Sample records for naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs

  1. Suppressive effects of rosa damascena essential oil on naloxone- precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in male mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Maleki, Navid; Abbasi Maleki, Saeid; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This research was done to test the effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on withdrawal signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine in male mice. Morphine dependence was induced by injection (IP) three times daily at doses of 50, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 days. On day 4, after the last administration of morphine, Rosa damascena essential oil was administered at different concentrations (5, 2 and 40%, IP) 30 min before administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg, IP). The following actions were taken as signs of withdrawal and records taken for jumping as a number and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, writing, diarrhea, wet dog shakes and climbing during a 30 min period. Results showed that different concentrations of Rosa damascena essential oil significantly reduced signs of morphine withdrawal compared to the control group in terms of number of jumps (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, climbing, wet dog shakes and writhing, but not for diarrhea (p < 0.05). In conclusion it seems that GABAergic activity induced by flavonoids from Rosa damascena essential oil can alleviate signs of morphine withdrawal, but further studies need to be done to better understand this mechanism. PMID:24250642

  2. Examining the effect of the CaMKII inhibitor administration in the locus coeruleus on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats.

    PubMed

    Navidhamidi, M; Semnanian, S; Javan, M; Goudarzvand, M; Rohampour, K; Azizi, H

    2012-01-15

    Drug addiction is an occurrence with physiological, psychological, and social outcomes. Repeated drug exposure causes neuronal adaptations and dependency. It has been shown that CaMKII? enzyme contributes to morphine dependency. The locus coeruleus nucleus has been implied in the morphine withdrawal syndrome. This research focuses on the behavioral and molecular adaptations that occur in the locus coeruleus neurons in response to the chronic morphine exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were injected by morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg/s.c.) at an interval of 12 h for a period of nine subsequent days. On the tenth day, naloxone (1 mg/kg/i.p.) was injected 2 h after the morphine administration. Somatic withdrawal signs were investigated for 30 min. We concluded that the inhibition of CaMKII? by administration of KN-93, the specific inhibitor of this enzyme, significantly attenuated some of the withdrawal signs. In molecular method, the expression of CaMKII? protein has been enhanced in locus coeruleus of the morphine dependent rats. These findings indicate that CaMKII? may be involved in the modulation of the naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome, and treatment with KN-93 may have some effects on this system. PMID:22004981

  3. Role of low-intensity laser therapy on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in mice: is nitric oxide a possible candidate mediator?

    PubMed

    Ojaghi, Reza; Sohanaki, Hamid; Ghasemi, Tayyeb; Keshavarz, Faeze; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the potential involvement of nitric oxide (NO) system in attenuating effects of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was evaluated. A hundred mice were rendered morphine-dependent using three escalating doses of morphine sulfate during three consecutive days. After the last dose on day 4, animals were given naloxone HCl (2 mg/kg s.c) to induce withdrawal signs. The effects of LILT (12.5 J/cm(2)) and L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and their coadministration on escape jump count and stool weight as typical withdrawal signs were assessed. LILT and L-NAME (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) per se significantly decreased escape jump count and stool weight in morphine-dependent naloxone-treated mice (p < 0.01). Coadministration of LILT and L-NAME (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) also reduced escape jump and stool weight (p < 0.05) but with no synergetic or additive response. Here, LILT at this fluence may show its maximal effects on NO and therefore no noticeable effects appeared during coadministration use. Moreover, LILT and L-NAME follow the same track of changes in escape jump and stool weight. Conceivably, it seems that LILT acts partly via NO system, but the exact path is still obscure and rather intricate. The precise mechanisms need to be clarified. PMID:24711009

  4. Effects of 5HT 3 receptor antagonists on behavioural measures of naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy A. Higgins; Peter Nguyen; Narges Joharchi; Edward M. Sellers

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron and MDL 72222, against various behaviours elicited by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal were examined. Rats made dependent upon morphine by the subcutaneous implantation of a 75 mg pellet, when challenged with naloxone (0.5 mg\\/kg SC), 3 or 4 days later exhibited a wide range of behaviours including wet dog shakes, paw shakes,

  5. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Wataru; Sato, Tasuku; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yaoita, Fukie; Silberring, Jerzy; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of cysteine protease inhibitors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice, presumably through the inhibition of dynorphin degradation (see (Tan-No, K., Sato, T., Shimoda, M., Nakagawasai, O., Niijima, F., Kawamura, S., Furuta, S., Sato, T., Satoh, S., Silberring, J., Terenius, L., Tadano, T., 2010. Suppressive effects by cysteine protease inhibitors on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice. Neuropeptides 44, 279-283)). In the present study, we examined the effect of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine protease inhibitor, on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice. The doses of morphine (mg/kg per injection) were subcutaneously given twice daily for 2 days [day 1 (30) and day 2 (60)]. On day 3, naloxone (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 3h after the final injection of morphine (60 mg/kg), and the number of jumps was immediately recorded for 20 min. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping was significantly suppressed by i.c.v. administration of PMSF (4 nmol), given 5 min before each morphine treatment during the induction phase, with none given on the test day. The expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin, in the prefrontal cortex was significantly increased in morphine-dependent and -withdrawal mice, as compared with saline-treated mice. Moreover, trans-4-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (300 pmol), an antiplasmin agent, and (Tyr(1))-thrombin receptor activating peptide 7 (0.45 and 2 nmol), an antagonist of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping. The present results suggest that PMSF suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice, presumably through the inhibition of activities of tPA and plasmin belonging to the serine proteases family, which subsequently activates PAR-1. PMID:23290539

  6. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  7. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  8. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. PMID:25582704

  9. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  10. In vivo tracer studies of glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and protein synthesis in naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Geary; G. F. Wooten

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography of [14C]deoxyglucose, [14C]iodoantipyrine, and [14C]leucine was used to estimate regional cerebral glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral protein synthesis, respectively, in rats during morphine dependence and withdrawal. Glucose metabolism was elevated in 19 of 26 selected brain regions; the elevations in glucose metabolism were similar when data were expressed as either optical density ratios or as calculated

  11. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (10–60 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  12. Alleviation of Morphine Withdrawal Signs but Not Tolerance by the Essential Oil of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Izadi, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute treatment of the essential oil (EO) of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Mice were rendered tolerant to and dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine over a period of 5 days. Tolerance was assessed using the tail-pinch test and withdrawal signs of morphine were precipitated by injecting naloxone 2?h after the final morphine injection. Repeated injection of the EO of K. odoratissima (5 and 10?mg/kg) for 4 days significantly suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps, a sign of the development of dependence to opiate as assessed by naloxone precipitation withdrawal on day 5 of testing. A single injection (25, 50, 100?mg/kg) of the EO on day 5, 1?h prior to morphine failed to produce any significant change in morphine withdrawal signs. Neither the acute nor the chronic administration of EO of the K. odoratissima did significantly influence the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Alleviation in morphine signs of withdrawal after chronic injection with K. odoratissima is indicative of reversal of neuronal adaptation that takes place during morphine presence in the brain. PMID:22829859

  13. Reduced emotional signs of opiate withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K.; Holtz, Nathan A.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake exhibit divergent behavioral responses to multiple drugs of abuse, with HiS rats displaying greater vulnerability to drug taking. Previous research indicates that this effect may be due to increased sensitivity to reward in HiS rats and to the aversive effects of acute drug administration in LoS rats. Objective The current study investigated whether HiS and LoS rats also exhibit different behavioral signs of withdrawal following one or repeated opiate exposures. Methods Emotional signs of opiate withdrawal were assessed with potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in male and female HiS and LoS rats. Startle was measured before and 4 h after a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine on days 1, 2, and 7 of opiate exposure. CPA was induced with a two-day, naloxone-precipitated conditioning paradigm. Somatic signs of withdrawal and weight loss were used also measured. Results Male and female LoS rats exhibited lower startle potentiation than HiS rats on the seventh day of morphine exposure. LoS male rats also failed to develop a CPA to morphine withdrawal. No differences in physical withdrawal signs were observed between HiS and LoS rats, but males of both lines had more physical signs of withdrawal than females. Conclusions These results suggest that LoS rats are less vulnerable to the negative emotional effects of morphine withdrawal than HiS rats. A less severe withdrawal syndrome may contribute to decreased levels of drug taking in the LoS line. PMID:23254375

  14. Rimonabant-Induced ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Withdrawal in Rhesus Monkeys: Discriminative Stimulus Effects and Other Withdrawal Signs

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent individuals report using marijuana to alleviate withdrawal, suggesting that pharmacotherapy of marijuana withdrawal could promote abstinence. To identify potential pharmacotherapies for marijuana withdrawal, this study first characterized rimonabant-induced ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) withdrawal in rhesus monkeys by using drug discrimination and directly observable signs. Second, drugs were examined for their capacity to modify cannabinoid withdrawal. Monkeys receiving chronic ?9-THC (1 mg/kg/12 h s.c.) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) under a fixed ratio schedule of stimulus-shock termination. The discriminative stimulus effects of rimonabant were dose-dependent (ED50 = 0.25 mg/kg) and accompanied by head shaking. In the absence of chronic ?9-THC treatment (i.e., in nondependent monkeys), a larger dose (3.2 mg/kg) of rimonabant produced head shaking and tachycardia. Temporary discontinuation of ?9-THC treatment resulted in increased responding on the rimonabant lever, head shaking, and activity during the dark cycle. The rimonabant discriminative stimulus was attenuated fully by ?9-THC (at doses larger than mg/kg/12 h) and the cannabinoid agonist CP 55940 [5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]phenol], and partially by the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 [(R)-(+)-[2, 3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate] and the ?2-adrenergic agonist clonidine. In contrast, a benzodiazepine (diazepam) and monoamine agonist (cocaine) did not attenuate the rimonabant discriminative stimulus. Head shaking was attenuated by all test compounds. These results show that the discriminative stimulus effects of rimonabant in ?9-THC-treated monkeys are a more pharmacologically selective measure of cannabinoid withdrawal than rimonabant-induced head shaking. These results suggest that cannabinoid and noncannabinoid (?2-adrenergic) agonists are potentially useful therapeutics for marijuana dependence inasmuch as they attenuate the subjective experience of ?9-THC withdrawal. PMID:20375197

  15. Tobacco Withdrawal Signs and Symptoms Among Women With and Without a History of Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Wetter; Cindy L. Carmack; Cheryl B. Anderson; Constance A. Moore; Carl A. De Moor; Paul M. Cinciripini; Max Hirshkowitz

    2000-01-01

    A past history of depression is associated with a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking. Tobacco withdrawal may be a mechanism through which depression history impedes smoking cessation. This research examined the influence of depression history on unmedicated tobacco withdrawal signs (polysomnographic measures of sleep) and symptoms (self-reported urge, negative affect, hunger, and sleep) among women (N = 13). Depression history

  16. Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the expression of withdrawal diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Komiya, Sachiko; Ohya, Jumpei; Uzawa, Naoki; Sugiyama, Koichi; Saitoh, Yusuke; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-10-01

    The withdrawal syndrome after the cessation of ?-opioid receptor agonists remains an obstacle in the clinical treatment of pain. We recently showed that peripheral opioid receptors play a significant role in the withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of morphine-induced withdrawal symptoms, especially the peripheral oriented body-weight loss that accompanied diarrhea, in mice. Withdrawal signs were precipitated by the injection of naloxone 1 day after the slow-release emulsion administration of morphine. Withdrawal body-weight loss and diarrhea precipitated by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were significantly suppressed by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), olanzapine (5-HT2/D2 receptor antagonist) and fullerene (a free radical scavenger), whereas neither ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) nor atropine (a muscarine receptor antagonist) significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated diarrhea. 5-HT3-receptors (but not 5-HT2-receptors) are known to play a significant role in 5-HT-induced diarrhea. Therefore, we also examined the effects of ritanserin and fullerene on 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice. Ritaserin significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice, but not saline-treated mice. These results suggest that peripheral 5-HT2-receptor function could be altered in morphine-dependent mice, and the blockade of 5-HT2 receptor or free radical scavengers may be useful for the treatment of opioid-withdrawal diarrhea. PMID:25034809

  17. Effects of the cell type-specific ablation of the cAMP-responsive transcription factor in noradrenergic neurons on locus coeruleus firing and withdrawal behavior after chronic exposure to morphine.

    PubMed

    Parlato, Rosanna; Cruz, Hans; Otto, Christiane; Murtra, Patricia; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Martin, Miquel; Bura, Simona A; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver; Maldonado, Rafael; Schütz, Günther; Lüscher, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Repeated exposure to opiates leads to cellular and molecular changes and behavioral alterations reflecting a state of dependence. In noradrenergic neurons, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent pathways are activated during opiate withdrawal, but their contribution to the activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons and behavioral manifestations remains controversial. Here, we test whether the cAMP-dependent transcription factors cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) in noradrenergic neurons control the cellular markers and the physical signs of morphine withdrawal in mice. Using the Cre/loxP system we ablated the Creb1 gene in noradrenergic neurons. To avoid adaptive effects because of compensatory up-regulation of CREM, we crossed the conditional Creb1 mutant mice with a Crem-/- line. We found that the enhanced expression of tyrosine hydroxylase normally observed during withdrawal was attenuated in CREB/CREM mutants. Moreover, the withdrawal-associated cellular hyperactivity and c-fos expression was blunted. In contrast, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, such as jumping, paw tremor, tremor and mastication were preserved. We conclude by a specific genetic approach that the withdrawal-associated hyperexcitability of noradrenergic neurons depends on CREB/CREM activity in these neurons, but does not mediate several behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. PMID:20367754

  18. Rimonabant-induced Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol withdrawal in rhesus monkeys: discriminative stimulus effects and other withdrawal signs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer L; McMahon, Lance R

    2010-07-01

    Marijuana-dependent individuals report using marijuana to alleviate withdrawal, suggesting that pharmacotherapy of marijuana withdrawal could promote abstinence. To identify potential pharmacotherapies for marijuana withdrawal, this study first characterized rimonabant-induced Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) withdrawal in rhesus monkeys by using drug discrimination and directly observable signs. Second, drugs were examined for their capacity to modify cannabinoid withdrawal. Monkeys receiving chronic Delta(9)-THC (1 mg/kg/12 h s.c.) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) under a fixed ratio schedule of stimulus-shock termination. The discriminative stimulus effects of rimonabant were dose-dependent (ED(50) = 0.25 mg/kg) and accompanied by head shaking. In the absence of chronic Delta(9)-THC treatment (i.e., in nondependent monkeys), a larger dose (3.2 mg/kg) of rimonabant produced head shaking and tachycardia. Temporary discontinuation of Delta(9)-THC treatment resulted in increased responding on the rimonabant lever, head shaking, and activity during the dark cycle. The rimonabant discriminative stimulus was attenuated fully by Delta(9)-THC (at doses larger than mg/kg/12 h) and the cannabinoid agonist CP 55940 [5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]phenol], and partially by the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 [(R)-(+)-[2, 3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate] and the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine. In contrast, a benzodiazepine (diazepam) and monoamine agonist (cocaine) did not attenuate the rimonabant discriminative stimulus. Head shaking was attenuated by all test compounds. These results show that the discriminative stimulus effects of rimonabant in Delta(9)-THC-treated monkeys are a more pharmacologically selective measure of cannabinoid withdrawal than rimonabant-induced head shaking. These results suggest that cannabinoid and noncannabinoid (alpha(2)-adrenergic) agonists are potentially useful therapeutics for marijuana dependence inasmuch as they attenuate the subjective experience of Delta(9)-THC withdrawal. PMID:20375197

  19. Spironolactone decreases the somatic signs of opiate withdrawal by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacological evidence has accumulated showing that glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) facilitate several responses to different drugs of abuse. Recent findings have attributed a prominent role to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in modulating behavior during the addictive process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MR blockade on: brain stress system responses to naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, the somatic signs of abstinence; the effects of morphine withdrawal on noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), c-Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser31 levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2); and finally, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. The role of MR signaling was assessed with i.p. pretreatment with the MR antagonist, spironolactone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later rats were pretreated with spironolactone or vehicle 30min before naloxone. The physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression and the HPA axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. Spironolactone attenuated the somatic signs of withdrawal that were seen after naloxone administration to chronic morphine treated animals. On the other hand, pretreatment with spironolactone resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression or HPA axis activity that occurred during morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that somatic signs of opiate withdrawal are modulated by MR signaling. However, blockade of MR did not significantly alter the brain stress system response to morphine withdrawal. PMID:25308750

  20. Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

  1. Withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Withdrawal KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Birth Control > Withdrawal Print A A A Text ...

  2. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Hutchinson; Susannah S. Lewis; Benjamen D. Coats; David A. Skyba; Nicole Y. Crysdale; Debra L. Berkelhammer; Anita Brzeski; Alexis Northcutt; Christine M. Vietz; Charles M. Judd; Steven F. Maier; Linda R. Watkins; Kirk W. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  3. Effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the elevations in brain reward thresholds and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Bishnoi, Mahendra; van Tuijl, Irma A.; Keijzers, Kim F. M.; Yavarovich, Kate R.; Pasek, Tim M.; Ford, Jenna; Alexander, Jon C.; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco withdrawal is characterized by a negative mood state and relatively mild somatic symptoms. Increased noradrenergic transmission has been reported to play an important role in opioid withdrawal, but little is known about the role of noradrenergic transmission in nicotine withdrawal. Objectives The aim of these experiments was to investigate the effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the negative mood state and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Methods A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. Results In all the experiments, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3 mg/kg) elevated the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine-treated rats and did not affect those of the control rats. The ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin (0.0625 and 0.125 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (10–40 ?g/kg) and the nonselective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2.5–10 mg/kg) did not attenuate the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with nicotine withdrawal. Mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) induced more somatic signs in the nicotine-treated rats than in the control rats. Clonidine and propranolol, but not prazosin, decreased the total number of somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal. Conclusion Blockade of ?1-adrenergic receptors attenuates the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal. Antagonism of ?-adrenergic receptors or stimulation of ?2-adrenergic receptors attenuates the somatic symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:20697697

  4. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. PMID:24906198

  5. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts The list below provides information gathered from press ... than 60 days, see the Recall and Safety Alerts Archive. Sign up to receive Recalls, Market Withdrawals ...

  6. Glutamate receptors in the dorsal hippocampus mediate the acquisition, but not the expression, of conditioned place aversion induced by acute morphine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Yao; Kang, Shuo; Yu, Chuan; Chi, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-gen

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the role of glutamate receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the motivational component of morphine withdrawal. Methods: NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (5 ?g/0.5 ?L per side) or AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (2 ?g/0.5 ?L per side) was microinjected into DH of rats. Conditioned place aversion (CPA) induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal were assessed. Results: Preconditioning microinjection of D-AP5 or NBQX into the DH impaired the acquisition of CPA in acute morphine-dependent rats. However, intra-DH microinjection of D-AP5 or NBQX after conditioning but before the testing session had no effect on the expression of CPA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that NMDA and AMPA receptors in the dorsal hippocampus are involved in the acquisition, but not in the expression, of the negative motivational components of acute morphine withdrawal in rats. PMID:19767765

  7. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Lewis, Susannah S; Coats, Benjamen D; Skyba, David A; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Berkelhammer, Debra L; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M; Judd, Charles M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R; Johnson, Kirk W

    2009-02-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused three-to-five-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, while improving analgesia. PMID:18938237

  8. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Susannah S.; Coats, Benjamen D.; Skyba, David A.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M.; Judd, Charles M.; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.; Johnson, Kirk W.

