Sample records for naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs

  1. The severity of naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal is attenuated by felbamate, a possible glycine antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T A; DeCaprio, J L; Rosen, M I

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in the rostral medulla is involved in opiate withdrawal. Although NMDA antagonists attenuate naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal, they can cause phencyclidine (PCP)like effects that contraindicate clinical use. Because NMDA channels contain sites for the glutamate coagonist, glycine, we assessed the effects of glycinergic agents on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in rats. The putative antagonist, felbamate (100, 300 mg/kg), attenuated overall withdrawal severity in a dose-related manner and reduced occurrences of chews, teeth chatters, and penile grooming. The partial agonist, D-cycloserine (3, 10 mg/kg), attenuated withdrawal severity, but not in a dose-related manner. Conversely, the low dose of the partial agonist, (+/-)-HA-966 (3, 10 mg/kg), heightened the occurrences of some withdrawal signs. These results support a role for glycine in opiate withdrawal and suggest that these agents, which do not cause PCPlike effects, may be potential treatment for agents for opiate detoxification. PMID:8747757

  2. The effect of lamotrigine on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc I Rosen; H Rowland Pearsall; Thomas R. Kosten

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that lamotrigine, a putative glutamate release antagonist, would attenuate glutamate-mediated signs of opiate withdrawal. Seven heroin-dependent subjects were hospitalized, stabilized on oral levorphanol 6 mg three times daily, and thrice underwent withdrawal precipitated by naloxone 0.4 mg intravenously. Lamotrigine (placebo, 250 mg, and 500 mg) was randomly given as a pretreatment 6 h before naloxone. Lamotrigine did not

  3. The Effect of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid on Naloxone-Precipitated Opiate Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc I Rosen; H Rowland Pearsall; Scott W Woods; Thomas R Kosten

    1996-01-01

    Because gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a GABA metabolite, attenuated spontaneous opiate withdrawal in a prior study, we studied GHB's effect on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal. Eight opiate-dependent inpatients were stabilized on the opioid levorphanol, 18 mg daily. After an initial acclimatization challenge, subjects underwent three double-blind challenges on consecutive days. Pretreatment in a balanced randomization was with either placebo, GHB, 15 mg\\/kg,

  4. A pilot study of dextromethorphan in naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc I. Rosen; Thomas J. McMahon; Scott W. Woods; H. Rowland Pearsall; Thomas R. Kosten

    1996-01-01

    Dextromethorphan and its metabolite dextrorphan antagonize N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated activity in pre-clinical studies. We examined dextromethorphan's effects on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in opiate-dependent subjects stabilized on 25 mg of methadone. Subjects received challenges on three different days with 0.4 mg of intramuscular naloxone. Pretreatment 1 h before naloxone was with dextromethorphan in a double-blind, balanced, randomized design with either placebo, dextromethorphan

  5. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Wataru; Sato, Tasuku; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yaoita, Fukie; Silberring, Jerzy; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of cysteine protease inhibitors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice, presumably through the inhibition of dynorphin degradation (see (Tan-No, K., Sato, T., Shimoda, M., Nakagawasai, O., Niijima, F., Kawamura, S., Furuta, S., Sato, T., Satoh, S., Silberring, J., Terenius, L., Tadano, T., 2010. Suppressive effects by cysteine protease inhibitors on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice. Neuropeptides 44, 279-283)). In the present study, we examined the effect of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine protease inhibitor, on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice. The doses of morphine (mg/kg per injection) were subcutaneously given twice daily for 2 days [day 1 (30) and day 2 (60)]. On day 3, naloxone (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 3h after the final injection of morphine (60 mg/kg), and the number of jumps was immediately recorded for 20 min. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping was significantly suppressed by i.c.v. administration of PMSF (4 nmol), given 5 min before each morphine treatment during the induction phase, with none given on the test day. The expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin, in the prefrontal cortex was significantly increased in morphine-dependent and -withdrawal mice, as compared with saline-treated mice. Moreover, trans-4-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (300 pmol), an antiplasmin agent, and (Tyr(1))-thrombin receptor activating peptide 7 (0.45 and 2 nmol), an antagonist of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping. The present results suggest that PMSF suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice, presumably through the inhibition of activities of tPA and plasmin belonging to the serine proteases family, which subsequently activates PAR-1. PMID:23290539

  6. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  7. Suppressive effects by cysteine protease inhibitors on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Tan-No, Koichi; Sato, Tasuku; Shimoda, Masakazu; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Niijima, Fukie; Kawamura, Shunsuke; Furuta, Seiichi; Sato, Takumi; Satoh, Susumu; Silberring, Jerzy; Terenius, Lars; Tadano, Takeshi

    2010-06-01

    The effects of various protease inhibitors on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping were examined in morphine-dependent mice. The doses of morphine were subcutaneously given twice daily for 2 days (day 1, 30 mg/kg; day 2, 60 mg/kg). On day 3, naloxone (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 3h after final injection of morphine (60 mg/kg), and the number of jumping was immediately recorded for 20 min. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping was significantly suppressed by the intracerebroventricular administration of N-ethylmaleimide (0.5 nmol) and Boc-Tyr-Gly-NHO-Bz (0.4 nmol), inhibitors of cysteine proteases involved in dynorphin degradation, 5 min before each morphine treatment during the induction phase, with none given on the test day, as well as by dynorphin A (62.5 pmol) and dynorphin B (250 pmol). However, amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, and captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, caused no changes. The present results suggest that cysteine protease inhibitors suppress naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice, presumably through the inhibition of dynorphin degradation. PMID:20189644

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  9. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. PMID:25582704

  10. Clonidine infusions into the locus coeruleus attenuate behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Taylor; J. D. Elsworth; E. J. Garcia; S. J. Grant; R. H. Roth; D. E. Redmond

    1988-01-01

    Clonidine, an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, suppresses signs of opiate withdrawal in animals and in man. Electrical or chemical\\u000a stimulation of the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) increases noradrenergic activity and brain concentration of the noradrenergic\\u000a metabolite MHPG, and produces many signs of opiate withdrawal. Thus, clonidine's ability to attenuate withdrawal might be\\u000a due to the reduction of noradrenergic neuronal activity originating in

  11. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  12. Ethopharmacological analysis of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats: a newly-developed “etho-score”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fdez Espejo; M. Cador; L. Stinus

    1995-01-01

    The intensity of opiate withdrawal syndrome in rats is usually quantified on the basis of selected physical signs or global scores. However, the selection criteria of signs and scores have not been subjected to an ethological discussion, hence they appear to be somewhat arbitrary. The objectives of this study were thus: i) to analyse the rat's behaviour during the nalox-one-precipitated

  13. Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal evokes phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 in rat heart through extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Almela, P; Martínez-Laorden, E; Atucha, N M; Milanés, M V; Laorden, M L

    2011-07-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a well-known stress response protein that becomes phosphorylated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Different drugs of abuse, such as morphine and/or its withdrawal, induce severe stress situations. In this study, we investigated Hsp27 and phospho-Hsp27 expression during morphine dependence and withdrawal and evaluated the involvement of ERK in the phosphorylation of Hsp27 in the rat right ventricle. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by injection of naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.). ERK1/2, Hsp27 and phospho-Hsp27 at Ser15 were determined by quantitative blot immunolabeling using specific antibodies. Hsp27 expression was increased 30, 60, 90 and 120 min (144.5±14.2%, P<0.0001; 128.9±4.6%, P=0.04; 177.4±12.7, P<0.0001; and 136.2±11.0%, P=0.042, respectively) after saline injection to rats dependent on morphine. Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal also increased the phosphorylation of Hsp27 at Ser15 at those time points (146.8±19.8%, P=0.034; 143.9±17.9%, P=0.032; 161.2±33.3%, P=0.029; and 152.2±25.5%, P=0.008, respectively). However, there were no changes in Hsp27 phosphorylation in the morphine dependent group injected with saline. In addition, there was an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 60 min after naloxone injection in morphine dependent rats (pERK1: 116.3±4.2%, P=0.015 and pERK2: 117.2±1.5%, P=0.05). Pretreatment with SL327, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation, decreased activation (phosphorylation) of both ERK and Hsp27 (pERK1: 4.5±3.6%, P<0.0001; pERK2: 42.3±3.3%, P<0.0001; and pHsp27: 97.6±1.5%, P=0.008), suggesting that ERK activation triggers Hsp27 phosphorylation. The present findings demonstrate that morphine withdrawal is capable of inducing the activation of Hsp27 in the heart and suggest that phosphorylation of Hsp27 is closely linked to and also dependent on the ERK pathway. PMID:21530534

  14. Yohimbine co-treatment during chronic morphine administration attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal without diminishing tail-flick analgesia in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Taylor; V. O. Lewis; J. D. Elsworth; P. Pivirotto; R. H. Roth; D. E. Redmond

    1991-01-01

    Noradrenergic neuronal hyperactivity following chronic morphine administration has been postulated to cause withdrawal signs and symptoms. Suppression of this hyperactivity, for example, by clonidine attenuates withdrawal. It might follow, therefore, that the prevention of suppression of noradrenergic systems during chronic morphine administration might diminish hyperactivity and prevent withdrawal. If the normalization of noradrenergic activity during opioid administration did not also

  15. Role of beta-adrenoceptors in the expression of morphine withdrawal signs.

    PubMed

    Funada, M; Suzuki, T; Sugano, Y; Tsubai, M; Misawa, M; Ueda, H; Misu, Y

    1994-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 and beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists on the expression of morphine withdrawal signs were investigated in mice. Mice were chronically treated with morphine (8-45 mg/kg, s.c.). Several withdrawal signs were observed following naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent mice which had been pretreated with vehicle. Treatment with DSP-4 before the naloxone challenge suppressed the expression of morphine withdrawal signs, including jumping and "wet dog" shakes. Similarly, pretreatment with the beta 1-antagonist atenolol significantly reduced the incidence of naloxone-precipitated jumping and "wet dog" shakes. However, pretreatment with the beta 2-antagonist ICI118,551 suppressed the expression of "wet dog" shakes, but not that of jumping. These findings suggest that the central noradrenergic system may mediate the expression of withdrawal signs. The blocking effects of beta-antagonists indicate that naloxone-precipitated jumping may be mediated predominantly by beta 1-adrenoceptors, while naloxone-precipitated "wet dog" shakes may be mediated by both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors. PMID:7509021

  16. Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal evokes phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 in rat heart through extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Almela; E. Martínez-Laorden; N. M. Atucha; M. V. Milanés; M. L. Laorden

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a well-known stress response protein that becomes phosphorylated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Different drugs of abuse, such as morphine and\\/or its withdrawal, induce severe stress situations. In this study, we investigated Hsp27 and phospho-Hsp27 expression during morphine dependence and withdrawal and evaluated the involvement of ERK in the phosphorylation of Hsp27 in the

  17. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (10–60 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  18. Alleviation of Morphine Withdrawal Signs but Not Tolerance by the Essential Oil of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Izadi, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute treatment of the essential oil (EO) of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Mice were rendered tolerant to and dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine over a period of 5 days. Tolerance was assessed using the tail-pinch test and withdrawal signs of morphine were precipitated by injecting naloxone 2?h after the final morphine injection. Repeated injection of the EO of K. odoratissima (5 and 10?mg/kg) for 4 days significantly suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps, a sign of the development of dependence to opiate as assessed by naloxone precipitation withdrawal on day 5 of testing. A single injection (25, 50, 100?mg/kg) of the EO on day 5, 1?h prior to morphine failed to produce any significant change in morphine withdrawal signs. Neither the acute nor the chronic administration of EO of the K. odoratissima did significantly influence the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Alleviation in morphine signs of withdrawal after chronic injection with K. odoratissima is indicative of reversal of neuronal adaptation that takes place during morphine presence in the brain. PMID:22829859

  19. Beta-adrenergic antagonists attenuate somatic and aversive signs of opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Harris, G C; Aston-Jones, G

    1993-12-01

    The current studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of beta-adrenergic antagonists on opiate withdrawal symptoms utilizing a variety of paradigms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were made moderately dependent on morphine with daily incremental injections. Both the nonselective beta-antagonist propranolol and the selective beta 1-antagonist atenolol, in the dose range of 5 to 20 mg/kg, were found to significantly reduce many of the somatic responses to either naloxone-precipitated or abstinence-induced withdrawal from morphine. In addition, propranolol (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced a withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion, while atenolol was effective only at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg). These data indicate that beta-adrenergic antagonists might be effective in the treatment of opiate addictions. PMID:7905738

  20. Gap junction blockers: a potential approach to attenuate morphine withdrawal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The exact mechanisms of morphine-induced dependence and withdrawal symptoms remain unclear. In order to identify an agent that can prevent withdrawal syndrome, many studies have been performed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of gap junction blockers; carbenoxolone (CBX) or mefloquine (MFQ); on morphine withdrawal symptoms in male rat. Adult male Wistar rats (225 – 275 g) were selected randomly and divided into 10 groups. All groups underwent stereotaxic surgery and in order to induce dependency, morphine was administered subcutaneously) Sc) at an interval of 12 hours for nine continuous days. On the ninth day of the experiment, animals received vehicle or CBX (100, 400, 600 ?g/10 ?l/rat, icv) or MFQ (50, 100 and 200 ?g/10 ?l/rat, icv) after the last saline or morphine (Sc) injection. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were precipitated by naloxone hydrochloride 10 min after the treatments. The withdrawal signs including: jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdomen writhing, wet dog shake and stool weight, were recorded for 60 minutes. Results Results showed that CBX and MFQ decreased all withdrawal signs; and the analysis indicated that they could attenuate the total withdrawal scores significantly. Conclusion Taking together it is concluded that gap junction blockers prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. PMID:24143922

  1. Caffeine increases paragigantocellularis neuronal firing rate and induces withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Khalili; Saeed Semnanian; Yaghoub Fathollahi

    2001-01-01

    Using single unit recording in nucleus paragigantocellularis neurons located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and measuring the precipitated withdrawal syndrome, we investigated whether chronic morphine administration would produce adaptive changes in the adenosine system. Caffeine (50 mg\\/kg, i.p.) induced withdrawal signs (head shakes, tooth chattering, ejaculation, chewing, and irritability) in morphine-dependent rats 10–18 min after the injection. Only the tooth

  2. Spironolactone decreases the somatic signs of opiate withdrawal by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacological evidence has accumulated showing that glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) facilitate several responses to different drugs of abuse. Recent findings have attributed a prominent role to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in modulating behavior during the addictive process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MR blockade on: brain stress system responses to naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, the somatic signs of abstinence; the effects of morphine withdrawal on noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), c-Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser31 levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2); and finally, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. The role of MR signaling was assessed with i.p. pretreatment with the MR antagonist, spironolactone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later rats were pretreated with spironolactone or vehicle 30min before naloxone. The physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression and the HPA axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. Spironolactone attenuated the somatic signs of withdrawal that were seen after naloxone administration to chronic morphine treated animals. On the other hand, pretreatment with spironolactone resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression or HPA axis activity that occurred during morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that somatic signs of opiate withdrawal are modulated by MR signaling. However, blockade of MR did not significantly alter the brain stress system response to morphine withdrawal. PMID:25308750

  3. Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs by the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sotiria Bexis; Jennifer Ong; Jason White

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of the ?-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptor agonist, baclofen on naloxone-induced withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rats and modification by the antagonist, 3-aminopropyl-cyclohexylmethylphosphinic acid (CGP 46381). Morphine was administered via mini-osmotic pumps for 7 days to induce physical dependence. Baclofen (20 mg kg?1) decreased stereotyped head movements, chewing, chatter, ptosis and body weight loss, induced by

  4. Withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Birth Control > Withdrawal Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Is It? How Does It Work? How Well Does It Work? Protection Against STDs Who Uses It? What Is It? Withdrawal is when a guy removes his penis from the vagina before he ejaculates (also called ...

  5. Glutamate receptors in the dorsal hippocampus mediate the acquisition, but not the expression, of conditioned place aversion induced by acute morphine withdrawal in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-yuan Hou; Yao Liu; Shuo Kang; Chuan Yu; Zhi-qiang Chi; Jing-gen Liu

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the role of glutamate receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the motivational component of morphine withdrawal.Methods:NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (5 ?g\\/0.5 ?L per side) or AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (2 ?g\\/0.5 ?L per side) was microinjected into DH of rats. Conditioned place aversion (CPA) induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal were assessed.Results:Preconditioning microinjection of D-AP5 or NBQX into

  6. Caffeine increases paragigantocellularis neuronal firing rate and induces withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Khalili, M; Semnanian, S; Fathollahi, Y

    2001-02-01

    Using single unit recording in nucleus paragigantocellularis neurons located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and measuring the precipitated withdrawal syndrome, we investigated whether chronic morphine administration would produce adaptive changes in the adenosine system. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) induced withdrawal signs (head shakes, tooth chattering, ejaculation, chewing, and irritability) in morphine-dependent rats 10-18 min after the injection. Only the tooth chattering and diarrhea were expressed following a direct paragigantocellularis injection of caffeine (200 microM, 0.5 microl). The spontaneous activity of paragigantocellularis neurons was significantly decreased by microinjection of both adenosine (10 nM) and an adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonist, cyclohexyladenosine (200 microM), into the paragigantocellularis nucleus of both control and morphine-dependent rats, but the decrease in firing rate of paragigantocellularis neurons of morphine-dependent rats was greater than that of control ones. There was also a significant enhancement of spontaneous activity of paragigantocellularis neurons 8-15 min after caffeine administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) and 10-18 min after the injection of an adenosine A1 receptor-selective antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in both control and morphine-dependent rats. However, the effect of the antagonists was greater in morphine-dependent rats than in control ones. These data suggest that there is an increase in the sensitivity of nucleus paragigantocellularis neurons to adenosine receptor ligands in morphine-dependent rats that may be associated with the ability of caffeine to produce withdrawal signs. PMID:11166287

  7. Co-administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate effectively blocks the signs of morphine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Vadizadeh, Ali

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses of morphine. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs (jumping or standing events, diarrhea, piloerection, tremor and ptosis). Separate oral administration of magnesium (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) and calcium (500, 750 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the jumping, without affecting standing in animals withdrawn from morphine. Co-administration of magnesium (at a fixed dose of 100 mg/kg) and calcium (at a range of doses from 250 to 1,000 mg/kg) resulted in a significant reduction in jumping and standing events (P<0.05). In a similar fashion, the qualitative signs of withdrawal were also reduced when the above combination of calcium and magnesium was administered. Co-administration of calcium/magnesium at 500/50, 750/75 and 1,000/100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of jumps in morphine-dependent animals without affecting the number of standing events. This study demonstrates the potential activity of the co-administration calcium and magnesium in preventing the signs associated with morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22429988

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the amygdala mediates elevated plus maze behavior during opioid withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Hofford, Rebecca S.; Hodgson, Stephen R.; Roberts, Kris W.; Bryant, Camron D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) contributes to the increased open-arm time observed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) during opioid withdrawal. We applied SL327, a selective ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, to specific limbic areas and examined the effect on EPM behaviors of controls and during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. We next confirmed that ERK activation increased in limbic areas of mice undergoing naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Direct injection of SL327 into the amygdala blocked the withdrawal-induced increase in open-arm time; however, injecting SL327 into the septum had no effect. Consistent with these results, both 0.2 and 2 mg/kg naloxone increased ERK activation in the central amygdala of morphine-dependent mice. In drug-naïve mice, 2 mg/kg naloxone, but not 0.2 mg/kg, increased ERK activation in the central amygdala. During withdrawal, increased ERK activation was also observed in the lateral septum. In the LC, a significant increase was only observed in morphine-dependent mice receiving 2 mg/kg, but not 0.2 mg/kg, naloxone. It is concluded that ERK activation in limbic areas is likely involved in both the aversive properties of naloxone and in the affective/emotional symptoms of opioid withdrawal, including mediating EPM behaviors. PMID:19738463

  9. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the amygdala mediates elevated plus maze behavior during opioid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Hodgson, Stephen R; Roberts, Kris W; Bryant, Camron D; Evans, Christopher J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2009-10-01

    This study examined whether activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) contributes to the increased open-arm time observed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) during opioid withdrawal. We applied SL327, a selective ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, to specific limbic areas and examined the effect on EPM behaviors of controls and during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. We next confirmed that ERK activation increased in limbic areas of mice undergoing naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Direct injection of SL327 into the amygdala blocked the withdrawal-induced increase in open-arm time; however, injecting SL327 into the septum had no effect. Consistent with these results, both 0.2 and 2?mg/kg naloxone increased ERK activation in the central amygdala of morphine-dependent mice. In drug-naive mice, 2?mg/kg naloxone, but not 0.2?mg/kg, increased ERK activation in the central amygdala. During withdrawal, increased ERK activation was also observed in the lateral septum. In the locus coeruleus, a significant increase was observed only in morphine-dependent mice receiving 2?mg/kg, but not 0.2?mg/kg naloxone. In conclusion, ERK activation in limbic areas is likely involved in both the aversive properties of naloxone and in the affective/emotional symptoms of opioid withdrawal, including mediating EPM behaviors. PMID:19738463

  10. The ?3?4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype mediates nicotine reward and physical nicotine withdrawal signs independently of the ?5 subunit in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kia J.; Sanjakdar, Sarah S.; Muldoon, Pretal P.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Damaj, M. Imad

    2013-01-01

    The 15q25 gene cluster contains genes that code for the ?5, ?3, and ?4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) subunits, and in human genetic studies, has shown the most robust association with smoking behavior and nicotine dependence to date. The limited available animal studies implicate a role for the ?5 and ?4 nAChR subunits in nicotine dependence and withdrawal; however studies focusing on the behavioral role of the ?3?4* nAChR receptor subtype in nicotine dependence are lacking. Because of the apparent role of the ?3?4* nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence, the goal of the current study was to better evaluate the involvement of this subtype in nicotine mediated behavioral responses. Using the selective ?3?4* nAChR antagonist, ?-conotoxin AuIB, we assessed the role of ?3?4* nAChRs in acute nicotine, nicotine reward, and physical and affective nicotine withdrawal. Because ?5 has also been implicated in nicotine dependence behaviors in mice and can form functional receptors with ?3?4*, we also evaluated the role of the ?3?4?5* nAChR subtype in nicotine reward and somatic nicotine withdrawal signs by blocking the ?3?4* nAChR subtype in ?5 nAChR knockout mice with AuIB. AuIB had no significant effect on acute nicotine behaviors, but dose-dependently attenuated nicotine reward and physical withdrawal signs, with no significant effect in affective withdrawal measures. Interestingly, AuIB also attenuated nicotine reward and somatic signs in ?5 nAChR knockout mice. This study shows that ?3?4* nAChRs mediate nicotine reward and physical nicotine withdrawal, but not acute nicotine behaviors or affective nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. The ?5 subunit is not required in the receptor assembly to mediate these effects. Our findings suggest an important role for the ?3?4* nAChR subtype in nicotine reward and physical aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:23416040

  11. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mahdieh; Esfahani, Mahsa Masjedi; Aslany, Neda; Davoodi, Seyyed Hamid; Parsaei, Pouya; Zarei, Ghasem; Reisi, Parham

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spontaneous or pharmacologic (naloxone-precipitated) withdrawal. Then spatial learning and memory were investigated by morris water maze test, and at the end trunk blood samples were collected for measurement of serum cortisol levels. Results: The results showed that only repeated spontaneous withdrawal significantly increases escape latency (P < 0.05), and in other models of withdrawal, spatial learning and memory were intact. The results of probe trial were intact in all groups. Radioimmunoassay showed that serum cortisol levels were increased significantly in all models of withdrawal (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) except the repeated spontaneous withdrawal. Conclusion: The results showed that short periods of withdrawal syndrome can increase serum cortisol levels; however they do not affect spatial learning and memory. Nevertheless, repeated spontaneous withdrawal can make learning slow. PMID:24524030

  12. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. PMID:24906198

  13. Neonatal drug withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Mark L; Tan, Rosemarie C

    2012-02-01

    Maternal use of certain drugs during pregnancy can result in transient neonatal signs consistent with withdrawal or acute toxicity or cause sustained signs consistent with a lasting drug effect. In addition, hospitalized infants who are treated with opioids or benzodiazepines to provide analgesia or sedation may be at risk for manifesting signs of withdrawal. This statement updates information about the clinical presentation of infants exposed to intrauterine drugs and the therapeutic options for treatment of withdrawal and is expanded to include evidence-based approaches to the management of the hospitalized infant who requires weaning from analgesics or sedatives. PMID:22291123

  14. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Susannah S.; Coats, Benjamen D.; Skyba, David A.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M.; Judd, Charles M.; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.; Johnson, Kirk W.

