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1

The role of TNF? in the periaqueductal gray during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines in the PAG may play an important role in morphine withdrawal. Here we report that chronic morphine withdrawal-induced upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in the caudal ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG). Microinjection of recombinant TNF? into the vlPAG followed by intraperitoneal naloxone resulted in morphine withdrawal-like behavioral signs, and upregulation of pERK1/2, expression of Fos, and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (pCREB) protein. We used a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing p55 soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) microinjected into the PAG to examine the role of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF? in the PAG in the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal response. Microinjection of HSV vector expressing sTNFR into the PAG before the start of morphine treatment significantly reduced the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal behavioral response and downregulated the expression of GFAP and TNF? in astrocytes of the PAG. TNFR type I colocalized with neuronal pERK1/2. Microinjection of HSV vector expressing sTNFR into the PAG also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and CREB, and reduced Fos immunoreactivity in neurons of the PAG following naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results support the concept that proinflammatory cytokines expressed in astrocytes in the PAG may play an important role in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal response. PMID:21068718

Hao, Shuanglin; Liu, Shue; Zheng, Xuexing; Zheng, Wenwen; Ouyang, Handong; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

2010-11-10

2

The Role of TNF? in the Periaqueductal Gray During Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in Rats  

PubMed Central

Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines in the PAG may play an important role in morphine withdrawal. Here we report that chronic morphine withdrawal-induced upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in the caudal ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG). Microinjection of recombinant TNF? into the vlPAG followed by intraperitoneal naloxone resulted in morphine withdrawal-like behavioral signs, and upregulation of pERK1/2, expression of Fos, and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (pCREB) protein. We used a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing p55 soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) microinjected into the PAG to examine the role of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF? in the PAG in the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal response. Microinjection of HSV vector expressing sTNFR into the PAG before the start of morphine treatment significantly reduced the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal behavioral response and downregulated the expression of GFAP and TNF? in astrocytes of the PAG. TNFR type I colocalized with neuronal pERK1/2. Microinjection of HSV vector expressing sTNFR into the PAG also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and CREB, and reduced Fos immunoreactivity in neurons of the PAG following naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results support the concept that proinflammatory cytokines expressed in astrocytes in the PAG may play an important role in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal response.

Hao, Shuanglin; Liu, Shue; Zheng, Xuexing; Zheng, Wenwen; Ouyang, Handong; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

2011-01-01

3

A comparison of the effects of digoxin, ouabain and milrinone on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in mice.  

PubMed

Modulation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity by acute and chronic opiates has been established for many years. However, the effects of digoxin, a putative inhibitor of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome are unknown. In the present study, a digoxin dose-response curve was conducted to observe the effects on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal and locomotor activity in mice. Higher doses of digoxin (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg) inhibited locomotor activity and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping and weight loss, while lower doses of digoxin (0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg) inhibited withdrawal weight loss precipitated by naloxone without affecting locomotor activity and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping. To explore the possible mechanisms underlying this behavior, another Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, which does not cross the blood brain barrier, and another cardiotonic drug milrinone, a non-inhibitor of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, were also included in the present study. Both milrinone and ouabain inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, naloxone-precipitated weight loss while neither affected naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping nor locomotor activity in mice. These results indicate that both the cardiotonic effects and central inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase contribute to the inhibitory effects of digoxin on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. PMID:22960325

Bai, Yin-Liang; Chu, Qin-Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Yong-Yan; Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qi

2012-08-30

4

Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal  

SciTech Connect

To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

5

Effect of five common anticonvulsant drugs on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to assess the effect of five common anticonvulsant drugs on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Male mice (25-35 g) were made dependent by increasing doses of morphine (30-90 mg/kg). At least three doses of phenytoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, lamotrigine and topiramate were injected i.p. to morphine-dependent mice 45 min prior to induction of withdrawal syndrome by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Control animals received vehicle. Number of jumpings was counted and ptosis, tremor, piloerection and diarrhea were checked in a 30 min period started just after naloxone injection. Results showed that lamotrigine, phenytoin and sodium valproate were ineffective in suppression of withdrawal syndrome while carbamazepine produced a dose-dependent reduction of jumpings. Topiramate at the maxium applied dose (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced number of naloxone-elicited jumpings. It seems that carbamazepine by inhibition of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors and topiramate by inhibiting kainite-activated (AMPA) receptor antagonists suppress morphine withdrawal syndrome but further studies are needed to have a definite conclusion.

Hajhashemi, V.; Abed-Natanzi, M.

2011-01-01

6

Effects of Exogenous Cholecystokinin Octapeptide on Acquisition of Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal Induced Conditioned Place Aversion in Rats  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a gut-brain peptide, regulates a variety of physiological behavioral processes. Previously, we reported that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated morphine-induced conditioned place preference, but the possible effects of CCK-8 on aversively motivated drug seeking remained unclear. To investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous CCK on negative components of morphine withdrawal, we evaluated the effects of CCK receptor antagonists and CCK-8 on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that CCK2 receptor antagonist (LY-288,513, 10 µg, i.c.v.), but not CCK1 receptor antagonist (L-364,718, 10 µg, i.c.v.), inhibited the acquisition of CPA when given prior to naloxone (0.3 mg/kg) administration in morphine-dependent rats. Similarly, CCK-8 (0.1–1 µg, i.c.v.) significantly attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA, and this inhibitory function was blocked by co-injection with L-364,718. Microinjection of L-364,718, LY-288,513 or CCK-8 to saline pretreated rats produced neither a conditioned preference nor aversion, and the induction of CPA by CCK-8 itself after morphine pretreatments was not significant. Our study identifies a different role of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in negative affective components of morphine abstinence and an inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK-8 on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA via CCK1 receptor.

Ma, Chunling; Meng, Yanxin; Li, Shujin; Ni, Zhiyu; Cong, Bin

2012-01-01

7

Brain reward deficits accompany naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from acute opioid dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single injections with morphine can induce a state of acute opioid dependence in humans and animals, typically measured as precipitated withdrawal when an antagonist such as naloxone is administered 4–24 h after morphine. Repeated treatment with morphine results in a progressive shift in potency of naloxone to produce such acute withdrawal signs. The current study examined alterations in brain reward

Jian Liu; Gery Schulteis

2004-01-01

8

Changes in the expression of glial glutamate transporters in the rat brain accompanied with morphine dependence and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.  

PubMed

The expression of mRNAs for the glial glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, in the rat brain accompanied with morphine dependence and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was investigated by Northern blot analysis. The expression of GLT-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in the striatum and thalamus of morphine-dependent rats, and significantly increased in the striatum 2 h after the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, compared with that of naive rats. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in GLAST mRNA level in any brain region. These results suggest the involvement of GLT-1 in the development of morphine dependence and the expression of morphine withdrawal. PMID:11423104

Ozawa, T; Nakagawa, T; Shige, K; Minami, M; Satoh, M

2001-06-29

9

The Role of TNF? in the Periaqueductal Gray During Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines in the PAG may play an important role in

Shuanglin Hao; Shue Liu; Xuexing Zheng; Wenwen Zheng; Handong Ouyang; Marina Mata; David J Fink; S Hao

2011-01-01

10

Spinal administration of lipoxygenase inhibitors suppresses behavioural and neurochemical manifestations of naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the role of spinal lipoxygenase (LOX) products in the induction and expression of opioid physical dependence using behavioural assessment of withdrawal and immunostaining for CGRP and Fos protein expression in the spinal cord. Administration of escalating doses (5–50 mg kg?1; i.p.) of morphine for 5 days markedly elevated CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Naloxone (2 mg kg?1; i.p.) challenge precipitated a robust withdrawal syndrome that depleted CGRP-like immunoreactivity and increased the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal horn. Intrathecal administration of NDGA (10, 20 ?g), a nonselective LOX inhibitor, AA-861 (1.5, 3 ?g), a 5-LOX selective inhibitor, or baicalein (1.4, 2.8 ?g), a 12-LOX selective inhibitor, concurrently with systemic morphine for 5 days or as a single injection immediately preceding naloxone challenge, blocked the depletion of CGRP-like immunoreactivity, prevented increase in the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal horn, and significantly attenuated the morphine withdrawal syndrome. The results of this study suggest that activity of LOX products, at the spinal level, contributes to the expression of opioid physical dependence, and that this activity may be expressed through increased sensory neuropeptide release.

Trang, Tuan; Sutak, Maaja; Quirion, Remi; Jhamandas, Khem

2003-01-01

11

Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal enhances ERK phosphorylation in prefrontal association cortex and accumbens nucleus of morphine-dependent mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) can be activated by opioids such as morphine via opioid receptor, and their activations have been observed in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and addiction. Long-term exposure to morphine may induce physical dependence, manifested as somatic withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, body weight loss, jumping and headshaking, when drug is deprived. Though morphine dependence and withdrawal have

Tao Li; Ying Hou; Wei Cao; Chun-xia Yan; Teng Chen; Sheng-bing Li

2010-01-01

12

Yohimbine co-treatment during chronic morphine administration attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal without diminishing tail-flick analgesia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noradrenergic neuronal hyperactivity following chronic morphine administration has been postulated to cause withdrawal signs and symptoms. Suppression of this hyperactivity, for example, by clonidine attenuates withdrawal. It might follow, therefore, that the prevention of suppression of noradrenergic systems during chronic morphine administration might diminish hyperactivity and prevent withdrawal. If the normalization of noradrenergic activity during opioid administration did not also

J. R. Taylor; V. O. Lewis; J. D. Elsworth; P. Pivirotto; R. H. Roth; D. E. Redmond

1991-01-01

13

The Roles of Melatonin and Vitamin E Plus Selenium in Prevention of Oxidative Stress Induced by Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal in Heroin-Addicted Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic effects of melatonin or vitamin E plus Se (vE + Se) on the restrain of the heroin withdrawal-induced oxidative\\u000a stress were studied. For this, rats were divided into ten groups. The rats were injected by fixed or variable doses of heroin\\u000a for 16 consecutive days, and naloxone was given 1 h after the last heroin injection. One hour after

Mustafa Cemek; Mehmet Emin Büyükokuro?lu; Ömer Hazman; Muhsin Konuk; Sait Bulut; Yavuz Osman Birdane

2011-01-01

14

Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. PMID:21635910

Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

2011-05-24

15

Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet, a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow, or a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substance of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize “food addiction” may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed.

Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

2012-01-01

16

The neuropeptide galanin modulates behavioral and neurochemical signs of opiate withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Much research has focused on pathways leading to opiate addiction. Pathways opposing addiction are more difficult to study but may be critical in developing interventions to combat drug dependence and withdrawal. Galanin decreases firing of locus coeruleus neurons, an effect hypothesized to decrease signs of opiate withdrawal. The current study addresses whether galanin affects morphine withdrawal signs by using a galanin agonist, galnon, that crosses the blood–brain barrier, and mice genetically engineered to under- or overexpress galanin peptide. Galnon significantly decreased morphine withdrawal signs in C57BL/6 mice. Further, knockout mice lacking galanin showed exacerbated morphine withdrawal signs, suggesting that endogenous galanin normally counteracts opiate withdrawal. Transgenic mice overexpressing galanin in noradrenergic neurons also showed decreased morphine withdrawal signs, suggesting a possible neuroanatomical locus for these effects of galanin. Both c-fos immunoreactivity, a marker of neuronal activity, and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at Ser-40, a marker of cAMP levels, are decreased in the locus coeruleus by galnon treatment after morphine withdrawal, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the behavioral effects of galanin. These studies suggest that galanin normally acts to counteract opiate withdrawal and that small molecule galanin agonists could be effective in diminishing the physical signs of withdrawal.

Zachariou, Venetia; Brunzell, Darlene H.; Hawes, Jessica; Stedman, Diann R.; Bartfai, Tamas; Steiner, Robert A.; Wynick, David; Langel, Ulo; Picciotto, Marina R.

2003-01-01

17

Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs by low level laser therapy in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on naloxone-induced withdrawal signs of morphine-dependent rats were examined. Low-intensity lasers with a power density of 12.5J/cm(2) have been used by a Ga-Al-As laser. One-way ANOVA showed that the LILT which applied immediately or 15min prior to naloxone injection significantly decreased total withdrawal score (TWS). These results suggest that LILT prior to naloxone injection attenuates the expression of withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rats. Further studies may elucidate the likely role of LILT in clinical management of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:18926854

Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Ojaghi, Reza; Sadeghipour, H R; Sadeghipour-Roodsari, Hamid Reza; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Sohanaki, Hamid

2008-09-24

18

Serotonin mediates beneficial effects of Hypericum perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs.  

PubMed

Antidepressants may be effective treatment for smoking cessation and new evidence on relationship between smoking and depression is emerging. Extracts of the plant Hypericum perforatum possess antidepressant activity in humans and reduce nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. Both nicotine and H. perforatum administration elicit changes in serotonin (5-HT) formation in the brain. On this basis, we investigated the possible involvement of 5-HT in the beneficial effects of H. perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs. With the aim to induce nicotine dependence, nicotine (2 mg/kg, four intraperitoneal injections daily) was administered for 14 days to mice (NM). Saline (controls, M) or H. perforatum extract (Ph 50, 500 mg/kg) were orally administered immediately after the last nicotine injection for 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (14 days) and successively with H. perforatum extract was intraperitoneally co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (WAY) (1 mg/kg). All animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and abstinence signs, 24 after nicotine withdrawal. Brain 5-HT metabolism was evaluated in the cortex of mice sacrificed 30 days after nicotine withdrawal through evaluation of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio. After nicotine withdrawal measurement of 5-HT metabolism in the cortex showed a reduction of 5-HT content while animals treated only with Hypericum extract showed a significant reduction of total abstinence score compared to controls. WAY inhibited the reduction of total abstinence score induced by H. perforatum. Moreover, 5-HT1A expression has been evaluated 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Our results, show a significant increase of cortical 5-HT content in NM treated with H. perforatum, with a concomitant significant increase of 5-HT1A receptor. So, it is possible to suggest an involvement of 5-HT in beneficial effects of H. perforatum on suffering produced by nicotine withdrawal in dependent mice. PMID:17689233

Mannucci, C; Pieratti, A; Firenzuoli, F; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

2007-08-06

19

Dopamine D 1\\/5 and D 2\\/3 agonists differentially attenuate somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrupt tobacco\\/nicotine cessation after chronic use causes various withdrawal symptoms\\/signs. There is evidence that dysfunction of brain dopaminergic system might be responsible for some nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The hypothesis for the present study was that different dopaminergic agonists would relieve different nicotine withdrawal signs. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were used. (?)-Nicotine bitartrate (9mg\\/kg\\/day, salt content) or equimolar sodium tartrate was

Yu Ohmura; Emily M. Jutkiewicz; Andrew Zhang; Edward F. Domino

2011-01-01

20

Effects of 18-methoxycoronaridine on acute signs of morphine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Ibogaine, an alkaloid found in the root bark of the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga, has been claimed to interrupt opioid dependence in humans; in animals, it has been shown to inhibit morphine self-administration and to attenuate signs of morphine withdrawal. However, ibogaine has some neurotoxicity, and because of this, efficacious and safer congeners of ibogaine have been sought, 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a novel iboga alkaloid congener, has been shown, in animals, to mimic the effects of ibogaine on morphine self-administration without producing any ibogaine-like neurotoxiticity. In the present study, 18-MC was shown to attenuate five of seven signs of morphine withdrawal in rats. The data suggest that 18-MC will ameliorate symptoms of opioid dependence in humans. PMID:9631413

Rho, B; Glick, S D

1998-05-11

21

Serotonin involvement in Rhodiola rosea attenuation of nicotine withdrawal signs in rats.  

PubMed

Rhodiola rosea has been used for centuries in the traditional medicine to stimulate nervous system, to enhance physical and mental performance and to treat fatigue. It is known that administration of Rhodiola rosea extract elicits antidepressant activity, but the mechanism of action still remains unclear. Evidence from animal models and human studies show that nicotine reduces symptoms of depression and that nicotine cessation induces depressive-like symptoms. We investigated the effects of Rhodiola rosea on nicotine withdrawal signs. Nicotine dependence was induced by subcutaneous nicotine injection (2 mg/kg, four times daily) for 14 days. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (for 14 days) and successively with Rhodiola rosea extract was co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (1 mg/kg). After nicotine withdrawal animals were evaluated for behavioural parameters (locomotor activity, abstinence signs, marble burying test), diencephalic serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptor-1A expression. Results show a significant increase of 5-HT content in N treated with R. rosea, with a significant increase of serotonin receptor 1A, suggesting an involvement of serotonin in beneficial effects of R. rosea on suffering produced by nicotine withdrawal. PMID:22921986

Mannucci, C; Navarra, M; Calzavara, E; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

2012-08-24

22

Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs by a GABAB receptor agonist in the locus coeruleus of rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of intra-locus coeruleus (LC) injection of GABA(B) receptor-interacting agents on naloxone-induced withdrawal signs of morphine-dependent rats were examined. The GABA(B) receptor agonist and antagonists were injected 5 min prior to naloxone injection. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, decreased the TWS in a dose-dependent manner but CGP35348, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, alone had no effect. On the other hand, baclofen effects were reversed by CGP35348. It may be concluded that activation of GABA(B) receptor mechanisms in the LC reduces precipitated withdrawal symptoms from chronic morphine treatment. PMID:18634832

Riahi, Esmail; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Sadeghipour, H R; Roodsari, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2008-06-27

23

Dopamine D1/5 and D2/3 agonists differentially attenuate somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Abrupt tobacco/nicotine cessation after chronic use causes various withdrawal symptoms/signs. There is evidence that dysfunction of brain dopaminergic system might be responsible for some nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The hypothesis for the present study was that different dopaminergic agonists would relieve different nicotine withdrawal signs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. (-)-Nicotine bitartrate (9 mg/kg/day, salt content) or equimolar sodium tartrate was infused into each rat via a subcutaneous (s.c.) osmotic minipump for 7 days. To assess nicotine withdrawal signs, several somatic abstinence signs including teeth-chattering/chews, stretches/gasps, ptosis, shakes, and yawns were counted one day after removal of pumps. These signs were attenuated by the s.c. injection of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine bitartrate. Both a dopamine D(1/5) agonist (SKF81297) and a D(2/3) agonist (pramipexole) relieved abstinence signs dose-dependently but differentially. SKF81297 (0.32 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced teeth-chattering/chews but not shakes. Pramipexole (1mg/kg, s.c.) decreased both teeth-chattering/chews and shakes. A low dose of pramipexole (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) significantly increased yawns, consistent with previous studies that the stimulation of D(3) receptors induces yawning. These results indicate that a D(2)-selective agonist should be considered a candidate to relieve nicotine withdrawal symptoms. PMID:21624384

Ohmura, Yu; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Zhang, Andrew; Domino, Edward F

2011-05-23

24

A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleAlthough reports of caffeine withdrawal in the medical literature date back more than 170 years, the most rigorous experimental investigations of the phenomenon have been conducted only recently.ObjectivesThe purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature regarding human caffeine withdrawal to empirically validate specific symptoms and signs, and to appraise important features of the

Laura M. Juliano; Roland R. Griffiths

2004-01-01

25

Functional interaction between purinergic system and opioid withdrawal: in vitro evidence.  

PubMed

The effects exerted by P1 and P2 as well as by A1 and A2 agonists and antagonists purinoceptor on the acute opiate withdrawal induced by morphine were investigated in vitro. Following a 4 min in vitro exposure to morphine, the guinea-pig isolated ileum exhibited a strong contracture after the addition of naloxone. The P1 purinoceptor agonist, adenosine, was able dose-dependently to reduce morphine withdrawal whereas alpha,beta-methylene ATP (APCPP), a P2 purinoceptor agonist, increased morphine withdrawal. Caffeine, a P1 purinoceptor antagonist, was able significantly and in a concentration dependent manner to increase morphine withdrawal whereas quinidine, a P2 receptor antagonist, reduced it. Also, the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) was able to reduce dose-dependently naloxone-precipitated withdrawal whereas the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS 21680 increased the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal phenomenon. Dipyridamole, a blocker of adenosine reuptake, induced a significant reduction of morphine dependence. Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, significantly increased the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal effect in a concentration dependent manner. The same effect was observed with 8-phenyltheophylline (8PT), an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, whereas 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), an A2 adenosine receptor antagonist, reduced the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal phenomenon. The results of our experiments indicate that P1 and P2 as well as A1 and A2 purinoceptor agonists and antagonists are able to influence opiate withdrawal in vitro, suggesting an important functional interaction between the purinergic system and opioid withdrawal. PMID:19442100

Capasso, Anna; Gallo, Chiara

2009-05-01

26

Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

Mark R. Hutchinson; Susannah S. Lewis; Benjamen D. Coats; David A. Skyba; Nicole Y. Crysdale; Debra L. Berkelhammer; Anita Brzeski; Alexis Northcutt; Christine M. Vietz; Charles M. Judd; Steven F. Maier; Linda R. Watkins; Kirk W. Johnson

2009-01-01

27

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEROIN WITHDRAWAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS AND EXISTENCE OF DEPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The opioid withdrawal syndrome can vary greatly in intensity. Depression is proposed to be one of the contributing factors in withdrawal intensity of opioid dependents. Methods: Fifty-one male heroin dependents were enrolled in this study. All of them were admitted to Beheshti Psychiatric Hospital in Kerman, Iran for detoxification of heroin dependence. Existence of depression was evaluated by means

Alireza Ghaffari-Nejad; Kambiz Shahabi

28

Adaptations in cholinergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area associated with the affective signs of nicotine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic administration of nicotine induces adaptations in the brain reward circuit to counteract the acute drug effects; when nicotine administration ceases, these adaptations remain unopposed and lead to drug withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to assess the effects of chronic nicotine administration on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) shell. A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure that provides current-intensity thresholds as measures of brain reward function was used in rats. Previous studies have shown that withdrawal from nicotine-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds that are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. We show here that injections of the nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 0.6-20 microg total bilateral dose) into the VTA, but not outside the VTA, resulted in significant elevations in brain reward thresholds in nicotine dependent rats (9 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate) while having no effect in saline-treated controls. By contrast, DHbetaE (0.6-20 microg total bilateral dose) injected into the Nacc shell had no effect on brain reward thresholds of nicotine- or saline-treated rats. The adaptations in cholinergic transmission in the VTA are likely to mediate, at least partly, the affective signs of nicotine withdrawal in humans. PMID:15380374

Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Markou, Athina

2004-09-01

29

Effect of alprazolam on opiate withdrawal: a combined behavioural and microdialysis study.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepines are commonly abused concurrently with opioids. The pharmacological rationale for this remains unknown. The present study has addressed behaviourally and neurochemically the action of alprazolam on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male rats. In naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.p.)-precipitated morphine withdrawn rats, alprazolam (2.5 mg kg-1 s.c.) reduced the severity of the affective component, as measured by squeal on touch hostility, and the physical sequelae of opioid withdrawal. The microdialysis study in anaesthetized rats identified an increase in noradrenaline levels in hippocampal dialysates in rats undergoing naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal. Acute treatment with alprazolam (2.5 mg kg-1 s.c.) 20 min before administration of naloxone prevented the previously identified increase in noradrenaline in hippocampal dialysates. The only observable effect alprazolam induced in non-morphine-dependent rats was a 15% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity. In conclusion, one interpretation of the data suggests that alprazolam decreases the withdrawal syndrome in rats through dampening down the previously identified hyperactivity of the locus coeruleus. PMID:8905331

Gray, A M

1996-10-10

30

Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: Implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Laura A. Berner; Bartley G. Hoebel; Nicole M. Avena

2011-01-01

31

Clozapine treatment attenuated somatic and affective signs of nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal in subsets of rats exhibiting hyposensitivity to the initial effects of clozapine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBased on the phenomenologic similarity between symptoms of drug withdrawal and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., anhedonia), we hypothesized that treatment with clozapine may be effective against nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal.

Svetlana Semenova; Athina Markou

2003-01-01

32

Neonatal drug withdrawal.  

PubMed

Maternal use of certain drugs during pregnancy can result in transient neonatal signs consistent with withdrawal or acute toxicity or cause sustained signs consistent with a lasting drug effect. In addition, hospitalized infants who are treated with opioids or benzodiazepines to provide analgesia or sedation may be at risk for manifesting signs of withdrawal. This statement updates information about the clinical presentation of infants exposed to intrauterine drugs and the therapeutic options for treatment of withdrawal and is expanded to include evidence-based approaches to the management of the hospitalized infant who requires weaning from analgesics or sedatives. PMID:22291123

Hudak, Mark L; Tan, Rosemarie C

2012-01-30

33

Differential Changes in Expression of Stress- and Metabolic-Related Neuropeptides in the Rat Hypothalamus during Morphine Dependence and Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Chronic morphine treatment and naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal activates stress-related brain circuit and results in significant changes in food intake, body weight gain and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to reveal hypothalamic mechanisms underlying these effects. Adult male rats were made dependent on morphine by subcutaneous implantation of constant release drug pellets. Pair feeding revealed significantly smaller weight loss of morphine treated rats compared to placebo implanted animals whose food consumption was limited to that eaten by morphine implanted pairs. These results suggest reduced energy expenditure of morphine-treated animals. Chronic morphine exposure or pair feeding did not significantly affect hypothalamic expression of selected stress- and metabolic related neuropeptides - corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin 2 (UCN2) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) compared to placebo implanted and pair fed animals. Naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal resulted in a dramatic weight loss starting as early as 15–30 min after naloxone injection and increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone, prolactin and corticosterone plasma levels in morphine dependent rats. Using real-time quantitative PCR to monitor the time course of relative expression of neuropeptide mRNAs in the hypothalamus we found elevated CRH and UCN2 mRNA and dramatically reduced POMC expression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA levels were transiently increased during opiate withdrawal. These data highlight that morphine withdrawal differentially affects expression of stress- and metabolic-related neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus, while relative mRNA levels of these neuropeptides remain unchanged either in rats chronically treated with morphine or in their pair-fed controls.

Nunez, Cristina; Zelei, Edina; Polyak, Agnes; Milanes, M. Victoria

2013-01-01

34

The differential profiles of withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine and beta-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine or ?-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) were compared in ICR mice. Naloxone (10mg/kg) was post-treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 3h after either a single or repeated (1 time/day for 3 days) i.c.v. injections with opioids. Withdrawal symptoms such as jumping frequency, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor were observed for 30 min immediately after naloxone treatment. Withdrawal symptoms (jumping, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor) observed in the group treated with morphine was persistently increased during 3 days. On the other hand, withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss and rearing in ?-endorphin-treated group were increased after a single injection with ?-endorphin, but gradually decreased after the repeated injection. Furthermore, no jumping behavior, penile licking and paw tremor in ?-endorphin-treated group were observed throughout the whole period of time. In addition, the hypothalamic changes of several signal molecules such as pERK, pCaMK-II?, c-FOS and pCREB expression were observed during the presence or absence of withdrawal responses induced by morphine or ?-endorphin administered once or repeatedly. Both hypothalamic pCaMK-II? and c-FOS expressions were increased by naloxone treatment in acutely administered morphine group, whereas only pCaMK-II? expression was elevated by naloxone treatment in repeatedly administered morphine group. In contrast with the findings in morphine-treated group, only pCaMK-II? expression was decreased by naloxone treatment in repeatedly administered ?-endorphin group. Our results suggest that profiles of the withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine and ?-endorphin administered supraspinally appear to be differentially regulated. The pCaMK-II? and the c-FOS protein expression may play important roles for the regulation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms such as jumping, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor induced by morphine-treated group, whereas the phosphorylation of hypothalamic pCaMK-II? appears to be involved only in the regulation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss and rearing in ?-endorphin-treated group. PMID:22626645

Park, S-H; Sim, Y-B; Kang, Y-J; Kim, C-H; Kwon, M-S; Suh, H-W

2012-05-22

35

Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of

Howard C. Becker

36

Carisoprodol tolerance and precipitated withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsCarisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model.

Michael B. Gatch; Jacques D. Nguyen; Theresa Carbonaro; Michael J. Forster

37

Effects of tizanidine 1 Sirdalud is the trade name for tizanidine, manufactured by SANDOZ-WANDER PHARMA Bern, Switzerland. 1 administration on precipitated opioid withdrawal signs in rats 2 The experimental protocol and procedures have been performad according to the regulations of Italian law: D.L. no. 116, 27\\/01\\/1992 and with the approval of the local University Committee on laboratory animals. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opioid withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by naloxone administration in rats treated with morphine. The withdrawal caused alteration of several physiological signs. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the altered physiological profiles were modified by utilising tizanidine, an ?2 adrenergic receptor agonist which is capable of affecting faecal and urinary excretion, rectal temperature, pain threshold levels and

A Pinelli; S Trivulzio; R Spezia

1998-01-01

38

Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast).  

PubMed

Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused three-to-five-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, while improving analgesia. PMID:18938237

Hutchinson, Mark R; Lewis, Susannah S; Coats, Benjamen D; Skyba, David A; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Berkelhammer, Debra L; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M; Judd, Charles M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R; Johnson, Kirk W

2008-10-04

39

Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)  

PubMed Central

Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused 3-to-5-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, whilst improving analgesia.

Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Susannah S.; Coats, Benjamen D.; Skyba, David A.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M.; Judd, Charles M.; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.; Johnson, Kirk W.