    2009-01-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused 3-to-5-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, whilst improving analgesia. PMID:18938237

  9. Prevention of precipitated withdrawal symptoms by activating central cholinergic systems during a dependence-producing schedule of morphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Buccafusco, J J; Zhang, L C; Shuster, L C; Jonnala, R R; Gattu, M

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies in this and other laboratories have suggested an important role for central cholinergic neurons in the expression of morphine withdrawal symptoms. This study was designed to determine whether the symptoms of withdrawal could be mitigated by normalization of the effect of morphine on cholinergic neurons. Since this effect is generally inhibitory, we used centrally acting cholinergic agonists to augment central cholinergic tone during chronic morphine infusion. Rats were made dependent following the intra-arterial (i.a.) infusion of increasing concentrations (35-100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of morphine over 5 days. I.a. injection of 0.5 mg/kg of naloxone precipitated a profound withdrawal response that included a dramatic increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) which was maintained over the 60-min observation period, a short duration increase in heart rate (HR), and characteristic opiate withdrawal symptoms. In separate groups of rats, non-toxic doses (50 and 250 microg/kg) of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP) were administered as single daily injections concomitant with the morphine infusion. DFP treated rats, exhibited significantly reduced expression of the naloxone-evoked pressor response. The apparent anti-withdrawal effect of DFP was not reproduced by the selective peripherally acting AChE inhibitor, echothiophate, although both compounds effectively reduced the expression of certain other withdrawal symptoms. The centrally acting muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, arecoline, resulted in an even more impressive suppression of withdrawal symptoms. While not all symptoms associated with morphine withdrawal are mediated via central cholinergic pathways, these results suggest that physical dependence on morphine can be suppressed to a significant degree by the augmentation of central cholinergic activity during morphine administration. PMID:10661498

  10. Hyperlocomotion and paw tremors are two highly quantifiable signs of SR141716-precipitated withdrawal from delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in C57BL\\/6 mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Huang; Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen; Ellen M. Unterwald; Alan Cowan

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that marijuana abstinence leads to clinically significant withdrawal symptoms in humans. In mouse models, following chronic treatment with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), administration of the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (rimonabant) elicited varying behavioral responses, depending on mouse strain and dosing regimen. In the present study, C57BL\\/6 mice were injected s.c. with THC (25mg\\/kg) or vehicle twice daily

  11. Elevated mu-opioid receptor expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract accompanies attenuated withdrawal signs after chronic low dose naltrexone in opiate-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, E J; Rudoy, C; Mannelli, P; Oropeza, V; Qian, Y

    2006-02-15

    We previously described a decrease in withdrawal behaviors in opiate-dependent rats that were chronically treated with very low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. Attenuated expression of withdrawal behaviors correlated with decreased c-Fos expression and intracellular signal transduction elements [protein kinase A regulatory subunit II (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB)] in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. In this study, to determine whether similar cellular changes occurred in forebrain nuclei associated with drug reward, expressions of PKA and pCREB were analyzed in the ventral tegmental area, frontal cortex, striatum, and amygdala of opiate-treated rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. No significant difference in PKA or pCREB was detected in these regions following drug treatment. To examine further the cellular mechanisms in noradrenergic nuclei that could underlie attenuated withdrawal behaviors following low dose naltrexone administration, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and locus coeruleus (LC) were examined for opioid receptor (OR) protein expression. Results showed a significant increase in muOR expression in the NTS of morphine-dependent rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water, and increases in muOR expression were also found to be dose dependent. Protein expression of muOR in the LC and deltaOR in either brain region remained unchanged. In conclusion, our previously reported decreases in c-Fos and PKA expression in the NTS following pretreatment with low doses of naltrexone may be partially explained by a greater inhibition of NTS neurons resulting from increased muOR expression in this region. PMID:16385558

  12. Carisoprodol Tolerance and Precipitated Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Nguyen, Jacques D.; Carbonaro, Theresa; Forster, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model. Methods Carisoprodol (0, 100, 200, 300, or 500 mg/kg bid, i.p.) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice for 4 days and loss-of-righting reflex was measured 20 to 30 minutes following each administration. On the fourth day, bemegride (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered following carisoprodol and withdrawal signs were measured. Separate groups of mice receiving the same treatment regimen and dose range were tested for spontaneous withdrawal at 6, 12 and 24 hr after the last dose of carisoprodol. Results The righting reflex was dose-dependently impaired following the first administration of carisoprodol. A 75 to 100% decrease in the magnitude of the impairment occurred over the four days of exposure, indicating the development of tolerance to the carisoprodol-elicited loss-of-righting reflex. Withdrawal signs were not observed within 24 hours following spontaneous withdrawal; however, bemegride and flumazenil each precipitated withdrawal within 15 to 30 min of administration. Conclusions Carisoprodol treatment resulted in tolerance and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal, suggesting it may have an addiction potential similar to that of other long-acting benzodiazepine or barbiturate compounds. PMID:22055010

  13. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  14. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

  15. Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of withdrawal symptoms may contribute to relapse after periods of abstinence. Withdrawal and relapse have been studied in both humans and animal models of alcoholism. Clinical studies demonstrated that alcohol-dependent people are more sensitive to relapse-provoking cues and stimuli than nondependent people, and similar observations have been made in animal models of alcohol dependence, withdrawal, and relapse. One factor contributing to relapse is withdrawal-related anxiety, which likely reflects adaptive changes in the brain in response to continued alcohol exposure. These changes affect, for example, the body’s stress response system. The relationship between withdrawal, stress, and relapse also has implications for the treatment of alcoholic patients. Interestingly, animals with a history of alcohol dependence are more sensitive to certain medications that impact relapse-like behavior than animals without such a history, suggesting that it may be possible to develop medications that specifically target excessive, uncontrollable alcohol consumption. PMID:23584009

  16. 7 CFR 761.54 - Withdrawals from a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawals from a supervised bank account. ...agreement with the Agency. (b) A check must be signed by the...Agency will withdraw funds from a supervised bank account...

  17. 7 CFR 761.54 - Withdrawals from a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawals from a supervised bank account. ...agreement with the Agency. (b) A check must be signed by the...Agency will withdraw funds from a supervised bank account...

  18. Disturbances of attention in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portnoff, L A; Dougan, D R

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances of attention have often been noted clinically in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but no studies to date have systematically explored this phenomenon. The present study examined attentional impairment in 20 tranquilizer-free alcohol withdrawal patients by using continuous performance tests assessing concentration in both an auditory and a visual mode. It was found that withdrawal patients generally evidenced poorer auditory than visual concentration. To investigate the relationship between the time-course of withdrawal and attentional impairment, the alcoholics were divided into an Early "Detox" and a Late "Detox" group, predicated on the reported amount of time since last alcohol consumption. Contrary to expectation, those alcoholics with a longer time-lapse since cessation exhibited poorer attentional performance than those with a shorter time-lapse. The possibility of an independent course for mental symptoms apart from physiological withdrawal signs was discussed. PMID:6862773

  19. Morphine withdrawal produces ERK-dependent and ERK-independent epigenetic marks in neurons of the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Alessandro; Calza, Arianna; Santoru, Francesca; Grasso, Fabrizio; Concas, Alessandra; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Giustetto, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    Epigenetic changes such as covalent modifications of histone proteins represent complex molecular signatures that provide a cellular memory of previously experienced stimuli without irreversible changes of the genetic code. In this study we show that new gene expression induced in vivo by morphine withdrawal occurs with concomitant epigenetic modifications in brain regions critically involved in drug-dependent behaviors. We found that naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, but not chronic morphine administration, caused a strong induction of phospho-histone H3 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell/core and in the lateral septum (LS), a change that was accompanied by augmented H3 acetylation (lys14) in neurons of the NAc shell. Morphine withdrawal induced the phosphorylation of the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in Ser421 both in the LS and the NAc shell. These epigenetic changes were accompanied by the activation of members of the ERK pathway as well as increased expression of the immediate early genes (IEG) c-fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Using a pharmacological approach, we found that H3 phosphorylation and IEG expression were partially dependent on ERK activation, while MeCP2 phosphorylation was fully ERK-independent. These findings provide new important information on the role of the ERK pathway in the regulation of epigenetic marks and gene expression that may concur to regulate in vivo the cellular changes underlying the onset of the opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:23347952

  20. EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,

    E-print Network

    LakeMichigan Lake Ontario Lake Erie La keHuron Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Total aquaculture withdrawals Surface-water aquaculture withdrawals Groundwater aquaculture withdrawals TOTALWITHDRAWALSM aine Puerto Rico U.S.Virgin Islands Aquaculture withdrawals by source and State, 2005. Estimated Use

  1. Acute opioid dependence: characterizing the early adaptations underlying drug withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Harris; Jonathan C. Gewirtz

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: While opioid withdrawal is typi- cally studied under conditions of chronic (i.e., continuous) drug administration, withdrawal signs can also be dem- onstrated in both humans and animals after a single opioid exposure. This phenomenon, termed acute dependence, may be useful in understanding the early stages of opioid dependence and addiction. Objective: This review provides an overview of acute dependence

  2. 7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application. 97.23 Section...97.23 Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application. (a) An application...Office a written request for withdrawal or abandonment, signed by the applicant or his...

  3. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

  4. Investigation of Extracellular L-Citrulline Concentration in the Striatum During Alcohol Withdrawal in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Gören; F. Aricioglu-Kartal; T. Yurdun; I. T. Uzbay

    2001-01-01

    In this study, changes in striatal extracellular L-citrulline concentrations were investigated hourly for 5 h following alcohol withdrawal in chronic alcohol feeding Wistar rats. Alcohol (7.2% ethyl alcohol, v\\/v) was given to rats as modified liquid diet for 20 days. Signs of alcohol withdrawal appeared from the 1st h of alcohol withdrawal and the total alcohol withdrawal scores remained higher

  5. Alcohol Dependence Produced in Mice by Inhalation of Ethanol: Grading the Withdrawal Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora B. Goldstein; Nandita Pal

    1971-01-01

    Intoxicating blood levels of ethanol are maintained for several days in mice housed in an atmosphere of ethanol vapor. On removal from the alcohol, all the mice develop withdrawal signs. The signs can be graded to indicate the time course and intensity of the withdrawal reaction.

  6. Withdrawal strategies for outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Mezciems, Edgar

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses outpatient withdrawal strategies for patients addicted to alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and opiates and describes some practical ways to support recovery. PMID:8828877

  7. Chronic agmatine treatment prevents behavioral manifestations of nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2015-05-01

    Smoking cessation exhibits an aversive withdrawal syndrome characterized by both increases in somatic signs and affective behaviors including anxiety and depression. In present study, abrupt withdrawal of daily nicotine injections (2mg/kg, s.c., four times daily, for 10 days) significantly increased somatic signs viz. rearing, grooming, jumping, genital licking, leg licking, head shakes with associated depression (increased immobility in forced swim test) as well as anxiety (decreased the number of entries and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze) in nicotine dependent animals. The peak effect was observed at 24h time point of nicotine withdrawal. Repeated administration of agmatine (40-80µg/mouse, i.c.v.) before the first daily dose of nicotine from day 5 to 10 attenuated the elevated scores of somatic signs and abolished the depression and anxiety like behavior induced by nicotine withdrawal in dependent animals. However, in separate groups, its acute administration 30min before behavior analysis of nicotine withdrawal was ineffective. This result clearly shows the role of agmatine in development of nicotine dependence and its withdrawal. In extension to behavioral experiments, brain agmatine analyses, carried out at 24h time point of nicotine withdrawal demonstrated marked decrease in basal brain agmatine concentration as compared to control animals. Taken together, these data support the role of agmatine as common biological substrate for somatic signs and affective symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. This data may project therapies based on agmatine in anxiety, depression and mood changes associated with tobacco withdrawal. PMID:25744879

  8. Emergent intrathecal baclofen withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Mithal, Divakar S; Park, Anne; Bohnen, Angela; Adel, Joseph; Rosenow, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion has become a common treatment for severe spasticity. Many complications of these drug delivery systems have been reported such as those related to improper dosing, mechanical failure of the implanted pump or catheter, or post-operative wound issues. We report a case of ITB withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration. A 21 year-old male with spastic quadriparesis due to traumatic brian injury (TBI) presented with a pseudomeningocele surrounding an ITB pump (215 mcg/day, continuous) implanted in the abdomen. The pseudomeningocele was percutaneously aspirated and approximately 15 hours later the patient developed signs and symptoms of acute baclofen withdrawal. As a result, the patient underwent an exploration of the ITB infusion system with an intraoperative epidural blood patch. The symptoms of ITB withdrawal improved over the next 18 hours. The subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection partially recurred 48 hours later, but this resolved after a second epidural blood patch. The case illustrates a unique presentation of a serious complication of ITB infusion. This underscores that timely diagnosis and treatment of acute baclofen withdrawal is key to optimal outcomes. PMID:23511686

  9. Vital Signs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Nebraska State Museum

    2002-01-01

    This activity (on pages 16-23) lets learners measure each other's vital signs—the signs that help doctors understand what's going on in a patient body. Learners measure human body temperature, respiration rate, and pulse, and compare them to vital signs of other mammals large and small, such as a cow and a rabbit. A "think it over" writing exercise finishes the activity.

  10. Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Einstein, Emily B.; Lopez, Maria B.; McClure-Begley, Tristan D.; Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [3H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of ?4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of ?4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

  11. Gammahydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Ellen Dyer; Brett Roth; Bruce A. Hyma

    2001-01-01

    Study Objective: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal syndrome is increasingly encountered in emergency departments among patients presenting for health care after discontinuing frequent GHB use. This report describes the characteristics, course, and symptoms of this syndrome. Methods: A retrospective review of poison center records identified 7 consecutive cases in which patients reporting excessive GHB use were admitted for symptoms consistent with a

  12. Distinct Profiles of Anxiety and Dysphoria during Spontaneous Withdrawal from Acute Morphine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Patrick E.; Thomas, Mark J.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.

    2009-01-01

    The negative motivational aspects of withdrawal include symptoms of both anxiety and depression, and emerge following termination of chronic drug use as well as after acute drug exposure. States of acute withdrawal are an inherent part of intermittent drug use in humans, but the contribution of acute withdrawal to the development of addiction has received limited systematic investigation, due to a lack of preclinical models for withdrawal states that emerge spontaneously after acute drug exposure. Here, we have characterized a spontaneous increase in the magnitude of the acoustic startle reflex (i.e., spontaneous withdrawal-potentiated startle) that emerges following acute morphine administration in rats, and compared the time course of startle potentiation and place conditioning. We find that startle potentiation appears related to a decrease in opiate receptor occupancy and reflects an anxiety-like state with a pharmacological profile similar to other signs of opiate withdrawal. Spontaneous startle potentiation emerges before the rewarding effects of morphine have subsided, even though naloxone administration after a single morphine exposure causes both startle potentiation and conditioned place aversion (CPA). These results demonstrate that negative emotional signs of withdrawal develop following just one exposure to morphine, and are likely a recurrent aspect of intermittent drug use that may contribute to the earliest adaptations underlying the development of addiction. Furthermore, the dissociation between spontaneous startle potentiation and CPA suggests anxiogenic and dysphoric manifestations of opiate withdrawal may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms that are progressively engaged as withdrawal unfolds. PMID:19494807

  13. Ethanol and nitrous oxide produce withdrawal-induced convulsions by similar mechanisms in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Belknap, J.K.; Laursen, S.E.; Crabbe, J.C.

    1987-10-26

    Twenty generations of selective breeding were used to produce lines (strains) of mice which differ markedly from one another in ethanol physical dependence development as indexed by handling-induced convulsions (HIC) induced by withdrawal from ethanol. These withdrawal seizure prone (WSP) and withdrawal seizure resistant (WSR) selection lines now differ by over 10-fold in HIC scores after equivalent exposure to intoxicating levels of ethanol via inhalation. Since handling-induced convulsions can be readily elicited following withdrawal from nitrous oxide, the authors sought to determine if the very large differences in ethanol withdrawal-induced HIC bred into these selection lines would generalize to nitrous oxide. Following a 60 min exposure to 75% nitrous oxide (in O/sub 2/), a greater than 10-fold difference in HIC scores, and a 2-fold difference in tremor incidence was seen upon withdrawal in WSP vs. WSR mice. These finding closely parallel those seen with ethanol, and demonstrate that a large degree of commonality exists in the genes and the mechanisms determining these withdrawal signs. HIC elicited by nitrous oxide withdrawal were readily suppressed by ethanol, and HIC elicited by ethanol withdrawal were promptly suppressed by 75% nitrous oxide in WSP mice. Nitrous oxide also suppressed HIC and tremor associated with nitrous oxide withdrawal. 19 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Social Withdrawal in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  15. Dollar Signs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2014-09-19

    In this activity, learners use number sense and mental math strategies to estimate the price of a sign. Learners pretend they are in charge of making signs for businesses and must calculate the cost of three orders using estimation. This activity provides an opportunity for learners to practice making estimates of the sum of more than two numbers. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  16. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the interpeduncular nucleus triggers physical nicotine withdrawal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao-Shea, Rubing; Liu, Liwang; Pang, Xueyan; Gardner, Paul D.; Tapper, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic exposure to nicotine elicits physical dependence in smokers, yet the mechanism and neuroanatomical bases for withdrawal symptoms are unclear. As in humans, rodents undergo physical withdrawal symptoms after cessation from chronic nicotine characterized by increased scratching, head nods, and body shakes. Results Here we show that induction of physical nicotine withdrawal symptoms activates GABAergic neurons within the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Optical activation of IPN GABAergic neurons via light stimulation of channel rhodopsin elicited physical withdrawal symptoms in both nicotine-naïve and chronic nicotine-exposed mice. Dampening excitability of GABAergic neurons during nicotine withdrawal through IPN-selective infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist or through blocking IPN neurotransmission from the medial habenula reduced IPN neuronal activation and alleviated withdrawal symptoms. During chronic nicotine exposure, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the ?4 subunit were upregulated in somatostatin interneurons clustered in the dorsal region of the IPN. Blockade of these receptors induced withdrawal signs more dramatically in nicotine-dependent compared to nicotine-naïve mice and activated non-somatostatin neurons in the IPN. Conclusions Together, our data indicate that therapeutic strategies to reduce IPN GABAergic neuron excitability during nicotine withdrawal, for example, by activating nicotinic receptors on somatostatin interneurons, may be beneficial for alleviating withdrawal symptoms and facilitating smoking cessation. PMID:24239118

  17. Wilderness Sign

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wilderness sign beside a mountain hiking trail in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. This image was taken while the photographer was participating in the 2009 Joint Annual Meeting of these leading scientific societies: Mycological Society of America, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, ...

  18. International Diversification and Retirement Withdrawals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny M. Ervin; Larry H. Filer; Joseph C. Smolira

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the success of the monthly withdrawal of funds from hypothetical retirement portfolios for the period January 1930 to December 2001. The objective of this research is to provide an empirical examination of the historical effect of global diversification on the withdrawal of funds from a retirement portfolio. We compare portfolios consisting of U.S. stocks and U.S. corporate

  19. [Afobazole decreases severity of morphine withdrawal syndrome: experimental evidence].

    PubMed

    Konstantinopol'ski?, M A; Cherniakova, I V

    2011-01-01

    Effect of afobazole upon morphine dependency has been studied in rats upon the administration of incremental doses of morphine (10-20 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 days. The state of dependency was evaluated by monitoring sixteen specific behavioral indices of "spontaneous" (24 h after the last morphine injection) or naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of afobazole (a single dose of 5 mg/kg injected before the test or subchronically for 5 days) was estimated through its influence upon the total index of withdrawal syndrome, which was calculated using the set of behavioural signs. It is established that afobazole upon either single or subchronic injections significantly decreased the expression of spontaneous morphine withdrawal syndrome. The effect was also statistically significant but less pronounced in the case of naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome. The obtained data suggest that afobazole can be considered as potential effective drug for the correction of various clinical symptoms of morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22238980

  20. Withdrawal-like effects of pentylenetetrazol and valproate in the naive organism: a model of motivation produced by opiate withdrawal?