    2009-01-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused 3-to-5-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, whilst improving analgesia. PMID:18938237

  15. Neonatal drug withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Barthell, Jane E; Mrozek, Jeanne D

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, the number of babies exposed to both illegal and prescribed drugs during pregnancy has increased. This has led to an increase in the number of babies born with addiction. This article describes the signs of neonatal drug withdrawal and suggests a comprehensive approach to preventing and treating it. PMID:23930471

  16. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a ?-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ?, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

  17. Alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Grieger; Deborah L. Warden; Cynthia Shappell

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol abuse or dependence is present in 13.6% of the general population and more than half of these individuals have another psychiatric disorder. Psychiatrists are increasingly involved in the management of alcohol withdrawal\\/detoxification. Although generally a safe procedure, patients must be carefully evaluated for comorbid conditions and for medical complications of prolonged alcohol use. Individuals who experience withdrawal symptoms require

  18. Effects of fencamfamine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Planeta, C S; DeLucia, R; Aizenstein, M L

    1994-09-01

    1. The effects produced by discontinuation of long-term treatment with fencamfamine (FCF) were evaluated recording behavioral and body weight changes. 2. 48 hr after withdrawal of FCF rats showed a significant decrease in exploratory behavior when compared to saline-treated ones. 3. Discontinuation of treatment with FCF resulted in a significant increase in body weight on days of drug withdrawal. 4. These results suggest that FCF caused signs of withdrawal similar to other psychostimulant drugs. PMID:7835639

  19. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  20. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  1. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  2. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  3. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  4. Withdrawal Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Quit Smoking Affects You Manage Your Mood Get Active Eat Healthier Tools & Tips Ready to Quit Smoking Affects You Manage Your Mood Get Active Eat Healthier Tools & Tips Nicotine Withdrawal; Measure Your ...

  5. Nonspecific excitatory effects of opiates and their possible role in withdrawal behavior 

    E-print Network

    Stevens, David Ronald

    1982-01-01

    appears to result in some withdrawal- like behaviors. A single-dose prec1pitated withdrawal paradigm was used to test the role of the opiate, and receptor blockade, in the ap- pearance of withdrawal-like behaviors. Nice pretreated with high doses... naloxone dose as high as 100 mglkg would only partially block dependence as indicated by withdrawal signs. The authors found this dissociation between dependence and tolerance unexplainable. The presence of withdrawal signs in a sup- posedly non...

  6. Extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats is blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Brian R.; Carlezon, William A.; Myers, Karyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive conditioned responses (CRs) contribute to psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders and addiction. Methods of reducing these CRs have been considered as possible therapeutic approaches. One such method is extinction, which involves exposure to CR-eliciting cues in the absence of the event they once predicted. In animal models, extinction reduces both fear and addiction-related CRs, and in humans, extinction-based cue exposure therapy (CET) reduces fear CRs. However, CET is less effective in drug addicts, for reasons that are not clear. Increased understanding of the neurobiology of extinction of drug-related CRs as compared to fear CRs may help illuminate this issue. Here, we examine the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependence of extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Using a place conditioning paradigm, we trained morphine-dependent rats to associate an environment with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. We then extinguished that association by returning the rats repeatedly to the environment in the absence of acute withdrawal. In some rats we administered the NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (AP5) intracerebroventricularly immediately prior to extinction training. In a subsequent test session, these rats avoided the formerly naloxone-paired environment, similar to rats that had not undergone extinction training. By contrast, rats that received vehicle prior to extinction training did not avoid the formerly naloxone-paired environment. This finding indicates that extinction of a drug-related CR (conditioned opiate withdrawal) is dependent on NMDA receptors, similar to extinction of conditioned fear. The locus of the critical NMDA receptors is unclear but may include basolateral amygdala and/or medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:23416323

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ellis Marik

    \\u000a Approximately 11–15 million people report heavy alcohol use or alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States; not surprisingly,\\u000a alcohol-related medical problems are commonly encountered in critically ill and injured patients. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome\\u000a (AWS) consists of symptoms and signs arising in alcohol-dependent individuals, typically within 24–48 h of consumption of\\u000a their last drink. Delirium tremens (DTs), a severe and potentially

  8. Morphine withdrawal produces ERK-dependent and ERK-independent epigenetic marks in neurons of the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Alessandro; Calza, Arianna; Santoru, Francesca; Grasso, Fabrizio; Concas, Alessandra; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Giustetto, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    Epigenetic changes such as covalent modifications of histone proteins represent complex molecular signatures that provide a cellular memory of previously experienced stimuli without irreversible changes of the genetic code. In this study we show that new gene expression induced in vivo by morphine withdrawal occurs with concomitant epigenetic modifications in brain regions critically involved in drug-dependent behaviors. We found that naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, but not chronic morphine administration, caused a strong induction of phospho-histone H3 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell/core and in the lateral septum (LS), a change that was accompanied by augmented H3 acetylation (lys14) in neurons of the NAc shell. Morphine withdrawal induced the phosphorylation of the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in Ser421 both in the LS and the NAc shell. These epigenetic changes were accompanied by the activation of members of the ERK pathway as well as increased expression of the immediate early genes (IEG) c-fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Using a pharmacological approach, we found that H3 phosphorylation and IEG expression were partially dependent on ERK activation, while MeCP2 phosphorylation was fully ERK-independent. These findings provide new important information on the role of the ERK pathway in the regulation of epigenetic marks and gene expression that may concur to regulate in vivo the cellular changes underlying the onset of the opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:23347952

  9. New mechanisms and perspectives in nicotine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Muldoon, P P; De Biasi, M; Damaj, M I

    2015-09-01

    Diseases associated with tobacco use constitute a major health problem worldwide. Upon cessation of tobacco use, an unpleasant withdrawal syndrome occurs in dependent individuals. Avoidance of the negative state produced by nicotine withdrawal represents a motivational component that promotes continued tobacco use and relapse after smoking cessation. With the modest success rate of currently available smoking cessation therapies, understanding mechanisms involved in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome are crucial for developing successful treatments. Animal models provide a useful tool for examining neuroadaptative mechanisms and factors influencing nicotine withdrawal, including sex, age, and genetic factors. Such research has also identified an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in different aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome (e.g., physical vs. affective signs). In addition to nicotinic receptors, the opioid and endocannabinoid systems, various signal transduction pathways, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides have been implicated in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Animal studies have informed human studies of genetic variants and potential targets for smoking cessation therapies. Overall, the available literature indicates that the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is complex, and involves a range of neurobiological mechanisms. As research in nicotine withdrawal progresses, new pharmacological options for smokers attempting to quit can be identified, and treatments with fewer side effects that are better tailored to the unique characteristics of patients may become available. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25433149

  10. EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,

    E-print Network

    LakeMichigan Lake Ontario Lake Erie La keHuron Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Total aquaculture withdrawals Surface-water aquaculture withdrawals Groundwater aquaculture withdrawals TOTALWITHDRAWALSM aine Puerto Rico U.S.Virgin Islands Aquaculture withdrawals by source and State, 2005. Estimated Use

  11. Acute opioid dependence: characterizing the early adaptations underlying drug withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Harris; Jonathan C. Gewirtz

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: While opioid withdrawal is typi- cally studied under conditions of chronic (i.e., continuous) drug administration, withdrawal signs can also be dem- onstrated in both humans and animals after a single opioid exposure. This phenomenon, termed acute dependence, may be useful in understanding the early stages of opioid dependence and addiction. Objective: This review provides an overview of acute dependence

  12. The role of beta blockers in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, L D

    1988-02-29

    Previous studies have suggested that beta blockers might be useful in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was therefore conducted to compare results with atenolol versus those with placebo in patients hospitalized with alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In addition to receiving customary therapy, patients were randomly assigned to receive atenolol (61 patients) or placebo (59 patients). Outcome was assessed daily by the measurement of nine features in three categories: vital signs, clinical signs (eg, tremor), and behavioral signs (eg, agitation). Among patients who had withdrawal symptoms at baseline, vital signs became normal more rapidly in the patients receiving atenolol; abnormal behavior and clinical characteristics also resolved more rapidly. On each treatment day, significantly fewer patients receiving atenolol required concomitant oxazepam therapy for agitation. Patients receiving placebo, however, required a significantly higher mean daily dose of oxazepam. The results indicate that atenolol is helpful in the treatment of patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome. PMID:2894658

  13. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

  14. Treatment of Acute Opioid Withdrawal with Ibogaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Alper; Howard S. Lotsof; M. N. Frenken; Daniel J. Luciano; Jan Bastiaans

    1999-01-01

    Ibogaine is an alkaloid with putative effect in acute opioid with- drawal. Thirty-three cases of treatments for the indication of opi- oid detoxiécation performed in non-medical settings under open label conditions are summarized involving an average daily use of heroin of .64 ± .50 grams, primarily by the intravenous route. Resolution of the signs of opioid withdrawal without further drug

  15. Alcohol Dependence Produced in Mice by Inhalation of Ethanol: Grading the Withdrawal Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora B. Goldstein; Nandita Pal

    1971-01-01

    Intoxicating blood levels of ethanol are maintained for several days in mice housed in an atmosphere of ethanol vapor. On removal from the alcohol, all the mice develop withdrawal signs. The signs can be graded to indicate the time course and intensity of the withdrawal reaction.

  16. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allister Vale

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a common medical problem and occurs within hours of alcohol cessation or reduction. It is characterized by autonomic hyperactivity, tremor, anxiety, restlessness seizures, hallucinations and delirium. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop in patients admitted to hospital for an unrelated illness (e.g. for an operation) or patients may present in a confused state to the Emergency

  17. Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Myrick; Raymond F. Anton

    Appropriate treatment of alcohol withdrawal (AW) can relieve the patient's discomfort, prevent the development of more serious symptoms, and forestall cumulative effects that might worsen future withdrawals. Hospital admission provides the safest setting for the treatment of AW, although many patients with mild to moderate symptoms can be treated successfully on an outpatient basis. Severe AW requires pharmacological intervention. Although

  18. Efficacy of clonidine in treatment of alcohol withdrawal state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Wilkins; W. J. Jenkins; J. A. Steiner

    1983-01-01

    Clonidine hydrochloride 5 µg\\/kg and placebo were given orally to 11 patients experiencing well-developed alcohol withdrawal states. Active drug and placebo were given in a randomised, cross-over double blind fashion 2 h apart. Clonidine significantly suppressed heart rate (P=0.002), arterial blood pressure (P=0.006), and an accumulated score of withdrawal symptoms and signs (P=0.004). These data suggest that clonidine may be

  19. [Withdrawal syndrome following beta blocker therapy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hausen, T

    1981-10-16

    An account is given of two cases of withdrawal syndrome following discontinuation of an antihypertensive treatment with a single daily dose of Teneretic mite (atenolol/chlortalidone). In one case two different beta blockers had been discontinued, however the withdrawal syndrome occurred in one instance only. One female patient presented signs of CAD, the other hypokalemia. Resumption of treatment with the same beta blocker promptly caused the symptoms to disappear. The pathogenesis of the withdrawal syndrome still being obscure, various postulates are raised in respect of beta blocker therapy. PMID:6796833

  20. Alcohol withdrawal as an underrated cause of agitated delirium and terminal restlessness in patients with advanced malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Murray; Alexander Bilinski; Boris Chern; Bruce Stafford

    2005-01-01

    A significant number of patients with terminal cancer experience terminal restlessness or an agitated delirium in the final days of life. Multifactorial etiologies may contribute to agitation and restlessness for any one patient; alcohol withdrawal may be underrated as a contributing factor. The symptoms and signs of alcohol withdrawal—autonomic dysfunction, tremor, anxiety, sleep disturbances, insomnia, and abnormal vital signs—may continue

  1. The impacts of nitrous oxide gas on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuuli Lahti; Taina Methuen; Risto Roine; Kaija-Liisa Seppä; David Sinclair; Markku Partinen; Hannu Alho

    2011-01-01

    Background  Poor quality of sleep among alcoholics and persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal has been described as a possible cause of\\u000a alcohol relapse. It has been suggested earlier that nitrous oxide gas has a significant effect on the signs of alcohol withdrawal\\u000a syndrome (AWS) and thus might be expected to reduce sleep disturbance during withdrawal. The aim of the present study was

  2. Emergent intrathecal baclofen withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Mithal, Divakar S; Park, Anne; Bohnen, Angela; Adel, Joseph; Rosenow, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion has become a common treatment for severe spasticity. Many complications of these drug delivery systems have been reported such as those related to improper dosing, mechanical failure of the implanted pump or catheter, or post-operative wound issues. We report a case of ITB withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration. A 21 year-old male with spastic quadriparesis due to traumatic brian injury (TBI) presented with a pseudomeningocele surrounding an ITB pump (215 mcg/day, continuous) implanted in the abdomen. The pseudomeningocele was percutaneously aspirated and approximately 15 hours later the patient developed signs and symptoms of acute baclofen withdrawal. As a result, the patient underwent an exploration of the ITB infusion system with an intraoperative epidural blood patch. The symptoms of ITB withdrawal improved over the next 18 hours. The subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection partially recurred 48 hours later, but this resolved after a second epidural blood patch. The case illustrates a unique presentation of a serious complication of ITB infusion. This underscores that timely diagnosis and treatment of acute baclofen withdrawal is key to optimal outcomes. PMID:23511686

  3. Vital Signs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    This activity (on pages 16-23) lets learners measure each other's vital signs—the signs that help doctors understand what's going on in a patient body. Learners measure human body temperature, respiration rate, and pulse, and compare them to vital signs of other mammals large and small, such as a cow and a rabbit. A "think it over" writing exercise finishes the activity.

  4. Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Einstein, Emily B.; Lopez, Maria B.; McClure-Begley, Tristan D.; Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [3H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of ?4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of ?4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

  5. Hasty approval, more withdrawals.

    PubMed

    2005-08-01

    Two studies have shown that in the 1990s the number of market withdrawals due to adverse effects increased while the time regulatory agencies have taken to approve new drugs decreased. More recent examples confirm that hasty approvals place patients at an increased risk of serious adverse effects. PMID:16106597

  6. Symptoms of neonatal ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Robe, L B; Gromisch, D S; Iosub, S

    1981-01-01

    Neonatal withdrawal symptoms in 15 cases of fetal alcohol syndrome with maternal intoxication at time of delivery, reported in 9 studies, are compared with symptoms reported in 138 cases of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. Seen frequently in ethanol but rarely in narcotic withdrawal are abdominal distention and opisthotonos. Seen frequently in narcotic but rarely in ethanol withdrawal are high pitch cry, frequent yawning, excessive sucking, mottling of the skin, excoriation, nasal stuffiness, excess sweating, sleeplessness and diarrhea. Seen frequently in both are increased muscle tonicity and tremors; however, convulsions are rare in narcotic yet are fairly frequent in neonatal ethanol withdrawal. PMID:7343193

  7. Is it prime time for alpha2-adrenocepter agonists in the treatment of withdrawal syndromes?

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James; Ford, Jonathan; Owen, Kelly; Sutter, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    The need to treat withdrawal syndromes is a common occurrence in outpatient, inpatient ward, and intensive care unit (ICU) settings. A PubMed and Google Scholar search using alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist (A2AA), specific A2AA agents, withdrawal syndrome and nicotine, and alcohol and opioid withdrawal terms was performed. A2AA agents appear to be able to modulate many of the signs and symptoms of significant withdrawal syndromes but are also capable of significant side effects, which can limit clinical use. Non-opioid oral A2AA agent use for opioid withdrawal has been well established. Pharmacologic combination therapy that utilizes A2AA agents for withdrawal syndromes appears promising but requires further formal testing to better define which other agents, under what condition(s), and at what A2AA doses are needed. The A2AA dexmedetomidine may be useful as an adjunctive agent in treating severe alcohol withdrawal syndromes in the ICU. In general, the current data does not support the routine use of A2AA as the primary or sole agent to treat ethanol/alcohol or nicotine withdrawal syndromes. Specific A2AA agents such as lofexidine has been shown to have a primary role in non-opioid-based treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and dexmedetomidine in combination with benzodiazepines has been shown to have potential in the treatment of severe ICU-based alcohol withdrawal syndrome. PMID:25238670

  8. Social withdrawal in childhood.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Kenneth H; Coplan, Robert J; Bowker, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  9. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements. 19.6 Section 19.6 Customs Duties... Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements. (a)(1) Deposit in...

  10. Randomized clinical trial of atenolol in patients with alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Kraus, M L; Gottlieb, L D; Horwitz, R I; Anscher, M

    1985-10-10

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of atenolol as compared with placebo in the treatment of patients hospitalized with the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In addition to receiving customary therapy, 61 patients were randomly assigned to receive atenolol, and 59 to receive placebo. Outcome was assessed daily by the measurement of nine features in three categories: vital signs, clinical signs (e.g., tremor), and behavioral signs (e.g., agitation and anxiety). Compared with placebo patients, atenolol patients had a significant reduction in the mean length of hospital stay (four as compared with five days, P less than 0.02). On each treatment day, significantly fewer patients receiving atenolol required concomitant benzodiazepines, and patients receiving placebo required a significantly higher mean daily dose of benzodiazepines. Among patients who had withdrawal symptoms at base line, vital signs became normal more rapidly in the patients receiving atenolol, and their abnormal behavior and clinical characteristics also resolved more rapidly. We conclude that atenolol is helpful in the treatment of patients with the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. PMID:2863754

  11. Wilderness Sign

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wilderness sign beside a mountain hiking trail in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. This image was taken while the photographer was participating in the 2009 Joint Annual Meeting of these leading scientific societies: Mycological Society of America, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, ...

  12. [Afobazole decreases severity of morphine withdrawal syndrome: experimental evidence].