2009-01-01

40

Obestatin prevents analgesic tolerance to morphine and reverses the effects of mild morphine withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

Obestatin is a 23-amino acid gut-derived neuropeptide, encoded by the same gene with ghrelin. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of obestatin on the acute and chronic analgesic actions of morphine and on mild morphine withdrawal. Open-field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests were used to assess mild morphine withdrawal-induced behavior changes and the heat-radiant tail-flick assay was used to investigate analgesic actions of morphine. CFLP male mice were treated twice a day with graded doses of morphine in EPM and OF experiments and once a day in tail-flick studies. Obestatin (1.5?g/2?l) was administrated once a day in all experiments. Furthermore, 0.2mg/kg naloxone or saline was administered after the final injection of morphine at a dose of 20mg/kg in EPM and OF. These behavioral parameters were monitored in the OF: the percentage of center ambulation time and distance; whereas in the EPM: the time spent in open arms and the entries into open arms compared to the total time (%OAT) and entries (%OAE). In the OF, obestatin significantly decreased the percentage of time spent in the center in mice undergoing naloxone-precipitated mild morphine withdrawal. EPM results were similar to open field, but obestatin had no significant effect on parameters mentioned above. Besides, obestatin maintained the analgesic effect of morphine 90 and 120min after morphine injection in mice treated with morphine receiving obestatin compared to mice treated with morphine. In tolerance studies, obestatin diminished the analgesic tolerance to morphine on the 5th day. In this study we confirmed that obestatin reversed the effect of mild morphine withdrawal and enhances the analgesic effect of morphine. These data suggest that obestatin may have a role in opioid-induced analgesia and in behavioral responses induced by opioid withdrawal. PMID:23891980

Lipták, Nándor; Dochnal, Roberta; Csabafi, Krisztina; Szakács, Júlia; Szabó, Gyula

2013-07-24

41

Carisoprodol Tolerance and Precipitated Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Aims Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model. Methods Carisoprodol (0, 100, 200, 300, or 500 mg/kg bid, i.p.) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice for 4 days and loss-of-righting reflex was measured 20 to 30 minutes following each administration. On the fourth day, bemegride (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered following carisoprodol and withdrawal signs were measured. Separate groups of mice receiving the same treatment regimen and dose range were tested for spontaneous withdrawal at 6, 12 and 24 hr after the last dose of carisoprodol. Results The righting reflex was dose-dependently impaired following the first administration of carisoprodol. A 75 to 100% decrease in the magnitude of the impairment occurred over the four days of exposure, indicating the development of tolerance to the carisoprodol-elicited loss-of-righting reflex. Withdrawal signs were not observed within 24 hours following spontaneous withdrawal; however, bemegride and flumazenil each precipitated withdrawal within 15 to 30 min of administration. Conclusions Carisoprodol treatment resulted in tolerance and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal, suggesting it may have an addiction potential similar to that of other long-acting benzodiazepine or barbiturate compounds.

Gatch, Michael B.; Nguyen, Jacques D.; Carbonaro, Theresa; Forster, Michael J.

2011-01-01

42

29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

2013-07-01

43

Withdrawal reactions from chlordiazepoxide (“Librium”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten of 11 patients abruptly switched to placebos after several months of high daily doses (300–600 mg, 8–20 times the usual therapeutic range) of chlordiazepoxide experienced new symptoms and signs soon after. Depression, aggravation of psychoses, agitation, insomnia, loss of appetite, and nausea appeared between two and eight days following abrupt withdrawal. Two patients had seizures at seven and eight

Leo E. Hollister; Francis P. Motzenbecker; Roger O. Degan

1961-01-01

44

Study of morphine-induced dependence in gonadectomized male and female mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated the effects of sex difference and also sex hormones on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in both orchidectomized (ORC) male and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. Morphine (50, 50 and 75 mg\\/kg\\/day for 4 days, s.c.) was administered to animals and at 5th day naloxone (4 mg\\/kg, i.p.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs, jumpings and the percentage of weight loss, were measured.

Mahsa Sadeghi; Setareh Sianati; Dina Kalbasi Anaraki; Mehdi Ghasemi; Mehrak Javadi Paydar; Behrang Sharif; Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

2009-01-01

45

Calcium channel inhibitors suppress the morphine-withdrawal syndrome in rats.  

PubMed Central

The effects of the Ca2+-channel blockers verapamil and nimodipine, on the behavioural signs of naloxone (1 mg kg-1)-induced abstinence syndrome in morphine-dependent rats, were evaluated. The content of noradrenaline (NA) and of its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) was measured, using high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in various brain regions of these animals. Possible interactions of nimodipine and verapamil with opioid receptors were evaluated by examining their ability to displace [3H]-naloxone binding to brain membranes. Verapamil (5, 10 and 50 mg kg-1) and nimodipine (1, 5 and 10 mg kg-1) dose-dependently reduced most of the signs of morphine abstinence. Naloxone-precipitated abstinence decreased the NA content in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum. In the same brain regions the content of MHPG increased, suggesting an increased release of the amine during morphine abstinence. Nimodipine (10 mg kg-1 i.v.) did not change the content of NA or MHPG in the cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. However, nimodipine pre-treatment markedly reduced the changes in NA and MHPG content induced by the abstinence syndrome. Neither verapamil nor nimodipine displaced [3H]-naloxone from its binding sites. These results suggest that Ca2+-channel blockers suppress the behavioural and neurochemical expressions of morphine abstinence by a mechanism that differs from those of opioids or alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists.

Bongianni, F.; Carla, V.; Moroni, F.; Pellegrini-Giampietro, D. E.

1986-01-01

46

Extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats is blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist.  

PubMed

Maladaptive conditioned responses (CRs) contribute to psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders and addiction. Methods of reducing these CRs have been considered as possible therapeutic approaches. One such method is extinction, which involves exposure to CR-eliciting cues in the absence of the event they once predicted. In animal models, extinction reduces both fear and addiction-related CRs, and in humans, extinction-based cue exposure therapy (CET) reduces fear CRs. However, CET is less effective in drug addicts, for reasons that are not clear. Increased understanding of the neurobiology of extinction of drug-related CRs as compared to fear CRs may help illuminate this issue. Here, we examine the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependence of extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Using a place conditioning paradigm, we trained morphine-dependent rats to associate an environment with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. We then extinguished that association by returning the rats repeatedly to the environment in the absence of acute withdrawal. In some rats we administered the NMDA receptor antagonist d,l-2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (AP5) intracerebroventricularly immediately prior to extinction training. In a subsequent test session, these rats avoided the formerly naloxone-paired environment, similar to rats that had not undergone extinction training. By contrast, rats that received vehicle prior to extinction training did not avoid the formerly naloxone-paired environment. This finding indicates that extinction of a drug-related CR (conditioned opiate withdrawal) is dependent on NMDA receptors, similar to extinction of conditioned fear. The locus of the critical NMDA receptors is unclear but may include basolateral amygdala and/or medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:23416323

Coleman, Brian R; Carlezon, William A; Myers, Karyn M

2013-02-13

47

Prenatal ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure modifies proenkephalin gene expression in the fetal rat brain: sex-dependent differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) exposure in rats resulted in enhanced morphine self-administration behavior, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs or changes in pain sensitivity, which have been related to changes in ?-opioid receptor binding and\\/or proenkephalin mRNA levels in several brain regions. However, despite exposure of these animals to ?9-THC from fetal ages, the effects were studied only when animals matured, whereas there is

Alberto Pérez-Rosado; Jorge Manzanares; Javier Fernández-Ruiz; José A Ramos

2000-01-01

48

Neurosteroid allopregnanolone attenuates development of nicotine withdrawal behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Avoidance of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome as well as the positive subjective effects of nicotine is the major predisposing factor to motivate nicotine abuse. However, its underlying neurobehavioral mechanisms remain perplexing. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO; 0.5-2mg/kg) on the development of nicotine withdrawal in mice. Chronic nicotine injections (2mg/kg, four times daily, 10 days) followed by its withdrawal, elicited severe somatic signs, anxiety and marked reduction in locomotion. However, these withdrawal signs were not evident in animals pretreated with ALLO or progesterone (Day 8-10) daily before 1st injection of nicotine. This effect of neurosteroid on the nicotine withdrawal signs was reversed by indomethacin and finasteride the inhibitors of neurosteroid biosynthesis. On the contrary, single or repeated dose administration of ALLO or progesterone during nicotine withdrawal (Day 11) did not affect the expression of nicotine withdrawal signs. Thus, compounds that modulate endogenous neurosteroid ALLO are likely to have therapeutic potential for treating various aspects of nicotine dependence and withdrawal. PMID:23485740

Thakre, Prajwal P; Tundulwar, Meher R; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Ugale, Rajesh R

2013-02-26

49

Acute opioid dependence: characterizing the early adaptations underlying drug withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: While opioid withdrawal is typi- cally studied under conditions of chronic (i.e., continuous) drug administration, withdrawal signs can also be dem- onstrated in both humans and animals after a single opioid exposure. This phenomenon, termed acute dependence, may be useful in understanding the early stages of opioid dependence and addiction. Objective: This review provides an overview of acute dependence

Andrew C. Harris; Jonathan C. Gewirtz

2005-01-01

50

Concurrent Cocaine Withdrawal Alters Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares alcohol withdrawal severity during outpatient detoxification in alcohol dependent subjects (ALC) and in subjects dependent on both alcohol and cocaine (ALC\\/COC). Subjects included 123 ALC and 66 ALC\\/COC subjects. Baseline demographic and drug use variables, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and the total amount of oxazepam taken during alcohol detoxification were compared between the two groups. Compared to ALC

Kyle M. Kampman; Helen Pettinati; Joseph Volpicelli; Gail Kaempf; Ellen Turk; Ambrose Insua; Craig Lipkin; Thorne Sparkman; Charles P. OBrien

2002-01-01

51

Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

Hughes, John R.

1992-01-01

52

Alcohol Dependence Produced in Mice by Inhalation of Ethanol: Grading the Withdrawal Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intoxicating blood levels of ethanol are maintained for several days in mice housed in an atmosphere of ethanol vapor. On removal from the alcohol, all the mice develop withdrawal signs. The signs can be graded to indicate the time course and intensity of the withdrawal reaction.

Dora B. Goldstein; Nandita Pal

1971-01-01

53

Effects of repeated withdrawal episodes, nicotine dose, and duration of nicotine exposure on the severity and duration of nicotine withdrawal in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal contribute to high relapse rates to tobacco smoking after cessation attempts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To investigate the influence of nicotine dose, duration of nicotine exposure, and withdrawal history on the severity of nicotine\\u000a withdrawal in rats, as assessed by brain stimulation reward thresholds and somatic signs of withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Repeated spontaneous and precipitated withdrawals were investigated through four

Karen L. Skjei; Athina Markou

2003-01-01

54

Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

55

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

56

Warning signs for suicide in Internet forums.  

PubMed

The presence of 10 warning signs for suicide proposed by the American Association of Suicidology was compared in 215 postings on a suicide forum and 94 postings on a self-injury forum. The suicide forum postings received a higher score on the 10 signs than the self-injury forum postings, and significant differences were found for 6 of the 10 signs: suicidal ideation, purposelessness, trapped, hopelessness, withdrawal, and, in the reverse direction, recklessness. Overall, the findings support the usefulness of the warning signs in identifying suicidal individuals. PMID:23045860

McSwain, Stephanie; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

2012-08-01

57

Drug Withdrawal Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Drug withdrawal syndromes reportedly have been caused by numerous pharmacological agents, but only a few drugs have been adequately studied in this regard. Criteria for evaluating drug withdrawal syndromes have been proposed. Sedative-hypnotic agents, opiates, corticosteroids, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressant medications and beta-adrenergic blocking agents meet the criteria for such syndromes. Gradual tapering of the dose of these drugs is recommended when therapy must be discontinued. Whether or not other drugs cause rebound reactions is questionable, but caution should be used when discontinuing drugs for which numerous reports of withdrawal syndromes exist.

Hodding, Glenn C.; Jann, Michael; Ackerman, Irving P.

1980-01-01

58

Dopamine Partial Agonist Reverses Amphetamine Withdrawal in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased motivation to work for a natural reward is a sign of amphetamine withdrawal and is thought to be associated with hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopamine system. During withdrawal from repeated amphetamine administration, rats showed reduced responding for a sweet solution in a progressive ratio schedule. Repeated systemic treatment with terguride (0.2 and 0.4 mg\\/kg, i.p.) twice daily during the

Cristina Orsini; George F Koob; Luigi Pulvirenti

2001-01-01

59

Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

What is known and Objective:  Cannabis withdrawal in heavy users is commonly followed by increased anxiety, insomnia, loss of appetite, migraine, irritability, restlessness and other physical and psychological signs. Tolerance to cannabis and cannabis withdrawal symptoms are believed to be the result of the desensitization of CB1 receptors by THC. Case summary:  This report describes the case of a 19-year-old woman with cannabis withdrawal syndrome treated with cannabidiol (CBD) for 10?days. Daily symptom assessments demonstrated the absence of significant withdrawal, anxiety and dissociative symptoms during the treatment. What is new and Conclusion:  CBD can be effective for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. PMID:23095052

Crippa, J A S; Hallak, J E C; Machado-de-Sousa, J P; Queiroz, R H C; Bergamaschi, M; Chagas, M H N; Zuardi, A W

2012-10-24

60

Wartenberg's sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of surgical correction is described for Wartenberg’s sign, or persistent abduction of the little finger, using a slip of the extensor digitorum communis of the ring finger. The transferred component can be either the central slip, or the ulnar slip extended by the connexus intertendineus to the little finger.This technique maintains the integrity of the extensor mechanism of

P. Voche; M. Merle

1995-01-01

61

Alcohol withdrawal as an underrated cause of agitated delirium and terminal restlessness in patients with advanced malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of patients with terminal cancer experience terminal restlessness or an agitated delirium in the final days of life. Multifactorial etiologies may contribute to agitation and restlessness for any one patient; alcohol withdrawal may be underrated as a contributing factor. The symptoms and signs of alcohol withdrawal—autonomic dysfunction, tremor, anxiety, sleep disturbances, insomnia, and abnormal vital signs—may continue

Sally Murray; Alexander Bilinski; Boris Chern; Bruce Stafford

2005-01-01

62

Hyperglycemic suppression of morphine withdrawal signs in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained under controlled lighting and temperature conditions were used in this experiment. Morphine\\u000a dependency was induced by giving increasing doses of morphine by intraperitoneal injection (IP group) or by the ingestion\\u000a of morphine through drinking water (PO group). Animals were injected with 10, 20, 30 and 50 mg\\/kg morphine sulfate at days\\u000a 1, 2, 3 and 4,

Hyacinth C. Akunne; Karam F. A. Soliman

1988-01-01

63

Pharmacokinetically induced benzodiazepine withdrawal.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic interactions between medications can have clinically significant effects. Concern usually arises when a medication is added to a continuing regimen, though discontinuation of a medication can also have an impact. A case is presented of a patient who experienced benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms on discontinuation of nefazodone, an antidepressant that inhibits the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme. Plasma levels of alprazolam, a substrate for the 3A4 isozyme, fell rapidly when nefazodone was discontinued, presumably because of renewed 3A4 isoenzyme activity. The management of the patient's withdrawal symptoms is described. PMID:12397859

Ninan, P T

2001-01-01

64

Student Withdrawal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the problem of students withdrawing from courses before completion and in the process attempts to devise ways that Mendocino College can aid students complete their courses. The report uses findings from two research reports. The first report was completed at the Florida Community College (FCC), which discovered that 75% of…

Hayward, Craig

65

Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC. PMID:18991893

Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

2008-10-01

66

Signing off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dress for success At a recent physics teachers meeting a colleague commented to me on the generally poor state of the throng's sartorial elegance. It's not that she thought they should all be clothes horses or catwalk models but certain rules seem to have been ignored. This didn't just apply to the older people in the crowd. In the interests of physics we drew up a few basic rules that seemed to have gone awry and we present them here for the benefit of new members of the profession: Trousers should meet shoes, or at least come within 2 cm of the laces. NB. Pedal pushers are not acceptable male attire. Sandals and socks should also be avoided. One of the few equations that all of the general public know (like E = mc2) is Socks + Sandals = Beard. Hair should be washed at least once a week (whether it needs to be or not), combing should take place more frequently. Particular styles are not important, but avoid hiding receding hair using the comb-over. If your jacket/cardigan frays at the elbow throw it away. Patching it up with leather patches is not decorous or clever. NB. Carpet samples are not an acceptable alternative. If you are watching a re-run of a 1970s television show one afternoon and you find yourself thinking how much you admire the actors' dress sense then it is time to go clothes shopping. Colours should match and complement each other. Some combinations should be banned, for example brown jacket with orange shirts are a no-no. Under no circumstances should you try to match brown tweed with anything, unless it's the inside of your dustbin. Men and ties. It is very common to want to wear one's old school or college tie to show off your origins and this is to be commended. However, it is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Ironing should be done on all outer garments, though there is no need to iron creases (fore and aft) so sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

2001-05-01

67

Social Anxiety and Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Social anxiety, social withdrawal, and social skills are intertwined, but distinct, constructs that can mutually and independently\\u000a have a significant impact on social functioning. Comprehensive definitions and descriptions of social skills are provided\\u000a elsewhere in this volume; however, social anxiety is defined as a fear of negative evaluation by others and low self-confidence\\u000a when performing or interacting in social situations

Peter J. Norton

68

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome seizures.  

PubMed

In this study, we present five cases of seizures following withdrawal of flunitrazepam, lorazepam, or triazolam, representing 3% of a sample consisting of 153 patients dependent on benzodiazepines. Both abrupt cessation of benzodiazepine intake and high-dose use seem to be critical for the appearance of seizures. Pharmacological features, such as short elimination half-life and high potency, might explain the higher risk of seizures observed in these patients. PMID:8773293

Martínez-Cano, H; Vela-Bueno, A; de Iceta, M; Pomalima, R; Martínez-Gras, I

1995-11-01

69

Social Withdrawal in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood.

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

2013-01-01

70

Catatonia after benzodiazepine withdrawal.  

PubMed

The use of benzodiazepine medication is associated with a variety of acute and well-recognized withdrawal syndromes including anxiety, agitation, insomnia, and confusion. Catatonia has not previously been described. We report five patients who became catatonic after withdrawal of benzodiazepines. All five were older individuals (53-88 years) who had acutely become immobile, mute, and rigid with refusal or inability to eat or drink. Each of the five showed pronounced and rapid improvement after administration of low-dose lorazepam, which has previously been reported to be effective in the treatment of catatonia. Careful review of the records showed that each of the patients had been taking benzodiazepine medication for anywhere from 6 months to 15 years and that it had been rapidly tapered or abruptly discontinued 2 to 7 days before the onset of catatonia. These cases illustrate that severe and potentially life-threatening catatonia can develop in the wake of benzodiazepine withdrawal. Older individuals may be particularly vulnerable to this side effect. PMID:8835707

Rosebush, P I; Mazurek, M F

1996-08-01

71

Name Signs in Greek Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Name signs have existed in Greek Deaf culture since antiquity. However, little is known about Greek Sign Language (GSL) and the Greek Deaf community. Based on interviews with 200 people, the phonological characteristics of Greek name signs are described, as well as the frequency of occurrence of specific name signs and the influence of spoken Greek. Comparisons are made with

Vassilis Kourbetis; Robert J. Hoffmeister

2002-01-01

72

Signing off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

2001-09-01

73

Effect of nicotine on the tobacco withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

This study tested the ability of nicotine to alleviate the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal were measured in 100 smokers who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for tobacco dependence and a past history of tobacco withdrawal. After 2 evenings of baseline measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either nicotine or placebo gum in a double blind manner. Subjects then stopped smoking, chewed gum freely, and returned on the 1st, 2nd, and 4th evenings of abstinence for further measurement. Nicotine reduced the increase in irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, restlessness, impatience, and somatic complaints that subjects reported after cessation. Reductions in these withdrawal symptoms by nicotine were confirmed by ratings of significant others and by subjects' scores on the Profile of Mood States. Nicotine did not reduce the increases in cigarette craving, hunger, eating, insomnia, tremulousness , or supine heart rate after cessation. The effects of nicotine occurred immediately and persisted throughout the study. Although many subjects correctly identified their drug group, the efficacy of the gum was independent of subjects' identifications of drug. The relief of tobacco withdrawal by nicotine gum suggests that the tobacco withdrawal syndrome is caused, in part, by nicotine deprivation. PMID:6429705

Hughes, J R; Hatsukami, D K; Pickens, R W; Krahn, D; Malin, S; Luknic, A

1984-01-01

74

A fatal case of benzodiazepine withdrawal.  

PubMed

Medical examiners often receive cases with limited medical history. Sometimes the medical history received is slightly skewed, or even incorrect. Here we describe a case which was initially referred to the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office from a large community hospital as a case of zolpidem overdose. The deceased presented to the hospital with hypertension, elevated temperature, worsening bizarre behavior, and movement irregularities. While in the hospital, the decedent developed seizure-like activity and died approximately 15 hours after admission. A complete autopsy was performed and yielded no significant gross or histologic abnormalities. A full toxicologic analysis revealed therapeutic levels of citalopram and phenytoin. Zolpidem was not present. Further review of the decedent's medical history as well as information provided by the next of kin revealed that the deceased had been taking diazepam for several years but had recently been switched to alprazolam. The decedent had abruptly stopped taking the alprazolam approximately 4 days before admission when she ran out of the medication, after taking approximately 200 mg in a 6-day period. Given the inconsistent clinical presentation and the findings at autopsy, we suspect that she suffered from benzodiazepine withdrawal and not an overdose as initially reported. Although it is possible that the zolpidem, reportedly taken in the 12 hours before admission, masked the initial symptoms of withdrawal, the constellation of symptoms and signs at presentation are more consistent with benzodiazepine withdrawal than of zolpidem overdose. In this report, we emphasize to the forensic community that one must maintain a high index of suspicion for alternative explanations if the initial report does not seem to fit the presentation or autopsy findings. This case illustrates that although it may take some extra time and effort, further investigation into clinical history can prove crucial to obtaining the correct cause of death and manner of death. This is only the second case within the English literature of death because of benzodiazepine withdrawal. PMID:19465812

Lann, Meredith A; Molina, D Kimberley

2009-06-01

75

Mechanisms of Withdrawal-Associated Increases in Heroin Self-Administration: Pharmacologic Modulation of Heroin vs Food Choice in Heroin-Dependent Rhesus Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-h heroin self-administration sessions. One hour after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys

S Stevens Negus; Kenner C Rice

2009-01-01

76

Tizanidine for alcohol withdrawal treatment.  

PubMed

The noradrenergic system is an important neurotransmission system implicated in the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and anxiety leading to relapse during abstinence from alcohol usage. Tizanidine can play a role in alcohol withdrawal since it interferes with the noradrenergic system neurotransmission. Many noradrenergic system inhibitors in the central nervous system have proven their efficacy in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Imidazoline receptors have been also implicated in the pathophysiology of addiction. Tizanidine is an ?2-adrenoreceptor agonist that inhibits noradrenaline release and binds to imidazoline receptors. It is used as an antispastic agent due to its central action on noradrenergic system. Although Tizanidine has been tested as a treatment for opioid withdrawal it has not been tried in alcohol withdrawal yet. A theoretical rationale supports the fact that it can be an efficient treatment for the alcohol withdrawal syndrome as well as for the prevention of relapses. PMID:21733633

Bou Khalil, R

2011-07-05

77

Name signs in Greek sign language.  

PubMed

Name signs have existed in Greek Deaf culture since antiquity. However, little is known about Greek Sign Language (GSL) and the Greek Deaf community. Based on interviews with 200 people, the phonological characteristics of Greek name signs are described, as well as the frequency of occurrence of specific name signs and the influence of spoken Greek. Comparisons are made with American Sign Language and the naming process in general Greek culture. The Greek Deaf community uses both types of name signs, descriptive name signs (DNS) and arbitrary name signs (ANS). The most popular form of naming uses the DNS process. Name signs are not passed down within families but are assigned by members of the Deaf community or by Deaf peers in the educational setting. Once a name sign has been assigned it stays with the recipient, usually for life. Traditionally, most name signs describe personal characteristics, but with many hearing people now learning GSL, initialized signs are appearing. Whether the Greek Deaf community will accept this practice remains uncertain. PMID:12448131

Kourbetis, Vassilis; Hoffmeister, Robert J

2002-07-01

78

Ro 32-0432 attenuates mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome in mice.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 is noted to mediate a number of signal transduction cascades involved in the causation of nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of Ro 32-0432, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 inhibitor, on propagation of nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal signs in subchronic nicotine mouse model. Our experimental protocol consisted of administration of nicotine, (2.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously), four times daily for 7 days. In order to precipitate nicotine withdrawal, mice were given one injection of mecamylamine (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 1 h after the last nicotine injection on the test day (day 8). Behavioral observations were made for a period of 30 min immediately after mecamylamine treatment. Withdrawal syndrome was quantitated in terms of a composite withdrawal severity score, jumping frequency, nicotine-induced hyperalgesia by tail flick method, and withdrawal syndrome-related anxiety was assessed by elevated plus maze test results. Ro 32-0432 dose dependently attenuated mecamylamine-induced nicotine withdrawal syndrome in mice. It is concluded that Ro 32-0432 attenuates the propagation of nicotine dependence and reduce withdrawal signs possibly by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 activation-linked mechanisms. PMID:23274455

Singh, Thakur Gurjeet; Rehni, Ashish K; Arora, Sandeep

2012-12-29

79

Naloxone-induced cardiovascular depression in rats that had received chronic morphine-treatment.  

PubMed Central

1. Cardiovascular changes in response to intravenous injection of naloxone were studied in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats which had been given morphine in their drinking water for 1-21 days. The mechanisms of the observed changes were investigated in intact animals and in isolated hearts and tail arteries. 2. In rats that had received chronic morphine-treatment, intravenous administration of naloxone caused immediate decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular pressure and dLVP/dtmax which were followed by the occurrence of atrial or ventricular extrasystoles and other signs of opiate withdrawal such as faecal passage and muscle twitching. 3. The intensities of the naloxone-precipitated cardiovascular changes were directly related to the duration of chronic morphine pretreatment, reaching statistically significant levels on day 2 or 3 and maximal levels on day 7 or 14. This phenomenon disappeared on days 3 to 14 following opiate withdrawal in animals which had been treated previously with morphine for 21 days. 4. Either atropine or clonidine pretreatment significantly prevented the occurrence of faecal passage or muscle twitching during naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal. However, clonidine, but not atropine or yohimbine, abolished the decreases in various haemodynamic parameters. The occurrence of cardiac extrasystoles was not affected. 5. In isolated heart or tail artery preparations from chronically morphine-treated rats, naloxone administration did not elicit reactions which differed from those of the preparations from naive animals. These findings suggest that under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, the cardiovascular systems of rats that had received chronic morphine treatment exhibit inhibitory, instead of excitatory, reactions to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal.

Dai, S.; Wang, Y.

1991-01-01

80

Lorazepam and MK-801 effects on behavioral and electrographic indices of alcohol withdrawal sensitization.  

PubMed

Repeated cycles of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal result in sensitization of withdrawal-related CNS hyperexcitability that generally reflects an imbalance in activity of GABA and glutamate systems. Many pharmacological treatments for ethanol withdrawal target neuroadaptive changes in GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. The present study utilized a mouse model of repeated withdrawals to evaluate the ability of lorazepam and MK-801 treatments to antagonize behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of sensitized withdrawal seizure activity. Adult male C3H/He mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers (16 h/day) and during each withdrawal cycle, separate groups of mice were evaluated for handling-induced convulsions (HIC) or abnormal EEG (high-voltage "brief spindle episodes" (BSE)) activity. Lorazepam (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) or MK-801 (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) treatment at 1 h into each of three withdrawal cycles reduced behavioral (HIC) and electrographic (BSE) signs of seizure activity in a dose-related fashion compared to vehicle-treated mice. During a subsequent untreated withdrawal, mice previously treated with lorazepam or MK-801 for earlier withdrawals exhibited reduced HIC activity during the acute phase but exacerbated HIC activity during the protracted phase of this final (fourth) withdrawal cycle. Both lorazepam and MK-801 treatment conditions resulted in enhanced BSE activity during the entire fourth (untreated) withdrawal episode. Collectively, these results suggest that while treatment of repeated ethanol withdrawals with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) or an NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801) may have some initial benefits in ameliorating the development of sensitized withdrawal excitability, such treatment may also render subjects more vulnerable to seizure activity at later time points. PMID:16313888

Veatch, Lynn M; Becker, Howard C

2005-12-14

81

Cuesta College Student Withdrawal Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spring 1999 student withdrawal survey was made available for approximately two weeks before the final withdrawal deadline to all students who formally dropped a class through the admissions office at either the North County or San Luis Obsipo campus of Cuesta College in California. A total of 438 useable surveys were collected. The identical…

Hagen, Peter F.; Cartnal, Ryan

82

[Zolpidem dependence and withdrawal seizure].  

PubMed

Zolpidem is an imidazopiridine with hypnotic properties. Compared to benzodiazepines, zolpidem has a mechanism of action that is thought to reduce the risk of dependence or abuse. However, in the past 10 years, several cases of zolpidem abuse, dependence and withdrawal reactions have been described in the litterature. Here, we describe a case of dependence and withdrawal seizure. PMID:19777922

Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

83

Biological Product Withdrawal of Carimune NF Immune ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Biological Product Withdrawal of Carimune NF Immune Globulin Intravenous- ZLB Behring. DATE WITHDRAWAL INITIATED: February 21, 2007. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

84

Sign Language Number Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign language number recognition system lays down foundation for handshape recognition which addresses real and current problems in signing in the deaf community and leads to practical applications. The input for the sign language number recognition system is 5000 Filipino sign language number video file with 640 x 480 pixels frame size and 15 frame\\/second. The color-coded gloves uses less

Iwan Njoto Sandjaja; Nelson Marcos

2009-01-01

85

Caffeine antagonizes EEG effects of tobacco withdrawal.  

PubMed

Six current cigarette smokers and coffee drinkers were given combinations of 0, 150, or 300 mg caffeine and 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex following 12-h nicotine and caffeine abstinence. On one study day, subjects were allowed to smoke cigarettes and to drink caffeinated beverages and no drugs were given. Tobacco and caffeine abstinence impaired performance on the serial addition/subtraction and digit recall tasks; decreased scores on the MBG scale and ratings of "clear-headed" and "quick-witted"; and increased ratings of "irritability," "muscular tension," "headache," "drowsy," "clumsy," "feeble," and "dreamy." The deprivation caused characteristic EEG signs of nicotine withdrawal including increased theta power and decreased alpha frequency. These EEG effects were reversed by cigarette smoking and caffeine administration, but nicotine polacrilex was less effective. Deprivation-induced performance and subjective measures were not changed by administration of nicotine and caffeine combinations. PMID:8029263

Cohen, C; Pickworth, W B; Bunker, E B; Henningfield, J E

1994-04-01

86

Carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man with chronic back and shoulder pain was treated with hydrocodone. He began taking excessive amounts of the drug, so his physicians stopped prescribing it. The patient then obtained the muscle relaxant carisoprodol on his own from several sources. He was consuming up to 30 or more tablets/day (> or =10,500 mg/day) for several weeks, then abruptly stopped taking the drug. Within 48 hours he developed anxiety, tremors, muscle twitching, insomnia, auditory and visual hallucinations, and bizarre behavior. The symptoms intensified and peaked on the fourth day after carisoprodol cessation. The patient required brief treatment with olanzapine and tapering dosages of lorazepam while the symptoms gradually resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a withdrawal syndrome with carisoprodol. The symptoms most likely resulted because of accumulation of meprobamate, the active metabolite of carisoprodol in humans. Clinicians prescribing carisoprodol should be aware of the possibility for abuse or addiction. Further, we recommend that carisoprodol be designated a controlled substance at the federal level. PMID:15585447

Reeves, Roy R; Beddingfield, John J; Mack, James E

2004-12-01

87

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2013-07-01

88

27 CFR 19.164 - Withdrawal bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirement for a withdrawal bond. If a person intends to withdraw...covering a single plant. A person who files a withdrawal bond for a single plant must...multiple plants. A person who files one withdrawal bond to cover two or...