    PubMed

    Mucha, R F; Fassos, F F; Perl, F M

    1995-07-01

    Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and sodium valproate (VPA) produce acutely in the naive rat various behavioural effects resembling signs of opiate withdrawal in the morphine-treated subject. Suggestions in the literature that these substances may activate directly some of the neural consequences of opiate and drug withdrawal prompted us to look for and examine possible aversive effects of these substances at non-toxic doses. With a sensitive two-flavour, three-trial taste aversion procedure, relatively low doses of PTZ and VPA (5 and 160 mg/kg, respectively) do indeed have aversive effects. The maximum aversions were produced by 10 and 20 mg/kg PTZ and 320 mg/kg VPA and were equivalent to those of morphine withdrawal precipitated by 0.01-0.03 mg/kg naloxone in a morphine pellet-implanted animal. Moreover, the maximum aversions with PTZ and VPA were significantly higher than the maximum aversions seen with naloxone in the drug-naive animal under the same training conditions. Thus, the data from the present study confirmed the notion that low doses of PTZ and VPA in the naive animal may activate processes activated by drug withdrawal, including those important for the motivational effect of withdrawal. However, it was also pointed out that the lowest dose VPA producing aversion was higher than that found here to produce writhes and ataxia (80 mg/kg) but the same as that required for shaking (160 mg/kg), while the PTZ aversion was at a dose lower than that known to produce a PTZ cue. Implications were discussed for using withdrawal-like phenomena as a model in the non-treated organism of clinically-relevant withdrawal effects. PMID:7587968

  1. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  2. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  3. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  4. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  5. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  6. The Ethics of Withdrawal from Study Participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELISA J. GORDON; THOMAS R. PROHASKA

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether consent forms adhere to Federal Common Rule regulations pertaining to withdrawal from research, described the language of withdrawal provisions, and assessed differences in studies by withdrawal provisions. A random sample of 114 consent forms from a midwestern, academic medical center were examined for descriptive content of withdrawal parameters stated within consent forms. All consent forms included the

  7. Withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus) as a Sexual Risk Reduction Strategy: Perspectives from African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Jennifer R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents’ beliefs about the benefits and risks of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) with respect to both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the course of qualitative interviews with African-American youth aged 14–19 (n = 124) about sexuality and risk, 24 adolescents spontaneously introduced the subject of withdrawal as a sexual risk reduction strategy. Eighteen percent of the sexually experienced adolescents mentioned their own use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method. From adolescents’ accounts of their own and their peers’ use of withdrawal, we learned that the cultural meanings of withdrawal within the context of adolescent relationships were multifaceted. Using withdrawal could signal sexual prowess in male youth, was seen as promoting trust and caring within a stable relationship, and was seen as mitigating the risk of pregnancy. However, adolescents also recognized that withdrawal did not protect against most STIs. Beliefs about withdrawal as a gendered skill and as a sign of trust may undermine some adolescents’ attempts to negotiate condom use for protection against STIs. PMID:18293076

  8. Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  9. Fuqua Late Withdrawal Permission Form A Late Withdrawal is defined as a withdrawal from a class after the Drop/Add deadline

    E-print Network

    Reif, John H.

    or WF - withdrawn failing. Withdrawals don't affect the student's GPA. Faculty permission is required: (Professor please check only one box below) Withdraw Passing Withdraw Failing Withdraw Audit May not withdraw after the Drop/Add deadline has passed (typically two days after the first day of the term). Withdrawals

  10. Null mutation of the ?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit attenuates nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Astrid K; Marks, Michael J; Markou, Athina

    2015-04-15

    The anhedonic signs of nicotine withdrawal are predictive of smoking relapse rates in humans. Identification of the neurobiological substrates that mediate anhedonia will provide insights into the genetic variations that underlie individual responses to smoking cessation and relapse. The present study assessed the role of ?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nACh receptor) subunits in nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia using ?2 nACh receptor subunit knockout (?2(-/-)) and wildtype (?2(+/+)) mice. Anhedonia was assessed with brain reward thresholds, defined as the current intensity that supports operant behavior in the discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Nicotine was delivered chronically through osmotic minipumps for 28 days (40mg/kg/day, base), and withdrawal was induced by either administering the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (i.e., antagonist-precipitated withdrawal) in mice chronically treated with nicotine or terminating chronic nicotine administration (i.e., spontaneous withdrawal). Mecamylamine (6mg/kg, salt) significantly elevated brain reward thresholds in nicotine-treated ?2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated ?2(+/+) mice and nicotine-treated ?2(-/-) mice. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal similarly resulted in significant elevations in thresholds in nicotine-withdrawing ?2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated ?2(+/+) and nicotine-treated ?2(-/-) mice, which remained at baseline levels. These results showed that precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia was attenuated in ?2(-/-) mice. The reduced expression of anhedonic signs during nicotine withdrawal in ?2(-/-) mice may have resulted from the lack of neuroadaptations in ?2 nACh receptor subunit expression and function that may have occurred during either nicotine exposure or nicotine withdrawal in wildtype mice. In conclusion, individuals with genetic variations that result in diminished function of the ?2 nACh receptor subunit may experience less anhedonia during nicotine withdrawal, which may facilitate smoking cessation. PMID:25107281

  11. SignWriting Based Sign Language Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antônio Carlos Da Rocha Costa; Graçaliz Pereira Dimuro

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to the computer processing of deaf sign languages that uses SignWriting as the writing system\\u000a for deaf sign languages, and SWML (SignWriting Markup Language) as its computer encoding. Every kind of language and document\\u000a processing (storage and retrieval, analysis and generation, translation, spellchecking, search, animation, dictionary automation,\\u000a etc.) can be applied to sign language texts

  12. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Dress for success At a recent physics teachers meeting a colleague commented to me on the generally poor state of the throng's sartorial elegance. It's not that she thought they should all be clothes horses or catwalk models but certain rules seem to have been ignored. This didn't just apply to the older people in the crowd. In the interests of physics we drew up a few basic rules that seemed to have gone awry and we present them here for the benefit of new members of the profession: Trousers should meet shoes, or at least come within 2 cm of the laces. NB. Pedal pushers are not acceptable male attire. Sandals and socks should also be avoided. One of the few equations that all of the general public know (like E = mc2) is Socks + Sandals = Beard. Hair should be washed at least once a week (whether it needs to be or not), combing should take place more frequently. Particular styles are not important, but avoid hiding receding hair using the comb-over. If your jacket/cardigan frays at the elbow throw it away. Patching it up with leather patches is not decorous or clever. NB. Carpet samples are not an acceptable alternative. If you are watching a re-run of a 1970s television show one afternoon and you find yourself thinking how much you admire the actors' dress sense then it is time to go clothes shopping. Colours should match and complement each other. Some combinations should be banned, for example brown jacket with orange shirts are a no-no. Under no circumstances should you try to match brown tweed with anything, unless it's the inside of your dustbin. Men and ties. It is very common to want to wear one's old school or college tie to show off your origins and this is to be commended. However, it is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Ironing should be done on all outer garments, though there is no need to iron creases (fore and aft) so sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  13. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  14. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  15. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  16. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  17. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  18. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

  19. Varenicline enhances dopamine release facilitation more than nicotine after long-term nicotine treatment and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Xiomara A; Khroyan, Taline V; McIntosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2015-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2–3 months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at ?6?2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in ?6?2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:25692023

  20. Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals

    E-print Network

    Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water,000 9,000 to 13,000 Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 - Thermoelectric-power USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water

  1. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS...Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal...

  2. The anxiolytic etifoxine protects against convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Verleye; Isabelle Heulard; Jean-Marie Gillardin

    2009-01-01

    Change in the function of ?-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors attributable to alterations in receptor subunit composition is one of main molecular mechanisms with those affecting the glutamatergic system which accompany prolonged alcohol (ethanol) intake. These changes explain in part the central nervous system hyperexcitability consequently to ethanol administration cessation. Hyperexcitability associated with ethanol withdrawal is expressed by physical signs, such

  3. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele; Yaping Qian; Robert C. Sterling; Michelle E. Page

    2008-01-01

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the

  4. How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money you may withdraw money at any time, the TFSA is not meant to be a substitute for a chequing or bank-style savings account. Processing fees may apply to withdrawals. Use the TFSA for money you don't anticipate

  5. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

  6. Animal models of drug withdrawal symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Emmett-Oglesby; D. A. Mathis; R. T. Y. Moon; H. Lal

    1990-01-01

    There have been few attempts to model subjective symptoms of drug withdrawal using animals as subjects. Two approaches for developing such models are reviewed. First, using drug discrimination methodology, it may be possible to train animals to detect the effects of withdrawal. This method has two difficulties: 1) the only discriminations trained to date involve precipitated withdrawal, and 2) the

  7. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

  8. Withdrawal Policies of Michigan's Public Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Edward; Dulaney-Sorochak, Jeanne

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the drop or withdrawal policies of the 29 tax-supported community colleges in Michigan, and to determine whether Macomb County Community College (MCCC) will have proportionately more hours dropped than most. As MCCC does not require formal withdrawal applications, permits withdrawal at any time,…

  9. Antagonist Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Mannelli; Edward Gottheil; Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele

    2006-01-01

    Although antagonist drugs are receiving increasing attention in the treatment of opioid withdrawal, the mechanisms of interaction of opiate agonists and antagonists remain largely to be investigated. We focused on the effects of very low quantities of opiate antagonists, for their potential utility in detoxification. Upon reviewing the evidence on the administration of small doses of naloxone and naltrexone in

  10. Sustainable Withdrawal and Accumulation Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Brandenburg; Nathan Franklin; John Healy; Danny Johnson; Collin LeMaistre; Brent Lew; Jason Meridth; Sara Meyer; Chris Mitchell; Jeffrey D. Oldham; Scott Schaefer; Peter Shaffer; Quenby Swinson

    Determining a sustainable withdrawal rate is an important factor to consider in retirement investment plan- ning. An equally important problem is determining an accumulation rate yielding an investment large enough for retirement. Both these problems involve predicting the effect of periodic incremental changes to an investment. Making predictions using historical averages does not yield accurate solutions because of the large

  11. Mechanistic insights into nicotine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Michael; De Biasi, Mariella

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is responsible for over 400,000 premature deaths in the United States every year, making it the leading cause of preventable death. In addition, smoking-related illness leads to billions of dollars in healthcare expenditures and lost productivity annually. The public is increasingly aware that successfully abstaining from smoking at any age can add years to one’s life and reduce many of the harmful effects of smoking. Although the majority of smokers desire to quit, only a small fraction of attempts to quit are actually successful. The symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal are a primary deterrent to cessation and they need to be quelled to avoid early relapse. This review will focus on the neuroadaptations caused by chronic nicotine exposure and discuss how those changes lead to a withdrawal syndrome upon smoking cessation. Besides examining how nicotine usurps the endogenous reward system, we will discuss how the habenula is part of a circuit that plays a critical role in the aversive effects of high nicotine doses and nicotine withdrawal. We will also provide an updated summary of the role of various nicotinic receptor subtypes in the mechanisms of withdrawal. This growing knowledge provides mechanistic insights into current and future smoking cessation therapies. PMID:21782803

  12. An Emerging New Paradigm in Opioid Withdrawal: A Critical Role for Glia-Neuron Signaling in the Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Handong; Liu, Shue; Zeng, Weian; Levitt, Roy C.; Candiotti, Keith A.; Hao, Shuanglin

    2012-01-01

    The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine) or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors) induces dependence, which is associated with various specific behavioral and somatic signs after their withdrawal or after the administration of an opioid antagonist. Among the brain regions implicated in opiate dependence and withdrawal, the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) appears to be critical in regulating the complex signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Numerous neurochemical mechanisms in the PAG have been identified that may contribute to the opioid withdrawal syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial activation leading to the release of proinflammatory molecules acting on neurons is important in the complex syndrome of opioid dependence and withdrawal. This paper focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of the vital role that glia-neuron interactions play in opioid dependence and withdrawal within the PAG. We summarize those neurochemical mechanisms associated with opioid withdrawal including the recently defined importance of TNF? release from activated glial cells that communicate with TNF receptors on PAG neurons. PMID:22919361

  13. Alcohol Withdrawal and Cerebellar Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Marianna E

    2014-09-01

    Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new therapy to manage cerebellar disorders associated with hyperexcitatory CNS disorders like ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25195804

  14. The anxiolytic etifoxine protects against convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Verleye, Marc; Heulard, Isabelle; Gillardin, Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    Change in the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors attributable to alterations in receptor subunit composition is one of main molecular mechanisms with those affecting the glutamatergic system which accompany prolonged alcohol (ethanol) intake. These changes explain in part the central nervous system hyperexcitability consequently to ethanol administration cessation. Hyperexcitability associated with ethanol withdrawal is expressed by physical signs, such as tremors, convulsions, and heightened anxiety in animal models as well as in humans. The present work investigated the effects of anxiolytic compound etifoxine on ethanol-withdrawal paradigms in a mouse model. The benzodiazepine diazepam was chosen as reference compound. Ethanol was given to NMRI mice by a liquid diet at 3% for 8 days, then at 4% for 7 days. Under these conditions, ethanol blood level ranged between 0.5 and 2 g/L for a daily ethanol intake varying from 24 to 30 g/kg. These parameters permitted the emergence of ethanol-withdrawal symptoms once ethanol administration was terminated. Etifoxine (12.5-25 mg/kg) and diazepam (1-4 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally 3h 30 min after ethanol removal, decreased the severity in handling-induced tremors and convulsions in the period of 4-6h after withdrawal from chronic ethanol treatment. In addition when administered at 30 and 15 min, respectively, before the light and dark box test, etifoxine (50mg/kg) and diazepam (1mg/kg) inhibited enhanced aversive response 8h after ethanol withdrawal. Etifoxine at 25 and 50 mg/kg doses was without effects on spontaneous locomotor activity and did not exhibit ataxic effects on the rota rod in animals not treated with ethanol. These findings demonstrate that the GABAergic compound etifoxine selectively reduces the physical signs and anxiety-like behavior associated with ethanol withdrawal in a mouse model and may hold promise in the treatment of ethanol-withdrawal syndrome in humans. PMID:19393860

  15. Immunosuppression withdrawal following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Gavin P; Sanchez-Fueyo, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Current immunosuppression regimens in liver transplantation provide excellent short-term survival rates but have many deleterious long-term side effects. They are therefore associated with the higher mortality and morbidity seen in liver transplant recipients compared to the general population and the notion that many liver transplant recipients are over-immunosuppressed is widely accepted. Liver allografts show a greater resistance to alloimmune responses than other solid organ transplants and recent research suggests up to 60% of highly selected recipients could wean off immunosuppression completely. In this review, we look at the evidence from immunosuppression withdrawal trials, the potential benefits of immunosuppression withdrawal and the identification of tolerant transplant recipients. PMID:25281267

  16. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol’s, were scored at 12?h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery. PMID:25324788

  17. Mobile Arabic sign language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal Al Ameiri; Mohamed Jamal Zemerly; Mohamed Al Marzouqi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a mobile application with several features which can be used to teach Arabic sign language and to communicate using it. These features include translating from Arabic text to Arabic sign language, video chatting where two users can use the application to chat in Arabic sign language, SMS messaging and translating SMS messages to Arabic sign language, in

  18. Sign Language Tutoring Tool

    E-print Network

    Aran, Oya; Benoit, Alexandre; Carrillo, Ana Huerta; Fanard, François-Xavier; Campr, Pavel; Akarun, Lale; Caplier, Alice; Rombaut, Michele; Sankur, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    In this project, we have developed a sign language tutor that lets users learn isolated signs by watching recorded videos and by trying the same signs. The system records the user's video and analyses it. If the sign is recognized, both verbal and animated feedback is given to the user. The system is able to recognize complex signs that involve both hand gestures and head movements and expressions. Our performance tests yield a 99% recognition rate on signs involving only manual gestures and 85% recognition rate on signs that involve both manual and non manual components, such as head movement and facial expressions.

  19. Gammahydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A Kuiper; Nicole Peikert; E Christiaan Boerma

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To raise awareness among health care workers of the risk of withdrawal symptoms after longstanding and intense abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23 year old Caucasian woman presented with gamma-hydroxybutyric addiction and withdrawal syndrome. The symptoms of gamma-hydroxybutyric withdrawal in this patient initially went unrecognized, upon which her situation deteriorated in such a way that she needed

  20. Estimated Withdrawals from Principal Aquifers in

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    1279, 46 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Maupin, Molly A. Estimated withdrawals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Central Valley Aquifer System

  1. Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal: the revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN T. SULLIVAN; KATHY SYKORA; JOYCE SCHNEIDERMAN; CLAUDIO A. NARANJO; EDWARD M. SELLERS

    1989-01-01

    Summary A shortened 10-item scale for clinical quantitation of the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been developed. This scale offers an increase in efficiency while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity and reliability. It can be incorporated into the usual clinical care of patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal and into clinical drug trials of alcohol withdrawal.

  2. How to Withdraw From Courses (Archived 2/22/07) Students How to Withdraw From Courses

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    by COF for undergraduate students who pay the in-state (resident) tuition rate. **"Fees" refers to UCSU Student fees and the athletic fee. Return to Top Financial Concerns and Tuition Assessment WithdrawalHow to Withdraw From Courses (Archived 2/22/07) Students » How to Withdraw From Courses How

  3. Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

  4. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Conversion to withdrawal for consumption. A withdrawal for...to a withdrawal for consumption upon request to the...must appear in all CBP papers pertaining to the exportation...exemption if returned to the United States. At the time...

  5. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Conversion to withdrawal for consumption. A withdrawal for...to a withdrawal for consumption upon request to the...must appear in all CBP papers pertaining to the exportation...exemption if returned to the United States. At the time...

  6. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Conversion to withdrawal for consumption. A withdrawal for...to a withdrawal for consumption upon request to the...must appear in all CBP papers pertaining to the exportation...exemption if returned to the United States. At the time...

  7. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Conversion to withdrawal for consumption. A withdrawal for...to a withdrawal for consumption upon request to the...must appear in all CBP papers pertaining to the exportation...exemption if returned to the United States. At the time...

  8. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Conversion to withdrawal for consumption. A withdrawal for...to a withdrawal for consumption upon request to the...must appear in all CBP papers pertaining to the exportation...exemption if returned to the United States. At the time...

  9. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in...

  10. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a...

  11. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in...

  12. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a...

  13. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2...Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. ...application by filing a written request for abandonment or withdrawal of the...

  14. 12 CFR 925.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26 Section 925.26 Banks...THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any...

  15. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26 Section 1263.26 Banks...THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any...

  16. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  17. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs of Overload Healthy Living Listen Signs of Overload Article Body Although stress is a part of ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  18. American Sign Language Browser

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Sign Language (ASL) Browser, developed by the Communication Technology Laboratory at Michigan State University, indexes video clips that demonstrate thousands of ASL signs. To view a video clip illustrating an ASL sign, users select a word or phrase from 1 of 26 alphabetical lists. Written instructions explaining how to make each sign accompany every video clip. Each clip in this visual dictionary is a Quicktime movie of about 100K.

  19. Regulation of withdrawals in individual account systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Walliser

    2000-01-01

    Funded mandatory pension systems based on individual accounts are spreading around the world. With the maturation of those systems, regulating the withdrawal of retirement savings will become increasingly important. Government regulation of withdrawals should mandate the purchase of inflation-indexed life annuities exceeding income available from government welfare programs for the retiree and potential survivors. However, proper functioning of insurance markets

  20. Regulation of Withdrawals in Individual Account Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Walliser

    1999-01-01

    Funded mandatory pension systems based on individual accounts are spreading around the world. With the maturation of these systems, regulating the withdrawal of retirement savings will become increasingly important. Government regulation of withdrawals should mandate the purchase of inflation-indexed life annuities exceeding income available from government welfare programs for the retiree and potential survivors. Proper functioning of insurance markets does

  1. Decreased Brain Reward Produced by Ethanol Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gery Schulteis; Athina Markou; Maury Cole; George F. Koob

    1995-01-01

    Abstinence from chronic administration of various drugs of abuse such as ethanol, opiates, and psychostimulants results in withdrawal syndromes largely unique to each drug class. However, one symptom that appears common to these withdrawal syndromes in humans is a negative affective\\/motivational state. Prior work in rodents has shown that elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) reward thresholds provide a quantitative index

  2. Diagnosis and management of acute alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Holbrook; Renée Crowther; Chiachen Cheng; Derek King

    ALCOHOL ABUSE PRODUCES A CONSIDERABLE BURDEN OF ILLNESS in the Canadian popu- lation. The diagnosis of alcohol dependence and withdrawal can be difficult, particularly in the setting of covert intake or comorbidity. Two validated scales, the CAGE questionnaire to screen for alcohol abuse and dependence and the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale to assess the severity of

  3. Selective breeding for alcohol withdrawal severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Crabbe; Tamara J. Phillips

    1993-01-01

    Mouse lines have been genetically selected to be alcohol Withdrawal Seizure Prone (WSP) or Resistant (WSR). The selection index is the severity of withdrawal handling-induced convulsions seen after removal of mice from chronic exposure to ethanol vapor. Behavioral, pharmacological, and neurochemical results from a replicated bidirectional selection project are reviewed. In reciprocal F1 crosses of the WSP and WSR lines,

  4. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing Oversight, Performance Evaluation and Withdrawal of Designation § 921.41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may...

  5. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing Oversight, Performance Evaluation and Withdrawal of Designation § 921.41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may...