    PubMed

    Konstantinopol'ski?, M A; Cherniakova, I V

    2011-01-01

    Effect of afobazole upon morphine dependency has been studied in rats upon the administration of incremental doses of morphine (10-20 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 days. The state of dependency was evaluated by monitoring sixteen specific behavioral indices of "spontaneous" (24 h after the last morphine injection) or naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of afobazole (a single dose of 5 mg/kg injected before the test or subchronically for 5 days) was estimated through its influence upon the total index of withdrawal syndrome, which was calculated using the set of behavioural signs. It is established that afobazole upon either single or subchronic injections significantly decreased the expression of spontaneous morphine withdrawal syndrome. The effect was also statistically significant but less pronounced in the case of naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome. The obtained data suggest that afobazole can be considered as potential effective drug for the correction of various clinical symptoms of morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22238980

  13. Fever during alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Otero-Antón; A González-Quintela; J Saborido; C Mart??nez-Rey; J. A Torre; E Barrio

    1999-01-01

    Background: Fever is considered common during alcohol withdrawal, but there are very few reports focused on this problem. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and causes of fever in patients admitted to the hospital with alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Methods: A total of 110 episodes of alcohol abstinence syndrome (10 cases of tremulousness and anxiety, 38

  14. W Grade Definitions Official Withdrawal.

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    but before the published withdrawal period (usually, the 2nd and 3rd week of classes). The course and gradeW Grade Definitions W Official Withdrawal. A non-punitive grade initiated by a student when a class-punitive grade assigned to students who had registered for classes at the be- ginning of the term but did

  15. Excitatory amino acids and morphine withdrawal: differential effects of central and peripheral kynurenic acid administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Rasmussen; John H. Krystal; George K. Aghajanian

    1991-01-01

    The non-selective excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid, which does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, dose-dependently attenuated the behavioral signs of naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats following both intraventricular and subcutaneous administration. However, intraventricular and subcutaneous administration of kynurenic acid and different effects on individual withdrawal behaviors. Moreover, single unit recordings in anesthetized animals showed that intraventricular, but not

  16. Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals

    E-print Network

    Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals Louisiana New Hampshire Florida Idaho Washington Oregon Nevada California New,000 9,000 to 13,000 Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. Estimated Use

  17. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  18. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  19. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  20. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  1. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  2. Effects of age, but not sex, on elevated startle during withdrawal from acute morphine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Radke, Anna K; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-08-01

    Investigations into animal models of drug withdrawal have largely found that emotional signs of withdrawal (e.g. anxiety, anhedonia, and aversion) in adolescents are experienced earlier and less severely than in their adult counterparts. The majority of these reports have examined withdrawal from ethanol or nicotine. To expand our knowledge about the emotional withdrawal state in adolescent rats, we used potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex after an acute dose of morphine (10?mg/kg, subcutaneously) as a measure of opiate withdrawal. Startle was measured at four time points after morphine injection (2, 3, 4, and 5?h) in 28-day-old and 90-day-old male and female rats. The results of this experiment revealed that peak potentiation of the startle reflex occurred at 3?h in the adolescent rats and at 5?h in the adult rats, and that the magnitude of withdrawal was larger in the adults. No sex differences were observed. Overall, these results affirm that, similar to withdrawal from ethanol and nicotine, opiate withdrawal signs are less severe in adolescent than in adult rats. PMID:26154436

  3. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Protracted Nicotine Withdrawal: Effect of FAAH Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Astarita, Giuseppe; Duranti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Stopponi, Serena; Kallupi, Marsida; Sagratini, Gianni; Rodrìguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Piomelli, Daniele; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg/rat/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed at 16 and 34 hours following removal of nicotine patches, respectively. Further behavioral manifestations including decrease in locomotor activity and increased weight gain also occurred during withdrawal. Expression of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal was accompanied by fluctuation in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in several brain structures including the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, levels of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol were not significantly altered. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular degradation of AEA, by URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced withdrawal-induced anxiety as assessed by the elevated plus maze test and the shock-probe defensive burying paradigm, but did not prevent the occurrence of somatic signs. Together, the results indicate that pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing endocannabinoid signaling may offer therapeutic advantages to treat the negative affective state produced by nicotine withdrawal, which is critical for the maintenance of tobacco use. PMID:22140525

  4. Effects exerted by otilonium bromide administration on precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, A; Trivulzio, S; Vignati, S

    1997-09-26

    An opioid withdrawal syndrome was induced in rats by repeated morphine administration and final naloxone injection. The withdrawal causes alteration of several physiological signs. The aim of the study was to prevent the altered physiological profiles by utilising otilonium bromide. Morphine was administered in three daily i.p. injections for 4 days at doses of 9, 16 and 25 mg/kg (1st day), 25, 25 and 50 mg/kg (2nd day), 50, 50 and 50 mg/kg (3rd day) and 50, 50 and 100 mg/kg (4th day). Naloxone was injected (30 mg/kg) i.p. 180 min after the last morphine injection. Otilonium bromide was administered orally at 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, 120 min before the naloxone administration. Signs like faecal and urine excretion, rectal temperature and pain threshold levels, salivation, jumping and wet dog shakes were affected in different ways. Notably the administration of otilonium bromide in rats receiving morphine together with naloxone decreased the intensity of certain withdrawal symptoms, such as excretion of faeces, wet dog shake behaviour, and elevated the nociceptive threshold values. The effects exhibited by otilonium bromide administration may be explained through its calcium antagonist activity interfering with a mechanism involved in the regulation of these previously mentioned withdrawal symptoms. The use of this drug is thus suggested as a possible control of some acute opioid withdrawal signs in heroin addicts. PMID:9274799

  5. Investigation of allyphenyline efficacy in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Del Bello, Fabio; Domi, Esi; Pigini, Maria; Nasuti, Cinzia

    2015-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that allyphenyline, behaving as ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and ?2A-adrenoceptor antagonist, in mice enhanced morphine analgesia, attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed significant antidepressant-like activity and was devoid of sedative side effects. Opioid and alcohol withdrawal shares several common neurobiological and molecular mechanisms. Therefore, in this study we expanded our analysis of the pharmacological properties of allyphenyline by investigating its ability to prevent the expression of somatic withdrawal signs, anxiety-like behavior and hyperlocomotion associated with chronic ethanol intoxication. Rats were subjected to induction of ethanol dependence via repeated daily intragastric ethanol (20%) administration for 4 consecutive days. Twelve hours after the last alcohol administration, somatic alcohol withdrawal signs were scored. Results revealed a significant expression of physical withdrawal signs that were not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of allyphenyline at the doses of 0.05, 0.275 and 0.5mg/kg. In contrast, allyphenyline (0.05 and 0.275mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced hyperanxiety-like behavior observed 6 days after alcohol intoxication as measured using the defensive burying test. Allyphenyline also reduced open field hyperlocomotor activity associated with alcohol withdrawal. Notably, the anxiolytic effect of the compound, as well as the already reported antidepressant action, was observed at very low doses, suggesting the involvement of its ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Therefore, the present investigation suggests that allyphenyline might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to investigate the potential of compounds exhibiting ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism and ?2A-adrenoceptor antagonism in the treatment of hyperanxiety and hyperlocomotion occurring during alcohol withdrawal in dependent subjects. PMID:25895641

  6. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  7. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  8. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  9. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  10. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  11. 28 CFR 80.15 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Withdrawal. 80.15 Section 80.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.15 Withdrawal. A request submitted under the foregoing procedure may be...

  12. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a) Withdrawal of proposed...

  13. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a) Withdrawal of proposed...

  14. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a) Withdrawal of proposed...

  15. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

  16. Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Jochum; Michael K. Boettger; Christin Burkhardt; Georg Juckel; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2010-01-01

    Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models.Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and

  17. Alcohol Withdrawal and Cerebellar Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Marianna E

    2015-08-01

    Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new therapy to manage cerebellar disorders associated with hyperexcitatory CNS disorders like ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25195804

  18. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement.

    PubMed

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12?h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery. PMID:25324788

  19. The changing effector pattern of tardive dyskinesia during the course of neuroleptic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Newell, K M; Wszola, B; Sprague, R L; Mahorney, S L; Bodfish, J W

    2001-08-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that can be expressed at various body effector points, including the face, neck, arms, fingers, legs, and torso. In this prospective longitudinal study researchers examined whether the effector pattern of TD changed during the course of neuroleptic medication withdrawal in adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that the effector pattern of TD changed over the course of neuroleptic withdrawal. Peak dyskinesia was associated with the involvement of more body areas relative to baseline. Although dyskinesia decreased at follow-up and fewer body areas showed signs of dyskinesia, there were still differences in the effector pattern of dyskinesia relative to baseline at periods of 1 to 2 years following neuroleptic withdrawal. These findings suggest that TD is a dynamic disorder associated with changes in both severity and effector pattern over time. PMID:11534536

  20. Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal: the revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN T. SULLIVAN; KATHY SYKORA; JOYCE SCHNEIDERMAN; CLAUDIO A. NARANJO; EDWARD M. SELLERS

    1989-01-01

    Summary A shortened 10-item scale for clinical quantitation of the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been developed. This scale offers an increase in efficiency while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity and reliability. It can be incorporated into the usual clinical care of patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal and into clinical drug trials of alcohol withdrawal.

  1. Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

  2. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  3. [Corticotherapy withdrawal in older people].

    PubMed

    Retornaz, Frédérique; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Farcet, Anaïs; Oliver, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids treatment for their antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities for more than 3 weeks decreases corticotropic axis and induces a risk of adrenal insufficiency upon treatment withdrawal. Dose, duration and unknown individual factors play a role in the occurrence of adrenal insufficiency. Serum cortisol at 7-8 am, possibly completed by an 1-24 ACTH stimulation test makes the diagnosis. A scheme for care of patients is included with a progressive decrease of synthetic glucocorticoids dose, a replacement of this medication with physiological doses of hydrocortisone (in case of adrenal insufficiency) and a follow-up of endogenous secretion for detection of adrenal function recovery. PMID:24333814

  4. Bedbugs: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Bedbugs: Signs and symptoms Bedbug bites : The bites often ... hiding place. Serious and life-threatening reactions to bedbug bites Although less common, it is possible to ...

  5. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Support the Kids Involved Be More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Who is at Risk > Warning Signs WHO IS AT RISK Risk Factors Warning Signs Effects Considerations for Specific Groups LGBT Youth Youth With ...

  6. American Sign Language Browser

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Sign Language (ASL) Browser, developed by the Communication Technology Laboratory at Michigan State University, indexes video clips that demonstrate thousands of ASL signs. To view a video clip illustrating an ASL sign, users select a word or phrase from 1 of 26 alphabetical lists. Written instructions explaining how to make each sign accompany every video clip. Each clip in this visual dictionary is a Quicktime movie of about 100K.

  7. Reexposure to nicotine during withdrawal increases the pacemaking activity of cholinergic habenular neurons

    PubMed Central

    Görlich, Andreas; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Ables, Jessica L.; Frahm, Silke; ?limak, Marta A.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Ibañez-Tallon, Inés

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of genetic variants in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster associated with heavy smoking and higher relapse risk has led to the identification of the midbrain habenula–interpeduncular axis as a critical relay circuit in the control of nicotine dependence. Although clear roles for ?3, ?4, and ?5 receptors in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been established, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that participate in signaling nicotine use and contribute to relapse have not been identified. Here, using translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) profiling, electrophysiology, and behavior, we demonstrate that cholinergic neurons, but not peptidergic neurons, of the medial habenula (MHb) display spontaneous tonic firing of 2–10 Hz generated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) pacemaker channels and that infusion of the HCN pacemaker antagonist ZD7288 in the habenula precipitates somatic and affective signs of withdrawal. Further, we show that a strong, ?3?4-dependent increase in firing frequency is observed in these pacemaker neurons upon acute exposure to nicotine. No change in the basal or nicotine-induced firing was observed in cholinergic MHb neurons from mice chronically treated with nicotine. We observe, however, that, during withdrawal, reexposure to nicotine doubles the frequency of pacemaking activity in these neurons. These findings demonstrate that the pacemaking mechanism of cholinergic MHb neurons controls withdrawal, suggesting that the heightened nicotine sensitivity of these neurons during withdrawal may contribute to smoking relapse. PMID:24082085

  8. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  9. Oxazepam versus Clomethiazol in Alcohol Withdrawal Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter de Millas; Florian Ganzer; Silke Kuhn; Christian Haasen

    2010-01-01

    The pharmacological management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome associated with alcohol dependence is heterogeneous; however, according to the guidelines, clomethiazol is the standard medication in Germany. Benzodiazepines offer another safe possibility of treating alcohol withdrawal. In a retrospective study, alcohol-dependent patients treated either with oxazepam (n = 141) or clomethiazol (n = 357) were assessed with respect to the course

  10. Diagnosis and management of acute alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Holbrook; Renée Crowther; Chiachen Cheng; Derek King

    ALCOHOL ABUSE PRODUCES A CONSIDERABLE BURDEN OF ILLNESS in the Canadian popu- lation. The diagnosis of alcohol dependence and withdrawal can be difficult, particularly in the setting of covert intake or comorbidity. Two validated scales, the CAGE questionnaire to screen for alcohol abuse and dependence and the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale to assess the severity of

  11. 9 CFR 332.14 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 332.14 Section 332.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.14 Voluntary withdrawal. A selected...

  12. Post Audit Evidence and Stealth Withdrawals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwige Cheynel; Carolyn B. Levine

    This paper studies the impact on audit effort, audit opinions, and audit informa- tiveness of shifting from a regime in which audit report withdrawals are not public (previous practice) to one in which auditor withdrawals are disclosed by auditors to investors (PCAOB Release No. 2008-004). Our model captures two informational frictions: (i) the monitoring effort is privately-known to the auditor,

  13. Saline-water withdrawals, 2005. New Hampshire

    E-print Network

    Alaska Hawaii Maryland District of Columbia Delaware New Jersey Lake Superior LakeMichigan Lake Ontario Lake Erie La keHuron Saline-water withdrawals EXPLANATION Water withdrawals, in million gallons per day, Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344, 52 p. #12;

  14. 5 CFR 1604.7 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...transfer all, or a portion, of a withdrawal to a traditional IRA or eligible employer plan, the share of the withdrawal attributable...combat zone contributions (if any) can be transferred only if the IRA or plan accepts such funds. (d) Separation. The...

  15. 5 CFR 1604.7 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...transfer all, or a portion, of a withdrawal to a traditional IRA or eligible employer plan, the share of the withdrawal attributable...combat zone contributions (if any) can be transferred only if the IRA or plan accepts such funds. (d) Separation. The...

  16. Causes for Withdrawal in an Urban Peritoneal Dialysis Program.

    PubMed

    Workeneh, Biruh; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Mitch, William E

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an underutilized dialysis modality in the United States, especially in urban areas with diverse patient populations. Technique retention is a major concern of dialysis providers and might influence their approach to patients ready to begin dialysis therapy. Methods. Records from January 2009 to March 2014 were abstracted for demographic information, technique duration, and the reasons for withdrawal. Results. The median technique survival of the 128 incident patients during the study window was 781 days (2.1 years). The principle reasons for PD withdrawal were repeated peritonitis (30%); catheter dysfunction (18%); ultrafiltration failure (16%); patient choice or lack of support (16%); or hernia, leak, or other surgical complications (6%); and a total of 6 patients died during this period. Of the patients who did not expire and were not transplanted, most transferred to in-center hemodialysis and 8% transitioned to home-hemodialysis. Conclusions. Our findings suggest measures to ensure proper catheter placement and limiting infectious complications should be primary areas of focus in order to promote technique retention. Lastly, more focused education about home-hemodialysis as an option may allow those on PD who are beginning to demonstrate signs of technique failure to stay on home therapy. PMID:26064683

  17. Causes for Withdrawal in an Urban Peritoneal Dialysis Program

    PubMed Central

    Workeneh, Biruh; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G.; Mitch, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an underutilized dialysis modality in the United States, especially in urban areas with diverse patient populations. Technique retention is a major concern of dialysis providers and might influence their approach to patients ready to begin dialysis therapy. Methods. Records from January 2009 to March 2014 were abstracted for demographic information, technique duration, and the reasons for withdrawal. Results. The median technique survival of the 128 incident patients during the study window was 781 days (2.1 years). The principle reasons for PD withdrawal were repeated peritonitis (30%); catheter dysfunction (18%); ultrafiltration failure (16%); patient choice or lack of support (16%); or hernia, leak, or other surgical complications (6%); and a total of 6 patients died during this period. Of the patients who did not expire and were not transplanted, most transferred to in-center hemodialysis and 8% transitioned to home-hemodialysis. Conclusions. Our findings suggest measures to ensure proper catheter placement and limiting infectious complications should be primary areas of focus in order to promote technique retention. Lastly, more focused education about home-hemodialysis as an option may allow those on PD who are beginning to demonstrate signs of technique failure to stay on home therapy.

  18. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs Preventing Melanoma About Vital Signs Vital Signs Social Media Other Vital Signs Issues Related Links Download this ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social Media Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  20. The efficacy of atenolol in the outpatient management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, R I; Gottlieb, L D; Kraus, M L

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of atenolol compared with placebo in the outpatient management of patients with the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In addition to receiving customary therapy, 88 patients were randomly assigned to receive atenolol and 92 to receive placebo. Outcome during the next 14 days was assessed using two main measures: the patient's clinical course as assessed by an alcohol withdrawal severity index; and the occurrence of treatment failure (composite measure including return to drinking, dropouts, and withdrawal lasting longer than 5 days). In addition, levels of craving for alcohol were assessed as an associated response variable. Overall, treatment failure occurred for 37% of the patients receiving atenolol and 52% of those receiving placebo. Among patients who had withdrawal symptoms at baseline, vital signs became normal more rapidly in the patients receiving atenolol, and their abnormal behavioral characteristics also resolved more rapidly. Levels of craving for alcohol were strongly associated with treatment failure; the group of patients who received atenolol included significantly fewer who reported high levels of craving 24 hours after treatment began (7% of patients receiving atenolol and 20% of those receiving placebo). We conclude that the outpatient management and treatment outcomes of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome are improved in patients who receive atenolol, and that the beneficial effects are associated with reduced levels of craving for alcohol. If these results are confirmed by other investigators, atenolol may prove to play an important role in the outpatient management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. PMID:2719503

  1. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  2. L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.

    2013-01-01

    L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, L-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether L-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether L-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. L-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5 h. L-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that L-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

  3. Withdrawing life-sustaining treatment: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Sharon; Cooper, Andrew B; McKneally, Martin

    2005-11-01

    In the community of caregivers, there is a general consensus that some heroic measures are not obligatory in certain circumstances that are defined by professional norms. For example, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal cancer patients is not endorsed because of its violation of the dignity of the irremediably ill, and its unproductive cost to society. Moving back from this extreme, the availability and effectiveness of life-prolonging treatments, such as ventilators, dialysis, and implantable mechanical hearts, moves into a domain where the boundary limit of the obligation to preserve life is less clearly defined. When the continuing intervention of caregivers is essential to the prolongation of life, but the outcome and quality of residual life has deteriorated far below everyone's expectations when the treatment was initiated, caregivers are morally troubled as their treatments prolong the process of dying. Uncertainty or disputation about the prognosis raises the voltage of the fear and potential remorse that is a normal condition of care and support at the end of life. Unilateral decisions and overruling of objections should be avoided when possible, and reinforced by legal or ethical authorities when necessary. An ethics consultant, especially one skilled and experienced in management of end-of-life issues, can be a helpful negotiator and guide. The transition to palliative support should include the discontinuation of all unnecessary monitoring devices and tubes. Monitors should be turned off allowing families to direct their attention to the patient. Removing the monitor relieves family members from painful suspense and confusion. Removing the endotracheal tube sometimes allows conscious patients to talk to their loved ones, ending a silence forced on them by their treatment. If interventions are seen as masking the natural dying process, removing them should not be troubling. Their absence gives moral clarity to the elemental moments of closure at the end of life, no longer masked by futile contrivance. Withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment is a process that "merits the same meticulous preparation and expectation of quality that clinicians provide when they perform other procedures to initiate life support". Families and patients should never feel abandoned during this process and attention should be devoted to communicating that care is not being withdrawn. The family needs to be prepared for what the dying process may look like. Assure them that all energy is now being directed toward the comfort of the patient including sedation as required if signs of suffering are observed. Easing death, like easing birth, can be one of the most fulfilling contributions one can make to reduce the suffering and enrich the lives of patients and their families. Neglecting this part of the duty to provide appropriate care brings moral anguish to all participants in the peculiar circumstances that have come to surround death in the ICUs of developed countries. It is helpful to accept the inevitable reality that death is, in Shakespeare's words, a "necessary end" to all mortal life, and to recognize that defying death with technology can sometimes become an unnatural and degrading activity, however well motivated. The withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, when conducted expertly, is a shared human experience that can be gratifying, although difficult for all concerned. PMID:16276811

  4. 29 CFR 102.58 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act for the Prevention of Unfair Labor Practices 1 Back-Pay Proceedings § 102.58 Withdrawal. Any compliance specification and notice of hearing may be withdrawn...

  5. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997...Approach to Define the Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal...

  6. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Petursson; M H Lader

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels

  7. Solar powered highway sign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Hayden; W. Hutter

    1980-01-01

    A roadside sign was equipped with lights powered by photovoltaic solar panels to improve nighttime visibility and evaluate equipment performance and needs. The photovoltaic panels were found to be reliable and effective for powering flashing lights on a highway warning sign. Cost of the panels is high so their use should be limited to locations where commercial electrical power is

  8. Ghost Signs of Louisville

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-25

    What is the altogether mysterious "ghost sign?" Simply put, it is a painted advertisement on a building, most prominent prior to the 1930s. Many of these advertisements appear on brick walls in urban settings. This unique collection came out of a partnership between the University of Louisville Libraries and the school's Fine Arts department. Students in a course titled Documentary Photography explored different neighborhoods in Louisvlle, and they took over 200 photographs of various ghost signs. 122 of those images were selected for inclusion in this digital collection, and they are all available here. Visitors can browse the images at their leisure and also use the interactive map of sign collections. Some of the signs are particularly interesting, such as the H.G. Young Druggist sign and the one for the Acme Wholesale Furnace supply.

  9. Improving Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; McWilliams, James; Horton, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Context Excessive alcohol consumption is the nation’s third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Objective: Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. Design: In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Results: Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%–12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%–44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%–15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Conclusion: Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes. PMID:24867561

  10. Separate GABA afferents to dopamine neurons mediate acute action of opioids, development of tolerance and expression of withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aya; Jarvie, Brooke C; Robinson, Brooks G; Hentges, Shane T; Williams, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary GABA release from interneurons in VTA, projections from the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) was selectively activated in rat brain slices. The inhibition induced by ?-opioid agonists was pathway dependent. Morphine induced a 46% inhibition of IPSCs evoked from the RMTg, 18% from NAc and IPSCs evoked from VTA interneurons were almost insensitive (11% inhibition). In vivo morphine treatment resulted in tolerance to the inhibition of RMTg inputs, but not local interneurons or NAc inputs. One common sign of opioid withdrawal is an increase in adenosine-dependent inhibition. IPSCs evoked from the NAc were potently inhibited by activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors, whereas IPSCs evoked from RMTg were not changed. Blockade of adenosine receptors selectively increased IPSCs evoked from the NAc during morphine withdrawal. Thus, the acute action of opioids, the development of tolerance, and the expression of withdrawal are mediated by separate GABA afferents to dopamine neurons. PMID:24857021

  11. Factors Associated with Palliative Withdrawal of Mechanical Ventilation and Time to Death after Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Anne M.; Le, Thuy X.; Kleerup, Eric C.; Liu, Honghu; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In imminently dying patients, mechanical ventilation withdrawal is often a comfort measure and avoids prolonging the dying process. Objective The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with palliative withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and time to death after extubation. Methods Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with palliative withdrawal of mechanical ventilation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine factors associated with time to death after extubation. We retrospectively evaluated 322 patients who died on mechanical ventilation or after palliative ventilator withdrawal at a single tertiary care center. Results Of the 322 ventilated deaths, 159 patients had palliative withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and 163 patients died on the ventilator. Clinical service was associated with palliative withdrawal of mechanical ventilation: Patients withdrawn from the ventilator were less likely to be on the surgery service and more likely to be on the neurology/neurosurgical service. The median time to death was 0.9 hours (range 0–165 hours). Fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) greater than 70% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI ]1.24–2.99) and a requirement for vasopressors (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.38–3.09) were associated with shorter time to death. Being on the neurology/neurosurgical service at the time of ventilator withdrawal was associated with a longer time to death (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39–0.92). Conclusions Palliative withdrawal of mechanical ventilation was performed in only half of dying mechanically ventilated patients. Because clinical service rather than physiologic parameters are associated with withdrawal, targeted interventions may improve withdrawal decisions. Considering FIO2 and vasopressor requirements may facilitate counseling families about anticipated time to death. PMID:24083651

  12. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Article Body Although stress is a part of ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  13. Every sign of life

    E-print Network

    Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

  14. Signs of Preterm Labor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 3 glasses of water or juice (not coffee or soda). If the signs get worse or ... them. more Explore Prematurity Research Peristats Product catalog Shop Professionals Partners Careers Annual Report © March of Dimes ...

