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Sample records for naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs

  1. Antagonism of orexin type 1 receptors in the locus coeruleus attenuates signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Rohampour, Kambiz; Semnanian, Saeed

    2010-10-01

    It has been shown that orexin neuropeptides contribute to morphine-induced physical dependence. The locus coeruleus (LC), which receives a dense extra-hypothalamic orexinergic projection, is a key brain region implicated in the expression of somatic signs of morphine withdrawal syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of LC orexin type 1 receptors (OXR1) on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine sulfate (10mg/kg) at an interval of 12h for 9 days. On day 10, naloxone (1mg/kg i.p.) was injected 2h after morphine administration. Somatic signs of withdrawal were then evaluated in a clear Plexiglas test chamber (30 cm diameter, 50 cm height) for 25 min. One group of animals received intra-LC SB-334867-A, a selective OXR1 antagonist, (100 microM, 0.2 microl) immediately before naloxone. In the control group, SB-334867-A vehicle was microinjected into the LC in the same manner. The results showed that intra-LC OXR1 receptor blockade significantly decreased the somatic signs of withdrawal including chewing, diarrhea, scratching, teeth chattering, wet-dog shake and ptosis. These results suggest that activation of OXR1 in the LC might be involved in the expression of withdrawal signs in morphine dependent rats. PMID:20667500

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. ||

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  3. Cardiac adverse effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on right ventricle: Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Zaragoza, J.; Martínez-Laorden, E.; Mora, L.; Hidalgo, J.; Milanés, M.V.; Laorden, M.L.

    2014-02-15

    Opioid addiction is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms linking opioid addiction and cardiovascular disease remain unclear. This study investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor in mediating somatic signs and the behavioural states produced during withdrawal from morphine dependence. Furthermore, it studied the efficacy of CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154,526 to prevent the cardiac sympathetic activity induced by morphine withdrawal. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation pathways were evaluated. Like stress, morphine withdrawal induced an increase in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and an enhancement of noradrenaline (NA) turnover. Pre-treatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, NA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser31 in the right ventricle. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In addition, CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss during morphine treatment and suppressed some of morphine withdrawal signs. Altogether, these results support the idea that cardiac sympathetic pathways are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal suggesting that treatment with a CRF1 receptor antagonist before morphine withdrawal would prevent the development of stress-induced behavioural and autonomic dysfunction in opioid addicts. - Highlights: • Morphine withdrawal caused an increase in myocardial sympathetic activity. • ERK regulates TH phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. • CRF1R is involved in cardiac adaptive changes during morphine dependence.

  4. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Laorden, Elena; Garca-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecn, Paola; Atucha, Noem M; Milans, Mara-Victoria; Laorden, Mara-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  5. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. Synapse, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Synapse 70:187-197, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789010

  6. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:26375926

  7. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 μ M) had mixed effects (≥20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  8. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT2CR agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT2CR activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT2CR agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT2CR antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT2CR protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT2CR can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT2CR may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  9. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milans, Mara-Victoria; Laorden, Mara Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (1060 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  10. [Extension of the concept of withdrawal signs].

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin

    2015-12-01

    If the conditions including normal-dose dependence in which withdrawal signs are observed in the absence of definite psychic dependence are classified as dependence, this classification should be regarded as inappropriate extension of the concept of drug dependence. These conditions should be diagnosed as 'withdrawal' as specified by the DSM-5 or ICD-10. Advancements of research have clarified that an increased number of drugs cause withdrawal signs. Some Japanese researchers use the concept of 'withdrawal signs of psychic dependence.' Their definition of drug dependence and concept of withdrawal signs, however, are different from the definition established by the WHO and the researchers specializing in this field. Thus, the concept of 'withdrawal signs of psychic dependence' raises a lot of questions. PMID:26964289

  11. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet, a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow, or a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substance of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize food addiction may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. PMID:21635910

  12. Effect of environmental enrichment on physical and psychological dependence signs and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependency and withdrawal on the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days following rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for withdrawal signs after naloxone injection, anxiety (the elevated plus maze) and depression-related behavior (sucrose preference test), and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm, in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats. The results showed that EE decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, but not anxiety or sucrose preference during dependence on morphine. The EE-withdrawn rats showed an increase in the elevated plus maze open arm time and entries and higher levels of sucrose preference than SE rats. Voluntary consumption of morphine was lower in the EE-withdrawn rats than in the SE groups in the second period of drug intake. Thus, exposure to EE reduced the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary consumption of morphine, alongside reductions in anxiety and depression-related behavior in morphine-withdrawn rats. PMID:26397757

  13. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Walentiny, D Matthew; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone's abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to μ-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects. PMID:26491062

  14. Spironolactone decreases the somatic signs of opiate withdrawal by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacological evidence has accumulated showing that glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) facilitate several responses to different drugs of abuse. Recent findings have attributed a prominent role to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in modulating behavior during the addictive process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MR blockade on: brain stress system responses to naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, the somatic signs of abstinence; the effects of morphine withdrawal on noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), c-Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser31 levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2); and finally, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. The role of MR signaling was assessed with i.p. pretreatment with the MR antagonist, spironolactone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later rats were pretreated with spironolactone or vehicle 30min before naloxone. The physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression and the HPA axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. Spironolactone attenuated the somatic signs of withdrawal that were seen after naloxone administration to chronic morphine treated animals. On the other hand, pretreatment with spironolactone resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression or HPA axis activity that occurred during morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that somatic signs of opiate withdrawal are modulated by MR signaling. However, blockade of MR did not significantly alter the brain stress system response to morphine withdrawal. PMID:25308750

  15. Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

  16. Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the expression of withdrawal diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Komiya, Sachiko; Ohya, Jumpei; Uzawa, Naoki; Sugiyama, Koichi; Saitoh, Yusuke; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-10-01

    The withdrawal syndrome after the cessation of μ-opioid receptor agonists remains an obstacle in the clinical treatment of pain. We recently showed that peripheral opioid receptors play a significant role in the withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of morphine-induced withdrawal symptoms, especially the peripheral oriented body-weight loss that accompanied diarrhea, in mice. Withdrawal signs were precipitated by the injection of naloxone 1 day after the slow-release emulsion administration of morphine. Withdrawal body-weight loss and diarrhea precipitated by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were significantly suppressed by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), olanzapine (5-HT2/D2 receptor antagonist) and fullerene (a free radical scavenger), whereas neither ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) nor atropine (a muscarine receptor antagonist) significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated diarrhea. 5-HT3-receptors (but not 5-HT2-receptors) are known to play a significant role in 5-HT-induced diarrhea. Therefore, we also examined the effects of ritanserin and fullerene on 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice. Ritaserin significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice, but not saline-treated mice. These results suggest that peripheral 5-HT2-receptor function could be altered in morphine-dependent mice, and the blockade of 5-HT2 receptor or free radical scavengers may be useful for the treatment of opioid-withdrawal diarrhea. PMID:25034809

  17. Effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the elevations in brain reward thresholds and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Bishnoi, Mahendra; van Tuijl, Irma A.; Keijzers, Kim F. M.; Yavarovich, Kate R.; Pasek, Tim M.; Ford, Jenna; Alexander, Jon C.; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco withdrawal is characterized by a negative mood state and relatively mild somatic symptoms. Increased noradrenergic transmission has been reported to play an important role in opioid withdrawal, but little is known about the role of noradrenergic transmission in nicotine withdrawal. Objectives The aim of these experiments was to investigate the effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the negative mood state and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Methods A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. Results In all the experiments, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3 mg/kg) elevated the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine-treated rats and did not affect those of the control rats. The ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin (0.0625 and 0.125 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (1040 ?g/kg) and the nonselective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2.510 mg/kg) did not attenuate the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with nicotine withdrawal. Mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) induced more somatic signs in the nicotine-treated rats than in the control rats. Clonidine and propranolol, but not prazosin, decreased the total number of somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal. Conclusion Blockade of ?1-adrenergic receptors attenuates the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal. Antagonism of ?-adrenergic receptors or stimulation of ?2-adrenergic receptors attenuates the somatic symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:20697697

  18. Exploratory behavior and withdrawal signs in crayfish: chronic central morphine injections and termination effects.

    PubMed

    Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Okon, Marvin; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2014-05-01

    Functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward seeking >is a symbol of survival. It is found in most animals from insects to humans. Exploration is a component of a wide range of drug-elicited behaviors that reflects an appetitive motivational state when animals seek natural rewards such as food, water, and shelter for survival. Not only does the characterization of exploratory behaviors indicate the specific components of appetitive motor patterns, it also reveals how exploratory behavioral patterns are implemented via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli. The current work demonstrates that novel stimuli appear to directly augment exploration in crayfish, while injections of morphine directly into the brain of crayfish enhanced robust arousal resulting in increased locomotion and exploration of the environment. Elimination of morphine suppressed exploratory motor patterns. Crayfish displayed atypical behavioral changes evident of withdrawal-like states when saline is injected into the brain. With proven evidence of rewarding to the exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse, modularly organized and experimentally accessible nervous system makes crayfish exceptionally suitable for characterizing the central workings of addiction at its key behavioral and neuroanatomic locations. PMID:24512767

  19. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  20. Attenuation of Withdrawal Signs, Blood Cortisol, and Glucose Level with Various Dosage Regimens of Morphine after Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Sadeghi-Hashjin, Goudarz; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem; Karimian, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Morphine withdrawal usually results in unsuccessful outcomes. Despite partial benefits from alternative substances such as methadone, its use may not lead to the desired result due to the lack of mental tranquility during the withdrawal period. In this study, by means of an animal model, morphine itself was used to manage morphine dependence. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups, in which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). Afterwards, the animals received morphine for 14 days by either of the following regimens: Once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls)Increasing the interval (each time 6 hours longer than the previous interval)Irregular interval in every 36, 12 and 24 hours until the 21th day12, 24, 36 hours decreasing doses (each time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Negative controls received saline solution only. On day 22, total withdrawal index (TWI) was determined by injecting 3 mg/kg of naloxone. Thereafter, blood samples were taken for the measurement of cortisol and glucose levels. TWI significantly decreased in all test groups in comparison with the positive control animals (P<0.001). Cortisol levels significantly decreased when either the dosage or the administration frequencies were decreased on a regular and gradual basis (P<0.005). Blood glucose levels significantly decreased in animals that received decreasing doses of morphine (P<0.005). This study suggests that no other measures may be required in clinical practice except for changing the dosage regimen of morphine for the cessation of self-administration. PMID:26722146

  1. Differential Changes in Expression of Stress- and Metabolic-Related Neuropeptides in the Rat Hypothalamus during Morphine Dependence and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Núnez, Cristina; Zelei, Edina; Polyák, Ágnes; Milanés, M. Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Chronic morphine treatment and naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal activates stress-related brain circuit and results in significant changes in food intake, body weight gain and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to reveal hypothalamic mechanisms underlying these effects. Adult male rats were made dependent on morphine by subcutaneous implantation of constant release drug pellets. Pair feeding revealed significantly smaller weight loss of morphine treated rats compared to placebo implanted animals whose food consumption was limited to that eaten by morphine implanted pairs. These results suggest reduced energy expenditure of morphine-treated animals. Chronic morphine exposure or pair feeding did not significantly affect hypothalamic expression of selected stress- and metabolic related neuropeptides - corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin 2 (UCN2) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) compared to placebo implanted and pair fed animals. Naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal resulted in a dramatic weight loss starting as early as 15–30 min after naloxone injection and increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone, prolactin and corticosterone plasma levels in morphine dependent rats. Using real-time quantitative PCR to monitor the time course of relative expression of neuropeptide mRNAs in the hypothalamus we found elevated CRH and UCN2 mRNA and dramatically reduced POMC expression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA levels were transiently increased during opiate withdrawal. These data highlight that morphine withdrawal differentially affects expression of stress- and metabolic-related neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus, while relative mRNA levels of these neuropeptides remain unchanged either in rats chronically treated with morphine or in their pair-fed controls. PMID:23805290

  2. Withdrawal from acute morphine dependence is accompanied by increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongqi; Schulteis, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment with a single moderate dose of morphine (e.g. 5.6-10 mg/kg) 4-24 hr prior to challenge with an opioid antagonist such as naloxone results in reliable expression of behaviors that resemble aversive or emotional consequences of withdrawal from chronic opioid exposure, including suppression of operant responding, elevations in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned place aversion. Repeated daily or weekly treatment with these same morphine doses results in a progressive increase in naloxone potency to elicit these withdrawal signs. The current study sought to determine whether increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal from chronic opioid dependence is also seen after acute morphine exposure, and progresses with repeated intermittent treatment. Male Wistar rats were handled and injected with either vehicle or morphine for 4 consecutive days. Three injection regimens were employed: Morphine Naive (4 vehicle injections), Acute Morphine (3 vehicle injections, 4th injection 5.6 or 10 mg/kg morphine), or Repeat Morphine (all 4 injections with 5.6 or 10 mg/kg morphine). Acute pretreatment with 5.6 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg morphine resulted in time-dependent increases in exploration of the open arms of the plus maze in naloxone-naive rats when rats were tested at 2, 4 or 8 hr after the final pretreatment injection, with the effects at the higher dose appearing later (4 hr) than after the lower dose (2 hr). This pattern of results, in combination with a separate study which confirmed a significant anxiolytic-like effect of a low dose of morphine (0.56 mg/kg) administered 15 min prior to test, suggested that low residual morphine levels in the plasma remaining at 2-4 hr after 5.6 and 10 mg/kg morphine may be sufficient to elicit anxiolytic-like effects. Repeat treatment with either dose of morphine resulted in a further increase in the magnitude and duration of this anxiolytic-like effect. These effects had dissipated by 8 hr post-morphine, and therefore precipitation of withdrawal by one of several doses of naloxone (0.10-3.3 mg/kg) was assessed in separate cohorts of rats 8 hr after the final pretreatment under Morphine Naïve, Acute Morphine, or Repeat Morphine conditions. Naloxone resulted in a significant dose-dependent expression of anxiety-like behavior with no effects on general activity after Acute Morphine pretreatment at either 5.6 or 10 mg/kg morphine. A further significant shift in naloxone potency was observed after Repeat Morphine pretreatment at the 10 mg/kg but not the 5.6 mg/kg dose. Thus, anxiety-like behavior is a prominent feature of the negative emotional consequences of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from acute opioid dependence. PMID:18308382

  3. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade impairs extinction of naloxone-precipitated conditioned place aversion in acute morphine-treated rats by suppressing ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Liu, Wen-Tao; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; He, Ling; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Substantial evidence shows that negative reinforcement resulting from the aversive affective consequences of opiate withdrawal may play a crucial role in drug relapse. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the loss (extinction) of conditioned aversion of drug withdrawal could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) of Sprague-Dawley rats was used to measure conditioned aversion. An NMDA receptor antagonist and MAPK kinase inhibitor were applied through intracranial injections. The phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was detected using Western blot. KEY RESULTS The extinction of CPA behaviour increased the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), but not in the central amygdala (CeA). Intra-DH injection of AP5 or intra-BLA injection of AP-5 or U0126 before extinction training significantly attenuated ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the BLA and impaired the extinction of CPA behaviour. Although intra-DH injections of AP-5 attenuated extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the BLA, intra-BLA injection of AP5 had no effect on extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the DH. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that activation of ERK and CREB in the BLA and DH is involved in the extinction of CPA behaviour and that the DH, via a direct or indirect pathway, modulates the activity of ERK and CREB in the BLA through activation of NMDA receptors after extinction training. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the extinction of conditioned aversion could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24597568

  4. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a ?-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ?, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

  5. Pleiotrophin modulates morphine withdrawal but has no effects on morphine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-09-14

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important functions in addiction and neurodegenerative disorders. Morphine administration induces an increase in the expression of PTN and Midkine (MK), the only other member of this family of cytokines, in brain areas related with the addictive effects of drug of abuse, like the Ventral Tegmental Area or the hippocampus. In spite of previous studies showing that PTN modulates amphetamine and ethanol rewarding effects, and that PTN is involved in morphine-induced analgesia, it was still unknown if the rewarding effects of morphine may be regulated by endogenous PTN. Thus, we aim to study the role of PTN in the reward and physical dependence induced by morphine. We used the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Second, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN-/- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26222257

  6. Extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats is blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Brian R; Carlezon, William A; Myers, Karyn M

    2013-04-29

    Maladaptive conditioned responses (CRs) contribute to psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders and addiction. Methods of reducing these CRs have been considered as possible therapeutic approaches. One such method is extinction, which involves exposure to CR-eliciting cues in the absence of the event they once predicted. In animal models, extinction reduces both fear and addiction-related CRs, and in humans, extinction-based cue exposure therapy (CET) reduces fear CRs. However, CET is less effective in drug addicts, for reasons that are not clear. Increased understanding of the neurobiology of extinction of drug-related CRs as compared to fear CRs may help illuminate this issue. Here, we examine the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependence of extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Using a place conditioning paradigm, we trained morphine-dependent rats to associate an environment with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. We then extinguished that association by returning the rats repeatedly to the environment in the absence of acute withdrawal. In some rats we administered the NMDA receptor antagonist d,l-2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (AP5) intracerebroventricularly immediately prior to extinction training. In a subsequent test session, these rats avoided the formerly naloxone-paired environment, similar to rats that had not undergone extinction training. By contrast, rats that received vehicle prior to extinction training did not avoid the formerly naloxone-paired environment. This finding indicates that extinction of a drug-related CR (conditioned opiate withdrawal) is dependent on NMDA receptors, similar to extinction of conditioned fear. The locus of the critical NMDA receptors is unclear but may include basolateral amygdala and/or medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:23416323

  7. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a lot of cocaine cuts down or quits taking the drug. Symptoms ... even if the user is not completely off cocaine and still has some of the drug in ...