  6. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing Oversight, Performance Evaluation and Withdrawal of Designation § 921.41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may...

  7. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Ongoing Oversight, Performance Evaluation and Withdrawal of Designation § 921.41 Withdrawal of designation. The Assistant Administrator may...

  8. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  9. Nonspecific excitatory effects of opiates and their possible role in withdrawal behavior

    E-print Network

    Stevens, David Ronald

    1982-01-01

    during withdrawa1, particularly in the 10 rodent. Common signs of dependence in the rodent are hyperreactivi ty, hyperactivity, salivation, piloerection, tremors, increased grooming and locomotor activity, including stereotyped jumping, nonpurposive... of studies utilizing the s1ngle-dose precipitated withdrawal paradiom. The subjects were male ICR (Dub) or Swiss-Texas outbred mice in the 20 to 30 gram weight range. The mice were housed communally in groups of 15 to 20 per cage and were given food...

  10. Alcohol Withdrawal in Severe Hypothyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL TEDFORD LAMBERT

    2003-01-01

    linical presentations of common disorders can be sig- nificantly influenced by the presence of a second ac- tive disease process. Occasionally, two disorders interact in a manner that alters expected presentations and makes detection of either difficult. Most clinicians in general medical inpatient settings readily recognize the signs and symptoms of clinical hypothyroidism as well as the syn- drome of

  11. Stochastic optimization of retirement portfolio asset allocations and withdrawals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gene Stout

    2008-01-01

    Stochastic optimization identifies the asset allocation that minimizes the probability of exhausting the retirement portfolio, thereby minimizing risk, from unmanaged (constant) and optimally managed withdrawals over the retirement life span. Optimal equity compositions and minimized probabilities of prematurely exhausting the portfolio increase with higher withdrawal rates and earlier retirements with both managed and unmanaged withdrawals. However, optimal withdrawal management from

  12. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

  13. Eponymous signs in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

  14. Sign Language Film List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lubotsky, John

    In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

  15. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  16. Spinal amino acid release and repeated withdrawal in spinal morphine tolerant rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibuki, Takae; Marsala, Martin; Masuyama, Takashi; Yaksh, Tony L

    2003-01-01

    We used spinal microdialysis in awake rats to investigate whether the repeated withdrawal with naloxone during continuous spinal infusion of morphine would lead to a progressively greater spinal glutamate release and a more pronounced intrathecal tolerance. Rats received lumbar intrathecal (IT) infusion of morphine (IT-M: 20 nmol ?l?1 h?1) or saline (IT-S: 1 ?l h?1) continuously for 3 days. Both groups were further subdivided to receive intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of naloxone (IP-N: 0.6 mg kg?1) or saline (IP-S: 3 ml kg?1) every 24 h after the beginning of IT infusion. Daily thermal escape latencies, withdrawal signs, the resting basal release of spinal amino acids before IP injection and the release immediately after the injection (evoked) were measured. Rats receiving IT morphine showed a maximum increase in thermal escape latency on day 1, after which this value declined, with the fastest decline observed in IT morphine+IP naloxone group. On day 1, no significant difference was observed among groups in the resting basal release of amino acids. Rats in IT morphine+i.p. naloxone group displayed a progressive increase in this value. The release was not significantly altered in other groups. For the IT-M+IP-N group, basal resting dialysate concentrations of Glu, Asp and Tau rose steadily over the 3-day infusion interval. No change in basal resting release was noted for any other treatment. Evoked release (after i.p. naloxone) in IT-M animals displayed a progressive increase over the three repeated exposures. Evoked release did not change significantly in other treatment groups. The degree of precipitated withdrawal significantly correlated with the increase in glutamate acutely evoked by i.p. injection. The present results show that periodic transient withdrawal of spinal opiate agonist activity leads to a progressive increase in glutamate outflow and withdrawal signs, in a manner consistent with an enhanced development of spinal tolerance. PMID:12598423

  17. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997...Approach to Define the Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal...

  18. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  19. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  20. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  1. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  2. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  3. Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria H. Moran; Sheryl S. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135–146; P.R. Finley, P.E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151–152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U.

  4. Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for the tails withdrawal station at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The prototype system was done in response to potential problems with the original method for determining the hourly weighted assay averages that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. In the original method the {sup 235}U assay of uranium hexaflouride withdrawn from PORTS cascade into tails cylinders is determined every 5 min by measurements from an in-line assay mass spectrometer. An average value for a 1-h period is then calculated by area control room personnel and assigned to the accumulated weight in the cylinder for the period. A potential problem with this method is that cylinder weight is not automatically recorded as often as the assay. The assay and withdrawal rate can both vary during the given period. This variation results in inaccuracies in the hourly weighted assays that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. Laboratory analysis is considered to be the most accurate method for determining the final cylinder assay; however, the cost and safety considerations of redundant cylinder handling limit the number of cylinders sampled to less than 10%.

  5. Understanding road signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

  6. American Sign Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Sign Museum is the only public collection of its kind, and it is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its fun, colorful website just may bring back memories for some visitors. Users should definitely watch the video tour of the museum with the founder, Tod Swormstedt. The link can be found near the top of the homepage, and is entitled "Take a Video Tour." The founder explains his goals in opening the museum, which are to show "the history of the sign industry and its significant contribution to commerce and the American landscape." He also goes on to reference the urban renewal program from the 1960s called SOS, which meant Scrap Our Signs, as a source of many of the museum's holdings. The excellent "Exhibits" link on the left hand menu contains a link to the museum's permanent collection and visitors will find it is divided into eight categories, including "Painted/Non-illuminated Signs," "Plastic Signs," and "Neon Signs and Displays: The Glory Days." The Exhibits link also offers to visitors half a dozen sections of signs that can be seen from the road (On the Road), while walking around (Walking Tours), or from an armchair (Sign History).

  7. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  8. A SignWriting-Based Approach to Sign Language Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Carlos da Rocha; Gracaliz Pereira Dimuro

    2001-01-01

    The SignWriting system is a practical writing system for deaf sign languages, composed of a set of intuitive graphical-schematic symbols and simple rules for combining them to represent signs. The SignWriting Markup Language (SWML) is an XML-based language for en- coding sign language texts, written in SignWriting, in an application and computer platform independent way. Thus, sign language texts, written

  9. Ghost Signs of Louisville

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-25

    What is the altogether mysterious "ghost sign?" Simply put, it is a painted advertisement on a building, most prominent prior to the 1930s. Many of these advertisements appear on brick walls in urban settings. This unique collection came out of a partnership between the University of Louisville Libraries and the school's Fine Arts department. Students in a course titled Documentary Photography explored different neighborhoods in Louisvlle, and they took over 200 photographs of various ghost signs. 122 of those images were selected for inclusion in this digital collection, and they are all available here. Visitors can browse the images at their leisure and also use the interactive map of sign collections. Some of the signs are particularly interesting, such as the H.G. Young Druggist sign and the one for the Acme Wholesale Furnace supply.

  10. Suicide Warning Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge Suicide Warning Signs n Acting reckless or engaging in ... you or someone you love at risk of suicide? Get the facts and take appropriate action. Printed: ...

  11. The du Bois sign.

    PubMed

    Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

  12. Every sign of life

    E-print Network

    Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

  13. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... ask for help? Signs a Child is Being Bullied Look for changes in the child. However, be ...

  14. Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Progress Search form Search Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Signs and Symptoms Partly because there are different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) , the exact symptoms vary greatly from person to ...

  15. American Sign Language Nadav Burstein

    E-print Network

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    American Sign Language Nadav Burstein NLP Seminar, 2011 1 / 14 #12;Question ? . 2 / 14 #12;Interesting Facts About Sign Languages 3 / 14 #12;Interesting Facts About Sign Languages There is no one, single, universal sign language. 3 / 14 #12;Interesting Facts About Sign Languages There is no one

  16. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as ?-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. PMID:24781751

  17. Exploring Multitarget Interactions to Reduce Opiate Withdrawal Syndrome and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioid addiction is often characterized as a chronic relapsing condition due to the severe somatic and behavioral signs, associated with depressive disorders, triggered by opiate withdrawal. Since prolonged abstinence remains a major challenge, our interest has been addressed to such objective. Exploring multitarget interactions, the present investigation suggests that 3 or its (S)-enantiomer and 4, endowed with effective ?2C-AR agonism/?2A-AR antagonism/5-HT1A-R agonism, or 7 and 9–11 producing efficacious ?2C-AR agonism/?2A-AR antagonism/I2–IBS interaction might represent novel multifunctional tools potentially useful for reducing withdrawal syndrome and associated depression. Such agents, lacking in sedative side effects due to their ?2A-AR antagonism, might afford an improvement over current therapies with clonidine-like drugs. PMID:24900763

  18. Divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Myrick, H; Brady, K T; Malcolm, R

    2000-02-01

    The present study represents an open-label clinical trial comparing treatment with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) to divalproex in 11 inpatients with uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The trial used the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) scale. There were no significant differences in demographics or substance use parameters between the divalproex group (n = 6) or the lorazepam group (n = 5). A significant Group x CIWA-Ar score interaction [F(8,72) = 2.57, p < or = .01] was confirmed and further substantiated by a quadratic trend component for the interaction [F(1,9) = 24.9, p < or = .001]. This preliminary study supports further investigation of divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. PMID:10718170

  19. Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

  20. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirda?, Arif; Akp?nar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

  1. The right to withdraw from research.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen; Wertheimer, Alan

    2010-12-01

    The right to withdraw from participation in research is recognized in virtually all national and international guidelines for research on human subjects. It is therefore surprising that there has been little justification for that right in the literature. We argue that the right to withdraw should protect research participants from information imbalance, inability to hedge, inherent uncertainty, and untoward bodily invasion, and it serves to bolster public trust in the research enterprise. Although this argument is not radical, it provides a useful way to determine how the right should be applied in various cases. PMID:21338028

  2. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce...FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published...

  3. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce...FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published...

  4. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce...FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published...

  5. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce...FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published...

  6. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward...Withdrawal from employment. The right of a practitioner to withdraw from employment, once...

  7. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward...Withdrawal from employment. The right of a practitioner to withdraw from employment, once...

  8. 45 CFR 1178.2 - Withdrawal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Withdrawal of information. 1178.2 Section...IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 1178.2 Withdrawal of information. The National...photograph and biographical information of a missing...

  9. 12 CFR 16.19 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 16.19 Section 16.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER...SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.19 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any registration statement,...

  10. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking ...TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or...

  11. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal gauge for packages. 30.45 Section 30.45...45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...determined. The actual tare of a package shall be determined by...

  12. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal gauge for packages. 30.45 Section 30.45...45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...determined. The actual tare of a package shall be determined by...

  13. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal gauge for packages. 30.45 Section 30.45...45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...determined. The actual tare of a package shall be determined by...

  14. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal gauge for packages. 30.45 Section 30.45...45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...determined. The actual tare of a package shall be determined by...

  15. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal gauge for packages. 30.45 Section 30.45...45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...determined. The actual tare of a package shall be determined by...

  16. Chronic very low dose naltrexone administration attenuates opioid withdrawal expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Mannelli; Edward Gottheil; James F. Peoples; Veronica C. Oropeza; Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDifferent regimens of agonist and antagonist drugs have been used in opioid withdrawal management, with variable results. We examined whether administering extremely small quantities of opiate antagonists in the presence of opiate agonist drugs reduces withdrawal expression.

  17. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application?...

  18. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. 244.14 Section 244.14 Aliens...IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director....

  19. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. 1244.14 Section 1244.14 Aliens...IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director....

  20. 10 CFR 2.107 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of application. 2.107 Section 2.107...Renewal of a License, and Standard Design Approval Hearing on Application-How Initiated § 2.107 Withdrawal of application. (a) The Commission...

  1. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...817 Withdrawal of application. (a) The Commission...applicant to withdraw an application for a standard design certification...of receipt of the application, an advance notice...rulemaking for the standard design certification...

  2. 10 CFR 2.107 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of application. 2.107 Section 2.107...Renewal of a License, and Standard Design Approval Hearing on Application-How Initiated § 2.107 Withdrawal of application. (a) The Commission...

  3. 20 CFR 404.640 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...claimant's earnings; and (4) The conditions in paragraphs (b) (2) and (3) of this section are met. (d) Effect of withdrawal. If we approve a request to withdraw an application, the application will be considered as though...

  4. Sign Language Perception Research for Improving Automatic Sign Language Recognition

    E-print Network

    Sign Language Perception Research for Improving Automatic Sign Language Recognition Gineke A. ten of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, the Netherlands ABSTRACT Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can

  5. Signs in Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of signs in Elizabeth George Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver," in which a settler youth and a young Indian learn to communicate by signs, and how the signs reveal much about each character's culture. Summarizes the plot elements of the book, including characters who are not as sympathetic to the Indian point of view. (PA)

  6. American Sign Language University

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vicars, William G.

    As more people become interested in learning American Sign Language, there have been a number of individuals who have begun to create websites that offer free resources related to this language. Dr. Bill Vicars is one such individual, and his site contains resources for students, teachers, parents, and your garden-variety web surfer. In the section designed for students, visitors can use the online sign language dictionary (complete with demonstration photographs), fingerspelling lessons, and numbers lessons. The section for teachers is a real gem, as it includes a number of sample syllabi, general guidelines for instructors, as well as an online library that includes subjects such as regional dialects in ASL, Chinese Sign Language and the National Theater of the Deaf. Finally, the site contains a special section for parents. Here, they can learn more about communicating effectively with their child who is deaf.

  7. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  8. GUIDELINE FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION/LIFE SUPPORT

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    GUIDELINE FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION/LIFE SUPPORT OF ADULTS USING TERMINAL when the decision has been made to withdraw mechanical ventilation/life support. For more information see policy #191 ­ Forgoing Treatment. CONTENT: 1. The decision to withdraw mechanical ventilation

  9. Dynamics of Lip Dyskinesia Associated with Neuroleptic Withdrawal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.; Bodfish, James W.; Mahorney, Steven L.; Sprague, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The lip movements associated with dyskinesia in six adults with mental retardation were investigated through analysis at medication baseline, at the highest level of withdrawal dyskinesia, and at the lowest level of dyskinesia following medication withdrawal. Lip oscillations following withdrawal were linked to changes in structural complexity of…

  10. 75 FR 12804 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...NRC-2010-0103] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6, ``Standard Test Procedure for Geiger-M...is withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG) 8.6, ``Standard Test Procedure for...

  11. Predicting Sustainable Retirement Withdrawal Rates Using Valuation and Yield Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade Donald Pfau

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to quantify whether a 4 percent withdrawal rate can still be considered as safe for U.S. retirees in recent years when earnings valuations have been at historical highs and the dividend yield has been at historical lows. We find that the traditional 4 percent withdrawal rule is likely to fail for recent retirees. The maximum sustainable withdrawal

  12. The impacts of nitrous oxide gas on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor quality of sleep among alcoholics and persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal has been described as a possible cause of alcohol relapse. It has been suggested earlier that nitrous oxide gas has a significant effect on the signs of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and thus might be expected to reduce sleep disturbance during withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to investigate sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal, to evaluate the correlation between sleep quality and the severity of AWS and alcohol craving, and to determine if nitrous oxide treatment does counteract withdrawal's effects on the quality of sleep. Voluntary patients (n = 105) admitted to the A-Clinic detoxification center with AWS were included in the study. The AWS patients were randomly assigned to one of the following 45-minute gas treatments: (1) nitrous oxide/oxygen; (2) normal air/O2; and (3) medical (normal) air. The study was single-blind by design. Sleep quality was assessed after these treatments during the inpatient period; sleep time, sleep efficiency and the fragmentation of sleep were recorded by wrist-worn actigraphs. Severity of AWS was evaluated by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and that of alcohol dependence and craving by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale [OCDS] and the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire. Results The fragmentation index and the time awake while in bed were both much above the reference values for the Finnish population. These values reflect the restless and disturbed night sleep of the subjects. The only statistically significant effects between the treatment groups were found in the correlations of CIWA-Ar (severity of AWS) scores, OCDS-scores (alcohol craving) and coffee consumption, all of which were positively associated with movement time and negatively with total sleep time and sleep efficiency. The sleep quality of patients treated with nitrous oxide gas did not differ from the sleep quality of those treated with normal air. Conclusions The severity of AWS and coffee consumption had the most significant negative impact on sleep quality. According to our results, nitrous oxide gas does not differ from placebo in its effect on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal. PMID:21470436

  13. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal...of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice...committee will be asked to review the issues involved and to provide advice and...

  14. Topographic effects on establishment of selective withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirmosadegh Jamali

    2003-01-01

    This study is concerned with evolution of selective withdrawal of a linearly stratified fluid through a line sink at the base of a reservoir with bottom topography in the form of a sill of small height. The problem is investigated theoretically in the linear, inviscid limit using a perturbation technique. The induced flow due to motion of the first few

  15. Late Entry/Early Withdrawal Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Programs.

    This booklet outlines policy options that Texas school districts can use to develop consistent credit-granting policies for migrant students who arrive late or withdraw early during the school year. In addition to advocating grading of migrant students consistently and fairly, the goal of the policies is to enhance the graduation rate of migrant…

  16. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  17. Work satisfaction, organizational commitment and withdrawal behaviours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Falkenburg; Birgit Schyns

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The focus of this research paper is on the effects of work satisfaction and organizational commitment on withdrawal behaviours. In order to acquire a better understanding of this relationship, the moderating effects of work satisfaction and organizational commitment are examined. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire study was undertaken with Dutch and Slovakian respondents. Findings – Although the results do

  18. Jumping the Hurdles – Undergraduate Student Withdrawal Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E MacKie

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores undergraduate student withdrawal behaviour in the Business School of a new university. Particular attention is given to the complex interplay of forces – personal, institutional and contextual\\/external – which lead up to the decision by a student to leave or to stay. Using a qualitative methodology, a comparative study is made of the experience of students who

  19. [Alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Croissant, B; Mann, K

    2000-04-01

    When alcoholics decrease or interrupt alcohol intake abruptly, they will in general experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Clinically in most cases it develops a vegetative syndrome with gastroenteropathy, cardiovascular diseases, neurological and psychopathological symptom. Usually alcohol withdrawal symptoms abate after four to seven days, longer courses are rare. Application of drugs is required in approximately one third to one half of the patients. A variety of drugs was suggested for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. In the first hours of alcohol detoxification, the sensitivity of epinephrine receptors is reduced, but rises afterwards substantially. The number of NMDA-receptors increases during chronic intoxication with ethanol. The standard therapy in Europe (except of Great Britain) is an oral mono therapy with clomethiazole in a dose which depends on the severity of the symptoms. Severe withdrawal symptoms may require treatment on an intensive care unit with infusion therapy, e.g. in the context of a delirium tremens, which represents a life-threatening status. In this case, benzodiazepines have been used successfully as an alternative to clomethiazole. PMID:10804887

  20. Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective River Basin Water Resources Compact (the Compact). As part of implementing the Compact and facilitating

  1. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

  2. Catatonia in mixed alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Aniruddha; Jagtiani, Amit; Gupta, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia is mostly caused by different neuropsychiatric conditions. We report a case of a 30 year old man suffering from both alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence who exhibited catatonic features soon after stopping the intake of substances. This case will help clinicians to recognize catatonic features within the varied symptomatology of substance withdrawal and thereby helping in its early diagnosis and management. PMID:25422571

  3. Using Signing Space as a Representation for Sign Language Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Lenseigne; Patrice Dalle

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Sign language processing is often performed by processing each individual sign. Such an approach relies on an exhaustive description\\u000a of the signs and does not take in account the spatial structure of the sentence. In this paper, we will present a general\\u000a model of sign language sentences that uses the construction of the signing space as a representation of both

  4. Office of Student Financial Aid Withdrawals and Return of Funds Policy 1 WITHDRAWALS AND RETURN OF TITLE IV POLICY

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    who began attendance and has not officially withdrawn fails to earn a passing grade in at least oneOffice of Student Financial Aid ­ Withdrawals and Return of Funds Policy 1 WITHDRAWALS AND RETURN OF TITLE IV POLICY Effective Fall 2012 Federal regulations require that students who withdraw from all

  5. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  6. Smarandachely antipodal signed digraphs

    E-print Network

    P. Siva; Kota Reddy; B. Prashanth; M. Ruby Salestina

    Abstract A Smarandachely k-signed digraph (Smarandachely k-marked digraph) is an or-dered pair S = (D,?) (S = (D,µ)) where D = (V,A) is a digraph called underlying digraph of S and ?: A ? (e1, e2,..., ek) (µ: V ? (e1, e2,..., ek)) is a function, where each ei ? {+,?}. Particularly, a Smarandachely

  7. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  8. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  9. The neon sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampere, Samuel M.