2013-04-01

89

Role of ?7- and ?4-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Affective and Somatic Aspects of Nicotine Withdrawal: Studies in Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

To assess which nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in the aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal, brain reward function and the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were assessed in mice that lack ?7 and ?4 nAChR subunits. Brain reward function was assessed with the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, in which elevations in ICSS thresholds reflect an anhedonic mood state. At 3–6 h of spontaneous nicotine/saline withdrawal, thresholds were elevated in nicotinewithdrawing ?7+/+ and ?4+/+, but not ?7?/? or ?4?/?, mice compared with saline-withdrawing mice, indicating a delay in the onset of withdrawal in the knockout mice. From 8 to 100 h of withdrawal, thresholds in ?7+/+ and ?7?/? mice were equally elevated, whereas thresholds in ?4+/+ and ?4?/? mice returned to baseline levels. Somatic signs were attenuated in nicotine-withdrawing ?4?/?, but not ?7?/?, mice. Administration of a low dose of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine induced threshold elevations in ?7?/?, but not ?7+/+, mice, whereas the highest dose tested only elevated thresholds in ?7+/+ mice. Mecamylamine-induced threshold elevations were similar in ?4?/? and ?4+/+ mice. In conclusion, null mutation of the ?7 and ?4 nAChR subunits resulted in a delayed onset of the anhedonic aspects of the spontaneous nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Previous findings of attenuated somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in ?4?/?, but not ?7?/?, mice were confirmed in the present study, indicating an important role for ?4-containing nAChRs in the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. The mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal data suggest that compensatory adaptations may occur in constitutive ?7?/? mice or that mecamylamine may interact with other receptors besides nAChRs in these mice. In summary, the present results indicate an important role for ?7 and ?4-containing nAChRs in the anhedonic or somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal.

Stoker, Astrid K.; Olivier, Berend; Markou, Athina

2011-01-01

90

Steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, steroid minimization became one of the major goals in pediatric renal transplantation. Different protocols have been used by individual centers and multicenter study groups, including early and late steroid withdrawal or even complete avoidance. The timing of steroid withdrawal determines if antibodies are used, as avoidance and early withdrawal require antibody induction, while late withdrawal typically does not. A monoclonal antibody was used in most protocols during an early steroid withdrawal together with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in low immunological risk patients. Polyclonal induction was reported as effective in high-risk patients. Cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil were used in late steroid withdrawal with no induction. All described protocols were effective in terms of preventing acute rejection and preserving renal graft function. There was no superiority of any specific protocol in terms of clinical benefits of steroid withdrawal. Pre-puberty determined growth benefit while other clinical advantages, including better control of glycemia, lipids, and blood pressure, were age independent. It is not clear whether the steroid withdrawal increases the risk of recurrence of primary glomerular diseases post-transplant, however it cannot be excluded. There is no evidence to date for a higher risk of anti-HLA production in steroid-free children after renal transplantation. Key summary points - Current strategies to minimize the steroid-related adverse effects in pediatric renal graft recipients include steroid withdrawal, early or late after transplantation, or complete steroid avoidance- Early steroid withdrawal or avoidance is generally used following the induction therapy with mono- or polyclonal antibodies, while in late steroid withdrawal induction therapy was generally not used- Elimination of steroids (early or late) does not increase the risk of acute rejection and does not deteriorate long-term renal graft function- Early steroid withdrawal is possible in patients at high immunological risk using a combination of polyclonal antibody induction, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil- All protocols of steroid minimization showed relevant clinical benefits, however the growth-related benefit was limited to pre-pubertal patients in all but one of the studies- Adverse events of steroid withdrawal occurred in a higher incidence of post-transplant bone marrow suppression Key research points - There is no clear evidence of the impact of steroid withdrawal on the risk of recurrence of primary glomerulonephritis after renal transplantation in children, therefore further evaluation of this important issue should be performed in prospective trials- There is limited pediatric data on the risk of anti-HLA/donor-specific antibody production in steroid-free patients after renal transplantation. It is not clear whether the selection of the type of induction antibody (lymphocyte depleting versus short, two-dose administration of anti-IL2R inhibitor) is important in this term. The production of anti-HLA antibodies should then be monitored on a regular basis and analyzed in prospective trials. PMID:23288351

Grenda, Ryszard

2013-01-04

91

Know the Signs  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... These are signs of a fake online pharmacy. Tips for identifying safe online pharmacies: ... These are signs of a safe, legal online pharmacy. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

92

Vitiligo: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments U - W Vitiligo Signs, symptoms Vitiligo: Signs and symptoms Vitiligo causes loss of color. ... amount of color loss or type of vitiligo. Vitiligo has types and subtypes If you are diagnosed ...

93

Warts: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments U - W Warts Signs, symptoms Warts: Signs and symptoms There are a few different ... some of the different types of warts. Common warts (also called vurruca vulgaris) Wart under a child's ...

94

Improved Airport Guidance Signs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors affecting the acquisition and legibility of Airport Guidance Signs were studied to determine the optimum relationship between size, height and location of the signs. The studies showed the 500-foot minimum legibility requirement to be the predomin...

1964-01-01

95

Shingles: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more pain and less itching ... get a fever or headache with the rash. Shingles . The rash can be very painful and widespread. ...

96

British Sign Name Customs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2010-01-01

97

Sign language and autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings and issues in teaching sign language to nonspeaking autistic children are reviewed. Data on over 100 children indicate that nearly all autistic children learn receptive and expressive signs, and many learn to combine signs. These children also exhibit marked improvement in adaptive behaviors. Speech skills are acquired by fewer children and may be developed through simultaneous speech and

John D. Bonvillian; Keith E. Nelson; Jane Milnes Rhyne

1981-01-01

98

Modeling withdrawal syndrome in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming a popular model species in behavioral neuroscience research. Zebrafish behavior is robustly affected by environmental and pharmacological manipulations, and can be examined using exploration-based paradigms, paralleled by analysis of endocrine (cortisol) stress responses. Discontinuation of various psychotropic drugs evokes withdrawal in both humans and rodents, characterized by increased anxiety. Sensitivity of zebrafish to drugs of abuse has been recently reported in the literature. Here we examine the effects of ethanol, diazepam, morphine and caffeine withdrawal on zebrafish behavior. Overall, discontinuation of ethanol, diazepam and morphine produced anxiogenic-like behavioral or endocrine responses, demonstrating the utility of zebrafish in translational research of withdrawal syndrome. PMID:20006651

Cachat, Jonathan; Canavello, Peter; Elegante, Marco; Bartels, Brett; Hart, Peter; Bergner, Carisa; Egan, Rupert; Duncan, Ashley; Tien, David; Chung, Amanda; Wong, Keith; Goodspeed, Jason; Tan, Julia; Grimes, Chelsea; Elkhayat, Salem; Suciu, Christopher; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Mohnot, Sopan; Beeson, Esther; Amri, Hakima; Zukowska, Zofia; Soignier, R Denis; Kalueff, Allan V

2009-12-16

99

Reward, addiction, withdrawal to nicotine.  

PubMed

Nicotine is the principal addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users' knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the ?4 and ?2 subunits, often in combination with the ?6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the ?5, ?2, and ?4 (and likely ?3) nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal. PMID:21438686

De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A

2011-01-01

100

On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

Paales, Liina

2010-01-01

101

Sign language Web pages.  

PubMed

The WORLD WIDE WEB has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The present article describes a system that allows sign language-only Web pages to be created and linked through a video-based technique called sign-linking. In two studies, 14 Deaf participants examined two iterations of signlinked Web pages to gauge the usability and learnability of a signing Web page interface. The first study indicated that signing Web pages were usable by sign language users but that some interface features required improvement. The second study showed increased usability for those features; users consequently couldnavigate sign language information with ease and pleasure. PMID:17225637

Fels, Deborah I; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G

2006-01-01

102

l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.  

PubMed

l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

2012-08-23

103

Endocannabinoid regulation of acute and protracted nicotine withdrawal: effect of FAAH inhibition.  

PubMed

Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg/rat/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed at 16 and 34 hours following removal of nicotine patches, respectively. Further behavioral manifestations including decrease in locomotor activity and increased weight gain also occurred during withdrawal. Expression of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal was accompanied by fluctuation in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in several brain structures including the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, levels of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol were not significantly altered. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular degradation of AEA, by URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced withdrawal-induced anxiety as assessed by the elevated plus maze test and the shock-probe defensive burying paradigm, but did not prevent the occurrence of somatic signs. Together, the results indicate that pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing endocannabinoid signaling may offer therapeutic advantages to treat the negative affective state produced by nicotine withdrawal, which is critical for the maintenance of tobacco use. PMID:22140525

Cippitelli, Andrea; Astarita, Giuseppe; Duranti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Stopponi, Serena; Kallupi, Marsida; Sagratini, Gianni; Rodrìguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Piomelli, Daniele; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2011-11-30

104

Endocannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Protracted Nicotine Withdrawal: Effect of FAAH Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg/rat/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed at 16 and 34 hours following removal of nicotine patches, respectively. Further behavioral manifestations including decrease in locomotor activity and increased weight gain also occurred during withdrawal. Expression of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal was accompanied by fluctuation in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in several brain structures including the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, levels of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol were not significantly altered. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular degradation of AEA, by URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced withdrawal-induced anxiety as assessed by the elevated plus maze test and the shock-probe defensive burying paradigm, but did not prevent the occurrence of somatic signs. Together, the results indicate that pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing endocannabinoid signaling may offer therapeutic advantages to treat the negative affective state produced by nicotine withdrawal, which is critical for the maintenance of tobacco use.

Cippitelli, Andrea; Astarita, Giuseppe; Duranti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Stopponi, Serena; Kallupi, Marsida; Sagratini, Gianni; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Piomelli, Daniele; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2011-01-01

105

Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (M. chamomilla) on the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence was investigated in rats. The frequencies of withdrawal behavioral signs (paw tremor, rearing, teeth chattering, body shakes, ptosis, diarrhea, and urination) and weight loss induced by naloxone challenge were demonstrated in morphine-dependent rats receiving M. chamomilla extract or saline. The withdrawal behavioral manifestations and weight loss were inhibited significantly by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. Administration of a single dose of M. chamomilla before the naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent animals abolished the withdrawal behavioral manifestations. The dramatic increase of plasma cAMP induced by naloxone-precipitated abstinence was prevented by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. These results suggest that M. chamomilla extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome. PMID:12832855

Gomaa, Adel; Hashem, Tahia; Mohamed, Mahmoud; Ashry, Esraa

2003-05-01

106

Hungry Horse Selective Withdrawal Hydraulic Model Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of the Hungry Horse selective withdrawal hydraulic model study. The study was performed to evaluate the proposed selective withdrawal configurations and to provide operation and design information. Determination of addition...

J. Kubitschek

1994-01-01

107

Withdrawal syndrome caused by naltrexone in opioid abusers.  

PubMed

Study objective: Naltrexone is a competitive opioid receptor antagonist acting at the µ- and k-opioid receptors that blocks the euphoric effects of exogenous administered opioids. When used in opioid-dependent patients, naltrexone can cause acute and severe withdrawal symptoms.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from December 2007 to March 2008 and consisted of patients who had used naltrexone accidentally or deliberately and were referred to Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All symptoms and signs were assessed and the relationship between the dose of naltrexone, opioid dependence, and outcome was evaluated.Results: In 132 patients referred to our hospital, the most frequently reported symptoms and signs occurring in more than 10% of patients were agitation (96.2%), altered level of consciousness (38.6%), nausea (28%), vomiting (27.3%), abdominal pain (24.2%), diarrhea (16.7%), bone and muscle pain (15.9%), tachycardia (12.9%), and dilated pupils (11.4%). Being the most prominent symptom, the agitation was the most difficult aspect of withdrawal to manage. Except for agitation, no relationship was found between the presence of these symptoms and the dose of naltrexone used. Outcome of the patients (classified as complete recovery, partial recovery, death, and no follow-up) was related to the substance of addiction (p < 0.05) but not to the naltrexone dose.Conclusion: Emergency physicians should be aware of the potential for severe agitation from naltrexone-precipitated hyperacute withdrawal and its appropriate management. Opioid-dependent patients who wish to continue withdrawal and abstinence must be encouraged to visit trained physicians and be warned about misuse of naltrexone. PMID:23690227

Hassanian-Moghaddam, H; Afzali, S; Pooya, A

2013-05-20

108

Antagonist Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although antagonist drugs are receiving increasing attention in the treatment of opioid withdrawal, the mechanisms of interaction of opiate agonists and antagonists remain largely to be investigated. We focused on the effects of very low quantities of opiate antagonists, for their potential utility in detoxification. Upon reviewing the evidence on the administration of small doses of naloxone and naltrexone in

Paolo Mannelli; Edward Gottheil; Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele

2006-01-01

109

Mechanistic insights into nicotine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Smoking is responsible for over 400,000 premature deaths in the United States every year, making it the leading cause of preventable death. In addition, smoking-related illness leads to billions of dollars in healthcare expenditures and lost productivity annually. The public is increasingly aware that successfully abstaining from smoking at any age can add years to one’s life and reduce many of the harmful effects of smoking. Although the majority of smokers desire to quit, only a small fraction of attempts to quit are actually successful. The symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal are a primary deterrent to cessation and they need to be quelled to avoid early relapse. This review will focus on the neuroadaptations caused by chronic nicotine exposure and discuss how those changes lead to a withdrawal syndrome upon smoking cessation. Besides examining how nicotine usurps the endogenous reward system, we will discuss how the habenula is part of a circuit that plays a critical role in the aversive effects of high nicotine doses and nicotine withdrawal. We will also provide an updated summary of the role of various nicotinic receptor subtypes in the mechanisms of withdrawal. This growing knowledge provides mechanistic insights into current and future smoking cessation therapies.

Paolini, Michael; De Biasi, Mariella

2012-01-01

110

Sign language and autism.  

PubMed

Research findings and issues in teaching sign language to nonspeaking autistic children are reviewed. Data on over 100 children indicate that nearly all autistic children learn receptive and expressive signs, and many learn to combine signs. These children also exhibit marked improvement in adaptive behaviors. Speech skills are acquired by fewer children and may be developed through simultaneous speech and sign training. Possible explanations for these results are given, together with suggestions for future research and data collection. Recommended innovations include exposure to fluent signers and training in discourse and code-switching. Different sign language teaching methods need to be investigated more fully, including emphasis on training sign language within the children's total environment and with greater staff and parental participation. PMID:6927693

Bonvillian, J D; Nelson, K E; Rhyne, J M

1981-03-01

111

19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for exportation. 144.37 Section 144.37...CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for...

2010-04-01

112

19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144...CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.36 Withdrawal for...

2010-04-01

113

19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Withdrawal for exportation. 144.37 Section 144.37...CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for...

2009-04-01

114

29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

2013-07-01

115

A Detection Model of College Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw

Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

2011-01-01

116

Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models.Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and

Thomas Jochum; Michael K. Boettger; Christin Burkhardt; Georg Juckel; Karl-Jürgen Bär

2010-01-01

117

Neocortical hyperexcitability after GABA withdrawal in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharp interruption of the intracortical instillation of exogenous ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), generates an epileptic focus in mammals. Seizures elicited by GABA withdrawal last several days or weeks. The present work reports that GABA withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability can be produced in vitro: a sudden withdrawal of GABA (5 mM; 120 min) or benzodiazepine (60 ?M flunitrazepam) from the superfusion, induced a

E Calixto; A. M López-Colomé; C Casasola; T Montiel; J Bargas; S Brailowsky

2000-01-01

118

Eponymous signs in dermatology  

PubMed Central

Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper.

Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

2012-01-01

119

Eponymous signs in dermatology.  

PubMed

Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these "signs" and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. "Signs" commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

2012-09-01

120

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

2006-11-06

121

Food Signs in Radiology  

PubMed Central

Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis.

Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

2007-01-01

122

The anxiolytic etifoxine protects against convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in the function of ?-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors attributable to alterations in receptor subunit composition is one of main molecular mechanisms with those affecting the glutamatergic system which accompany prolonged alcohol (ethanol) intake. These changes explain in part the central nervous system hyperexcitability consequently to ethanol administration cessation. Hyperexcitability associated with ethanol withdrawal is expressed by physical signs, such

Marc Verleye; Isabelle Heulard; Jean-Marie Gillardin

2009-01-01

123

Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the

Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele; Yaping Qian; Robert C. Sterling; Michelle E. Page

2008-01-01

124

43 CFR 2310.2-1 - Termination of the segregative effect of withdrawal applications or withdrawal proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Termination of the segregative effect of withdrawal applications or withdrawal proposals. 2310.2-1 Section 2310...INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LAND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals, General: Procedure §...

2010-10-01

125

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Ask an ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

126

American Sign Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Sign Museum is the only public collection of its kind, and it is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its fun, colorful website just may bring back memories for some visitors. Users should definitely watch the video tour of the museum with the founder, Tod Swormstedt. The link can be found near the top of the homepage, and is entitled "Take a Video Tour." The founder explains his goals in opening the museum, which are to show "the history of the sign industry and its significant contribution to commerce and the American landscape." He also goes on to reference the urban renewal program from the 1960s called SOS, which meant Scrap Our Signs, as a source of many of the museum's holdings. The excellent "Exhibits" link on the left hand menu contains a link to the museum's permanent collection and visitors will find it is divided into eight categories, including "Painted/Non-illuminated Signs," "Plastic Signs," and "Neon Signs and Displays: The Glory Days." The Exhibits link also offers to visitors half a dozen sections of signs that can be seen from the road (On the Road), while walking around (Walking Tours), or from an armchair (Sign History).

127

Signs for Instructional Purposes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrations depict 465 new manual signs for use in high school and college instruction of deaf students. The signs represent words or phrases, usually made up of many letters, which are important to the following subject matters; sciences and mathematics (general terms), biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, psychology, humanities (general…

Kannapell, Barbara M.; And Others

128

Signed Binary Representations Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common method for computing exponentiation of random elements in Abelian groups are sliding window schemes, which enhance the eciency of the binary method at the expense of some precomputation. In groups where inversion is easy (e.g. elliptic curves), signed representations of the exponent are meaningful because they de- crease the amount of required precomputation. The asymptotic best signed

Katsuyuki Okeya; Katja Schmidt-samoa; Christian Spahn; Tsuyoshi Takagi

2004-01-01

129

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

130

Signs for Instructional Purposes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrations depict 465 new manual signs for use in high school and college instruction of deaf students. The signs represent words or phrases, usually made up of many letters, which are important to the following subject matters; sciences and mathematics (general terms), biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, psychology, humanities (general…

Kannapell, Barbara M.; And Others

131

In utero oxcarbazepine and a withdrawal syndrome, anomalies, and hyponatremia.  

PubMed

Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic agent that has been used during pregnancy, although its safety during pregnancy has not been sufficiently established. This article presents an infant born with renal and cardiac malformations who developed a withdrawal syndrome and hyponatremia following in utero exposure to oxcarbazepine. The infant was born at 35 weeks' gestation by urgent cesarean section to a mother in status epilepticus who had been treated with oxcarbazepine throughout her pregnancy. Evaluation for congenital anomalies identified mild aortic stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus, and severe left hydronephrosis due to left ureteropelvic junction stenosis. On the third day of life the infant developed clinical signs of a withdrawal syndrome, which peaked on day 7 and resolved by day 12. Transient hyponatremia resolved by day 8 of life. Follow-up showed normal development at 15 months. The association of a withdrawal syndrome with oxcarbazepine exposure has not been previously reported. The hyponatremia is consistent with adult reports. The possible association of oxcarbazepine with renal and cardiac malformations requires further confirmation. PMID:23668873

Rolnitsky, Asaph; Merlob, Paul; Klinger, Gil

2013-06-01

132

Episodic withdrawal promotes psychomotor sensitization to morphine.  

PubMed

The relative intermittency or continuity of drug delivery is a major determinant of addictive liability, and also influences the impact of drug exposure on brain function and behavior. Events that occur during the offset of drug action (ie, acute withdrawal) may have an important role in the consequences of intermittent drug exposure. We assessed whether recurrent episodes of acute withdrawal contribute to the development of psychomotor sensitization in rodents during daily morphine exposure. The acoustic startle reflex--a measure of anxiety induced by opiate withdrawal-was used to resolve and quantify discrete withdrawal episodes, and pharmacological interventions were used to manipulate withdrawal severity. Startle potentiation was observed during spontaneous withdrawal from a single morphine exposure, and individual differences in initial withdrawal severity positively predicted the subsequent development of sensitization. Manipulations that reduce or exacerbate withdrawal severity also produced parallel changes in the degree of sensitization. These results demonstrate that the episodic experience of withdrawal during daily drug exposure has a novel role in promoting the development of psychomotor sensitization--a prominent model of drug-induced neurobehavioral plasticity. Episodic withdrawal may have a pervasive role in many effects of intermittent drug exposure and contribute to the development of addiction. PMID:20811341

Rothwell, Patrick E; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Thomas, Mark J

2010-09-01

133

Hazardous Material Highway Signing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first section summarizes the scope of highway hazmat operations within the United States, the major types of hazmats transported, and incidents involving hazmats. The second section briefly summarizes hazmat routing signs set forth in the Manual on Un...

S. R. Byington

1995-01-01

134

Scabies: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... form when people get crusted scabies, also called Norwegian scabies. Signs and symptoms of scabies include: Itching, ... crusted scabies. Another name for crusted scabies is Norwegian scabies. These crusts house 100s to 1,000s ...

135

Warning Signs of Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... away . Back to top Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

136

Activation of brain NOP receptors attenuates acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal symptoms in the rat  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Alcohol withdrawal, refers to a cluster of symptoms that may occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic or prolonged ingestion. These symptoms make alcohol abstinence difficult and increase the risk of relapse in recovering alcoholics. In previous studies, we demonstrated that treatment with N/OFQ significantly reduces alcohol consumption and attenuates alcohol-seeking behaviour induced by environmental conditioning factors or by stress in rats. In the present study we evaluated whether activation of brain NOP receptors may also attenuate alcohol withdrawal signs in rats. METHODS For this purpose animals were subjected to a 6 day chronic alcohol intoxication (by intragastric administration) and at 8, 10 and 12 hours following cessation of alcohol exposure they were treated intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 ?g/rat). Somatic withdrawal signs were scored after ICV treatment. In a subsequent experiment, to evaluate N/OFQ effects on alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety another group of rats was subjected to ethanol intoxication and after one week was tested for anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the last experiment an additional group of rats was tested for anxiety elicited by acute ethanol intoxication (hangover anxiety). For this purpose, animals received an acute dose (3.0 g/kg) of 20% alcohol and 12-h later were tested in the EPM following ICV N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0?g/rat). RESULTS Results showed that N/OFQ significantly reduced the expression of somatic withdrawal signs and reversed anxiety-like behaviors associated with both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. N/OFQ did not affect anxiety scores in nondependent animals. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system may represent a promising target for the development of new treatments to ameliorate alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Stopponi, Serena; Braconi, Simone; Clementi, Stefano; Ubaldi, Massimo; Martin-Fardon, Remi; Weiss, Friedbert; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2010-01-01

137

Precipitated withdrawal in squirrel monkeys after repeated daily oral administration of alprazolam, diazepam, flunitrazepam or oxazepam.  

PubMed

The lowest dose of alprazolam, diazepam, flunitrazepam and oxazepam consistently to induce loss of righting reflex in squirrel monkeys or vehicle was orally administered to monkeys on 18 consecutive days: 2 mg/kg alprazolam (n = 4), 30 mg/kg diazepam (n = 4), 1 mg/kg flunitrazepam (n = 4), 280 mg/kg oxazepam (n = 5), or vehicle (n = 4). Tolerance developed rapidly for loss of righting reflex, more slowly for sleep and only minimally for muscle relaxation observed during the period immediately following daily oral administration. Injection of the specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (10 mg/kg i.v.) 5 h after the ninth daily oral treatment produced signs of precipitated withdrawal (tremor, vomiting and/or convulsions) in one alprazolam-, four diazepam-, one flunitrazepam- and four oxazepam-treated monkeys, but not in the vehicle-treated monkeys. Physiological saline injected intravenously several days later under these same experimental conditions failed to provoke a precipitated withdrawal reaction. When flumazenil-induced precipitated withdrawal was again evaluated after the 18th daily oral treatment, withdrawal signs were observed in all alprazolam- and all diazepam-treated monkeys, as well as in three flunitrazepam- and three oxazepam-treated monkeys, but not in the vehicle-treated monkeys (convulsions were observed in one alprazolam-, two diazepam-, one flunitrazepam- and two oxazepam-treated monkeys). No signs of spontaneous withdrawal were observed in any of the monkeys during a subsequent 3-week drug-free period. Thus, repeated administration of approximately equieffective doses of these four benzodiazepines resulted in a similar development of tolerance and physical dependence (indicated by the occurrence of a precipitated withdrawal reaction). PMID:7617819

Martin, J R; Moreau, J L; Jenck, F

1995-04-01

138

The Babinski sign.  

PubMed

Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), a French neurologist of Polish descent, was the first person to describe extension of the big toe following stimulation of the sole of the foot on 22 February 1896 (Babinski, 1896). He referred to the sign as 'phénomène des orteils' (toes phenomenon) but it is now usually referred to eponymously as the 'Babinski sign' or descriptively as the extensor plantar response. PMID:22041660

Morrow, Jasper M; Reilly, Mary M

2011-10-01

139

Signs in thoracic imaging.  

PubMed

Radiologic signs are recognizable, characteristic patterns used to describe abnormalities visualized on imaging modalities that ultimately aid in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of disease. This pictorial essay discusses 23 classic roentgenographic signs used in thoracic imaging. Its purpose is to be used as an educational review for residents, whether they are beginning their training or preparing for certification exams, and serve as a refresher and a reference to the practicing radiologist. PMID:16538167

Marshall, Geoffrey B; Farnquist, Brenda A; MacGregor, John H; Burrowes, Paul W

2006-03-01

140

Sign On to Computers: A Dictionary of Computer Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual defines basic computer terminology and presents sign language gestures for the terms. The manual uses the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf's Manually Coded English Sign Language System, a compilation of signs derived from Signing Exact English and American Sign Language; it also indicates those instances where fingerspelling is…

Zier, Cathy Diane; And Others

141

Automatic Sign Segmentation from Continuous Signing via Multiple Sequence Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to build a sign language recognition framework, one needs to collect sign databases that contain multiple samples of isolated signs, which is a hard and time consum- ing task. In this study, our aim is to obtain such a database by automatically extracting isolated signs from continuou s signing, recorded from the broadcast news for the hearing- impaired.

Pinar Santemiz; Oya Aran; Murat Saraclar; Lale Akarun

142

Double-blind study of alprazolam, diazepam, clonidine, and placebo in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

Both a reduction in the inhibitory effects of GABA (disinhibition) and activation of the sympathetic nervous system are manifested during the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. This study was designed to explore the relative efficacy of medications that differentially affects these two biological systems: the benzodiazepines, which attenuate GABAergic disinhibition, and the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists, which decrease sympathetic activation. The benzodiazepine diazepam (n = 6), the alpha 2-receptor agonist clonidine (n = 7), the benzodiazepine alprazolam (this is also purported to have alpha 2-receptor agonist properties) (n = 6), and placebo (n = 6) were evaluated in their effectiveness in decreasing signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Drug-free, alcohol-dependent patients were administered 1 of the 4 medications in a double-blind design until symptoms of withdrawal, as measured by the Clinical Instrument Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised, were successfully treated. Alprazolam was significantly more efficacious than both clonidine and placebo in decreasing withdrawal symptoms. Diazepam was more effective than clonidine and placebo on some measures of withdrawal. Clonidine decreased systolic blood pressure significantly more than the other two active drugs and placebo, but was no more effective than placebo in decreasing other symptoms of withdrawal. Alprazolam did not significantly decrease blood pressure compared with diazepam or placebo. Despite the small sample size, these preliminary findings suggest that the efficacy of alprazolam in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal is related to its effect at the benzodiazepine receptor and not its alpha 2-receptor agonist properties. PMID:7978098

Adinoff, B

1994-08-01

143

Sign detection for autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots currently cannot detect and read arbitrary signs. This is a major hindrance to mobile robot usability, since they cannot be tasked using directions that are intuitive to humans. It also limits their ability to report their position relative to intuitive landmarks. Other researchers have demonstrated some success on traffic sign recognition, but using template based methods limits the set of recognizable signs. There is a clear need for a sign detection and recognition system that can process a much wider variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. We are developing a system for Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN), that detects signs from various cues common to most signs: vivid colors, compact shape, and text. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach on a variety of signs in both indoor and outdoor locations.

Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnús S.; Cartwright, Dustin; Stube, Brian; Stevens, Mark R.; Ablavsky, Vitaly X.