  15. Withdrawal From Coparenting Interactions During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Donna; McHale, James; Talbot, Jean; Parmley, Meagan; Kuersten-Hogan, Regina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines early withdrawal in the coparenting system, and the utility of a brief problem-solving discussion about coparenting responsibilities as a means for evaluating such withdrawal. One hundred and fifteen couples were evaluated both prenatally and at 3 months postpartum. During prenatal assessments, parents rated their personalities and completed marital assessments. After the baby arrived, they completed a negotiation task in which they discussed disputes about parenting roles and responsibilities, and interacted together with the baby in a triadic play assessment. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was associated with greater disengagement and less warmth during triadic play and with fathers’ feelings that mothers did not respect their parenting. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was also forecast by low ego resilience and by an increase in depressive symptomatology during the postpartum. As the negotiation task appeared to be an effective provocateur of withdrawal when confronting coparenting disagreement, it may prove useful for eliciting this aspect of coparental process in work with couples. PMID:19130789

  16. Clonidine withdrawal induced sympathetic surge.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael; Matsa, Ramprasad

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old man with a history of epilepsy and substance misuse presented to the hospital with status epilepticus. Difficult seizure control necessitated anaesthetising the patient followed by intubation and ventilation. A clonidine infusion was started as the patient developed withdrawal syndrome and was difficult to wean off mechanical ventilation. Once the withdrawal syndrome was controlled, the clonidine was abruptly stopped. Two hours after stopping the infusion, the patient developed high-grade fever, severe hypertension, tachycardia, profound sweating and lacrimation. The patient then developed respiratory distress syndrome secondary to acute pulmonary oedema. Clonidine withdrawal as a cause of such response was proposed. Reversal of symptoms and successful reweaning was achieved by restarting a low-dose clonidine infusion followed by slow downward titration and use of oral clonidine as a step-down measure. The patient was subsequently discharged from the intensive care unit. PMID:26038384

  17. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-05-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods. PMID:26024707

  18. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7024 Withdrawal of students...may request withdrawal by the Government of any student for academic or disciplinary reasons. (c) If such...

  19. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7024 Withdrawal of students...may request withdrawal by the Government of any student for academic or disciplinary reasons. (c) If such...

  20. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing...41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may withdraw designation...estuarine area as a National Estuarine Research Reserve pursuant to and in...

  1. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing...41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may withdraw designation...estuarine area as a National Estuarine Research Reserve pursuant to and in...

  2. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing...41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may withdraw designation...estuarine area as a National Estuarine Research Reserve pursuant to and in...

  3. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing...41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may withdraw designation...estuarine area as a National Estuarine Research Reserve pursuant to and in...

  4. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing...41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may withdraw designation...estuarine area as a National Estuarine Research Reserve pursuant to and in...

  5. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of a charge. Because...

  6. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. 1244.14 Section 1244...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION...REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED...Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of...

  7. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application...are satisfied that the benefits will be repaid. (c) Effect of withdrawal. If we approve your request to...

  8. 75 FR 1658 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 7 (Tuesday, January 12, 2010)] [Notices...NRC-2010-0008] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5, ``Administrative Guide for...

  9. 49 CFR 450.16 - Withdrawal of delegation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of delegation. 450.16 Section 450.16 Transportation...CONTAINERS GENERAL Procedure for Delegation to Approval Authorities § 450.16 Withdrawal of delegation. (a) The Chief, Office of...

  10. 49 CFR 450.16 - Withdrawal of delegation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of delegation. 450.16 Section 450.16 Transportation...CONTAINERS GENERAL Procedure for Delegation to Approval Authorities § 450.16 Withdrawal of delegation. (a) The Chief, Office of...

  11. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application?...

  12. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application?...

  13. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application?...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately drugs into the bloodstream and to withdraw blood samples for use in determining cardiac output. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately drugs into the bloodstream and to withdraw blood samples for use in determining cardiac output. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  16. Heart rate turbulence during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Jochum; Steffen Schulz; Marion Schein; Rico Schröder; Andreas Voss; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    BackgroundAlcohol withdrawal syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters were applied during withdrawal to estimate cardiac regulation during treatment with clomethiazole.

  17. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341...INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION... § 341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed...

  18. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341...INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION... § 341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed...

  19. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341...INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION... § 341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed...

  20. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341...INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION... § 341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed...

  1. 20 CFR 404.640 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01... Withdrawal of an application. 404.640 Section...640 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...1950- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms Withdrawal of...

  2. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341.13 Conservation...341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed tariff publications. A proposed tariff publication...

  3. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  4. Withdrawal symptoms in infants with the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierog, S; Chandavasu, O; Wexler, I

    1977-04-01

    Six infants with dysmorphic features of the fetal alcohol syndrome presented with symptoms of withdrawal from alcohol similar to those observed in adults and animals. Symptoms were characterized by irritability, tremors, spontaneous seizures, opisthotonos, and abdominal distention. A comparison of symptoms is made to animal and withdrawal from ethanol and to the neonatal narcotic withdrawal syndrome. PMID:839382

  5. Dynamics of Lip Dyskinesia Associated with Neuroleptic Withdrawal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.; Bodfish, James W.; Mahorney, Steven L.; Sprague, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The lip movements associated with dyskinesia in six adults with mental retardation were investigated through analysis at medication baseline, at the highest level of withdrawal dyskinesia, and at the lowest level of dyskinesia following medication withdrawal. Lip oscillations following withdrawal were linked to changes in structural complexity of…

  6. Independent clinical correlates of severe alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Kraemer; David R. Calkins

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study sought to identify clinical variables that independently correlate with severe alcohol withdrawal and to quantify risk in a clinically useful manner. The records of 284 inpatients admitted to an acute detoxification unit at a Veterans Affairs teaching hospital were reviewed. Clinical data were recorded on standardized forms at the time of admission and abstracted by a

  7. Independent Clinical Correlates of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Kraemer; Michael F. Mayo-Smith; David R. Calkins

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study sought to identify clinical variables that independently correlate with severe alcohol withdrawal and to quantify risk in a clinically useful manner. The records of 284 inpatients admitted to an acute detoxification unit at a Veterans Affairs teaching hospital were reviewed. Clinical data were recorded on standardized forms at the time of admission and abstracted by a

  8. Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning

  9. Withdrawal-Emergent Dyskinesias following Varenicline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Toffey, Brittany A; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Varenicline (Chantix[R]) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist used to aid smoking cessation. Adverse psychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are recognized and national drug monitoring has included reports of tardive dyskinesia, but no cases have been described in the literature. We now report the first two cases of varenicline-related withdrawal emergent dyskinesias.

  10. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  11. Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

  12. Impaired cerebral autoregulation during acute alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Jochum; Matthias Reinhard; Michael K. Boettger; Maik Piater; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2010-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk for all major types of stroke and is associated with autonomic dysfunction during alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Cerebral autoregulation is the mechanism by which cerebral perfusion is maintained stable, representing an intrinsic protective system of the cerebral circulation. Here, we aimed to analyze the influence of acute AWS on cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol-dependent patients.We

  13. Concurrent cocaine withdrawal is associated with reduced severity of alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Castaneda; Harold Lifshutz; Laurence Westreich; Marc Galanter

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement an empirical assessment of the clinical response to standard alcohol detoxification during withdrawal from both alcohol and cocaine. One hundred forty-nine males consecutively admitted in acute alcohol withdrawal to a hospital-based detoxification unit were studied. All subjects completed a 4-day chlordiazepoxide detoxification. Patients who used drugs other than cocaine were excluded. Fifty-five

  14. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

  15. Handspeak: A Sign Language Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently renamed and updated, this "practical sign language online dictionary" features approximately 2,800 signs and is being added to on a regular basis. Visitors can use a search engine to find American Sign Language (ASL) signs for words or browse by an alphabetical index as well as by a limited subject index. Also included here are four fables told in sign language, a description of International Sign Language (ISL), and some brief, bullet-point discussions of SL culture and language. Note: the signs are demonstrated in stop-action GIF animation, so users need browsers that support this application.

  16. Sign Policy Campus Orientation

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    to and encourage pedestrian traffic. Signage is designed to assist automobile travelers to find a parking area, the approach to the number and placement of signs will be conservative to keep visual clutter to a minimum. 4 will be provided at key locations to direct traffic to parking areas or major public facilities. 5 #12;Pedestrian

  17. Stroke Warning Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    THINK YOU ARE HAVING A STROKE? CALL 9-1-1 IMMEDIATELY! F.A.S.T. is an easy way to remember the sudden signs of stroke. When you ... A.S.T. PSA (opens in new window) Understanding Stroke About Stroke Why Getting Quick Treatment Is Important ...

  18. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  19. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  20. Nicotine attenuates place aversion induced by naloxone in single-dose, morphine-treated rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Araki; Ken-ya Kawakami; Chunyu Jin; Katsuya Suemaru; Yoshihisa Kitamura; Mari Nagata; Koujiro Futagami; Kazuhiko Shibata; Hiromu Kawasaki; Yutaka Gomita

    2004-01-01

    RationaleAcute physical dependence refers to the withdrawal syndrome precipitated by an opioid antagonist administered several hours after either a single dose or a short-term infusion of an opioid agonist.ObjectivesWe examined the mechanism of nicotine-induced attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome when used to produce an aversive motivational state in a place-conditioning paradigm.MethodsThe effect of nicotine was investigated through place aversion induced

  1. Withdrawal of beta-blocking drugs.

    PubMed

    Walden, R J; Hernandez, J; Yu, Y; Al-Khader, A; Prichard, B N

    1982-08-01

    Our early observations indicated that when treatment was changed from propranolol to placebo, anginal patients experienced a higher incidence of chest pain during the first week of placebo treatment compared to the second week. Since then, there have been several reports of myocardial infarction and sudden death occurring when propranolol therapy has been stopped. However, more formal hospital studies have indicated that ischemia from propranolol withdrawal is relatively infrequent. Studies in normal subjects and hypertensive patients have shown an increase in beta-receptor sensitivity as suggested by increased responsiveness to isoprenaline after propranolol withdrawal. Some investigators have found an increase in free triiodothyronine levels. Catecholamine levels do not appear to be raised. Other relevant factors in ischemic patients might be a reversal of the favorable rightward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve or a reversal of reduced platelet aggregation produced by propranolol. Last, propranolol withdrawal in patients who have received the drug for a considerable period might unmask a withdrawal in patients who have received the drug for a considerable period might unmask a progression of the disease process, so that in the absence of beta blockade oxygen supply is inadequate to meet the requirements of relatively ischemic areas even at rest. Whether all beta blockers are similar to propranolol in this regard is unknown. We are examining, in normal volunteers, the sensitivity of the beta receptor after the withdrawal of atenolol, pindolol, or propranolol, administered for at least 2 weeks after final dose adjustment to levels sufficient to produce maximum inhibition of exercise tachycardia. The sensitivity of the beta receptor is being assessed by the response of bolus injections of isoprenaline and the response to exercise tachycardia. PMID:6125098

  2. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  3. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  4. Application Signing and Sandbox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Edge; William Barker; Beau Hunter; Gene Sullivan

    \\u000a This chapter discusses two relatively new security features found in OS X: application signing and sandbox. These technologies\\u000a were both introduced with Mac OS 10.5 and provide new facilities that help to improve the security outlook of the platform.\\u000a Incidentally, both of these technologies are also heavily utilized by Apple’s newest platform that you’ve undoubtedly heard\\u000a of: the iPhone OS.

  5. Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on affective and physical signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Mattioli; Marina Perfumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on the prevention of the development of nicotine dependence and for the reduction of abstinence suffering following nicotine cessation in mice. Dependence was induced in mice by subcutaneous injections of nicotine (2 mg\\/kg, 4 times\\/day) for eight days. Spontaneous abstinence syndrome was evaluated

  6. The role of glutamate in the locus coeruleus during opioid withdrawal and effects of H-7, a protein kinase inhibitor, on the action of glutamate in rats.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, S; Zhu, H; Wakabayashi, H; Feng, Y Z; Ho, I K

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the role of glutamate in the locus coeruleus (LC) during opioid withdrawal, rats were continuously infused with morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist, 26 nmol/microl/h) or butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa-mixed opioid receptor agonist, 26 nmol/microl/h) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) via osmotic minipumps for 3 days. A direct LC injection of glutamate (1 or 10 nmol/5 microl) or naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist, 24 nmol/5 microl) induced withdrawal signs in morphine- or butorphanol-dependent animals. However, these agents failed to precipitate any withdrawal signs in saline-treated control animals. On the other hand, the expression of withdrawal signs precipitated by the administration of glutamate or naloxone in opioid-dependent animals was completely blocked by concomitant infusion with 1 or 10 nmol/microl/h of an inhibitor of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, H-7 [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine]. In animals that had been infused with opioids in the same manner, i.c.v. injection of naloxone (48 nmol/5 microl) precipitated withdrawal signs and increased extracellular fluid levels of glutamate in the LC of morphine- or butorphanol-dependent rats measured by in vivo microdialysis method. However, concomitant infusion with H-7 inhibited the increases of glutamate levels in the LC. These results strongly suggest that an expeditious release of glutamate in the LC region plays an important role in the expression of physical dependence on opioids. Furthermore, the action on glutamate release might be increased by the enhancement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and/or protein kinase C activity. PMID:9570513

  7. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Tyrone, Martha E.; Mauk, Claude E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech. PMID:20607146

  8. Serotonin: modulator of a drive to withdraw.

    PubMed

    Tops, Mattie; Russo, Sascha; Boksem, Maarten A S; Tucker, Don M

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin is a fundamental neuromodulator in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, with a suspected role in many human mental disorders. Yet, because of the complexity of serotonergic function, researchers have been unable to agree on a general theory. One function suggested for serotonin systems is the avoidance of threat. We propose and review evidence for an alternative hypothesis, that a phylogenetically primitive of function of serotonin is to oppose the activating neuromodulators (particularly noradrenalin and dopamine). The functional effect of this opposition can be seen as applying a drive to withdraw from dangerous, aversive or high stimulation environments. Proposing that serotonin is involved in a drive to withdraw and seek contentment, instead of a drive to avoid, may be compatible with several lines of evidence on serotonin function and may facilitate a better understanding of serotonergic neuromodulation in human psychopathology. PMID:19423206

  9. Gabapentin withdrawal presenting as status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Barrueto, Fermin; Green, Jonah; Howland, Mary Ann; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old male with lumbar disc disease and surgery was placed on gabapentin daily for chronic back pain. He remained on a steady dose of 8000 mg/day for 9 months, almost doubled what is considered therapeutic. He ran out of medication, was unable to refill his prescription for 2 days and presented to the emergency department in status epilepticus. There was no previous history of seizure disorder and he was on no other medications. A medical evaluation for an alternative etiology of his seizures was negative. Although gabapentin withdrawal has been previously reported and usually consists of anxiety, diaphoresis, and palpitations, this is the first reported patient with generalized seizures and status epilepticus secondary to gabapentin withdrawal. PMID:12507063

  10. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

  11. Ground-Water-Withdrawal Component of the Michigan Water-Withdrawal Screening Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  12. The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Haney

    2005-01-01

    A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates

  13. Endothelial dysfunction during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Jochum; Markus Weissenfels; Andrea Seeck; Steffen Schulz; Michael K. Boettger; Andreas Voss; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundEndothelial dysfunction (EF) is a central phenomenon in a variety of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. Here, we investigated EF during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome before and 24h after medication. We aimed to analyze microcirculation, applying the post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) test and spectral analysis of skin vasomotion as markers of EF. Additionally, we explored whether segmentation of spectral

  14. Carisoprodol withdrawal induced delirium: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Karen; Cary, Margaret; Zarkowski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with chronic back pain found relief by taking carisoprodol, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. She had acquired large amounts of the prescription medication through the Internet and was taking approximately three hundred 350 mg tablets each week, at times up to fifty tablets per day. She then abruptly stopped the medication and presented to the emergency room one week later with waxing and waning attention, confusion, disorientation and visual hallucinations. Oral lorazepam was dosed according to a protocol employing the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA). Her symptoms of delirium resolved rapidly and she was discharged home on day three. A review of the literature did not show any other reports of carisoprodol withdrawal induced delirium. Such withdrawal symptoms could be expected as the mechanism of action of carisoprodol is similar to that of hypnotic sedatives. Its availability and ease with which it can be acquired through the Internet puts it at great risk for a drug of abuse. PMID:19300598

  15. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  16. Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

  17. Blockade of the expression of mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal by calcium channel antagonists.

    PubMed

    Biala, Grazyna; Weglinska, Barbara

    2005-05-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of nicotine abstinence syndrome in mice and on the influence of calcium channel blockers on the expression of the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. Our experimental protocol consisted of intermittent administration of nicotine, 2.5 mgkg(-1), subcutaneously (s.c.), four times daily for 7 days. In attempt to precipitate nicotine abstinence, mice were given one injection of mecamylamine (3 mgkg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.)), 1h after the last nicotine injection, on the test day (day 8) in the morning. Additionally, body weight changes, locomotor activity and anxiogenic responses in the elevated plus maze test were also evaluated in nicotine withdrawn mice. Our data shown that the L-type calcium channel antagonists, nimodipine, verapamil, flunarizine and diltiazem (5 and 10 mgkg(-1), i.p., each), injected before mecamylamine administration, dose-dependently attenuated the expression of nicotine withdrawal signs. Moreover, 24h after terminating nicotine treatment, we also observed additional nicotine abstinence measures, such as loss of body weight followed by a slight body weight gain, decrease of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiogenic responses. These findings obtained using our valuable rodent model of nicotine dependence suggest the involvement of calcium-dependent mechanisms in the expression of mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine abstinence syndrome. PMID:15749464

  18. Quine and the Segregrational Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, George

    1999-01-01

    In the context of theory of integrational linguistics, the segregational sign is distinguished from the integrational sign, and the operation of the former is analyzed. Focus is on how logic guides the sign, and how the theory of W. V. Quine accounts for these issues. (MSE)

  19. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  20. An Interactive System for Sign

    E-print Network

    Sen, Alper

    language makes use of several body movements in parallel. The linguistic char- acteristics of sign languageSignTutor: An Interactive System for Sign Language Tutoring Oya Aran, Ismail Ari, Lale Akarun¸ois-Xavier Fanard Universite´ Catholique de Louvain S ign language recognition (SLR) is a multidisciplinary research

  1. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Jahanian, Zahra

    2010-05-01

    Crocus sativus L. has been shown to interact with the opioid system. Thus, the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stigma and its constituents were evaluated on morphine-withdrawal syndrome in mice. Dependence was induced using subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine for 3 days. On day 4, morphine was injected 0.5 h prior the interaperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the extracts, crocin, safranal, clonidine (0.3 mg/kg) or normal saline. Naloxone was injected (5 mg/kg i.p.) 2 h after the final dose of morphine and the number of episodes of jumping during 30 mm was considered as the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome. Clonidine, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron reduced the jumping activity. Safranal was injected (s.c.) 30 mm prior and 1 and 2 h after the injection of morphine. It potentiated some signs of withdrawal syndrome. The aqueous extract decreased the movement in all of the doses (80, 160, 320 mg/kg) and the ethanolic extract decreased it in the dose of 800 mg/kg in open field test. But crocin and the dose of 400 mg/kg ethanolic extract showed no effect on activity in this test. It is concluded that the extracts and crocin may have interaction with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. PMID:19827024

  2. The Italian Sign Language Sign Bank: Using WordNet for Sign Language corpus creation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Prinetto; Umar Shoaib; Gabriele Tiotto

    2011-01-01

    Sign languages are visual-gestural languages used by deaf people to communicate with others. As with spoken languages, Sign languages vary among countries and have their own vocabulary and grammar. Since they suffer of an extreme variability within the same country as they don't have a standard lexicon. This paper describes a LIS Sign Bank, a large scale LIS lexicon automatically

  3. Precipitated and conditioned withdrawal in morphine-treated rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ginger L. Becker; Lisa R. Gerak; Jun-Xu Li; Wouter Koek; Charles P. France

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  Stimuli that are paired with opioid withdrawal can themselves produce effects similar to withdrawal that might promote relapse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  This study compared precipitated and conditioned withdrawal and tested whether withdrawal is modified by clonidine or morphine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Morphine-treated rats (10 mg\\/kg\\/12 h) received naloxone (3.2 mg\\/kg) in a novel environment (conditioned stimuli [CS]). Other\\u000a rats received naloxone in the absence of the CS. Body weight

  4. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. 3815...MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock...Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals....

  5. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. 3815...MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock...Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals....

  6. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. 3815...MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock...Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals....

  7. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. 3815...MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock...Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals....

  8. 36 CFR 1226.16 - Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority...IMPLEMENTING DISPOSITION § 1226.16 Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority...maintain efficiency of Government operations, NARA will withdraw disposal...

  9. 29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial...

  10. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial...

  11. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial...

  12. 29 CFR 4211.35 - Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.35 Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial...

  13. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  14. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice. PMID:25042794

  15. Lhermitte's Sign: The Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Supreet; Seth, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Lhermitte's sign was described by Marie and Chatelin and named after Jean Lhermitte. This sign is mostly described as an electric shock like condition by some patients of multiple sclerosis. This sensation occurs when the neck is moved in a wrong way or rather flexed. It can also travel down to the spine, arms, and legs, and sometimes the trunk. Demyelination and hyperexcitability are the main pathophysiological reasons depicted for the Lhermitte's sign. Other causes for Lhermitte's sign include transverse myelitis, behçet's disease, trauma, etc. This article reviews the Lhermitte's sign, its history, and its etiopathophysiology. Very few studies are available on Lermitte's sign and more research need to be done on the same to ensure its sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26019410

  16. 24 CFR 3286.809 - Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. 3286.809...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM State Programs § 3286.809 Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. (a)...

  17. 24 CFR 3286.809 - Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. 3286.809...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM State Programs § 3286.809 Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. (a)...

  18. 24 CFR 3286.809 - Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. 3286.809...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM State Programs § 3286.809 Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. (a)...

  19. 24 CFR 3286.809 - Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. 3286.809...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM State Programs § 3286.809 Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. (a)...

  20. 24 CFR 3286.809 - Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. 3286.809...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM State Programs § 3286.809 Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. (a)...

  1. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. ...disposition of the proceedings. (d) Accreditation of representatives. An...

  2. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a...disposition of the proceedings. (d) Accreditation of representatives. An...

  3. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. ...disposition of the proceedings. (d) Accreditation of representatives. An...

  4. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292...recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a...disposition of the proceedings. (d) Accreditation of representatives. An...