    1999-03-01

    What are a crumpled 55-gallon steel barrel and a tavern-style neon sign doing in the hallway of the physics building at a renowned and revered educational institution? It's attracting attention, stopping people in their tracks, and sending a message: physics is about size and color, motion and interaction; it's fun and it's interesting, something to experience for yourself.

  10. Sign-away Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Catherine E.

    1976-01-01

    Why would mental health clients sign release-of-information forms unless they thought a refusal to do so would jeopardize their access to service? The author believes that the practice of not advising clients of their rights to privacy has ethical implications that can compromise the value of the treatment. (Author)

  11. Handspeak: A Sign Language Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently renamed and updated, this "practical sign language online dictionary" features approximately 2,800 signs and is being added to on a regular basis. Visitors can use a search engine to find American Sign Language (ASL) signs for words or browse by an alphabetical index as well as by a limited subject index. Also included here are four fables told in sign language, a description of International Sign Language (ISL), and some brief, bullet-point discussions of SL culture and language. Note: the signs are demonstrated in stop-action GIF animation, so users need browsers that support this application.

  12. Atlas of signs in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles more than 400 signs from all areas of radiology. For each sign there is a description of the sign and the clinical entities that can cause it, as well as one or more radiographic illustrations and suggestions for additional reading. When appropriate, there is a discussion of the difference between the original and current significance of the sign and whether the sign is still of any clinical value.

  13. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  14. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  15. Attenuation of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome by Various Dosages of Curcumin in Comparison with Clonidine in Mouse: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Hosseini, Pantea; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Background Herbal medical compounds and their major constituent have been used in the management and treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and pain. This study was carried out to clarify the effect of curcumin, the major compound of turmeric, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mouse model and its possible mechanisms of pain relieving activity by assessing in writhing test as a model of visceral pain. Methods Due to two separate protocols (withdrawal syndrome and pain), 144 male albino mice were divided in two major groups. In withdrawal syndrome group, test effect of various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was assessed on withdrawal signs and compared with positive and negative control and standard treatment (clonidine 0.4 mg/kg) groups. In pain groups, to determine the mechanism of pain relieving activity of curcumin, various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) in three separated groups, were used against acetic acid induced writhing (which is a constriction) test. The most effective dose (40 mg/kg) was used in writhing test and compared with groups pretreated with antagonist of major neurotransmitters involved in pain; and compared with group pretreated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.05%) as control. Results Curcumin attenuates withdrawal syndrome in a dose dependent manner in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05). It also indicated that pretreatment with naloxone and cyproheptadine significantly attenuate antinociception effect of curcumin (P<0.05). Conclusion This study advocate that antinociception of curcumin was mediated by opioidergic and adrenergic system.

  16. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia – an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Patrick; Garfinkel, Doron; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 18–80 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation. Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 6–12 months PRM treatment. Methods Data from a prospective 6–12-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary), adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]). Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM. Results Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as “good” or “very good” was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production. Conclusion Results support the efficacy and safety of PRM in primary insomnia patients aged 20–80 throughout 6–12 months of continuous therapy. PRM discontinuation even after 12 months was not associated with adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, or suppression of endogenous melatonin production. PMID:21845053

  17. Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) may develop within 6-24 h after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for AWS is with benzodiazepines (BZDs). Among the BZDs, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed-dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as ?2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and ?-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptic agents can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for AWS have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents are discussed. PMID:25666543

  18. The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Haney

    2005-01-01

    A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates

  19. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  20. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  1. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign language…

  2. Enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but not cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during withdrawal from acute alcohol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Hollin M.; Hueston, Cara M.; Bishop, Christopher; Deak, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol withdrawal is associated with reduced activity, increased anxiety, and other signs of distress. Objective The goal of the current studies was to determine whether acute ethanol exposure would alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during the withdrawal period. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 4g/kg of ethanol to simulate acute binge-like ethanol intake. After characterizing the blood ethanol concentrations (BECs; Experiment 1), exploratory activity in a novel environment was explored at 10, 14 and 18 hr after ethanol (Experiment 2) to characterize altered activity patterns indicative of withdrawal. In Experiment 3, rats were exposed to footshock during withdrawal to examine whether prior ethanol exposure would alter cytokine and HPA axis responses to stress. Experiments 4–5 investigated HPA axis sensitivity and gene expression changes during restraint imposed during withdrawal. Results Prior ethanol exposure produced a period of stress hyper-reactivity evidenced by an enhanced HPA axis response (increased corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone) observed during withdrawal. While this hyper-reactivity in response to two different stress challenges (novel environment and restraint) was accompanied by profound behavioral changes indicative of withdrawal, no alterations in cytokine changes evoked by stress were observed. Conclusions Taken together, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol withdrawal enhances HPA axis reactivity to stress challenges, though not likely not as the result of heightened inflammatory signaling, and may have implications for understanding the mechanisms by which stress impacts relapse drinking in humans. PMID:21735074

  3. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Presidential Signing Statements Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 9, 2009 Presidential Signing Statements Memorandum...serve a legitimate function in our system, at least when based on...

  4. Atopic Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips ... 2015 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission.

  5. Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

  6. Repeated Dosing with Oral Cocaine in Humans: Assessment of Direct Effects, Withdrawal and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sharon L.; Stoops, William W.; Moody, David E.; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n=9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses [875 mg/day]) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) 2- to 3-fold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects [liking, high, good effects] and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours. PMID:19653786

  7. American Sign Language Fingerspelling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using the method of a computer typing program meets flash-cards, this website lets you practice your skills and speed at recognizing spelled out words in American Sign Language. Beginners and experienced fingerspellers will appreciate this website: the site offers various reference charts for beginners, including printable versions. For those who know fingerspelling well, they can increase the speed settings. Overall, this site would be useful to new students attempting to learn, more experienced students wanting to practice as well as for instructors.

  8. Say It with Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Impressed by Marilyn Daniels' research on the educational benefits of signing for hearing children, a New Jersey early childhood education center trained its staff in sign language as a teaching tool. Students enthusiastically incorporated sign language into their activities as they increased word recognition and vocabulary growth. (MLH)

  9. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Jan 12,2015 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...

  10. Sign Language House Program Directors

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Sign Language House Program Directors: Laura Curtin, 2014 lcurtin@uvm.edu Undecided Claire Mc Language House develop a grasp of the basics of American Sign Language as well as an understanding for Deaf will encourage members of the Sign Language House to become involved in some way with the Deaf community. We

  11. Sign language animation using TVML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Kaneko; Narichika Hamaguchi; Mamoru Doke; Seiki Inoue

    2010-01-01

    The deaf communities in Japan use a visual language called Japanese Sign Language (JSL) as their first language. Learning to read Japanese can be difficult for some deaf people, because JSL has a totally different grammar from Japanese. NHK broadcasts news and other programs in sign language (sign language broadcasts), but there is a strong demand from deaf communities for

  12. Sign Language Generation using HPSG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Marshall; Eva Safar

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the problems of translating English to Sign Language in the ViSi- CAST1 project. An overview of the language-processing component of an English- Text to Sign-Languages translation system is described focusing upon the inherent problems of knowledge elicitation of sign language grammar and its implementation within a HPSG framework.

  13. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  14. Serotonin1A receptor autoradiography during alcohol-withdrawal kindling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ulrichsen; Bjarke Ebert; Steven Haugbøl; B. Bech; Christian Holkmann Olsen; Nils Henrik Diemer; Ralf Hemmingsen

    1997-01-01

    A series of autoradiography experiments were conducted in order to test the theory that the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype\\u000a 5-HT1a is involved in alcohol-withdrawal kindled convulsive behaviour. Alcohol-withdrawal kindling was performed by subjecting male\\u000a Wistar rats to multiple episodes consisting of 2 days of alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first\\u000a episode alcohol intoxication led to

  15. The interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Brian R; Dickenson, Janna A; Atkins, David C; Baucom, Donald H; Fischer, Melanie S; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    The demand/withdraw interaction pattern is a destructive cycle of relationship communication behavior that is associated with negative individual and relationship outcomes. Demand/withdraw behavior is thought to be strongly linked to partners' emotional reactions, but current theories are inconsistent with empirical findings. The current study proposes the interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior, which includes linkages between each partners' emotional reactions and the interpersonal behavior of demanding and withdrawing. Data come from problem solving discussions of 55 German couples with observationally coded demand/withdraw behavior and fundamental frequency (f?) to measure vocally encoded emotional arousal. Actor-partner interdependence models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) were used to examine associations among demand/withdraw behavior and f? in the overall discussion and 5-min segments. Significant cross-partner associations emerged for demanding and withdrawing behavior across the whole conversation as well as within 5-min segments, and these associations are partially accounted for by each individual's f?. When behaviorally coded demanders expressed more vocal arousal, they demanded more and withdrew less while their partners withdrew more. In contrast, when behaviorally coded withdrawers expressed more vocal arousal, their partners demanded less and withdrew more. Findings demonstrate that demand/withdraw behavior varies between couples (i.e., some couples engage in a stronger demand/withdraw cycle than others) and between segments (i.e., when 1 partner increases demanding, the other increases withdrawing). Findings support key elements of the interpersonal process model, showing intra- and interpersonal pathways linking demand/withdraw behavior and emotion and demonstrate the importance of partners' behavioral roles in these linkages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25495639

  16. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  17. Alcohol withdrawal kindling: mechanisms and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, L P; Veatch, L M; Ticku, M K; Becker, H C

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Larry P. Gonzalez. The presentations were (1) EEG indices of sensitization in a murine model of repeated ethanol withdrawals, by Lynn M. Veatch; (2) Long-term changes in central nervous system function after repeated alcohol withdrawals: Recommendations for the treatment of acute withdrawal, by Larry P. Gonzalez; (3) Differential regulation of GABAA and NMDA receptors by repeated ethanol treatment in cultured mammalian neurons, by Maharaj K. Ticku; and (4) Involvement of GABAA and NMDA receptors in alcohol withdrawal kindling: Implications for treatment, by Howard C. Becker. PMID:11391071

  18. Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in glioma patients after long-term seizure freedom: design of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is common in patients with a glioma. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but may cause side effects and may negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Besides antiepileptic drugs, anti-tumour treatment, which currently consists of surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, may contribute to seizure control as well. In glioma patients with seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy the question emerges whether AEDs should be continued, particularly in the case where anti-tumour treatment has been successful. We propose to explore the possibility of AED withdrawal in glioma patients with long-term seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy and without signs of tumour progression. Methods/Design We initiate a prospective, observational study exploring the decision-making process on the withdrawal or continuation of AEDs in low-grade and anaplastic glioma patients with stable disease and prolonged seizure freedom after anti-tumour treatment, and the effects of AED withdrawal or continuation on seizure freedom. We recruit participants through the outpatient clinics of three tertiary referral centers for brain tumour patients in The Netherlands. The patient and the treating physician make a shared decision to either withdraw or continue AED treatment. Over a one-year period, we aim to include 100 glioma patients. We expect approximately half of the participants to be willing to withdraw AEDs. The primary outcome measures are: 1) the outcome of the shared-decision making on AED withdrawal or continuation, and decision related arguments, and 2) seizure freedom at 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. We will also evaluate seizure type and frequency in case of seizure recurrence, as well as neurological symptoms, adverse effects related to AED treatment or withdrawal, other anti-tumour treatments and tumour progression. Discussion This study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients. PMID:25124385

  19. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  20. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section...withdrawal for consumption. (a...Schedule of the United States (see § 151...materials entered for consumption or for warehouse...the withdrawal papers the dutiable...

  1. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section...withdrawal for consumption. (a...Schedule of the United States (see § 151...materials entered for consumption or for warehouse...the withdrawal papers the dutiable...

  2. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section...withdrawal for consumption. (a...Schedule of the United States (see § 151...materials entered for consumption or for warehouse...the withdrawal papers the dutiable...

  3. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section...withdrawal for consumption. (a...Schedule of the United States (see § 151...materials entered for consumption or for warehouse...the withdrawal papers the dutiable...

  4. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section...withdrawal for consumption. (a...Schedule of the United States (see § 151...materials entered for consumption or for warehouse...the withdrawal papers the dutiable...

  5. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  6. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  7. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  8. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  9. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  10. 77 FR 11554 - Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab) Following...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...decision withdrawing approval of the breast cancer indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...DATES: Withdrawal of AVASTIN's breast cancer indication was effective November...

  11. 78 FR 69992 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Carbarsone; Roxarsone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...increased rate of throughout growing weight gain, improved period; withdraw 5...rate of to 14 days; withdraw 5 weight gain, improved days before slaughter...rate of to 14 days; withdraw 5 weight gain, improved days before...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.61 - Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals...WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Spousal Rights § 1650.61 Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals....

  13. 5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. 1650.24 Section...THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To...

  14. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. 4203...WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. (a...contribute that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  15. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. 4203...WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. (a...contribute that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  16. Blood pressure dysregulation associated with alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    King, A C; Errico, A L; Parsons, O A; Lovallo, W R

    1991-06-01

    Alcoholics' blood pressures (BP) are typically elevated during withdrawal. Do such elevations predict future blood pressure dysregulation or are they simply a transitory effect of alcohol toxicity? Thirty-two patients admitted to the hospital for alcohol detoxification were tested to examine the relationship between admission BP and response to isometric handgrip administered 4 to 5 days (session 1) and 3 to 4 weeks (session 2) postdetoxification. Alcoholics were divided into three groups based on admission BPs: Hypertensive (HT, greater than or equal to 160/95 mmHg), Borderline Hypertensive (BHT, 140/90-159/94 mmHg), and Normotensive (NT, less than 140/90 mmHg). In sessions 1 and 2, the groups no longer differed on resting BP or heart rate (HR) but did differ on BP and HR response to handgrip: Compared with the NT group, the HT and BHT groups had greater rises in systolic and diastolic BP and HR. There was a trend for HT alcoholics to report a positive parental history of hypertension (91%) compared to BHT and NT alcoholics (64% and 60%, respectively), suggesting the existence of premorbid factors to this exaggerated cardiovascular response. Further, alcohol consumption, based on a quantity-frequency index, was significantly higher in the HT group than in the NT group. The results suggest that transitory elevations in blood pressure observed during alcohol withdrawal may predict future BP abnormalities. PMID:1877732

  17. Temperature regulation during withdrawal from ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Crawshaw, L.I.; Hayteas, D.L.; O'Connor, C.S.; Crabbe, J.C. (Portland State Univ., OR (United States) Veterans Administration Hospital, Portland, OR (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Male HS mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 hrs. The ethanol concentration in the air during this period was increase from 4-9 mg{center dot}1{sup {minus}1}. At time zero, the mice were injected with a pyrazole and ethanol. At 24 and 48 hrs, the pyrazole alone was administered. Control groups received either pyrazole or saline, but no ethanol vapor. The vapor dosing resulted in blood ethanol concentrations which increased from 0.64 {plus minus} 0.09 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 24 hr. to 1.89 {plus minus} 0.40 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 72 hrs. The mice carried intraperitoneally implanted mini-mitter temperature transmitters, which sensed core temperature. The selected temperature was quantified by monitoring the position of the mice within the tubes. During the 24 hr. of withdrawal, the core temperature of the experimental and control groups were very similar. During the first 10 hr., the selected temperature was lower for the withdrawal group than for the saline or pyrazole controls. By the end of the 24 hr., the selected temperature was similar for all three groups.

  18. Divalproex Sodium (Depakote) for Alcohol Withdrawal and Relapse Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance P. Longo; Todd Campbell; Sandra Hubatch

    2002-01-01

    This pilot study evaluates the safety and efficacy of dival-proex sodium (Depakote®) for alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention. Sixteen patients in moderate alcohol withdrawal were randomized to receive a standard benzodiazepine detoxification, depakote detoxification, or depakote detox plus maintenance. Symptom reduction occurred more rapidly and consistently in the depakote treated patients than in the benzodiazepine control group, and at six-week

  19. Alcohol withdrawal at home. Pilot project for frail elderly people.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D. J.; Street, S. D.; Lynch, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    The need for safe, accessible, client-centred, alcohol withdrawal services for seniors was recognized by health service workers in Victoria. A partnership of health and support service organizations developed and implemented a pilot project for treating alcohol withdrawal in the home. The project provided service that integrated well with a substance-abuse treatment program for seniors. PMID:8688696

  20. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beng-Siang Khor; Mohd Fadzly Amar Jamil; Mohamad Ilham Adenan; Alexander Chong Shu-Chien

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety

  1. Office of the Registrar Evaluated Withdrawal for Graduate Students

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    ): ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Permission Granted: The above named student is [ ] Passing [ ] Failing Instructor's SignatureOffice of the Registrar Evaluated Withdrawal for Graduate Students Instructions: 1. During to either drop or withdraw is posted on www.qc.cuny.edu/registrar. During this period, students must drop

  2. Attenuated effects of experimenter-administered heroin in adolescent vs. adult male rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M.; Frantz, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Early onset of heroin use during adolescence might increase chances of later drug addiction. Prior work from our laboratory suggests, however, that adolescent male rats are actually less sensitive than adults to some enduring effects of heroin self-administration. In the present study, we tested two likely correlates of sensitivity to behavioral reinforcement in rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization. Methods Adolescent (35 days old at start) and adult (79 days old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered escalating doses of heroin, increasing from 1.0 to 8.0 mg/kg (i.p.) every 12 hr, across 13 days. Somatic signs of spontaneous withdrawal were scored 12 and 24 hr after the last injection, then every 24 hr for 5 days; locomotion was recorded concurrently. Challenge injections of heroin (1 mg/kg i.p.) were given at 4 points: as the first of the escalating doses (day 1), at days 7 and 13 during the escalating regimen, and after 12 days of forced abstinence. Body mass and food intake were measured throughout experimentation. Results A heroin withdrawal syndrome was not observed among adolescents as it was among adults, including somatic signs as well as reduced locomotion, body mass, and food intake. On the other hand, heroin-induced locomotor sensitization did not differ across ages. Conclusion Reduced withdrawal is consistent with the attenuated reinforcing effects of heroin among adolescent male rats that we reported previously. Thus, it is possible that adolescent rats could reveal important neuroprotective factors for use in treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:22941050

  3. Opiate withdrawal complicated by tetany and cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Kugasia, Irfanali R; Shabarek, Nehad

    2014-01-01

    Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status. PMID:25024850

  4. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:21838872

  5. Are withholding and withdrawing therapy always morally equivalent?

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, D P; Sugarman, J

    1994-12-01

    Many medical ethicists accept the thesis that there is no moral difference between withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. In this paper, we offer an interesting counterexample which shows that this thesis is not always true. Withholding is distinguished from withdrawing by the simple fact that therapy must have already been initiated in order to speak coherently about withdrawal. Provided that there is a genuine need and that therapy is biomedically effective, the historical fact that therapy has been initiated entails a claim to continue therapy that cannot be attributed to patients who have not yet received therapy. This intrinsic difference between withholding and withdrawing therapy is of moral importance. In many instances, patients will waive this claim. But when one considers withdrawing therapy from one patient to help another in a setting of scarce resources, this intrinsic moral difference comes into sharp focus. In an era of shrinking medical resources, this difference cannot be ignored. PMID:7861426

  6. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw. PMID:22102789

  7. Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

  8. Landsat 6 contract signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  9. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  10. ReflectiveSigns: Digital Signs That Adapt to Audience Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorg Muller; Juliane Exeler; Markus Buzeck; Antonio Krüger

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents ReflectiveSigns, i.e. digital signage (public electronic displays) that automatically learns the audience preferences for certain content in different contexts and presents content accordingly. Initially, content (videos, images and news) are presented in a random manner. Using cameras installed on the signs, the system observes the audience and detects if someone is watching the content (via face detection).