2003-09-01

144

Pregabalin and topiramate regulate behavioural and brain gene transcription changes induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the actions of pregabalin and topiramate on behavioural and gene transcription alterations induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice. Tolerance was induced in mice by administration of CP-55,940 (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours; i.p.; 7 days). Behavioural assessment of spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal was performed by measuring motor activity, somatic signs and anxiety-like behaviour on days 1 and 3 after cessation of treatment with CP-55,940. On days 1-3 of cannabinoid withdrawal, mice received pregabalin (40 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) or topiramate (50 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) and their actions on signs of withdrawal and anxiety-like behaviour were evaluated. The administration of CP-55,940 decreased rectal temperature and motor activity on day 1. On day 1 after interruption of cannabinoid administration, motor activity and the number of rearings increased compared with control group. Anxiety-like behaviour induced by cessation of cannabinoid treatment increased significantly on days 1 and 3 of withdrawal. The administration of pregabalin or topiramate blocked the motor signs and reduced significantly anxiety-like behaviour. Cannabinoid withdrawal decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area and µ-opioid receptor gene expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased CB1 receptor gene expression in the NAcc. Treatment with topiramate or pregabalin blocked the decrease of TH and the increase of CB1 gene expressions induced by cannabinoid withdrawal. Both drugs failed to alter µ-opioid receptor gene expression. These results suggest that pregabalin and topiramate may result useful for the treatment of anxiety-like behaviour and motor symptoms associated with spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal. PMID:22017514

Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Almela, Pilar; Manzanares, Jorge

2011-10-21

145

Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-related and sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study carried out in an in-patient setting in four addiction

B. A. G. Dijkstra; P. F. M. Krabbe; C. A. J. de Jong; C. P. F. van der Staak

2008-01-01

146

Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-related and sociodemographic characteristics. Design and setting: A prospective study carried out in an in-patient setting in four addiction

B. A. G. Dijkstra; P. F. M. Krabbe; C. A. J. de Jong; C. P. F. van der Staak

2008-01-01

147

URGENT - Voluntary Market Withdrawal of Octagam [Immune ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... URGENT - Voluntary Market Withdrawal of Octagam [Immune Globulin Intravenous (human)] 5% Liquid Preparation. DATE ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

148

Proprietary Name Withdrawal, March 16, 2009 - Adenovirus  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Proprietary Name Withdrawal, March 16, 2009 - Adenovirus. Our STN: BL 125296/0. Duramed Research, Inc. Attention: Joseph ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

149

URGENT: Voluntary Market Withdrawal - September 23, 2010 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... URGENT: Voluntary Market Withdrawal - September 23, 2010 Octagam [Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human)] 5% Liquid Preparation. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

150

beta-Lactam antibiotic inhibits development of morphine physical dependence in rats.  

PubMed

beta-Lactam antibiotics enhance cellular glutamate uptake. As increased glutamatergic transmission is a primary mediator of opiate dependence, we tested the hypothesis that a beta-lactam antibiotic (ceftriaxone) prevents development of morphine physical dependence in rats. Morphine (20 mg/kg) was injected twice daily for 10 days to induce physical dependence. Naloxone (10 mg/kg) administration 1, 48, and 96 h after the last morphine injection induced a withdrawal syndrome characterized by the appearance of wet-dog shakes, teeth chattering, eye blinking, jumping, and paw tremor. Ceftriaxone (150, 200 mg/kg) injected once daily during chronic morphine exposure inhibited each naloxone-precipitated withdrawal sign. Ceftriaxone efficacy persisted even after the 96 h-naloxone (10 mg/kg) injection. These results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotics inhibit processes leading to development of morphine physical dependence. PMID:20215965

Rawls, Scott M; Baron, David A; Kim, Jae

2010-03-01

151

The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of

David J. Allsop; Melissa M. Norberg; Jan Copeland; Shanlin Fu; Alan J. Budney

2011-01-01

152

The Meaning of Signs:  

PubMed Central

This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions.

Stein, Claudia

2006-01-01

153

American Sign Language University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more people become interested in learning American Sign Language, there have been a number of individuals who have begun to create websites that offer free resources related to this language. Dr. Bill Vicars is one such individual, and his site contains resources for students, teachers, parents, and your garden-variety web surfer. In the section designed for students, visitors can use the online sign language dictionary (complete with demonstration photographs), fingerspelling lessons, and numbers lessons. The section for teachers is a real gem, as it includes a number of sample syllabi, general guidelines for instructors, as well as an online library that includes subjects such as regional dialects in ASL, Chinese Sign Language and the National Theater of the Deaf. Finally, the site contains a special section for parents. Here, they can learn more about communicating effectively with their child who is deaf.

Vicars, William G.

154

Morphine dependence is associated with changes in neuropeptide S receptor expression and function in rat brain.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified ligand for the previously discovered G-protein coupled receptor 154 now named NPSR. Recently, it has been found that NPSR gene expression is altered during ethanol withdrawal. In this study we tried to elucidate if NPSR gene expression is modified in response to morphine withdrawal and its protracted abstinence. To induce opioid dependence Wistar rats were treated for 7 days with morphine. Twelve hours and 7 days after the last morphine administration brains were removed and the expression of NPSR mRNA was analyzed by in situ hybridization (ISH). Successful induction of opioid dependence was confirmed by the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal test 2 h after the last morphine administration. Moreover, 7 days after the last morphine dose animals were checked for signs of anxiety and for intracerebroventricular (ICV) NPS (0.3 and 1.0 nmol) induced anxiolytic effects by elevated plus maze (EPM). Results showed that in morphine treated rats strong somatic signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal occurred. ISH data revealed changes in NPSR gene expression in the ventral tegmental area as well as in the basolateral amygdaloid and bed nucleus of stria terminalis at 12 h and 7 days into abstinence, respectively. At 7 days into abstinence post dependent animals showed higher levels of anxiety than controls which were significantly attenuated by NPS. These results demonstrated that morphine dependence induction led to (i) changes in NPSR mRNA expression; (ii) increased anxiety; and (iii) more potent anxiolytic-like effect of NPS. PMID:23684726

Ghazal, Pasha; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

2013-05-16

155

The Effect of Intermittent Alcohol Vapor or Pulsatile Heroin on Somatic and Negative Affective Indices during Spontaneous Withdrawal in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Once dependent on alcohol or opioids, negative affect may accompany withdrawal. Dependent individuals are hypothesized to “self-medicate” in order to cope with withdrawal, which promotes escalated drug or alcohol use. Objectives The current study aimed to develop a reliable animal model to assess symptoms that occur during spontaneous alcohol and opioid withdrawal. Methods Dependence was induced using intermittent alcohol exposure or pulsatile heroin delivery and assessed for the presence of withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal by measuring somatic signs, behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and air-puff induced 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Additional animals subjected to eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure were evaluated for altered somatic signs, operant alcohol self-administration and 22-kHz USV production, as well as performance in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Results During spontaneous withdrawal from pulsatile heroin or intermittent alcohol vapor, animals displayed increased somatic withdrawal signs, FST immobility and 22-kHz USV production, but did not show any behavioral change in the EPM unless the duration of exposure was extended to four weeks. Following eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure, animals displayed somatic withdrawal signs, escalated alcohol self-administration and increased 22-kHz USVs. Conclusions These paradigms provide consistent methods to evaluate the behavioral ramifications, and neurobiological substrates, of alcohol and opioid dependence during spontaneous withdrawal. As immobility in the FST and percent open-arm time in the EPM were dissociable, with 22-kHz USVs paralleling immobility in the FST, assessment of air-puff induced 22-kHz USVs could provide an ethologically-valid alternative to the FST.

Williams, Angela M.; Reis, Daniel J.; Powell, Alexa S.; Neira, Louis J.; Nealey, Kathryn A.; Ziegler, Cole E.; Kloss, Nina; Bilimoria, Jessica L.; Smith, Chelsea E.; Walker, Brendan M.

2012-01-01

156

Sign Language Web Pages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

2006-01-01

157

Signs of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to make a well-designed signage package that is effective and enhances visitor first impressions of an institution. Examines questions to ask when planning traffic-pattern signage and the significance of the different hierarchy of signs; concludes with advice on signage design. (GR)

Styles-Lopez, Robin

1998-01-01

158

The Hypodense Artery Sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: An acute intracranial embolus may be associ- ated with a hyperdense artery sign on CT, related to acute thrombus within the affected artery, a phenomenon that is well known and has been extensively documented. We present an unusual case of a middle cerebral artery terri- tory acute infarct with a hypodense artery on CT. The Hounsfield unit attenuation of

Thomas C. Lee; Eric S. Bartlett; Allan J. Fox; Sean P. Symons

159

Gowers' sign revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the patterns of standing in children with neuromuscular disorders and central hypotonia for Gowers' sign, and compared these two groups with healthy controls. More children with central hypotonia than controls rolled prone before standing at 36 months; at this age all children with neuromuscular disorders rolled prone. Neurological assessment is indicated in children continuing to roll prone before

G B Wallace; R W Newton

1989-01-01

160

Derivative Sign Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.|

Clark, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

161

The neon sign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are a crumpled 55-gallon steel barrel and a tavern-style neon sign doing in the hallway of the physics building at a renowned and revered educational institution? It's attracting attention, stopping people in their tracks, and sending a message: physics is about size and color, motion and interaction; it's fun and it's interesting, something to experience for yourself.

Sampere, Samuel M.

1999-03-01

162

Selective breeding for alcohol withdrawal severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse lines have been genetically selected to be alcohol Withdrawal Seizure Prone (WSP) or Resistant (WSR). The selection index is the severity of withdrawal handling-induced convulsions seen after removal of mice from chronic exposure to ethanol vapor. Behavioral, pharmacological, and neurochemical results from a replicated bidirectional selection project are reviewed. In reciprocal F1 crosses of the WSP and WSR lines,

John C. Crabbe; Tamara J. Phillips

1993-01-01

163

Withdrawal and Tolerance Phenomenon in Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenological similarities between gambling and substance dependence have led to the conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder. Tolerance and withdrawal are important features of both disorders, suggesting commonalities in the neurobiological processes associated with neuroadaptational underpinnings. However, there are few empirical studies supporting the presence of tolerance and withdrawal reported in the gambling literature. Moreover, there are

Alex Blaszczynski; Michael Walker; Louise Sharpe; Lia Nower

2008-01-01

164

Selective Withdrawal in Oil\\/water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the process of selective withdrawal in oil\\/water system. A layer of oil is placed on the top of a layer of water. The oil is being withdrawn at a constant rate through the tube; the tube's end is situated above the undisturbed oil\\/water interface. If the oil withdrawal rate is small, only the oil enters the tube (single

Itai Cohen; Sidsney Nagel; Todd Dupont; Vachtang Putkaradze

1998-01-01

165

The inalienable right to withdraw from research.  

PubMed

Most codes of research ethics and the practice of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) allow human subjects to withdraw from research at any time. Consent forms invariably make a statement to this effect. So understood, a subject's right to withdraw from research is inalienable; she cannot, through her consent, surrender this right. Recently critics have argued that in selected circumstances the right to withdraw from research is alienable; subjects have the moral authority, through their consent, to obligate themselves not to withdraw. Two kinds of cases have been cited to support this. In one case, there will be great benefits lost if subjects are permitted to withdraw before the completion of the protocol. In the other case, there will be harm to third parties if subjects withdraw from the experiment. In this paper, I defend the inalienability of the right to withdraw from research. I argue, first, that securing the desired benefits and avoiding the feared harms can be achieved without allowing waiver. Second, I show that permitting waiver in these cases does not guarantee that the ends sought will be achieved. And third, I articulate positive reasons for conceiving subjects' right to withdraw from research as inalienable. PMID:21105947

McConnell, Terrance

2010-01-01

166

Pharmacologic and Behavioral Withdrawal From Addictive Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories suggest that drug withdrawal does not motivate drug use and relapse. However, data now show that withdrawal produces complex changes over time in at least two symptoms (i.e., negative affect and urges) that are highly predictive of relapse. Evidence suggests that falling levels of the drug in the blood and interruption of the drug self-administration ritual both affect

Timothy B. Baker; Sandra J. Japuntich; Joanne M. Hogle; Danielle E. McCarthy; John J. Curtin

2006-01-01

167

Oxazepam versus Clomethiazol in Alcohol Withdrawal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacological management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome associated with alcohol dependence is heterogeneous; however, according to the guidelines, clomethiazol is the standard medication in Germany. Benzodiazepines offer another safe possibility of treating alcohol withdrawal. In a retrospective study, alcohol-dependent patients treated either with oxazepam (n = 141) or clomethiazol (n = 357) were assessed with respect to the course

Walter de Millas; Florian Ganzer; Silke Kuhn; Christian Haasen

2010-01-01

168

12 CFR 925.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26 Section...ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In...

2009-01-01

169

21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7 Section 171.7 Food...7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner...data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon...

2009-04-01

170

21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7 Section 171.7 Food...7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner...data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon...

2010-01-01

171

Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital  

SciTech Connect

Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States))

1990-02-26

172

The neurology of sign language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forms of sign language have developed in a number of countries. American Sign Language, which originated from French signing, has been most extensively researched. As sign language is based on gestures executed in space and perceived visually it might be thought that it would mainly be a function of the right cerebral hemisphere when this is the non-dominant one. A

Neil Gordon

2004-01-01

173

Activation of Adenosine A1 Receptors Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior During Acute Ethanol Withdrawal (Hangover) in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated signs of anxiety are observed in both humans and rodents during withdrawal from chronic as well as acute ethanol exposure, and it represents an important motivational factor for ethanol relapse. Several reports have suggested the involvement of brain adenosine receptors in different actions produced by ethanol such as motor incoordination and hypnotic effects. In addition, we have recently demonstrated

Rui D S Prediger; George E da Silva; Luciano C Batista; Alvorita L Bittencourt; Reinaldo N Takahashi

2006-01-01

174

Reexposure to nicotine during withdrawal increases the pacemaking activity of cholinergic habenular neurons.  

PubMed

The discovery of genetic variants in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster associated with heavy smoking and higher relapse risk has led to the identification of the midbrain habenula-interpeduncular axis as a critical relay circuit in the control of nicotine dependence. Although clear roles for ?3, ?4, and ?5 receptors in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been established, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that participate in signaling nicotine use and contribute to relapse have not been identified. Here, using translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) profiling, electrophysiology, and behavior, we demonstrate that cholinergic neurons, but not peptidergic neurons, of the medial habenula (MHb) display spontaneous tonic firing of 2-10 Hz generated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) pacemaker channels and that infusion of the HCN pacemaker antagonist ZD7288 in the habenula precipitates somatic and affective signs of withdrawal. Further, we show that a strong, ?3?4-dependent increase in firing frequency is observed in these pacemaker neurons upon acute exposure to nicotine. No change in the basal or nicotine-induced firing was observed in cholinergic MHb neurons from mice chronically treated with nicotine. We observe, however, that, during withdrawal, reexposure to nicotine doubles the frequency of pacemaking activity in these neurons. These findings demonstrate that the pacemaking mechanism of cholinergic MHb neurons controls withdrawal, suggesting that the heightened nicotine sensitivity of these neurons during withdrawal may contribute to smoking relapse. PMID:24082085

Görlich, Andreas; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Ables, Jessica L; Frahm, Silke; Slimak, Marta A; Dougherty, Joseph D; Ibañez-Tallon, Inés

2013-09-30

175

Morphine Withdrawal in the Rat: Assessment by Quantitation of Diarrhea and Modification by Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure to quantitatively assess diarrhea during morphine withdrawal in rats has been developed. Physical dependence on morphine was produced either by pellet implantation (75 mg morphine\\/rat) or by a single subcutaneous injection of morphine (150 mg\\/kg in oil). The gross morphine abstinence signs observed after naloxone administration included diarrhea, body weight loss, jumping, wet-dog shakes, hypothermia, teeth chattering, and

Andrew K. S. Ho; Raymond C. A. Chen; Mary Jeanne Kreek

1979-01-01

176

Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability\\u000a of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory.\\u000a The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear\\u000a conditioning, somatic signs, and

George S. Portugal; Derek S. Wilkinson; Justin W. Kenney; Colleen Sullivan; Thomas J. Gould

177

Somatic dysfunction increase during caffeine withdrawal.  

PubMed

The authors studied the effects of caffeine withdrawal on 14 subjects at baseline and during a 4-day period of abstinence from caffeine. They studied the results from quantitative electroencephalograms performed on these subjects and gauged any changes that may have been evoked during this withdrawal period. The participants were also evaluated for the occurrence of somatic dysfunctions. Examinations for the presence of somatic dysfunctions were performed on the participants before caffeine cessation and on Days 1, 2 and 4 of abstinence. Results showed that the number of somatic dysfunctions increased significantly during the process of caffeine withdrawal. PMID:9284612

Reeves, R R; Struve, F A; Patrick, G

1997-08-01

178

Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects.  

PubMed

Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135-146; P.R. Finley, P. E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151-152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U. Witte, R.W. Olsen, Sex differences in sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol but not in GABAA receptor binding, Pharm. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 441-447]. In this report, we test the hypothesis that pro-convulsant effects are produced by withdrawal from the GABA-modulatory neurosteroid 3alpha-OH-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) after sustained exposure to elevated circulating levels of its parent compound progesterone (P). Seizure activity was precipitated by picrotoxin or with the BDZ inverse agonist n-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (beta-CC), and a seizure rating determined 24 h after abrupt discontinuation of P following a multiple withdrawal/chronic administration paradigm. In some cases, a pseudopregnant rat model was employed to produce increased ovarian production of P prior to withdrawal (ovariectomy). Rats undergoing P withdrawal exhibited greater seizure-like activity than vehicle-treated controls, and received seizure scores in the same range as rats undergoing BDZ withdrawal. Administration of a 5alpha-reductase blocker, MK-906, along with P, prevented this pro-convulsant effect of P withdrawal, suggesting that the GABA-modulatory 3alpha,5alpha-THP is the active compound responsible for this withdrawal effect. Combined administration of P and diazepam produced synergistic effects upon withdrawal and produced a seizure score higher than observed after withdrawal from either agent alone. These results suggest that P exhibits withdrawal properties via the neuroactive steroid 3alpha, 5alpha-THP, that include exacerbation of seizure activity. These results may have clinical relevance, as increased incidence and severity of seizures has been reported in susceptible women during times of declining circulating levels of P across the menstrual cycle [T. Backstrom, B. Zetterlund, S. Blom, M. Romano, Effects of intravenous progesterone infusions on the epileptic discharge frequency in women with partial epilepsy, Acta Neurol. Scand. 69 (1984) 240-248; A.G. Herzog, Progesterone therapy in women with complex partial and secondary generalized seizures, Neurology 45 (1995) 1660-1662]. PMID:9757004

Moran, M H; Smith, S S

1998-10-01

179

Alprazolam withdrawal delirium: a case report.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium is thought to be uncommon. Only two clear reports of alprazolam withdrawal appear in the literature, but the use of this drug is expected to increase because of its recent approval for the treatment of panic disorder. We report on a patient with severe alprazolam withdrawal delirium that developed immediately after an accidental reduction of the dose. This case demonstrates importance of clinician awareness of the previous use of alprazolam in individual patients, especially in hospital settings where free patient use of drugs is prohibited. PMID:9617514

Zalsman, G; Hermesh, H; Munitz, H

180

Benzodiazepines: Dependence and a Therapeutic Approach to Gradual Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

The extensive use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia has led clinicians to wonder about the dependence potential of these drugs. It is estimated that, in Canada, the United States, and western Europe, between 10% and 20% of the population take tranquilizers or hypnotics (mainly benzodiazepines). Of these, 70% are 50 years of age or older; 15% have been taking these drugs for more than 12 months. One researcher reported that 50% of patients who received a prescription for benzodiazepines renewed it without consulting their physician. In this article, the authors briefly review the concept of dependence, the risk factors, and the clinical signs of a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. They then develop a rational therapeutic approach to make it easier to discontinue these drugs.

Blais, Diane; Petit, Louise

1990-01-01

181

Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign language…

Eichmann, Hanna

2009-01-01

182

49 CFR 365.123 - Applicant withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR OPERATING AUTHORITY...applicant wishes to withdraw an application, it shall request...

2011-10-01

183

75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997...Approach to Define the Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal...

2010-04-30

184

Serotonin syndrome associated with clozapine withdrawal.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE We describe a case of serotonin syndrome secondary to clozapine withdrawal and concomitant use of citalopram hydrobromide, a phenomenon that has been rarely reported. OBSERVATIONS This is a case report of a 47-year-old woman admitted to an academic medical center intensive care unit with coma, hypersalivation, hyperreflexia, and stimulus-induced clonus. The patient received a diagnosis of serotonin syndrome attributed to abrupt clozapine withdrawal with concomitant use of citalopram. She improved only minimally with supportive treatment (intravenous fluids, benzodiazapines, and withdrawal of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor) and received cyproheptadine hydrochloride on her third day of symptoms. Four hours after she received the loading dose of cyproheptadine, she was alert and oriented and at her baseline mental status, although some clonus remained. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Serotonin syndrome can result from the abrupt withdrawal of a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A antagonist from a treatment regimen that also includes a medication that increases serotonin availability. PMID:23753931

Stevenson, Elizabeth; Schembri, Frank; Green, Deborah M; Burns, Joseph D

2013-08-01

185

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2013-01-01

186

21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601...withdraw approval. For biological products approved...demonstrates that the biological product is not shown...asked to review the issues involved and to...

2013-04-01

187

21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601...withdraw approval. For biological products approved...demonstrates that the biological product is not shown...asked to review the issues involved and to...

2010-04-01

188

21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601...withdraw approval. For biological products approved...demonstrates that the biological product is not shown...asked to review the issues involved and to...

2009-04-01

189

Julian's Recipe Issues Voluntary Withdrawal of European ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is voluntarily withdrawing its European Style Pretzel Baguette packages from HEB Stores in Texas ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

190

Email - Proprietary Name Withdrawal, February 17, 2009 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... 5:40 PM To: 'Pakulski, John' Cc: Miller, Daryll L; Gemignani, Helen S Subject: Adenovirus BLA 125296 - Proprietary Name Withdrawal Hello John,. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

191

Diazepam prevents progression of kindled alcohol withdrawal behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present experiment was to study the “kindling” hypothesis of alcohol withdrawal stating that exposure to repeated episodes of alcohol withdrawal results in an increased severity of subsequent withdrawal reactions. Two groups of male Wistar rats were subjected to 13 episodes of 2 days severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days alcohol withdrawal. Animals in the control group

J. Ulrichsen; B. Bech; P. Allerup; R. Hemmingsen

1995-01-01

192

Pharmacological Adjuncts for the Treatment of Withdrawal Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative explanations for symptoms that occur during the period of drug (medical or nonmedical) withdrawal are examined. These symptoms are not necessarily due to the discontinuation of the drug and should be considered when treating a patient for a withdrawal syndrome. The rationale behind treating withdrawal syndromes and criteria to consider for hospitalizing a patient during the withdrawal period are

Karen Lea Sees

1991-01-01

193

Caffeine Withdrawal Symptoms Following Brief Caffeine Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phillips-Bute, B. G. and J. D. Lane.Caffeine withdrawal symptoms following brief caffeine deprivation.PHYSIOL BEHAV 63(1) 35–39, 1998.—The effects of short-term caffeine deprivation on mood, withdrawal symptoms and psychomotor performance were studied in habitual coffee drinkers. Thirty-one male and female coffee drinkers were tested twice at midday (1130 to 1330 h) 4 h after double-blind administration of 250 mg of caffeine

Barbara G Phillips-Bute

1997-01-01

194

Sign language for telemanipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literal teleoperation doesn't work very well. Limited bandwidth, long latencies, non- anthropomorphic mappings all make the effort of teleoperation tedious at best and ineffective at worst. Instead, users of teleoperated and semi-autonomous systems want their robots to `just do it for them,' without sacrificing the operator's intent. Our goal is to maximize human strategic control in teleoperator assisted robotics. In our teleassisted regime, the human operator provides high-level contexts for low-level autonomous robot behaviors. The operator wears an EXOS hand master to communicate via a natural sign language, such as pointing to objects and adopting a grasp preshape. Each sign indicates intention: e.g., reaching or grasping; and, where applicable, a spatial context: e.g., the pointing axis or preshape frame. The robot, a Utah/MIT hand on a Puma arm, acts under local servo control within the proscribed contexts. This paper extends earlier work [Pook & Ballard 1994a] by adding remote visual sensors to the teleassistance repertoire. To view the robot site, the operator wears a virtual research helmet that is coupled to binocular cameras mounted on a second Puma 760. The combined hand-head sensors allows teleassistance to be performed remotely. The example task is to open a door. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the teleassistance model by bootstrapping a `pick and place' task from the door opening task.

Pook, Polly K.; Ballard, Dana H.

1995-12-01

195

Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for the tails withdrawal station at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The prototype system was done in response to potential problems with the original method for determining the hourly weighted assay averages that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. In the original method the {sup 235}U assay of uranium hexaflouride withdrawn from PORTS cascade into tails cylinders is determined every 5 min by measurements from an in-line assay mass spectrometer. An average value for a 1-h period is then calculated by area control room personnel and assigned to the accumulated weight in the cylinder for the period. A potential problem with this method is that cylinder weight is not automatically recorded as often as the assay. The assay and withdrawal rate can both vary during the given period. This variation results in inaccuracies in the hourly weighted assays that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. Laboratory analysis is considered to be the most accurate method for determining the final cylinder assay; however, the cost and safety considerations of redundant cylinder handling limit the number of cylinders sampled to less than 10%.

Smith, D.E.

1996-01-01

196

Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

Geer, Leah

2011-01-01

197

The Role of Sale Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sale signs increase demand. The apparent effectiveness of this simple strategy is surprising; sale signs are inexpensive to produce and stores generally make no commitment when using them. As a result, they can be placed on any products, and as many products, as stores prefer. If stores can place sale signs on any or all of their products, why are

Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

1998-01-01

198

Wavelets for sign language translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet techniques are applied to help extract the relevant parameters of sign language from video images of a person communicating in American Sign Language or Signed English. The compression and edge detection features of two-dimensional wavelet analysis are exploited to enhance the algorithms under development to classify the hand motion, hand location with respect to the body, and handshape. These

Beth J. Wilson; Gretel Anspach

1993-01-01

199

Use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant.  

PubMed

Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used primarily as a muscle relaxant to treat spasticity in children and adults. Withdrawal of oral baclofen is known to cause a withdrawal syndrome in adults. Only one previous case describes a withdrawal syndrome in a term infant, manifested by seizures, associated with the use of oral baclofen in the mother. This case describes a withdrawal syndrome and the unique use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant. PMID:23536044

Duncan, S D; Devlin, L A

2013-04-01

200

SB242084, flumazenil, and CRA1000 block ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats  

PubMed Central

Anxiety-like behaviors are integral features of withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure. In the experiments in the current study, we tested the hypothesis that anxiety can be regulated independently of other withdrawal signs and thus may be responsive to selective pharmacological agents. For 17 days, rats were fed ethanol (8–12 g/kg/day) in a liquid diet. Between 5 and 6 h after cessation of ethanol treatment, rats were tested in either the social interaction or plus-maze test of anxiety-like behavior after treatment with drugs hypothesized to have anxiolytic action. SB242084, flumazenil, and CRA1000—antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT) 2C (5-HT2C), benzodiazepine, and corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptors, respectively—attenuated decreased social interaction without concomitant effects on activity measures. In contrast, ifenprodil, MDL 72222, and zolpidem—antagonists for N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and 5-HT3 receptors, and agonist for benzodiazepine type 1 receptors, respectively—did not share this effect. Results for SB242084, flumazenil, and ifenprodil in the elevated plus-maze test were comparable to those in the social interaction test. These results support the suggestion that multiple neuronal systems (CRF1, 5-HT2C, and benzodiazepine receptors) contribute to the ethanol withdrawal sign of decreased social interaction. Furthermore, the selective effects of pharmacological agents on social interaction seem to indicate that this behavior can be dissociated from other signs. Because anxiety may be a complicating factor in alcohol withdrawal and relapse, future studies of this type are needed to provide focus for the effort to define selective and novel antianxiety agents for these disorders.

Knapp, Darin J.; Overstreet, David H.; Moy, Sheryl S.; Breese, George R.

2010-01-01

201

Carisoprodol: abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Carisoprodol (N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; N-isopropylmeprobamate) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose primary active metabolite is meprobamate, a substance with well established abuse potential similar to that of benzodiazepines. A number of reports show that carisoprodol has been abused for its sedative and relaxant effects, to augment or alter the effects of other drugs, and by the intentional combination of carisoprodol and other noncontrolled medications because of the relative ease (as compared to controlled substances) of obtaining prescriptions. The diversion and abuse of carisoprodol and its adverse health effects appear to have dramatically increased over the last several years. Clinicians have begun to see a withdrawal syndrome consisting of insomnia, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, anxiety, and ataxia in patients who abruptly cease intake of large doses of carisoprodol. Hallucinations and delusions may also occur. The withdrawal symptoms are very similar to those previously described for meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that what may actually be occurring is withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated as a result of intake of excessive amounts of carisoprodol. However carisoprodol itself is capable of modulating GABA(A) function, and this may contribute both to the drugs abuse potential and to the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation of intake. Carisoprodol has been classified as a controlled substance in several states in the US and restrictions on the use of the drug have been imposed in some European countries. Carisoprodol is metabolized to a controlled substance, has clear evidence of abuse potential and increasing incidence of abuse, and has shown evidence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation from intake. This article will discuss the abuse potential of carisoprodol and the associated withdrawal syndrome, and consider implications for future use of the drug. PMID:20088817

Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S

2010-03-01

202

Effects of Dietary Caffeine on Topographic EEG after Controlling for Withdrawal and Withdrawal Reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Despite several decades of research into the effects of caffeine on EEG, few consistent findings have emerged. Notwithstanding the likelihood that differences in methodology may explain some of the inconsistency, confidence in the published findings is undermined by the failure in previous studies to control for the effects of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Methods: Participants (n = 22)

Michael A. Keane; Jack E. James; Michael J. Hogan

2007-01-01

203

Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and rate of metabolism.  

PubMed

Forty normal subjects (mean age 36) had their caffeine intake estimated by keeping a diary (n=40) and also by analysing provided samples of tea and coffee (n=28). A test dose of caffeine (500 mg) was given and a series of salivary samples analysed to estimate pharmacokinetic measures of the rate of caffeine metabolism. They then underwent 48 h of placebo substitution using double-blind procedures. A wide range of physiological, psychological and subjective measures were taken on successive days during withdrawal and resumption of caffeine. On withdrawal, 27 subjects reported tiredness and 18 developed headache. Electroencephalograph, skin conductance and blood pressure changes were apparent. Sleep improved on withdrawal but subjects reported feeling less alert and more tired. The higher the usual caffeine intake, the greater the unpleasant feelings on withdrawal and the more marked the reversal of feelings on resumption. The faster the metabolism of caffeine, the less the drop in anxiety during withdrawal and the less its return on resumption. These correlations were, however, rather weak and sporadic. PMID:22302887

Lader, M; Cardwell, C; Shine, P; Scott, N

1996-01-01

204

Pharmacological aspects of withdrawal from certain benzodiazepines.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate, if the occurrence of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is connected with benzodiazepine receptors, their down-regulation as well as with the number of drug applications. The results showed that symptoms of withdrawal measured by the anxiolytic and sedative effects occurred after chronic treatment with alprazolam for 14-21 days and after chlordiazepoxide daily administration for 35 days, and in both cases, after 48-hour abstinence period. In the same experimental design Ro 15-1788 administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. 25 min prior to examination prevented the development of the anxiogenic and locomotor stimulating withdrawal response in these rats. The symptoms of withdrawal measured by the sedative and anxiolytic effects were accompanied by a down-regulation of benzodiazepine receptors. It can be assumed that the process of withdrawal from benzodiazepines is related to benzodiazepine receptors, and that the number of drug applications plays an important role. PMID:9437755

Nowakowska, E; Chodera, A; Kus, K

205

Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers.  