  5. The neurology of sign language.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil

    2004-04-01

    Forms of sign language have developed in a number of countries. American Sign Language, which originated from French signing, has been most extensively researched. As sign language is based on gestures executed in space and perceived visually it might be thought that it would mainly be a function of the right cerebral hemisphere when this is the non-dominant one. A number of studies are reviewed showing that sign language is a language in its own right and therefore, as with spoken language, its primary site of organization is in the dominant hemisphere. This does not mean that there is not a significant contribution from the other hemisphere with an interplay between the two. Each research project usually contributes some facet of knowledge apart from the main conclusions. These included the importance of distinguishing signs from gestures, the localization of different types of signing within the left dominant cerebral hemisphere, the fact that lesions of the right non-dominant hemisphere, although not causing a loss of signing will result in dyspraxia, and that aphasic symptoms of signing and speech are not modality dependant but reflected a disruption of language processes common to all languages. Examples are given of discoveries made by the use of the newer neuroradiological techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, and no doubt these will lead to further advances in knowledge. The use of sign language in the treatment of patients with verbal aphasia is considered, especially of children with the Landau-Kleffner syndrome, but therapy of this kind can be used in children with delayed language development, and in other types of acquired aphasia at any age. Other methods of treatment than signing, such as cochlear implants may be increasingly used in the future, but it seems likely that sign language will continue to be a dominant feature in the deaf culture. PMID:15030901

  6. Space is special in Sign.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ruth; Woll, Bencie

    2003-01-01

    Following groundbreaking work by linguists and cognitive scientists over the past thirty years, it is now generally accepted that sign languages of the deaf, such as ASL (American Sign Language) or BSL (British Sign Language), are structured and processed in a similar manner to spoken languages. The one striking difference is that they operate in a wholly non-auditory, visuospatial medium. How does the medium impact on language processing itself? PMID:12517350

  7. 9 CFR 362.4 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 362.4 Section 362.4 Animals...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 362.4 Denial or withdrawal of service. (a) For disciplinary reasons...

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS TO SUGGESTIBILITY AND COMPLIANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisli H. Gudjonsson; Kristin Hannesdottir; Tomas Þor Agustsson; Jon F. Sigurdsson; Asa Gudmundsdottir; Þuridur Þordardottir; Þorarinn Tyrfingsson; Hannes Petursson

    2004-01-01

    People who are experiencing alcohol withdrawal are disadvantaged in terms of their ability to cope with leading questions and interrogative pressure (i.e. interrogative suggestibility). What had not been studied previously was the relationship of the severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms with suggestibility and compliance. Suggestibility and compliance scores, obtained during the first week of hospital admission, were correlated with the

  9. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: Current management strategies for the surgery patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick R Morris; Edward L Mosby; Brett L Ferguson

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: As advances in the therapeutic management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome occur, oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of the current treatment philosophies and modalities. This article provides a comprehensive review of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and presents some of the current management strategies that can be used for these patients, whether it be in the office or in the

  10. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment...good cause. The desire or consent of the client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal...unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or...

  11. Factors Related to Persistence and Withdrawal among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmann, Jack E.; Kirk, Barbara A.

    1970-01-01

    School and College Ability Tests (SCAT), the Omnibus Personality Inventory, and questionnaire data collected indicated that, as compared to persisting students, voluntary withdrawals had higher verbal ability and were more intellectually oriented. Voluntary withdrawals had significantly higher SCAT scores than the failures and the female…

  12. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beng-Siang Khor; Mohd Fadzly Amar Jamil; Mohamad Ilham Adenan; Alexander Chong Shu-Chien

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety

  13. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

  14. Reduced cardio-respiratory coupling in acute alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Jürgen Bär; Michael Karl Boettger; Steffen Schulz; Rene Neubauer; Thomas Jochum; Andreas Voss; Vikram K. Yeragani

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundChronic alcoholism represents a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias. One underlying mechanism is a sympathetically dominated autonomic imbalance. This is especially apparent during acute withdrawal from alcohol. Since linear analysis of heart rate variability may not be entirely adequate to detect such autonomic dysfunction in acute alcohol withdrawal, we applied novel non-linear parameters and measures for cardio-respiratory coupling.

  15. Increased QT interval variability index in acute alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Jürgen Bär; Michael Karl Boettger; Mandy Koschke; Silke Boettger; Marei Grotelüschen; Andreas Voss; Vikram K. Yeragani

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveAcute alcohol withdrawal is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, most likely due to cardiac arrhythmias. As the QT interval reflects the most critical phase for the generation of reentry and thus for arrhythmia, we examined QT variability in patients suffering from acute alcohol withdrawal.

  16. Threshold of Withdrawal from Schoolwork among Children of Divorced Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann, Joseph; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines whether there is a difference in the threshold of withdrawal from schoolwork between children of divorced parents and children from intact families. Results showed that children of divorced parents have lower levels of achievement and lower withdrawal thresholds than do children from intact families. (Author/BSR)

  17. Withdrawal Threshold in Interpersonal Conflict among Adolescents of Divorced Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann, Joseph; Ben-Asher, Chen; Lazar, Amnon

    1999-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that adolescents of divorced parents exhibit a lower withdrawal threshold in various interpersonal conflict situations. Finds that the results do not support the hypothesis. Demonstrates that adolescents from intact families are more likely to judge divorce as indicating a low withdrawal threshold. Includes references. (CMK)

  18. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...rollover distribution, so a participant may request that the TSP transfer all or a portion of the withdrawal to a traditional IRA or an eligible employer plan. (c) A participant is permitted only one age-based withdrawal for an account....

  19. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...eligible rollover distribution, so a participant may request that the TSP transfer all or a portion of the withdrawal to a tradition IRA or an eligible employer plan. (c) A participant is permitted only one age-based withdrawal for an account. (d)...

  20. Conceptions of Aggression and Withdrawal in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Jessica W.; Heyman, Gail D.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigate young children's beliefs about aggression and withdrawal in others with reference to the possibility of stability and change. Study 1 (N = 41) provides evidence that preschool children (1) view aggression in more essentialist ways (i.e. they believe it to be more stable and less changeable) than withdrawal and (2) believe…

  1. Temperature regulation during withdrawal from ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Crawshaw, L.I.; Hayteas, D.L.; O'Connor, C.S.; Crabbe, J.C. (Portland State Univ., OR (United States) Veterans Administration Hospital, Portland, OR (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Male HS mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 hrs. The ethanol concentration in the air during this period was increase from 4-9 mg{center dot}1{sup {minus}1}. At time zero, the mice were injected with a pyrazole and ethanol. At 24 and 48 hrs, the pyrazole alone was administered. Control groups received either pyrazole or saline, but no ethanol vapor. The vapor dosing resulted in blood ethanol concentrations which increased from 0.64 {plus minus} 0.09 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 24 hr. to 1.89 {plus minus} 0.40 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 72 hrs. The mice carried intraperitoneally implanted mini-mitter temperature transmitters, which sensed core temperature. The selected temperature was quantified by monitoring the position of the mice within the tubes. During the 24 hr. of withdrawal, the core temperature of the experimental and control groups were very similar. During the first 10 hr., the selected temperature was lower for the withdrawal group than for the saline or pyrazole controls. By the end of the 24 hr., the selected temperature was similar for all three groups.

  2. Placing subway signs Pragmatical properties of signs at work

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    LTCI (UMR5141) CNRS - TELECOM ParisTech Département Sciences Économiques et Sociales jerome" (Latour & Weibel, 2005), as well as of contemporary markets (Cochoy & Grandclément, 2005 ; Muniesa et al: the relationships that signs have with their surroundings. Second, they consider signs as support for action

  3. Disseminating Drug Prescribing Information: The Cox-2 Inhibitors Withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Strayer, Scott M.; Slawson, David C.; Shaughnessy, Allen F.

    2006-01-01

    This case study examined the recent withdrawal of valdecoxib to determine the timeliness of updates in commonly used information sources used by healthcare professionals. The method included assembling a purposive sample of 15 drug reference and warning systems that were then systematically monitored for several months after the withdrawal of valdecoxib to determine the time to update this information. These information sources were classified and described qualitatively. A time to diffusion curve was plotted and the average number of days to report the drug withdrawal or update reference databases was calculated. Only 2 of 15 information systems reported the drug withdrawal on the actual date of the FDA announcement. Institutional electronic textbooks took an average of 109.8 days (±14 days) to report the withdrawal. In addition, one pharma-sponsored dissemination source (Peerview Press) had not updated their information as of this publication. PMID:16622163

  4. Mesolimbic Dopamine and Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathways in Nicotine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Dani, John A.; De Biasi, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people who attempt to quit smoking without some assistance relapse within the first couple of weeks, indicating the increased vulnerability during the early withdrawal period. The habenula, which projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the interpeduncular nucleus, plays an important role in the withdrawal syndrome. Particularly the ?2, ?5, and ?4 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have critical roles in mediating the somatic manifestations of withdrawal. Furthermore, withdrawal from nicotine induces a hypodopaminergic state, but there is a relative increase in the sensitivity to phasic dopamine release that is caused by nicotine. Therefore, acute nicotine re-exposure causes a phasic DA response that more potently reinforces relapse to smoking during the withdrawal period. PMID:23732854

  5. Adrenergic hypersensitivity after beta-blocker withdrawal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, D M; Chan, W L; Stewart, R; Oakley, C M

    1991-09-15

    Withdrawal of beta-blocker therapy has been associated with the development of adrenergic hypersensitivity and adverse clinical effects in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension. The aim of this study was to establish the occurrence and clinical significance of adrenergic hypersensitivity after abrupt withdrawal of long-term beta blockade in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Beta-adrenergic sensitivity was measured using the isoprenaline chronotropic dose25. Symptom assessment chronotropic dose25 calculation, bicycle exercise, echocardiography and Holter monitoring were performed while the patient received beta-blocker therapy and repeated on days 2, 4, 6, 8 (acute withdrawal period) and on day 21 after abrupt withdrawal. The study was terminated after 7 patients had been studied because all patients experienced a marked deterioration in symptoms and several clinical events had occurred. The chronotropic dose25 (mean +/- standard deviation) demonstrated beta 1-adrenergic hypersensitivity with a minimal value of 1.6 +/- 0.8 micrograms during the acute withdrawal period compared with 3.8 +/- 1.7 micrograms on day 21 (p = 0.003). Heart rates during rest and exercise showed an overshoot increase during the acute withdrawal period. The maximal 24-hour ventricular ectopic count was higher during the acute withdrawal period than during day 21 (p = 0.04). Of 3 patients with inducible outflow tract gradients, 2 developed resting gradients greater than 30 mm Hg during the acute withdrawal period. There was an increase in peak late filling velocity of mitral inflow after beta-blocker withdrawal. In conclusion, transient beta-adrenergic hypersensitivity occurs after beta-blocker withdrawal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is associated with significant physiologic changes and adverse clinical consequences. PMID:1892084

  6. Integrating Drama and Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria

    1988-01-01

    The article addresses the use of sign language and drama with young children with such disabilities as mental retardation, aphasia, autism, and other language learning disorders. Examples of activities that integrate creative drama techniques with sign language techniques are offered. (DB)

  7. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  8. How to Sign Digital Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Gennaro; Pankaj Rohatgi

    1997-01-01

    We present a new efficient paradigm for signing digital streams. The problem of signingdigital streams to prove their authenticity is substantially different from the problemof signing regular messages. Traditional signature schemes are message oriented andrequire the receiver to process the entire message before being able to authenticate itssignature. However, a stream is a potentially very long ( or infinite) sequence

  9. Spanish Sign in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jerome D.

    1995-01-01

    Spanish Sign Language (SSL) is now the second most used sign language. This article introduces resources for the study of SSL, including three SSL dictionaries--two from Argentina and one from Puerto Rico. Differences in SSL between and within the two countries are noted. Implications for deaf educators in North America are drawn. (Author/DB)

  10. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N. [Vectra Technologies, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  11. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  12. Boys withdraw more in one-on-one interactions, whereas girls withdraw more in groups.

    PubMed

    Benenson, Joyce F; Heath, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in groups than in dyads, whereas girls' performance was similar in the 2 social structures. Confirming the hypothesis, analyses of the dynamics of dyads and groups using time spent writing as a measure of effort demonstrated that boys withdrew more than girls in dyads, whereas girls withdrew more than boys in groups. Furthermore, in groups, girls were more likely than boys to focus on one individual. Causal explanations for sex differences in preferences for differing social structures are proposed. PMID:16569166

  13. Moxonidine for tramadol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification.

    PubMed

    Talih, Farid; Ghossoub, Elias

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that noradrenergic pathways are key in the manifestation of opioid withdrawal symptoms, which is why clonidine is used as an off-label agent in opioid detoxification regimens given its anti-sympathetic properties. Moxonidine is a selective I1-imidazoline receptor agonist, similar to clonidine but with no ?2-adrenergic agonist activity and subsequently fewer side effects. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with a 15-year history of tramadol use who was admitted voluntarily for detoxification. She was started on moxonidine and had an uneventful detoxification. Two months after discharge, the patient maintained tramadol abstinence with good tolerability to moxonidine. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in the medical literature. PMID:26156837

  14. Cardiac arrest due to baclofen withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana Luísa; Quintaneiro, Claudio; Seabra, Helena; Teixeira, Carla

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with postcervical traumatic complete quadriparesis under intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) for refractory spasticity. Less than 24 h after having his baclofen pump substituted, he develops hyperthermia, seizures, cognitive depression, acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and cardiovascular instability leading to mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. He was transferred to an intensive care unit with diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia leading to septic shock. He evolved with progressive clinical worsening and multisystem organ failure and cardiac arrest in non-shockable rhythm (pulseless electrical activity)--4 min resuscitation with return of spontaneous circulation. Considering the possible diagnosis of baclofen withdrawal syndrome and, in suspicion of ITB delivery disruption, the catheter system was surgically explored and a leaking tubule attachment was found. Despite aggressive cardiovascular, respiratory and renal support therapy, clinical improvement occurred only after restoration of intrathecal drug delivery. He was discharged from the hospital after 56 days, having returned to baseline status. PMID:24827663

  15. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  16. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  17. Sex differences in affective response to opioid withdrawal during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Stephen R; Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Eitan, Dvora; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is suggested to play a role in precipitating mood disorders in individuals with familial predisposition. Age-related differences in affective responses to withdrawal might explain the increased risk of mental illnesses when drug use begins during adolescence. Recently we observed that, in contrast to adult male mice, adolescent males exhibited a decrease in immobility in the forced swim test on the third day of withdrawal, as compared with controls. Thus, the present study examined forced swim test behaviors of adolescent female mice during opioid withdrawal. Similar to the male study, adolescent female mice were injected with two morphine regimens which differed in dosage. Three and nine days following discontinuation of morphine administration, forced swim test immobility time and locomotion were evaluated. In contrast to males, which exhibited a decrease in immobility, no significant differences in immobility were observed in female adolescents undergoing withdrawal as compared with saline-injected controls. This sex difference in forced swim test behaviors was not due to changes in overall motor activity, since differences in locomotion were not observed in either male or female adolescent mice. Thus, this study demonstrates sex differences in forced swim test behavior during opioid withdrawal. Forced swim test behaviors are classically used to evaluate mood in rodents, thus this study suggests that opioid withdrawal might affect mood differentially across sexes. PMID:19939877

  18. Clomipramine concentration and withdrawal symptoms in 10 neonates

    PubMed Central

    ter Horst, Peter G J; van der Linde, Susanne; Smit, Jan Pieter; den Boon, Jan; van Lingen, Richard A; Jansman, Frank G A; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Wilffert, Bob

    2012-01-01

    AIM After in utero exposure to tricyclic antidepressants, neonatal withdrawal symptoms have been reported with an estimated incidence between 20 and 50%; however, few data are available for clomipramine. This could also be the case for neonatal pharmacokinetic clomipramine parameters and so this study was set up. METHODS Babies exposed to clomipramine in utero were included in an observational study, approved by the local ethics committee, after written informed consent. Withdrawal symptoms were scored at 12, 24 and 48 h after birth using the Finnegan score. Plasma concentrations were determined using an in-house-developed, validated liquid chromatography with mass detection (LC-MSMS) method at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after birth. RESULTS We found that three of 11 pregnancies were complicated with pre-eclampsia. Ten neonates were observed for clomipramine withdrawal symptoms. The observed withdrawal symptoms were too short a period of sleep after feeding (6), poor feeding (3), mild to severe tremors (6), hyperactive Moro reflex (3) and respiratory rate >60 breaths min?1. Serious withdrawal reactions, such as tachycardia and cyanosis, were seen. We calculated a half-life value of 42 ± 16 h for clomipramine in neonates. Only a weak correlation was found between withdrawal reactions and clomipramine plasma concentration or desmethylclomipramine plasma concentration. CONCLUSIONS In neonates, clomipramine is eliminated with a half-life value of 42 h, compared with 20 h in adults. In two of 10 neonates, tachycardia and cyanosis were seen as serious withdrawal symptoms after maternal use of clomipramine. PMID:21801198

  19. Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

  20. Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in opioid-dependent patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc I. Rosen; H. Rowland Pearsall; Scott W. Woods; Thomas R. Kosten

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a GABA metabolite used clinically for sleep induction. The abuse liability of GHB is controversial. As part of a study of the effect of GHB pretreatment on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal, eight opioid-stabilized subjects received a balanced, randomized, double-blind sequence of oral placebo, GHB 15 mg\\/kg and 30 mg\\/kg. GHB had no consistent physiological effects. After GHB

  1. Supersensitivity of 5HT 1A -autoreceptors and a 2 -adrenoceptors regulating monoamine synthesis in the brain of morphine-dependent rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoni Sastre-Coll; Susana Esteban; Jesús A. García-Sevilla

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of 5-HT1A serotonin receptors and Ō-adrenoceptors (autoreceptors and heteroreceptors) modulating brain monoamine synthesis was investigated in rats during morphine treatment and after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. The accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the rate of tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylation in vivo. Acute morphine (3-100 mg\\/kg, 1 h) increased the

  2. Effects of ibogaine on sensory-motor function, activity, and spatial learning in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond P. Kesner; Pamela Jackson-Smith; Clarissa Henry; Kelly Amann

    1995-01-01

    Ibogaine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, has been show to reduce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms from morphine. Given the clinical possibilities, it is important to determine ibogaine's effects on sensory-motor function, activity, learning, and memory. Long-Evans rats injected with doses of 20–60 mg\\/kg of ibogaine displayed slower response times on sensory and sensory-motor tests and were impaired in performing specific motor reflexes

  3. Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Five States, including Colorado (552 Mgal/d), Kansas (384 Mgal/d), Oklahoma (126 Mgal/d), Kentucky (102 Mgal/d), and Ohio (100 Mgal/d), accounted for 81 percent of estimated stream-valley aquifer withdrawals identified in this report. Of the total withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers, about 63 percent (984 Mgal/d) were used for irrigation, 26 percent (400 Mgal/d) for public-supply, and 11 percent (177 Mgal/d) for self-supplied industrial uses. The largest estimated water withdrawals were from stream-valley aquifers associated with the South Platte (404 Mgal/d), Arkansas (395 Mgal/d), and Ohio (221 Mgal/d) Rivers.

  4. Effects of Sign-Language Training on Untrained Sign Use for Single and Multiple Signing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Bradley

    1983-01-01

    Two studies examined cross-modal transfer of sign language performance in 11 and 12 children (ages 6-17) with speech, language, or hearing disorders and mild to moderate retardation. Findings indicated that transfer from receptive to productive signing required explicit training, particularly of complex forms. (CL)

  5. Effects of dynamic contact angle on liquid withdrawal from capillary tubes: (semi)-analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus

    2010-07-15

    The displacement of a gas by a liquid in both horizontal and inclined capillary tubes where the tube inlet is connected to a liquid reservoir of constant pressure can be described by the Lucas-Washburn theory. One can also use the Lucas-Washburn theory to model the reverse flow, that is, liquid withdrawal, even though the latter case has received relatively little attention. In this paper, we derive analytical solutions for the travel time of the gas-liquid interface as a function of interface velocity. The interface position can be obtained by numerically integrating the numerically inverted interface velocity. Therefore we refer to these solutions as (semi)-analytical. We neglect inertial forces. However, we account for a dynamic contact angle where the nondimensional non-equilibrium Young force depends on the capillary number in the form of either a power law or a power series. We explore the entire nondimensional parameter space. The analytical solutions allow us to show that five different liquid withdrawal scenarios may occur that differ in the direction of flow and the sign of the acceleration of the gas-liquid interface: horizontal, upward, steady-state downward, accelerating downward, and decelerating downward flow. In the last case, the liquid is withdrawn from the tube either completely or partially. The (semi)-analytical solutions are also valid within the limit where the contact angle is constant. PMID:20400087

  6. Liquid withdrawal from capillary tubes: explicit and implicit analytical solution for constant and dynamic contact angle.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus

    2010-11-01

    In a preceding paper, we derived analytical solutions for the displacement of a gas by a liquid in horizontal and inclined capillary tubes where the tube inlet is connected to a liquid reservoir of constant pressure. We considered quite general models for the dynamic contact angle and were able to derive implicit equations for the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. These solutions allowed us to identify five different flow scenarios for liquid withdrawal that differed in the direction of flow and the sign of the acceleration of the gas-liquid interface. In this paper, we consider the special case where the dynamic contact angle is determined by a nonequilibrium Young force that depends linearly on the capillary number. Thus we can derive explicit and the more traditional implicit analytical solutions for both the position and the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. We also construct diagrams that allow us to predict which of the five flow scenarios will occur depending on the nondimensional parameters that define the problem. The diagrams can be combined with diagrams previously obtained for infiltration and the entire parameter space subdivided into regions that are associated with either liquid withdrawal, liquid infiltration, or metastable and stable equilibrium states. Our solutions are also valid within the limit where the contact angle is constant. PMID:20691978

  7. Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Withdrawal: Five Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. McDaniel; Karen A. Miotto

    2001-01-01

    There is little medical information available about gamma- hydroxybutyrate (GHB) or gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) dependence or withdrawal. In this study the authors treated and reviewed multiple cases of GHB and GBL withdrawal in high-dose users. Five patients during nine hospitalizations were treated for GHB or GBL withdrawal. The authors describe a spectrum of GHB or GBL withdrawal from mild to severe

  8. Nervous signs in bovine coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B; Richardson, J A

    1976-09-01

    In 2 outbreaks of coccidiosis due to E bovis and/or E zurnii infection in Canadian cattle, nervous signs included opisthotonos, medial strabismus, hypersensitivity, tetanic spasms, and convulsions. All of the affected animals died in convulsions after an illness of one to several days during which time they showed periodic nervous signs. Necropsy revealed a very severe enteritis with the most severe lesions in the spiral colon. Much of the intestinal mucosa in this area had been destroyed by the parasite. None of several suggested causes of such nervous signs was indicated by laboratory findings, but the possibility of toxins produced by the coccidia could not be ruled out. PMID:967151

  9. Massive exacerbation of multiple sclerosis after withdrawal and early restart of treatment with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Beume, Lena-Alexandra; Dersch, Rick; Fuhrer, Hannah; Stich, Oliver; Rauer, Sebastian; Niesen, Wolf D

    2015-02-01

    We present a 46-year-old woman with a relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) that began 3 months after withdrawal from long-term treatment with natalizumab. Shortly after restart of a single dose of natalizumab she developed a fulminant MS rebound with stupor and tetraparesis. Cerebral MRI showed massive progression in the number of lesions and tumefactive lesions with ring gadolinium-enhancement. Stereotactic brain biopsy revealed acute demyelination and B-cell dominated inflammation. The patient improved during therapeutic plasma exchange. We speculate that early restart of natalizumab in the case of a relapse may worsen disease evolution possibly by modifying regulatory immune effector processes during an inflammatory rebound phase. A restart of natalizumab in MS patients suffering from a recent relapse or with signs of active inflammation should be considered with caution. PMID:25150761

  10. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

  11. Structural Analysis of Sign Bridge

    E-print Network

    Foley, Christopher M.

    and FHWA through the Wisconsin Highway Research Program. Wisconsin DOT Contact: Stanley Woods (608) 266 been found in many sign support structures composed of welded round hollow structural shapes (HSS

  12. Bionursing: signs of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Torrance, C; Jordan, S

    In the ninth article in our series on bionursing, the authors explain how an understanding of physiology can help nurses to identify the common signs and symptoms of iron deficiency and ensure patients receive prompt and appropriate treatment. PMID:8562358

  13. Chickenpox (Varicella) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Signs & Symptoms Language: English ... of Page Related Page Chickenpox Complications Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

  15. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English ... Action Coalition's website (www.vaccineinformation.org). Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  16. Deaf Phone: Sign Language Telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, R.; Sosnowski, Thomas P.