  11. Semi-Automatic Sign Language Corpora Annotation using Lexical Representations of Signs

    E-print Network

    Filhol, Michael

    Semi-Automatic Sign Language Corpora Annotation using Lexical Representations of Signs Matilde Nowadays many researches focus on the automatic recognition of sign language. High recognition rates approach. Keywords: Sign Language, Annotation, Zeebede 1. Introduction Sign Languages (SL) are visual

  12. The effect of perinatal lead exposure on dopamine receptor D2 expression in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Listos, Joanna; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Piotr; Orzelska, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Rybicka, Marta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and molecular effects of pre- and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure on the expression of morphine withdrawal and tolerance in adult rats. Rats were orally treated with 0.1% (1000ppm) lead acetate from conception, through gestation, up to postnatal day (PND) 28. Subsequently, behavioral experiments were conducted on adult (PND 60) male rats. To assess behavioral effects of morphine dependence in Pb-exposed rats two experimental models were used: naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs and the assessment of morphine tolerance to antinociceptive effect in the tail-immersion test. Morphine withdrawal and tolerance were more expressed in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. In the case of morphine withdrawal signs the analysis of protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (RT PCR) expression revealed significantly higher dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum and hippocampus, in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. Differently, in the case of morphine tolerance the significant upregulation of D2R protein and mRNA expression in hippocampus, but not in prefrontal cortex or striatum, was demonstrated in Pb-exposed and morphine administered rats in comparison with morphine administered. These findings suggest that in morphine withdrawal and tolerant rats the perinatal Pb-exposure can affect D2R expression in brain region-specific manner. Immunohistochemical assessment of D2R expression in hippocampus showed translocation of D2R from membrane-cytoplasm in control rats to nucleus in morphine administered rats. Perinatal Pb-exposure did not induce the changes in the localization of D2R irrespective of morphine effect. PMID:23702354

  13. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N. [Vectra Technologies, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  14. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  15. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  16. Structural Analysis of Sign Bridge

    E-print Network

    Foley, Christopher M.

    been found in many sign support structures composed of welded round hollow structural shapes (HSS and recommend changes (as required) to the procedures for design of high-mast luminaire and full-span sign contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation

  17. How to Sign Digital Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Gennaro; Pankaj Rohatgi

    1997-01-01

    We present a new efficient paradigm for signing digital streams. The problem of signingdigital streams to prove their authenticity is substantially different from the problemof signing regular messages. Traditional signature schemes are message oriented andrequire the receiver to process the entire message before being able to authenticate itssignature. However, a stream is a potentially very long ( or infinite) sequence

  18. Skin signs of systemic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Yogendra Prasad Hunasehally; Richard G. Goodwin

    2011-01-01

    Skin complaints are some of the commonest reasons patients and parents seek medical attention. Some may have skin changes as part of a multi-organ disease. For others, severe skin disease may predispose to secondary internal complications. In other circumstances, skin changes may be a sign of an immunological response to infection or medication. Recognizing skin signs provides a unique opportunity

  19. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  20. Automatic Recognition of Road Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

  1. Increase in tacrolimus trough levels after steroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    van Duijnhoven, Elly M; Boots, Johannes M M; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Stolk, Leo M L; Undre, Nasrullah A; van Hooff, Johannes P

    2003-10-01

    Although there are experimental reports of cytochrome P450 3A4 iso-enzyme (CYP3A4) induction by glucocorticoids, there are no clinical reports about an interaction between tacrolimus and steroids. Therefore, tacrolimus trough level and dose were compared after dose-normalization before and after withdrawal of prednisolone. After withdrawal of 5 mg prednisolone, the median tacrolimus dose-normalized level increased by 14% in the retrospective ( n=54), and by 11% in the prospective ( n=8) part of the study. After withdrawal of 10 mg, this increase was 33% ( n=30) and 36% ( n=14), respectively. An additional pharmacokinetic part of the study ( n=8) revealed an 18% increase in AUC ( P=0.05) after withdrawal of 5 mg prednisolone, which is compatible with a reduced metabolism after steroid withdrawal. The significant increase in tacrolimus exposure after steroid withdrawal may on the one hand counteract the reduction in immunosuppression intended by steroid withdrawal, and, on the other hand, may result in an increase of serum creatinine which could be misinterpreted as rejection. PMID:12827231

  2. Clomipramine concentration and withdrawal symptoms in 10 neonates

    PubMed Central

    ter Horst, Peter G J; van der Linde, Susanne; Smit, Jan Pieter; den Boon, Jan; van Lingen, Richard A; Jansman, Frank G A; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Wilffert, Bob

    2012-01-01

    AIM After in utero exposure to tricyclic antidepressants, neonatal withdrawal symptoms have been reported with an estimated incidence between 20 and 50%; however, few data are available for clomipramine. This could also be the case for neonatal pharmacokinetic clomipramine parameters and so this study was set up. METHODS Babies exposed to clomipramine in utero were included in an observational study, approved by the local ethics committee, after written informed consent. Withdrawal symptoms were scored at 12, 24 and 48 h after birth using the Finnegan score. Plasma concentrations were determined using an in-house-developed, validated liquid chromatography with mass detection (LC-MSMS) method at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after birth. RESULTS We found that three of 11 pregnancies were complicated with pre-eclampsia. Ten neonates were observed for clomipramine withdrawal symptoms. The observed withdrawal symptoms were too short a period of sleep after feeding (6), poor feeding (3), mild to severe tremors (6), hyperactive Moro reflex (3) and respiratory rate >60 breaths min?1. Serious withdrawal reactions, such as tachycardia and cyanosis, were seen. We calculated a half-life value of 42 ± 16 h for clomipramine in neonates. Only a weak correlation was found between withdrawal reactions and clomipramine plasma concentration or desmethylclomipramine plasma concentration. CONCLUSIONS In neonates, clomipramine is eliminated with a half-life value of 42 h, compared with 20 h in adults. In two of 10 neonates, tachycardia and cyanosis were seen as serious withdrawal symptoms after maternal use of clomipramine. PMID:21801198

  3. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  4. Measurement of movement is an objective method to assist in assessment of opiate withdrawal in newborns

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, C; Hunt, R; Jeffery, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To develop an objective and reliable method to assess drug withdrawal in newborns by quantitatively estimating the amount of movement rather than scoring individual withdrawal signs. Design: In this cross sectional study, a commercial portable motion detector with computer memory, similar to a wrist watch (the actigraph) was used to measure movement. The measurements were compared with a clinical decision based on the neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score. Movement was analysed, using non-parametric tests, in three groups: a control group of 10 infants, 13 opiate exposed newborns not treated for NAS, and 30 newborns treated for NAS (17 before treatment, eight within 24 hours of treatment, five when stabilised). Results: There were significant differences in the median activity score, expressed as counts per minute (cpm), in the pretreatment group (124 cpm) compared with the control (42 cpm, p < 0.0001), non-treated (74 cpm, p  =  0.001), and stabilised treatment (75 cpm, p  =  0.007) groups. The accuracy of the actigraph in the identification of newborns requiring treatment from those who did not was high compared with the clinical scores; sensitivity 94%; specificity 85%; positive and negative predictive values 88% and 92% respectively. Conclusions: The measure of movement is comparable to the clinical score in the identification of newborns who require treatment and in determining the severity of withdrawal. The clear advantage of this method is its objectivity, reliability, and efficiency as a simple, non-invasive, bedside measure. Further evaluation in a randomised, controlled trial would establish comparative benefits, potential harms, safety, and acceptability. PMID:15210661

  5. Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

  6. 27 CFR 19.537 - Withdrawal of spirits free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. 19.537 Section 19.537 Alcohol...Transfer and Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax § 19.537 Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. Spirits withdrawn free...

  7. Profiles in discouragement: Two studies of variability in the time course of smoking withdrawal symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Piasecki; Michael C. Fiore; Timothy B. Baker

    1998-01-01

    Research has suggested that the time course of the smoking withdrawal syndrome is fairly invariant across smokers and that smoking withdrawal symptoms are weakly related to relapse. Withdrawal data from 2 clinical trials of the nicotine patch were analyzed to evaluate these characterizations. In both studies, patients were clustered according to the shapes of their withdrawal profiles across 8 weeks

  8. Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Withdrawal: Five Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. McDaniel; Karen A. Miotto

    2001-01-01

    There is little medical information available about gamma- hydroxybutyrate (GHB) or gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) dependence or withdrawal. In this study the authors treated and reviewed multiple cases of GHB and GBL withdrawal in high-dose users. Five patients during nine hospitalizations were treated for GHB or GBL withdrawal. The authors describe a spectrum of GHB or GBL withdrawal from mild to severe

  9. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you How to prepare for your appointment Genital warts Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment ... in these areas: Underarms (one or both) Groin (genitals, around the anus, and surrounding area) Buttocks Upper ...

  10. Herpes Simplex: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you How to prepare for your appointment Genital warts Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment ... usually develop around the mouth or on the genitals, but the sores can appear almost anywhere on ...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Child Injury April 2012 1 Child Every hour, one child dies ... Print Updates Subscribe Listen Download Page last reviewed: April 16, 2012 Page last updated: April 16, 2012 ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast Cancer ... Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National Program of Cancer ...

  13. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  14. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be possible to delay or prevent a major mental illness altogether. What are the Signs and Symptoms to ... two of these symptoms can’t predict a mental illness. But a person experiencing several together that are ...

  15. Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome Tips for managing Hives Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips ... Rash from poison ivy: Redness, small, itchy bumps (hives), and itchy skin are common. If this is ...

  16. Yale University Campus Signage exterior sign system

    E-print Network

    by the President and Ocers in 2002. Sign installation began in the spring of 2003. objectives A coherentYale University Campus Signage exterior sign system itemization appendix a: interior signs appendix of the University Printer November 2014 #12;blue signs gray signs 2 yale university campus signage contents 3

  17. Spoken Spanish generation from sign language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén San Segundo; José M. Pardo; Javier Ferreiros; Valentín Sama; Roberto Barra-Chicote; Juan Manuel Lucas; D. Sánchez; A. García

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Spoken Spanish generator from sign-writing. The sign language considered was the Spanish sign language (LSE: Lengua de Signos Española). This system consists of an advanced visual interface (where a deaf person can specify a sequence of signs in sign-writing), a language translator (for generating the sequence of words in Spanish), and finally, a

  18. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  19. Water Withdrawals for Development of Marcellus Shale Gas in Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    is the fracking fluid (also called drilling return wa- ter, drilling wastewater, flowback, or produced- ing (fracking), the portion of water withdrawals related to mining is likely to rise. The information

  20. 30 CFR 35.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to rescind for cause,...

  1. Astronaut's tool for withdrawing/replacing computer cards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    Symmetrical tool allows astronauts to withdraw and replace Apollo Telescope Mount control computer cards. It is easily manipulated by a gloved hand, provides positive locking of a withdrawn card, and has a visible locking device.

  2. 31 CFR 541.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 541.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  3. Bioenergy feedstock development scenarios & potential impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of ample groundwater supplies for irrigation can increase the productive potential of agricultural landscapes; however, excessive withdrawals threaten sustainable use, and shortages could be exacerbated by drier future conditions in some regions. Throughout the North American Great Pla...

  4. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Drdla, Ruth; Gassner, Matthias; Gingl, Ewald; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2009-07-10

    mu-Opioid receptor (MOR) agonists represent the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain but may paradoxically also enhance pain sensitivity, that is, lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We show that abrupt withdrawal from MOR agonists induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at the first synapse in pain pathways. Induction of opioid withdrawal LTP requires postsynaptic activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and a rise of postsynaptic calcium concentrations. In contrast, the acute depression by opioids is induced presynaptically at these synapses. Withdrawal LTP can be prevented by tapered withdrawal and shares pharmacology and signal transduction pathways with OIH. These findings provide a previously unrecognized target to selectively combat pro-nociceptive effects of opioids without compromising opioid analgesia. PMID:19590003

  5. 27 CFR 46.264 - Withdrawal of an approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures § 46.264 Withdrawal of an approval. The approval will be withdrawn...

  6. Feed Withdrawal and Transport Interactions with Intestinal and Peripheral Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple stressors associated with transporting finishing pigs to slaughter can result in increased shedding of pathogens. Previously we found feed withdrawal by itself or followed by transportation increased Salmonella concentrations in ileal contents. However, no difference was found among treatm...

  7. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  8. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  9. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  10. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  11. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  12. 31 CFR 586.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 586.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  13. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  14. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  15. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint....

  16. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint....

  17. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint....

  18. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint....

  19. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint....

  20. 75 FR 33273 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Department of the Navy [Docket ID: USN-2010-0021] Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal AGENCY: Department of the Navy...2010, concerning a policy that would establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) with contractors that have demonstrated...

  1. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  2. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  3. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  4. 46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section 391.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  5. 46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section 391.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  6. 46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section 391.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  7. 46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section 391.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  8. 46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section 391.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND §...

  9. 31 CFR 541.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 541.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  10. 31 CFR 541.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 541.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  11. 31 CFR 541.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 541.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  12. 31 CFR 541.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 541.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  13. Dying on dialysis: the case for a dignified withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Moss, Alvin H

    2014-01-01

    Acceleration of comorbid illness in patients undergoing long-term maintenance hemodialysis may be manifested by clinical deterioration that is subtle and not immediately life-threatening. Nonetheless, it is emotionally debilitating for patients and families in addition to being medically and ethically challenging for treating nephrologists. A marked decline in clinical status warrants review of the balance of benefits to burdens dialysis is providing to a given patient and should trigger conversation about the option of withdrawal using an individualized patient-centered, rather than disease-oriented, approach. This paper presents a rationale for and an objective approach to initiating and managing dialysis withdrawal for patients who wish to withdraw because of unsatisfactory quality of life and those (many with significant cognitive impairment) for whom withdrawal is deemed appropriate because the burdens of continuing treatment substantially outweigh the benefits. PMID:23970133

  14. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug...prejudice to a future filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to...

  15. 76 FR 69146 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of...proposed rule of October 27, 2011, entitled ``Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program,'' because it was...

  16. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  17. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  18. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  19. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  20. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  1. 31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  2. 31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  3. 31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  4. 31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  5. 31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  6. Long term developmental impact of social withdrawal in infants.

    PubMed

    Milne, Lisa; Greenway, Philip; Guedeney, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to follow-up infants who were assessed in early infancy, at approximately 6 months of age, to determine the developmental impact of social withdrawal at approximately 30 months of age. Infants were administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition, and the mothers complete the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), Second Edition-Parent Rating Scale-Preschool form. Significant negative correlations were found between infant social withdrawal and Cognitive and Language scales of the Bayley Scales, and the Social and Communication scales of the BASC. Significant positive correlations were found between the infant social withdrawal and later higher scores on Atypicality and Attention scales. These results provide support for the use of the Alarm Distress Baby Scale as a measure of infant social withdrawal, and its association with later development and behavior. PMID:19185351

  7. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  8. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  9. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  10. Signed domination numbers of graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeun Lee; Xin-zhong Lu

    Let G be a flnite connected simple graph with vertex set V (G) and edge set E(G). A function f : V (G) ! f¡1;1g is a signed dominating function if for every vertex v 2 V (G), the closed neighborhood of v contains more vertices with function values 1 than with ¡1. The signed domination number ?s(G) of G

  11. Safety of Complete and Sustained Prophylaxis Withdrawal in Patients Liver-transplanted for Hepatitis B Virus-related Cirrhosis at Low Risk of Hepatitis B Virus Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Lenci, I; Tisone, G; DiPaolo, D; Duseja, Ajay K

    2011-01-01

    Background HBV (hepatitis B virus) reactivation after liver transplantation may be related to persistence of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. We investigated the safety of HBV prophylaxis withdrawal in selected HBV transplanted patients. Methods Thirty patients transplanted 64-195 months earlier (23 males, median age 56 years), HBsAg-positive, HBeAg, and HBV-DNA-negative at transplant (43% HCV/HDV coinfected), with undetectable intrahepatic total and ccc-DNA were enrolled. All patients underwent HBIg withdrawal and continued lamivudine with monthly HBsAg and HBV-DNA monitoring and sequential liver biopsies. Those with confirmed intrahepatic total and ccc-DNA undetect-ability 24 weeks after stopping HBIg also underwent lamivudine withdrawal and were followed up without prophylaxis. Results Twenty-five patients did not exhibit signs of HBV recurrence after prophylaxis withdrawal (median follow-up 28.7 months, range 22-42). Five patients became HBsAg-positive: one early after HBIg withdrawal, the other four after HBIg and lamivudine withdrawal. None of these patients experienced clinically relevant events. In the first patient, HBIg were reinstituted with prompt HBsAg negativization. Of the other four, one remained HBsAg-positive with detectable HBV-DNA and mild alanine transaminase elevation and was successfully treated with tenofovir. In the remaining three, HBsAg positivity was transient and followed by anti-HBs se-roconversion; thus no antiviral treatment was needed. Conclusion Patients with undetectable HBV viremia at transplant and no evidence of intrahepatic total and ccc-DNA may safely undergo cautious weaning of prophylaxis, showing the low rate of HBV recurrence after a 2-year follow-up. Undetectability of intrahepatic ccc-DNA may help to identify patients at low risk of recurrence; yet studies with longer follow-up are needed.

  12. Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 ?mol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 ?mol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

  13. Status Cataplecticus Precipitated by Abrupt Withdrawal of Venlafaxine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Janice; Greenberg, Harly

    2013-01-01

    Status cataplecticus is a rare manifestation of narcolepsy with cataplexy episodes recurring for hours or days, without a refractory period, in the absence of emotional triggers. This case highlights a narcoleptic patient who developed status cataplecticus after abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. Citation: Wang J; Greenberg H. Status cataplecticus precipitated by abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):715-716. PMID:23853567

  14. Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Haney; Carl L Hart; Suzanne K Vosburg; Jennifer Nasser; Andrew Bennett; Carlos Zubaran; Richard W Foltin

    2004-01-01

    Abstinence following daily marijuana use can produce a withdrawal syndrome characterized by negative mood (eg irritability, anxiety, misery), muscle pain, chills, and decreased food intake. Two placebo-controlled, within-subject studies investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: Study 1), and a mood stabilizer, divalproex (Study 2), on symptoms of marijuana withdrawal. Participants (n=7\\/study), who were not seeking treatment for

  15. Cellular neuroadaptations to chronic opioids: tolerance, withdrawal and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M J

    2008-01-01

    A large range of neuroadaptations develop in response to chronic opioid exposure and these are thought to be more or less critical for expression of the major features of opioid addiction: tolerance, withdrawal and processes that may contribute to compulsive use and relapse. This review considers these adaptations at different levels of organization in the nervous system including tolerance at the ?-opioid receptor itself, cellular tolerance and withdrawal in opioid-sensitive neurons, systems tolerance and withdrawal in opioid-sensitive nerve networks, as well as synaptic plasticity in opioid sensitive nerve networks. Receptor tolerance appears to involve enhancement of mechanisms of receptor regulation, including desensitization and internalization. Adaptations causing cellular tolerance are more complex but several important processes have been identified including upregulation of cAMP/PKA and cAMP response element-binding signalling and perhaps the mitogen activated PK cascades in opioid sensitive neurons that might not only influence tolerance and withdrawal but also synaptic plasticity during cycles of intoxication and withdrawal. The potential complexity of network, or systems adaptations that interact with opioid-sensitive neurons is great but some candidate neuropeptide systems that interact with ?-opioid sensitive neurons may play a role in tolerance and withdrawal, as might activation of glial signalling. Implication of synaptic forms of learning such as long term potentiation and long term depression in opioid addiction is still in its infancy but this ultimately has the potential to identify specific synapses that contribute to compulsive use and relapse. PMID:18414400

  16. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To raise awareness among health care workers of the risk of withdrawal symptoms after longstanding and intense abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Case presentation A 23 year old Caucasian woman presented with gamma-hydroxybutyric addiction and withdrawal syndrome. The symptoms of gamma-hydroxybutyric withdrawal in this patient initially went unrecognized, upon which her situation deteriorated in such a way that she needed to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for airway protection and mechanical ventilation. Treatment with high doses of benzodiazepines led to liberation of the ventilator and further recovery. Conclusion Withdrawal symptoms of gamma-hydroxybutyric addiction are often not well recognized and the responsible physicians at Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit and the Psychiatry ward need better understanding of diagnose and treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid withdrawal is potentially life threatening and its management may require a multidisciplinary approach. Early recognition of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid withdrawal may lead to better management of these patients. PMID:20181164

  17. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend’s withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class. PMID:18193479

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Preventing Teen Pregnancy About Vital Signs Vital Signs Social Media Other Vital Signs Issues Related Links Download this ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social Media Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  19. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or artistic significance...and restoration of a landmark sign is permitted. Substantial change in size, lighting, or message content will...