  8. Effect of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on the expression of opiate withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Salem, A; Hope, W

    1997-08-01

    The effects of the selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the selective A2a agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxethyl)phenylethyl-ethylamino]-5'-ethylcarboxamidoade nosine (CGS 21680) (each at 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, SC) as well as the selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), non-selective antagonists 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), aminophylline, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl-xanthine (DMPX) and 8(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (8-SPT) were investigated (each at 5, 10 and 30 mg/kg, SC) for their ability to alter the naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats. Effects of CPA and CGS 21680 on opiate withdrawal in the presence of aminophylline were also investigated. Both CPA and CGS 21680, caused a significant reduction in the incidence of body shakes, teeth chatter and paw shakes and decreased the amount of faecal matter produced. DPCPX, IBMX, DMPX, 8-SPT and aminophylline significantly increased the incidence of jumps and decreased the amount of faecal matter produced. The incidence of body shakes was significantly increased by DMPX, 8-SPT and IBMX. Neither CPA nor CGS 21680 were able to reverse the significant increase in the incidence of jumps caused by aminophylline. These data suggest that there is a role for endogenous adenosine in the modulation of the opiate abstinence syndrome and both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved in this phenomenon. PMID:9258993

  9. Nicotine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Ian; Dani, John A.; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    An aversive abstinence syndrome manifests 424 h following cessation of chronic use of nicotine-containing products. Symptoms peak on approximately the 3rd day and taper off over the course of the following 34 weeks. While the severity of withdrawal symptoms is largely determined by how nicotine is consumed, certain short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to predispose individuals to consume larger amounts of nicotine more frequentlyas well as to more severe symptoms of withdrawal when trying to quit. Additionally, rodent behavioral models and transgenic mouse models have revealed that specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, cellular components, and neuronal circuits are critical to the expression of withdrawal symptoms. Consequently, by continuing to map neuronal circuits and nAChR subpopulations that underlie the nicotine withdrawal syndromeand by continuing to enumerate genes that predispose carriers to nicotine addiction and exacerbated withdrawal symptomsit will be possible to pursue personalized therapeutics that more effectively treat nicotine addiction. PMID:25638335

  10. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, P P; Chen, J; Harenza, J L; Abdullah, R A; Sim-Selley, L J; Cravatt, B F; Miles, M F; Chen, X; Lichtman, A H; Damaj, M I

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abrupt discontinuation of nicotine, the main psychoactive component in tobacco, induces a withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent animals, consisting of somatic and affective signs, avoidance of which contributes to drug maintenance. While blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the primary catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), exacerbates withdrawal responses in nicotine-dependent mice, the role of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main hydrolytic enzyme of a second endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), in nicotine withdrawal remains unexplored. Experimental Approach To evaluate the role of MAGL enzyme inhibition in nicotine withdrawal, we initially performed a genetic correlation approach using the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel. We then assessed nicotine withdrawal intensity in the mouse after treatment with the selective MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, and after genetic deletion of the enzyme. Lastly, we assessed the association between genotypes and smoking withdrawal phenotypes in two human data sets. Key Results BXD mice displayed significant positive correlations between basal MAGL mRNA expression and nicotine withdrawal responses, consistent with the idea that increased 2-AG brain levels may attenuate withdrawal responses. Strikingly, the MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, dose-dependently reduced somatic and aversive withdrawal signs, which was blocked by rimonabant, indicating a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. MAGL-knockout mice also showed attenuated nicotine withdrawal. Lastly, genetic analyses in humans revealed associations of the MAGL gene with smoking withdrawal in humans. Conclusions and Implications Overall, our findings suggest that MAGL inhibition maybe a promising target for treatment of nicotine dependence. PMID:25258021

  11. Viscous withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wendy; Venkataramani, Shankar; Eggers, Jens

    2001-11-01

    In a viscous withdrawal experiment, a pipette is inserted into the top layer of two fluid layers. Fluid is withdrawn through the pipette. At low flow rates, the two-fluid interface develops a "hump" directly under the pipette. Only fluid from the top layer is withdrawn. Past a critical withdrawal rate, a thin thread of the lower fluid, a "spout", is entrained along with the outer fluid into the pipette. Experiments by Cohen et al. (Science 292, 2001) show that when the top layer is more viscous than the lower layer, the curvature at the hump tip becomes large as the flow rate approaches the critical value. Also, at flow rates slightly above the critical value, the entrained thread thickness is small, and can be on the order of microns. The creation of such a small lengthscale make a number of applications, from the manufacture of micron-sized drops to the encapsulation of particles, possible. We here model viscous withdrawal and show how the maximum curvature at the hump tip, which is related to the minimum spout radius that can be achieved, varies with experimental parameters.

  12. Disturbances of attention in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portnoff, L A; Dougan, D R

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances of attention have often been noted clinically in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but no studies to date have systematically explored this phenomenon. The present study examined attentional impairment in 20 tranquilizer-free alcohol withdrawal patients by using continuous performance tests assessing concentration in both an auditory and a visual mode. It was found that withdrawal patients generally evidenced poorer auditory than visual concentration. To investigate the relationship between the time-course of withdrawal and attentional impairment, the alcoholics were divided into an Early "Detox" and a Late "Detox" group, predicated on the reported amount of time since last alcohol consumption. Contrary to expectation, those alcoholics with a longer time-lapse since cessation exhibited poorer attentional performance than those with a shorter time-lapse. The possibility of an independent course for mental symptoms apart from physiological withdrawal signs was discussed. PMID:6862773

  13. New mechanisms and perspectives in nicotine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Muldoon, P P; De Biasi, M; Damaj, M I

    2015-09-01

    Diseases associated with tobacco use constitute a major health problem worldwide. Upon cessation of tobacco use, an unpleasant withdrawal syndrome occurs in dependent individuals. Avoidance of the negative state produced by nicotine withdrawal represents a motivational component that promotes continued tobacco use and relapse after smoking cessation. With the modest success rate of currently available smoking cessation therapies, understanding mechanisms involved in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome are crucial for developing successful treatments. Animal models provide a useful tool for examining neuroadaptative mechanisms and factors influencing nicotine withdrawal, including sex, age, and genetic factors. Such research has also identified an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in different aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome (e.g., physical vs. affective signs). In addition to nicotinic receptors, the opioid and endocannabinoid systems, various signal transduction pathways, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides have been implicated in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Animal studies have informed human studies of genetic variants and potential targets for smoking cessation therapies. Overall, the available literature indicates that the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is complex, and involves a range of neurobiological mechanisms. As research in nicotine withdrawal progresses, new pharmacological options for smokers attempting to quit can be identified, and treatments with fewer side effects that are better tailored to the unique characteristics of patients may become available. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25433149

  14. Vital signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Normal vital signs change with age, sex, weight, exercise capability, and overall health. Normal vital sign ranges for the average healthy adult while resting are: Blood pressure: 90/60 mm/Hg to ...

  15. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  16. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  17. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  18. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  19. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  20. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  1. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  2. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  3. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation

  4. Wilderness Sign

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wilderness sign beside a mountain hiking trail in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. This image was taken while the photographer was participating in the 2009 Joint Annual Meeting of these leading scientific societies: Mycological Society of America, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, ...

  5. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  6. Decreased brain reward produced by ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Schulteis, G; Markou, A; Cole, M; Koob, G F

    1995-01-01

    Abstinence from chronic administration of various drugs of abuse such as ethanol, opiates, and psychostimulants results in withdrawal syndromes largely unique to each drug class. However, one symptom that appears common to these withdrawal syndromes in humans is a negative affective/motivational state. Prior work in rodents has shown that elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) reward thresholds provide a quantitative index that serves as a model for the negative affective state during withdrawal from psychostimulants and opiates. The current study sought to determine whether ICSS threshold elevations also accompany abstinence from chronic ethanol exposure sufficient to induce physical dependence. Rats prepared with stimulating electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus were trained in a discrete-trial current-intensity ICSS threshold procedure; subsequently they were subjected to chronic ethanol administration in ethanol vapor chambers (average blood alcohol level of 197 mg/dl). A time-dependent elevation in ICSS thresholds was observed following removal from the ethanol, but not the control, chambers. Thresholds were significantly elevated for 48 hr after cessation of ethanol exposure, with peak elevations observed at 6-8 hr. Blood alcohol levels were directly correlated with the magnitude of peak threshold elevation. Ratings of traditional overt signs of withdrawal showed a similar time course of expression and resolution. The results suggest that decreased function of reward systems (elevations in reward thresholds) is a common element of withdrawal from chronic administration of several diverse classes of abused drugs. PMID:7597046

  7. Mirtazapine withdrawal-induced mania

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressant withdrawal mania is not a commonly reported occurrence. To date, there is only one published report of hypomanic episode on withdrawal of mirtazapine. A case is presented herein of a patient who experienced manic episode on withdrawal of mirtazapine.

  8. Dual Inhibition of Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzymes Produces Enhanced Antiwithdrawal Effects in Morphine-Dependent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Divya; Gamage, Thomas F; Vanuytsel, Tim; Owens, Robert A; Abdullah, Rehab A; Niphakis, Micah J; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) attenuates naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal signs in mice via activation of CB1 receptors. Complete FAAH inhibition blocks only a subset of withdrawal signs, whereas complete MAGL inhibition elicits enhanced antiwithdrawal efficacy, but is accompanied with some cannabimimetic side effects. Thus, the primary objective of the present study was to determine whether combined, full FAAH inhibition and partial MAGL represents an optimal strategy to reduce opioid withdrawal. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether combined administration of high-dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 and low-dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, as well as the novel dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57, which is 100-fold more potent in inhibiting FAAH than MAGL, would prevent spontaneous withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, a model with greater face validity than precipitating withdrawal with ?-opioid receptor antagonists. Strikingly, a combination of low-dose JZL184 and high-dose PF-3845 as well as the dual inhibitor SA-57 reduced all abrupt withdrawal signs (ie, platform jumping, paw flutters, head shakes, diarrhea, and total body weight loss), but did not elicit any cannabimimetic side effects. In addition, JZL184 or PF-3845 blocked naloxone-precipitated hypersecretion in morphine-dependent small intestinal tissue. Collectively, these results are the first to show that endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors reduce abrupt withdrawal in morpine-dependent mice and are effective in a novel in vitro model of opioid withdrawal. More generally, these findings support the idea that joint MAGL and FAAH inhibition represents a promising approach for the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:23303065

  9. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  10. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Dress for success At a recent physics teachers meeting a colleague commented to me on the generally poor state of the throng's sartorial elegance. It's not that she thought they should all be clothes horses or catwalk models but certain rules seem to have been ignored. This didn't just apply to the older people in the crowd. In the interests of physics we drew up a few basic rules that seemed to have gone awry and we present them here for the benefit of new members of the profession: Trousers should meet shoes, or at least come within 2 cm of the laces. NB. Pedal pushers are not acceptable male attire. Sandals and socks should also be avoided. One of the few equations that all of the general public know (like E = mc2) is Socks + Sandals = Beard. Hair should be washed at least once a week (whether it needs to be or not), combing should take place more frequently. Particular styles are not important, but avoid hiding receding hair using the comb-over. If your jacket/cardigan frays at the elbow throw it away. Patching it up with leather patches is not decorous or clever. NB. Carpet samples are not an acceptable alternative. If you are watching a re-run of a 1970s television show one afternoon and you find yourself thinking how much you admire the actors' dress sense then it is time to go clothes shopping. Colours should match and complement each other. Some combinations should be banned, for example brown jacket with orange shirts are a no-no. Under no circumstances should you try to match brown tweed with anything, unless it's the inside of your dustbin. Men and ties. It is very common to want to wear one's old school or college tie to show off your origins and this is to be commended. However, it is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Ironing should be done on all outer garments, though there is no need to iron creases (fore and aft) so sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  11. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

  12. Venlafaxine withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sablji?, Vladimir; Rui?, Klementina; Rakun, Radmir

    2011-03-01

    Dual-action antidepressants serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SRNIs) are widely used to treat depression. Owing to its efficiency and safety, venlafaxine holds a prominent place in this group of depressants. Abrupt venlafaxine discontinuation involves a high risk of withdrawal syndrome. Mechanism of its development is similar to that of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but of higher intensity. Venlafaxine withdrawal symptoms may include several somatic symptoms as well as several psychiatric symptoms. In some cases, symptoms may look like a stroke. A treatment option is re-inclusion of venlafaxine or a SSRI antidepressant. The paper presents the case of a 70-year-old patient who discontinued of her own accord to take venlafaxine, which she had been taking regularly at a daily dose of 225 mg for more than a year. A few hours after taking the last dose, withdrawal syndrome occurred with severe symptoms resembling a stroke. The patient was examined by a neurologist and the CT and laboratory parameters showed no irregularities. Diagnosis was made after psychiatric observation. Venlafaxine, 150 mg per day, was prescribed, the symptoms disappeared relatively quickly, and the patient fully recovered. Withdrawal syndrome is a real risk for each venlafaxine treated patient. The possibility of its occurrence should be always kept in mind and patients should be timely informed about it. In this way, the risk of venlafaxine withdraw syndrome could be reduced, unnecessary stress to patients prevented and the costs of medical treatment lowered. PMID:21448114

  13. Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Nichole M; Einstein, Emily B; Lopez, Maria B; McClure-Begley, Tristan D; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R

    2013-08-01

    Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [³H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of β4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of β4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