PubMed

Twenty-two coffee drinkers (three to seven cups per day) underwent repeated double-blind trials to test for caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects. Each trial consisted first of a randomized crossover period of 1 day of decaffeinated coffee and 1 day of caffeinated coffee (100 mg) to assess withdrawal and adverse effects of caffeine. Next, subjects were given 2 days of concurrent access to the two coffees. The relative use of the two coffees was used to assess caffeine self-administration. Reliable caffeine self-administration occurred in three of 10 subjects in study 1 and seven of 12 subjects in study 2. Withdrawal symptoms were headaches, drowsiness, and fatigue. The major adverse effect from self-administration was tremulousness. The occurrence of headaches on substitution of decaffeinated coffee prospectively predicted subsequent self-administration of caffeine. These results indicate that some coffee drinkers exhibit signs of a caffeine dependence, ie, they self-administer coffee for the effects of caffeine, have withdrawal symptoms on cessation, and experience adverse effects. PMID:2069491

Hughes, J R; Higgins, S T; Bickel, W K; Hunt, W K; Fenwick, J W; Gulliver, S B; Mireault, G C

1991-07-01

206

Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration  

PubMed Central

Although the practice of withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) has become more common, it remains controversial, particularly in the paediatric setting. Decisions regarding ANH, along with other medical interventions, should be considered in the individual context of the child’s overall plan of care. The purpose of the present practice point is to provide guidance for Canadian paediatric health care practitioners regarding when withholding or withdrawing ANH may be an ethically permissible option as part of a palliative care plan and to briefly address some pragmatic considerations.

Tsai, E

2011-01-01

207

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to iatrogenic methadone withdrawal.  

PubMed

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome characterized by transient apical ballooning or reversible midventricular systolic dysfunction. Most cases occur in postmenopausal women and are typically triggered by an acute medical illness or emotional or physical stress. Its presentation is highly suggestive of myocardial ischemia, but there is little or no evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease. To our knowledge there are only three reported cases in the literature of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by opioid agonist withdrawal in adults; ours is the first reported case of iatrogenic methadone withdrawal leading to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:22080928

Saiful, Faisal B; Lafferty, James; Jun, Chin Hee; Teli, Sumaya; Duvvuri, Srinivas; Khattri, Saakshi; Bhat, Tariq

2011-01-01

208

Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

Slegers, Claudia

2010-01-01

209

Spontaneous and precipitated withdrawal with a synthetic cannabinoid, WIN 55212-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical dependence on the synthetic cannabinoid-receptor agonist R(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate (WIN 55212-2) was demonstrated in rats by the use of a chronic continuous infusion. Spontaneous withdrawal, of moderate intensity, was shown for the first time with this class of drugs of abuse. Behavioral withdrawal signs were also elicited after challenge with (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide·HCl (SR141716A), a specific CB1 cannabinoid-receptor antagonist. In both

Mario D Aceto; Susan M Scates; Billy B Martin

2001-01-01

210

27 CFR 20.162 - Regulation of withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Regulation of withdrawals. 20.162 Section 20.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Obtaining Specially Denatured Spirits § 20.162 Regulation of withdrawals...ensure that (1) the quantity on hand and unaccounted for does...

2013-04-01

211

18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341.13 Conservation...341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed tariff publications. A proposed tariff publication...

2013-04-01

212

Chronic very low dose naltrexone administration attenuates opioid withdrawal expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDifferent regimens of agonist and antagonist drugs have been used in opioid withdrawal management, with variable results. We examined whether administering extremely small quantities of opiate antagonists in the presence of opiate agonist drugs reduces withdrawal expression.

Paolo Mannelli; Edward Gottheil; James F. Peoples; Veronica C. Oropeza; Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele

2004-01-01

213

Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

2007-01-01

214

Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)|

Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

2007-01-01

215

Spanish Sign in the Americas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Spanish Sign Language (SSL) is now the second most used sign language. This article introduces resources for the study of SSL, including three SSL dictionaries--two from Argentina and one from Puerto Rico. Differences in SSL between and within the two countries are noted. Implications for deaf educators in North America are drawn. (Author/DB)|

Schein, Jerome D.

1995-01-01

216

Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts…

Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

2005-01-01

217

How to Sign Digital Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new efficient paradigm for signing digital streams. The problem of signingdigital streams to prove their authenticity is substantially different from the problemof signing regular messages. Traditional signature schemes are message oriented andrequire the receiver to process the entire message before being able to authenticate itssignature. However, a stream is a potentially very long ( or infinite) sequence

Rosario Gennaro; Pankaj Rohatgi

1997-01-01

218

Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

Stokoe, William C.

219

The Typology of Literary Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the usefulness for literary studies of some of Pierce's key terms and concepts: icon, index, symbol, image, and diagram. Argues that Pierce's description of signs may be usefully applied to literary signs and particularly to the problem of symbolism. Charts. (RB)|

Browne, Robert M.

1971-01-01

220

Impaired cerebral autoregulation during acute alcohol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk for all major types of stroke and is associated with autonomic dysfunction during alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Cerebral autoregulation is the mechanism by which cerebral perfusion is maintained stable, representing an intrinsic protective system of the cerebral circulation. Here, we aimed to analyze the influence of acute AWS on cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol-dependent patients.We

Thomas Jochum; Matthias Reinhard; Michael K. Boettger; Maik Piater; Karl-Jürgen Bär

2010-01-01

221

Complications of Alcohol Withdrawal Pathophysiological Insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease processes or events that accompany acute alcohol withdrawal (AW) can cause significant illness and death. Some patients experience seizures, which may increase in severity with subsequent AW episodes. Another potential AW complication is delirium tremens, characterized by hallucinations, mental confusion, and disorientation. Cognitive impairment and delirium may lead to a chronic memory disorder (i.e., Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Psychiatric problems associated

Louis A. Trevisan; Nashaat Boutros; Ismene L. Petrakis; John H. Krystal

222

Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

Shainline, Michael

223

Meaning and Measurement of Work Role Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite a massive empirical effort, there has been no consensus on appropriate solutions to lateness, absence, or withdrawal\\u000a problems (Johns, 1997). A vigorous debate about the meaning and measurement of these behaviors has continued for decades (Blau, 1998; Hanisch & Hulin, 1990, Hanisch & Hulin, 1991; Hanisch, Hulin, & Roznowski, 1998; Harrison & Martocchio, 1998; Hulin, 1984; Johns, 1984, Johns,

David A. Harrison

224

The field pipette withdrawal tube (FIPIWITU)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Field Pipette Withdrawal Tube (FIPIWITU) is described and some results of measurements in the Elbe river are presented. The instrument determines in situ settling velocities of suspended silt particles <53 ?m. It is based on the principle of the Andreasen-Essenwein pipette.

John M. Cornelisse

1996-01-01

225

URD and Severity of Withdrawal Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods of opioid detoxification: ion with opioid agonist such as methadone or non- opioid drugs such as clonidine hydrochloride involve relatively long processes compared to rapid or ultra rapid detoxification. Using new methods, clients are detoxified in a shorter period of time with less relapse rate and they don't experience withdrawal symptoms. This is a clinical analytic outcome study,

M. Yassini; H. Khosravy Larigani; A. Rafati

2006-01-01

226

Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

Cohen, David

2007-01-01

227

Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

Cohen, David

2007-01-01

228

Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2012-01-01

229

Modulation of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior During Later Withdrawals by Treatment of Early Withdrawals With Benzodiazepine/?-Aminobutyric Acid Ligands  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety states, including those arising during acute or protracted withdrawal periods, may be precipitating factors in alcoholic relapse. Given the cyclical nature of ethanol withdrawal associated with repeated cycles of ethanol intake and abstinence in a pattern that often spans years, meaningful attempts to model ethanol withdrawal–associated anxiety should incorporate cycled ethanol treatments. The studies reported herein examined the effects of ?-aminobutyric acid–modulating drugs on social interaction behavior—an established model of anxiety—in rats exposed to repeated cycles of ethanol treatment and withdrawal. Methods Rats were exposed to 8 to 12 g/kg/day ethanol during three 7-day dietary cycles (5 days on ethanol diet followed by 2 days on control diet). Ethanol was administered either at hour 4 of withdrawal after cessation of each of the first 2 ethanol cycles or during the final withdrawal only. In other groups, the early withdrawals were treated with alphaxalone, diazepam, PK11159, or flumazenil to block anxiety-like behavior during an untreated later (third) withdrawal. The benzodiazepine inverse agonist DMCM (methyl–6, 7–dymerhoxy–4–ethyl–beta–carboline–3–carboxylate) was also given repeatedly to determine whether it would sensitize anxiety-like behavior during a future withdrawal. Finally, the effects of all drugs on deficits in locomotor behavior were assessed. Results Pretreatment of earlier withdrawals with alphaxalone, diazepam, ethanol, or flumazenil reduced social interaction deficits during a later withdrawal, but pretreatment with PK11195 did not. In contrast, DMCM administered in lieu of early withdrawals increased social interaction deficits during an untreated later withdrawal. Locomotor deficits were significantly reversed only by the acute ethanol and diazepam treatment during the final withdrawal. Conclusions Single-dose administration of drugs that enhance or diminish activity at benzodiazepine–?-aminobutyric acid- receptors during earlier withdrawals reduced or potentiated, respectively, anxiety-like behavior during later, drug-free withdrawals. These results support the potential of the novel strategy of using prophylactic therapy administered during early withdrawals to ameliorate symptoms of later withdrawals.

Knapp, Darin J.; Overstreet, David H.; Breese, George R.

2010-01-01

230

Concurrent cocaine withdrawal is associated with reduced severity of alcohol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to implement an empirical assessment of the clinical response to standard alcohol detoxification during withdrawal from both alcohol and cocaine. One hundred forty-nine males consecutively admitted in acute alcohol withdrawal to a hospital-based detoxification unit were studied. All subjects completed a 4-day chlordiazepoxide detoxification. Patients who used drugs other than cocaine were excluded. Fifty-five

Ricardo Castaneda; Harold Lifshutz; Laurence Westreich; Marc Galanter

1995-01-01

231

Factors Associated with Student Withdrawal from Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research was designed to identify commonalities of personal, enrollment, withdrawal, and evaluative factors as they relate to student withdrawal from community college. The study sought to identify interrelationships between identified reasons for student withdrawal and the variables of gender, race, classification status, degree sought, plans…

Scoggin, Donna; Styron, Ronald

2006-01-01

232

47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw an...

2012-10-01

233

Student Withdrawals in Personalized and Lecture/Discussion Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student withdrawals were compared to course completers in two variants of a contingency-managed lecture (CML) course and a personalized instruction (PI) course. Within both CML sections, withdrawals performed 10-25% worse on unit quizzes and 20-30% worse on review exams than did peers who completed the course. Within PI, withdrawals had a retake…

Semb, George, And Others

234

The Prediction of Voluntary Withdrawals from College: An Unsolved Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The utility of personality measures as predictors of voluntary withdrawal from college was investigated. Four criterion groups were formed: high-achieving persisters and withdrawals, and low-achieving persisters and withdrawals. Two significant discriminant functions were found and interpreted as academic aptitude and social immaturity.…

Bianchi, John R.; Bean, Andrew G.

1980-01-01

235

Spontaneous Nicotine Withdrawal Potentiates the Effects of Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal in humans, and may predict an inability to abstain from cigarette smoking. It is not clear if self-reports of anxiety during abstinence reflect increased baseline anxiety and\\/or increased responses to exogenous stressors. We hypothesized that nicotine withdrawal selectively exacerbates reactivity to aversive stimuli in rodents. Here, we investigated the effect of withdrawal

Sietse Jonkman; Victoria B Risbrough; Mark A Geyer; Athina Markou

2008-01-01

236

Spontaneous Nicotine Withdrawal Potentiates the Effects of Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal in humans, and may predict an inability to abstain from cigarette smoking. It is not clear if self-reports of anxiety during abstinence reflect increased baseline anxiety and\\/or increased responses to exogenous stressors. We hypothesized that nicotine withdrawal selectively exacerbates reactivity to aversive stimuli in rodents. Here, we investigated the effect of withdrawal

Sietse Jonkman; Victoria B Risbrough; Mark A Geyer; Athina Markou

2007-01-01

237

Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.  

PubMed

Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

238

Drug withdrawal convulsions and susceptibility to convulsants after short-term selective breeding for acute ethanol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Alcohol Withdrawal (HAW) and Low Alcohol Withdrawal (LAW) mice were selectively bred from a foundation population of C57BL6\\/J (B6)×DBA\\/2J (D2) F2 intercross progeny for display of intense or mild handling-induced withdrawal convulsions, respectively, following a single injection of a hypnotic dose of ethanol (alcohol; 4 g\\/kg). The HAW line had significantly greater alcohol withdrawal severity scores compared to the

Pamela Metten; John K Belknap; John C Crabbe

1998-01-01

239

ReflectiveSigns: Digital Signs That Adapt to Audience Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ReflectiveSigns, i.e. digital signage (public electronic displays) that automatically learns the audience\\u000a preferences for certain content in different contexts and presents content accordingly. Initially, content (videos, images\\u000a and news) are presented in a random manner. Using cameras installed on the signs, the system observes the audience and detects\\u000a if someone is watching the content (via face detection).

Jörg Müller; Juliane Exeler; Markus Buzeck; Antonio Krüger

2009-01-01

240

The impacts of nitrous oxide gas on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background Poor quality of sleep among alcoholics and persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal has been described as a possible cause of alcohol relapse. It has been suggested earlier that nitrous oxide gas has a significant effect on the signs of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and thus might be expected to reduce sleep disturbance during withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to investigate sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal, to evaluate the correlation between sleep quality and the severity of AWS and alcohol craving, and to determine if nitrous oxide treatment does counteract withdrawal's effects on the quality of sleep. Voluntary patients (n = 105) admitted to the A-Clinic detoxification center with AWS were included in the study. The AWS patients were randomly assigned to one of the following 45-minute gas treatments: (1) nitrous oxide/oxygen; (2) normal air/O2; and (3) medical (normal) air. The study was single-blind by design. Sleep quality was assessed after these treatments during the inpatient period; sleep time, sleep efficiency and the fragmentation of sleep were recorded by wrist-worn actigraphs. Severity of AWS was evaluated by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and that of alcohol dependence and craving by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale [OCDS] and the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire. Results The fragmentation index and the time awake while in bed were both much above the reference values for the Finnish population. These values reflect the restless and disturbed night sleep of the subjects. The only statistically significant effects between the treatment groups were found in the correlations of CIWA-Ar (severity of AWS) scores, OCDS-scores (alcohol craving) and coffee consumption, all of which were positively associated with movement time and negatively with total sleep time and sleep efficiency. The sleep quality of patients treated with nitrous oxide gas did not differ from the sleep quality of those treated with normal air. Conclusions The severity of AWS and coffee consumption had the most significant negative impact on sleep quality. According to our results, nitrous oxide gas does not differ from placebo in its effect on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal.

2011-01-01

241

Previous experience of ethanol withdrawal increases withdrawal-induced c-fos expression in limbic areas, but not withdrawal-induced anxiety and prevents withdrawal-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Increased anxiety is a characteristic of the acute ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Repeated exposure of rats to withdrawal from\\u000a chronic ethanol increases sensitivity to seizures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We investigated whether repeated withdrawal experience increases withdrawal-induced anxiety and stress, and if it changes\\u000a withdrawal-induced activation of related brain areas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Rats were chronically treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet either for 24 days continuously (single

Gilyana G. Borlikova; Julie Le Merrer; David N. Stephens

2006-01-01

242

Psoriatic Arthritis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... is often a sign of psoriatic arthritis. Sausage digit Psoriatic arthritis can cause a finger or toe ... swollen finger or toe is called a sausage digit. Heel pain Some people who have psoriatic arthritis ...

243

Warning Signs of Youth Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... organizing video viewing and discussion programs and giving media interviews and presentations. In January 2013, the Warni ng Signs of Youth Violence guide was updated with assistance from the ...

244

Subtle signs of zonular damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe 5 subtle signs of zonular damage.Setting: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.Methods: Three patients with a history of ocular trauma and 1 patient with Marfan's syndrome are described. During the preoperative examination, subtle signs of zonular damage were detected. As a result of the early recognition, critical modifications in cataract surgery technique and technology were made.Results: The

Daniela M. V Marques; Frederico F Marques; Robert H Osher

2004-01-01

245

About the sign ofm212  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the problem of identifying the sign ofm212 is discussed in view of the development of new methods of detection of solar neutrinos. The results of solar neutrino experiments (1)-(5) plus KamLAND (6) give strong evidence that neutrinos are massive particles and do oscillate (7). The important point is that KamLAND experiment allows both signs form212 while

Anatoly Kopylov

246

Triage of the Sign Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the sign problem in QCD at nonzero chemical potential and its relation with chiral symmetry breaking and the spectrum of the Dirac operator using the framework of chiral random matrix theory. We show that the Banks--Casher formula is not valid for theories with a sign problem and has to be replaced by an alternative mechanism that is worked out in detail for QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential.

Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

2007-12-01

247

Caffeine reinforcement: the role of withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined caffeine’s acute and withdrawal effects in moderate caffeine consumers (mean?=?379?mg\\/day caffeine) to\\u000a compare the relative contributions each might have to caffeine reinforcement. Subjects were caffeine restricted on the night\\u000a before each of three sessions, which generally occurred at weekly intervals; these restrictions lasted until the session was\\u000a completed approximately 19?h later. During the first two sessions, subjects

Kory J. Schuh; R. R. Griffiths

1997-01-01

248

Effects of caffeine on tobacco withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking cessation increases caffeine blood levels, and this has been hypothesized to cause some of the symptoms of tobacco withdrawal (e.g., anxiety and insomnia). To test this hypothesis, 10 coffee drinkers who smoked cigarettes were entered into a completely within-subjects experimental design in which the effects of caffeine dose (0, 50, and 100 mg\\/coffee serving) and smoking status (smoking versus

Alison H Oliveto; John R Hughes; Susan Y Terry; Warren K Bickel; Stephen T Higgins; Sara L Pepper; James W Fenwick

1991-01-01

249

The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates

Margaret Haney

2005-01-01

250

Carisoprodol withdrawal induced delirium: A case study  

PubMed Central

A 43-year-old woman with chronic back pain found relief by taking carisoprodol, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. She had acquired large amounts of the prescription medication through the Internet and was taking approximately three hundred 350 mg tablets each week, at times up to fifty tablets per day. She then abruptly stopped the medication and presented to the emergency room one week later with waxing and waning attention, confusion, disorientation and visual hallucinations. Oral lorazepam was dosed according to a protocol employing the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA). Her symptoms of delirium resolved rapidly and she was discharged home on day three. A review of the literature did not show any other reports of carisoprodol withdrawal induced delirium. Such withdrawal symptoms could be expected as the mechanism of action of carisoprodol is similar to that of hypnotic sedatives. Its availability and ease with which it can be acquired through the Internet puts it at great risk for a drug of abuse.

Ni, Karen; Cary, Margaret; Zarkowski, Paul

2007-01-01

251

Carisoprodol withdrawal induced delirium: A case study.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old woman with chronic back pain found relief by taking carisoprodol, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. She had acquired large amounts of the prescription medication through the Internet and was taking approximately three hundred 350 mg tablets each week, at times up to fifty tablets per day. She then abruptly stopped the medication and presented to the emergency room one week later with waxing and waning attention, confusion, disorientation and visual hallucinations. Oral lorazepam was dosed according to a protocol employing the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA). Her symptoms of delirium resolved rapidly and she was discharged home on day three. A review of the literature did not show any other reports of carisoprodol withdrawal induced delirium. Such withdrawal symptoms could be expected as the mechanism of action of carisoprodol is similar to that of hypnotic sedatives. Its availability and ease with which it can be acquired through the Internet puts it at great risk for a drug of abuse. PMID:19300598

Ni, Karen; Cary, Margaret; Zarkowski, Paul

2007-01-01

252

Rethinking children's programming with contextual signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to children's programming inspired by the semiotics of comics. The idea is to build computer programs in a direct and concrete way by using a class of signs that we call contextual signs. There are two aspects that distinguish contextual signs from other sign systems used for programming. The first is that the signs are displayed

Ylva Fernaeus; Mikael Kindborg; Robert Scholz

2006-01-01

253

Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

2013-07-01

254

Dysregulation of kappa-opioid receptor systems by chronic nicotine modulate the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in an age-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Rationale The mechanisms that mediate age differences during nicotine withdrawal are unclear. Objective This study compared kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in naïve and nicotine-treated adolescent and adult rats using behavioral and neurochemical approaches to study withdrawal. Methods The behavioral models used to assess withdrawal included conditioned place and elevated plus maze procedures. Deficits in dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were examined using microdialysis procedures. Lastly, the effects of KOR stimulation and blockade on physical signs produced upon removal of nicotine were examined in adults. Results Nicotine-treated adults displayed a robust aversion to an environment paired with a KOR agonist versus naïve adults. Neither of the adolescent groups displayed a place aversion. KOR activation produced an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was highest in nicotine-treated adults versus all other groups. KOR activation produced a decrease in NAcc dopamine that was largest in nicotine-treated adults versus all other groups. Lastly, KOR activation facilitated physical signs of upon removal of nicotine and KOR blockade reduced this effect. Conclusion Chronic nicotine enhanced the affective, anxiogenic, and neurochemical effects produced by KOR activation in adult rats. Our data suggest that chronic nicotine elicits an increase in KOR function, and this may contribute to nicotine withdrawal since KOR activation facilitated and KOR blockade prevented withdrawal signs upon removal of nicotine. Given that chronic nicotine facilitated the neurochemical effects of KOR agonists in adults but not adolescents, it is suggested that KOR regulation of mesolimbic dopamine may contribute to age differences in nicotine withdrawal.

Tejeda, Hugo A.; Natividad, Luis A.; Orfila, James E.; Torres, Oscar V.; O'Dell, Laura E.

2012-01-01

255

Minimal Luminance Requirement for Official Highway Signs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the study were to establish minimal levels of sign luminance for various signing applications and conditions, and to develop a structure for determining sign maintenance priorities. The objectives were addressed via development of a syst...

D. J. Mace R. S. Hostetter L. E. Pollack W. D. Zweig

1986-01-01

256

Role of different brain structures in the behavioural expression of WIN 55,212-2 withdrawal in mice  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated several responses induced by the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 related to its addictive properties, including rewarding effects and the development of physical dependence in mice. Moreover, we have studied the specific involvement of several brain regions with high density of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, such as striatum, hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum, in the behavioural expression of SR 141716A-precipitated WIN 55,212-2 withdrawal. The systemic administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A (10 mg kg?1, s.c.) precipitated behavioural signs of withdrawal in mice chronically treated with WIN 55,212-2 (1 and 2 mg kg?1, intraperitoneal (i.p.)), revealing the development of physical dependence. The microinjection of SR 141716A (1.5 and 3 ?g) into the cerebellum induced severe manifestations of abstinence in mice dependent on WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg kg?1, i.p.). Out of 10 signs evaluated, seven were statistically significant: wet dog shakes, body tremor, paw tremor, piloerection, mastication, genital licks and sniffing. When the cannabinoid antagonist was administered into the hippocampus and the amygdala, a moderate but significant withdrawal syndrome was also observed. However, no signs of abstinence were induced when SR 141716A was microinjected into the striatum. WIN 55,212-2 produced rewarding effects in the place-conditioning paradigm in mice pre-exposed to a priming injection of the drug. These results show a reliable behavioural model to reveal rewarding effects and physical dependence induced by the repeated administration of WIN 55,212-2 in mice. The cerebellum and to a lesser extent the hippocampus and the amygdala participate in the behavioural expression of cannabinoid withdrawal.

Castane, Anna; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

2004-01-01

257

Animated American Sign Language Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Randy Stine, an ASL enthusiast, this site is designed to help users learn about ASL and the Deaf community. The heart of the site is the Dictionary, a collection of basic words that are signed in a brief video sequence, a simple, but very clever idea. The Dictionary also contains the signs for A to Z and 0 to 9. Users will also find a large number of resources for and about the Deaf community. These include related links, articles, services, and non-profit agencies.

258

Enhancement of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis but not cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during withdrawal from acute alcohol exposure in Sprague–Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Alcohol withdrawal is associated with reduced activity, increased anxiety, and other signs of distress.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The goal of the current studies was to determine whether acute ethanol exposure would alter hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal\\u000a (HPA) axis reactivity and cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during the withdrawal period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Male Sprague–Dawley rats were intubated with 4 g\\/kg of ethanol to simulate acute binge-like ethanol intake. After

Hollin M. Buck; Cara M. Hueston; Christopher Bishop; Terrence Deak

259

Who withdraws from initial teacher preparation programmes and why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In recent years, withdrawal from initial teacher preparation (ITP) programmes, in England and elsewhere, has become a cause for concern amongst both ITP providers and policy-makers.Purpose: This paper seeks to enhance the presently underdeveloped evidence base on the causes of withdrawal from ITP and on the characteristics of student teachers who are most likely to withdraw.Sample: All ITP providers

Andrew J. Hobson; Marina-Stefania Giannakaki; Gary N. Chambers

2009-01-01

260

Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

2001-01-01

261

The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

262

Road Signs in Ethical Quicksand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some of the major moral and ethical dilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered. (Author/DWH)|

Jerrell, S. Lee; Jerrell, Jeanette M.

1985-01-01

263

Noise, Sign Problems, and Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how sign problems in simulations of many-body systems can manifest themselves in the form of heavy-tailed correlator distributions, similar to what is seen in electron propagation through disordered media. We propose an alternative statistical approach for extracting ground state energies in such systems, illustrating the method with a toy model and with lattice data for unitary fermions.

Endres, Michael G.; Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Nicholson, Amy N.

2011-11-01

264

The HyperSign Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive…

Abdulezer, Susan

265

CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Vital Signs Web Feature Motor Vehicle Safety: Impaired_Driving Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders website On Other Web ... Guide: Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption MedlinePlus - Alcohol MedlinePlus – Impaired Driving MedlinePlus – Alcoholism Back to Top Email page link ...

266

The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The…

Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

267

Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

1995-01-01

268

The HyperSign Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive…

Abdulezer, Susan

269

Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). Urushiol is the oil in poison ivy, oak and sumac. You find this oil in all parts of the plants — the leaves, ... days. If you have a reaction to the oil, you can have these signs (what you see) ...

270

Ethanol withdrawal in mice precipitated and exacerbated by hyperbaric exposure  

SciTech Connect

Mice were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 9 days. On removal of the diet, exposure to 12 atmospheres absolute of a mixture of helium and oxygen precipitated earlier withdrawal, increased withdrawal scores for the first 6 hours, and increased the peak withdrawal intensity compared to dependent animals exposed to control conditions. The enhanced withdrawal did not appear to reflect alterations in ethanol elimination, oxygen or helium partial pressures, body temperature, or general excitability. These results extend to chronically treated animals the evidence that hyperbaric exposure antagonizes the membrane actions of ethanol.

Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Galleisky, G.G.; Syapin, P.J.; Malcolm, R.D.

1985-01-01

271

19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purposes, or if necessary to protect the revenue or properly enforce any law or regulation Customs...by placing a copy of the withdrawal document...type of merchandise to be withdrawn. Each...liquidated damages as if it were removed...

2009-04-01

272

Sign codes and sign language: two orders of communication.  

PubMed

Deaf children, like all children, are born with a capacity for language; i.e. the symbolization and expression of cognitive functioning. Until the age at which hearing children are talking, deaf children communicate well with others, using their sight, touch, and other actions--the common gestures in the culture of their caretakers. The chief problem in communication arises when hearers reject the deaf child's gestural symbolization of his developing language knowledge. The problem is aggravated by insistence that the child use speech as do those who hear. Linguistic, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems may then follow, because of the attitude and actions of the hearing. All these problems can be resolved by early recognizing that the deaf person has a language and by honestly trying to learn and use it. This language is not a set of signs standing for spoken words but a complete language with its own rules for making sense in signed sentences. PMID:659651

Stokoe, W C

1978-04-01

273

The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression. PMID:21524372

Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

2011-05-01

274

Temperature regulation during withdrawal from ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Male HS mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 hrs. The ethanol concentration in the air during this period was increase from 4-9 mg{center dot}1{sup {minus}1}. At time zero, the mice were injected with a pyrazole and ethanol. At 24 and 48 hrs, the pyrazole alone was administered. Control groups received either pyrazole or saline, but no ethanol vapor. The vapor dosing resulted in blood ethanol concentrations which increased from 0.64 {plus minus} 0.09 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 24 hr. to 1.89 {plus minus} 0.40 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 72 hrs. The mice carried intraperitoneally implanted mini-mitter temperature transmitters, which sensed core temperature. The selected temperature was quantified by monitoring the position of the mice within the tubes. During the 24 hr. of withdrawal, the core temperature of the experimental and control groups were very similar. During the first 10 hr., the selected temperature was lower for the withdrawal group than for the saline or pyrazole controls. By the end of the 24 hr., the selected temperature was similar for all three groups.

