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1

Suppressive Effects of Rosa Damascena Essential Oil on Naloxone- Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

This research was done to test the effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on withdrawal signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine in male mice. Morphine dependence was induced by injection (IP) three times daily at doses of 50, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 days. On day 4, after the last administration of morphine, Rosa damascena essential oil was administered at different concentrations (5, 2 and 40%, IP) 30 min before administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg, IP). The following actions were taken as signs of withdrawal and records taken for jumping as a number and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, writing, diarrhea, wet dog shakes and climbing during a 30 min period. Results showed that different concentrations of Rosa damascena essential oil significantly reduced signs of morphine withdrawal compared to the control group in terms of number of jumps (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, climbing, wet dog shakes and writhing, but not for diarrhea (p < 0.05). In conclusion it seems that GABAergic activity induced by flavonoids from Rosa damascena essential oil can alleviate signs of morphine withdrawal, but further studies need to be done to better understand this mechanism.

Abbasi Maleki, Navid; Abbasi Maleki, Saeid; Bekhradi, Reza

2013-01-01

2

Mianserin attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in rats acutely or chronically dependent upon morphine.  

PubMed

The effects of the atypical antidepressant and serotonin antagonist mianserin on the expression of opiate withdrawal was examined using an acute and a chronic model of morphine dependence. In the first experiment, rats, trained to perform a food-reinforced, autoshaped lever touch response, were injected with naloxone (5 mg/kg) 4 hr after treatment with a single moderate dose of morphine (15 mg/kg). Mianserin (0.25, 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg) attenuated the naloxone-induced suppression of autoshaped responding. Colonic temperatures were also monitored. Morphine treatment resulted in significant hyperthermia, while precipitation of withdrawal by naloxone produced hypothermia. Mianserin also attenuated the naloxone-induced hypothermia. In the second experiment, rats were implanted s.c. with a single 75-mg morphine or placebo pellet. Withdrawal was precipitated with naloxone (5 mg/kg) 24, 48 and 120 hr post implantation. Mianserin (2.5 mg/kg) blocked or attenuated signs of withdrawal precipitated by naloxone. Naloxone-precipitated weight loss was also attenuated 48 and 120 hr post implantation. At 120 hr post implantation, rats were decapitated 1 hr after the administration of naloxone and trunk blood was collected. Mianserin did not block the naloxone-induced rise in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, several signs of withdrawal (e.g., behavioral effects, weight loss and hypothermia) seem to involve serotonergic mediation and can be blocked by mianserin, while others (e.g., rise in plasma corticosterone), which may be unaffected by mianserin, may be a reflection of a compensatory response to withdrawal stress, rather than a mediator of maladaptive consequences of withdrawal that are not mediated by serotonin. PMID:3001281

Neal, B S; Sparber, S B

1986-01-01

3

Antagonism of orexin type 1 receptors in the locus coeruleus attenuates signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

It has been shown that orexin neuropeptides contribute to morphine-induced physical dependence. The locus coeruleus (LC), which receives a dense extra-hypothalamic orexinergic projection, is a key brain region implicated in the expression of somatic signs of morphine withdrawal syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of LC orexin type 1 receptors (OXR1) on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine sulfate (10mg/kg) at an interval of 12h for 9 days. On day 10, naloxone (1mg/kg i.p.) was injected 2h after morphine administration. Somatic signs of withdrawal were then evaluated in a clear Plexiglas test chamber (30 cm diameter, 50 cm height) for 25 min. One group of animals received intra-LC SB-334867-A, a selective OXR1 antagonist, (100 microM, 0.2 microl) immediately before naloxone. In the control group, SB-334867-A vehicle was microinjected into the LC in the same manner. The results showed that intra-LC OXR1 receptor blockade significantly decreased the somatic signs of withdrawal including chewing, diarrhea, scratching, teeth chattering, wet-dog shake and ptosis. These results suggest that activation of OXR1 in the LC might be involved in the expression of withdrawal signs in morphine dependent rats. PMID:20667500

Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Rohampour, Kambiz; Semnanian, Saeed

2010-10-01

4

Effect of NMDA receptor antagonist on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in cholestatic mice.  

PubMed

The ability of NMDA antagonist MK-801 to block the expression of opioid-like withdrawal signs was examined in bile duct-ligated mice and the signs were compared with sham operated and unoperated animals. Administration of MK-801 (0/1 mg/kg), 10 min prior to naloxone challenge, significantly reduced the investigated withdrawal signs (jumping, diarrhoea, grooming and climbing) in bile duct-ligated animals. Chronic administration (five consecutive days) of MK-801 (0/1 mg/kg) also decreased all the withdrawal signs in the experimental animals. In an independent series of experiments, the effect of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on tail-flick latency was investigated in bile duct-ligated animals. Pretreatment with the drug significantly decreased the antinociception induced by bile duct ligation in the mice. The results of this study support evidence for the involvement of the NMDA receptor in yopioidergic-dependent manifestations in a model of obstructive cholestasis. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404334

Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Samini, Morteza; Rastegar, Hossein; Ardeshiri, Abazar Jamshidi; Roushanzamir, Farshad; Jorjani, Masoumeh; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

2000-04-01

5

Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal  

SciTech Connect

To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

6

The Role of TNF? in the Periaqueductal Gray During Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines in the PAG may play an important role in

Shuanglin Hao; Shue Liu; Xuexing Zheng; Wenwen Zheng; Handong Ouyang; Marina Mata; David J Fink; S Hao

2011-01-01

7

Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence.

Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

2014-01-01

8

Descending Facilitatory Pathways From the Rostroventromedial Medulla Mediate Naloxone-precipitated Withdrawal in Morphine-Dependent Rats  

PubMed Central

Opioids produce analgesic effects and extended use can produce physical dependence in both humans and animals. Dependence to opiates can be demonstrated by either termination of drug administration or through precipitation of the withdrawal syndrome by opiate antagonists. Key features of the opiate withdrawal syndrome include hyperalgesia, anxiety and autonomic signs such as diarrhea. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) plays an important role in the modulation of pain and for this reason, may influence withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. The mechanisms that drive opiate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia have not been elucidated. Here, rats made dependent upon morphine received naloxone to precipitate withdrawal. RVM microinjection of lidocaine, kynurenic acid (excitatory amino acid antagonist) or YM022 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) blocked withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. Additionally, these treatments reduced both somatic and autonomic signs of naloxone-induced withdrawal. Spinal application of ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist thought to ultimately be engaged by descending pain facilitatory drive, also blocked hyperalgesia and somatic and autonomic features of the withdrawal syndrome. These results indicate that the RVM plays a critical role in mediating components of opioid withdrawal that may contribute to opioid dependence. Perspective Manipulations targeting these descending pathways from the RVM may diminish the consequences of prolonged opioid administration-induced dependence and be useful adjunct strategies in reducing the risk of opioid addiction.

Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H; Lai, Josephine; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

2014-01-01

9

Alleviation of Morphine Withdrawal Signs but Not Tolerance by the Essential Oil of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute treatment of the essential oil (EO) of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Mice were rendered tolerant to and dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine over a period of 5 days. Tolerance was assessed using the tail-pinch test and withdrawal signs of morphine were precipitated by injecting naloxone 2?h after the final morphine injection. Repeated injection of the EO of K. odoratissima (5 and 10?mg/kg) for 4 days significantly suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps, a sign of the development of dependence to opiate as assessed by naloxone precipitation withdrawal on day 5 of testing. A single injection (25, 50, 100?mg/kg) of the EO on day 5, 1?h prior to morphine failed to produce any significant change in morphine withdrawal signs. Neither the acute nor the chronic administration of EO of the K. odoratissima did significantly influence the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Alleviation in morphine signs of withdrawal after chronic injection with K. odoratissima is indicative of reversal of neuronal adaptation that takes place during morphine presence in the brain.

Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Izadi, Azadeh

2012-01-01

10

Glucocorticoid receptors participate in the opiate withdrawal-induced stimulation of rats NTS noradrenergic activity and in the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major molecular substrate of addictive properties of drugs of abuse. Hence, we performed a series of experiments to further characterize the role of GR signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation) as well as GR expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The role of GR signalling was assessed by i.p. pretreatment of the selective GR antagonist, mifepristone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with mifepristone or vehicle 30 min before naloxone and physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, GR expression and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. KEY RESULTS Mifepristone alleviated the somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal. Mifepristone attenuated the increase in the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol (MHPG), in the PVN, and the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Mifepristone antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and the expression of c-Fos expression induced by morphine withdrawal. Finally, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced up-regulation of GR in the NTS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by GR signalling. Overall, the present data suggest that drugs targeting the GR may ameliorate stress and aversive effects associated with opiate withdrawal.

Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Hidalgo, Juana M; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanes, M Victoria

2012-01-01

11

Reduced emotional signs of opiate withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake  

PubMed Central

Rationale Rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake exhibit divergent behavioral responses to multiple drugs of abuse, with HiS rats displaying greater vulnerability to drug taking. Previous research indicates that this effect may be due to increased sensitivity to reward in HiS rats and to the aversive effects of acute drug administration in LoS rats. Objective The current study investigated whether HiS and LoS rats also exhibit different behavioral signs of withdrawal following one or repeated opiate exposures. Methods Emotional signs of opiate withdrawal were assessed with potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in male and female HiS and LoS rats. Startle was measured before and 4 h after a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine on days 1, 2, and 7 of opiate exposure. CPA was induced with a two-day, naloxone-precipitated conditioning paradigm. Somatic signs of withdrawal and weight loss were used also measured. Results Male and female LoS rats exhibited lower startle potentiation than HiS rats on the seventh day of morphine exposure. LoS male rats also failed to develop a CPA to morphine withdrawal. No differences in physical withdrawal signs were observed between HiS and LoS rats, but males of both lines had more physical signs of withdrawal than females. Conclusions These results suggest that LoS rats are less vulnerable to the negative emotional effects of morphine withdrawal than HiS rats. A less severe withdrawal syndrome may contribute to decreased levels of drug taking in the LoS line.

Radke, Anna K.; Holtz, Nathan A.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

2013-01-01

12

Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Receptor-1 on the Catecholaminergic Response to Morphine Withdrawal in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc)  

PubMed Central

Stress induces the release of the peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and also increases dopamine (DA) levels in brain regions receiving dense VTA input. Since the role of stress in drug addiction is well established, the present study examined the possible involvement of CRF1 receptor in the interaction between morphine withdrawal and catecholaminergic pathways in the reward system. The effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on signs of withdrawal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and activation of VTA dopaminergic neurons, were investigated in rats pretreated with vehicle or CP-154,526 (selective CRF1R antagonist). CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss and suppressed some of withdrawal signs. Pretreatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover at NAc or plasma corticosterone levels that were seen during morphine withdrawal. However, blockade of CRF1 receptor significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, DA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 in the NAc. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the number of TH containing neurons expressing c-Fos in the VTA after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Altogether, these results support the idea that VTA dopaminergic neurons are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF1 receptors are involved in the activation of dopaminergic pathways which project to NAc.

Almela, Pilar; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Garcia-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Mora, Lucia; Hidalgo, Juana; Milanes, Maria-Victoria; Laorden, Maria-Luisa

2012-01-01

13

Blockade of Endocannabinoid Hydrolytic Enzymes Attenuates Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms in MiceS?  