    1985-12-01

    Using the technologies of image processing, spatial/temporal resolution reduction and picture coding, a terminal has been designed and constructed which allows the transmission of deaf sign language over low bandwidth telephone lines in real time. Using the hardware, six deaf subjects have evaluated this system. A series of psycho-physical experiments were conducted to determine the minimum image quality required to convey meaning in hand-sign language as used by the deaf.

  17. Water Withdrawals for Development of Marcellus Shale Gas in Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    is the fracking fluid (also called drilling return wa- ter, drilling wastewater, flowback, or produced- ing (fracking), the portion of water withdrawals related to mining is likely to rise. The information

  18. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  19. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  20. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  1. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  2. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  3. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  4. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  5. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  6. 46 CFR 67.143 - Restriction on withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.143 Restriction on withdrawal of application. A vessel owner making application pursuant to §...

  7. 46 CFR 67.143 - Restriction on withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.143 Restriction on withdrawal of application. A vessel owner making application pursuant to §...

  8. 49 CFR 1522.113 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MODES OF TRANSPORTATION TSA-APPROVED VALIDATION FIRMS AND VALIDATORS TSA-Approved Validation Firms and Validators for the Certified...may withdraw approval of a TSA-approved validation firm if the validation firm...

  9. 46 CFR 67.143 - Restriction on withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.143 Restriction on withdrawal of application. A vessel owner making application pursuant to §...

  10. 46 CFR 67.143 - Restriction on withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.143 Restriction on withdrawal of application. A vessel owner making application pursuant to §...

  11. 46 CFR 67.143 - Restriction on withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.143 Restriction on withdrawal of application. A vessel owner making application pursuant to §...

  12. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  13. 21 CFR 900.24 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation...certification agency is not in substantial compliance with this subpart, FDA may initiate the following actions...opportunity for corrective action, FDA determines that a...

  14. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation...accreditation body is not in substantial compliance with this subpart, FDA may initiate the following actions...a) Major deficiencies. If FDA determines that an...

  15. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation...accreditation body is not in substantial compliance with this subpart, FDA may initiate the following actions...a) Major deficiencies. If FDA determines that an...

  16. 21 CFR 900.24 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation...certification agency is not in substantial compliance with this subpart, FDA may initiate the following actions...opportunity for corrective action, FDA determines that a...

  17. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation...accreditation body is not in substantial compliance with this subpart, FDA may initiate the following actions...a) Major deficiencies. If FDA determines that an...

  18. 21 CFR 900.24 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation...certification agency is not in substantial compliance with this subpart, FDA may initiate the following actions...opportunity for corrective action, FDA determines that a...

  19. 45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301 Section 400...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Waivers and...

  20. 31 CFR 25.302 - Application withdrawal; effect of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...withdraw the prepayment application at any time prior to its approval. Even after a Borrower's prepayment application has been approved, the Borrower is not obligated to prepay its Eligible FMS Loans or Eligible FMS...

  1. 75 FR 33273 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Docket ID: USN-2010-0021] Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal AGENCY...policy that would establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) with contractors that...areas of cost, schedule, performance, quality, and business relations. DoN is...

  2. 7 CFR 56.25 - Withdrawal of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.25 Withdrawal of Application. An application for...

  3. 7 CFR 56.25 - Withdrawal of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.25 Withdrawal of Application. An application for...

  4. 7 CFR 56.25 - Withdrawal of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.25 Withdrawal of Application. An application for...

  5. 39 CFR 761.5 - Withdrawal of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.5 Withdrawal of Postal...definitive Postal Service securities to itself or on its order to a transferee. (b) Postal Service securities...

  6. 39 CFR 761.5 - Withdrawal of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.5 Withdrawal of Postal...definitive Postal Service securities to itself or on its order to a transferee. (b) Postal Service securities...

  7. 39 CFR 761.5 - Withdrawal of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.5 Withdrawal of Postal...definitive Postal Service securities to itself or on its order to a transferee. (b) Postal Service securities...

  8. 39 CFR 761.5 - Withdrawal of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.5 Withdrawal of Postal...definitive Postal Service securities to itself or on its order to a transferee. (b) Postal Service securities...

  9. 39 CFR 761.5 - Withdrawal of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.5 Withdrawal of Postal...definitive Postal Service securities to itself or on its order to a transferee. (b) Postal Service securities...

  10. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  11. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  12. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  13. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  14. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  15. Significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal: Predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Jordana, A; Tintoré, M; Tur, C; Pérez-Miralles, F; Auger, C; Río, J; Nos, C; Arrambide, G; Comabella, M; Galán, I; Castilló, J; Sastre-Garriga, J; Rovira, A; Montalban, X

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to single out multiple sclerosis (MS) cases with poor outcome after natalizumab withdrawal and to identify predictive variables. We ascertained 47 withdrawals, and compared their pre- and post-natalizumab periods. We objectively defined significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal as a 2-step increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We performed regression models. As a group, post-natalizumab annualized relapse rate (ARR) was lower in the post-natalizumab period, and there were no differences in the mean number of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions between pre- and post-natalizumab magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Corticosteroid treatment did not change the outcomes. Eight patients (19%) presented significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal, which was predicted by a higher baseline EDSS and a 1-step EDSS increase while on natalizumab. PMID:25392320

  16. 49 CFR 386.51 - Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...that the withdrawal will result in injustice, prejudice, or irreparable harm to the non-moving party, or is otherwise contrary to the public interest. [50 FR 40306, Oct. 2, 1985, as amended at 70 FR 28484, May 18,...

  17. 38 CFR 39.8 - Withdrawal of grant application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES General Provisions § 39.8 Withdrawal...

  18. 47 CFR 76.917 - Notification of certification withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Notification of certification withdrawal. A franchising authority that has been certified...Such notification shall include the franchising authority's determination that rate...served by the cable system within the franchising authority's jurisdiction,...

  19. 47 CFR 76.917 - Notification of certification withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Notification of certification withdrawal. A franchising authority that has been certified...Such notification shall include the franchising authority's determination that rate...served by the cable system within the franchising authority's jurisdiction,...

  20. Dying on Dialysis: The Case for a Dignified Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Alvin H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acceleration of comorbid illness in patients undergoing long-term maintenance hemodialysis may be manifested by clinical deterioration that is subtle and not immediately life-threatening. Nonetheless, it is emotionally debilitating for patients and families in addition to being medically and ethically challenging for treating nephrologists. A marked decline in clinical status warrants review of the balance of benefits to burdens dialysis is providing to a given patient and should trigger conversation about the option of withdrawal using an individualized patient-centered, rather than disease-oriented, approach. This paper presents a rationale for and an objective approach to initiating and managing dialysis withdrawal for patients who wish to withdraw because of unsatisfactory quality of life and those (many with significant cognitive impairment) for whom withdrawal is deemed appropriate because the burdens of continuing treatment substantially outweigh the benefits. PMID:23970133

  1. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1555 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...representative. 416.1555 Section 416.1555 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1555 Withdrawing charges against a...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1755 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...representative. 404.1755 Section 404.1755 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1755 Withdrawing charges against a...

  4. 31 CFR 540.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 540.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  5. 24 CFR 115.210 - Performance deficiency procedures; Suspension; Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Performance deficiency procedures...regional office shall conduct a performance assessment of the agency...Withdrawal. If, following the performance assessment conducted at...its law meets all of the substantial equivalency...

  6. 24 CFR 115.210 - Performance deficiency procedures; Suspension; Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Performance deficiency procedures...regional office shall conduct a performance assessment of the agency...Withdrawal. If, following the performance assessment conducted at...its law meets all of the substantial equivalency...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  9. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  10. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  11. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation . If,...

  12. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation . If,...

  13. 30 CFR 35.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to rescind for cause,...

  14. 42 CFR 124.709 - Withdrawal of waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Withdrawal of waiver. 124.709 Section 124.709 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant...

  15. Alcohol Withdrawal Pharmacotherapy for Inpatients with Medical Comorbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Weaver; Heather J. Hoffman; Robert E. Johnson; Kimberly Mauck

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that symptom-triggered dosing is best for treatment of alcohol withdrawal in patients on chemical dependence wards without other illness. On general medical hospital wards, withdrawal may be affected by comorbid medical illness. A clinical trial was undertaken to determine whether there is a difference between symptom-triggered (ST) and fixed-schedule (FS) dosing of lorazepam in patients hospitalized on general

  16. Racial variations in the incidence of severe alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gar Ming Chan; Robert S. Hoffman; Jeffrey A. Gold; Paula J. Whiteman; Lewis R. Goldfrank; Lewis S. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The use of race as a risk assessment tool and pharmacologic target has garnered recent attention and debate. It is currently\\u000a unclear if a relationship between race and the development of severe alcohol withdrawal exists. We explored this potential\\u000a relationship using several study groups.\\u000a \\u000a Methods  A simultaneous prospective enrollment of patients and retrospective chart review of severe alcohol withdrawal in two

  17. Managing benzodiazepine withdrawal during pregnancy: case-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Priya; Glance, Jody B; Azzam, Pierre N

    2014-04-01

    Substance use disorders during pregnancy pose serious risks for both the mother and the fetus, demanding careful monitoring by the patient's medical providers. Sedative-hypnotic use, in particular, is common but remains poorly studied. Management of withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepine use during pregnancy presents unique challenges to the treating physician. We present two pregnant patients with dependence on sedative-hypnotic agents, outline principles of benzodiazepine withdrawal, and suggest guidelines for detoxification during pregnancy. PMID:24271083

  18. Challenging the stereotypes: men, withdrawal, and reproductive health in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Myntti, Cynthia; Ballan, Abir; Dewachi, Omar; El-Kak, Faysal; Deeb, Mary E

    2002-02-01

    In Lebanon, coitus interruptus or withdrawal remains a widely practiced method of family planning. Our research sought to understand the role of men in reproductive health in Lebanon by focusing on this common practice. Our main questions were: Why is it that the practice persists when more effective modern methods of family planning are available? How is the decision taken to practice withdrawal? When is withdrawal practiced and with whom? And, finally, does the practice of withdrawal affect sexual pleasure and the sexual relationship more generally?To answer these questions, we embarked on a small exploratory study using in-depth interviews with 16 open-ended questions. We found that the most important reason for the continuing practice of withdrawal is fear of side effects from other methods. Men and women expect pleasure and fulfillment in sexual relations, but they are willing to limit their pleasure to limit their fertility by means they consider safe. No one prototypical practice of withdrawal seems to exist, and this may explain whether or not the method fails to prevent pregnancy. PMID:11927120

  19. Tobacco Withdrawal Components and Their Relations with Cessation Success

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Cook, Jessica W.; Sheffer, Megan A.; Smith, Stevens S.; Loh, Wei-Yin; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kim, Su-Young; Kaye, Jesse T.; Hefner, Kathryn R.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco withdrawal is a key factor in smoking relapse, but important questions about the withdrawal phenomenon remain. Objectives This research was intended to provide information about two core components of withdrawal (negative affect and craving): 1) how various withdrawal symptom profile dimensions (e.g., mean level, volatility, extreme values) differ between negative affect and craving; and 2) how these dimensions relate to cessation outcome. Methods Adult smokers (N=1504) in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial provided real-time withdrawal symptom data four times per day for 4 weeks (2 weeks pre-quit and 2 weeks post-quit) via palmtop computers. Cessation outcome was biochemically confirmed 8-week point-prevalence abstinence. Results Examination of craving and negative affect dimensions following a cessation attempt revealed that craving symptoms differed from negative affect symptoms, with higher means, greater variability, and a greater incidence of extreme peaks. Regression analyses revealed that abstinence was associated with lower mean levels of both craving and negative affect and fewer incidences of extreme craving peaks. In a multivariate model, the increase in mean craving and negative affect scores each uniquely predicted relapse. Conclusions Real-time reports revealed different patterns of abstinence-related negative affect and craving and that dimensions of both predict cessation outcome, suggesting that negative affect and craving dimensions each has motivational significance. This underscores the complexity of withdrawal as a determinant of relapse and the need to measure its distinct components and dimensions. PMID:21416234

  20. Managing recalls and withdrawals of blood components.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Donor centers are issuing a growing number of recalls and market withdrawals to hospital transfusion services about blood components. More than 1 in 2,000 units were recalled in the late 1990s in the United States. The most common reason for these notices from donor centers is postdonation donor information. Most of these units had been transfused, and many present a "risk of a risk" (ie, a problem might have been present that might have affected the recipient). A few regulations and standards address recalls in general terms, but transfusion services generally have wide discretion in the management of specific common recall problems. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now including posttransfusion evaluations in its guidelines for emerging infectious threats to the blood supply. We suggest that hospital transfusion services should have standard operating procedures for managing recalls and that the hospital transfusion committee and the quality management program should provide local input or oversight. Using the FDA's categories of donor center biological product deviations, we provide recommendations to consider for when to notify the recipient's physician, after postdonation information is received about a previously transfused blood component. More study of this important everyday issue in transfusion medicine is highly desirable. PMID:14689376

  1. Water withdrawal and use in Maryland, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    During 1986, about 1,460 million gallons per day of freshwater was withdrawn from the surface-, and groundwater resources of Maryland. In addition, more than 6,240 million gallons per day of saline surface water was withdrawn and used primarily for cooling purposes in the generation of electricity. Most freshwater withdrawals (84%) were from surface water sources and were withdrawn and used in the Potomac drainage basin, whereas most groundwater was withdrawn and used in the Upper Chesapeake drainage basin. The Potomac Group aquifers provided the most groundwater (56 million gallons per day). Ten water use categories comprise the major demands on the surface and groundwater resources of the State: public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power generation, hydroelectric power generation, agricultural (non-irrigation), irrigation, and aquaculture. Public-supply systems withdrew the most water in the State (801 million gallon/day) for use by residents, commercial establishments, and industries. Baltimore City had the largest public-supply use in 1986 (about 151 million gallons/day). (USGS)

  2. The Role of Sign Phonology and Iconicity during Sign Processing: The Case of Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to phonological sign features (i.e., hand shape, movement,…

  3. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) in Malay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers. PMID:20492717

  4. Appearance-Based Recognition of Signs in American Sign Language

    E-print Network

    Keysers, Daniel

    . · For decision making, appearance-based features are extracted from the camera frame images. General Architecture · Architecture of the Sign Language translation system Capture Feature Extraction TranslationRecognition Decision (2 cameras) · Signers: 1 man and 2 women Camera 0: Camera 1: Experimental Results BOSTON10 (using one

  5. Animated American Sign Language Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Randy Stine, an ASL enthusiast, this site is designed to help users learn about ASL and the Deaf community. The heart of the site is the Dictionary, a collection of basic words that are signed in a brief video sequence, a simple, but very clever idea. The Dictionary also contains the signs for A to Z and 0 to 9. Users will also find a large number of resources for and about the Deaf community. These include related links, articles, services, and non-profit agencies.

  6. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. PMID:23528199

  7. Against the inalienable right to withdraw from research.

    PubMed

    Chwang, Eric

    2008-08-01

    In this paper I argue, against the current consensus, that the right to withdraw from research is sometimes alienable. In other words, research subjects are sometimes morally permitted to waive their right to withdraw. The argument proceeds in three major steps. In the first step, I argue that rights typically should be presumed alienable, both because that is not illegitimately coercive and because the general paternalistic motivation for keeping them inalienable is untenable. In the second step of the argument, I consider three special characteristics of the right to withdraw, first that its waiver might be exploitative, second that research involves intimate bodily access, and third that it is irreversible. I argue that none of these characteristics justify an inalienable right to withdraw. In the third step, I examine four considerations often taken to justify various other allegedly inalienable rights: concerns about treating yourself merely as a means as might be the case in suicide, concerns about revoking all your future freedoms in slavery contracts, the resolution of coordination problems, and public interest. I argue that the motivations involved in these four types of situations do not apply to the right to withdraw from research. PMID:18549425

  8. Age-Related Changes in Demand-Withdraw Communication Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Holley, Sarah R; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    Demand-withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands' and wives' demand-withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  9. 43 CFR 3509.51 - May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? 3509.51 Section 3509.51 Public... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? Yes, if you file the withdrawal...

  10. 43 CFR 3509.51 - May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? 3509.51 Section 3509.51 Public... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? Yes, if you file the withdrawal...

  11. 43 CFR 3509.51 - May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? 3509.51 Section 3509.51 Public... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? Yes, if you file the withdrawal...

  12. 43 CFR 3509.51 - May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? 3509.51 Section 3509.51 Public... May I withdraw my application for a fractional interest prospecting permit or lease? Yes, if you file the withdrawal...

  13. The HyperSign Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulezer, Susan

    This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive…

  14. The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

  15. Noise, sign problems, and statistics

    E-print Network

    Michael G. Endres; David B. Kaplan; Jong-Wan Lee; Amy N. Nicholson

    2011-06-01

    We show how sign problems in simulations of many-body systems can manifest themselves in the form of heavy-tailed correlator distributions, similar to what is seen in electron propagation through disordered media. We propose an alternative statistical approach for extracting ground state energies in such systems, illustrating the method with a toy model and with lattice data for unitary fermions.