  14. Sign Language Diglossia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C., Jr.

    Charles A. Ferguson's concept of "diglossia" (1959, 1964) is used in analyzing sign language. As in Haitian Creole or Swiss German, "two or more varieties" of sign language are "used by the same speakers under different conditions"--these are here called "High" (H) sign language and "Low" (L) sign language. H sign language is formally taught

  15. Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Santwana; Malhotra, Mahima

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure, which is a very rare and uncommon event, occurred after discontinuation of steroid therapy that was taken to increase weight by the patient. The pathogenesis is not well understood. In this submission, we have highlighted the fact that withdrawal of steroid has a propensity to cause seizure as a rare withdrawal phenomenon. PMID:25969660

  16. Mirtazapine withdrawal-induced mania.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressant withdrawal mania is not a commonly reported occurrence. To date, there is only one published report of hypomanic episode on withdrawal of mirtazapine. A case is presented herein of a patient who experienced manic episode on withdrawal of mirtazapine. PMID:26816474

  17. Sign Language Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    The sign language of the American deaf community (ASL) is analyzed from a linguistic point of view. The history of the application of linguistic principles to sign language studies is briefly traced. The cherology (phonology) of sign language is treated with respect to finger spelling, manual numeration, ASL phonetics, and conventions of sign

  18. Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome seizures.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Cano, H; Vela-Bueno, A; de Iceta, M; Pomalima, R; Martnez-Gras, I

    1995-11-01

    In this study, we present five cases of seizures following withdrawal of flunitrazepam, lorazepam, or triazolam, representing 3% of a sample consisting of 153 patients dependent on benzodiazepines. Both abrupt cessation of benzodiazepine intake and high-dose use seem to be critical for the appearance of seizures. Pharmacological features, such as short elimination half-life and high potency, might explain the higher risk of seizures observed in these patients. PMID:8773293

  19. Behavioral effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on morphine withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Siamak; Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-08-10

    Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30 min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control rats and the administration of URB597 (all doses except 0.03 mg/kg) reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that the administration of URB597 modulated morphine withdrawal symptoms. This finding shows that endocannabinoids interact with the opioid system during the morphine withdrawal period and that potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid system by URB597 may be a new target strategy for the management of morphine addiction. PMID:21763761

  20. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:24809146

  1. l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

    2012-12-01

    l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in nave mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

  2. Bedbugs: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Bedbugs: Signs and symptoms Bedbug bites : The bites often ... hiding place. Serious and life-threatening reactions to bedbug bites Although less common, it is possible to ...

  3. Stroke Warning Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs and symptoms >>>> Stroke Warning Signs Hip-Hop F.A.S.T. Video Updated Guidelines for Acute Ischemic ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Stroke Heroes Who Responded F.A.S.T. Inspirational Stroke Stories Find Stroke Care ...

  4. American Sign Language

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Langue des Signes Franaise).Todays ASL includes some elements of LSF plus the original local sign languages, ... can also be used to model the essential elements and organization of natural language. Another NIDCD-funded ...

  5. Shingles: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more ... painful before the shingles appeared. Learn more about shingles: Shingles Shingles: Who gets, causes Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, ...

  6. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  7. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more

  8. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  9. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among

  10. Taking Withdrawal from Unesco Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Depicts the U.S. withdrawal from UNESCO as an opportunity to initiate a new approach to international cooperation. Summarizes the reasons for U.S. withdrawal, inherent risks (isolationism, Soviet dominance, lack of a suitable replacement program), and steps in developing a new international educational organization more acceptable to U.S. values.…

  11. Cuesta College Student Withdrawal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Peter F.; Cartnal, Ryan

    The spring 1999 student withdrawal survey was made available for approximately two weeks before the final withdrawal deadline to all students who formally dropped a class through the admissions office at either the North County or San Luis Obsipo campus of Cuesta College in California. A total of 438 useable surveys were collected. The identical…

  12. Differential effects of endocannabinoid catabolic inhibitors on morphine withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, Thomas F.; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M.; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibition of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and/or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) reduces somatic morphine withdrawal signs, but its effects on aversive aspects of withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845, or the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor SA-57 would reduce acquisition of morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned place avoidance (CPA) and jumping. Methods Mice were implanted with placebo or 75 mg morphine pellets, 48 h later injected with naloxone or saline and placed in the conditioning apparatus, and assessed for CPA at 72 h. Subjects were also observed for jumping behavior following naloxone challenge. Results Naloxone (0.056 mg/kg) produced robust CPA in morphine-pelleted, but not placebo-pelleted, mice. Morphine pretreatment prevented the occurrence of withdrawal CPA and withdrawal jumping, while clonidine (an ?2 adrenergic receptor agonist) only blocked withdrawal CPA. THC, JZL184, and SA-57 significantly reduced the percentage of mice that jumped during the conditioning session, but did not affect acquisition of withdrawal CPA. PF-3845 did not reduce morphine withdrawal CPA or jumping. Finally, neither THC nor the endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors in non-dependent mice elicited a conditioned place preference or aversion. Conclusions These findings suggest that inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes reduces somatic morphine withdrawal signs, but not aversive aspects as inferred in the CPA paradigm. The observation that non-dependent mice administered inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation did not display place preferences is consistent with the idea that that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes might be targeted therapeutically, with reduced risk of abuse. PMID:25479915

  13. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  14. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  15. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  16. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  17. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal. 74.18 Section 74.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Permitting Procedures § 74.18 Withdrawal. (a) Withdrawal through administrative amendment. An opt-in source may request to withdraw...

  18. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  19. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  20. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  1. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  2. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  3. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  4. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    PubMed

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. PMID:25744958

  5. Inhibitors of endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes reduce precipitated withdrawal responses in THC-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Schlosburg, Joel E; Carlson, Brittany L A; Ramesh, Divya; Abdullah, Rehab A; Long, Jonathan Z; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2009-06-01

    Abstinence symptoms in cannabis-dependent individuals are believed to contribute to the maintenance of regular marijuana use. However, there are currently no medications approved by the FDA to treat cannabis-related disorders. The only treatment currently shown consistently to alleviate cannabinoid withdrawal in both animals and humans is substitution therapy using the psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, new genetic and pharmacological tools are available to increase endocannabinoid levels by targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzymes responsible for the degradation of the endogenous cannabinoid ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, respectively. In the present study, we investigated whether increasing endogenous cannabinoids levels, through the use of FAAH (-/-) mice as well as the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, would reduce the intensity of withdrawal signs precipitated by the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant in THC-dependent mice. Strikingly, acute administration of either URB597 or JZL184 significantly attenuated rimonabant-precipitated withdrawal signs in THC-dependent mice. In contrast, FAAH (-/-) mice showed identical withdrawal responses as wild-type mice under a variety of conditions, suggesting that the absence of this enzyme across the development of dependence and during rimonabant challenge does not affect withdrawal responses. Of importance, subchronic administration of URB597 did not lead to cannabinoid dependence and neither URB597 nor JZL184 impaired rotarod motor coordination. These results support the concept of targeting endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes as a promising treatment for cannabis withdrawal. PMID:19430909

  6. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have DTs may experience confusion, anxiety and even hallucinations (seeing, hearing or feeling things that aren't ... control the shakiness, anxiety and confusion that can come with alcohol withdrawal. If you take these medicines ...

  7. Effects exerted by otilonium bromide administration on precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, A; Trivulzio, S; Vignati, S

    1997-09-26

    An opioid withdrawal syndrome was induced in rats by repeated morphine administration and final naloxone injection. The withdrawal causes alteration of several physiological signs. The aim of the study was to prevent the altered physiological profiles by utilising otilonium bromide. Morphine was administered in three daily i.p. injections for 4 days at doses of 9, 16 and 25 mg/kg (1st day), 25, 25 and 50 mg/kg (2nd day), 50, 50 and 50 mg/kg (3rd day) and 50, 50 and 100 mg/kg (4th day). Naloxone was injected (30 mg/kg) i.p. 180 min after the last morphine injection. Otilonium bromide was administered orally at 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, 120 min before the naloxone administration. Signs like faecal and urine excretion, rectal temperature and pain threshold levels, salivation, jumping and wet dog shakes were affected in different ways. Notably the administration of otilonium bromide in rats receiving morphine together with naloxone decreased the intensity of certain withdrawal symptoms, such as excretion of faeces, wet dog shake behaviour, and elevated the nociceptive threshold values. The effects exhibited by otilonium bromide administration may be explained through its calcium antagonist activity interfering with a mechanism involved in the regulation of these previously mentioned withdrawal symptoms. The use of this drug is thus suggested as a possible control of some acute opioid withdrawal signs in heroin addicts. PMID:9274799

  8. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala ?-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6??g) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. PMID:26105136

  9. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books

  10. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  11. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed

  12. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  13. Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Kenney, Justin W.; Sullivan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze in 8 strains of inbred mice. Strain-dependent effects of acute nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze were observed, but no association between the effects of acute nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning were observed, suggesting that different genetic substrates may mediate these effects. The identification of genetic factors that may alter the effects of nicotine on cognition may lead to more efficacious treatments for nicotine addiction. PMID:21822688

  14. Investigation of allyphenyline efficacy in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Del Bello, Fabio; Domi, Esi; Pigini, Maria; Nasuti, Cinzia

    2015-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that allyphenyline, behaving as ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and ?2A-adrenoceptor antagonist, in mice enhanced morphine analgesia, attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed significant antidepressant-like activity and was devoid of sedative side effects. Opioid and alcohol withdrawal shares several common neurobiological and molecular mechanisms. Therefore, in this study we expanded our analysis of the pharmacological properties of allyphenyline by investigating its ability to prevent the expression of somatic withdrawal signs, anxiety-like behavior and hyperlocomotion associated with chronic ethanol intoxication. Rats were subjected to induction of ethanol dependence via repeated daily intragastric ethanol (20%) administration for 4 consecutive days. Twelve hours after the last alcohol administration, somatic alcohol withdrawal signs were scored. Results revealed a significant expression of physical withdrawal signs that were not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of allyphenyline at the doses of 0.05, 0.275 and 0.5 mg/kg. In contrast, allyphenyline (0.05 and 0.275 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced hyperanxiety-like behavior observed 6 days after alcohol intoxication as measured using the defensive burying test. Allyphenyline also reduced open field hyperlocomotor activity associated with alcohol withdrawal. Notably, the anxiolytic effect of the compound, as well as the already reported antidepressant action, was observed at very low doses, suggesting the involvement of its ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Therefore, the present investigation suggests that allyphenyline might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to investigate the potential of compounds exhibiting ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism and ?2A-adrenoceptor antagonism in the treatment of hyperanxiety and hyperlocomotion occurring during alcohol withdrawal in dependent subjects. PMID:25895641

  15. 48 CFR 244.305-70 - Granting, withholding, or withdrawing approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... review, the ACO shall hold an exit conference with the contractor. At the conference, the ACO should— (1) Present the review team's recommendations, signed by the ACO; (2) Request the contractor submit its plan... Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 244.305-70 Granting, withholding, or withdrawing approval. Use...

  16. Varenicline enhances dopamine release facilitation more than nicotine after long-term nicotine treatment and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Perez, Xiomara A; Khroyan, Taline V; McIntosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2015-02-01

    An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2-3months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at ?6?2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in ?6?2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:25692023

  17. Sign On to Computers: A Dictionary of Computer Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zier, Cathy Diane; And Others

    This manual defines basic computer terminology and presents sign language gestures for the terms. The manual uses the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf's Manually Coded English Sign Language System, a compilation of signs derived from Signing Exact English and American Sign Language; it also indicates those instances where fingerspelling is…

  18. Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help MDA Partners in Progress Search form Search Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Signs and Symptoms Partly because there are different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) , the exact symptoms vary greatly ...

  19. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... away . Back to top Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  20. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Page Content Article Body Although stress is a ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  1. ALMA Antenna Contract Signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    On December 6, ESO signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe.

  2. An emerging new paradigm in opioid withdrawal: a critical role for glia-neuron signaling in the periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Handong; Liu, Shue; Zeng, Weian; Levitt, Roy C; Candiotti, Keith A; Hao, Shuanglin

    2012-01-01

    The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine) or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors) induces dependence, which is associated with various specific behavioral and somatic signs after their withdrawal or after the administration of an opioid antagonist. Among the brain regions implicated in opiate dependence and withdrawal, the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) appears to be critical in regulating the complex signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Numerous neurochemical mechanisms in the PAG have been identified that may contribute to the opioid withdrawal syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial activation leading to the release of proinflammatory molecules acting on neurons is important in the complex syndrome of opioid dependence and withdrawal. This paper focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of the vital role that glia-neuron interactions play in opioid dependence and withdrawal within the PAG. We summarize those neurochemical mechanisms associated with opioid withdrawal including the recently defined importance of TNF? release from activated glial cells that communicate with TNF receptors on PAG neurons. PMID:22919361

  3. Clonidine withdrawal induced sympathetic surge.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael; Matsa, Ramprasad

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old man with a history of epilepsy and substance misuse presented to the hospital with status epilepticus. Difficult seizure control necessitated anaesthetising the patient followed by intubation and ventilation. A clonidine infusion was started as the patient developed withdrawal syndrome and was difficult to wean off mechanical ventilation. Once the withdrawal syndrome was controlled, the clonidine was abruptly stopped. Two hours after stopping the infusion, the patient developed high-grade fever, severe hypertension, tachycardia, profound sweating and lacrimation. The patient then developed respiratory distress syndrome secondary to acute pulmonary oedema. Clonidine withdrawal as a cause of such response was proposed. Reversal of symptoms and successful reweaning was achieved by restarting a low-dose clonidine infusion followed by slow downward titration and use of oral clonidine as a step-down measure. The patient was subsequently discharged from the intensive care unit. PMID:26038384

  4. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66mg/kg, 2ml/kg) at set intervals of 24h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2μl) of either bicuculline (15μM) or SB-334867 (3mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors. PMID:26879836

  5. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the...

  6. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 390.9 Section 390.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C. 53509, qualified withdrawals are those made from...

  7. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 3.5 Section 3.5 Internal... CONSTRUCTION FUND 3.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the..., construction, or reconstruction of a qualified vessel (as defined in 3.11(a)(2)) or barges and...

  8. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 3.5 Section 3.5 Internal... CONSTRUCTION FUND 3.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the..., construction, or reconstruction of a qualified vessel (as defined in 3.11(a)(2)) or barges and...

  9. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Qualified withdrawals. 3.5 Section 3.5 Internal... CONSTRUCTION FUND 3.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the..., construction, or reconstruction of a qualified vessel (as defined in 3.11(a)(2)) or barges and...

  10. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 3.5 Section 3.5 Internal... CONSTRUCTION FUND 3.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the..., construction, or reconstruction of a qualified vessel (as defined in 3.11(a)(2)) or barges and...

  11. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified withdrawals. 3.5 Section 3.5 Internal... CONSTRUCTION FUND 3.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the..., construction, or reconstruction of a qualified vessel (as defined in 3.11(a)(2)) or barges and...

  12. 31 CFR 1010.714 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 1010.714 Section 1010.714 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL....714 Withdrawing requests. A person may withdraw a request for an administrative ruling at any...