PubMed Central

?9-Tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has long been known to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. Although THC produces most of its pharmacological actions through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the role these receptors play in reducing the variety of opioid withdrawal symptoms remains unknown. The endogenous cannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), activate both cannabinoid receptors but are rapidly metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. The objective of this study was to test whether increasing AEA or 2-AG, via inhibition of their respective hydrolytic enzymes, reduces naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms in in vivo and in vitro models of opioid dependence. Morphine-dependent mice challenged with naloxone reliably displayed a profound withdrawal syndrome, consisting of jumping, paw tremors, diarrhea, and weight loss. THC and the MAGL inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) dose dependently reduced the intensity of most measures through the activation of CB1 receptors. JZL184 also attenuated spontaneous withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. The FAAH inhibitor N-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yloxy)benzyl)-piperdine-1-carboxamide (PF-3845) reduced the intensity of naloxone-precipitated jumps and paw flutters through the activation of CB1 receptors but did not ameliorate incidence of diarrhea or weight loss. In the final series of experiments, we investigated whether JZL184 or PF-3845 would attenuate naloxone-precipitated contractions in morphine-dependent ilea. Both enzyme inhibitors attenuated the intensity of naloxone-induced contractions, although this model does not account mechanistically for the autonomic withdrawal responses (i.e., diarrhea) observed in vivo. These results indicate that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes are promising targets to treat opioid dependence.

Ramesh, Divya; Ross, Gracious R.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Owens, Robert A.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Kinsey, Steven G.; Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

2011-01-01

14

Topiramate attenuates withdrawal signs after chronic intermittent ethanol in rats.  

PubMed

Topiramate, a novel anticonvulsant drug, has CNS depressant activity including enhancement of GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission. Drugs of this pharmacological spectrum might have utility in assuaging drug addiction. This study analyzes the ability of TPM to reduce withdrawal signs in the kindling model of ethanol dependence: chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) rats. After CIE, persistent withdrawal signs are shown by an increased seizure susceptibility to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol and increased anxiety measured on the elevated plus-maze. Topiramate increased significantly the PTZ seizure threshold in CIE but not in control rats. On the elevated plus-maze, Topiramate was markedly more effective in CIE rats than in controls. Topiramate may have a therapeutic efficacy in treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:15106859

Cagetti, Elisabetta; Baicy, Kate J; Olsen, Richard W

2004-01-19

15

Gap junction blockers: a potential approach to attenuate morphine withdrawal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background The exact mechanisms of morphine-induced dependence and withdrawal symptoms remain unclear. In order to identify an agent that can prevent withdrawal syndrome, many studies have been performed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of gap junction blockers; carbenoxolone (CBX) or mefloquine (MFQ); on morphine withdrawal symptoms in male rat. Adult male Wistar rats (225 – 275 g) were selected randomly and divided into 10 groups. All groups underwent stereotaxic surgery and in order to induce dependency, morphine was administered subcutaneously) Sc) at an interval of 12 hours for nine continuous days. On the ninth day of the experiment, animals received vehicle or CBX (100, 400, 600 ?g/10 ?l/rat, icv) or MFQ (50, 100 and 200 ?g/10 ?l/rat, icv) after the last saline or morphine (Sc) injection. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were precipitated by naloxone hydrochloride 10 min after the treatments. The withdrawal signs including: jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdomen writhing, wet dog shake and stool weight, were recorded for 60 minutes. Results Results showed that CBX and MFQ decreased all withdrawal signs; and the analysis indicated that they could attenuate the total withdrawal scores significantly. Conclusion Taking together it is concluded that gap junction blockers prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.

2013-01-01

16

Serotonin mediates beneficial effects of Hypericum perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs.  

PubMed

Antidepressants may be effective treatment for smoking cessation and new evidence on relationship between smoking and depression is emerging. Extracts of the plant Hypericum perforatum possess antidepressant activity in humans and reduce nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. Both nicotine and H. perforatum administration elicit changes in serotonin (5-HT) formation in the brain. On this basis, we investigated the possible involvement of 5-HT in the beneficial effects of H. perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs. With the aim to induce nicotine dependence, nicotine (2 mg/kg, four intraperitoneal injections daily) was administered for 14 days to mice (NM). Saline (controls, M) or H. perforatum extract (Ph 50, 500 mg/kg) were orally administered immediately after the last nicotine injection for 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (14 days) and successively with H. perforatum extract was intraperitoneally co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (WAY) (1 mg/kg). All animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and abstinence signs, 24 after nicotine withdrawal. Brain 5-HT metabolism was evaluated in the cortex of mice sacrificed 30 days after nicotine withdrawal through evaluation of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio. After nicotine withdrawal measurement of 5-HT metabolism in the cortex showed a reduction of 5-HT content while animals treated only with Hypericum extract showed a significant reduction of total abstinence score compared to controls. WAY inhibited the reduction of total abstinence score induced by H. perforatum. Moreover, 5-HT1A expression has been evaluated 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Our results, show a significant increase of cortical 5-HT content in NM treated with H. perforatum, with a concomitant significant increase of 5-HT1A receptor. So, it is possible to suggest an involvement of 5-HT in beneficial effects of H. perforatum on suffering produced by nicotine withdrawal in dependent mice. PMID:17689233

Mannucci, C; Pieratti, A; Firenzuoli, F; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

2007-10-01

17

Decreased signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice null for the beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit.  

PubMed

Withdrawal from chronic exposure to nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, produces distinctive symptoms in humans. The appearance of these symptoms is a major deterrent when people try to quit smoking. To study which type of nicotine receptor is relevant for the onset of the withdrawal syndrome, we used a mouse model of nicotine withdrawal. Wild-type mice and mice null for the beta4 (beta4-/-) or the beta2 (beta2-/-) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering 24 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) nicotine for 13 d. Subsequently, a single intraperitoneal injection of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine induced behavioral symptoms of withdrawal measured as increased grooming, chewing, scratching, and shaking, plus the appearance of some unique behaviors such as jumping, leg tremors, and cage scratching. Mecamylamine injection triggered comparable withdrawal signs in wild-type and in beta2-/- mice, whereas the beta4-/- mice displayed significantly milder somatic symptoms. In addition, nicotine withdrawal produced hyperalgesia in wild-type but not beta4-/- mice. Finally, chronic nicotine produced an increase in epibatidine binding in several areas of the brain in both wild-type and in beta4-/- mice, but such receptor upregulation did not correlate with the severity of withdrawal signs. Our results demonstrate a major role for beta4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the appearance of nicotine withdrawal symptoms. In contrast, the beta2 subunit does not seem to greatly influence this phenomenon. We also show that the upregulation of epibatidine binding sites attributable to chronic nicotine, an effect associated with beta2-containing receptors, is probably not related to the mechanisms underlying withdrawal. PMID:15537871