  20. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or artistic significance...and restoration of a landmark sign is permitted. Substantial change in size, lighting, or message content will...

  1. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or artistic significance...and restoration of a landmark sign is permitted. Substantial change in size, lighting, or message content will...

  2. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or artistic significance...and restoration of a landmark sign is permitted. Substantial change in size, lighting, or message content will...

  3. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or artistic significance...and restoration of a landmark sign is permitted. Substantial change in size, lighting, or message content will...

  4. Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in opioid-dependent patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc I. Rosen; H. Rowland Pearsall; Scott W. Woods; Thomas R. Kosten

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a GABA metabolite used clinically for sleep induction. The abuse liability of GHB is controversial. As part of a study of the effect of GHB pretreatment on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal, eight opioid-stabilized subjects received a balanced, randomized, double-blind sequence of oral placebo, GHB 15 mg\\/kg and 30 mg\\/kg. GHB had no consistent physiological effects. After GHB

  5. 25 CFR 1000.35 - When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, is the Secretary required to award to the withdrawing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, is the Secretary required to award to the withdrawing Tribe a portion of funds associated with a construction project if the withdrawing Tribe so requests? 1000.35 Section...

  6. Evaluating Importance of Facial Expression in American Sign Language and Pidgin Signed English Animations

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Andrew

    of American Sign Language (ASL) and Pidgin Signed English (PSE) have accessibility benefits for many signersEvaluating Importance of Facial Expression in American Sign Language and Pidgin Signed English. Keywords Accessibility Technology for People who are Deaf, American Sign Language, Pidgin Signed English

  7. A descriptive model of signs for Sign Language processing Michael Filhol, PhD thesis abstract

    E-print Network

    Filhol, Michael

    A descriptive model of signs for Sign Language processing Michael Filhol, PhD thesis abstract Keywords Natural language processing, signing avatar, sign description model, formal representation of Sign Languages, so as to use the descriptions with Sign Language processing programs. Situated

  8. Employing signed TV broadcasts for automated learning of British Sign Language

    E-print Network

    Zisserman, Andrew

    Employing signed TV broadcasts for automated learning of British Sign Language Patrick Buehler 1 is to automatically learn British Sign Language (BSL) signs from TV footage using the supervi­ sory information in sign language recognition has typically required man­ ual training data to be generated for the sign e

  9. Data withdrawal in randomized controlled trials: Defining the problem and proposing solutions: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chenglin; Giangregorio, Lora; Holbrook, Anne; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Thabane, Lehana

    2011-05-01

    It is not uncommon for a participant to withdraw from a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The withdrawal of a participant results in missing data and the potential for withdrawal bias. Data withdrawal, or a request from a participant to withdraw all of their previously collected data from a study, is particularly problematic because it leaves little opportunity to characterize or statistically address those that have withdrawn to minimize withdrawal bias. The aim of this commentary is to (1) provide a synthesis of available information on the ethical and methodological issues related to data withdrawal in RCTs and (2) provide some suggestions on how to minimize the impact of data withdrawal during the execution or analysis phases of an RCT. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and JSTOR for published articles on data withdrawal. In addition, we used internet sources as an additional tool to identify content on data withdrawal from research ethics guidelines, legislation, research ethics boards, funding agencies, professional organizations and researchers. We did not find any definitive guidelines for dealing with data withdrawal. We propose recommendations for minimizing the occurrence of data withdrawal, including explicit and clear descriptions in consent forms of how data will be handled after participant withdrawal. We also suggest using imputation techniques to deal with the missing data during analysis. The current commentary can be used to minimize the impact of data withdrawal in RCTs. PMID:21300179

  10. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

  11. Animated American Sign Language Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Randy Stine, an ASL enthusiast, this site is designed to help users learn about ASL and the Deaf community. The heart of the site is the Dictionary, a collection of basic words that are signed in a brief video sequence, a simple, but very clever idea. The Dictionary also contains the signs for A to Z and 0 to 9. Users will also find a large number of resources for and about the Deaf community. These include related links, articles, services, and non-profit agencies.

  12. Interaction between alcohol deprivation and morphine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Salimov, R; Salimova, N; Klodt, P; Maisky, A

    1993-12-01

    Hybrid mice having had 12 weeks free access to flavored alcohol were deprived of it for 3 days. The increase in alcohol intake rate during first 1.5 h of renewal access as compared with its intake rate during the remaining 22.5 h (alcohol-deprivation effect, ADE) was used to select individuals having (HD) or lacking (LD) the ADE. The mice received morphine or placebo pellet implantation for 4 days followed by removal of alcohol and pellets. Cross-maze, acoustic startle response, and tail flick tests were conducted 1 day after morphine withdrawal and after 2 days of alcohol deprivation. Next day, during a second ADE test, placebo-treated HDs again showed ADE and LDs showed no ADE; the HDs during morphine withdrawal also still showed an ADE similar to those in placebo HDs, but LDs after morphine removal differed in showing an ADE. Significantly more hyperalgesia in HD than LD mice was observed during morphine withdrawal. Placebo HDs differed from placebo LDs in showing stereotyped behavior and kindling-like rise in acoustic startle response. Morphine withdrawal caused body weight loss, and converted the startle response curve in both LD and HD mice to a bell-shape curve. In HD mice the alcohol deprivation behavioral pattern was substituted by the corresponding morphine withdrawal pattern. The existence of distinct neural circuits responsible for the development of alcohol and morphine dependence is proposed. PMID:8174503

  13. Cooperative Sign Language Tutoring: A Multiagent Approach

    E-print Network

    DeAngelis, Gregory

    Cooperative Sign Language Tutoring: A Multiagent Approach Ilker Yildirim, Oya Aran, Pinar Yolum {ilker.yildirim, aranoya, pinar.yolum, akarun}@boun.edu.tr Abstract. Sign languages can be learned inherent properties of sign languages, such as the existence of dialects. 1 Introduction Sign language

  14. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  15. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  16. Supporting sign language in Human Computer Interaction,

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Peter

    Supporting sign language in Human Computer Interaction, Understanding the challenge #12;Abstract Sign language is at present little used in human computer interaction although it would be of great value to do so for those speaking sign language. Seeing the great value implementing sign language

  17. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  18. Boosted road sign detection and recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sin-Yu Chen; Jun-Wei Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a boosted system to detect and recognize roads signs from videos. The system first uses the Adaboost algorithm to learn the visual characteristics of road sign. Then, a cascaded structure is then used to detect road signs from videos in real time. After detection, a rectification process is then applied for rectifying different skewed road signs into

  19. How informed is signed consent?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Byrne; A Napier; A Cuschieri

    1988-01-01

    The assurance that patients fully understand the information given to them before they sign the consent form for operation has never been validated in this country. One hundred patients were interviewed by an independent medical observer in one surgical unit in a teaching hospital between two and five days after their operation. Although all the patients interviewed were fully aware

  20. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  1. Chickenpox (Varicella) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Signs & Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Complications Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles ... file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file ...

  2. NEW APPROACHES: Questions of sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, G.

    1998-07-01

    Positive and negative signs are frequently misapplied. In textbooks, the subject of their correct use is often ignored. This might not be because the subject is trivial. Misuse in those same books suggests it might be because authors are unaware of some basic rules.

  3. Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

    2001-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

  4. The HyperSign Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulezer, Susan

    This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive…

  5. 12 CFR 303.25 - Continuation of deposit insurance upon withdrawing from membership in the Federal Reserve System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...deposit insurance upon withdrawing from membership in the Federal Reserve System. 303...deposit insurance upon withdrawing from membership in the Federal Reserve System. ...its insured status upon withdrawal from membership in the Federal Reserve System,...

  6. Estimated Withdrawals and Use of Water in Colorado, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Flynn, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The future health and economic welfare of the people and environment of Colorado depend on a continuous supply of fresh water. Detailed, comprehensive information on the use of water from Colorado's diverse surface-water and groundwater resources is important to water managers and planners by providing information they need to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP), Statewide water withdrawal and water-use data have been collected or estimated and summarized in this report by county and by four-digit hydrologic unit code for the following seven water-use categories: irrigation (crop and golf course), public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied industrial, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power generation. A summary for instream water use for hydroelectric power generation also is included. This report is published in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. In 2005, an estimated 13,581.22 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater and surface-water sources in Colorado for the seven water-use categories. Withdrawals from surface water represented about 11,035 Mgal/d, or 81.3 percent of the total, whereas withdrawals from groundwater sources represented an estimated 2,546 Mgal/d or 18.7 percent of the total. Irrigation (combined crop and golf course) totaled 12,362.49 Mgal/d or 91 percent of the total water withdrawals in the State of Colorado. Crop irrigation accounted for 99.7 percent (12,321.85 Mgal/d) of the irrigation, whereas the 243 turf golf courses in Colorado accounted for 0.3 percent (40.64 Mgal/d) of the total irrigation water withdrawals. Total withdrawals for the other water-use categories were public supply, 864.17 Mgal/d; self-supplied domestic, 34.43 Mgal/d; self-supplied industrial, 142.44 Mgal/d; livestock, 33.06 Mgal/d; mining, 21.42 Mgal/d (includes both fresh and saline water); and thermoelectric, 123.21 Mgal/d. The counties with the largest total withdrawals (greater than 500 Mgal/d) were Mesa, Weld, Rio Grande, Montrose, Gunnison, and Saguache. Counties with the smallest total withdrawals (less than 5 Mgal/d) were Clear Creek, Gilpin, and San Juan. Four-digit hydrologic unit codes with the greatest withdrawals were 1019 (South Platte River Basin), 1301 (Rio Grande Basin), and 1102 (Arkansas River Basin); the high withdrawal rates were driven by crop irrigation withdrawals. Total instream water use for hydroelectric power generation was 5,253.60 Mgal/d. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated for 2004 for the bedrock and overlying alluvial aquifers in the Denver Basin for irrigation, public supply, commercial/industrial, household use only, and domestic/livestock water-use categories. Withdrawals were estimated for input into the USGS Denver Basin model by using the equations in the Senate Bill 96-074 groundwater model. The greatest withdrawals were for public supply. The smallest withdrawals were for household-use-only wells. Douglas County had the greatest groundwater withdrawals (183.98 Mgal/d), whereas Broomfield County had the smallest (3.09 Mgal/d). Of the seven Denver Basin aquifers, the Lower Arapahoe aquifer had the greatest total estimated withdrawals (287.11 Mgal/d), with Douglas County having the greatest public-supply withdrawal of any county (95.29 Mgal/d) from this aquifer. The Upper Dawson aquifer was the least used of the Denver Basin aquifers, based on estimated withdrawals of 17.64 Mgal/d. As part of the Colorado Statewide Water Supply Initiative (SWSI), forecasts of future water demand were made based on information such as population, climate, and then-current (2000) water-use information and did not include the effects of future water conservation. Categories compared between estimates in the SWSI baseline forecasted water demand and the USGS water-use compilation were limited to county population and w

  7. Divalproex sodium (Depakote) for alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Longo, Lance P; Campbell, Todd; Hubatch, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    This pilot study evaluates the safety and efficacy of divalproex sodium (Depakote) for alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention. Sixteen patients in moderate alcohol withdrawal were randomized to receive a standard benzodiazepine detoxification, depakote detoxification, or depakote detox plus maintenance. Symptom reduction occurred more rapidly and consistently in the depakote treated patients than in the benzodiazepine control group, and at six-week follow up a greater percentage of patients in the depakote maintenance group were completely abstinent than either detox-only group. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic or drinking data amongst the three cohort samples at baseline. Our findings suggest that the anticonvulsant divalproex sodium (Depakote) may be a safe and efficacious alternative to benzodiazepines for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. It may be an advantageous alternative for outpatient detoxification, as it has no abuse potential, pharmacologic synergy with alcohol, or substantial cognitive or psychomotor side effects. PMID:11916372

  8. The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

    2011-05-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression. PMID:21524372

  9. Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

    2011-01-01

    Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

  10. Healthy SignsHealthy SignsHealthy Signs Mission of NCDHR: To promote health and prevent

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Visits! Deaf Healthcare Survey Update! Deaf Health Literacy and Cardiovascular Risk Study Underway! What Survey, please click here. Deaf Health Literacy and Cardiovascular Risk Study Underway! Deaf Health! Click here to sign up to take the Health Literacy Survey! NCDHR NEEDS YOU! NCDHR NEEDS YOU! Click here

  11. Intranasal Oxytocin Blocks Alcohol Withdrawal in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Cort A.; Smedley, Kelly L.; Leserman, Jane; Jarskog, L. Fredrik; Rau, Shane W.; Kampov-Polevoi, Alexei; Casey, Robin L.; Fender, Trace; Garbutt, JC

    2012-01-01

    Background The neuropeptide, oxytocin, has been reported to block tolerance formation to alcohol and decrease withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent rodents. Numerous recent studies in human subjects indicate that oxytocin administered by the intranasal route penetrates into and exerts effects within the brain. Methods In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, intranasal oxytocin (24 IU/dose, N=7)) or placebo (N=4) was given BID for 3 days in alcohol dependent subjects admitted to a research unit for medical detoxification using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA) score-driven PRN administration of lorazepam. Subjects rated themselves on the Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Checklist (AWSC) each time CIWA scores were obtained. Subjects also completed the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), an Alcohol Craving Visual Analog Scale (ACVAS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) on inpatient days 2 and 3. Results All subjects had drunk heavily each day for at least 2 weeks prior to study and had previously experienced withdrawal upon stopping/decreasing alcohol consumption. Oxytocin was superior to placebo in reducing alcohol withdrawal as evidenced by: less total lorazepam required to complete detoxification (3.4 mg [4.7, SD] vs. 16.5 [4.4], p=.0015), lower mean CIWA scores on admission day 1 (4.3 [2.3] vs. 11.8 [0.4], p<.0001) and day 2 (3.4 [2.2] vs. 11.1 [3.6], p<.002), lower AWSC scores on days 1 and 2 (p<.02; p=.07), lower ACVAS ratings (p=.01) and lower POMS Tension/Anxiety subscale scores on day 2 (p<.01). Conclusions This is the first demonstration that oxytocin treatment may block alcohol withdrawal in human subjects. Our results are consistent with previous findings in rodents that oxytocin inhibits neuroadaptation to and withdrawal from alcohol. Oxytocin could have advantages over benzodiazepines in managing alcohol withdrawal because it may reverse rather than maintain sedative-hypnotic tolerance. It will be important to test whether oxytocin treatment is effective in reducing drinking in alcohol dependent outpatients. PMID:23025690

  12. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn...

  13. Withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber

    E-print Network

    Skulteti, Matthew John

    1996-01-01

    resistances of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber, 2) identifying candidate probability distributions for the withdrawal data, 3) critically evaluating currently published design values for withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails, and 4...

  14. 24 CFR 3286.809 - Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. 3286.809...809 Withdrawal of qualifying installation program status. (a) Voluntary...responsibilities to administer a qualifying installation program should provide the...

  15. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8 Section 35... § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be provided...

  16. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...Administration [USCG-2006-24644] Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Deepwater port, application withdrawal...

  17. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  18. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  19. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  20. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  1. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  2. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  3. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  4. 76 FR 27332 - Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing AGENCY...proposal to withdraw approval of the breast cancer indication for bevacizumab (Avastin...the metastatic [[Page 27333

  5. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  6. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  7. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  8. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  9. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  10. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  11. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  12. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  13. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  14. 24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

  15. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...proposing to withdraw Federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes in Wisconsin....

  16. 77 FR 20585 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California, New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...2040-AF33 Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...regulations to withdraw human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to certain waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and...

  17. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...is withdrawing the federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes System in...

  18. 40 CFR 145.34 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. 145.34 Section 145.34...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Program Approval...145.34 Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. (a) A State with...

  19. 40 CFR 145.34 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. 145.34 Section 145.34...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Program Approval...145.34 Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. (a) A State with...

  20. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  1. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  2. 48 CFR 319.506 - Withdrawing or modifying set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Business 319.506 Withdrawing or modifying set-asides. (d) Immediately upon notice from the Contracting Officer, the SBS shall provide notification of all set-aside withdrawals to the OSDBU Director by both telephone and...

  3. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

  4. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

  5. 78 FR 57373 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...2376-048] Appalachian Power Company; Notice...Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water Withdraw Facilty...Applicant: Appalachian Power Company (licensee...Request: Appalachian Power Company, licensee...use of project waters. The...

  6. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

  7. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

  8. 48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19.506...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

  9. Reading the Signs: A Video Based Sign Dictionary Helen Cooper, Nicolas Pugeault and Richard Bowden

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Reading the Signs: A Video Based Sign Dictionary Helen Cooper, Nicolas Pugeault and Richard Bowden.cooper|n.pugeault|r.bowden@surrey.ac.uk Abstract This article presents a dictionary for Sign Language using visual sign recognition based within the top 10 ranked signs. 1. Introduction Being able to use a dictionary is a key aspect when learn

  10. Learning Signs from Subtitles: A Weakly Supervised Approach to Sign Language Recognition

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Learning Signs from Subtitles: A Weakly Supervised Approach to Sign Language Recognition Helen of Sign Language Recognition (SLR) is the lack of labelled realistic data. Sign Language, being as com- plex as any spoken language, has many thousands of signs each differing from the next by minor changes

  11. Heterogeneous Data Sources for Signed Language Analysis and Synthesis: The SignCom Project

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Heterogeneous Data Sources for Signed Language Analysis and Synthesis: The SignCom Project Kyle in the SignCom project may be used for the analysis and synthesis of French Sign Language (LSF) utterances annotations of signed language elicitation sessions. The addition of mocap data to traditional data structures

  12. The South African Sign Language Machine Translation Project: Issues on Non-manual Sign Generation

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    The South African Sign Language Machine Translation Project: Issues on Non-manual Sign Generation LYNETTE VAN ZIJL and ANDRIES COMBRINK Stellenbosch University We report on the South African Sign Language-manual Signs, Machine Translation, Sign Language 1. INTRODUCTION The South African Deaf community

  13. Effects of Varying Rate of Signing on ASL Manual Signs and Nonmanual Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2009-01-01

    Spoken languages are characterized by flexible, multivariate prosodic systems. As a natural language, American Sign Language (ASL), and other sign languages (SLs), are also expected to be characterized in the same way. Artificially created signing systems for classroom use, such as signed English, serve as a contrast to natural sign languages. The…

  14. Morphine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: Autoradiographic study of mu-opioid receptors in prepubertal male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Barros, Virginia G; Antonelli, Marta C; Rubio, Modesto C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2006-08-01

    Although the expression of the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome is more marked in male mice than in females, we have demonstrated that the GABAB agonist baclofen (BAC) is able to attenuate MOR withdrawal signs in either sex. In order to extend these previous observations, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the mu-opioid receptor labeling in various brain areas in mice of either sex, during MOR withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Prepubertal Swiss-Webster mice were rendered dependent by intraperitonial (i.p.) injection of MOR (2 mg/kg) twice daily for 9 days. On the 10th day, dependent animals received naloxone (NAL; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min after MOR, and another pool of dependent mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) previous to NAL. Thirty minutes after NAL, mice were sacrificed and autoradiography with [3H]-[D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, -glycol5] enkephalin (DAMGO) was carried out on mice brains at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of mu-opioid receptor labeling during MOR withdrawal in nucleus accumbens core (NAcC), caudate putamen (CPu), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTh), basolateral and basomedial amygdala, and ventral tegmental area vs. respective control groups in male mice. In contrast, opiate receptor labeling was not significantly modified in any of the brain areas studied in withdrawn females. BAC reestablished mu-opioid receptor binding sites during MOR withdrawal only in NAcC of males, and a similar tendency was observed in CPu and MDTh, even when it was not statistically significant. The sexual dimorphism observed in the present study confirms previous reports indicating a greater sensitivity of males in response to MOR pharmacological properties. The present results suggest that the effect of BAC in preventing the expression of MOR withdrawal signs could be related with the ability of BAC to reestablish the mu-opioid receptor labeling in certain brain areas. PMID:16715492

  15. Bidirectional selection for susceptibility to ethanol withdrawal seizures in Mus musculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Crabbe; Ann Kosobud; Emmett R. Young; Brenda R. Tam; John D. McSwigan

    1985-01-01

    Using within-family selection from a genetically heterogeneous population of HS\\/Ibg mice, lines and replicates have been selected for high (withdrawal seizure prone; WSP) and low (withdrawal seizure resistant; WSR) susceptibility to convulsions after withdrawal from chronic exposure to ethanol. Two nonselected control lines (withdrawal-seizure control; WSC) have also been maintained. The response was bidirectional in both replicates across 11 selected

  16. Science Nation: Signing Made Easy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Studies show as many as 75 percent of hearing parents of deaf children never become fluent signers. Alarmed by these statistics and with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, computer scientist and Georgia Tech professor Thad Starner began to develop interactive tools, such as video games and cell phone apps, to make sign language easier to learn for both the deaf and the hearing communities.