  13. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing

  14. Student Withdrawal Survey. Research Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, J. Joaquin; And Others

    In spring 1984, a three-part withdrawal study was conducted at Glendale (Arizona) Community College (GCC) to investigate reasons for course withdrawal, and official and unofficial college withdrawal. Study findings, based on responses from 138 students who withdrew from courses, 282 students who officially withdrew from GCC, and 9 students who

  15. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  16. Activation of brain NOP receptors attenuates acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal symptoms in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Stopponi, Serena; Braconi, Simone; Clementi, Stefano; Ubaldi, Massimo; Martin-Fardon, Rmi; Weiss, Friedbert; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol withdrawal, refers to a cluster of symptoms that may occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic or prolonged ingestion. These symptoms make alcohol abstinence difficult and increase the risk of relapse in recovering alcoholics. In previous studies, we demonstrated that treatment with N/OFQ significantly reduces alcohol consumption and attenuates alcohol-seeking behaviour induced by environmental conditioning factors or by stress in rats. In the present study we evaluated whether activation of brain NOP receptors may also attenuate alcohol withdrawal signs in rats. METHODS For this purpose animals were subjected to a 6 day chronic alcohol intoxication (by intragastric administration) and at 8, 10 and 12 hours following cessation of alcohol exposure they were treated intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 ?g/rat). Somatic withdrawal signs were scored after ICV treatment. In a subsequent experiment, to evaluate N/OFQ effects on alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety another group of rats was subjected to ethanol intoxication and after one week was tested for anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the last experiment an additional group of rats was tested for anxiety elicited by acute ethanol intoxication (hangover anxiety). For this purpose, animals received an acute dose (3.0 g/kg) of 20% alcohol and 12-h later were tested in the EPM following ICV N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0?g/rat). RESULTS Results showed that N/OFQ significantly reduced the expression of somatic withdrawal signs and reversed anxiety-like behaviors associated with both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. N/OFQ did not affect anxiety scores in nondependent animals. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system may represent a promising target for the development of new treatments to ameliorate alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:21223310

  17. Eponymous signs in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

  18. Signs in Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of signs in Elizabeth George Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver," in which a settler youth and a young Indian learn to communicate by signs, and how the signs reveal much about each character's culture. Summarizes the plot elements of the book, including characters who are not as sympathetic to the Indian point of view. (PA)

  19. Alcohol Withdrawal and Cerebellar Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Marianna E

    2015-08-01

    Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new therapy to manage cerebellar disorders associated with hyperexcitatory CNS disorders like ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25195804

  20. Suicide Warning Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    Suicide Warning Signs Seek help as soon as possible by contacting a mental health professional or by call- ing the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK if you or someone you know exhibits any of the following ...

  1. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks

  2. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  3. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  4. Flemish Sign Language Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the Flemish Deaf community officially rejected standardisation of Flemish Sign Language. It was a bold choice, which at the time was not in line with some of the decisions taken in the neighbouring countries. In this article, we shall discuss the choices the Flemish Deaf community has made in this respect and explore why the Flemish Deaf

  5. Signs of Duchenne

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Ways to Help About Us Mission Financials History Staff & Board Media Awards Partners Contact Us Home / Understand Duchenne / Signs ... Other Ways to Help About Us Mission Financials History Staff & Board Media Awards Contact Us © 2016 Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy | ...

  6. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The

  7. L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.

    2013-01-01

    L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, L-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether L-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether L-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. L-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5 h. L-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that L-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

  8. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  9. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.

  10. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  11. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  13. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  14. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  16. Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. )

    1990-02-26

    Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

  17. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Tyrone, Martha E.; Mauk, Claude E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech. PMID:20607146

  18. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign language…

  19. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  20. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were

  1. Sign of coma.

    PubMed

    Skjaerlund, J M

    1988-06-15

    The oblique focusing defect of spherical lenses, known as coma, is described by Seidel as the second of five correction terms (third order) to the Gauss theory. The concept is clear for a refracting surface that is free of spherical aberration; however, the impossibility of eliminating spherical aberration from a single lens with spherical surfaces can confuse the understanding of the second aberration, coma. A way of understanding the comatic effect even in the presence of spherical aberration is described. Confusion over the sign of coma, as indicated by mistakes in optics textbooks, is addressed. This paper suggests corrections to some interpretations of coma found in the literature. PMID:20531795

  2. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126

  3. A Case Report of Clonazepam Dependence: Utilization of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring During Withdrawal Period.

    PubMed

    Kacirova, Ivana; Grundmann, Milan; Silhan, Petr; Brozmanova, Hana

    2016-03-01

    Clonazepam is long-acting benzodiazepine agonist used in short-acting benzodiazepine withdrawal; however, recent observations suggest the existence of its abuse.We demonstrate a 40-year-old man with a 20-year history of psychiatric care with recently benzodiazepine dependence (daily intake of ∼60 mg of clonazepam and 10 mg of alprazolam). High serum levels of both drugs were analyzed 3 weeks before admission to hospitalization (clonazepam 543.9 ng/mL, alprazolam 110 ng/mL) and at the time of admission (clonazepam 286.2 ng/mL, alprazolam 140 ng/mL) without any signs of benzodiazepine intoxication. Gradual withdrawal of clonazepam with monitoring of its serum levels and increase of gabapentin dose were used to minimize physical signs and symptoms of clonazepam withdrawal. Alprazolam was discontinued promptly. Clinical consequences of the treatment were controllable tension, intermittent headache, and rarely insomia.It is the first case report showing utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring during withdrawal period in the patient with extreme toleration to severe benzodiazepine dependence. PMID:26945373

  4. Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

  5. Sign language for telemanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pook, Polly K.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1995-12-01

    Literal teleoperation doesn't work very well. Limited bandwidth, long latencies, non- anthropomorphic mappings all make the effort of teleoperation tedious at best and ineffective at worst. Instead, users of teleoperated and semi-autonomous systems want their robots to `just do it for them,' without sacrificing the operator's intent. Our goal is to maximize human strategic control in teleoperator assisted robotics. In our teleassisted regime, the human operator provides high-level contexts for low-level autonomous robot behaviors. The operator wears an EXOS hand master to communicate via a natural sign language, such as pointing to objects and adopting a grasp preshape. Each sign indicates intention: e.g., reaching or grasping; and, where applicable, a spatial context: e.g., the pointing axis or preshape frame. The robot, a Utah/MIT hand on a Puma arm, acts under local servo control within the proscribed contexts. This paper extends earlier work [Pook & Ballard 1994a] by adding remote visual sensors to the teleassistance repertoire. To view the robot site, the operator wears a virtual research helmet that is coupled to binocular cameras mounted on a second Puma 760. The combined hand-head sensors allows teleassistance to be performed remotely. The example task is to open a door. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the teleassistance model by bootstrapping a `pick and place' task from the door opening task.

  6. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  7. Quine and the Segregrational Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, George

    1999-01-01

    In the context of theory of integrational linguistics, the segregational sign is distinguished from the integrational sign, and the operation of the former is analyzed. Focus is on how logic guides the sign, and how the theory of W. V. Quine accounts for these issues. (MSE)

  8. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  9. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from

  10. Romberg and his sign.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2005-01-01

    Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873) acquired much of the wisdom and attitudes prevailing in English medicine when in 1820 he translated into German, Andrew Marshall's (1742-1813) The Morbid Anatomy of the Brain and Charles Bell's The Nervous System of the Human Body. He revolutionised European neurology, publishing his Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten des Menschen: the first systematic textbook in neurology. Romberg's contribution to neurology, and his establishing tabes dorsalis as a distinctive disease were of crucial importance. Romberg's sign, once synonymous with tabes dorsalis, became recognised as common to all proprioceptive disorders of the legs. His several major clinical contributions included: a classic description of achondroplasia, progressive facial hemiatrophy, and an unmistakable description of the pupils in tertiary syphilis before E.J. Remak and Argyll Robertson. PMID:16015011

  11. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign. PMID:12712903

  12. Selection for pentobarbital withdrawal severity: correlated differences in withdrawal from other sedative drugs.

    PubMed

    Kliethermes, Christopher L; Metten, Pamela; Belknap, John K; Buck, Kari J; Crabbe, John C

    2004-05-29

    In mice, withdrawal from agents that depress central nervous system function, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, results in the production of a withdrawal syndrome, one feature of which is increased severity of handling induced convulsions (HICs). High and Low Pentobarbital Withdrawal mice (HPW and LPW) were selectively bred to display severe and mild pentobarbital withdrawal HICs, respectively. These mice provide a valuable means to assess genetic correlations between withdrawal from pentobarbital and other sedative agents. We tested HPW and LPW mice for severity of HICs elicited during withdrawal from ethanol, diazepam, and zolpidem, and measured consumption of and preference for pentobarbital solutions in HPW and LPW mice. HPW mice displayed greater HICs than LPW mice during ethanol and zolpidem withdrawal, but differed less robustly during diazepam withdrawal. LPW mice consumed more pentobarbital in a solution of a moderate concentration than did HPW mice, but did not consume more pentobarbital at a higher or lower concentration. These results indicate that some of the same genes that affect the severity of withdrawal from pentobarbital also influence ethanol and zolpidem withdrawal, but that diazepam withdrawal may be less influenced by these genes. PMID:15120579

  13. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group. PMID:21226286

  14. 21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Withdrawal procedures. 601.92 Section 601.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible 601.92 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons...

  15. 21 CFR 601.43 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Withdrawal procedures. 601.43 Section 601.43 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Accelerated Approval of Biological Products for Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses 601.43 Withdrawal procedures. (a) For...

  16. Ineffective VTA Disinhibition in Protracted Opiate Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Barrot, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Kaufling and Aston-Jones showed that, under protracted opiate withdrawal, control of dopamine activity by the tail of the ventral tegmental area shifts from a bidirectional influence towards one-way inhibition. Beyond dysphoric states accompanying withdrawal, these results may also impact research on depression and individual differences in coping and affect. PMID:26549881

  17. 42 CFR 1008.40 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion 1008.40 Withdrawal. The requestor of an advisory opinion may withdraw the request prior to the issuance of a formal advisory opinion... withdrawn, the requestor must pay the costs expended by the OIG in processing the opinion, as discussed...

  18. 42 CFR 1008.40 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion 1008.40 Withdrawal. The requestor of an advisory opinion may withdraw the request prior to the issuance of a formal advisory opinion... withdrawn, the requestor must pay the costs expended by the OIG in processing the opinion, as discussed...

  19. 42 CFR 1008.40 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion 1008.40 Withdrawal. The requestor of an advisory opinion may withdraw the request prior to the issuance of a formal advisory opinion... withdrawn, the requestor must pay the costs expended by the OIG in processing the opinion, as discussed...

  20. 42 CFR 1008.40 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion 1008.40 Withdrawal. The requestor of an advisory opinion may withdraw the request prior to the issuance of a formal advisory opinion... withdrawn, the requestor must pay the costs expended by the OIG in processing the opinion, as discussed...

  1. Spinal Surgery and Abrupt Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Karl; Brodsky, Jay B

    2015-11-01

    Abrupt cessation of intrathecal baclofen can lead to a serious withdrawal syndrome. The anesthesiologist must be prepared to avoid intraoperative interruption of baclofen delivery before starting spinal surgery and to recognize and treat the symptoms of baclofen withdrawal in the immediate postoperative period. PMID:26528702

  2. 31 CFR 103.84 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 103.84 Section 103.84 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING... requests. A person may withdraw a request for an administrative ruling at any time before the ruling...

  3. 9 CFR 332.14 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 332.14 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS 332.14 Voluntary withdrawal. A...

  4. 9 CFR 381.524 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 381.524 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Program for Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products 381.524 Voluntary withdrawal. A...

  5. 9 CFR 381.524 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 381.524 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Program for Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products 381.524 Voluntary withdrawal. A...

  6. 9 CFR 381.524 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 381.524 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Program for Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products 381.524 Voluntary withdrawal. A...

  7. 9 CFR 332.14 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 332.14 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS 332.14 Voluntary withdrawal. A...

  8. 9 CFR 332.14 - Voluntary withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal. 332.14 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS 332.14 Voluntary withdrawal. A...

  9. 42 CFR 1008.40 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion 1008.40 Withdrawal. The requestor of an advisory opinion may withdraw the request prior to the issuance of a formal advisory opinion... withdrawn, the requestor must pay the costs expended by the OIG in processing the opinion, as discussed...

  10. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  11. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  12. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  13. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  14. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  15. College Student Withdrawal: A Motivational Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; Fetters, William B.

    The process of withdrawal from two- and four-year institutions of higher education was studied. Data were drawn from the base year and the first and second follow-ups of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicated that: (1) women students were more likely to withdraw only in two-year colleges; (2) white

  16. Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez Ortiz, I R

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training. PMID:18079141

  17. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, Jos Lus Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture. PMID:22316934

  18. Withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... They Work? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? Do You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? Does Douching Prevent Pregnancy? About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) IUD Gyn Checkups About Birth Control Contact ...

  19. Withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espaol Making a Change Your Personal Plan Hot Topics ... Print A A A Text Size en ...

  20. Lhermitte's Sign: The Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Supreet; Seth, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Lhermitte's sign was described by Marie and Chatelin and named after Jean Lhermitte. This sign is mostly described as an electric shock like condition by some patients of multiple sclerosis. This sensation occurs when the neck is moved in a wrong way or rather flexed. It can also travel down to the spine, arms, and legs, and sometimes the trunk. Demyelination and hyperexcitability are the main pathophysiological reasons depicted for the Lhermitte's sign. Other causes for Lhermitte's sign include transverse myelitis, behet's disease, trauma, etc. This article reviews the Lhermitte's sign, its history, and its etiopathophysiology. Very few studies are available on Lermitte's sign and more research need to be done on the same to ensure its sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26019410

  1. Lhermitte's Sign: The Current Status.

    PubMed

    Khare, Supreet; Seth, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Lhermitte's sign was described by Marie and Chatelin and named after Jean Lhermitte. This sign is mostly described as an electric shock like condition by some patients of multiple sclerosis. This sensation occurs when the neck is moved in a wrong way or rather flexed. It can also travel down to the spine, arms, and legs, and sometimes the trunk. Demyelination and hyperexcitability are the main pathophysiological reasons depicted for the Lhermitte's sign. Other causes for Lhermitte's sign include transverse myelitis, behet's disease, trauma, etc. This article reviews the Lhermitte's sign, its history, and its etiopathophysiology. Very few studies are available on Lermitte's sign and more research need to be done on the same to ensure its sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26019410

  2. Affective and somatic aspects of spontaneous and precipitated nicotine withdrawal in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, Astrid K.; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2008-01-01

    The aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal are powerful motivational forces contributing to the tobacco smoking habit. We evaluated measures of affective and somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Nicotine withdrawal was induced by termination of chronic nicotine delivery through osmotic minipumps or precipitated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists mecamylamine or dihydro-?-erythroidine (DH?E). A rate-independent discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure was used to assess brain reward function. Anxiety-like behavior and sensorimotor gating were assessed in the light-dark box and prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, respectively. Acoustic startle response and somatic signs of withdrawal were also evaluated. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal after 14-day exposure to 1040 mg/kg/day nicotine induced no alterations in anxiety-like behavior, startle reactivity, PPI, or somatic signs in either strain, and no changes in thresholds in C57BL/6J mice. Extended 28-day exposure to 40 mg/kg/day nicotine induced threshold elevations, increased somatic signs, and anxiety-like behavior 24 h post-nicotine in C57BL/6J mice; thresholds returned to baseline levels by day 4 in nicotine-exposed mice. Mecamylamine or DH?E administration induced threshold elevations in nicotine-exposed C57BL/6J mice compared with saline-exposed mice. In conclusion, administration of relatively high nicotine doses over prolonged periods of time induces both the affective and somatic aspects of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal in the mouse, while exposure to nicotine for shorter periods of time is sufficient for nAChR antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The current study is one of the first to demonstrate reward deficits associated with both spontaneous and nAChR antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:18452957

  3. CRF2 mediates the increased noradrenergic activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the negative state of morphine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Nez, Cristina; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Laorden, M Luisa; Valverde, Olga; Milans, M Victoria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signalling is involved in modulating the negative symptoms of opiate withdrawal. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to further characterize the role of CRF-type 2 receptor (CRF2) signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation), as well as CRF2 expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract-A2 noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The contribution of CRF2 signalling in opiate withdrawal was assessed by i.c.v. infusion of the selective CRF2 antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (AS-30). Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with AS-30 or saline 10 min before naloxone and the physical signs of abstinence, the HPA axis activity, NA turnover, TH activation and CRF2 expression were measured using immunoblotting, RIA, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS Rats pretreated with AS-30 showed decreased levels of somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal, but the corticosterone response was not modified. AS-30 attenuated the increased production of the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, as well as the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Finally, AS-30 antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Serine40 induced by morphine withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by CRF2 signalling. Furthermore, they indicate a marginal role for the HPA axis in CRF2-mediation of opiate withdrawal. PMID:20973778

  4. Warning Signs of Youth Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cart JOIN APA About APA Topics Publications & Databases Psychology Help Center News & Events Science Education Careers Membership Home // Psychology Help Center // Warning signs of youth violence EMAIL ...