Crawshaw, L.I.; Hayteas, D.L.; O'Connor, C.S.; Crabbe, J.C. (Portland State Univ., OR (United States) Veterans Administration Hospital, Portland, OR (United States))

1991-03-11

275

Hand Preference in Young Children's Early Signing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined young children's hand usage when they produced American Sign Language signs and while they played, in order to determine their hand preference in early signing and to compare their hand use in signing with their hand preference in other, nonlinguistic, motor actions. Subjects were 24 young children (from the age of 12 months or…

Bonvillian, John D.; And Others

276

Toward computational understanding of sign language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe some of the current issues in computational sign language processing. Despite the seeming similarities between computational spoken language and sign language processing, signed languages have intrinsic properties that pose some very difficult problems. These include a high level of simultaneous actions, the intersection between signs and gestures, and the complexity of modeling grammatical processes. Additional

Christian Vogler; Siome Goldenstein

277

The reliability of vital sign measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Vital sign measurements, specifically heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, play a fundamental role in many medical evaluations, yet little is known about the reliability of noninvasive vital sign measurements. We sought to determine whether trained observers can reproducibly assess vital signs in the clinical setting. Methods: Two trained observers independently measured vital signs on 140 patients

Zachary V. Edmonds; William R. Mower; Luis M. Lovato; Rosaelva Lomeli

2002-01-01

278

Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

Ktejik, Mish

2013-01-01

279

Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

2013-01-01

280

Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

2011-01-01

281

Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice did not change from baseline levels of intake. In contrast, HAP-2 females and LAP-2 mice of both sexes did not show changes in ethanol intake as a consequence of intermittent ethanol exposure. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the magnitude of ethanol withdrawal-related seizures is inversely related to inherited ethanol intake preference. Additionally, intermittent ethanol vapor exposure appears more likely to affect high-drinking mice (C57BL/6J and HAP-2) than low drinkers, even though these animals are less affected by ethanol withdrawal.

Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

2010-01-01

282

Science Nation: Signing Made Easy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies show as many as 75 percent of hearing parents of deaf children never become fluent signers. Alarmed by these statistics and with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, computer scientist and Georgia Tech professor Thad Starner began to develop interactive tools, such as video games and cell phone apps, to make sign language easier to learn for both the deaf and the hearing communities.

283

Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

1994-05-03

284

Stigma and suicide warning signs.  

PubMed

The current study explored the relationship between stigma and suicide warning signs using a case vignette methodology. Three comparable vignettes were used varying only the essential warning signs, including heart attack, suicidality without specific mention of suicidal thinking, and suicidality with specific mention of suicidal thoughts and associated intent to die. After reading the vignette, participants responded to questions gauging urgency of response, along with their appraisal of the situation across six domains including: seriousness, time (how quickly should they respond), comfort 1 (how comfortable they were with the situation in general), sureness (how sure they were in their response), comfort 2 (how comfortable they were in implementing their response), and hopefulness (how hopeful they were that their response would be helpful). Consistent with study hypotheses, results indicated that participants were significantly less comfortable, less sure, and less hopeful when responding to a suicidal crisis when compared to a heart attack. In addition, participants were significantly less likely to access emergency services for a seriously suicidal individual in comparison to someone suffering a heart attack, instead choosing to talk with family and friends first. The potential moderating effects of family and individual history of psychiatric illness and treatment, along with current individual psychological symptoms, were also explored and discussed, with no significant impact uncovered. The importance of more targeted efforts to train individuals to not just recognize suicide warning signs, but on how to specifically respond, is emphasized. PMID:23889579

Rudd, M David; Goulding, Jeffrey M; Carlisle, Cory J

2013-01-01

285

CERN single sign on solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

Ormancey, E.

2008-07-01

286

Emergency management of acute alcohol problems. Part 1: Uncomplicated withdrawal.  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-related problems are common among patients in emergency departments. Primary care physicians must recognize and treat a variety of alcohol-related and alcohol-induced problems: alcohol withdrawal, alcohol-related seizures, delirium tremens, malnutrition, concomitant illness, poisoning, trauma, and lack of social support. This paper focuses an recognizing and managing acute alcohol withdrawal.

Etherington, J. M.

1996-01-01

287

Who Withdraws from Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In recent years, withdrawal from initial teacher preparation (ITP) programmes, in England and elsewhere, has become a cause for concern amongst both ITP providers and policy-makers. Purpose: This paper seeks to enhance the presently underdeveloped evidence base on the causes of withdrawal from ITP and on the characteristics of student…

Hobson, Andrew J.; Giannakaki, Marina-Stefania; Chambers, Gary N.

2009-01-01

288

76 FR 12992 - Notice of Public Meeting for Proposed Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...withdrawal application. The Secretary of the Interior proposes to withdraw for a period of 20 years these lands located in San Benito and Fresno Counties, on behalf of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to limit impacts to public safety and human...

2011-03-09

289

HYPERTENSION IN EARLY ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Hypertension is an established risk factor in chronic alcoholics, but little is known about the relationship between blood pressure (BP), severity of their alcohol abuse, and severity of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Method: BP was assessed daily for 18 days in a series of chronic alcoholics on early alcohol withdrawal (AW), while also assessing the severity of their AWS

M. CECCANTI; G. F. SASSO; R. NOCENTE; G. BALDUCCI; A. PRASTARO; C. TICCHI; G. BERTAZZONI; P. SANTINI; M. L. ATTILIA

2006-01-01

290

Method for and thermal energy injection withdrawal system for aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been invented to inject and withdraw water from an aquifer for purposes of energy storage under some abnormal conditions. This transfer system is for thermal energy storage applications where the transfer water pressure is higher than the normal aquifer pressure at the point of withdrawal or injection. Applications include systems where water temperatures are in excess of

W. J. Schaetzle; J. M. Al-Ansari; C. E. Brett

1985-01-01

291

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

2008-01-01

292

A Study of Freshman Student Withdrawal at Salem State College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reasons for the withdrawal of 159 first-semester freshmen from Salem State College, Massachusetts, during the fall 1981 or 1982 semesters were studied. Questionnaire results supported the following assumptions: community problems contribute to student withdrawal, not getting into the dorm contributes to attrition for some students, financial…

McClain, Ruth S.; Sartwell, David

293

Challenges of withdrawal from chronic antidepressant medication: a healing odyssey.  

PubMed

We report the case of a woman with posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to childhood sexual assault who attempted withdrawal from long-term use of antidepressant medication and experimented with a plethora of different therapies. The complex case history illustrates the potential difficulty of withdrawal from chronic antidepressant medication and the role of integrative therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:23452714

Whedon, James M; Rugo, Nancy A; Lux, Kenneth

294

SR 141716 (Rimonabant) precipitates withdrawal in marijuana-dependent mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated marijuana use is known to lead to physical dependence in humans; however, its dependence liability has yet to be adequately assessed in laboratory animals. The goals of the present study were to: assess whether the CB1 antagonist SR 141716 (rimonabant) precipitates withdrawal in mice that had been repeatedly exposed to marijuana smoke, and to compare these precipitated withdrawal effects

David M. Wilson; Stephan A. Varvel; John P. Harloe; Billy R. Martin; Aron H. Lichtman

2006-01-01

295

Reducing Bias in Observational Research on Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational methods are often used to study alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Observational cohorts and case–control studies are useful in research on prognosis and in situations where ethical concerns might prevent the use of clinical trial designs. In addition, case–control studies are appropriate for studying the rare but serious complications of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Despite their appeal and suitability, these methods are

David A. Fiellin; Jeffrey H. Samet; Patrick G. O'Connor

1998-01-01

296

37 CFR 1.313 - Withdrawal from issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from issue. 1.313 Section 1.313 Patents, Trademarks...National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.313 Withdrawal from issue. (a) Applications may be withdrawn...

2010-07-01

297

37 CFR 1.313 - Withdrawal from issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Withdrawal from issue. 1.313 Section 1.313 Patents, Trademarks...National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.313 Withdrawal from issue. (a) Applications may be withdrawn...

2009-07-01

298

37 CFR 1.313 - Withdrawal from issue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from issue. 1.313 Section 1.313 Patents, Trademarks...National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.313 Withdrawal from issue. (a) Applications may be withdrawn...

2013-07-01

299

Abstinence Symptoms During Withdrawal From Chronic Marijuana Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, it is not established whether withdrawal from chronic use results in a clinically significant abstinence syndrome. The present study was conducted to characterize symptoms associated with marijuana withdrawal following chronic use during a supervised 28-day abstinence period. Three groups of participants were studied: (a) current chronic marijuana

Elena M. Kouri; Harrison G. Pope

2000-01-01

300

Physician characteristics associated with decisions to withdraw life support.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study was undertaken to identify attributes of physicians associated with physicians' decisions to withdraw life support. METHODS. Of the 862 Pennsylvania internists surveyed and asked to make decisions in response to hypothetical vignettes and to report their actual experience with the withdrawal of life support, 485 (56%) responded. The data were analyzed with regression models. RESULTS. With other factors controlled, physicians were more willing to withdraw life support if they were young, practiced in a tertiary care setting, or spent more time in clinical practice; they were less willing if they were Catholic or Jewish. Physicians reported a higher frequency of actually withdrawing life support if they were young, had more contact with ICU patients, spent more time in clinical practice, or were specialists. Physicians with a greater willingness to withdraw were more likely to report having done so. CONCLUSIONS. Physicians' personal characteristics are associated with both their preferences and their practice in the withdrawal of life support, and a greater willingness to withdraw is associated with a higher frequency of withdrawal. The influence of physician characteristics demonstrates that patient preferences and clinical circumstances do not exclusively govern such ethical decisions.

Christakis, N A; Asch, D A

1995-01-01

301

Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.  

PubMed

End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects. PMID:23428025

Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

2013-01-01

302

76 FR 9594 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Northern Arizona Proposed Withdrawal Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Availability of the Draft Northern Arizona Proposed Withdrawal Environmental Impact...Revisions to the Withdrawal Application, Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northern Arizona Proposed Withdrawal and with this...

2011-02-18

303

29 CFR 4207.7 - Liability for subsequent complete withdrawals and related adjustments for allocating unfunded...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Liability for subsequent complete withdrawals and related adjustments for allocating...PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.7...

2009-07-01

304

29 CFR 4207.7 - Liability for subsequent complete withdrawals and related adjustments for allocating unfunded...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Liability for subsequent complete withdrawals and related adjustments for allocating...PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.7...

2010-07-01

305

29 CFR 4211.35 - Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.35 Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial...

2013-07-01

306

29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial...

2013-07-01

307

29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial...

2013-07-01

308

29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan...TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial...

2013-07-01

309

78 FR 1300 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Request for Public Comments on the Possible Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Possible Withdrawal, Suspension, or Limitation of GSP Benefits With Respect to Bangladesh...effect of a withdrawal, suspension, or limitation of GSP benefits on products imported...Possible Withdrawal, Suspension, or Limitation of GSP Benefits for Bangladesh In...

2013-01-08

310

29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. 4203...WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. (a...contribute that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

2013-07-01

311

Disseminating drug prescribing information: the cox-2 inhibitors withdrawals.  

PubMed

This case study examined the recent withdrawal of valdecoxib to determine the timeliness of updates in commonly used information sources used by healthcare professionals. The method included assembling a purposive sample of 15 drug reference and warning systems that were then systematically monitored for several months after the withdrawal of valdecoxib to determine the time to update this information. These information sources were classified and described qualitatively. A time to diffusion curve was plotted and the average number of days to report the drug withdrawal or update reference databases was calculated. Only 2 of 15 information systems reported the drug withdrawal on the actual date of the FDA announcement. Institutional electronic textbooks took an average of 109.8 days (+/-14 days) to report the withdrawal. In addition, one pharma-sponsored dissemination source (Peerview Press) had not updated their information as of this publication. PMID:16622163

Strayer, Scott M; Slawson, David C; Shaughnessy, Allen F

2006-04-18

312

[Enriched-enrollment randomized-withdrawal trials].  

PubMed

A clinical trial's power depends on the probability of observing an effect of the tested drug in the trial population, on the size of this effect, and on the heterogeneousness of the judgment criterion in the population. Enriched-enrollment randomized-withdrawal trials are clinical trials which comprise a first period in which subjects are selected depending on whether they respond to the tested drug or not. The responding patients are subsequently randomized into 2 groups: in one of them the treatment is pursued, in the other group a placebo is substituted. These designs are very useful in pediatrics, decreasing the number of subjects needed, on condition that the effect of the treatment is only suspensive in a setting of chronic disease. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such trials. PMID:22236550

Merlin, E; Pereira, B; Nourrissat, A

2012-01-10

313

Using Selective Withdrawal to Coat Microparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method that uses the process of selective withdrawal of one fluid through a second immiscible fluid to coat small particles with polymer films. Fluid is withdrawn through a tube with its orifice slightly above a water-oil interface. Upon increasing the flow rate, there is a transition from a state where only oil is withdrawn to a state where the water, containing the particles to be coated and appropriate prepolymer reagents, is entrained in a thin spout along with the oil. The entrained particles eventually cause the spout interface to break, producing a thin coat of controllable thickness around each particle, which can be subsequently polymerized using chemical reagents, light, or heat. This method allows flexibility in the chemical composition and thickness of the conformal coatings.

Cohen, Itai; Li, Hui; Hougland, James L.; Mrksich, Milan; Nagel, Sidney R.

2001-04-01

314

Bulimic symptoms and the social withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

One hundred and thirty-seven undergraduates (81 females; mean age = 21 years-10 months) completed the Bulimic SEDS subscale and standardized measures of trust beliefs in close others (mother, father, and friend), disclosure to them, and loneliness. Structural Equation Modelling yielded: (1) a negative path between Bulimic Symptoms and trust beliefs, (2) a positive path between trust beliefs and disclosure, (3) a negative path between trust beliefs and loneliness, and (4) a negative path between disclosure and loneliness. As expected, trust beliefs statistically mediated the relations between Bulimic Symptoms and both disclosure and loneliness and disclosure statistically mediated the relation between trust beliefs and loneliness. The findings supported the conclusion that individuals with bulimia nervosa are prone to the social withdrawal syndrome comprising a coherent and integrated pattern of low trust beliefs in close others, low disclosure to close others, and high loneliness. PMID:23910767

Rotenberg, Ken J; Bharathi, Carla; Davies, Helen; Finch, Tom

2013-05-16

315

Quetiapine dependence and withdrawal: a case report.  

PubMed

Quetiapine is a new-generation antipsychotic medication approved in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related disorders. There are reports about the abuse and possible dependence of quetiapine. We present the first case of definite quetiapine dependence. This is a 37-year-old male who applied to the addiction unit because he could not control quetiapine use. He had a history of alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence as well as cannabis abuse. He reported to have a rush on quetiapine and suffered from its withdrawal when he tried to wean off the medication. This case and similar other suggest that while quetiapine may be beneficial in the treatment of some patients with addictive disorders, we should be cautious when using quetiapine to treat patients with drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:21660879

Yargic, Ilhan; Caferov, Ceyhun

2011-07-01

316

Adulterant profile of illicit street heroin and reduction of its precipitated physical dependence withdrawal syndrome by extracts of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum).  

PubMed

The study evaluated the adulterants in a specimen of illicit street heroin supplied under strict control by the Pakistan Anti-Narcotic Force. It also examined the effects of Hypericum perforatum L. extracts on the naloxone-induced heroin withdrawal syndrome. The GC-MS analysis of the specimen showed that in addition to heroin (37.8%), the sample also contained caffeine (8.4%), phenobarbitone (12.7%), 6-acetyl codeine (5.3%), 6-acetyl morphine (10.9%) and noscapine (15.8%). Administration of the heroin to rats for 8 days induced physical withdrawal signs of abdominal constriction, diarrhoea and vocalization on touch after naloxone treatment. Aqueous Hypericum perforatum extracts (20 mg/kg twice daily chronically or as a single acute dose 90 min before naloxone) given orally to the heroin dependent rats attenuated abdominal constrictions both acutely and chronically while the hydroethanol and ethanol extracts were only effective in acutely treated animals. Diarrhoea was ameliorated by the hydroethanol and ethanol extracts following acute or chronic heroin treatment while the aqueous extract failed to show any effect. Vocalization on touch during withdrawal was reduced by all the extracts either chronically or acutely with the exception of chronic treatment with hydroethanol extracts. The findings suggest that Hypericum perforatum is capable of reducing the physical signs of opiate withdrawal. PMID:19067385

Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Nematullah; Sewell, Robert D E

2009-04-01

317

Conditional sign flip via teleportation  

SciTech Connect

We present a model to realize a probabilistic conditional sign flip gate using only linear optics. The gate operates in the space of number-state qubits and is obtained by a nonconventional use of the teleportation protocol. Both a destructive and a nondestructive version of the gate are presented. In the former case an Hadamard gate on the control qubit is combined with a projective teleportation scheme mixing control and target. The success probability is 1/2. In the latter case we need a quantum encoder realized via the interaction of the control qubit with an ancillary state composed of two maximally entangled photons. The success probability is 1/4.

Giorgi, Gian Luca; Pasquale, Ferdinando de [INFM Center for Statisical Mechanics and Complexity, 00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Paganelli, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126, Bologna (Italy)

2004-08-01

318

Clomipramine concentration and withdrawal symptoms in 10 neonates  

PubMed Central

AIM After in utero exposure to tricyclic antidepressants, neonatal withdrawal symptoms have been reported with an estimated incidence between 20 and 50%; however, few data are available for clomipramine. This could also be the case for neonatal pharmacokinetic clomipramine parameters and so this study was set up. METHODS Babies exposed to clomipramine in utero were included in an observational study, approved by the local ethics committee, after written informed consent. Withdrawal symptoms were scored at 12, 24 and 48 h after birth using the Finnegan score. Plasma concentrations were determined using an in-house-developed, validated liquid chromatography with mass detection (LC-MSMS) method at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after birth. RESULTS We found that three of 11 pregnancies were complicated with pre-eclampsia. Ten neonates were observed for clomipramine withdrawal symptoms. The observed withdrawal symptoms were too short a period of sleep after feeding (6), poor feeding (3), mild to severe tremors (6), hyperactive Moro reflex (3) and respiratory rate >60 breaths min?1. Serious withdrawal reactions, such as tachycardia and cyanosis, were seen. We calculated a half-life value of 42 ± 16 h for clomipramine in neonates. Only a weak correlation was found between withdrawal reactions and clomipramine plasma concentration or desmethylclomipramine plasma concentration. CONCLUSIONS In neonates, clomipramine is eliminated with a half-life value of 42 h, compared with 20 h in adults. In two of 10 neonates, tachycardia and cyanosis were seen as serious withdrawal symptoms after maternal use of clomipramine.

ter Horst, Peter G J; van der Linde, Susanne; Smit, Jan Pieter; den Boon, Jan; van Lingen, Richard A; Jansman, Frank G A; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Wilffert, Bob

2012-01-01

319

Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.  

PubMed

A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

Khor, Beng-Siang; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

2011-12-21

320

A Database of Non-Manual Signs in Turkish Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign languages are visual languages. The message is not only transferred via hand gestures (manual signs) but also head\\/body motion and facial expressions (non-manual signs). In this article, we present a database of non-manual signs in Turkish sign language (TSL). There are eight non-manual signs in the database, which are frequently used in TSL. The database contains the videos of

Oya Aran; I. Ari; A. Guvensan; H. Haberdar; Z. Kurr; I. Turkmen; A. Uyar; L. Akarun

2007-01-01

321

49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must...

2012-10-01

322

23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710...existence of signs lawfully in existence on October...determination that the sign was in existence on October 22...permitted. Substantial change in size, lighting, or...

2013-04-01

323

49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must...

2011-10-01

324

30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

2013-07-01

325

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2013-07-01

326

Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis? The signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis (CF) ... respiratory, digestive, or reproductive systems of the body. Cystic Fibrosis Figure A shows the organs that cystic fibrosis ...

327

Fixed Message Rural Voluntary Diversion Signing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new concept in traffic control signing, requiring motorists to turnout and stop to read special message signing, was evaluated. Trucks, recreational vehicles, and vehicles pulling trailers are required to turnout and stop to read these special message s...

E. M. Wilson J. L. Henderson C. L. Scrivanich

1986-01-01

328

Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Five States, including Colorado (552 Mgal/d), Kansas (384 Mgal/d), Oklahoma (126 Mgal/d), Kentucky (102 Mgal/d), and Ohio (100 Mgal/d), accounted for 81 percent of estimated stream-valley aquifer withdrawals identified in this report. Of the total withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers, about 63 percent (984 Mgal/d) were used for irrigation, 26 percent (400 Mgal/d) for public-supply, and 11 percent (177 Mgal/d) for self-supplied industrial uses. The largest estimated water withdrawals were from stream-valley aquifers associated with the South Platte (404 Mgal/d), Arkansas (395 Mgal/d), and Ohio (221 Mgal/d) Rivers.

Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

2008-01-01

329

The acoustic startle response as a measure of behavioral dependence in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to assess the sensitivity of the acoustic startle response to chronic morphine administration and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Rats were implanted with two subcutaneous pellets containing either 75 mg each of morphine or containing only placebo. In experiment 1, withdrawal induced by 0.05–0.2 mg\\/kg naloxone dose-dependently decreased the magnitude of the startle response. Physical dependence was

Robert S. Mansbach; Lisa H. Gold; Louis S. Harris

1992-01-01

330

Nicotine attenuates place aversion induced by naloxone in single-dose, morphine-treated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleAcute physical dependence refers to the withdrawal syndrome precipitated by an opioid antagonist administered several hours after either a single dose or a short-term infusion of an opioid agonist.ObjectivesWe examined the mechanism of nicotine-induced attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome when used to produce an aversive motivational state in a place-conditioning paradigm.MethodsThe effect of nicotine was investigated through place aversion induced

Hiroaki Araki; Ken-ya Kawakami; Chunyu Jin; Katsuya Suemaru; Yoshihisa Kitamura; Mari Nagata; Koujiro Futagami; Kazuhiko Shibata; Hiromu Kawasaki; Yutaka Gomita

2004-01-01

331

[Danger signs in the malaria patient].  

PubMed

Danger signs are clinical indicators of severity and are useful to predict complications or death. In the malaria patient, clinical or parasitological signs can be easily be recognized during the acute phase of the illness that indicate serious complications. Danger signs include neurological change, abnormal breathing pattern, persistent vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, bleeding, dark urine, delayed capillary refill, intense pallor, hyperpyrexia, hyperparasitemia and schizontemia. Timely recognition of these signs can lead to a decrease in cases with complications and deaths. PMID:20128356

Tobón, Alberto

2009-06-01

332

Withdrawal from biobank research: considerations and the way forward.  

PubMed

The right to withdraw one's consent after having agreed to participate in research is a fundamental principle in contemporary research ethics. However, it has been questioned whether this right should apply to research conducted on donated biological samples, including stem cells and tissues from which stem cells can be derived. In this article we present some of the concerns that have been expressed related to this question. We then identify five areas that one needs to pay greater attention to before any conclusions can be drawn as to whether donors should be given the right to withdraw, or under what circumstances withdrawal should be allowed. PMID:22836808

Hug, Kristina; Hermerén, Göran; Johansson, Mats

2012-12-01

333

Similarities & Differences in Two Brazilian Sign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

mparison of sign language used by Urubu-Kaapor Indians in the Amazonian jungle (UKSL) and sign language used by deaf people in Sao Paulo (SPSL). In the former situation, deaf people are more integrated and accepted into their community than in Sao Paulo, because most hearing individuals are able and willing to use sign language to communicate with…

Ferreira-Brito, Lucinda

1984-01-01

334

Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage…

Johnston, Trevor

2003-01-01

335

Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

Schmaling, Constanze H.

2012-01-01

336

ROAD AND TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION AND RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract. This paper presents an overview of the road and traffic sign detection and recognition. It describes the characteristics of the road signs, the requirements and difficulties behind road signs detection and recognition, how to deal with outdoor images, and the different techniques used in the image segmentation based on the colour analysis, shape analysis. It shows also the

Hasan FLEYEH; Mark DOUGHERTY

337

“A Legitimate Function”: Reconsidering Presidential Signing Statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a reconsideration and reassessment of presidential signing statements. Although many scholars and commentators have weighed in on the practice since 2006—when Charlie Savage's Boston Globe stories ignited a firestorm of criticism and debate on the issue—signing statements are still frequently misunderstood. Thus, one of the key purposes of the article is to delineate what signing statement is,

Michael J. Korzi

2011-01-01

338

Enhancing Early Communication through Infant Sign Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research suggests that there may be benefits to teaching signing to hearing infants who have not yet developed vocal communication. In the current study, each of 4 infants ranging in age from 6 to 10 months was taught a simple sign using delayed prompting and reinforcement. In addition, Experiment 1 showed that 2 children independently signed in a variety

RACHEL H. THOMPSON; Nicole M Cotnoir-Bichelman; PAIGE M. MCKERCHAR; Trista L Tate; KELLY A. DANCHO

2007-01-01

339

Generating Signed Distance Fields From Triangle Meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for generating a discrete, signed 3D distance field is proposed. Distance fields are used in a number of contexts. In particular the popular level set method is usually initialized by a distance field. The main focus of our work is on simplifying the computation of the sign when generating signed distance fields. Previous methods largely rely on scan

J. Andreas Bærentzen; Henrik Aanæs

340

Locative Constructions in Turkish Sign Language (TID)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space is one of the basic domains of human cognition. Every language has its own forms of representing spatial relations of entities. Spatial representations in sign languages are worth studying because in sign languages spatial relations are construed by using 3-D space (signing space). This paper aims to investigate perspective taking strategies and reference frames that are used in the

Engin Arik

341

The Reception of Signs in Peripheral Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigation of profoundly deaf adolescent students' ability to read signs in peripheral vision revealed a mean success rate of about 80 percent. Results support the supposition that peripheral vision may be linguistically and communicatively useful for deaf people, particularly as signs in isolation are more difficult to read than signs in…

Swisher, M. Virginia; And Others

1989-01-01

342

Road traffic sign detection and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vision-based vehicle guidance system for road vehicles can have three main roles: (1) road detection; (2) obstacle detection; and (3) sign recognition. The first two have been studied for many years and with many good results, but traffic sign recognition is a less-studied field. Traffic signs provide drivers with very valuable information about the road, in order to make

A. de la Escalera; L. E. Moreno; M. A. Salichs; J. M. Armingol

1997-01-01

343

The American Sign Language Lexicon Video Dataset  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of a written representation for American sign language (ASL) makes it difficult to do something as commonplace as looking up an unknown word in a dictionary. The majority of printed dictionaries organize ASL signs (represented in drawings or pictures) based on their nearest English translation; so unless one already knows the meaning of a sign, dictionary look-up is

Vassilis Athitsos; Carol Neidle; Stan Sclaroff; Joan Nash; Alexandra Stefan; Quan Yuan; Ashwin Thangali

2008-01-01

344

Neural networks for sign language translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network is used to extract relevant features of sign language from video images of a person communicating in American Sign Language or Signed English. The key features are hand motion, hand location with respect to the body, and handshape. A modular hybrid design is under way to apply various techniques, including neural networks, in the development of a

Beth J. Wilson; Gretel Anspach

1993-01-01

345

Sign language planning: pragmatism, pessimism and principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that – while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be treated analogously to those of other minority languages –

Graham H. Turner

2009-01-01

346

A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both…

Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

2011-01-01

347

Adverse effects of beta-blockade withdrawal in patients with congestive cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen patients with congestive cardiomyopathy who had improved conspicuously on chronic administration of a beta-blocker were studied after withdrawal of the drug. In six patients there was a pronounced deterioration of their clinical condition, and in all of the remaining patients there was a significant decrease in ejection fraction, and signs of compromised diastolic function with pathological apex curves and an increase in third heart sound. All these changes were reversed within a few weeks to a few months after readministration of beta-blocking drugs. This study supports the idea that an aetiological factor in congestive cardiomyopathy may be a pathological response to sympathetic stimulation which could be partly controlled by administration of beta-blocking drugs. Images

Swedberg, K; Hjalmarson, A; Waagstein, F; Wallentin, I

1980-01-01

348

Feed Withdrawal and Transport Interactions with Intestinal and Peripheral Immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple stressors associated with transporting finishing pigs to slaughter can result in increased shedding of pathogens. Previously we found feed withdrawal by itself or followed by transportation increased Salmonella concentrations in ileal contents. However, no difference was found among treatm...

349

Studies on Addiction and Withdrawal in Cell Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After 415 days (70 subcultures) growth in the presence of slowly increased drug concentrations, KB cells with increased tolerance to amphetamine, benadryl, caffeine, codeine, and morphine have developed. No withdrawal symptoms have been observed upon the ...

F. R. Leach M. L. Higgins T. J. Shaw S. Stadnicki

1974-01-01

350

The effects of caffeine withdrawal on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The withdrawal of caffeine from 18 psychiatric inpatients with hypertension, tachycardia, or gastrointestinal complaints (GTCs) over an 8-wk period resulted in decreased blood pressure, heart rate, and GTCs and increased headache complaints.

Barry A. Edelstein; Catherine Keaton-Brasted; Matthew M. Burg

1983-01-01

351

Is the frequency of carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome increasing?  

PubMed

Carisoprodol is a commonly used centrally acting muscle relaxant. A number of case reports have suggested that the drug may have abuse potential, presumably because it is metabolized to the anxiolytic drug, meprobamate, which is a controlled substance at the federal level. Two recent case reports described symptoms of withdrawal after the cessation of carisoprodol. We present two additional cases that support the concept of a withdrawal syndrome with this drug. Symptoms of carisoprodol withdrawal include anxiety, tremulousness, insomnia, jitteriness, muscle twitching, and hallucinations. These symptoms are most likely caused by withdrawal from the meprobamate that accumulates after large amounts of carisoprodol are ingested. Although carisoprodol is not a controlled substance at the federal level, clinicians should be aware of its significant potential for abuse. PMID:17896902

Reeves, Roy R; Hammer, Jeffrey S; Pendarvis, Richard O

2007-10-01

352

FDA Statement on the Voluntary Withdrawal of Raptiva From ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... begun a voluntary, phased withdrawal of the product from the US market. ... By June 8, 2009, Raptiva will no longer be available in the United States. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

353

Dating Relationships and the Demand/Withdraw Pattern of Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined whether a female-demand/male-withdrawal pattern occurs in dating relationships and whether this response increases with the discussion of difficult topics. Results with 108 college students show the existence of such a pattern. Discusses exceptions. (SLD)|

Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Heesacker, Martin

1999-01-01

354

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

2013-07-01

355

Steroid-withdrawal radiation pneumonitis in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Two cancer patients developed steroid-withdrawal radiation pneumonitis. This complication is a recognized risk in the treatment of patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas, but is under-recognized in patients receiving treatment for carcinoma.

Pezner, R.D.; Bertrand, M.; Cecchi, G.R.; Paladugu, R.R.; Kendregan, B.A.

1984-06-01

356

29 CFR 4281.18 - Outstanding claims for withdrawal liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS DUTIES OF PLAN SPONSOR FOLLOWING MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation... (a) Value of claim. The plan sponsor shall value an outstanding claim for...more series of equal payments, the plan sponsor shall value each series of payments...

2013-07-01

357

45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301 Section 400.301 Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Waivers...