Salas, Ramiro; Pieri, Fredalina; De Biasi, Mariella

2004-11-10

18

Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae) (St. John's wort) attenuates opium withdrawal signs. Aim: To explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum in the management of opium-induced withdrawal syndrome. Materials and methods: The effect of the Hypericum perforatum hydro-ethanol extract was investigated for potential to reverse naloxone (0.25?mg/kg)-induced opium withdrawal physical signs. Rats received opium extract (80-650?mg/kg) twice daily for 8 days along with Hypericum perforatum (20?mg/kg, orally) twice daily in chronic treatment and the same single dose 1?h before induction of withdrawal syndrome in the acute treated group. Results: Hypericum perforatum reduced stereotype jumps and wet dog shake number in the chronic treatment compared to the saline control group (F(2, 24)?=?3.968, p?signs of opium withdrawal syndrome possibly through direct or indirect interaction with opioid receptors. Further study is needed to clarify its mechanism. PMID:24256159

Khan, Munasib; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Gowhar; Rauf, Khalid; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

2014-05-01

19

Effectiveness of nantradol in blocking narcotic withdrawal signs through nonnarcotic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Male rats were made narcotic dependent through continuous intravenous infusion of morphine. During withdrawal, nantradol, clonidine, and morphine were found to block withdrawal signs in a dose-dependent manner. Almost complete alleviation of withdrawal occurred with nantradol or clonidine at 0.16 mg/kg and with morphine at 40 mg/kg. The effectiveness of morphine, but not of nantradol or clonidine, was reversed by naloxone. Likewise, in naive rats given castor oil, naloxone did not block the antidiarrheal effect of nantradol or clonidine. In order to compare possible subjective effects of nantradol with other antiwithdrawal drugs, naive rats were trained to discriminate either morphine, cyclazocine, or clonidine from vehicle by selecting different levers for reinforcement. Nantradol failed to produce any generalization to morphine, cycloazocine, or clonidine, suggesting that this drug does not produce central subjective effects like those of the training drugs. In additional testing in behavioral experiments, nantradol failed to produce any sign of anxiogenic activity. PMID:7197691

Lal, H; Bennett, D A; Shearman, G T; McCarten, M D; Murphy, R; Angeja, A

1981-01-01

20

Effects of inactivating the agranular or granular insular cortex on the acquisition of the morphine-induced conditioned place preference and naloxone-precipitated conditioned place aversion in rats.  

PubMed

Recent studies have indicated that the insula underlies affective learning. Although affective learning is well-established in the development of opiate addiction, the role of insula in this context remains unclear. To elucidate the organization of opiate-related affective learning within the insular cortex, we reversibly inactivated each of two major subdivisions of the insula in rats and tested the effects of this inactivation on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place aversion (CPA) induced by naloxone-precipitated acute morphine withdrawal. Results showed that inactivation of the primary interoceptive posterior granular insula (GI), but not that of the high-order anterior agranular insula (AI), disrupted the acquisition of CPP and that both GI and AI inactivation impaired the acquisition of CPA. These data suggest that the insular cortex is involved in positive and negative affective learning related to opiate addiction. In particular, the GI appears to be critical for both forms of affective learning, whereas the AI is crucial for learning associated with negative affects induced by opiate withdrawal. PMID:23784741

Li, Chun-Lu; Zhu, Ning; Meng, Xiao-Lu; Li, Yong-Hui; Sui, Nan

2013-09-01

21

Involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in brain reward deficits of cocaine and nicotine withdrawal, and somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Rationale Involvement of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors has been suggested in the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. However, little is known about the role of these receptors in psychostimulant withdrawal. Objectives The role of mGlu5 receptors was assessed in the anhedonic and somatic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal. Methods Anhedonia was assessed with the discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure after the termination of cocaine (180 mg/kg/day, salt, 3 days, IP) or nicotine (40 mg/kg/day, base, 28 days, SC) administration via osmotic minipumps in mGlu5 receptor knockout (mGluR5-/-) and wildtype (mGluR5+/+) mice. Somatic signs were assessed during nicotine withdrawal. The effects of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ICSS thresholds were assessed during chronic nicotine administration. Results Nicotine-treated mGluR5+/+ and mGluR5-/- mice demonstrated similar threshold elevations during mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal compared with their saline-treated counterparts. During spontaneous nicotine and cocaine withdrawal, thresholds in drug-withdrawing mGluR5+/+, but not mGluR5-/-, mice were elevated up to 72 h of nicotine/cocaine withdrawal and then returned to baseline, indicating attenuation of withdrawal-induced anhedonia in mGluR5-/- mice. Nicotine-withdrawing mGluR5+/+, but not mGluR5-/-, mice showed increases in somatic signs compared with saline-treated counterparts. Conclusions mGlu5 receptor null mutation attenuates the anhedonic and somatic effects of psychostimulant withdrawal. This attenuated withdrawal in mGluR5-/- mice may result from lack of drug-induced adaptations in mGlu5 receptor function that may occur in mGluR5+/+ mice with chronic drug administration. Thus, these results suggest involvement of mGlu5 receptors in psychostimulant dependence, and mediation of anhedonic and somatic signs of psychostimulant withdrawal.

Stoker, Astrid K.; Olivier, Berend; Markou, Athina

2014-01-01

22

Participation of different brain regions in the anti-narcotic withdrawal action of clonidine in the dependent rat.  