  5. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  6. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and

  7. Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K

    1982-01-01

    Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered. PMID:7166130

  8. 5 CFR 1650.32 - Financial hardship withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial hardship withdrawals. 1650.32... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.32 Financial hardship withdrawals. (a... has a financial hardship is eligible to withdraw all or a portion of his or her own contributions...

  9. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for exportation. 144.37 Section 144.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for exportation. (a) Form....

  10. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  11. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  12. 19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse 144.31 Right to withdraw. Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be made only by the person primarily liable for the payment of duties on the merchandise being withdrawn, i.e., the importer of record on the warehouse...

  13. 19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse 144.31 Right to withdraw. Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be made only by the person primarily liable for the payment of duties on the merchandise being withdrawn, i.e., the importer of record on the warehouse...

  14. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  15. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  16. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  17. 19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse 144.31 Right to withdraw. Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be made only by the person primarily liable for the payment of duties on the merchandise being withdrawn, i.e., the importer of record on the warehouse...

  18. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  19. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  20. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  1. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  2. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  3. 5 CFR 1650.32 - Financial hardship withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial hardship withdrawals. 1650.32... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals 1650.32 Financial hardship withdrawals. (a... has a financial hardship is eligible to withdraw all or a portion of his or her own contributions...

  4. Integrating Drama and Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria

    1988-01-01

    The article addresses the use of sign language and drama with young children with such disabilities as mental retardation, aphasia, autism, and other language learning disorders. Examples of activities that integrate creative drama techniques with sign language techniques are offered. (DB)

  5. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production

  6. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language

  7. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  8. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed

  9. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  10. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential Signing Statements Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 9, 2009 Presidential Signing Statements... interpretations of the Constitution that are well-founded. 3. To promote transparency and accountability, I...

  11. Signs of an asthma attack

    MedlinePLUS

    If you do not know if you have asthma, these 4 symptoms could be signs that you ... Other early warning signs of an asthma attack are: An itchy neck Dark bags under your eyes Fatigue Being short-tempered or irritable Feeling nervous or edgy

  12. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  13. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  14. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language

  15. Spanish Sign in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jerome D.

    1995-01-01

    Spanish Sign Language (SSL) is now the second most used sign language. This article introduces resources for the study of SSL, including three SSL dictionaries--two from Argentina and one from Puerto Rico. Differences in SSL between and within the two countries are noted. Implications for deaf educators in North America are drawn. (Author/DB)

  16. A dynamical Marshall sign convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Monte Carlo sampling of quantum spin models is only practical when it is possible to gauge away simultaneously all negative signs in the coefficients of the ground state wavefunction. The existence of such a transformation is related to the possibility of establishing a bipartite pattern of magnetic order on the lattice and to the choice of a so-called Marshall sign convention. In practice, identifying the correct Marshall sign convention is the responsibility of the QMC practitioner, and the convention itself is generally hard coded. It turns out, however, that a locally optimal sign convention can be determined dynamically within the simulation---meaning that for nonfrustrated systems the simulation quickly establishes a Marshall sign convention that leads to sign-problem-free sampling and that for frustrated systems the Marshall sign convention continually evolves in Monte Carlo time so as to minimize the severity of the sign problem. For concreteness, we focus on a worm algorithm formulated in the basis of singlet product states.

  17. Impact of contextual cues in the expression of the memory associated with diazepam withdrawal: involvement of hippocampal PKM? in vivo, and Arc expression and LTP in vitro.

    PubMed

    Monti, Maria C; Gabach, Laura A; Perez, Mariela F; Ramrez, Oscar A

    2012-10-01

    Hippocampal synaptic plasticity has been related to learning and adaptive processes developed during chronic drug administration, suggesting the existence of a common neurobiological mechanism mediating drug addiction and memory. Moreover, protein kinase M zeta (PKM?) is critical for the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial conditioned long-term memories. Also, a link between activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), PKM? and LTP has been proposed. Our previous results demonstrated that re-exposure to the withdrawal environment was able to evoke the memory acquired when the anxiety measured as a diazepam (DZ) withdrawal sign was experienced. In the present work we evaluated if the memory associated with DZ withdrawal could be affected by changes in the contextual cues presented during withdrawal and by intrahippocampal administration of a PKM? inhibitor. We found that the context was relevant for the expression of withdrawal signs as changes in contextual cues prevented the expression of the anxiety-like behavior observed during plus-maze (PM) re-exposure, the associated enhanced synaptic plasticity and the increase in Arc expression. Furthermore, intrahippocampal administration of PKM? inhibitor previous to re-exposure to the PM test also impaired expression of anxiety-like behavior and the facilitated LTP. These results support the relevance of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the maintenance of the memory trace during benzodiazepines withdrawal, adding new evidences for common mechanisms between memory and drug addiction that can be intervened for treatment or prevention of this pathology. PMID:22759216

  18. Severe Relapsing Clozapine-Withdrawal Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Shahrour, Tarek; Siddiq, Muez; Ghalib, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined. PMID:26788394

  19. Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

  20. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Lscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1?year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  1. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  2. Withdrawing Benzodiazepines in Patients With Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Kyriacou, Andri

    2016-01-01

    The large class of CNS-depressant medications-the benzodiazepines-have been extensively used for over 50years, anxiety disorders being one of the main indications. A substantial proportion (perhaps up to 20-30%) of long-term users becomes physically dependent on them. Problems with their use became manifest, and dependence, withdrawal difficulties and abuse were documented by the 1980s. Many such users experience physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms on attempted cessation and may develop clinically troublesome syndromes even during slow tapering. Few studies have been conducted to establish the optimal withdrawal schedules. The usual management comprises slow withdrawal over weeks or months together with psychotherapy of various modalities. Pharmacological aids include antidepressants such as the SSRIs especially if depressive symptoms supervene. Other pharmacological agents such as the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, and the hormonal agent, melatonin, remain largely experimental. The purpose of this review is to analyse the evidence for the efficacy of the usual withdrawal regimes and the newer agents. It is concluded that little evidence exists outside the usual principles of drug withdrawal but there are some promising leads. PMID:26733324

  3. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Choudhary, Mona; Chandra, Mina

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on 'Alcohol withdrawal syndrome' in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  4. A DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL OF GABAPENTIN VS. LORAZEPAM IN THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Malcolm, Robert; Randall, Patrick K.; Boyle, Elizabeth; Anton, Raymond F.; Becker, Howard C.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Some anticonvulsants ameliorate signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, but have an unacceptable side effect burden. Among the advantages of using anticonvulsant agents in this capacity is their purported lack of interaction with alcohol that could increase psychomotor deficits, increase cognitive impairment, or increase intoxication. The aim of the current study was to evaluate alcohol use and symptom reduction of gabapentin as compared to lorazepam in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Methods One hundred individuals seeking outpatient treatment of alcohol withdrawal with Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) ratings ≥10 were randomized to double-blind treatment with two doses of gabapentin (900 mg tapering to 600 mg or 1200 tapering to 800 mg) or lorazepam (6 mg tapering to 4 mg) for four days. Severity of alcohol withdrawal was measured by the CIWA-Ar on days 1-4 of treatment and on days 5, 7 and 12 post-treatment and alcohol use monitored by verbal report and breath alcohol levels Results CIWA-Ar scores decreased over time in all groups; high-dose gabapentin was statistically superior but clinically similar to lorazepam (p=0.009). During treatment, lorazepam-treated participants had higher probabilities of drinking on the first day of dose decrease (day 2) and the second day off medication (day 6) as compared to gabapentin-treated participants (p=.0002). Post-treatment, gabapentin-treated participants had less probability of drinking during the follow-up post-treatment period (probability=.2 for 900 mg and probability=.3 for 1200mg) compared to the lorazepam-treated participants (probability=.55). The gabapentin groups also had less craving, anxiety, and sedation compared to lorazepam. Conclusions Gabapentin was well tolerated and effectively diminished the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal in our population especially at the higher target dose (1200mg) used in this study. Gabapentin reduced the probability of drinking during alcohol withdrawal and in the immediate post-withdrawal week as compared to lorazepam. PMID:19485969

  5. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements. 19.6 Section 19.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN General Provisions...

  6. 75 FR 74743 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension, Corrections to Existing Withdrawal, and Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... application to extend the withdrawal established by PLO No. 6849 (56 FR 16278), for an additional 20-year term... subsequently corrected by Federal Register notice 56 FR 24119, and PLO Nos. 6849 and 6907. The corrections to... withdrawal extension is to continue to conserve and protect the sagebrush-steppe landscape for...

  7. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE,...

  8. Meningococcal Disease: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Signs & Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  9. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Mar 25,2016 By themselves, any one ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  10. Chickenpox (Varicella) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Signs & Symptoms Language: English ... of Page Related Page Chickenpox Complications Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  11. Dot sign in dengue encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Thomas; Badachi, Sagar; Sarma, Gosala Raja Kukkuta; Nadig, Raghunandan

    2015-01-01

    Neuro radiological findings in Dengue encephalitis are non specific. Here we report a case of Dengue encephalitis with transient splenial hyperintensity appearing as dot sign on magnetic resonance imaging of brain. PMID:25745317

  12. Triage of the Sign Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss the sign problem in QCD at nonzero chemical potential and its relation with chiral symmetry breaking and the spectrum of the Dirac operator using the framework of chiral random matrix theory. We show that the Banks--Casher formula is not valid for theories with a sign problem and has to be replaced by an alternative mechanism that is worked out in detail for QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential.

  13. Exploring Multitarget Interactions to Reduce Opiate Withdrawal Syndrome and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioid addiction is often characterized as a chronic relapsing condition due to the severe somatic and behavioral signs, associated with depressive disorders, triggered by opiate withdrawal. Since prolonged abstinence remains a major challenge, our interest has been addressed to such objective. Exploring multitarget interactions, the present investigation suggests that 3 or its (S)-enantiomer and 4, endowed with effective ?2C-AR agonism/?2A-AR antagonism/5-HT1A-R agonism, or 7 and 911 producing efficacious ?2C-AR agonism/?2A-AR antagonism/I2IBS interaction might represent novel multifunctional tools potentially useful for reducing withdrawal syndrome and associated depression. Such agents, lacking in sedative side effects due to their ?2A-AR antagonism, might afford an improvement over current therapies with clonidine-like drugs. PMID:24900763

  14. Carisoprodol: abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S

    2010-03-01

    Carisoprodol (N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; N-isopropylmeprobamate) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose primary active metabolite is meprobamate, a substance with well established abuse potential similar to that of benzodiazepines. A number of reports show that carisoprodol has been abused for its sedative and relaxant effects, to augment or alter the effects of other drugs, and by the intentional combination of carisoprodol and other noncontrolled medications because of the relative ease (as compared to controlled substances) of obtaining prescriptions. The diversion and abuse of carisoprodol and its adverse health effects appear to have dramatically increased over the last several years. Clinicians have begun to see a withdrawal syndrome consisting of insomnia, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, anxiety, and ataxia in patients who abruptly cease intake of large doses of carisoprodol. Hallucinations and delusions may also occur. The withdrawal symptoms are very similar to those previously described for meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that what may actually be occurring is withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated as a result of intake of excessive amounts of carisoprodol. However carisoprodol itself is capable of modulating GABA(A) function, and this may contribute both to the drugs abuse potential and to the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation of intake. Carisoprodol has been classified as a controlled substance in several states in the US and restrictions on the use of the drug have been imposed in some European countries. Carisoprodol is metabolized to a controlled substance, has clear evidence of abuse potential and increasing incidence of abuse, and has shown evidence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation from intake. This article will discuss the abuse potential of carisoprodol and the associated withdrawal syndrome, and consider implications for future use of the drug. PMID:20088817

  15. Improving Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; McWilliams, James; Horton, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Context Excessive alcohol consumption is the nations third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Objective: Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. Design: In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Results: Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Conclusion: Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes. PMID:24867561

  16. Inflated reward value in early opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Linker, Kay E; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-03-01

    Through incentive learning, the emotional experience of a reward in a relevant need state (e.g. hunger for food) sets the incentive value that guides the performance of actions that earn that reward when the need state is encountered again. Opiate withdrawal has been proposed as a need state in which, through experience, opiate value can be increased, resulting in escalated opiate self-administration. Endogenous opioid transmission plays anatomically dissociable roles in the positive emotional experience of reward consumption and incentive learning. We, therefore, sought to determine if chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal produces a disruption in the fundamental incentive learning process such that reward seeking, even for non-opiate rewards, can become maladaptive, inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption and irrespective of need. Rats trained to earn sucrose or water on a reward-seeking chain were treated with morphine (10-30 mg/kg, s.c.) daily for 11 days prior to testing in withdrawal. Opiate-withdrawn rats showed elevated reward-seeking actions, but only after they experienced the reward in withdrawal, an effect that was strongest in early (1-3 days), as opposed to late (14-16 days), withdrawal. This was sufficient to overcome a negative reward value change induced by sucrose experience in satiety and, in certain circumstances, was inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption. Lastly, we found that early opiate withdrawal-induced inflation of reward value was blocked by inactivation of basolateral amygdala mu opioid receptors. These data suggest that in early opiate withdrawal, the incentive learning process is disrupted, resulting in maladaptive reward seeking. PMID:25081350

  17. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as ?-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. PMID:24781751

  18. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  19. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor.