2010-10-01

358

45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301 Section 400...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Waivers and...

2009-10-01

359

7 CFR 70.36 - Withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Application for Grading Service § 70.36 Withdrawal of application....

2013-01-01

360

[The comparison of tianeptine and carbamazepine in benzodiazepines withdrawal symptoms].  

PubMed

Dealing with benzodiazepine dependent creates as serious clinical problem that requires knowledge and experience. Abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines, particularly those with short half-life is not advised to avoid severe withdrawal syndrome. Reports from literature suggest use of carbamazepine and recently tianeptine as substances useful in treatment of benzodiazepine dependence. This paper presents a double-blind trial in which both, carbamazepine and tianeptine were used in treatment of benzodiazepiene withdrawal syndrome. Patient mental state was evaluated by using questionnaire SCL-90, Beck Depression Inventory and specifically designed questionnaire assessing severity of symptoms following benzodiazepine withdrawal. It appears from this study that both drugs (carbamazepine and tianeptine) are comparable, safe and efficient in treating benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. PMID:12647454

Kornowski, Jaros?aw

361

49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The...

2011-10-01

362

49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The...

2012-10-01

363

31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

2013-07-01

364

31 CFR 541.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 541.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

2013-07-01

365

Withdrawal syndrome following cessation of antihypertensive drug therapy.  

PubMed

In this study, a review of the available information concerning abrupt withdrawal of antihypertensive drug therapy is presented. Abrupt withdrawal of these drugs can produce a syndrome of sympathetic overactivity that includes nervousness, tachycardia, headache, agitation and nausea 36-72 h after cessation of the drug. A withdrawal syndrome may occur after discontinuation of almost all types of antihypertensive drugs, but mostly occurs with clonidine, beta-blockers, methyldopa and guanabenz. Less commonly can produce a rapid increase of the blood pressure to pre-treatment levels or above, or both and/or myocardial ischaemia. Although the exact incidence of the syndrome is not known, it appears to be rare, at least in patients receiving standard doses of the above antihypertensive drugs. The best treatment is prevention. In this study regarding the withdrawal syndrome that follows cessation of antihypertensive drugs therapy, a reference to the abrupt discontinuation of the main categories of antihypertensive drugs is also attempted. PMID:15857353

Karachalios, G N; Charalabopoulos, A; Papalimneou, V; Kiortsis, D; Dimicco, P; Kostoula, O K; Charalabopoulos, K

2005-05-01

366

45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301 Section 400.301 Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Waivers...

2012-10-01

367

40 CFR 304.24 - Intervention and withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS ARBITRATION...approve such withdrawal, without prejudice to the moving party, and shall assess such administrative fees...

2011-07-01

368

Withdrawal of Human Tissue Products-Lost Mountain Tissue ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... LMTB is notifying all relevant hospitals and medical professionals of the market withdrawal of all tissue products beginning with the letters “GL” or “T ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

369

30 CFR 35.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to rescind for cause,...

2013-07-01

370

45 CFR 1178.2 - Withdrawal of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND...information. The National Endowment for the Humanities will withdraw or exhaust the...

2011-10-01

371

45 CFR 1178.2 - Withdrawal of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND...information. The National Endowment for the Humanities will withdraw or exhaust the...

2012-10-01

372

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2013-04-01

373

10 CFR 2.107 - Withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedure for Issuance, Amendment, Transfer, or Renewal of a License, and Standard Design Approval Hearing on Application-How...b) The withdrawal of an application does not authorize the removal of any document from the files of the Commission....

2013-01-01

374

31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

2013-07-01

375

21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Accreditation § 900.6 Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the...

2013-04-01

376

21 CFR 900.24 - Withdrawal of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY States as Certifiers § 900.24 Withdrawal...failed to achieve the MQSA goals of quality mammography and access, or has performed or...

2013-04-01

377

FDA Drug Safety Podcast: Withdrawal of Products that Contain ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... to withdraw these products from the United States market. ... pain; it has been marketed in approved ... outlined in the Federal Drug Disposal Guidelines. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts

378

15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of a published standard. 10.13 Section...Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary...VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 ...of domestic and international trade. The Director may withdraw a standard if costs to...

2010-01-01

379

15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of a published standard. 10.13 Section...Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary...VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 ...of domestic and international trade. The Director may withdraw a standard if costs to...

2009-01-01

380

The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.  

PubMed Central

Background The pollination drop (PD) is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. Results In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240?h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1?h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100?h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4?h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48?h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma) or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus). Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. Conclusions We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator. When conspecific pollen grains were submerged in the PD, ovule secretion was subsequently terminated and active absorption occurred. These processes cooperated to influence PD withdrawal. In addition, pollen grain behavior within PDs varied dramatically among taxa, and PDs played a role in distinguishing and transporting pollen in G. biloba.

2012-01-01

381

The Effect of Propranolol on Cognitive Flexibility and Memory in Acute Cocaine Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upregulated noradrenergic activity occurs early in cocaine withdrawal. Our previous work revealed impaired cognitive flexibility in acute cocaine withdrawal, a cognitive domain that appears to be modulated by noradrenergic activity. Therefore, we wished to determine the effect of beta-adrenergic antagonists on cognitive performance in acute cocaine withdrawal. Eleven subjects acutely withdrawing from cocaine were tested in this pilot study on

Brendan J. Kelley; Kenneth R. Yeager; Tom H. Pepper; Robert A. Bornstein; David Q. Beversdorf

2008-01-01

382

Profiles in Discouragement: Two Studies of Variability in the Time Course of Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has suggested that the time course of the smoking withdrawal syndrome is fairly invariant across smokers and that smoking withdrawal symptoms are weakly related to relapse. Withdrawal data from 2 clinical trials of the nicotine patch were analyzed to evaluate these characterizations. In both studies, patients were clustered according to the shapes of their withdrawal profiles across 8 weeks

Thomas M. Piasecki; Timothy B. Baker; Michael C. Fiore

1998-01-01

383

Alcohol Withdrawal Pharmacotherapy for Inpatients with Medical Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that symptom-triggered dosing is best for treatment of alcohol withdrawal in patients on chemical dependence wards without other illness. On general medical hospital wards, withdrawal may be affected by comorbid medical illness. A clinical trial was undertaken to determine whether there is a difference between symptom-triggered (ST) and fixed-schedule (FS) dosing of lorazepam in patients hospitalized on general

Michael F. Weaver; Heather J. Hoffman; Robert E. Johnson; Kimberly Mauck

2006-01-01

384

Endogenous bufadienolide mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endogenous natriuretic and vasoconstrictor Na\\/K-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), is implicated in NaCl-induced hypertension and in ethanol addiction. In rats, MBG suppresses voluntary alcohol intake, while immunization against MBG induces alcohol-seeking behavior. Since alcohol withdrawal is associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium retention, we hypothesized that MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal. In male Sprague–Dawley

Vladimir A. Kashkin; Edwin E. Zvartau; Olga V. Fedorova; Yakov Y. Bagrov; Edward G. Lakatta; Alexei Y. Bagrov

2008-01-01

385

Neonatal withdrawal syndrome due to maternal codeine use  

PubMed Central

Neonatal withdrawal from maternal drugs and medications is not uncommon. Codeine-containing analgesic preparations given to pregnant mothers for headache have been identified as a cause of neonatal withdrawal syndrome. The present case highlights the importance of obtaining a detailed maternal drug history including prescription and nonprescription drugs, and highlights the need for prenatal counselling for women who are taking narcotic-containing analgesics.

Nair, Vrinda; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Akierman, Albert

2012-01-01

386

Withdrawal symptoms: individual differences and similarities across addictive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined withdrawal symptoms and their intensities across a range of traditional and non-traditional addictive substances\\/losses (i.e., alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, food, and social\\/love relationship). Study one administered the Withdrawal Symptom Survey to Alcoholics Anonymous members and college students. Seven symptoms (irritability, restlessness, impatience, anxiousness, trouble concentrating, depression, and anger) were rated in the top 10 of symptom intensity

David G. Gilbert; Brenda O. Gilbert; Vicki L. Schultz

1998-01-01

387

The early time course of smoking withdrawal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  There has been little study of the very early time course of the smoking withdrawal syndrome, despite its relevance to the maintenance of both smoking and postcessation abstinence. The literature contains a range of estimates about the early appearance of withdrawal symptoms, but without reference to empirical data.Objectives  The study aim was to conduct a comprehensive, multimodal assessment of the early

Peter S. Hendricks; Joseph W. Ditre; David J. Drobes; Thomas H. Brandon

2006-01-01

388

Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstinence following daily marijuana use can produce a withdrawal syndrome characterized by negative mood (eg irritability, anxiety, misery), muscle pain, chills, and decreased food intake. Two placebo-controlled, within-subject studies investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: Study 1), and a mood stabilizer, divalproex (Study 2), on symptoms of marijuana withdrawal. Participants (n=7\\/study), who were not seeking treatment for

Margaret Haney; Carl L Hart; Suzanne K Vosburg; Jennifer Nasser; Andrew Bennett; Carlos Zubaran; Richard W Foltin

2004-01-01

389

The sequence of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe the observed sequence of withdrawal of eight different forms of life-sustaining treatment and to determine whether aspects of those treatments determine the order of withdrawal.Subjects and methods: We observed 211 consecutive patients dying in four midwestern US hospitals from whom at least one of eight specific life-sustaining treatments was or could have been withdrawn. We used a

David A Asch; Kathy Faber-Langendoen; Judy A Shea; Nicholas A Christakis

1999-01-01

390

Conjoining Word and Image in British Sign Language (BSL): An Exploration of Metaphorical Signs in BSL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Lexicon of British Sign Language (BSL), including, and perhaps especially, the productive lexicon, is highly motivated. Many sign linguists in the last few decades have played down the role of iconicity and other types of motivation in signed language. They have suggested that because sign forms and structures conform to rules of linguistic…

Brennan, Mary

2005-01-01

391

Verification plan for equipment installation, full scale heater tests. number sign. 1 and. number sign. 2  

SciTech Connect

This Verification Plan for Equipment Installation, Full Scale Heater Test {number sign}1 and {number sign}2 (VP-FS {number sign}1 {number sign}2) presents the Hold Points and equipment items (check sheets) to document the installation effort. This plan complements, but does not duplicate, the Title 3 inspection.

Not Available

1980-01-01

392

Extraction of Isolated Signs from Sign Language Videos via Multiple Sequence Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present an alignment-based method to perform sign segmentation and to extract isolated signs from continuous sign language videos. Sign videos contain many modalities, the most prominent of which are hand gestures, manifested as hand motion and shape, which are represented by a variety of extracted features in this work. We compare two different align- ment approaches,

Pinar Santemiz; Oya Aran; Murat Saraclar; Lale Akarun

393

Metformin is synthetically lethal with glucose withdrawal in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Glucose deprivation is a distinctive feature of the tumor microecosystem caused by the imbalance between poor supply and an extraordinarily high consumption rate. The metabolic reprogramming from mitochondrial respiration to aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (the "Warburg effect") is linked to oncogenic transformation in a manner that frequently implies the inactivation of metabolic checkpoints such as the energy rheostat AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Because the concept of synthetic lethality in oncology can be applied not only to genetic and epigenetic intrinsic differences between normal and cancer cells but also to extrinsic ones such as altered microenvironment, we recently hypothesized that stress-energy mimickers such as the AMPK agonist metformin should produce metabolic synthetic lethality in a glucose-starved cell culture milieu imitating the adverse tumor growth conditions in vivo. Under standard high-glucose conditions, metformin supplementation mostly caused cell cycle arrest without signs of apoptotic cell death. Under glucose withdrawal stress, metformin supplementation circumvented the ability of oncogenes (e.g., HER2) to protect breast cancer cells from glucose-deprivation apoptosis. Significantly, representative cell models of breast cancer heterogeneity underwent massive apoptosis (by >90% in some cases) when glucose-starved cell cultures were supplemented with metformin. Our current findings may uncover crucial issues regarding the cell-autonomous metformin's anti-cancer actions: (1) The offently claimed clinically irrelevant, non-physiological concentrations needed to observe the metformin's anti-cancer effects in vitro merely underlie the artifactual interference of erroneous glucose-rich experimental conditions that poorly reflect glucose-starved in vivo conditions; (2) the preferential killing of cancer stem cells (CSC) by metformin may simply expose the best-case scenario for its synthetically lethal activity because an increased dependency on Warburg-like aerobic glycolysis (hyperglycolytic phenotype) is critical to sustain CSC stemness and immortality; (3) the microenvironment-mediated contextual synthetic lethality of metformin should be expected to enormously potentiate the anti-cancer effect of anti-angiogenesis agents that promote severe oxygen and glucose deprivation in certain areas of the tumor tissues. PMID:22809961

Menendez, Javier A; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro

2012-08-01

394

Caffeine withdrawal retains anticataleptic activity but Withania somnifera withdrawal potentiates haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice.  

PubMed

The previous study showed that chronic treatment with Withania somnifera extract (WS) inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy. It is suggested that caffeine and WS may be useful adjuvants in pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease. There are no studies on the effect of haloperidol on mice withdrawn from caffeine or W. somnifera. We therefore studied the effect of a single administration of standardised WS containing 5.1% total withanolides (WS, 30 or 100 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and/or caffeine (3 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and withdrawal from 6 days treatment with WS and/or caffeine, on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Single administration of both WS and caffeine, used either alone or in combination, significantly inhibited catalepsy. Mice withdrawn from caffeine significantly inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy, but mice withdrawn from WS showed increased catalepsy. The study indicated that withdrawal from WS does not retain anticataleptic activity, and caffeine but not WS may be a good adjuvant in pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease. PMID:19418355

Kasture, Sanjay; Barhate, Shrikant; Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Ballero, Mauro; Sanna, Cinzia; Maxia, Andrea

2009-01-01

395

Autonomous detection of indoor and outdoor signs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most goal-oriented mobile robot tasks involve navigation to one or more known locations. This is generally done using GPS coordinates and landmarks outdoors, or wall-following and fiducial marks indoors. Such approaches ignore the rich source of navigation information that is already in place for human navigation in all man-made environments: signs. A mobile robot capable of detecting and reading arbitrary signs could be tasked using directions that are intuitive to hu-mans, and it could report its location relative to intuitive landmarks (a street corner, a person's office, etc.). Such ability would not require active marking of the environment and would be functional in the absence of GPS. In this paper we present an updated version of a system we call Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN). This system relies on cues common to most signs, the presence of text, vivid color, and compact shape. By not relying on templates, SUSAN can detect a wide variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. In this paper we focus on the text detection capability. We present results summarizing probability of detection and false alarm rate across many scenes containing signs of very different designs and in a variety of lighting conditions.

Holden, Steven; Snorrason, Magnus; Goodsell, Thomas; Stevens, Mark R.

2005-05-01

396

Sign recall by hearing signers: Evidences of dual coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deaf participants' sign recall is affected by sign similarity, sign length, irrelevant signing and manual articulatory suppression, suggesting the existence of a phonological loop for signs. In two experiments we explore whether hearing signers (who have learned Spanish Sign Language as second language) use a phonological loop for signs, whether they use their phonological loop for words or whether they

Javier García-Orza; Patricia Carratalá

2012-01-01

397

The reversal effect of prohibition signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In public places one encounters many prohibition signs, as well as traces of the norm-violating behavior these signs are trying to reduce, like graffiti or litter. Based on goal framing theory and previous research, we argue that signs of (dis)respect of others for norms serve as norm-support cues which can weaken or strengthen the influence of norms. This norm-support mechanism

Kees Keizer; Siegwart Lindenberg; Linda Steg

2011-01-01

398

COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF FOUR SMOKING WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOM SCALES  

PubMed Central

Aims Examine the association of person-specific trajectories of withdrawal symptoms of urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger during the first 7 days after smoking cessation with abstinence at end of treatment (EOT) and 6 months. Design Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to model person-specific trajectory parameters (level, slope, curvature and volatility) for withdrawal symptoms. Setting University-based smoking cessation trials. Participants Treatment seeking smokers in clinical trials of transdermal nicotine versus nicotine spray (n=514) and bupropion versus placebo (n=421) Measurements Self-reported withdrawal symptoms for 7 days after the planned quit date, and 7 day point prevalence and continuous abstinence at EOT and 6 months. Findings In regressions that included trajectory parameters for one group of withdrawal symptoms, both urge-to-smoke and negative affect were predictive of abstinence while physical symptoms and hunger were generally not predictive. In stepwise regressions that included the complete set of trajectory parameters across withdrawal symptoms (for urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger), with a single exception, only the trajectory parameters for urge-to-smoke were predictive. Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was 0.594 for covariates alone, and 0.670 for covariates plus urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters. Conclusion Among a number of different withdrawal symptoms (urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger) urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters (level, slope, and volatility) over the first 7 days of smoking cessation show the strongest prediction of both short and long term relapse. Other withdrawal symptoms increase the predictive ability by negligible amounts.

Javitz, Harold S.; Lerman, Caryn; Swan, Gary E.

2012-01-01

399

25 CFR 1000.253 - When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, is the Secretary required to award to the withdrawing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a portion of funds associated with a construction project if the withdrawing Tribe so...SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.253 When a Tribe withdraws...portion of funds associated with a construction project if the withdrawing Tribe...

2013-04-01

400

Report of the Withdrawal Office: The Who, When, Why, and How of Withdrawal at University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Spring Semester 1981. Research Report #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the first semester's work of the Withdrawal Office of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, are presented in four reports. A brief historical overview and introduction by Deborah Hazel Johnson describes the objectives of implementing a withdrawal procedure, the purposes of the Withdrawal Office, and procedures that were used…

Johnson, Deborah Hazel; And Others

401

Interpretation of hand signs in Buddhist art.  

PubMed

Hand signs (called mudras in Sanskrit) play an important role in Buddhist art. They represent specific events from the life of Sidharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism. These events symbolize moral principles important to the discipline. There are six important hand signs: (1) dhyana mudra, (2) varada mudra, (3) abhaya mudra, (4) vitarka mudra, (5) dharmachakra mudra, and (6) bhumispara mudra. The use of these hand signs was popularized by Buddhist universities in India around the 4th or 5th century ad. This paper will examine the symbolism behind the six main hand signs and reveal their message, which will be valuable for modern society. PMID:17606078

Ghori, Ahmer K; Chung, Kevin C

402

The effect of perinatal lead exposure on dopamine receptor D2 expression in morphine dependent rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and molecular effects of pre- and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure on the expression of morphine withdrawal and tolerance in adult rats. Rats were orally treated with 0.1% (1000ppm) lead acetate from conception, through gestation, up to postnatal day (PND) 28. Subsequently, behavioral experiments were conducted on adult (PND 60) male rats. To assess behavioral effects of morphine dependence in Pb-exposed rats two experimental models were used: naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs and the assessment of morphine tolerance to antinociceptive effect in the tail-immersion test. Morphine withdrawal and tolerance were more expressed in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. In the case of morphine withdrawal signs the analysis of protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (RT PCR) expression revealed significantly higher dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum and hippocampus, in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. Differently, in the case of morphine tolerance the significant upregulation of D2R protein and mRNA expression in hippocampus, but not in prefrontal cortex or striatum, was demonstrated in Pb-exposed and morphine administered rats in comparison with morphine administered. These findings suggest that in morphine withdrawal and tolerant rats the perinatal Pb-exposure can affect D2R expression in brain region-specific manner. Immunohistochemical assessment of D2R expression in hippocampus showed translocation of D2R from membrane-cytoplasm in control rats to nucleus in morphine administered rats. Perinatal Pb-exposure did not induce the changes in the localization of D2R irrespective of morphine effect. PMID:23702354

Listos, Joanna; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Piotr; Orzelska, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Rybicka, Marta; Chlubek, Dariusz

2013-05-20

403

Acute behavioural responses to nicotine and nicotine withdrawal syndrome are modified in GABA(B1) knockout mice.  

PubMed

Nicotine is the main active component of tobacco, and has both acute and chronic pharmacological effects that can contribute to its abuse potential in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible role of GABA(B) receptors in acute and chronic responses to nicotine administration, by comparing GABA(B1) knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In wild-type mice, acute nicotine administration (0.5, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg, sc) dose-dependently decreased locomotor activity, and induced antinociceptive responses in the tail-immersion and hot-plate tests. In GABA(B1) knockout mice, the hypolocomotive effect was observed only with the highest dose of nicotine, and the antinociceptive responses in both tests were significantly reduced in GABA(B1) knockout mice compared to their wild-type littermate. Additionally, nicotine elicited anxiolytic- (0.05 mg/kg) and anxiogenic-like (0.8 mg/kg) responses in the elevated plus-maze test in wild-type mice, while selectively the anxiolytic-like effect was abolished in GABA(B1) knockout mice. We further investigated nicotine withdrawal in mice chronically treated with nicotine (25 mg/kg/day, sc). Mecamylamine (1 mg/kg, sc) precipitated several somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in wild-type mice. However, signs of nicotine withdrawal were missing in GABA(B1) knockout mice. Finally, there was a decreased immunoreactivity of Fos-positive nuclei in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and hippocampal dentate gyrus in abstinent wild-type but not in GABA(B1) knockout mice. These results reveal an interaction between the GABA(B) system and the neurochemical systems through which nicotine exerts its acute and long-term effects. PMID:22727822

Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho, Lirane Machado; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

2012-06-19

404

Electroacupuncture Treatment Normalized Sleep Disturbance in Morphine Withdrawal Rats  

PubMed Central

Sleep disturbance is considered as an important symptom of acute and protracted opiate withdrawal. Current results suggest that sleep disturbance may be taken as a predictor of relapse. Appropriate sleep enhancement therapy will be in favor of the retention in treatment for opiate addicts. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in suppressing morphine withdrawal syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of 2 and 100?Hz EA on the sleep disturbance during morphine withdrawal. Rats were made dependent on morphine by repeated morphine injections (escalating doses of 5–80?mg?kg?1, subcutaneously, twice a day) for 5 days. EA of 2 or 100?Hz was given twice a day for 3 days, starting at 48?h after the last morphine injection. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram were monitored at the end of the first and the last EA treatments, respectively. Results showed that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, REM sleep and total sleep time decreased dramatically, while the sleep latency prolonged significantly during acute morphine withdrawal. Both 2 and 100?Hz EA produced a significant increase in NREM sleep, REM sleep and total sleep time. It was suggested that EA could be a potential treatment for sleep disturbance during morphine withdrawal.

Li, Yi-Jing; Zhong, Fei; Yu, Peng; Han, Ji-Sheng; Cui, Cai-Lian; Wu, Liu-Zhen

2011-01-01

405

Opioid withdrawal syndrome: emerging concepts and novel therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a debilitating manifestation of opioid dependence and responds poorly to the available clinical therapies. Studies from various in vivo and in vitro animal models of opioid withdrawal syndrome have led to understanding of its pathobiology which includes complex interrelated pathways leading to adenylyl cyclase superactivation based central excitation. Advancements in the elucidation of opioid withdrawal syndrome mechanisms have revealed a number of key targets that have been hypothesized to modulate clinical status. The present review discusses the neurobiology of opioid withdrawal syndrome and its therapeutic target recptors like calcitonin gene related peptide receptors (CGRP), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA), G-proteingated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and calcium channels. The present review further details the potential role of second messengers like calcium (Ca2+) / calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), nitric oxide synthase, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites, corticotropin releasing factor, fos and src kinases in causing opioid withdrawal syndrome. The exploitation of these targets may provide effective therapeutic agents for the management of opioid dependence-induced abstinence syndrome. PMID:23244430

Rehni, Ashish K; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

2013-02-01

406

Against the inalienable right to withdraw from research.  

PubMed

In this paper I argue, against the current consensus, that the right to withdraw from research is sometimes alienable. In other words, research subjects are sometimes morally permitted to waive their right to withdraw. The argument proceeds in three major steps. In the first step, I argue that rights typically should be presumed alienable, both because that is not illegitimately coercive and because the general paternalistic motivation for keeping them inalienable is untenable. In the second step of the argument, I consider three special characteristics of the right to withdraw, first that its waiver might be exploitative, second that research involves intimate bodily access, and third that it is irreversible. I argue that none of these characteristics justify an inalienable right to withdraw. In the third step, I examine four considerations often taken to justify various other allegedly inalienable rights: concerns about treating yourself merely as a means as might be the case in suicide, concerns about revoking all your future freedoms in slavery contracts, the resolution of coordination problems, and public interest. I argue that the motivations involved in these four types of situations do not apply to the right to withdraw from research. PMID:18549425

Chwang, Eric

2008-06-28

407

Withdrawal and limitation of life support in paediatric intensive care  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To compare the modes of death and factors leading to withdrawal or limitation of life support in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a developing country.?METHODS—Retrospective analysis of all children (< 12 years) dying in the PICU from January 1995 to December 1995 and January 1997to June 1998 (n = 148).?RESULTS—The main mode of death was by limitation of treatment in 68 of 148 patients, failure of active treatment including cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 61, brain death in 12, and withdrawal of life support with removal of endotracheal tube in seven. There was no significant variation in the proportion of limitation of treatment, failure of active treatment, and brain death between the two periods; however, there was an increase in withdrawal of life support from 0% in 1995 to 8% in 1997-98. Justification for limitation was based predominantly on expectation of imminent death (71 of 75). Ethnic variability was noted among the 14 of 21 patients who refused withdrawal. Discussions for care restrictions were initiated almost exclusively by paediatricians (70 of 75). Diagnostic uncertainty (36% v 4.6%) and presentation as an acute illness were associated with the use of active treatment.?CONCLUSIONS—Limitation of treatment is the most common mode of death in a developing country's PICU and active withdrawal is still not widely practised. Paediatricians in developing countries are becoming more proactive in managing death and dying but have to consider sociocultural and religious factors when making such decisions.??

Goh, A; Lum, L; Chan, P; Bakar, F; Chong, B

1999-01-01

408

Data withdrawal in randomized controlled trials: Defining the problem and proposing solutions: a commentary.  

PubMed

It is not uncommon for a participant to withdraw from a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The withdrawal of a participant results in missing data and the potential for withdrawal bias. Data withdrawal, or a request from a participant to withdraw all of their previously collected data from a study, is particularly problematic because it leaves little opportunity to characterize or statistically address those that have withdrawn to minimize withdrawal bias. The aim of this commentary is to (1) provide a synthesis of available information on the ethical and methodological issues related to data withdrawal in RCTs and (2) provide some suggestions on how to minimize the impact of data withdrawal during the execution or analysis phases of an RCT. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and JSTOR for published articles on data withdrawal. In addition, we used internet sources as an additional tool to identify content on data withdrawal from research ethics guidelines, legislation, research ethics boards, funding agencies, professional organizations and researchers. We did not find any definitive guidelines for dealing with data withdrawal. We propose recommendations for minimizing the occurrence of data withdrawal, including explicit and clear descriptions in consent forms of how data will be handled after participant withdrawal. We also suggest using imputation techniques to deal with the missing data during analysis. The current commentary can be used to minimize the impact of data withdrawal in RCTs. PMID:21300179

Ye, Chenglin; Giangregorio, Lora; Holbrook, Anne; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Thabane, Lehana

2011-02-04

409

23 CFR 750.154 - Standards for directional signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...directional signs: (a) General. The following signs are prohibited: (1) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under Federal or State laws or regulations in effect at the location of those signs or at the location of those...

2013-04-01

410

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language.

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

411

Sign Language and the Brain: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How are signed languages processed by the brain? This review briefly outlines some basic principles of brain structure and function and the methodological principles and techniques that have been used to investigate this question. We then summarize a number of different studies exploring brain activity associated with sign language processing…

Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd

2008-01-01

412

Prodromal Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenic Relapse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing evidence that decompensation into acute psychosis by schizophrenics can often be avoided with active pharmacological and psychosocial intervention at the early signs of relapse has stimulated research into the signs and symptoms prodromal to acute psychosis. In this study, 6-week periods prior to 17 psychotic relapses and to 11…

Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

413

Pediatric vital signs: recording methods and interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recording pediatric vital signs can be an important part oF the physical and emotional evaluation o( the child dental patient. These records are accomplished easily iF the practitioner understands the methods of recording, the normal standards, and the common causes o( abnormal vital signs. This paper contains methods For measuring blood pressure, pulse, temperature, and respiratory rate in children and

Douglas J. Macko

1984-01-01

414

Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

2013-01-01

415

Estimating blood alcohol level from observable signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to induce hosts and friends to prevent drinkers from reaching dangerous levels of alcohol impairment depend upon the ability to judge impairment from observable signs of physical appearance and behavior. In a study of this ability, researchers first observed and recorded signs of change in behavior and physical appearance among dosed drinkers in small social groups (n = 149).

A. James McKnight; Elizabeth A. Langston; Paul R. Marques; A. Scott Tippetts

1997-01-01

416

Sign Language and the Brain: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are signed languages processed by the brain? This review briefly outlines some basic principles of brain structure and function and the methodological principles and techniques that have been used to investigate this question. We then summarize a number of different studies exploring brain activity associated with sign language processing…

Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd

2008-01-01

417

Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George

2011-01-01

418

Sign Language Subtitling by Highly Comprehensible "Semantroids"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a new method of sign language subtitling aimed at young deaf children who have not acquired reading skills yet, and can communicate only via signs. The method is based on: 1) the recently developed concept of "semantroid[TM]" (an animated 3D avatar limited to head and hands); 2) the design, development, and psychophysical evaluation…

Adamo-Villani, Nicolleta; Beni, Gerardo

2007-01-01

419

Effect of vital signs on triage decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We sought to determine whether knowledge of vital signs changes nurse triage designations (TDs). We also sought to determine whether patient age and ability to communicate modify the effect of vital signs on triage decisions. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study, in 24 emergency departments, of nurse-assigned TDs of all ED patients undergoing triage. Nurses performed their

Richelle J. Cooper; David L. Schriger; Heather L. Flaherty; Edward J. Lin; Kelly A. Hubbell

2002-01-01

420

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... 5/2013 Symptoms and Signs Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck Cancer Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Symptoms and ... or click “Next” at the bottom. People with head and neck cancer often experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, ...

421

10 Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Home » About PI » 10 Warning Signs Hotline 1-866-INFO-4-PI Search: Click here to Learn the 4 Stages of Immunologic Testing ... Version ] [ View PDF Version (Need Adobe® Reader® ?) ] Home | 10 Warning Signs | Find an Expert | PI Awareness Campaign | ...