  17. 34 CFR 668.22 - Treatment of title IV funds when a student withdraws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE...withdraws from a term-based credit-hour...in writing of the outcome of the post-withdrawal...which the returns are based are withdrawals by...institution of higher education that is located...program is a term-based program that...

  18. 34 CFR 668.22 - Treatment of title IV funds when a student withdraws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE...withdraws from a term-based credit-hour...in writing of the outcome of the post-withdrawal...which the returns are based are withdrawals by...institution of higher education that is located...program is a term-based program that...

  19. 34 CFR 668.22 - Treatment of title IV funds when a student withdraws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE...withdraws from a term-based credit-hour...in writing of the outcome of the post-withdrawal...which the returns are based are withdrawals by...institution of higher education that is located...program is a term-based program that...

  20. 34 CFR 668.22 - Treatment of title IV funds when a student withdraws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE...withdraws from a term-based credit-hour...in writing of the outcome of the post-withdrawal...which the returns are based are withdrawals by...institution of higher education that is located...program is a term-based program that...

  1. Effects of a sill on selective withdrawal through a point sink in a linearly stratified fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirmosadegh Jamali; Hamed Haddadzadegan

    2010-01-01

    Reservoir topography has significant effects on mechanism of selective withdrawal. We study selective withdrawal of a linearly stratified fluid through a point sink in a long rectangular reservoir with a sill at the bed experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted for various flow rates and sill heights to evaluate their effects on withdrawal layer in the inertial-buoyancy regime. Transition to

  2. Why Iranian married women use withdrawal instead of oral contraceptives? A qualitative study from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parvin Rahnama; Alireza Hidarnia; Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi; Anoushiravan Kazemnejad; Deborah Oakley; Ali Montazeri

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Withdrawal as a method of birth control is still used in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore married women's perspectives and attitudes on withdrawal use instead of oral contraceptive (OC) in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. Participants were 50 married women, not currently pregnant, not desiring pregnancy and who had been using withdrawal

  3. Retirement Withdrawal Rates and Portfolio Success Rates: What Can the Historical Record Teach Us?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade Donald Pfau

    2011-01-01

    Countless current and prospective retirees now rely on portfolio success rates calculated from the historical data for different retirement withdrawal strategies when planning their own retirements. Past history-based studies ushered forth what has become known as the 4 percent rule for retirement withdrawals, as historically 4 percent with inflation adjustments has served as a relatively safe withdrawal rate in the

  4. Safe withdrawal rates from retirement savings for residents of emerging market countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Channarith Meng; Wade Donald Pfau

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have mostly focused on U.S. historical data to develop the 4 percent withdrawal rate rule. This rule suggests that retirees can safely sustain retirement withdrawals without outliving their wealth for at least 30 years, if they initially withdraw 4 percent of their savings and adjust this amount for inflation in subsequent years. But, the time period covered in these

  5. Effects of terguride, ropinirole, and acetyl- l-carnitine on methamphetamine withdrawal in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Hoefer; Steven J. Voskanian; George F. Koob; Luigi Pulvirenti

    2006-01-01

    Withdrawal from psychostimulants, including methamphetamine, induces a depressive state associated with lethargy, dysphoria, hyperphagia and psychomotor retardation. Previous work with repeated administration of amphetamine in rats has shown that amphetamine withdrawal produces decreased motivation to work for a non-drug reward, and this withdrawal is reversed by administration of a dopamine partial agonist. The purpose of the present study was to

  6. Clinical features and management of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael McDonough; Noel Kennedy; Anthony Glasper; Jenny Bearn

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the clinical course of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal and generate management guidelines. Design: Review and analysis of all published reports of GHB or GHB precursor withdrawal identified from electronic searches. Findings: In total, 38 cases of GHB (n=28) or GHB precursor (n=10) withdrawal were identified, 36 of which were from the US. A rapidly deteriorating course into delirium

  7. Neuropsychopharmacology . Author manuscript Neurotensin receptor antagonist administered during cocaine withdrawal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    during cocaine withdrawal decreases locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference Klara-treatments with cocaine or amphetamine, alters some behavioral effects of these drugs in rats. However, its efficacy when applied following repeated cocaine administration remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the ability

  8. U.S. Withdraws from Education Reform in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the withdrawal of the United States government from educational reform in Iraq. It has however, through the U.S. Agency for International Development, awarded a two-year National Capacity Development contract, which is aimed at helping Iraq's government ministries to function better. This article discusses how security…

  9. Alcohol and withdrawal: from animal research to clinical issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. De Witte; E. Pinto; M. Ansseau; P. Verbanck

    2003-01-01

    The withdrawal syndrome in alcohol-dependent patients appears to be a major stressful event whose intensity increases with repetition of detoxifications according to a kindling process. Disturbances in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neural processes are reflected in a perturbed physical state while disturbances in the balance between positive and negative reinforcements are reflected in a perturbed mood state. Our

  10. Evolution of Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients during Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Vandemergel, X.; Simon, F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication is accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. Evolution during the early withdrawal period has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of metabolic parameters during alcohol withdrawal. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three patients admitted in our department for alcohol withdrawal were prospectively included. Results. Baseline hypophosphatemia was found in 24% of cases. FEPO4 was reduced from 14.2 ± 9% at baseline to 7.3 ± 4.2% at day 3 (P < 0.01). FEPO4 inversely correlated with albuminemia (rs = ?0.41, P = 0.01). CPK level was 124 ± 104?IU/L in men and 145 ± 85?IU/L in women (nl < 308 and <192?IU/L, resp.), 7% and 28% of patients having a CPK level >nl, respectively. No correlation was found between the sodium and CPK levels (P = 0.75) nor between the CPK level and the amount of alcohol ingested (rs = 0.084, P = 0.097). Baseline urate level was elevated and returned to normal after three days. Baseline magnesium concentration was normal and stable over time. Conclusion. Chronic alcohol intoxication was accompanied by phosphaturia, rapidly reversible after alcohol withdrawal and inversely correlated with albuminemia, slight hyponatremia, low levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D, elevated CPK level in about 30% of women, and hyperuricemia with rapid normalization.

  11. 78 FR 2892 - Privacy Act, Exempt Record System; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes...Privacy Act, Exempt Record System; Withdrawal AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes...Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and...rule to exempt a new system of records from...

  12. Withdrawal of Visual Feedback Improves Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Lichtarge, Olivier

    Withdrawal of Visual Feedback Improves Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease William G. Ondo, MD, Pankaj Satija, MD Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology presenting feature of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We assessed a simple writing paradigm in 40 PD patients

  13. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  14. Smoking withdrawal symptoms in two weeks of abstinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul M. Shiffman; Murray E. Jarvik

    1976-01-01

    In order to study trends in smoking withdrawal symptoms, 35 participants in a smoking cessation clinic completed four questionnaires daily for 2 weeks. The questionnaire dealt with a variety of symptoms which a factor analysis showed could be grouped into four factors: stimulation, desire to smoke, and physical and psychological symptoms. Changes were observed in reports of symptoms over days.

  15. Pacemaker deactivation: withdrawal of support or active ending of life?

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S; Amos Bailey, F

    2012-12-01

    In spite of ethical analyses assimilating the palliative deactivation of pacemakers to commonly accepted withdrawings of life-sustaining therapy, many clinicians remain ethically uncomfortable with pacemaker deactivation at the end of life. Various reasons have been posited for this discomfort. Some cardiologists have suggested that reluctance to deactivate pacemakers may stem from a sense that the pacemaker has become part of the patient's "self." The authors suggest that Daniel Sulmasy is correct to contend that any such identification of the pacemaker is misguided. The authors argue that clinicians uncomfortable with pacemaker deactivation are nevertheless correct to see it as incompatible with the traditional medical ethics of withdrawal of support. Traditional medical ethics is presently taken by many to sanction pacemaker deactivation when such deactivation honors the patient's right to refuse treatment. The authors suggest that the right to refuse treatment applies to treatments involving ongoing physician agency. This right cannot underwrite patient demands that physicians reverse the effects of treatments previously administered, in which ongoing physician agency is no longer implicated. The permanently indwelling pacemaker is best seen as such a treatment. As such, its deactivation in the pacemaker-dependent patient is best seen not as withdrawal of support but as active ending of life. That being the case, clinicians adhering to the usual ethical analysis of withdrawal of support are correct to be uncomfortable with pacemaker deactivation at the end of life. PMID:22351107

  16. Adenosine kinase inhibitors attenuate opiate withdrawal via adenosine receptor activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary B. Kaplan; Tara Sharon Coyle

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for adenosine in mediating opiate effects. This study examines the effects of indirect activation of adenosine receptors, via treatment with adenosine kinase inhibitors, on the expression of opiate withdrawal in mice. Mice receive chronic morphine treatment via implantation of subcutaneous morphine pellets (75 mg) for 72 h. Mice then receive parenteral treatment with adenosine

  17. Gender differences in zebrafish responses to cocaine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    López Patiño, Marcos A.; Yu, Lili; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    The acute responses to cocaine and its withdrawal contribute to cocaine dependence and potentiate relapse, with gender being one of the genetic factors affecting the outcome. Here we report that in both male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio, AB strain), an initial low-dose cocaine treatment (1.5?M, immersion) does not acutely change their behavior. The cocaine withdrawal, however, is associated with an anxiety-like state that develops earlier in female zebrafish but is more robust and persistent in males, and can be acutely attenuated by cocaine administration. This is not a result of gender differences in the expression of anxiety-like state, since behavioral responses to an anxiogenic drug, FG-7142, are similar in male and female zebrafish. The basal brain dopamine (DA) levels and the expression of dopamine transporter mRNA (zDAT) show no significant sexual dimorphism. Acute cocaine exposure does not significantly change DA or zDAT. Withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration results in an overall reduction in zDAT, as well as an increase in DA levels. Neither treatment leads to significant gender differences in brain DA or zDAT. The common and gender-specific effects of cocaine on zebrafish, a well-characterized model of vertebrate development and genetics, should help in understanding the mechanisms involved in the anxiety associated with cocaine withdrawal and provide new opportunities in search for therapeutic solutions. PMID:18499199

  18. 31 CFR 315.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES General Provisions for Payment § 315.44 Withdrawal of request...

  19. 31 CFR 315.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES General Provisions for Payment § 315.44 Withdrawal of request...

  20. 31 CFR 315.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES General Provisions for Payment § 315.44 Withdrawal of request...

  1. 31 CFR 315.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES General Provisions for Payment § 315.44 Withdrawal of request...

  2. 31 CFR 315.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES General Provisions for Payment § 315.44 Withdrawal of request...

  3. Polymerization catalysts containing electron-withdrawing amide ligands

    DOEpatents

    Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM); Click, Damon R. (Bloomington, IN)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention describes methods of making a series of amine-containing organic compounds which are used as ligands for group 3-10 and lanthanide metal compounds. The ligands have electron-withdrawing groups bonded to them. The metal compounds, when combined with a cocatalyst, are catalysts for the polymerization of olefins.

  4. 10 CFR 590.204 - Amendment or withdrawal of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section. (c) After written notice to FE and service upon the parties of that notice an applicant may...withdrawal shall be effective thirty (30) days after notice to FE if the Assistant Secretary does not issue an order to the...

  5. It's self defense: how perceived discrimination promotes employee withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Volpone, Sabrina D; Avery, Derek R

    2013-10-01

    Integrating theory on stress, stigma, and coping, the present study sheds light on how employees react to perceived discrimination (PD) in the workplace. Using three national samples, we found that PD based on race, sex, age, family obligation, and sexual orientation related to physical withdrawal (i.e., lateness, absenteeism,and intent to quit) indirectly through psychological withdrawal (i.e., burnout and engagement) such that PD corresponded in less engagement and more burnout, which related to increased lateness, absenteeism, and intent to quit [corrected].Further, these indirect relationships were moderated by employees' coping mechanisms with those who were more apt to change the situation or to avoid the stressor exhibiting weaker relationships between PD and psychological withdrawal. Though each of these studies is cross-sectional in nature and therefore cannot provide strong evidence of causal ordering of the variables in our model, the replication and extension of results over three databases and multiple forms of discrimination, coping, psychological, and physical withdrawal demonstrates that understanding the relationships explored in these studies can aid researchers and practitioners in enhancing employee quality of life and productivity. PMID:24099162

  6. Social Anxiety and Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Social Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…

  7. Valuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals

    E-print Network

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    death benefit (GMDB), viscosity solution, impulse control, fully implicit penalty method AcknowledgmentValuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals A. C. B´elanger , P. A insurance fee associated with the guaranteed minimum death benefit (GMDB) clause included in many variable

  8. 40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...withdrawal. (a)(1) No later than thirty days prior to the pre-hearing conference (see § 304.31 of this part), any PRP associated with the facility which is the subject of the referred claim may move to intervene in the arbitral proceeding...

  9. 40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...withdrawal. (a)(1) No later than thirty days prior to the pre-hearing conference (see § 304.31 of this part), any PRP associated with the facility which is the subject of the referred claim may move to intervene in the arbitral proceeding...

  10. 40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...withdrawal. (a)(1) No later than thirty days prior to the pre-hearing conference (see § 304.31 of this part), any PRP associated with the facility which is the subject of the referred claim may move to intervene in the arbitral proceeding...

  11. 40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...withdrawal. (a)(1) No later than thirty days prior to the pre-hearing conference (see § 304.31 of this part), any PRP associated with the facility which is the subject of the referred claim may move to intervene in the arbitral proceeding...

  12. 40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...withdrawal. (a)(1) No later than thirty days prior to the pre-hearing conference (see § 304.31 of this part), any PRP associated with the facility which is the subject of the referred claim may move to intervene in the arbitral proceeding...

  13. Who benefits from the US withdrawal of the Kyoto protocol?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Who benefits from the US withdrawal of the Kyoto protocol? Rahhal Lahrach CREM, University of Caen words: power indices, bargaining, environment, Kyoto protocol, empirical game theory. JEL Classification on the Global Warming. In 1997, a collective decision mechanism has been adopted in Kyoto. The "Kyoto Protocol

  14. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

  15. A Double Blind, within Subject Comparison of Spontaneous Opioid Withdrawal from Buprenorphine versus Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael T.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Campbell, Claudia M.; Strain, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical ?-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of buprenorphine withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0–100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation. PMID:24227768

  16. Genome-wide examination of myoblast cell cycle withdrawal duringdifferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xun; Collier, John Michael; Hlaing, Myint; Zhang, Leanne; Delshad, Elizabeth H.; Bristow, James; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2002-12-02

    Skeletal and cardiac myocytes cease division within weeks of birth. Although skeletal muscle retains limited capacity for regeneration through recruitment of satellite cells, resident populations of adult myocardial stem cells have not been identified. Because cell cycle withdrawal accompanies myocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line previously used to characterize myocyte differentiation, also would provide a model for studying cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. C2C12 cells were differentiated in culture medium containing horse serum and harvested at various time points to characterize the expression profiles of known cell cycle and myogenic regulatory factors by immunoblot analysis. BrdU incorporation decreased dramatically in confluent cultures 48 hr after addition of horse serum, as cells started to form myotubes. This finding was preceded by up-regulation of MyoD, followed by myogenin, and activation of Bcl-2. Cyclin D1 was expressed in proliferating cultures and became undetectable in cultures containing 40 percent fused myotubes, as levels of p21(WAF1/Cip1) increased and alpha-actin became detectable. Because C2C12 myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle during myocyte differentiation following a course that recapitulates this process in vivo, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify other gene products involved in this process. Using microarrays containing approximately 10,000 minimally redundant mouse sequences that map to the UniGene database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we compared gene expression profiles between proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells and verified candidate genes demonstrating differential expression by RT-PCR. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed groups of gene products involved in cell cycle withdrawal, muscle differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, we identified several genes, including DDAH2 and Ly-6A, whose expression specifically was up-regulated during cell cycle withdrawal coincident with early myoblast differentiation.

  17. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the shore and the...

  18. 12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7? by 3?...

  19. 12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7? by 3?...

  20. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  1. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by ... Emotions Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head ...

  2. Evaluation of alternative sign replacement strategies

    E-print Network

    McCaleb, James Bradley

    1996-01-01

    data in Texas; an economic analysis of alternative sign replacement strategies; and a sensitivity analysis of key variables within the economic analysis. The recommendations in this study will allow TXDOT to implement the most cost-effective sign...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  9. Drug-induced regulation of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca sup 2+ channel antagonist binding sites in the brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, V.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of drugs to regulate the voltage-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} channels were assessed by determining the bind of ({sup 3}H)dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists in the heart and brain following administration of these drugs to rats and mice. Mice and rats implanted with morphine pellets for 3 days showed an increase in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, compared to non-treated or placebo treated controls. No increase in dihydropyridine binding sites was observed in the heart. The significance of the increase in binding to physical dependence on morphine is implied from the findings that pretreatment with Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonist drugs led to an attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in both dependent rats and mice. Administration of other drugs, known to depress the CNS, was undertaken to determine whether the changes observed with morphine was a nonspecific response of the brain to depressant drugs. Prolonged administration of reserpine to rats resulted in no changes in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, even though the {beta}-adrenergic receptors in this tissue are upregulated. However, reserpine decreased the density of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in the heart of this is accompanied by concomitant increases in {beta}-adrenergic receptors.

  10. The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb

    SciTech Connect

    Keune, A., E-mail: anne.keune@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

  11. FORCING SIGNED DOMINATION NUMBERS IN GRAPHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATEMATIQKI VESNIK; S. M. Sheikholeslami

    We initiate the study of forcing signed domination in graphs. A function f : V (G) ¡! f¡1;+1g is called signed dominating function if for each v 2 V (G), P u2N(v) f(u) ‚ 1. For a signed dominating function f of G, the weight f is w(f) = P v2V f(v). The signed domination number ?s(G) is the minimum

  12. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language…

  13. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  14. Must the Sign-Language Go?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet, Edward M.

    1997-01-01

    This reprinted article from 1899 argues against the abolition of sign language in the classrooms of students with deafness. It also discusses the benefits of sign language and the ability of sign language to explain words and to convey information. (CR)

  15. SPECTRALLY ARBITRARY COMPLEX SIGN PATTERN MATRICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUBIN GAO; YANLING SHAO; YIZHENG FAN

    2009-01-01

    An n × n complex sign pattern matrix S is said to be spectrallyarbitraryif for everymonic nth degree polynomial f (?) with coefficients from C, there is a complex matrix in the complex sign pattern class of S such that its characteristic polynomial is f (?). If S is a spectrally arbitrarycomplex sign pattern matrix, and no proper subpattern of

  16. Similarities & Differences in Two Brazilian Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira-Brito, Lucinda

    1984-01-01

    mparison of sign language used by Urubu-Kaapor Indians in the Amazonian jungle (UKSL) and sign language used by deaf people in Sao Paulo (SPSL). In the former situation, deaf people are more integrated and accepted into their community than in Sao Paulo, because most hearing individuals are able and willing to use sign language to communicate with…

  17. South African Sign Language Machine Translation Project

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    South African Sign Language Machine Translation Project Lynette van Zijl Department of Computer Sign Language Machine Translation project, and point out the role that the project is playing in the larger context of South African Sign Language and accessibility for the South African Deaf community. 1

  18. The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth , Daniel Stein , Philippe Dreuw , Hermann Ney , Sara Africa lynette@cs.sun.ac.za Abstract Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate data. We therefore present the ATIS sign language corpus that is based on the domain of air travel

  19. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  20. PROFICIENCY TESTING IN FOREIGN & AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGES

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    PROFICIENCY TESTING IN FOREIGN & AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGES For More Information JLCAV Revised 1 the QC Foreign Language Requirement with American Sign Language (ASL) Students who intend to fulfill the Foreign Language Requirement through American Sign Language need to make an appointment