    PubMed

    Chartoff, Elena H; Carlezon, William A

    2014-09-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  20. Withdrawal From Coparenting Interactions During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Donna; McHale, James; Talbot, Jean; Parmley, Meagan; Kuersten-Hogan, Regina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines early withdrawal in the coparenting system, and the utility of a brief problem-solving discussion about coparenting responsibilities as a means for evaluating such withdrawal. One hundred and fifteen couples were evaluated both prenatally and at 3 months postpartum. During prenatal assessments, parents rated their personalities and completed marital assessments. After the baby arrived, they completed a negotiation task in which they discussed disputes about parenting roles and responsibilities, and interacted together with the baby in a triadic play assessment. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was associated with greater disengagement and less warmth during triadic play and with fathers’ feelings that mothers did not respect their parenting. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was also forecast by low ego resilience and by an increase in depressive symptomatology during the postpartum. As the negotiation task appeared to be an effective provocateur of withdrawal when confronting coparenting disagreement, it may prove useful for eliciting this aspect of coparental process in work with couples. PMID:19130789

  1. Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Authier, N; Balayssac, D; Sautereau, M; Zangarelli, A; Courty, P; Somogyi, A A; Vennat, B; Llorca, P-M; Eschalier, A

    2009-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are potentially addictive drugs: psychological and physical dependence can develop within a few weeks or years of regular or repeated use. The socioeconomic costs of the present high level of long-term benzodiazepine use are considerable. These consequences could be minimised if prescriptions for long-term benzodiazepines were decreased. However, many physicians continue to prescribe benzodiazepines and patients wishing to withdraw receive little advice or support. Particular care should be taken in prescribing benzodiazepines for vulnerable patients such as elderly persons, pregnant women, children, alcohol- or drug-dependent patients and patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. The following update gives recent research results on the withdrawal pathophysiology and practical information in order to treat or prevent benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:19900604

  2. Divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Myrick, H; Brady, K T; Malcolm, R

    2000-02-01

    The present study represents an open-label clinical trial comparing treatment with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) to divalproex in 11 inpatients with uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The trial used the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) scale. There were no significant differences in demographics or substance use parameters between the divalproex group (n = 6) or the lorazepam group (n = 5). A significant Group x CIWA-Ar score interaction [F(8,72) = 2.57, p < or = .01] was confirmed and further substantiated by a quadratic trend component for the interaction [F(1,9) = 24.9, p < or = .001]. This preliminary study supports further investigation of divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. PMID:10718170

  3. Drug withdrawals and the lessons within.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dennis A; Schmid, Esther F

    2006-01-01

    Drug withdrawals over recent decades have triggered changes in the way that drug targets and screening programs are researched and designed. In the cases having the greatest impact, the reason for withdrawal was the reversible interaction of a drug or its metabolite with a single receptor, ion channel or enzyme (primary or secondary pharmacology). Once this interaction is identified, screens can be established and validated. When the mechanism is complex (eg, organ toxicity), however, such screens are difficult to implement and usually examine only the initial step, leading to considerable problems in extrapolation and risk definition. This review classifies drugs withdrawn from the US market over the last 25 years by their reasons for withdrawal, and examines how drug discovery programs have been modified in response to these events. PMID:16445116

  4. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Orders and Advisory Opinions Regarding Board Jurisdiction 102.104 Withdrawal of petition. The petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion....

  5. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Orders and Advisory Opinions Regarding Board Jurisdiction 102.104 Withdrawal of petition. The petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion....

  6. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Orders and Advisory Opinions Regarding Board Jurisdiction 102.104 Withdrawal of petition. The petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion....

  7. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Orders and Advisory Opinions Regarding Board Jurisdiction 102.104 Withdrawal of petition. The petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion....

  8. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Orders and Advisory Opinions Regarding Board Jurisdiction 102.104 Withdrawal of petition. The petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion....

  9. 20 CFR 416.355 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... request to withdraw the application and files it at a place described in 416.325. (2) You are alive when.... (2) Every other person who may lose benefits because of the withdrawal consents in writing...

  10. Ivy Sign in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Saglam, Muzaffer; Yildiz, Bulent; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the progressive stenosis and collateral development of the distal internal carotid arteries. In this disease, several collateral vascular structures develop following stenosis and occlusion. The ivy sign is a characteristic Magnetic rezonance imaging (MRI) finding frequently encountered in patients with moyamoya. It can be observed both in post contrast T1-weighted images and Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. While this sign manifests in the form of contrasting on the cortical surfaces due to the formation of leptomeningeal collateral development and increased numbers of pial vascular webs on post contrast images, in FLAIR images it originates from the slow arterial flow in the leptomeningeal collateral vascular structures. In this case, we presented the Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) signs of moyamoya disease and “ivy sign” in MRI and its development mechanism in a 16 years old female patient.

  11. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgnl, Mehmet; Demirda?, Arif; Akp?nar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  12. Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, R J

    2000-10-01

    Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapies is ethical and medically appropriate in some circumstances. This article summarizes the American Medical Association's Education for Physicians on End-of-life Care (EPEC) curriculum module on withholding or withdrawing therapy. Before reviewing specific treatment preferences, it is useful to ask patients about their understanding of the illness and to discuss their values and general goals of care. Family physicians should feel free to provide specific advice to patients and families struggling with these decisions. Patients with decision-making capacity can opt to forego any medical intervention, including artificial nutrition/hydration and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:11037073

  13. Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, E

    2011-01-01

    Although the practice of withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) has become more common, it remains controversial, particularly in the paediatric setting. Decisions regarding ANH, along with other medical interventions, should be considered in the individual context of the childs overall plan of care. The purpose of the present practice point is to provide guidance for Canadian paediatric health care practitioners regarding when withholding or withdrawing ANH may be an ethically permissible option as part of a palliative care plan and to briefly address some pragmatic considerations. PMID:22468129

  14. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal: Second Generation Education Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25816126

  15. 5 CFR 1650.2 - Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. 1650.2 Section 1650.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General 1650.2 Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. (a) A...

  16. 5 CFR 1650.2 - Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. 1650.2 Section 1650.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General 1650.2 Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. (a) A...

  17. 5 CFR 1650.2 - Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. 1650.2 Section 1650.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General 1650.2 Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. (a) A...

  18. 28 CFR 51.25 - Withdrawal of submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of submissions. 51.25 Section... SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Procedures for Submission to the Attorney General 51.25 Withdrawal of submissions. (a) A jurisdiction may withdraw a submission at any time prior to...

  19. 43 CFR 2310.3-4 - Duration of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of withdrawals. 2310.3-4 Section...: Procedure 2310.3-4 Duration of withdrawals. (a) An order initially withdrawing 5,000 or more acres of land... made: (1) For such time as the Secretary determines desirable for a resource use; (2) For not more...

  20. 43 CFR 2310.3-4 - Duration of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of withdrawals. 2310.3-4 Section...: Procedure 2310.3-4 Duration of withdrawals. (a) An order initially withdrawing 5,000 or more acres of land... made: (1) For such time as the Secretary determines desirable for a resource use; (2) For not more...

  1. 43 CFR 2310.3-4 - Duration of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of withdrawals. 2310.3-4 Section...: Procedure 2310.3-4 Duration of withdrawals. (a) An order initially withdrawing 5,000 or more acres of land... made: (1) For such time as the Secretary determines desirable for a resource use; (2) For not more...

  2. 48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...); (2) Implementation of cost accounting standards (see 48 CFR chapter 99 (Appendix B, FAR loose-leaf... Withholding or withdrawing approval. (a) The ACO shall withhold or withdraw approval of a contractor's... information upon which to make an affirmative determination. The ACO may withdraw approval at any time on...

  3. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  4. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... will also be published on the NRC Web site. (b) The withdrawal of an application does not authorize the... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of application. 2.817 Section 2.817 Energy... application. (a) The Commission may permit an applicant to withdraw an application for a standard...

  5. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will also be published on the NRC Web site. (b) The withdrawal of an application does not authorize the... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of application. 2.817 Section 2.817 Energy... application. (a) The Commission may permit an applicant to withdraw an application for a standard...

  6. 29 CFR 2700.11 - Withdrawal of pleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of pleading. 2700.11 Section 2700.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.11 Withdrawal of pleading. A party may withdraw a pleading at any stage of...

  7. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  8. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  9. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  10. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  11. Student Withdrawals in Personalized and Lecture/Discussion Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semb, George, And Others

    Student withdrawals were compared to course completers in two variants of a contingency-managed lecture (CML) course and a personalized instruction (PI) course. Within both CML sections, withdrawals performed 10-25% worse on unit quizzes and 20-30% worse on review exams than did peers who completed the course. Within PI, withdrawals had a retake…

  12. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  13. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  14. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  15. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  16. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for... port of destination before the expiration of the warehousing period. (b) Physical deposit in...

  17. 12 CFR 925.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26 Section 925.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal...

  18. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26 Section 1263.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a)...

  19. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26 Section 1263.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a)...

  20. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26 Section 1263.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a)...

  1. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26 Section 1263.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  3. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  4. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  5. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  6. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  7. Student Withdrawals in Personalized and Lecture/Discussion Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semb, George, And Others

    Student withdrawals were compared to course completers in two variants of a contingency-managed lecture (CML) course and a personalized instruction (PI) course. Within both CML sections, withdrawals performed 10-25% worse on unit quizzes and 20-30% worse on review exams than did peers who completed the course. Within PI, withdrawals had a retake

  8. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  9. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  10. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  11. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  12. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  13. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  14. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  15. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  16. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible...

  17. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  18. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  19. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  20. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible...

  1. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  2. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of...

  3. The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

  4. American Sign Language Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Cheryl; Hochman, Darlene

    A review is provided of the American Sign Language (ASL) program at Suffolk Community College (SCC), in New York. Following definitions of program terms and historical information, the educational and career goals of the program are discussed and the curricula are described for the two sequences of the program, Interpreter for the Deaf and ASL

  5. The HyperSign Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulezer, Susan

    This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive

  6. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research

  7. Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

    1995-01-01

    A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production

  8. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  9. Library Signs and the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Marjorie A.

    This essay outlines general criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of an existing or proposed sign system for libraries with respect to the needs of physically disabled library users, specifically the deaf, the blind, and those confined to wheelchairs. The function of the International Symbol of Access is described, and design considerations

  10. Aging changes in vital signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pulse), breathing rate, and blood pressure. As you age, your vital signs may change, depending on how healthy you are. ... younger. Breathing rate usually does not change with age. But lung ... BLOOD PRESSURE Older people may become dizzy when standing up ...

  11. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español ( ... www.vaccineinformation.org). Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: ...

  12. The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven

  13. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not quite right” about their thinking, feelings or behavior before one of these illnesses appears in its full-blown form. One half of all mental illness begins by age 14 and 75% begins by age 24. Learning about developing symptoms, or early warning signs, and ...

  14. Road Sign for USGS Crews

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A road sign warns drivers to watch for USGS crews measuring streamflow on the Bonnet Carré Spillway during flooding. In late 2015/early 2016, unusually large rainfall in the Upper Mississippi River Valley led to flooding throughout Arkansas, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Te...

  15. 21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal procedures. 601.92 Section 601.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... issues involved and to provide advice and recommendations to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs. (2)...

  16. 21 CFR 601.43 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on the Center's proposal to withdraw the... question any person during or at the conclusion of the person's presentation. No other person attending...

  17. 46 CFR 390.10 - Nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impaired his working capital and it becomes necessary to reimburse its general funds to the extent of such... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonqualified withdrawals. 390.10 Section 390.10 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469...

  18. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 390.9 Section 390.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL... container which is part of the complement of a qualified agreement vessel. (2) Tax aspects of a...

  19. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

  20. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  1. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  2. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  3. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  4. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for

  5. Withdrawal-Emergent Dyskinesias following Varenicline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Toffey, Brittany A; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Varenicline (Chantix[R]) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist used to aid smoking cessation. Adverse psychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are recognized and national drug monitoring has included reports of tardive dyskinesia, but no cases have been described in the literature. We now report the first two cases of varenicline-related withdrawal emergent dyskinesias. PMID:26106454

  6. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  7. Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

  8. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or

  9. Withdrawal-Emergent Dyskinesias following Varenicline Therapy.

    PubMed

    Toffey, Brittany A; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Varenicline (Chantix[R]) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist used to aid smoking cessation. Adverse psychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are recognized and national drug monitoring has included reports of tardive dyskinesia, but no cases have been described in the literature. We now report the first two cases of varenicline-related withdrawal emergent dyskinesias. PMID:26106454

  10. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca L. Karas... Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997. RG 1.165 provides general...-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.165 does not alter the...

  11. 27 CFR 19.164 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants within that geographic area. (c) Penal sum of bonds(1) Penal sum of a bond covering a single plant. A person who files a withdrawal bond for a single plant must compute the penal sum of such bond in accordance with 19.166. If the penal sum of such bond is less than the maximum...

  12. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in

  13. Distribution of TRPC6 in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus of rat brain parenchyma and its expression in morphine dependence and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-ting; Zhao, Zi-jun; Xu, Chun; Zhang, Li-cai

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the role of cerebrospinal fluid contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) and the changes of TRPC6 expression in morphine dependence and withdrawal. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250 50 g) were randomly divided into four groups: the normal group (N); the saline group (S); the morphine dependence group (D); the morphine withdrawal group (W). All animals in each group were tested the morphine withdrawal-like behavioral signs by total withdrawal scores. Double-labeled immunofluorescent technique and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to identify the expression of TRPC6 in CSF-CN. TRPC6 labeled neurons were found in CSF-CN and the number of CB-HRP/TRPC6 double labeled neurons in CSF-CN significantly increased. TRPC6 existed in CSF-CN of the normal rats and its expression in morphine dependence and withdrawal increased. CSF-CN might participate in the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal by the up-regulated expression of TRPC6. PMID:21858483

  14. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  15. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze

  16. Hand Preference in Young Children's Early Signing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillian, John D.; And Others

    This study examined young children's hand usage when they produced American Sign Language signs and while they played, in order to determine their hand preference in early signing and to compare their hand use in signing with their hand preference in other, nonlinguistic, motor actions. Subjects were 24 young children (from the age of 12 months or

  17. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  18. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  19. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  20. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  1. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  2. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or

  3. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  4. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are

  5. Neonatal Withdrawal Syndrome, Michigan, 20002009

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, Kimberly A.; Grigorescu, Violanda I.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Miller, Corinne E.; Smith, Ruben A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal withdrawal syndrome, which is associated most frequently with opioid use in pregnancy, is an emerging public health concern, with recent studies documenting an increase in the rate of U.S. infants diagnosed. Purpose This study examined neonatal withdrawal syndrome diagnosis among Michigan infants from 2000 to 2009 and hospital length of stay (LOS) between infants with and without the syndrome for a subset of years (20062009). Methods Michigan live birth records from 2000 to 2009 were linked with hospital discharge data to identify infants with neonatal withdrawal syndrome. Linked data were restricted to infants born between 2006 and 2009 to examine the difference in hospital LOS between infants with and without the syndrome. Multivariable regression models were constructed to examine the adjusted impact of syndrome diagnosis on infant LOS and fit using negative binomial distribution. Data were analyzed from July 2011 to February 2012. Results From 2000 to 2009, the overall birth rate of infants with neonatal withdrawal syndrome increased from 41.2 to 289.0 per 100,000 live births (p<0.0001). Among infants born from 2006 to 2009, the average hospital LOS for those with the syndrome was between 1.36 (95% CI=1.24, 1.49) and 5.75 (95% CI=5.41, 6.10) times longer than for infants without it. Conclusions Diagnosis of neonatal withdrawal syndrome increased significantly in Michigan with infants who had the syndrome requiring a significantly longer LOS compared to those without it. PMID:23790996

  6. Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

    2011-01-01

    Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

  7. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2014-02-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30% and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The total absolute error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we considered a reference scenario where per capita withdrawals were kept constant in time. Although there are large variations from region to region, this resulted in a European average increase of water withdrawals of 16%. If we extrapolate the average reduction in per capita withdrawals seen between 2000 and 2008, we forecast a reduction in average total water withdrawals of 4%. Considering a scenario where all countries converge to an optimal water use efficiency, we see an average decrease of 28%.