  16. Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

    2001-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

  17. Signs and Practices: Coordinating Service and Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helge Löbler

    2010-01-01

    The world is full of signs (symbols, signifiers). They guide us in supermarkets, on highways and in airports. They even guide\\u000a us to the right bathroom. Signs have a huge impact if they are used as logos or in advertisements. Signs also help us when\\u000a we read manuals or when we use a remote control. Signs are used everywhere. Signs

  18. Estimated Withdrawals and Use of Water in Colorado, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Flynn, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The future health and economic welfare of the people and environment of Colorado depend on a continuous supply of fresh water. Detailed, comprehensive information on the use of water from Colorado's diverse surface-water and groundwater resources is important to water managers and planners by providing information they need to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP), Statewide water withdrawal and water-use data have been collected or estimated and summarized in this report by county and by four-digit hydrologic unit code for the following seven water-use categories: irrigation (crop and golf course), public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied industrial, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power generation. A summary for instream water use for hydroelectric power generation also is included. This report is published in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. In 2005, an estimated 13,581.22 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater and surface-water sources in Colorado for the seven water-use categories. Withdrawals from surface water represented about 11,035 Mgal/d, or 81.3 percent of the total, whereas withdrawals from groundwater sources represented an estimated 2,546 Mgal/d or 18.7 percent of the total. Irrigation (combined crop and golf course) totaled 12,362.49 Mgal/d or 91 percent of the total water withdrawals in the State of Colorado. Crop irrigation accounted for 99.7 percent (12,321.85 Mgal/d) of the irrigation, whereas the 243 turf golf courses in Colorado accounted for 0.3 percent (40.64 Mgal/d) of the total irrigation water withdrawals. Total withdrawals for the other water-use categories were public supply, 864.17 Mgal/d; self-supplied domestic, 34.43 Mgal/d; self-supplied industrial, 142.44 Mgal/d; livestock, 33.06 Mgal/d; mining, 21.42 Mgal/d (includes both fresh and saline water); and thermoelectric, 123.21 Mgal/d. The counties with the largest total withdrawals (greater than 500 Mgal/d) were Mesa, Weld, Rio Grande, Montrose, Gunnison, and Saguache. Counties with the smallest total withdrawals (less than 5 Mgal/d) were Clear Creek, Gilpin, and San Juan. Four-digit hydrologic unit codes with the greatest withdrawals were 1019 (South Platte River Basin), 1301 (Rio Grande Basin), and 1102 (Arkansas River Basin); the high withdrawal rates were driven by crop irrigation withdrawals. Total instream water use for hydroelectric power generation was 5,253.60 Mgal/d. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated for 2004 for the bedrock and overlying alluvial aquifers in the Denver Basin for irrigation, public supply, commercial/industrial, household use only, and domestic/livestock water-use categories. Withdrawals were estimated for input into the USGS Denver Basin model by using the equations in the Senate Bill 96-074 groundwater model. The greatest withdrawals were for public supply. The smallest withdrawals were for household-use-only wells. Douglas County had the greatest groundwater withdrawals (183.98 Mgal/d), whereas Broomfield County had the smallest (3.09 Mgal/d). Of the seven Denver Basin aquifers, the Lower Arapahoe aquifer had the greatest total estimated withdrawals (287.11 Mgal/d), with Douglas County having the greatest public-supply withdrawal of any county (95.29 Mgal/d) from this aquifer. The Upper Dawson aquifer was the least used of the Denver Basin aquifers, based on estimated withdrawals of 17.64 Mgal/d. As part of the Colorado Statewide Water Supply Initiative (SWSI), forecasts of future water demand were made based on information such as population, climate, and then-current (2000) water-use information and did not include the effects of future water conservation. Categories compared between estimates in the SWSI baseline forecasted water demand and the USGS water-use compilation were limited to county population and w

  19. Associations between Cloninger's Temperament Dimensions and Acute Tobacco Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Waters, Andrew J.; Boyd, Susan; Moolchan, Eric T.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Lerman, Caryn; Pickworth, Wallace B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between three temperament dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (Cloninger, 1992) and tobacco abstinence effects. Smokers (N = 203, ?15 cig/day) attended two laboratory sessions, one following 12hr of abstinence and the other following ad libitum smoking (order counterbalanced). Participants completed measures of withdrawal symptoms, cigarette urges, and affect. Smokers high in Novelty Seeking reported greater abstinence-induced increases in several nicotine withdrawal symptoms, negative affect, and cigarette craving. Smokers high in Harm Avoidance reported greater abstinence-induced increases in negative affect and urges to smoke to relieve distress. Reward Dependence was not associated with abstinence effects. Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance showed independent predictive associations with negative affect and urges, and their associations with abstinence effects persisted when controlling for FTND scores. Smokers with different temperaments display different patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal, and may benefit from treatments matched to their particular abstinence profile. PMID:17624682

  20. Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Khess, Christoday R. J.; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Soren, Subhas

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance), second factor also had four items (24.25% variance), and the third had two items (10.04% variance). Conclusions. Factor analysis reveals the existence of multidimensionality of alcohol withdrawal as measured with CIWA-Ar and we found three factors that can be named as delirious, autonomic and nonspecific factors. PMID:24826372

  1. Dynamics of lip dyskinesia associated with neuroleptic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Newell, K M; Bodfish, J W; Mahorney, S L; Sprague, R L

    2000-07-01

    The lip movements associated with dyskinesia in adults with mental retardation were investigated through a dynamic analysis at medication baseline, at the points of the highest level of withdrawal dyskinesia as indexed by the DISCUS rating scale, and at the lowest level of dyskinesia following complete withdrawal of the medication. Results showed that the changes in the amount of lip oscillations following medication reduction and eventual withdrawal were strongly linked to changes in the structural complexity of the dynamics of lip motions. These findings provide evidence that neuroleptic medication reduces the df of the dynamics of the movement output and that this change is inversely related to the level of tardive dyskinetic motion observed in the clinical setting. PMID:10934568

  2. Healthy SignsHealthy SignsHealthy Signs Mission of NCDHR: To promote health and prevent

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    on Deaf people's experiences with the healthcare system. NCDHR is hoping to recruit 300 participants. Help Visits! Deaf Healthcare Survey Update! Deaf Health Literacy and Cardiovascular Risk Study Underway! What Screening Visits! Sign up to take the Deaf Healthcare Survey! At the end of November, NCDHR kicked off

  3. Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

    2011-01-01

    Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

  4. Coupled withdrawal and sampling designs for groundwater supply models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andricevic, Roko

    1993-01-01

    A coupled formulation of withdrawal and sampling designs for ground water supply models is presented. The withdrawal design is described as a discrete time optimal control problem and solved using a closed loop stochastic control (CLSC) method. Two main features of the CLSC method are the anticipation of the future observation program and decomposition of the objective function into the deterministic and stochastic part. The former characteristic indicates the necessity for coupling the withdrawal and sampling designs, while the later feature allows a decision maker to estimate the uncertainty in the objective function if certain withdrawal rates are applied. The sampling network is sequentially developed, with the design criterion defined as a sensitivity of the objective function stochastic part to the uncertainty in the hydraulic head distribution multiplied with the variance of the hydraulic head. The concept of minimizing the stochastic part of the objective function with respect to the hydraulic head uncertainty provides a convenient way to couple the withdrawal design objectives with the monitoring network development weighted with the magnitude of the prediction error in the hydraulic head distribution. The Bayesian concept of measurement conditioning is employed to sequentially adjust the withdrawal rates and sampling network development by accounting for the information conveyed in field observations. Between the sampling sessions the uncertainty in the hydraulic head prediction is evaluated using the first- and second-moment analysis applied to the discretized ground water flow model. The uncertainty in the hydraulic head prediction is assumed to come from the natural uncertainty in the hydraulic conductivity and uncertainty in the boundary condition values and other external fluxes (e.g., leakages and recharge). A hypothetical example is included to demonstrate the application procedure and to illustrate the main features of the proposed coupled formulation.

  5. Sleep laboratory studies of hypnotic drugs: efficacy and withdrawal effects.

    PubMed

    Kales, A; Kales, J D

    1983-04-01

    Flurazepam, temazepam, and triazolam are compared in terms of initial and short term efficacy, effectiveness during intermediate and long term use, withdrawal effects, and general side effects. The usefulness of temazepam is considerably restricted since the drug is slowly absorbed; peak blood concentrations are not reached until 2 to 3 hours after ingestion. Consequently, while the majority of insomniac patients complain primarily of difficulty falling asleep, temazepam is not effective for this sleep complaint. Further, the drug has an intermediate elimination half-life and induces a significant degree of morning sleepiness (hang-over). Rebound insomnia of a moderate degree occurs with some frequency following withdrawal of temazepam. Triazolam is effective initially and with short term use both for inducing and maintaining sleep. However, much of this effectiveness is lost with continued nightly use over an intermediate period (2 weeks). The drug has a rapid elimination rate; during drug administration, sleep may worsen in the final hours of the night (early morning insomnia), and following drug withdrawal, rebound insomnia is frequent, immediate, and severe. Side effects are frequent and include some morning sleepiness (before tolerance develops) and significant memory impairment and even episodes of amnesia. Triazolam may have a narrow margin of safety in that serious behavioral symptoms have been reported even with a 1-mg dose. Flurazepam is effective both for initiating and maintaining sleep with initial and short term drug administration. Further, its efficacy is maintained not only with intermediate term use but with long term drug use (4 weeks). Flurazepam is a long elimination half-life drug, and there is significant daytime sedation during short term use; with continued use this effect diminishes. Rebound insomnia has not been noted following withdrawal of flurazepam; there is a carry-over effectiveness into the first and second nights of withdrawal, and any withdrawal sleep disturbance would be expected to be infrequent, delayed in appearance, and mild in degree. PMID:6132933

  6. Water withdrawal and use in Maryland, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    During 1990, about 1,460 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of freshwater was withdrawn from surface- water and ground-water sources in Maryland. Total freshwater withdrawals increased during 1991 to about 1,500 Mgal/d. Saline surface-water withdrawals for cooling condensors increased from about 4,550 Mgal/d during 1990 to 5,760 Mgal/d during 1991. During 1990-91, most freshwater withdrawals (about 1,220 Mgal/d during 1990 and 1,250 Mgal/d during 1991) were from surface-water sources. More than 70 percent of the fresh surface water was withdrawn and used in the Potomac drainage basin. Most ground water (about 170 Mgal/d in 1990 and 184 Mgal/d in 1991) was withdrawn and used in the Upper Chesapeake drainage basin. The Potomac Group aquifers provided most of the ground water (about 64 Mgal/d during 1990 and 68 Mgal/d during 1991 or about 27 percent each year). Ten water-use categories represent the major demands on the surface-water and ground-water resources of the State: Public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power, hydroelectric power, livestock, irrigation, and aquaculture. Largest withdrawals were for public supply (798 Mgal/d during 1990 and 826 Mgal/d during 1991), and the water was used by residences, commercial establishments, and industries. Baltimore City received the largest public-supply deliveries (totaling about 135 Mgal/d during 1990 and 127 Mgal/d during 1991). Freshwater withdrawals for self-supplied domestic use, aquaculture, and irrigation increased during the period, whereas withdrawals for commercial, industrial, thermo- electric power, and mining uses decreased.

  7. Water withdrawal and use in Maryland, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    During 1992, about 1,430 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of freshwater was withdrawn from surface-water and ground-water sources in Maryland. Total freshwater withdrawals increased during 1993 to about 1,480 Mgal/d. Saline surface- water withdrawals for cooling condensers increased from about 5,350 Mgal/d during 1992 to 5,840 Mgal/d during 1993. During 1992-93, most freshwater withdrawals (about 1,180 Mgal/d during 1992 and 1,200 Mgal/d during 1993) were from surface-water sources. Nearly 70 percent of the fresh surface water was withdrawn in the Potomac River drainage basin. Most ground water (about 178 Mgal/d in 1992 and 194 Mgal/d in 1993) was withdrawn in the Upper Chesapeake drainage basin.The Potomac Group aquifers provided most of the ground water (about 61 Mgal/d during 1992 and 64 Mgal/d during 1993). Ten water-use categoriesrepresent the major demands on the surface-water and ground-water resources of the State: Public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power, hydroelectric power, livestock, irrigation, and aquaculture. Largest withdrawals were for public supply (790 Mgal/d during 1992 and 812 Mgal/d during 1993), and the water was used by residences, commercial establishments, and industries. Baltimore City received the largest public-supply deliveries (about 126 Mgal/d during1992 and 129 Mgal/d during 1993). Freshwater withdrawals for self-supplied domestic, commercial, mining, aquaculture, and irrigation uses increased during the period, whereas withdrawals for industrial and thermoelectric power uses decreased.

  8. Drug-induced regulation of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca sup 2+ channel antagonist binding sites in the brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, V.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of drugs to regulate the voltage-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} channels were assessed by determining the bind of ({sup 3}H)dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists in the heart and brain following administration of these drugs to rats and mice. Mice and rats implanted with morphine pellets for 3 days showed an increase in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, compared to non-treated or placebo treated controls. No increase in dihydropyridine binding sites was observed in the heart. The significance of the increase in binding to physical dependence on morphine is implied from the findings that pretreatment with Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonist drugs led to an attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in both dependent rats and mice. Administration of other drugs, known to depress the CNS, was undertaken to determine whether the changes observed with morphine was a nonspecific response of the brain to depressant drugs. Prolonged administration of reserpine to rats resulted in no changes in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, even though the {beta}-adrenergic receptors in this tissue are upregulated. However, reserpine decreased the density of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in the heart of this is accompanied by concomitant increases in {beta}-adrenergic receptors.

  9. Antinociceptive action of DBO 17 and DBO 11 in mice: two 3,8 diazabicyclo (3.2.1.) octane derivates with selective mu opioid receptor affinity.

    PubMed

    Fadda, P; Barlocco, D; Tronci, S; Cignarella, G; Fratta, W

    1997-11-01

    Two 3,8 diazabicyclo (3.2.1.) octane derivates, namely DBO 17 and DBO 11, were studied for the opioid-like activity. In the rat brain membrane preparation binding studies, DBO 17 and DBO 11 showed a high affinity and selectivity for the mu opioid receptor (Ki's: 5.1 and 25 nM, respectively). DBO 17 and DBO 11 inhibited the nociceptive response in the hot-plate test of mice with ED50 values of 0.16 mg/kg and 0.44 mg/kg, respectively. The antinociceptive action of both DBO 17 and DBO 11 was blocked by naloxone. Tolerance to the antinociceptive action of DBO 17 and DBO 11 was present after 13 and 7 days of repeated treatment, respectively. Both DBO 17 and DBO 11 were ineffective in morphine-tolerant mice and vice versa. Chronic treatments (three times daily for seven consecutive days) of DBO 17 and DBO 11 induced a naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in DBO 17 treated mice similar to that in morphine treated mice, whereas in DBO 11 treated mice abstinence signs were virtually absent. These results indicate an interesting pharmacological profile that suggests these compounds as possible new candidates for the clinical treatment of pain. PMID:9402039

  10. Effects of Varying Rate of Signing on ASL Manual Signs and Nonmanual Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2009-01-01

    Spoken languages are characterized by flexible, multivariate prosodic systems. As a natural language, American Sign Language (ASL), and other sign languages (SLs), are also expected to be characterized in the same way. Artificially created signing systems for classroom use, such as signed English, serve as a contrast to natural sign languages. The…

  11. Heterogeneous Data Sources for Signed Language Analysis and Synthesis: The SignCom Project

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , and body throughout language production. To respond, the SignCom Project uses both video data and motionHeterogeneous Data Sources for Signed Language Analysis and Synthesis: The SignCom Project Kyle in the SignCom project may be used for the analysis and synthesis of French Sign Language (LSF) utterances

  12. Sign-Sign Algorithm for Unbiased IIR Filtering in Impulsive Noise

    E-print Network

    So, Hing-Cheung

    the signs of the regressor term and error function are required in up- dating the resultant algorithmSign-Sign Algorithm for Unbiased IIR Filtering in Impulsive Noise H. C. So Department of Computer Filtering, Impulsive Noise Abstract : A new equation-error based sign-sign algorithm, which is derived from

  13. Engineering Program Sign-up | 2014 Page 1 ENGINEERING PROGRAM SIGN-UP (EPS) SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    Engineering Program Sign-up | 2014 Page 1 ENGINEERING PROGRAM SIGN-UP (EPS) SYSTEM Students who want to apply for a second-year major program in Engineering will sign up via will sign up via student ID #: #12;Engineering Program Sign-Up | 2014 Page 2 PLEASE NOTE: Since the 2011-2012 academic year

  14. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...proposing to withdraw Federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes in Wisconsin....

  15. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...is withdrawing the federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes System in...

  16. 77 FR 20585 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California, New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...2040-AF33 Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...regulations to withdraw human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to certain waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and...

  17. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  18. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  19. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  20. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  1. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  2. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  3. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  4. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  5. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  6. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  7. 40 CFR 145.34 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. 145.34 Section 145.34...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Program Approval...145.34 Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. (a) A State with...

  8. 40 CFR 145.34 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. 145.34 Section 145.34...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Program Approval...145.34 Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. (a) A State with...

  9. 20 CFR 408.360 - Can you cancel your request to withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...408.360 Section 408.360 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.360 Can you cancel your request to withdraw...

  10. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  11. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  12. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  13. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  14. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  15. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  16. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...USCG-2006-24644] Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port...Maritime Administration (MARAD) announces TORP Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the...

  17. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

  18. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  19. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  20. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  1. 34 CFR 685.307 - Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program...Standards, and Payments for Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.307 Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan...

  2. 34 CFR 685.307 - Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program...Standards, and Payments for Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.307 Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan...

  3. 18 CFR 35.17 - Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings. 35...POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.17...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings....

  4. 18 CFR 35.17 - Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings. 35...POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.17...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings....

  5. 18 CFR 35.17 - Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings. 35...POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.17...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings....

  6. 18 CFR 35.17 - Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings. 35...POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.17...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings....

  7. 18 CFR 35.17 - Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings. 35...POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.17...Withdrawals and amendments of rate schedule, tariff or service agreement filings....

  8. Venture Capitalists' Decision to Withdraw: The Role of Portfolio Configuration From a Real Options Lens

    E-print Network

    Li, Yong; Chi, Tailan

    2012-01-01

    When does a venture capital firm withdraw from an investment project prior to its completion? This study offers a real options view on this decision by examining the contingent effects of portfolio configuration. We explore how project withdrawal...

  9. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  10. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  11. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  12. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  13. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  14. 1 CFR 18.13 - Withdrawal or correction of filed documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Withdrawal or correction of filed documents. 18.13 Section 18.13 General Provisions...PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.13 Withdrawal or...

  15. 1 CFR 18.13 - Withdrawal or correction of filed documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Withdrawal or correction of filed documents. 18.13 Section 18.13 General Provisions...PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.13 Withdrawal or...

  16. 1 CFR 18.13 - Withdrawal or correction of filed documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Withdrawal or correction of filed documents. 18.13 Section 18.13 General Provisions...PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.13 Withdrawal or...

  17. 1 CFR 18.13 - Withdrawal or correction of filed documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... true Withdrawal or correction of filed documents. 18.13 Section 18.13 General Provisions...PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.13 Withdrawal or...

  18. 1 CFR 18.13 - Withdrawal or correction of filed documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... true Withdrawal or correction of filed documents. 18.13 Section 18.13 General Provisions...PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.13 Withdrawal or...

  19. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8 Section 35... § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be provided...

  20. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  1. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  2. Parents, Peers, and Social Withdrawal in Childhood: A Relationship Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Root, Amy Kennedy; Bowker, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors review the history of the Waterloo Longitudinal Project (WLP), the first longitudinal study (1980–1992) dedicated to the study of social withdrawal, its correlates, and consequences. Theories underlying the WLP are described, as are its empirical findings. Recent research from other labs that has extended the findings of the original WLP is briefly described. The authors’ research that draws on the findings of WLP are noted as well. An underlying theme in this work is that relationships (and interactions) with parents and friends can serve as protective or exacerbating factors in the developmental course of social withdrawal and its concomitants (including social anxiety). PMID:20205181

  3. A study of the vertical withdrawal resistance of projectile anchors 

    E-print Network

    Tolson, Billy Eugene

    1970-01-01

    the projectile and the linear actuator rod to measure the withdrawal load . 8oth the penetration and withdrawal event were photographed at four frames per second by use of a 35 mm motorized Nikon camera. The photography coupled with the grid system... Page 2-a. -Mithdrawal Apparatus 2-b. -Two Dimensional Tank and Linear Actuator 3. -Schematic of Hithdrawal Apparatus 13 4-a. -Surface I'iovement of the Soil Resulting from Ni thd! awal of Projectile 4-b. -Soil Adhering to Projectile after...

  4. Eponymous Dermatological Signs in Bullous Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Ganapati, Sentamilselvi

    2014-01-01

    Clinical signs are evolved by clinicians through their careful clinical examination. Medical professionals are generally familiar with these signs because of the emphasis given to them by the teaching faculty while they were students. Some of these signs are eponymously named after the clinicians giving credit to their observation. Eponymous signs in vesiculobullous diseases such as Nikolsky sign and Asboe Hansen sign (Bulla spread sign) are well known and were described during the 19th and 20th century, respectively. Cerebriform tongue in pemphigus vegetans was described by Premalatha (1981) three decades ago and is well recognized and cited in several text books and articles in leading journals. All these signs are revisited below with an emphasis on cerebriform tongue in pemphigus vegetans which could eponymously be called as Premalatha sign. PMID:24470655

  5. Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

    1994-05-03

    The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

  6. Clinical features and management of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael McDonough; Noel Kennedy; Anthony Glasper; Jenny Bearn

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the clinical course of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal and generate management guidelines. Design: Review and analysis of all published reports of GHB or GHB precursor withdrawal identified from electronic searches. Findings: In total, 38 cases of GHB (n=28) or GHB precursor (n=10) withdrawal were identified, 36 of which were from the US. A rapidly deteriorating course into delirium

  7. Withdrawal from dialysis: The role of autonomy and community-based values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold R. Eiser

    1996-01-01

    By examining the ethical features of dialysis withdrawal as well as transcultural differences in attitudes toward withdrawal, one can have a better understanding of the role of autonomy and community-based values on medical decision-making. Three distinctive patterns of withdrawal are described herein. The first concerns patients suffering from an advanced state of physical or mental decline. When a patient or

  8. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal: a case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tord D. Alden; Richard A. Lytle; Michael J. Noetzel; Jeffrey G. Ojemann

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Spasticity is an endpoint of a variety of neurologic disorders with upper motor neuron damage. There have been several studies demonstrating improvement in spasticity through administration of intrathecal baclofen. Withdrawal from oral baclofen has been well described. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal has been less frequently reported. We present a case of withdrawal after intrathecal baclofen pump catheter failure. Patient. A

  9. Modeling Water Withdrawal and Consumption for Electricity Generation in the United States

    E-print Network

    Reuter, Martin

    Modeling Water Withdrawal and Consumption for Electricity Generation in the United States Kenneth://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Modeling Water Withdrawal and Consumption for Electricity GenerationTCS is able to estimate regional water withdrawals and consumption for any electricity generation portfolio

  10. Social Withdrawal and Maladjustment in a Very Group-Oriented Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, Ibis Alvarez; Schneider, Barry H.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Chen, Xinyin

    2005-01-01

    Elementary-school children in Cuba and Canada participated in measures of loneliness, sociometric status, friendship, aggression, and social withdrawal. Withdrawal was associated with loneliness in the Cuban data from both cohorts, Grade 4 and Grade 6. In the Canadian data, withdrawal was only linked to loneliness in Grade 6. In contrast with…

  11. Absence epilepsy: early prognostic signs.

    PubMed

    Covanis, A; Skiadas, K; Loli, N; Lada, C; Theodorou, V

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 124 children with typical absence epilepsy. The onset of symptoms was in 12% under 4 years, in 51% between 4-8 years and in 37% above 8 years. The F:M ratio was 2:1 in children under 4 years versus 1:1 above 8 years. Absences alone occurred in 82% and absences followed or preceded by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in 6.5% and 11%, respectively. Simple absences were not seen in children under 4 years and were more frequent (14%) in the 4-8 years age group. Family history was positive for epilepsy in 20% and febrile convulsion in 7%. Sixteen percent had a positive past history of febrile convulsions. All patients showed bilateral, synchronous spike-wave discharges from 2.5 to 4 c/s. Lateralized spikes, spike-slow wave complexes were found in 27%. Photosensitivity was present in 18% and was marked in 12%. Monotherapy with sodium valproate or ethosuximide (91% SV) was successful in 85% of patients with absences alone and 68% of the absences with GTCS. Only 2% were not fully controlled either on monotherapy or polytherapy. Treatment was withdrawn in 41 patients and 13 relapsed. We have identified four factors associated with relapses: (a) poor initial response to treatment, (b) lateralized focal EEG abnormality and/or marked photosensitivity, (c) the evolution to myoclonic epilepsy, and (d) early withdrawal of AED (< 3 years). PMID:1344778

  12. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

  13. Procedures for the Interruption and Voluntary Withdrawal of Taught Students

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Procedures for the Interruption and Voluntary Withdrawal of Taught Students TQA Manual the timeframe for completion of a programme and a student is not required to undertake academic study, nor will they receive any tuition or supervision, nor be required to pay tuition fees. 1.2 On interruption, students

  14. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  15. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  16. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  17. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  18. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  19. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  20. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  1. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  2. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  3. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the construction...become due under such contract or for such liquidation...withdrawals. Checks, drafts, or other instruments...meet obligations under a contract for the...