PubMed

The naloxone-precipitated withdrawal response in morphine dependent rats was quantitated by measuring the post-withdrawal increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and several characteristic behavioral changes. Pretreatment with intrathecal injection of clonidine produced a significant reduction in most of the autonomic symptoms of withdrawal, including the increase in MAP, salivation, and chromodacryorrhea, but did not effect the behavioral signs, body shakes, escape attempts or teeth chattering. Central i.c.v. injection of clonidine also reduced the autonomic symptoms of withdrawal. Two differences between the two routes of clonidine administration were with respect to (1) the degree of hind limb kicking where i.t., but not i.c.v. administration was effective at reducing this symptom; and (2) i.c.v., but not i.t. clonidine was effective in significantly reducing the incidence of diarrhea. In contrast, intracisternal (medullary level) injection of clonidine was without effect on the post-withdrawal increase in MAP, and inhibitory effects on the other symptoms included only salivation and diarrhea. Thus the effect of clonidine following intrathecal injection was not due to redistribution of drug to higher centers. Direct intrathecal injection of naloxone also precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. In this case, intrathecal pretreatment with clonidine did not inhibit the post-withdrawal increase in MAP. These results are consistent with a spinal component for the autonomic and behavioral symptoms of morphine withdrawal in the rat. Clonidine's antiwithdrawal response in mediated at least in part through a spinal action. However, this spinal antiwithdrawal action of clonidine is selective for withdrawal responses which originate from supraspinal centers. PMID:2350687

Buccafusco, J J

1990-04-01

23

Modulation of GABA release during morphine withdrawal in midbrain neurons in vitro.  

PubMed

Chronic treatment with opioids induces adaptations in neurons leading to tolerance and dependence. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the expression of many signs of withdrawal. Patch-clamp recording techniques were used to examine whether augmentation of adenylyl cyclase signalling produces hyperexcitation in GABAergic nerve terminals within the mouse PAG. Both the rate of mIPSCs and the amplitude of evoked IPSCs during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was profoundly enhanced in chronically morphine treated mice, compared to vehicle treated controls, in the presence but not the absence an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist DPCPX. Enhanced GABAergic transmission in the presence of DPCPX was abolished by blocking protein kinase A. Inhibitors of cAMP transport, phosphodiesterase and nucleotide transport mimicked the effect of DPCPX. Coupling efficacy of micro-receptors to presynaptic inhibition of GABA release was increased in dependent mice in the presence of DPCPX. The increased coupling efficacy was abolished by blocking protein kinase A, which unmasked an underlying micro-receptor tolerance. These findings indicate that enhanced adenylyl cyclase signalling following chronic morphine treatment produces (1) GABAergic terminal hyperexcitability during withdrawal that is retarded by a concomitant increase in endogenous adenosine, and (2) enhanced micro-receptor coupling to presynaptic inhibition that overcomes an underlying tolerance. PMID:12941371

Hack, Stephen P; Vaughan, Christopher W; Christie, MacDonald J

2003-10-01

24

Co-administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate effectively blocks the signs of morphine withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses of morphine. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs (jumping or standing events, diarrhea, piloerection, tremor and ptosis). Separate oral administration of magnesium (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) and calcium (500, 750 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the jumping, without affecting standing in animals withdrawn from morphine. Co-administration of magnesium (at a fixed dose of 100 mg/kg) and calcium (at a range of doses from 250 to 1,000 mg/kg) resulted in a significant reduction in jumping and standing events (P<0.05). In a similar fashion, the qualitative signs of withdrawal were also reduced when the above combination of calcium and magnesium was administered. Co-administration of calcium/magnesium at 500/50, 750/75 and 1,000/100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of jumps in morphine-dependent animals without affecting the number of standing events. This study demonstrates the potential activity of the co-administration calcium and magnesium in preventing the signs associated with morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22429988

Rabbani, Mohammed; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Vadizadeh, Ali

2012-03-01

25

Influence of ATP-dependent K+ channels on nicotine-induced inhibition of withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have investigated the effect of nicotine and diazoxide, a potassium channel opener and glibenclamide, a potassium channel (K(ATP)) blocker on naloxone-precipitated physical withdrawal signs, including jumping and diarrhea. Then, the interactions of nicotine with diazoxide and glibenclamide were tested. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine sulphate 3 times a day for 3 days, and jumping behavior and diarrhea were induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of naloxone 2 h after the 10th injection of morphine sulphate on day 4. Nicotine was administered 15 min and diazoxide and glibenclamide 30 min before naloxone injection. Nicotine (0.01-1 mg/kg, s.c.) and (0.1-1 mg/kg) reduced withdrawal jumping and diarrhea respectively. Diazoxide (8-64 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased jumping behavior significantly, but had no significant effect on diarrhea. On the other hand glibenclamide (0.25-1 mg/kg i.p.) and (1 mg/kg) augmented jumping and diarrhea respectively. The response of nicotine on jumping or on diarrhea was potentiated by diazoxide and decreased by glibenclamide pretreatment. The isobolographic analysis revealed synergistic interaction between diazoxide and nicotine on decreasing physical withdrawal signs including jumping and diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice. According to these results the interaction of nicotine with the K(ATP) channel opener and blocker in morphine physical withdrawal signs could be explained by direct and indirect effects of nicotine on membrane potassium currents. PMID:17049514

Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Mohajeri, Sanaz

2006-12-15

26

Adaptations in cholinergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area associated with the affective signs of nicotine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic administration of nicotine induces adaptations in the brain reward circuit to counteract the acute drug effects; when nicotine administration ceases, these adaptations remain unopposed and lead to drug withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to assess the effects of chronic nicotine administration on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) shell. A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure that provides current-intensity thresholds as measures of brain reward function was used in rats. Previous studies have shown that withdrawal from nicotine-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds that are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. We show here that injections of the nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 0.6-20 microg total bilateral dose) into the VTA, but not outside the VTA, resulted in significant elevations in brain reward thresholds in nicotine dependent rats (9 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate) while having no effect in saline-treated controls. By contrast, DHbetaE (0.6-20 microg total bilateral dose) injected into the Nacc shell had no effect on brain reward thresholds of nicotine- or saline-treated rats. The adaptations in cholinergic transmission in the VTA are likely to mediate, at least partly, the affective signs of nicotine withdrawal in humans. PMID:15380374

Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Markou, Athina

2004-09-01

27

Effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the elevations in brain reward thresholds and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Tobacco withdrawal is characterized by a negative mood state and relatively mild somatic symptoms. Increased noradrenergic transmission has been reported to play an important role in opioid withdrawal, but little is known about the role of noradrenergic transmission in nicotine withdrawal. Objectives The aim of these experiments was to investigate the effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the negative mood state and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Methods A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. Results In all the experiments, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3 mg/kg) elevated the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine-treated rats and did not affect those of the control rats. The ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin (0.0625 and 0.125 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (10–40 ?g/kg) and the nonselective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2.5–10 mg/kg) did not attenuate the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with nicotine withdrawal. Mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) induced more somatic signs in the nicotine-treated rats than in the control rats. Clonidine and propranolol, but not prazosin, decreased the total number of somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal. Conclusion Blockade of ?1-adrenergic receptors attenuates the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal. Antagonism of ?-adrenergic receptors or stimulation of ?2-adrenergic receptors attenuates the somatic symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Bishnoi, Mahendra; van Tuijl, Irma A.; Keijzers, Kim F. M.; Yavarovich, Kate R.; Pasek, Tim M.; Ford, Jenna; Alexander, Jon C.; Yamada, Hidetaka

2011-01-01

28

Dopaminergic and serotonergic alterations in the rat brain during ethanol withdrawal: association with behavioral signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic levels and metabolites in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus were investigated during the first 6-h of withdrawal in ethanol-dependent Wistar rats. Ethanol was given by a liquid diet for 21 days. The concentration of ethanol was 7.2% (v\\/v) for the last 15 days of the exposure. After 2, 4 and 6 h of ethanol

I. T Uzbay; S. E Usanmaz; E. E Tapanyigit; S Aynacioglu; E. S Akarsu

1998-01-01

29

L-type calcium channel blockade attenuates morphine withdrawal: in vivo interaction between L-type calcium channels and corticosterone.  

PubMed

Both opioids and calcium channel blockers could affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Nifedipine, as a calcium channel blocker, can attenuate the development of morphine dependence; however, the role of the HPA axis in this effect has not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nifedipine on the induction of morphine dependency in intact and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats, as assessed by the naloxone precipitation test. We also evaluated the effect of this drug on HPA activity induced by naloxone. Our results showed that despite the demonstration of dependence in both groups of rats, nifedipine is more effective in preventing of withdrawal signs in ADX rats than in sham-operated rats. In groups that received morphine and nifedipine concomitantly, naloxone-induced corticosterone secretion was attenuated. Thus, we have shown the involvement of the HPA axis in the effect of nifedipine on the development of morphine dependency and additionally demonstrated an in vivo interaction between the L-type Ca2+ channels and corticosterone. PMID:18177874

Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Fathi, Yadollah; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

2008-02-01

30

Nicotine Reward and Affective Nicotine Withdrawal Signs Are Attenuated in Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

The influx of Ca2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (?/?) mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV ?/? mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

Jackson, Kia J.; Sanjakdar, Sarah S.; Chen, Xiangning; Damaj, M. Imad

2012-01-01

31

The ?3?4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype mediates nicotine reward and physical nicotine withdrawal signs independently of the ?5 subunit in the mouse  

PubMed Central

The 15q25 gene cluster contains genes that code for the ?5, ?3, and ?4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) subunits, and in human genetic studies, has shown the most robust association with smoking behavior and nicotine dependence to date. The limited available animal studies implicate a role for the ?5 and ?4 nAChR subunits in nicotine dependence and withdrawal; however studies focusing on the behavioral role of the ?3?4* nAChR receptor subtype in nicotine dependence are lacking. Because of the apparent role of the ?3?4* nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence, the goal of the current study was to better evaluate the involvement of this subtype in nicotine mediated behavioral responses. Using the selective ?3?4* nAChR antagonist, ?-conotoxin AuIB, we assessed the role of ?3?4* nAChRs in acute nicotine, nicotine reward, and physical and affective nicotine withdrawal. Because ?5 has also been implicated in nicotine dependence behaviors in mice and can form functional receptors with ?3?4*, we also evaluated the role of the ?3?4?5* nAChR subtype in nicotine reward and somatic nicotine withdrawal signs by blocking the ?3?4* nAChR subtype in ?5 nAChR knockout mice with AuIB. AuIB had no significant effect on acute nicotine behaviors, but dose-dependently attenuated nicotine reward and physical withdrawal signs, with no significant effect in affective withdrawal measures. Interestingly, AuIB also attenuated nicotine reward and somatic signs in ?5 nAChR knockout mice. This study shows that ?3?4* nAChRs mediate nicotine reward and physical nicotine withdrawal, but not acute nicotine behaviors or affective nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. The ?5 subunit is not required in the receptor assembly to mediate these effects. Our findings suggest an important role for the ?3?4* nAChR subtype in nicotine reward and physical aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome.

Jackson, Kia J.; Sanjakdar, Sarah S.; Muldoon, Pretal P.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Damaj, M. Imad

2013-01-01

32

Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. PMID:24906198

Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

2014-09-01

33

[Effect of melatonin on mean blood pressure and heart rate in morphine withdrawal rats].  

PubMed

The model of morphine dependent rats was established by gradually increasing the doses of morphine by subcutaneous injection(from 5 mg.kg-1 to 50 mg.kg-1, 5 days). The effects of melatonin(MT) on the mean arterial blood pressure(mABP) and heart rate(HR) were studied in naloxone-precipitated rats. MT was found to inhibit the hypertention and tachycardiac syndromes in morphine withdrawal rats in dose-dependent manner. The concentration of serum norepinephrine(NE) was shown to be decreased by MT. Moreover, regitine was shown to inhibit the increase of mABP in morphine withdrawal rats, but can not inhibit the increase of HR. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of MT on hypertension and tachycardiac syndromes in morphine withdrawal rats may be mediated by the inhibitory effect of the drug on the sympathetic system. PMID:12016923

He, W; Zhu, X; Wang, H; Qiu, Y; Qiu, X

1998-10-01

34

Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spontaneous or pharmacologic (naloxone-precipitated) withdrawal. Then spatial learning and memory were investigated by morris water maze test, and at the end trunk blood samples were collected for measurement of serum cortisol levels. Results: The results showed that only repeated spontaneous withdrawal significantly increases escape latency (P < 0.05), and in other models of withdrawal, spatial learning and memory were intact. The results of probe trial were intact in all groups. Radioimmunoassay showed that serum cortisol levels were increased significantly in all models of withdrawal (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) except the repeated spontaneous withdrawal. Conclusion: The results showed that short periods of withdrawal syndrome can increase serum cortisol levels; however they do not affect spatial learning and memory. Nevertheless, repeated spontaneous withdrawal can make learning slow.