  8. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Patrick; Garfinkel, Doron; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 1880 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation. Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 612 months PRM treatment. Methods Data from a prospective 612-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary), adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]). Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM. Results Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as good or very good was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production. Conclusion Results support the efficacy and safety of PRM in primary insomnia patients aged 2080 throughout 612 months of continuous therapy. PRM discontinuation even after 12 months was not associated with adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, or suppression of endogenous melatonin production. PMID:21845053

  9. Attenuation of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome by Various Dosages of Curcumin in Comparison with Clonidine in Mouse: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Hosseini, Pantea; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Background Herbal medical compounds and their major constituent have been used in the management and treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and pain. This study was carried out to clarify the effect of curcumin, the major compound of turmeric, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mouse model and its possible mechanisms of pain relieving activity by assessing in writhing test as a model of visceral pain. Methods Due to two separate protocols (withdrawal syndrome and pain), 144 male albino mice were divided in two major groups. In withdrawal syndrome group, test effect of various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was assessed on withdrawal signs and compared with positive and negative control and standard treatment (clonidine 0.4 mg/kg) groups. In pain groups, to determine the mechanism of pain relieving activity of curcumin, various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) in three separated groups, were used against acetic acid induced writhing (which is a constriction) test. The most effective dose (40 mg/kg) was used in writhing test and compared with groups pretreated with antagonist of major neurotransmitters involved in pain; and compared with group pretreated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.05%) as control. Results Curcumin attenuates withdrawal syndrome in a dose dependent manner in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05). It also indicated that pretreatment with naloxone and cyproheptadine significantly attenuate antinociception effect of curcumin (P<0.05). Conclusion This study advocate that antinociception of curcumin was mediated by opioidergic and adrenergic system. PMID:25821292

  10. Spectrum of Signs of Pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Laura Schillir, Maria; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Chiaese, Vincenzo; Romano, Luigia; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Pneumoperitoneum is caused by rupture of a hollow viscus that includes the stomach, small bowel, and large bowel, with the exception of those portions that are retroperitoneal in the duodenum and colon. The causes of pneumoperitoneum are numerous, ranging from iatrogenic and benign causes to more life-threatening conditions. In the absence of a benign cause of pneumoperitoneum, the identification of free intraperitoneal gas usually indicates the need for emergency surgery to repair a perforated bowel. The plain film is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting pneumoperitoneum: multiple signs of free intraperitoneal air can be found especially on supine abdominal radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) examination has been shown to be more sensitive than abdominal radiographs for the detection of free intraperitoneal air. It is important that the radiologist become familiar with the signs of pneumoperitoneum that can be discerned on abdominal radiographs, on CT scout view, and on CT scan. PMID:26827732

  11. Enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but not cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during withdrawal from acute alcohol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Hollin M.; Hueston, Cara M.; Bishop, Christopher; Deak, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol withdrawal is associated with reduced activity, increased anxiety, and other signs of distress. Objective The goal of the current studies was to determine whether acute ethanol exposure would alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during the withdrawal period. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 4g/kg of ethanol to simulate acute binge-like ethanol intake. After characterizing the blood ethanol concentrations (BECs; Experiment 1), exploratory activity in a novel environment was explored at 10, 14 and 18 hr after ethanol (Experiment 2) to characterize altered activity patterns indicative of withdrawal. In Experiment 3, rats were exposed to footshock during withdrawal to examine whether prior ethanol exposure would alter cytokine and HPA axis responses to stress. Experiments 4–5 investigated HPA axis sensitivity and gene expression changes during restraint imposed during withdrawal. Results Prior ethanol exposure produced a period of stress hyper-reactivity evidenced by an enhanced HPA axis response (increased corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone) observed during withdrawal. While this hyper-reactivity in response to two different stress challenges (novel environment and restraint) was accompanied by profound behavioral changes indicative of withdrawal, no alterations in cytokine changes evoked by stress were observed. Conclusions Taken together, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol withdrawal enhances HPA axis reactivity to stress challenges, though not likely not as the result of heightened inflammatory signaling, and may have implications for understanding the mechanisms by which stress impacts relapse drinking in humans. PMID:21735074

  12. Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

    1994-05-03

    The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

  13. Phenobarbital treatment in a patient with resistant alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Christopher E; Wuestefeld, Nancy L; Bolton, Pamela J

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the acute care setting. We describe a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department with a new-onset seizure and clinical signs and symptoms consistent with advanced delirium tremens. A symptom-triggered intensive care unit treatment protocol consisting of a benzodiazepine and antiadrenergic agents was started. The manifestations of delirium tremens persisted with titration of a lorazepam infusion in excess of 40 mg/hour. Intravenous phenobarbital was administered in escalating doses of 65 mg followed by 130 mg 15 minutes later, resulting in control of severe agitation in the face of benzodiazepine resistance. Subsequent scheduled phenobarbital administration allowed for a successful and orderly weaning of the continuous benzodiazepine infusion and adjunctive agents used in AWS management. With continued clearing of consciousness, the patient was successfully discharged. The administration of phenobarbital in this patient allowed improved symptom control, minimized the potential for propylene glycol toxicity, was not associated with respiratory depression, and facilitated successful weaning of benzodiazepines. Barbiturates offer a mechanism of action that is different from that of benzodiazepines. Although the cornerstone of treatment for AWS remains benzodiazepines, this case highlights the potential utility of phenobarbital in patients with resistant AWS. PMID:19558262

  14. The effect of perinatal lead exposure on dopamine receptor D2 expression in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Listos, Joanna; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Piotr; Orzelska, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Rybicka, Marta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and molecular effects of pre- and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure on the expression of morphine withdrawal and tolerance in adult rats. Rats were orally treated with 0.1% (1000ppm) lead acetate from conception, through gestation, up to postnatal day (PND) 28. Subsequently, behavioral experiments were conducted on adult (PND 60) male rats. To assess behavioral effects of morphine dependence in Pb-exposed rats two experimental models were used: naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs and the assessment of morphine tolerance to antinociceptive effect in the tail-immersion test. Morphine withdrawal and tolerance were more expressed in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. In the case of morphine withdrawal signs the analysis of protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (RT PCR) expression revealed significantly higher dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum and hippocampus, in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. Differently, in the case of morphine tolerance the significant upregulation of D2R protein and mRNA expression in hippocampus, but not in prefrontal cortex or striatum, was demonstrated in Pb-exposed and morphine administered rats in comparison with morphine administered. These findings suggest that in morphine withdrawal and tolerant rats the perinatal Pb-exposure can affect D2R expression in brain region-specific manner. Immunohistochemical assessment of D2R expression in hippocampus showed translocation of D2R from membrane-cytoplasm in control rats to nucleus in morphine administered rats. Perinatal Pb-exposure did not induce the changes in the localization of D2R irrespective of morphine effect. PMID:23702354

  15. Effects of Varying Rate of Signing on ASL Manual Signs and Nonmanual Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2009-01-01

    Spoken languages are characterized by flexible, multivariate prosodic systems. As a natural language, American Sign Language (ASL), and other sign languages (SLs), are also expected to be characterized in the same way. Artificially created signing systems for classroom use, such as signed English, serve as a contrast to natural sign languages. The

  16. Repeated Dosing with Oral Cocaine in Humans: Assessment of Direct Effects, Withdrawal and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sharon L.; Stoops, William W.; Moody, David E.; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n=9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses [875 mg/day]) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) 2- to 3-fold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects [liking, high, good effects] and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours. PMID:19653786

  17. A calcium channel antagonist stereoselectively decreases ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability but not that due to bicuculline, in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, M. A.; Little, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made from CA1 area of isolated hippocampal slices of the mouse after chronic ethanol administration in vivo, with orthodromic stimulation of the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibres. 2. The (+)-isomer of the calcium channel antagonist PN 200-110 (isradipine) significantly decreased all the recorded signs of hyperexcitability in the slices during ethanol withdrawal. These included increased paired pulse potentiation and decreases in the thresholds for elicitation of single and multiple population spikes. 3. The (-)-isomer of PN 200-100 did not affect ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability in the slices. 4. Neither isomer of PN 200-110 affected the field potentials in slices from control animals. 5. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, lowered thresholds for eliciting population spikes in hippocampal slices from untreated animals. The active, (+)-isomer of PN 200-110 did not affect this action of bicuculline in hippocampal slices from untreated animals. 6. The stereoisomerism of the action of PN 200-110 on ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability in the hippocampal slice was therefore the same as that seen in blockade of calcium channels. The results suggested that ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability recorded in the isolated hippocampal slice involved increased activity of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. PMID:1832063

  18. [Neurobiology of alcohol withdrawal inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters].

    PubMed

    E?el, Ertu?rul

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a syndrome that is the result of adaptive changes in the brain secondary to chronic alcohol use and is associated with changes in many neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, and hormonal systems. Long-term exposure to ethanol leads to an imbalance in different excitatory (especially glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid), and inhibitory neurotransmitter (especially GABA, a major inhibitory amino acid) systems. When alcohol consumption is reduced or completely ceases, these imbalances are behaviorally expressed in the form of alcohol withdrawal. Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal are mainly associated with the hypofunction of GABA receptors and enhanced function of NMDA receptors. The imbalance between receptors may be exacerbated by repeated withdrawal. Some of these alterations may last for months following alcohol cessation and cause symptoms of protracted alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to the continuation of the cycle of alcohol addiction relapses. The search for biological alterations during alcohol withdrawal may not only render some important insights into the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but might also identify new targets for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and for preventing relapses following withdrawal. Therapists specializing in the treatment of addiction should be cognizant of the underlying biological mechanisms of alcohol withdrawal in order to more adequately understand the physiopathology of substance dependence in general. In this paper, we will review the changes in the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems involved in alcohol withdrawal, and we will discuss their roles in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:16755413

  19. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

  20. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  1. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  2. Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) may develop within 6-24h after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for AWS is with benzodiazepines (BZDs). Among the BZDs, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed-dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as ?2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and ?-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptic agents can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for AWS have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents are discussed. PMID:25666543

  3. Dexmedetomidine for Sedation during Withdrawal of Support

    PubMed Central

    OHara, Chris; Tamburro, Robert F; Ceneviva, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Agents used to control end-of-life suffering are associated with troublesome side effects. The use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during withdrawal of support in pediatrics is not yet described. An adolescent female with progressive and irreversible pulmonary deterioration was admitted. Despite weeks of therapy, she did not tolerate weaning of supplemental oxygen or continuous bilevel positive airway pressure. Given her condition and the perception that she was suffering, the family requested withdrawal of support. Despite opioids and benzodiazepines, she appeared to be uncomfortable after support was withdrawn. Ketamine was initiated. Relief from ketamine was brief, and its use was associated with a wide-eyed look that was distressing to the family. Ketamine was discontinued and a dexmedetomidine infusion was initiated. The patients level of comfort improved greatly. The child died peacefully 24 hours after initiating dexmedetomidine from her underlying disease rather than the effects of the sedative. PMID:26339188

  4. Consequences of multiple withdrawals from alcohol.

    PubMed

    Duka, Theodora; Gentry, John; Malcolm, Robert; Ripley, Tamzin L; Borlikova, Gilyanna; Stephens, Dai N; Veatch, Lynn M; Becker, Howard C; Crews, Fulton T

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Fort Lauderdale, FL, organized by Theodora Duka and chaired by Dai Stephens. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the effects of multiple experiences of withdrawal from alcohol in animals made dependent on alcohol and in humans who are alcohol dependent. Parallels were drawn to the effects of repeated short-lived high-content alcohol exposures in animals and in humans who are social drinkers but indulge in binge drinking. The presentations were (1) Multiple detoxifications and risk of relapse in abstinent alcoholics, by John Gentry and Robert Malcolm; (2) Emotional and cognitive impairments after long-term use of alcohol: relationship to multiple detoxifications and binge drinking, by Theodora Duka; (3) The effect of repeated withdrawal from ethanol on conditioning to appetitive stimuli, by Tamzin Ripley, Gilyanna Borlikova, and Dai Stephens; (4) Alcohol withdrawal kindling: electrographic measures in a murine model of behavioral seizure sensitization, by Lynn Veatch and Howard Becker; and (5) Binge drinking induced changes in CNS, by Fulton Crews. PMID:15112931

  5. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived

  6. Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in glioma patients after long-term seizure freedom: design of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is common in patients with a glioma. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but may cause side effects and may negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Besides antiepileptic drugs, anti-tumour treatment, which currently consists of surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, may contribute to seizure control as well. In glioma patients with seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy the question emerges whether AEDs should be continued, particularly in the case where anti-tumour treatment has been successful. We propose to explore the possibility of AED withdrawal in glioma patients with long-term seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy and without signs of tumour progression. Methods/Design We initiate a prospective, observational study exploring the decision-making process on the withdrawal or continuation of AEDs in low-grade and anaplastic glioma patients with stable disease and prolonged seizure freedom after anti-tumour treatment, and the effects of AED withdrawal or continuation on seizure freedom. We recruit participants through the outpatient clinics of three tertiary referral centers for brain tumour patients in The Netherlands. The patient and the treating physician make a shared decision to either withdraw or continue AED treatment. Over a one-year period, we aim to include 100 glioma patients. We expect approximately half of the participants to be willing to withdraw AEDs. The primary outcome measures are: 1) the outcome of the shared-decision making on AED withdrawal or continuation, and decision related arguments, and 2) seizure freedom at 12months and 24months of follow-up. We will also evaluate seizure type and frequency in case of seizure recurrence, as well as neurological symptoms, adverse effects related to AED treatment or withdrawal, other anti-tumour treatments and tumour progression. Discussion This study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients. PMID:25124385

  7. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen People who are trying ... Previous Index Next Español English Español "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  8. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  9. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen After the "high" of ... English Español "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  10. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or artistic significance, the preservation of which is consistent with the purpose of 23 U.S.C. 131....

  11. Efficient road sign detection and recognition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Kyun

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient method for detecting and recognizing road signs from real world scenes is presented. The main outline of this method is composed of three parts: detecting road signs, i.e. road sign segmentation, shape recognition of segmented areas, and identifying the meaning of the detected signs in a hierarchical method. We employed a texture, an RG, and a BY color opponent image for road sign segmentation, a few grid lines and a bounding box for recognizing segmented sign shapes, and compressed eigenspace representation for identifying detected signs. This method has proven to be very efficient, robust, and easy to implement. Furthermore, this method can overcome substantial amount of rotation of the detected sign and opens a great possibility for more improvement and real-time usage.

  12. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders Depression and bipolar disorder (also known as ... learn more about the signs and symptoms of mood disorders so that you can get the help ...

  13. Signs and Symptoms of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occurs . Early Signs and Symptoms (3 to 30 days after tick bite) Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle ... examples of EM rashes Later Signs and Symptoms (days to months after tick bite) Severe headaches and ...

  14. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  15. The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb

    SciTech Connect

    Keune, A.

