientation with work–family conflict on employees' job withdrawal intentions. Using a sample of 394 employees from the banking sector in the United States and China, the authors found that work interfering with family (WIF) was more positively related to job withdrawal intentions among individuals scoring high on idiocentrism. It is interesting

Peng Wang; John J. Lawler; Fred O. Walumbwa; Kan Shi

2004-01-01

498

Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-1 Receptor Activation Mediates Nicotine Withdrawal-Induced Deficit in Brain  

E-print Network

Background: Tobacco addiction is a chronic brain disorder that is characterized by a negative affective state, relapse, withdrawal T obacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by loss of control over with drug withdrawal and stress-induced relapse. Discontinuation of cocaine, amphetamine, alcohol, fentanyl

Príncipe, José Carlos

499

78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0095; FRL-9795-8] RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...withdraw certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of...

2013-04-04

500

Effects of lidocaine, ketamine, and remifentanil on withdrawal response of rocuronium  

PubMed Central

Background Rocuronium has been well known to produce withdrawal response in 50-80% patients when administered intravenously. Several drugs are administered prior injection of rocuronium to prevent the withdrawal response. We compared the preventive effect of lidocaine, ketamine, and remifentanil on the withdrawal response of rocuronium. Methods A total of 120 patients undergoing various elective surgeries were enrolled. Patients were allocated into 4 groups according to the pretreatment drugs (Group N, normal saline; Groups L, lidocaine 40 mg; Group K, ketamine 0.5 mg/kg; Group R, remifentanil 1 µg/kg). Patients received drugs prepared by dilution to 3 ml volume before injection of rocuronium. Withdrawal responses after injection of rocuronium were graded on a 4-point scale. Hemodynamic changes were observed before and after administration of pretreatment drugs and after endotracheal intubation. Results Incidence of withdrawal response was significantly lower in group L (20%), group K (30%), and group R (0%), than group N (87%). Severe withdrawal response was observed in 5 of the 30 patients (17%) in group L, and in 9 of the 30 patients (30%) in group K. There was no severe withdrawal response in group R. Mean blood pressure and heart rate were significantly decreased in group R compared to other groups. Conclusions It seems that remifentanil (1 µg/kg intravenously) was the strongest and most effective in prevention of withdrawal response after rocuronium injection among the 3 drugs. PMID:25302093

Jung, Ki Tae; Kim, Hye Ji; Bae, Hyo Sung; Lee, Hyun Young; Kim, Sang Hun; So, Keum Young; Lim, Kyung Jun; Yu, Byung Sik; Jung, Jong Dal; Park, Hong Chan

2014-01-01