422

The Subjective Assessment of Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When hearing raters subjectively evaluated the signed and spoken output of 25 sign language interpreters, rater agreement was between 0.52-0.86; the correlation between subjective and objective evaluation was between 0.59-0.79. Raters were unsuccessful in identifying which interpreters had deaf parents. (CB)|

Strong, Michael; Rudser, Steven Fritsch

1986-01-01

423

An Assessment Instrument for Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an instrument for objective assessment of sign language interpreters, which used videotapes to assess the accuracy of interpreted output. It categorizes the kinds of modifications made in response to cultural factors, estimates the degree of American Sign Language or English use, and records fingerspelling influence. (Author/SED)|

Strong, Michael; Rudser, Steven Fritsch

1985-01-01

424

NUMERICAL RECOVERY OF THE SIGNED DISTANCE FUNCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test several methods for computing the signed distance function which is very usefull not just for the level set methods. Both approaches, evolutinary based on the equation t = sign 0 (1 jr j) and direct based on the eikonal equation jr j = 1, are compared. We also derive new algorithm to solve more general problem jru(x)j =

TOM A S OBERHUBER

2004-01-01

425

12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7â³ by 3â³...

2013-01-01

426

Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

2011-01-01

427

Iconicity and Metaphor in Sign Language Poetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a unique relationship between iconicity and metaphor: that seen in creative sign language, where iconic properties abound at all levels of linguistic representation. We use the idea of “iconic superstructure” to consider the way that metaphoric meaning is generated through the iconic properties of creative sign language. We focus on the interaction between the overall contextual force

Michiko Kaneko; Rachel Sutton-Spence

2012-01-01

428

Eliminating errors in vital signs documentation.  

PubMed

This study compared two methods of documenting vital signs: a traditional method where staff wrote vital signs on paper then keyed into an electronic medical record and a wireless system that downloaded vital signs directly into an electronic medical record. The study design was pretest and posttest. Sixty-four sets of vital signs were evaluated prior to the implementation of a wireless download system and 66 sets of vital signs were evaluated after. To compare the error rates for the two methods, ? tests were used, and t tests were used to compare the elapsed time. Questionnaires relating to the clinicians' experiences were analyzed qualitatively. The paper vital signs recording had an error rate of 18.75% and the wireless system has an error rate of 0% (P < .001). The mean (SD) elapsed time from when the vital signs were taken until they were available in the electronic medical record was 38.53 (32.87) minutes for the paper method and 5.06 (6.59) minutes for the wireless method (P < .001). The electronic vital signs documentation system resulted in significantly fewer errors and shorter elapsed time when compared with the paper system. PMID:24080751

Fieler, Vickie K; Jaglowski, Thomas; Richards, Karen

2013-09-01

429

A Field Guide for Sign Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Field researchers of sign language are the target of this methodological guide. The prospective researcher is briefed on the rationale of sign language study as language study and as distinct from the study of kinesics. Subjects covered include problems of translating, use of interpreters, and ethics. Instruments for obtaining social and language…

Stokoe, William; Kuschel, Rolf

430

Estimated Withdrawals and Use of Water in Colorado, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future health and economic welfare of the people and environment of Colorado depend on a continuous supply of fresh water. Detailed, comprehensive information on the use of water from Colorado's diverse surface-water and groundwater resources is important to water managers and planners by providing information they need to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP), Statewide water withdrawal and water-use data have been collected or estimated and summarized in this report by county and by four-digit hydrologic unit code for the following seven water-use categories: irrigation (crop and golf course), public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied industrial, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power generation. A summary for instream water use for hydroelectric power generation also is included. This report is published in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. In 2005, an estimated 13,581.22 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater and surface-water sources in Colorado for the seven water-use categories. Withdrawals from surface water represented about 11,035 Mgal/d, or 81.3 percent of the total, whereas withdrawals from groundwater sources represented an estimated 2,546 Mgal/d or 18.7 percent of the total. Irrigation (combined crop and golf course) totaled 12,362.49 Mgal/d or 91 percent of the total water withdrawals in the State of Colorado. Crop irrigation accounted for 99.7 percent (12,321.85 Mgal/d) of the irrigation, whereas the 243 turf golf courses in Colorado accounted for 0.3 percent (40.64 Mgal/d) of the total irrigation water withdrawals. Total withdrawals for the other water-use categories were public supply, 864.17 Mgal/d; self-supplied domestic, 34.43 Mgal/d; self-supplied industrial, 142.44 Mgal/d; livestock, 33.06 Mgal/d; mining, 21.42 Mgal/d (includes both fresh and saline water); and thermoelectric, 123.21 Mgal/d. The counties with the largest total withdrawals (greater than 500 Mgal/d) were Mesa, Weld, Rio Grande, Montrose, Gunnison, and Saguache. Counties with the smallest total withdrawals (less than 5 Mgal/d) were Clear Creek, Gilpin, and San Juan. Four-digit hydrologic unit codes with the greatest withdrawals were 1019 (South Platte River Basin), 1301 (Rio Grande Basin), and 1102 (Arkansas River Basin); the high withdrawal rates were driven by crop irrigation withdrawals. Total instream water use for hydroelectric power generation was 5,253.60 Mgal/d. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated for 2004 for the bedrock and overlying alluvial aquifers in the Denver Basin for irrigation, public supply, commercial/industrial, household use only, and domestic/livestock water-use categories. Withdrawals were estimated for input into the USGS Denver Basin model by using the equations in the Senate Bill 96-074 groundwater model. The greatest withdrawals were for public supply. The smallest withdrawals were for household-use-only wells. Douglas County had the greatest groundwater withdrawals (183.98 Mgal/d), whereas Broomfield County had the smallest (3.09 Mgal/d). Of the seven Denver Basin aquifers, the Lower Arapahoe aquifer had the greatest total estimated withdrawals (287.11 Mgal/d), with Douglas County having the greatest public-supply withdrawal of any county (95.29 Mgal/d) from this aquifer. The Upper Dawson aquifer was the least used of the Denver Basin aquifers, based on estimated withdrawals of 17.64 Mgal/d. As part of the Colorado Statewide Water Supply Initiative (SWSI), forecasts of future water demand were made based on information such as population, climate, and then-current (2000) water-use information and did not include the effects of future water conservation. Categories compared between estimates in the SWSI baseline forecasted water demand and the USGS water-use compilation were limited to county population and w

Ivahnenko, Tamara; Flynn, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

431

Consonant and sign phoneme acquisition in signing children following cochlear implantation.  

PubMed

Deaf children from signing programs provide new opportunities to investigate changes in sign and speech acquisition following cochlear implantation. We describe the acquisition of sign phonemes (location, movement, and handshapes) and speech phonemes (consonants) in 22 implanted children with diverse demographic backgrounds. New consonants and new sign phonemes emerged in developmentally expected sequences and with statistically significant correlation coefficients between cumulative number of new consonants and new sign phonemes over time. Regression slopes from plotted z scores revealed a burst in consonant and sign growth in early months post-implant, with continuous but plateauing growth over time. These results and documentation of developmental levels of sign and speech phoneme trajectories should be helpful to other researchers and to clinicians working with signing children who have cochlear implants. PMID:21756457

Seal, Brenda C; Nussbaum, Debra B; Belzner, Kate A; Scott, Susanne; Waddy-Smith, Bettie

2011-02-01

432

Demand-withdraw interaction in couples with a violent husband.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between demand-withdraw interaction and battering in couples with a violent husband. The authors compared the interaction patterns of 47 couples with a violent husband with the interaction patterns of 28 distressed but nonviolent couples and 16 happily married nonviolent couples. All couples engaged in videotaped discussions of problem areas in their marriage. Both batterers and battered women showed less positive communication and more negative communication than did their nonviolent counterparts. Additionally, batterers showed significantly higher levels of both demanding and withdrawing than did other men. Battered women demanded more change than did women in nonviolent marriages but were significantly less inclined to withdraw than were their husbands. The discussion of these findings focuses on the interactional dynamics between batterers and battered women and how these interactions might be understood. PMID:10535233

Berns, S B; Jacobson, N S; Gottman, J M

1999-10-01

433

Nefazodone decreases anxiety during marijuana withdrawal in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Symptoms of marijuana withdrawal include increased irritability, depression and anxiety, and decreased sleep quality. Nefazodone,\\u000a which is an antidepressant with sedative properties, may attenuate symptoms of marijuana withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present within-subject, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of nefazodone during marijuana withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Marijuana smokers [n=7; averaging 6.0 (±1.3) marijuana cigarettes\\/day, 6.4 (±0.4) days\\/week], not seeking treatment for

Margaret Haney; Carl L. Hart; Amie S. Ward; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

434

A DNA Element Regulates Drug Tolerance and Withdrawal in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Drug tolerance and withdrawal are insidious responses to drugs of abuse; the first increases drug consumption while the second punishes abstention. Drosophila generate functional tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation by increasing neural expression of the slo BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channel gene. After drug clearance this change produces a withdrawal phenotype—increased seizure susceptibility. The drug-induced histone modification profile identified the 6b element (60 nt) as a drug responsive element. Genomic deletion of 6b produces the allele, slo?6b, that reacts more strongly to the drug with increased induction, a massive increase in the duration of tolerance, and an increase in the withdrawal phenotype yet does not alter other slo-dependent behaviors. The 6b element is a homeostatic regulator of BK channel gene expression and is the first cis-acting DNA element shown to specifically affect the duration of a drug action.

Li, Xiaolei; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Pohl, Jascha B.; Bohm, Arun Y.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

2013-01-01

435

Coupled withdrawal and sampling designs for groundwater supply models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled formulation of withdrawal and sampling designs for ground water supply models is presented. The withdrawal design is described as a discrete time optimal control problem and solved using a closed loop stochastic control (CLSC) method. Two main features of the CLSC method are the anticipation of the future observation program and decomposition of the objective function into the deterministic and stochastic part. The former characteristic indicates the necessity for coupling the withdrawal and sampling designs, while the later feature allows a decision maker to estimate the uncertainty in the objective function if certain withdrawal rates are applied. The sampling network is sequentially developed, with the design criterion defined as a sensitivity of the objective function stochastic part to the uncertainty in the hydraulic head distribution multiplied with the variance of the hydraulic head. The concept of minimizing the stochastic part of the objective function with respect to the hydraulic head uncertainty provides a convenient way to couple the withdrawal design objectives with the monitoring network development weighted with the magnitude of the prediction error in the hydraulic head distribution. The Bayesian concept of measurement conditioning is employed to sequentially adjust the withdrawal rates and sampling network development by accounting for the information conveyed in field observations. Between the sampling sessions the uncertainty in the hydraulic head prediction is evaluated using the first- and second-moment analysis applied to the discretized ground water flow model. The uncertainty in the hydraulic head prediction is assumed to come from the natural uncertainty in the hydraulic conductivity and uncertainty in the boundary condition values and other external fluxes (e.g., leakages and recharge). A hypothetical example is included to demonstrate the application procedure and to illustrate the main features of the proposed coupled formulation.

Andricevic, Roko

1993-01-01

436

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

437

Effects of Varying Rate of Signing on ASL Manual Signs and Nonmanual Markers  

PubMed Central

Spoken languages are characterized by flexible, multivariate prosodic systems. As a natural language, American Sign Language (ASL), and other sign languages (SLs), are also expected to be characterized in the same way. Artificially created signing systems for classroom use, such as signed English, serve as a contrast to natural sign languages. The present article explores the effects of changes in signing rate on signs, pauses, and, unlike previous studies, a variety of nonmanual markers. Rate was a main effect on the duration of signs, the number of pauses and pause duration, the duration of brow raises, the duration of licensed lowered brows, the number and duration of blinks, all of which decreased with increased signing rate. This indicates that signers produced their different signing rates without making dramatic changes in the number of signs, but instead by varying the sign duration, in accordance with previous observations (Grosjean, 1978, 1979). These results can be brought to bear on three different issues: (1) the difference between grammatical nonmanuals and non-grammatical nonmanuals; (2) the fact that nonmanuals in general are not just a modality effect; and (3) the use of some nonmanuals as pragmatically determined as opposed to overt morphophonological markers reflecting the semantic–syntax–pragmatic interfaces.

Wilbur, Ronnie B.

2009-01-01

438

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

439

The Sign "Institute" and Its Derivatives: A Family of Culturally Important ASL Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The sign "institute" is the source of a family of ASL signs that are used to refer to residential schools for deaf children and to other institutions. The members of the "institute" sign family--although initialized--are well-established within the Deaf community and, importantly, are used to refer to highly-valued aspects of Deaf culture. This…

Kowalsky, Jilly; Meier, Richard P.

2013-01-01

440

Workplace Concepts in Sign and Text. A Computerized Sign Language Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a dictionary of essential vocabulary, signs, and illustrations of workplace activities to be used to train deaf or hearing-impaired adults. It contains more than 500 entries with workplace-relevant vocabulary, each including an illustration of the signed word or phrase in American Sign Language, a description of how to make the…

Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

441

Chvostek sign, frequently found in healthy subjects, is not a useful clinical sign.  

PubMed

A healthy, 26-year-old resident (video) presented with a bilateral Chvostek sign. This finding prompted us to search for the sign in young healthy subjects in our ward, mainly residents and medical students. We found this sign in 6 of 11 subjects. PMID:23479466

Méneret, Aurélie; Guey, Stéphanie; Degos, Bertrand

2013-03-12

442

Acquisition of signs from American sign language in hearing individuals following left hemisphere damage and aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three severely aphasic hearing patients with no prior knowledge of sign language were able to acquire competency in aspects of American Sign Language (ASL) lexicon and finger spelling, in contrast to a near complete inability to speak the Engliih counterparts of these visuo-gestural signs. Two patients with damage in left postero-lateral temporal and inferior parietal cortices mastered production and comprehension

Steven W. Anderson; Hanna Damasio; Antonio R. Damasio; Edward Klima; Ursula Bellugi; Joan P. Brandt

1992-01-01

443

Workplace Concepts in Sign and Text. A Computerized Sign Language Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a dictionary of essential vocabulary, signs, and illustrations of workplace activities to be used to train deaf or hearing-impaired adults. It contains more than 500 entries with workplace-relevant vocabulary, each including an illustration of the signed word or phrase in American Sign Language, a description of how to make the…

Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

444

The First Signs of Language: Phonological Development in British Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A total of 1,018 signs in one deaf child's naturalistic interaction with her deaf mother, between the ages of 19 and 24 months were analyzed. This study summarizes regular modification processes in the phonology of the child sign's handshape, location, movement, and prosody. First, changes to signs were explained by the notion of phonological…

Morgan, Gary; Barrett-Jones, Sarah; Stoneham, Helen

2007-01-01

445

Recovering the linguistic components of the manual signs in American Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual signs in American sign language (ASL) are constructed using three building blocks -handshape, motion, and place of articulations. Only when these three are successfully estimated, can a sign by uniquely identified. Hence, the use of pattern recognition techniques that use only a subset of these is inappropriate. To achieve accurate classifications, the motion, the handshape and their three-dimensional position

Liya Ding; Aleix M. Martínez

2007-01-01

446

The Sign Language Skills Classroom Observation: A Process for Describing Sign Language Proficiency in Classroom Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In collaboration with teachers and students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), the Sign Language Skills Classroom Observation (SLSCO) was designed to provide feedback to teachers on their sign language communication skills in the classroom. In the present article, the impetus and rationale for development of the SLSCO is discussed. Previous studies related to classroom signing and

June B. Reeves; William Newell; Barbara Ray Holcomb; Michael Stinson

2000-01-01

447

DeSIGN: An Intelligent Tutor to Teach American Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of DeSIGN, an educational software application for those deaf students who are taught to com- municate using American Sign Language (ASL). The software re- inforces English vocabulary and ASL signs by providing two es- sential components of a tutor, lessons and tests. The current ver- sion was designed for 5th and 6th graders, whose literacy

Ling Xu; Vinithra Varadharajan; Joyce Maravich; Rahul Tongia; Jack Mostow

448

Parents, Peers, and Social Withdrawal in Childhood: A Relationship Perspective  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, the authors review the history of the Waterloo Longitudinal Project (WLP), the first longitudinal study (1980–1992) dedicated to the study of social withdrawal, its correlates, and consequences. Theories underlying the WLP are described, as are its empirical findings. Recent research from other labs that has extended the findings of the original WLP is briefly described. The authors’ research that draws on the findings of WLP are noted as well. An underlying theme in this work is that relationships (and interactions) with parents and friends can serve as protective or exacerbating factors in the developmental course of social withdrawal and its concomitants (including social anxiety).

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Root, Amy Kennedy; Bowker, Julie

2013-01-01

449

Levodopa withdrawal syndrome identical to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A 60 year old woman with idiopathic Parkinson's disease had been prescribed thioridazine for schizophrenia. Five months after this was stopped, Sinemet also considered of dubious therapeutic value, was withdrawn. One week later she developed features of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) accompanied by myoglobinuric renal failure. Post-mortem examination confirmed Lewy body degeneration in the substantia nigra. It is proposed that NMS may be caused by levodopa withdrawal in Parkinson's disease, and that it is withdrawal of dopaminergic drive that causes the syndrome.

Gibb, W. R.; Griffith, D. N.

1986-01-01

450

Impact of force withdrawal on options for conventional defenses  

SciTech Connect

Soviet withdrawal from the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) could open new defensive options. This report gives some background on those options from post-war nuclear and conventional strategies and the quantitative Soviet threat tot he role of firepower, close air support, and battlefield attrition. Withdrawal under the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty could provide a buffer between opposing armies that aggressor armies drop the bridges and disrupt the roads and rails that would have to be used. If forces were brought into battle piecemeal, they would be annihilated. That would permit effective use of advanced and prepositioned weapons, which would favor the defense. 9 refs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-04-01

451

Mice deficient in Endothelin-Converting Enzyme-2 exhibit abnormal responses to morphine and altered peptide levels in the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

An increasing body of evidence suggests that Endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) is a non-classical neuropeptide processing enzyme. Similar to other neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits restricted neuroendocrine distribution, intracellular localization, and an acidic pH optimum. However, unlike classical neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits a non-classical cleavage site preference for aliphatic and aromatic residues. We previously reported that ECE-2 cleaves a number of neuropeptides at non-classical sites in vitro; however its role in peptide processing in vivo is poorly understood. Given the recognized roles of neuropeptides in pain and opiate responses, we hypothesized that ECE-2 knockout (KO) mice might show altered pain and morphine responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We find that ECE-2 KO mice show decreased response to a single injection of morphine in hot-plate and tail-flick tests. ECE-2 KO mice also show more rapid development of tolerance with prolonged morphine treatment and fewer signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Peptidomic analyses revealed changes in the levels of a number of spinal cord peptides in ECE-2 KO as compared to WT mice. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for ECE-2 in the non-classical processing of spinal cord peptides and morphine responses; however, the precise mechanisms through which ECE-2 influences morphine tolerance and withdrawal remain unclear.

Miller, L.K.; Hou, X.; Rodriguiz, R.M.; Gagnidze, K.; Sweedler, J. V.; Wetsel, W.C.; Devi, L.A.

2011-01-01

452

[Collier's sign in Miller Fisher syndrome].  

PubMed

Collier's sign is well known as unilateral or bilateral eyelid retraction due to midbrain lesions. This sign is usually caused by infarction, tumor, multiple sclerosis, neuro-degenerative disease, or encephalitis. We report a case of Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) which demonstrated Collier's sign. A 54-year-old man developed ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia two weeks after common cold-like symptoms. At the same time, bilateral upper eyelid retraction (Collier's sign) was remarkably observed. Serum anti-GQ1b antibody was positive. Albumino-cytologic dissociation was seen at two weeks after onset. We treated him with high dose intravenous immunogloblins (IVIg) for five days. There was remarkable improvement after the administration of IVIg, and there was a complete recovery from his eyelid retraction. All his symptoms of MFS also disappeared. The eyelid retraction of Collier's sign has been reported to occur with lesions in the rostral midbrain and posterior commissure. Therefore, Collier's sign in this patient suggested central nervous system involvement in the MFS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFS associated with Collier's sign. PMID:17323781

Miyaishi, Masahiro; Hemmi, Shoji; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Sunada, Yoshihide

2006-10-01

453

29 CFR 4206.8 - Reduction of credit for abatement or other reduction of prior partial withdrawal liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other reduction of prior partial withdrawal liability. 4206.8 Section...PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ADJUSTMENT OF LIABILITY FOR A WITHDRAWAL SUBSEQUENT TO A PARTIAL...

2010-07-01

454

21 CFR 71.6 - Extension of time for studying petitions; substantive amendments; withdrawal of petitions without...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...amendments; withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. 71.6 Section 71.6 Food and...amendments; withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. (a) Extension of time for studying...c) Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. (1) In some cases the...

2009-04-01

455

21 CFR 71.6 - Extension of time for studying petitions; substantive amendments; withdrawal of petitions without...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...amendments; withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. 71.6 Section 71.6 Food and...amendments; withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. (a) Extension of time for studying...c) Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. (1) In some cases the...

2010-04-01

456

False localizing signs in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Hemiparesis ipsilateral to a mass-occupying lesion can be due to Kernohan-Woltman Notch Phenomenon (KWNP). This syndrome implies a false-localizing sign because clinical findings lead the examiner to an incorrect neuroanatomical diagnosis. The contralateral crus cerebri (pyramidal tract) is pressed against the tentorial incisum and a resultant hemiparesis is found on the same side of the lesion. Review A detailed literature search of false-localizing signs is presented. Conclusions Not infrequently, patients presenting to a physiatrist may have incomplete records. The existence of false localizing signs may point the physician towards the wrong underlying pathology.

MCKENNA, CRISTIN; FELLUS, JONATHAN; BARRETT, ANNA M.

2010-01-01

457

29 CFR 1986.111 - Withdrawal of SPA complaints, findings, objections, and petitions for review; settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of SPA complaints, findings, objections, and...PROVISION OF THE SEAMAN'S PROTECTION ACT (SPA), AS AMENDED Miscellaneous Provisions § 1986.111 Withdrawal of SPA complaints, findings, objections,...

2013-07-01

458

24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

2013-04-01

459

42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies. 8.6 Section 8.6 Public Health... Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies. If SAMHSA determines that an accreditation body is not in substantial compliance with...

2011-10-01

460

40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2013-07-01

461

40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2013-07-01

462

42 CFR 5.4 - Notification and publication of designations and withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notification and publication of designations and withdrawals. ...SHORTAGE AREAS § 5.4 Notification and publication of designations and withdrawals. ...requested the designation, or the date of publication in the Federal Register,...

2011-10-01

463

Market Withdrawal of HIV-1 / HCV Assay-Procleix - Gen-Probe ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Market Withdrawal of HIV-1 / HCV Assay-Procleix - Gen-Probe Inc. DATE WITHDRAWAL INITIATED: January 18, 2005. ... HIV-1 / HCV Assay, Procleix. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

464

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2012-10-01

465

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2009-10-01

466

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

2012-10-01

467

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2010-10-01

468

5 CFR 890.204 - Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers. 890.204 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.204 Withdrawal of...

2013-01-01

469

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension...with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter range and capital investments on the land...

2010-05-14

470

Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.|

Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

2008-01-01

471

Ethical Analysis of Withdrawal from Life-Sustaining Technologies and Assisted Death. Second Draft,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Analysis of the distinctions among types of withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining technologies (Definition and description of types of withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining technologies, Major considerations in a typology of withhold...

J. F. Childress

1985-01-01

472

AN ACTION CURRENT STUDY OF THE CONDITIONED HAND WITHDRAWAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was formulated as an attempt to investigate the development of the conditioned hand withdrawal, by means of the action current technique. This technique makes it possible, during the development of a conditioned motor response, to record the very slight muscular contractions that precede the overt movement of the hand. It likewise shows the reverse process during experimental

Arnold Henry Hilden

1937-01-01

473

Status cataplecticus precipitated by abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine.  

PubMed

Status cataplecticus is a rare manifestation of narcolepsy with cataplexy episodes recurring for hours or days, without a refractory period, in the absence of emotional triggers. This case highlights a narcoleptic patient who developed status cataplecticus after abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. PMID:23853567

Wang, Janice; Greenberg, Harly

2013-07-15

474

Depressive Mood and Craving During Alcohol Withdrawal: Association and Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Symptoms of both depression and craving for alcohol occur regularly in patients suffering from alcoholism, especially during ethanol withdrawal. In order to test the hypothesis whether both symptoms are associated, reflecting possibly a common basic disturbance, self-rated depression and craving were analysed during an alcohol detoxification program. Methods: A sample of 69 alcoholic inpatients (55 male, 14 female, age

Frank Andersohn; Falk Kiefer

475

Changes in the blood platelets of alcoholics during alcohol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alcohol withdrawal on platelet count and platelet function was studied sequentially in a group of alcoholics. Baseline values for platelet count, platelet adenine nucleotides and plasma beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG) level were within the normal range but platelet aggregability (especially with ADP and adrenaline) and circulating platelet aggregates were decreased for the group as a whole. After alcohol

R Fink; R A Hutton

1983-01-01

476

Caffeine withdrawal affects central adenosine receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of chronic caffeine administration on both adenosine and benzodiazepine receptors were studied in mouse brain membranes. Animals were fed on a diet enriched with caffeine (600 mg\\/kg diet) for 15 days and sacrificed 2, 4, 8 and 15 days after withdrawal. Compared with controls fed on a regular diet, animals receiving a caffeine-enriched diet showed an increase

J.-P. Boulenger; P. J. Marangos

1989-01-01

477

Reversal of Caffeine Withdrawal by Ingestion of a Soft Beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following regular use, acute cessation of caffeine is associated with a characteristic withdrawal syndrome. Despite this, caffeine remains popular with its consumers. The aim of this study was to examine the physiologic and psychologic effects of small caffeine doses, administered in the form of a market-leading soft drink, on healthy women who were acutely withdrawn from caffeine. After 48-h abstinence

Joanne M Watson; Michael J Lunt; Steven Morris; Melanie J Weiss; David Hussey; David Kerr

2000-01-01

478

Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

2012-01-01

479

Parents, Peers, and Social Withdrawal in Childhood: A Relationship Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this chapter, the authors review the history of the Waterloo Longitudinal Project (WLP), the first longitudinal study (1980-1992) dedicated to the study of social withdrawal, its correlates, and consequences. Theories underlying the WLP are described, as are its empirical findings. Recent research from other labs that has extended the findings…

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Root, Amy Kennedy; Bowker, Julie

2010-01-01

480

78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing the withdrawal, without prejudice to a future filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of monochloramine as an antimicrobial agent in poultry process chiller...

2013-05-14

481

Very early steroid withdrawal in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is an effective treatment for patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conventional immunosuppressive treatments include steroids that may induce insulin resistance and are responsible for many side effects. In de novo SPK, early withdrawal of corticosteroids may be an important issue. Methods. A total of 24 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus had

Mabel Aoun; Pascal Eschewege; Yacine Hamoudi; Severine Beaudreuil; Jacques Duranteau; Gaelle Cheisson; Christian Noel; Gerard Benoit; Bernard Charpentier; Antoine Durrbach

2006-01-01

482

14 CFR 93.167 - Reversion and withdrawal of slots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...John F. Kennedy International Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport Traffic...common slots or limited slots at JFK or Newark revert back to the FAA 30 days after...that the cap on scheduled operations at Newark or JFK is too high, he may withdraw...

2009-01-01

483

Erythromelalgia: an uncommon presentation precipitated by aspirin withdrawal.  

PubMed

Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder frequently associated with myeloproliferative disorders. We describe a case of elderly patient diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder in remission. The patient was on aspirin for secondary prevention of stroke and was taken off aspirin and developed erythromelalgia within two weeks of withdrawal of aspirin. After restarting aspirin, patient's symptoms improved within 2 weeks. PMID:22844295

Khalid, Fatima; Hassan, Syed; Qureshi, Sophia; Qureshi, Waqas; Amer, Syed

2012-07-16

484

Neurological consequences of psychotropic drug withdrawal in schizophrenic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study is presented, involving 34 schizophrenic children, 6 to 12 years of age, who were carefully observed following discontinuation of active neuroleptic treatment to ascertain the clinical effects of drug withdrawal. The children had been on maintenance therapy for periods of 6 to 15 months. Five neuroleptics were involved: fluphenazine, haloperidol, thioridazine, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. All but two

Polizoes Polizos; David M. Engelhardt; Stanley P. Hoffman; Jonas Waizer

1973-01-01

485

The Persian Gulf: British Withdrawal and Western Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the British government in January 1968 announced that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf before the end of 1971, American security planners on the Middle East became uneasy. In their view, the central struc ture of the Western security system east of Suez would be dismantled at a time when the United States could not replace it adequately.

J. C. Hurewitz

1972-01-01

486

Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

Pavela, Gary

2005-01-01

487

Alcohol and withdrawal: from animal research to clinical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The withdrawal syndrome in alcohol-dependent patients appears to be a major stressful event whose intensity increases with repetition of detoxifications according to a kindling process. Disturbances in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neural processes are reflected in a perturbed physical state while disturbances in the balance between positive and negative reinforcements are reflected in a perturbed mood state. Our

Ph. De Witte; E. Pinto; M. Ansseau; P. Verbanck

2003-01-01

488

75 FR 32770 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...announced the submission of a pesticide petition (PP 8E7400) by Monsanto Company, 1300 I Street, NW., Suite 450 East, Washington...to 0.05 parts per million (ppm). On January 20, 2010, Monsanto notified EPA that it was withdrawing this petition....

2010-06-09

489

U.S. Withdraws from Education Reform in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the withdrawal of the United States government from educational reform in Iraq. It has however, through the U.S. Agency for International Development, awarded a two-year National Capacity Development contract, which is aimed at helping Iraq's government ministries to function better. This article discusses how security…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

490

Engagement, Withdrawal, and Social Reform: Confucian and Contemporary Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Concern with social and moral reform plays an important thematic role in the Analects, and the text discusses a number of possible responses to a morally failing society. This essay offers an account of engagement, withdrawal, and social reform in the Analects, then places the issue of social reform in a contemporary context through a comparative and critical discussion of

Marion Hourdequin

2010-01-01

491

Engagement, Withdrawal, and Social Reform: Confucian and Contemporary Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern with social and moral reform plays an important thematic role in the Analects, and the text discusses a number of possible responses to a morally failing society. This essay offers an account of engagement, withdrawal, and social reform in the Analects, then places the issue of social reform in a contemporary context through a comparative and critical discussion of

Marion Hourdequin

2010-01-01