    2012-09-15

    The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

  16. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models, including evaluation of more clinically relevant nicotine dosing regimens and other measures of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs), may be useful for understanding the development of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26658557

  17. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models, including evaluation of more clinically relevant nicotine dosing regimens and other measures of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs), may be useful for understanding the development of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26658557

  18. Cutaneous signs of classical dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Auriemma, M; Capo, A; Meogrossi, G; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic immune myopathies (IIM) are an heterogeneous group of autoimmune muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle involvement. Dermatomyositis (DM) is the most common form of IIM. It is a multisystem disorder characterized by symmetric proximal, extensor, inflammatory myopathy, vascular involvement and a characteristic cutaneous eruption. Six types of DM have been identified: idiopathic, juvenile (JDM), cancer-related other autoimmune diseases-related, iatrogenic DM and amyopathic DM. Cutaneous manifestations of DM are the most important aspect of this disease and can precede from several months to years muscle or systemic involvement. Three groups of signs have been described: pathognomonic, highly characteristic and compatible. Although differences exist among the different clinical presentation of skin lesions, they share common histological findings including the presence of interface dermatitis with epidermal atrophy, basement membrane degeneration, vacuolar alteration of basal keratinocytes, and dermal changes consisting of interstitial mucin deposition and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. DM is a serious disease; the correct evaluation of any skin lesion suggesting an early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Skin signs may, also, represent a marker of treatment efficacy even though systemic symptoms worsening may not always be followed by more severe skin lesions. PMID:25014587

  19. The Etymology of an Esoteric Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joseph D.; Moores, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development of a sign that was understood only by certain members of a group. The stages of evolution are studied from its original gross pattern to a refined, simpler sign. The sign had only two years to develop and was influenced by phonological and social-environmental constraints. (PJM)

  20. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including

  1. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be

  2. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  3. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  4. Visual Constraints for Sign Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siple, Patricia

    1978-01-01

    The article elaborates on the assumption that since sign languages are received and initially processed by the visual system, then the rules for the formation of signs of a sign language would be constrained by the limits of the visual system. (Author/NCR)

  5. A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual

  6. Using Sign Language in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Constance D.

    This paper reviews the research on use of American Sign Language in elementary classes that do not include children with hearing impairment and also reports on the use of the manual sign language alphabet in a primary class learning the phonetic sounds of the alphabet. The research reported is overwhelmingly positive in support of using sign

  7. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems

  8. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language

  9. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  10. Sign Language Conversational Interaction between Chimpanzees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Roger S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Systematic sampling was done of signing between five home-reared chimpanzees who had had 4-7 years of complete immersion in integrating their signing interaction into their nonverbal communication. Eight-eight percent of all signs reported fell into the social categories of reassurance, social interaction, and play. (SL)

  11. Phonological Similarity in American Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Ursula; Corina, David

    2002-01-01

    Investigates deaf and hearing subjects' ratings of American Sign Language (ASL) signs to assess whether linguistic experience shapes judgments of sign similarity. Findings are consistent with linguistic theories that posit movement and location as core structural elements of syllable structure in ASL. (Author/VWL)

  12. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  13. Case study: neuroleptic withdrawal dyskinesia exacerbated by ongoing stimulant treatment.

    PubMed

    Connor, D F; Benjamin, S; Ozbayrak, K R

    1995-11-01

    Risk factors for neuroleptic withdrawal dyskinesia in children have not been well studied. The authors present a case of a child who had been treated with a combination of neuroleptics and stimulants for nonpsychotic aggressive behavior. A severe withdrawal dyskinesia precipitated by neuroleptic tapering was ameliorated by discontinuation of the psycho-stimulant. Although stimulants have been reported to increase certain involuntary movement disorders, this is the first known report of psychostimulant exacerbation of withdrawal dyskinesia. PMID:8543517

  14. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming. PMID:26704173

  15. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  16. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice. PMID:25042794

  17. Forced Choice Recognition of Sign in Novice Learners of British Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ruth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of the accuracy of novice learners of British Sign Language (BSL) and sign-naive subjects in recognizing possible and impossible BSL signs and in naming signs suggests that rated iconicity and the ability to process potentially meaningful gestures, determined recognition and naming accuracy. (19 references) (Author/CB)

  18. Images in pediatrics: the thymic sail sign and thymic wave sign.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nuno D; Sousa, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a radiographic image portraying the "thymic sail sign" and the "thymic wave sign," both normal findings in infant radiographs and present a short description of these signs. These are distinguished from pathologic findings such as the "spinnaker-sail sign" in pneumomediastinum. PMID:23108846

  19. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries... Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. (a) Periods controlling... Period (cc). (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness...

  20. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  1. Neonatal seizures associated with narcotic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Herzlinger, R A; Kandall, S R; Vaughan, H G

    1977-10-01

    Among 302 neonates passively addicted to narcotics, 18 had seizures that were attributed to withdrawal. Of those 18 infants, 10 were among the 127 infants exposed to methadone (7.8%), whereas only one of them was among the 83 infants exposed to heroin (1.2%). Generalized motor seizures and myoclonic jerks were the predominant convulsive manifestations. Paregoric was more effective than was diazepam in controlling and preventing these seizures once they occurred. Electroencephalograms were obtained on 13 neonates in the interictal period; 12 of these ECGs were normal. Three infants, two with myoclonic jerks, had paroxysmal brain wave activity at the time of the seizures. PMID:908988

  2. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit. PMID:26493523

  3. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  4. Withdrawal and bidirectional cross-withdrawal responses in rats treated with adenosine agonists and morphine.

    PubMed

    Coupar, I M; Tran, B L

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the A1/A2 receptor agonist, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), and the selective A1 agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), induced physical dependence by quantifying specific antagonist-precipitated withdrawal syndromes in conscious rats. In addition, the presence of bidirectional cross-withdrawal was also investigated. The agonists were administered s.c. to groups of rats at 12 h intervals. Antagonists were administered s.c., 12 hours after the last dose, followed by observation and measurement of faecal output for 20 min. NECA (4 x 0.03 mg kg(-1), s.c) and CPA (4 x 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) induced physical dependence, as shown by the expression of a significant withdrawal syndrome when challenged with the adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and the A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPDPX, 0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) respectively. The syndromes consisted of teeth chattering and shaking behaviours shown to occur in morphine-dependent animals withdrawn with naloxone viz, paw, body and 'wet-dog' shakes, but with the additional behaviours of head shaking and yawning. In further contrast to the opiate withdrawal syndrome, no diarrhoea occurred in the groups of animals treated with adenosine agonists and withdrawn with their respective antagonists. Bidirectional cross-withdrawal syndromes were also revealed when naloxone (3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) was administered to adenosine agonist pre-treated rats and adenosine antagonists were given to morphine pre-treated rats. This study provides further information illustrating that close links exist between the adenosine and opiate systems. PMID:11487090

  5. 20 CFR 404.1755 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawing charges against a representative. 404.1755 Section 404.1755 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties 404.1755 Withdrawing charges...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1555 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawing charges against a representative. 416.1555 Section 416.1555 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties 416.1555 Withdrawing charges...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  9. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  10. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  11. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  12. 49 CFR 386.51 - Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings. 386.51 Section 386.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules and Hearings 386.51 Amendment and withdrawal of...

  13. 17 CFR 3.51 - Withdrawal of application for registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of application for registration. 3.51 Section 3.51 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Denial, Suspension or Revocation of Registration 3.51 Withdrawal of application for...

  14. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Register of September 3, 2008 (73 FR 51490), we announced that Zentox Corp., c/o Burdock Group, 801 North... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY:...

  15. 46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... part. Nonqualified withdrawals for research, development, and design expenses incident to new and... determination and publication is made, the latest published percentage shall apply for any taxable year... withdrawals for research and development and payments against indebtedness in excess of basis) or in the...

  16. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Nonqualified withdrawals for research, development, and design expenses incident to new and advanced ship... nearest one-hundredth of 1 percent. If such a determination and publication is made, the latest published...)(2) (i) and (ii) of the Act (relating to withdrawals for research and development and...

  17. 46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. 391.7 Section 391.7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND 391.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general. Section 607(h)...

  18. 46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... part. Nonqualified withdrawals for research, development, and design expenses incident to new and... determination and publication is made, the latest published percentage shall apply for any taxable year... withdrawals for research and development and payments against indebtedness in excess of basis) or in the...

  19. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Nonqualified withdrawals for research, development, and design expenses incident to new and advanced ship... nearest one-hundredth of 1 percent. If such a determination and publication is made, the latest published...)(2) (i) and (ii) of the Act (relating to withdrawals for research and development and...

  20. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Nonqualified withdrawals for research, development, and design expenses incident to new and advanced ship... nearest one-hundredth of 1 percent. If such a determination and publication is made, the latest published...)(2) (i) and (ii) of the Act (relating to withdrawals for research and development and...

  1. Factors Related to Persistence and Withdrawal among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmann, Jack E.; Kirk, Barbara A.

    1970-01-01

    School and College Ability Tests (SCAT), the Omnibus Personality Inventory, and questionnaire data collected indicated that, as compared to persisting students, voluntary withdrawals had higher verbal ability and were more intellectually oriented. Voluntary withdrawals had significantly higher SCAT scores than the failures and the female

  2. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7 Section 571.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions 571.7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514.7 Section 514.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions 514.7 Withdrawal of applications...

  4. 27 CFR 19.536 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.536 Section 19.536 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax 19.536 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. Pursuant to the regulations in this chapter, spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises free of tax (a) On receipt of a...

  5. 46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. 391.6 Section 391.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND 391.6 Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. Section 607(g) of...

  6. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  7. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  8. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  9. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  10. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  11. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal gauge for... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...

  12. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal gauge for... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged...

  13. 30 CFR 23.13 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 23.13 Section 23.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TELEPHONES AND SIGNALING DEVICES 23.13 Withdrawal of approval. MSHA...

  14. 30 CFR 23.13 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 23.13 Section 23.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TELEPHONES AND SIGNALING DEVICES 23.13 Withdrawal of approval. MSHA...

  15. 30 CFR 23.13 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 23.13 Section 23.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TELEPHONES AND SIGNALING DEVICES 23.13 Withdrawal of approval. MSHA...

  16. 30 CFR 23.13 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 23.13 Section 23.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TELEPHONES AND SIGNALING DEVICES 23.13 Withdrawal of approval. MSHA...

  17. 30 CFR 23.13 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 23.13 Section 23.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TELEPHONES AND SIGNALING DEVICES 23.13 Withdrawal of approval. MSHA...

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  19. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The right of a... client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal. The practitioner shall not abandon the unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or the client's persistence over...

  20. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The right of a... client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal. The practitioner shall not abandon the unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or the client's persistence over...

  1. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The right of a... client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal. The practitioner shall not abandon the unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or the client's persistence over...

  2. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published under these and previous procedures...

  3. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published under these and previous procedures...

  4. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published under these and previous procedures...

  5. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published under these and previous procedures...

  6. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10.13 Section 10.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published under these and previous procedures...

  7. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in

  8. Anhedonia as a Component of the Tobacco Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jessica W.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Animal research suggests that anhedonia is a tobacco withdrawal symptom, but this topic has not been addressed definitively in research with humans. This research sought to determine whether anhedonia is: 1) an element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans and 2) an impediment to successful tobacco cessation. Data were from 1175 smokers (58.3% women; 85.5% white) participating in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Ecological momentary assessments for 5 days before and 10 days after the target quit day were used to assess anhedonia and other established withdrawal symptoms. Consistent with drug withdrawal, anhedonia showed an inverted-U pattern of change in response to tobacco cessation and was associated with the severity of other withdrawal symptoms and tobacco dependence. Postquit anhedonia was associated with decreased latency to relapse (HR=1.09, 95%CI[1.02,1.17]) and with lower 8-week point prevalence abstinence (OR=.91, 95%CI[.86,.97])—relations that remained significant when other withdrawal symptoms were included as predictors. Finally, nicotine replacement therapy nearly fully suppressed the increase in abstinence-related anhedonia (β = −.66, p<.001), suggesting agonist suppression of withdrawal. Results suggest that anhedonia is a unique and motivationally significant element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans. These results have implications for defining and assessing tobacco use disorder and for understanding and treating tobacco addiction. PMID:25384069

  9. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of existing withdrawals. 430.17 Section 430.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA 430.17 Registration of existing withdrawals. (a) Existing users of...

  10. 18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release. 801.3 Section 801.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES 801.3 Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release. (a) The extremes in availability of water in...

  11. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Registration of existing withdrawals. 430.17 Section 430.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA 430.17 Registration of existing withdrawals. (a) Existing users of...

  12. 18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release. 801.3 Section 801.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES 801.3 Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release. (a) The extremes in availability of water in...

  13. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification or withdrawal of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal of bids. (a) Bids may be modified...

  4. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification or withdrawal of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal of bids. (a) Bids may be modified...

  5. 47 CFR 51.615 - Withdrawal of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of services. 51.615 Section 51.615 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale 51.615 Withdrawal of services. When an incumbent LEC makes a telecommunications...

  6. 38 CFR 59.122 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of application. 59.122 Section 59.122 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES 59.122 Withdrawal...

  7. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions 831.406 Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a...

  8. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions 831.406 Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a...

  9. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions 831.406 Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a...

  10. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions 831.406 Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a...

  11. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions 831.406 Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a...

  12. 75 FR 33273 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Register (75 FR 100) on May 25, 2010, concerning a policy that would establish a Preferred Supplier Program... Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DOD... areas of cost, schedule, performance, quality, and business relations. DoN is formally withdrawing...

  13. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  14. Anhedonia as a component of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jessica W; Piper, Megan E; Leventhal, Adam M; Schlam, Tanya R; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2015-02-01

    Animal research suggests that anhedonia is a tobacco withdrawal symptom, but this topic has not been addressed definitively in research with humans. This research sought to determine whether anhedonia is (a) an element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans and (b) an impediment to successful tobacco cessation. Data were from 1,175 smokers (58.3% women; 85.5% White) participating in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Ecological momentary assessments for 5 days before and 10 days after the target quit day were used to assess anhedonia and other established withdrawal symptoms. Consistent with drug withdrawal, anhedonia showed an inverted-U pattern of change in response to tobacco cessation and was associated with the severity of other withdrawal symptoms and tobacco dependence. Postquit anhedonia was associated with decreased latency to relapse (hazard ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.02, 1.17]) and with lower 8-week point-prevalence abstinence (odds ratio = .91, 95% CI [.86, .97])-relations that remained significant when other withdrawal symptoms were included as predictors. Finally, nicotine replacement therapy nearly fully suppressed the increase in abstinence-related anhedonia (? = -.66, p < .001), suggesting agonist suppression of withdrawal. Results suggest that anhedonia is a unique and motivationally significant element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans. These results have implications for defining and assessing tobacco use disorder and for understanding and treating tobacco addiction. PMID:25384069

  15. Who Withdraws from Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Andrew J.; Giannakaki, Marina-Stefania; Chambers, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In recent years, withdrawal from initial teacher preparation (ITP) programmes, in England and elsewhere, has become a cause for concern amongst both ITP providers and policy-makers. Purpose: This paper seeks to enhance the presently underdeveloped evidence base on the causes of withdrawal from ITP and on the characteristics of student

  16. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... proposed rulemaking or notice of proposed rulemaking was published on the NRC Web site, then the notice of action on the withdrawal will also be published on the NRC Web site. (b) The withdrawal of an...

  17. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... proposed rulemaking or notice of proposed rulemaking was published on the NRC Web site, then the notice of action on the withdrawal will also be published on the NRC Web site. (b) The withdrawal of an...

  18. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  19. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  20. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  1. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  2. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  3. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  4. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  5. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  6. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  7. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  8. 7 CFR 62.203 - How to withdraw service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to withdraw service. 62.203 Section 62.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service 62.203 How to withdraw service. Service may be withdrawn by the applicant at any...

  9. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions 27.12 Withdrawal...

  10. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions 27.12 Withdrawal...

  11. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions 27.12 Withdrawal...

  12. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions 27.12 Withdrawal...

  13. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  14. 31 CFR 360.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of request for payment. 360.44 Section 360.44 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Provisions for Payment § 360.44 Withdrawal of request...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1755 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... When we consider withdrawing charges brought under 404.1745(d) or (e) based on the representative's assertion that, before or after our filing of charges, the representative has been reinstated to practice by... representative. We will withdraw charges if the representative files an answer, or we obtain evidence,...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1555 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... When we consider withdrawing charges brought under 416.1545(d) or (e) based on the representative's assertion that, before or after our filing of charges, the representative has been reinstated to practice by... representative. We will withdraw charges if the representative files an answer, or we obtain evidence,...

  17. 17 CFR 3.33 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... books and records of the registrant; the address where such books and records will be located; and a... obligations to such participants outstanding; (v) In the case of a leverage transaction merchant: (A) Either... withdrawal request. (d) (e) A request for withdrawal from registration as a futures commission...

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  19. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

  20. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw. PMID:22102789