  4. Polymerization catalysts containing electron-withdrawing amide ligands

    DOEpatents

    Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM); Click, Damon R. (Bloomington, IN)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention describes methods of making a series of amine-containing organic compounds which are used as ligands for group 3-10 and lanthanide metal compounds. The ligands have electron-withdrawing groups bonded to them. The metal compounds, when combined with a cocatalyst, are catalysts for the polymerization of olefins.

  5. Continuous intraventricular clonidine infusion in controlled morphine withdrawal – case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lorenz; S Hussein; L Verner

    2002-01-01

    A patient with atypical bilateral facial pain reported the loss of analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine delivered continuously via an implanted pump, accompanied by intolerable adverse side effects associated with the administered high dose of morphine. Clonidine was substituted for morphine over a period of 3 weeks to achieve a drug holiday. The patient did not have significant withdrawal symptoms

  6. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...update the status of its Science Policy issue papers...action. If you have any questions regarding the applicability...decomposited samples. The key question has been the degree...resolutions of trade questions and issues that may...IV. Withdrawing this Science Policy is...

  7. Challenging the stereotypes: men, withdrawal, and reproductive health in Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Myntti; Abir Ballan; Omar Dewachi; Faysal El-Kak; Mary E. Deeb

    2002-01-01

    In Lebanon, coitus interruptus or withdrawal remains a widely practiced method of family planning. Our research sought to understand the role of men in reproductive health in Lebanon by focusing on this common practice. Our main questions were: Why is it that the practice persists when more effective modern methods of family planning are available? How is the decision taken

  8. Claim Submission / Withdrawal Request Form MAIL CLAIM FORM TO

    E-print Network

    Fuerschbach, Phillip

    for your personal records. Do not submit cancelled checks or credit card receipts aloneClaim Submission / Withdrawal Request Form CDHP 01-10 MAIL CLAIM FORM TO: Health Care Account deadline, which is specified in your plan documents. Please refer to your plan document for health related

  9. Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

  10. Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

  11. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...eligibility for Temporary Protected Status in deportation or exclusion...be forwarded to the AAU for review and decision pursuant to the...2). Temporary Protected Status benefits will be extended during...withdraw Temporary Protected Status is entered by the AAU,...

  12. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  13. Withdrawal prediction using the blackboard learning management system through SOM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongbin Zhang; Yeli Li; Fucheng You; Xiuhua Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the prediction of university student withdrawal prior to completion of their degrees. Unlike traditional dropping-out prediction models, which use demographic attributes and historical records about dropped-out students, the model presented in this article needs only information collected from the blackboard learning management system (BLMS). The indicators used for prediction include student participation in their units and

  14. 49 CFR 386.51 - Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...that the withdrawal will result in injustice, prejudice, or irreparable harm to the non-moving party, or is otherwise contrary to the public interest. [50 FR 40306, Oct. 2, 1985, as amended at 70 FR 28484, May 18, 2005; 78 FR...

  15. 49 CFR 386.51 - Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...that the withdrawal will result in injustice, prejudice, or irreparable harm to the non-moving party, or is otherwise contrary to the public interest. [50 FR 40306, Oct. 2, 1985, as amended at 70 FR 28484, May 18, 2005; 78 FR...

  16. Community College Student Retention: Student Characteristics and Withdrawal Reasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Lijuan; Monzon, Rey

    This study examined the profile of community college dropouts, in an attempt to identify how this cohort differs from university-level dropouts and to identify reasons for community college students' withdrawal from school. The authors argue that the profile of a typical community college student--a person who has a full- or part-time job, lives…

  17. 12 CFR 341.5 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...that ceases to engage in the functions of a transfer agent as defined...engage in one or more of the functions of transfer agent as defined...continues to engage in another such function, shall not withdraw from registration...Supervision and Consumer Protection (DSC), FDIC, Washington,...

  18. 12 CFR 341.5 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...that ceases to engage in the functions of a transfer agent as defined...engage in one or more of the functions of transfer agent as defined...continues to engage in another such function, shall not withdraw from registration...Supervision and Consumer Protection (DSC), FDIC, Washington,...

  19. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about patients’ characteristics and addiction history. The T-test, ANOVA, and a linear regression model served for statistical analysis. Results Of the patients, 48% reported brushing their teeth less than once a day, more than 90% used fluoride toothpaste almost or always, and 81% flossed their teeth rarely or never. Eating sugary products twice a day or more was reported by 57% of the patients and 85% of them were current smokers. Poor OHB was associated with male gender, lower education, being addicted mainly to crystalline heroin, starting drug abuse at a younger age, and having a longer history of addiction (p?withdrawal treatment. Preventive strategies on oral health should be planned and be integrated into other health promotion programs for addicts along with their withdrawal treatment taking into account special groups at higher risk. PMID:23368406

  20. Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Lucidarme; Amélie Seguin; Cédric Daubin; Michel Ramakers; Nicolas Terzi; Patrice Beck; Pierre Charbonneau; Damien du Cheyron

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Smoking is highly addictive, and nicotine abstinence is associated with withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of sudden nicotine abstinence on the development of agitation and delirium, and on morbidities and outcomes in critically ill patients who required respiratory support, either noninvasive ventilation or intubation, and mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We

  1. It's self defense: how perceived discrimination promotes employee withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Volpone, Sabrina D; Avery, Derek R

    2013-10-01

    Integrating theory on stress, stigma, and coping, the present study sheds light on how employees react to perceived discrimination (PD) in the workplace. Using three national samples, we found that PD based on race, sex, age, family obligation, and sexual orientation related to physical withdrawal (i.e., lateness, absenteeism,and intent to quit) indirectly through psychological withdrawal (i.e., burnout and engagement) such that PD corresponded in less engagement and more burnout, which related to increased lateness, absenteeism, and intent to quit [corrected].Further, these indirect relationships were moderated by employees' coping mechanisms with those who were more apt to change the situation or to avoid the stressor exhibiting weaker relationships between PD and psychological withdrawal. Though each of these studies is cross-sectional in nature and therefore cannot provide strong evidence of causal ordering of the variables in our model, the replication and extension of results over three databases and multiple forms of discrimination, coping, psychological, and physical withdrawal demonstrates that understanding the relationships explored in these studies can aid researchers and practitioners in enhancing employee quality of life and productivity. PMID:24099162

  2. Caffeine: behavioral effects of withdrawal and related issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B Dews; C. P O'Brien; J Bergman

    2002-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to some behavioral effects of caffeine in humans is widely assumed to occur but is poorly documented and appears, at most, to be of low magnitude. Withdrawal from regular consumption of caffeine has been reported to result in a variety of symptoms, including: irritability, sleepiness, dysphoria, delerium, nausea, vomiting, rhinorrhea, nervousness, restlessness, anxiety, muscle tension, muscle pains and

  3. U.S. Withdraws from Education Reform in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the withdrawal of the United States government from educational reform in Iraq. It has however, through the U.S. Agency for International Development, awarded a two-year National Capacity Development contract, which is aimed at helping Iraq's government ministries to function better. This article discusses how security…

  4. Chloroquine resistance before and after its withdrawal in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Leah; Ochong, Edwin; Abdirahman, Abdi; Kiara, Steven M; Ward, Steve; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Sasi, Philip; Marsh, Kevin; Borrmann, Steffen; Mackinnon, Margaret; Nzila, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Background The spread of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) led to its withdrawal from use in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s. In Malawi, this withdrawal was followed by a rapid reduction in the frequency of resistance to the point where the drug is now considered to be effective once again, just nine years after its withdrawal. In this report, the polymorphisms of markers associated with CQ-resistance against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from coastal Kenya (Kilifi) were investigated, from 1993, prior to the withdrawal of CQ, to 2006, seven years after its withdrawal. Changes to those that occurred in the dihydrofolate reductase gene (dhfr) that confers resistance to the replacement drug, pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine were also compared. Methods Mutations associated with CQ resistance, at codons 76 of pfcrt, at 86 of pfmdr1, and at codons 51, 59 and 164 of dhfr were analysed using PCR-restriction enzyme methods. In total, 406, 240 and 323 isolates were genotyped for pfcrt-76, pfmdr1-86 and dhfr, respectively. Results From 1993 to 2006, the frequency of the pfcrt-76 mutant significantly decreased from around 95% to 60%, while the frequency of pfmdr1-86 did not decline, remaining around 75%. Though the frequency of dhfr mutants was already high (around 80%) at the start of the study, this frequency increased to above 95% during the study period. Mutation at codon 164 of dhfr was analysed in 2006 samples, and none of them had this mutation. Conclusion In accord with the study in Malawi, a reduction in resistance to CQ following official withdrawal in 1999 was found, but unlike Malawi, the decline of resistance to CQ in Kilifi was much slower. It is estimated that, at current rates of decline, it will take 13 more years for the clinical efficacy of CQ to be restored in Kilifi. In addition, CQ resistance was declining before the drug's official withdrawal, suggesting that, prior to the official ban, the use of CQ had decreased, probably due to its poor clinical effectiveness. PMID:19450282

  5. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

  11. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  12. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Emotions Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  13. Volunteer Sign Up College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Volunteer Sign Up College of Engineering 100th Anniversary Reunion September 20-23 2012 CONTACT INFORMATION First Name Last Name Address Office Room # Phone # Cell # Email Address VOLUNTEER POSITION SIGN UP

  14. The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb

    SciTech Connect

    Keune, A., E-mail: anne.keune@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

  15. Genome-wide examination of myoblast cell cycle withdrawal duringdifferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xun; Collier, John Michael; Hlaing, Myint; Zhang, Leanne; Delshad, Elizabeth H.; Bristow, James; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2002-12-02

    Skeletal and cardiac myocytes cease division within weeks of birth. Although skeletal muscle retains limited capacity for regeneration through recruitment of satellite cells, resident populations of adult myocardial stem cells have not been identified. Because cell cycle withdrawal accompanies myocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line previously used to characterize myocyte differentiation, also would provide a model for studying cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. C2C12 cells were differentiated in culture medium containing horse serum and harvested at various time points to characterize the expression profiles of known cell cycle and myogenic regulatory factors by immunoblot analysis. BrdU incorporation decreased dramatically in confluent cultures 48 hr after addition of horse serum, as cells started to form myotubes. This finding was preceded by up-regulation of MyoD, followed by myogenin, and activation of Bcl-2. Cyclin D1 was expressed in proliferating cultures and became undetectable in cultures containing 40 percent fused myotubes, as levels of p21(WAF1/Cip1) increased and alpha-actin became detectable. Because C2C12 myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle during myocyte differentiation following a course that recapitulates this process in vivo, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify other gene products involved in this process. Using microarrays containing approximately 10,000 minimally redundant mouse sequences that map to the UniGene database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we compared gene expression profiles between proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells and verified candidate genes demonstrating differential expression by RT-PCR. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed groups of gene products involved in cell cycle withdrawal, muscle differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, we identified several genes, including DDAH2 and Ly-6A, whose expression specifically was up-regulated during cell cycle withdrawal coincident with early myoblast differentiation.

  16. Noun morphology in Italian Sign Language (LIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Pizzuto; Serena Corazza

    1996-01-01

    It has been reported that in at least some sign languages such as ASL, nominal signs possess little or no inflectional morphology. Previous analyses of Italian Sign Language (LIS), have shown that LIS nouns exhibit some inflectional properties, and these influence the behavior of verbs. Most of these data, however, were limited to one variety of LIS used in Palermo,

  17. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  18. A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

  19. Road traffic sign detection and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de la Escalera; L. E. Moreno; M. A. Salichs; J. M. Armingol

    1997-01-01

    A vision-based vehicle guidance system for road vehicles can have three main roles: (1) road detection; (2) obstacle detection; and (3) sign recognition. The first two have been studied for many years and with many good results, but traffic sign recognition is a less-studied field. Traffic signs provide drivers with very valuable information about the road, in order to make

  20. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language…

  1. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  2. SPECTRALLY ARBITRARY COMPLEX SIGN PATTERN MATRICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUBIN GAO; YANLING SHAO; YIZHENG FAN

    2009-01-01

    An n × n complex sign pattern matrix S is said to be spectrallyarbitraryif for everymonic nth degree polynomial f (?) with coefficients from C, there is a complex matrix in the complex sign pattern class of S such that its characteristic polynomial is f (?). If S is a spectrally arbitrarycomplex sign pattern matrix, and no proper subpattern of

  3. Whats Inside: Payroll Sign-Up Packet

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Whats Inside: Payroll Sign-Up Packet Forms Available On-Line Fall Executive Briefing: How to Deal.okstate.edu/osu_per A link for the New Employee Payroll Sign-up Packet has been added to the Latest Information area the Employment Action form, and information sheets that are part of the new em- ployee payroll sign-up packet

  4. Student Volunteer Sign Up College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Student Volunteer Sign Up College of Engineering 100th Anniversary Reunion September 20-23 2012 CONTACT INFORMATION First Name Last Name Address Phone # Cell # Email Address VOLUNTEER POSITION SIGN UP Package Preparation and work bees VOLUNTEER APPRECIATION SIGN UP Please check the event you would like

  5. Student Volunteer Sign Up College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Student Volunteer Sign Up College of Engineering 100th Anniversary Reunion September 20-23 2012 POSITION SIGN UP Please check all the positions you would like to volunteer for: Thursday Evening, Welcome, Farewell Brunch Photographer July/August, Registration Package Preparation VOLUNTEER APPRECIATION SIGN UP

  6. General traffic sign recognition by feature matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FeiXiang Ren; Jinsheng Huang; Ruyi Jiang; Reinhard Klette

    2009-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition is a technology which allows us to recognize signs in real time, typically in videos, or sometimes just (off-line) in photos. It is used for Driver Assistance Systems (DAS), road surveys, or the management of road assets (to improve road safety). In this paper, we propose a method for general traffic sign recognition (tested for the New

  7. Surrounding Denver Metro Smart Sign Study

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    and the City of Boulder Over the course of the 2000 summer, the smart sign measured over 200,000 vehiclesSurrounding Denver Metro Smart Sign Study Summer 2000 Sponsored by the Regional Air Quality Council emissions (see figure below). The SMART SIGN uses an RSD 3000 detection system so all HC data in this report

  8. Global Warming: Early Warning Signs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

  9. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  10. Geometry Dependence of the Sign Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglovikov, Vladimir; Khatami, Ehsan; Fye, Richard; Scalettar, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The sign problem is a fundamental limitation to Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the statistical mechanics of interacting fermions and frustrated quantum spins. We produced a comprehensive dataset on the geometry dependence of the sign problem for different densities, interaction strengths, inverse temperatures and spatial lattice sizes. We supplement this data with several observations concerning general patterns/trends in the data, including the dependence on spatial volume and how this can be probed by examining decoupled clusters, the scaling of the sign in the vicinity of a particle-hole symmetric point, and the correlation between the total sign and the signs of the individual spin up and spin down components.

  11. The South African Sign Language Machine Translation Project: Issues on Non-manual Sign Generation

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    -adjoining grammar parser approach in order to generate non-manual signs and construct a suitable signing space. We-manual Signs, Machine Translation, Sign Language 1. INTRODUCTION The South African Deaf community of an effort to develop assistive technologies to bridge the communication gap between the hearing and the Deaf

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Benjamin A.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; McKee, Sherry A.; Salovey, Peter; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) using confirmatory factor analysis in clinical research samples of smokers trying to quit (n = 723). Three confirmatory factor analytic models, based on previous research, were tested with each of the 3 study samples at multiple points in time. A unidimensional model including all 8 MNWS items was found to be the best explanation of the data. This model produced fair to good internal consistency estimates. Additionally, these data revealed that craving should be included in the total score of the MNWS. Factor scores derived from this single-factor, 8-item model showed that increases in withdrawal were associated with poor smoking outcome for 2 of the clinical studies. Confirmatory factor analyses of change scores showed that the MNWS symptoms cohere as a syndrome over time. Future investigators should report a total score using all of the items from the MNWS. PMID:17563141

  13. Hallucinations after abrupt withdrawal of oral and intrathecal baclofen.

    PubMed

    D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Cammaroto, Simona; Rifici, Carmela; Marra, Giuseppe; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Di Bella, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Since 1977 several cases of hallucinations after abrupt withdrawal of oral baclofen have been described. There are no reports of hallucinations after gradual withdrawal of oral baclofen. No one has ever described visual hallucinations after abrupt interruption of intrathecal baclofen therapy. We describe five personally observed cases of visual hallucinations occurring after sudden interruption of baclofen (in two of these cases, intrathecal baclofen) therapy. The patients were immediately submitted to routine EEG, visual evoked potentials and standard brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A few days later they also underwent polysomnography, fundus oculi examination and brain MRI of the temporal lobe. All these examinations were normal. We hypothesise that these symptoms could be due to biochemical and molecular changes, chiefly in glutamatergic n-methyl-d-aspartate, GABA-A, and GABA-B receptor response, leading to increased excitability and spontaneous activity as a result of chronic use of baclofen. PMID:17637210

  14. Stability-oriented programs for regulating water withdrawals in riparian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyunhee; Eheart, J. Wayland; Braatz, Richard D.

    2004-12-01

    Under permit programs stemming from regulated riparian systems of water withdrawal control, significant quantities of water cannot be withdrawn from the stream without a withdrawal-constraining permit. There are two versions of such a permit system, one of which fixes the allowable withdrawal, the other of which allows withdrawals to vary directly with streamflows. However, both tie allowable withdrawal to streamflow at some level, the former simply shutting off all withdrawals when the streamflow breaches a low flow standard. Simple logic and the simulation of such systems with hydrologic models predict, in cases where the indexing gauge is downstream of the withdrawal point, the possibility of unstable feedback, leading to severe variability of both streamflow and allowable withdrawal. In this paper we characterize the streamflow variability with three indices, namely, flow crossing, flow reversal, and standard deviation, and compare the difference in those indices to represent the degree of the streamflow variability under the fixed flow and fractional flow withdrawal permit programs. Techniques based on control theory are proposed for modifying the fractional flow withdrawal program to reduce the streamflow variability. It is concluded that regulatory programs modified by inclusion of a first-order filter are able to reduce streamflow variability without significant sacrifice in net benefit or low flow frequency.

  15. Abstinence-related expectancies predict smoking withdrawal effects: implications for possible causal mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Despite the decades-long emphasis on withdrawal in leading models of addiction, the causal mechanisms driving smoking withdrawal effects are not well known. This gap in the knowledge base has stalled theory and treatment development for smoking dependence. Objectives As cognitive factors have been largely neglected as predictors of withdrawal, the current study sought to examine how smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies relate to withdrawal symptomatology. Methods Adult smokers (N=180; ?10 cigarettes/day) participated in two counterbalanced experimental sessions involving either 16 h of abstinence or smoking as usual. At baseline, participants completed three withdrawal-related scales of the Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire (Withdrawal, Optimistic Outcomes, and Weight Gain scales), a self-report measure of smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies. During experimental sessions, participants completed a number of instruments that covered the range of smoking withdrawal effects (i.e., negative affect, urge/craving to smoke, diminished positive affect, concentration difficulty, hunger, and physiological symptoms). Results Even after controlling for the influence of demographic characteristics and cigarette dependence, smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies were meaningful predictors of abstinence-induced changes in various withdrawal symptoms (mean adjusted standardized ?=0.22). Stronger expectancies for withdrawal and weight gain predicted more severe withdrawal effects, whereas stronger expectancies for optimistic outcomes predicted less severe withdrawal effects. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the notion that expectancies actively shape future experience and are the first to support the suggestion that smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies may be causal agents of withdrawal symptomatology. Future research is required to more conclusively determine whether abstinence-related expectancies mold withdrawal effects. PMID:23812761

  16. Evaluation of Un-Medicated, Self-Paced Alcohol Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Craig; Antonio Pennacchia; Neil R. Wright; Henry W. Chase; Lee Hogarth

    2011-01-01

    It is currently unclear how effective un-medicated, self-paced alcohol withdrawal is in reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol dependent clients. To address this question, the current study examined the reduction in alcohol consumption, assessed by breath alcohol and drink diary self-report, of 405 alcohol-dependent clients over a 10-day, un-medicated, self-paced alcohol reduction program that included group discussion of strategies for titrating

  17. Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine withdrawal in ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Hawthorne; R. F. Logan; C. J. Hawkey; P. N. Foster; A. T. Axon; E. T. Swarbrick; B. B. Scott; J. E. Lennard-Jones

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether azathioprine can prevent relapse in ulcerative colitis. DESIGN--One year placebo controlled double blind trial of withdrawal or continuation of azathioprine. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of five hospitals. SUBJECTS--79 patients with ulcerative colitis who had been taking azathioprine for six months or more. Patients in full remission for two months or more (67), and patients with chronic low grade or

  18. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper. PMID:23686524

  19. Managing alcohol withdrawal in the acutely ill hospitalized adult.

    PubMed

    Segatore, M; Adams, D; Lange, S

    1999-06-01

    Managing individuals with acute illness who are at high risk for alcohol withdrawal presents multiple challenges to the treatment teams caring for them. Following realization that management of this group was often characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms (delirium tremens, seizures and the need for leather restraints), a Task Force developed protocols to guide care. Its principal goal was to avoid cardiorespiratory and neurologic morbidities associated with severe withdrawal. The first 441 episodes of care treated after protocol implementation are described in this report. There were no instances of oversedation requiring pharmacological reversal or intubation, few individuals suffered seizures outside of the emergency department and the use of leather restraints declined dramatically. Outstanding issues arising from analysis include the necessity of subjecting the symptom severity instrument to rigorous psychometric study and reconsideration of the appropriateness of a symptom-triggered approach in treating this population. Our experience suggests that use of a nonprescriptive approach by educated and motivated nursing and medical staffs can reduce serious morbidity in this at-risk population. PMID:10846644

  20. Anxiogenic effects of ethanol withdrawal assessed in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, D.; Harris, C.M.; Bhadra, S.; Lal, H.

    1987-01-01

    Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) is anxiogenic in humans and produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus in rats which is mimicked by anxiogenic drugs and blocked by anxiolytics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ethanol withdrawal produced a discriminative stimulus similar to that of PTZ. Rats were trained in a two-lever operant task to press one lever after PTZ injection, and to press the other lever after saline injection. Training was discontinued and ethanol (12.5% w/v) was administered p.o. seven times a day, for five days. Doses were titrated to keep rats mildly ataxic. Subjects responded on the PTZ-appropriate lever after saline injection at 24, 27, and 48 hours following the last ethanol injection. Withdrawn subjects responded on the saline lever in a dose-dependent manner after diazepam or ethanol injection. These data suggest that withdrawal from ethanol produces a discriminative stimulus similar to that produced by PTZ and other anxiogenic drugs, and that diazepam and ethanol block the withdrawal stimulus.