Matinfar, Mahdieh; Esfahani, Mahsa Masjedi; Aslany, Neda; Davoodi, Seyyed Hamid; Parsaei, Pouya; Zarei, Ghasem; Reisi, Parham

2013-01-01

35

The Relative Potency of Inverse Opioid Agonists and a Neutral Opioid Antagonist in Precipitated Withdrawal and Antagonism of Analgesia and Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Opioid antagonists can be classified as inverse agonists and neutral antagonists. In the opioid-dependent state, neutral antagonists are significantly less potent in precipitating withdrawal than inverse agonists. Consequently, neutral opioid antagonists may offer advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose. In this study, the relative potency of three opioid antagonists to block opioid analgesia and toxicity and precipitate withdrawal was examined. First, the potency of two opioid inverse agonists (naltrexone and naloxone) and a neutral antagonist (6?-naltrexol) to antagonize fentanyl-induced analgesia and lethality was determined. The order of potency to block analgesia was naltrexone > naloxone > 6?-naltrexol (17, 4, 1), which was similar to that to block lethality (13, 2, 1). Next, the antagonists were compared using withdrawal jumping in fentanyl-dependent mice. The order of potency to precipitate withdrawal jumping was naltrexone > naloxone ? 6?-naltrexol (1107, 415, 1). The relative potencies to precipitate withdrawal for the inverse agonists compared with the neutral antagonist were dramatically different from that for antagonism of analgesia and lethality. Finally, the effect of 6?-naltrexol pretreatment on naloxone-precipitated jumping was determined in morphine and fentanyl-dependent mice. 6?-Naltrexol pretreatment decreased naloxone precipitated withdrawal, indicating that 6?-naltrexol is a neutral antagonist. These data demonstrate that inverse agonists and neutral antagonists have generally comparable potencies to block opioid analgesia and lethality, whereas the neutral opioid antagonist is substantially less potent in precipitating opioid withdrawal. These results support suggestions that neutral antagonists may have advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose.

Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V.; Madia, Priyanka A.; Yoburn, Byron C.

2009-01-01

36

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. PMID:24845493

Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

2014-06-01

37

Effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the elevations in brain reward thresholds and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Tobacco withdrawal is characterized by a negative mood state and relatively mild somatic symptoms. Increased noradrenergic\\u000a transmission has been reported to play an important role in opioid withdrawal, but little is known about the role of noradrenergic\\u000a transmission in nicotine withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of these experiments was to investigate the effects of prazosin, clonidine, and propranolol on the negative mood

Adrie W. Bruijnzeel; Mahendra Bishnoi; Irma A. van Tuijl; Kim F. M. Keijzers; Kate R. Yavarovich; Tim M. Pasek; Jenna Ford; Jon C. Alexander; Hidetaka Yamada

2010-01-01

38

[Paroxetine withdrawal syndrome].  

PubMed

Withdrawal syndrome after discontinuing serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, especially paroxetine, is largely unknown to most physicians. Variable incidence has been reported. Our aim was to stress the main clinical features of this syndrome. Serotonin re-uptake inhibitor withdrawal syndrome generally begins within 24 to 48 hours after discontinuing the drug. Signs reach their maximum on day 5 and usually resolve within 2 to 3 weeks. Withdrawal syndrome is more common with short half-life drugs (paroxetine, fluvoxamine). The intensity of the clinical signs depends on the daily dose and how long the drug has been given. The main signs are dizziness, vertigo, headache, nausea, and flu-like symptoms as well as anxiety, confusion, irritability, excessive dreaming and insomnia. Risk factors usually stressed are poor treatment compliance, previous withdrawal syndrome with another drug, concomitant medication and alcohol consumption. The syndrome can be prevented by tapering off the dose and patient education. When a withdrawal syndrome is present, it is advisable to reintroduce the drug then withdraw gradually. PMID:10855379

Belloeuf, L; Le Jeunne, C; Hugues, F C

2000-04-01

39

Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of

Howard C. Becker

40

Withdrawal syndromes.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of substance withdrawal is elucidated by a review of classic and cutting-edge research. The manifestation and evaluation of the associated withdrawal syndromes from ethanol, sedative-hypnotics, opioids, and baclofen, are compared. The general management of and pharmacotherapy for these patients are discussed. PMID:10767884

Olmedo, R; Hoffman, R S

2000-05-01

41

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.  

PubMed

Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a ?-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ?, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

2014-09-01

42

Involvement of Noradrenergic Transmission in the PVN on CREB Activation, TORC1 Levels, and Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity during Morphine Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Experimental and clinical findings have shown that administration of adrenoceptor antagonists alleviated different aspects of drug withdrawal and dependence. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in CREB activation and phosphorylated TORC1 levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal as well as the HPA axis activity arises from ?1- and/or ?-adrenoceptor activation. The effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on CREB phosphorylation (pCREB), phosphorylated TORC1 (pTORC1), and HPA axis response were measured by Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay in rats pretreated with prazosin (?1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (?-adrenoceptor antagonist). In addition, the effects of morphine withdrawal on MHPG (the main NA metabolite at the central nervous system) and NA content and turnover were evaluated by HPLC. We found an increase in MHPG and NA turnover in morphine-withdrawn rats, which were accompanied by increased pCREB immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone concentrations. Levels of the inactive form of TORC1 (pTORC1) were decreased during withdrawal. Prazosin but not propranolol blocked the rise in pCREB level and the decrease in pTORC1 immunoreactivity. In addition, the HPA axis response to morphine withdrawal was attenuated in prazosin-pretreated rats. Present results suggest that, during acute morphine withdrawal, NA may control the HPA axis activity through CREB activation at the PVN level. We concluded that the combined increase in CREB phosphorylation and decrease in pTORC1 levels might represent, in part, two of the mechanisms of CREB activation at the PVN during morphine withdrawal.

Martin, Fatima; Nunez, Cristina; Marin, M. Teresa; Laorden, M. Luisa; Kovacs, Krisztina J.; Milanes, M. Victoria

2012-01-01

43

Effects of fencamfamine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

1. The effects produced by discontinuation of long-term treatment with fencamfamine (FCF) were evaluated recording behavioral and body weight changes. 2. 48 hr after withdrawal of FCF rats showed a significant decrease in exploratory behavior when compared to saline-treated ones. 3. Discontinuation of treatment with FCF resulted in a significant increase in body weight on days of drug withdrawal. 4. These results suggest that FCF caused signs of withdrawal similar to other psychostimulant drugs. PMID:7835639

Planeta, C S; DeLucia, R; Aizenstein, M L

1994-09-01

44

[Mechanism of withdrawal syndrome in alcohol dependence].  

PubMed

Pathophysiological process of ethanol physical dependence and its withdrawal syndrome is supposed to result from adaptive changes in a number of neurotransmission systems, and several reports have demonstrated functional relationship between behavioral responses and neurotransmission systems in ethanol-dependent and -withdrawn animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral responses observed in these animals are still controversial at present. Alterations of beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) function in the brains of mice physically dependent on ethanol were examined because of few available data on functional changes of beta-ARs and its significance in ethanol withdrawal signs. The protein level of beta-ARs also significantly increased in the frontal cortex of mouse with ethanol physical dependence and conditions withdrawn from ethanol after chronic treatment with ethanol vapor for 9 days. Intracerebroventricular administration of nadolol, a non-selective antagonist for beta-ARs, immediately after discontinuation of ethanol inhalation clearly attenuated the expression of withdrawal signs. These findings suggests that ethanol physical dependence induces beta-AR up-regulation, that is their increased number and facilitation of beta-AR signaling, which may at least in part participates in expression of tonic-clonic convulsion as one of ethanol withdrawal signs. We further investigated relationship between actin of cytoskeleton and relapse of alcohol dependence after withdrawal from alcohol vapor inhalation for 9 days. After 3 days of withdrawal from alcohol vapor alcohol-induced place preference was enhanced, which was blocked by the treatment with an actin polymerization inhibitor, cytochalasin D, and anactin depolymerization inhibitor, phalloidin, during 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. These findings suggest that changes in actin turnover on withdrawal from alcohol vapor involve in sensitization of alcohol-induced place preference. PMID:22256590

Shibasaki, Masahiro; Mizuno, Koji; Ohkuma, Seitaro

2011-10-01

45

Alcohol Dependence Produced in Mice by Inhalation of Ethanol: Grading the Withdrawal Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intoxicating blood levels of ethanol are maintained for several days in mice housed in an atmosphere of ethanol vapor. On removal from the alcohol, all the mice develop withdrawal signs. The signs can be graded to indicate the time course and intensity of the withdrawal reaction.

Dora B. Goldstein; Nandita Pal

1971-01-01

46

Warning Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents various signs that may indicate emotional problems in children or teens, noting that if children exhibit any of the warning signs, it is important to talk to a doctor, counselor, or mental-health professional. The warning signs are categorized as things that trouble the child, things that limit the child, behavior problems, and sudden…

Our Children, 1999

1999-01-01

47

Vital Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 16-23) lets learners measure each other's vital signsâthe signs that help doctors understand what's going on in a patient body. Learners measure human body temperature, respiration rate, and pulse, and compare them to vital signs of other mammals large and small, such as a cow and a rabbit. A "think it over" writing exercise finishes the activity.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2002-01-01

48

Bupropion for the treatment of nicotine withdrawal and craving.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, bupropion has become a major pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in the Western world. Unlike other smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, bupropion is a non-nicotine treatment. Compared with a placebo control, bupropion approximately doubles smoking quit rates. Most smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are thought to work, in part, by reducing nicotine withdrawal and craving. This article reviews preclinical, human laboratory and clinical trial studies of the effect of bupropion on nicotine withdrawal and craving. Preclinical studies demonstrate that in rats undergoing nicotine withdrawal, bupropion can dose-dependently lower changes in brain-reward threshold and somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. Human laboratory studies have demonstrated that bupropion can alleviate some nicotine withdrawal symptoms, including depressed mood, irritability, difficulty concentrating and increased appetite. Moreover, bupropion has shown some efficacy in alleviating craving to smoke. Clinical trials of bupropion have offered mixed support of its ability to reduce nicotine withdrawal, weight gain during treatment and craving. Strong mediational evidence of bupropion's action through relief of withdrawal and craving in smoking cessation is growing. Greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms of bupropion action will likely be obtained through advances in the conceptualization and measurement of withdrawal and craving. Improvements in the efficacy of bupropion may be achieved through pharmacogenetic studies, with particular emphasis on its metabolites. Ultimately, the efficacy of bupropion may be augmented by combination with other agents that target withdrawal and craving through complementary neurobiological processes. PMID:16831112

Mooney, Marc E; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2006-07-01

49

Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

50

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

51

[GHB withdrawal delirium].  

PubMed

A 35-year-old man had been using high doses of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for many years. He had been trying to cut down on use of this drug for 2 months. He was admitted to the hospital suffering from a withdrawal delirium accompanied by hallucinations and agitation. Use of GHB is increasing in the Netherlands. Along with serious intoxication and dependency, the possibility of withdrawal symptoms should also be taken into consideration. Administration of high doses of benzodiazepines is an effective treatment for these withdrawal symptoms. PMID:20132572

Stijnenbosch, Petra J E; Zuketto, Cassandra; Beijaert, Pieter J; Maat, Anneliek

2010-01-01

52

Dollar Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use number sense and mental math strategies to estimate the price of a sign. Learners pretend they are in charge of making signs for businesses and must calculate the cost of three orders using estimation. This activity provides an opportunity for learners to practice making estimates of the sum of more than two numbers. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

53

Vital Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

Brown, Lester R.

1993-01-01

54

Fulminant hepatic failure in nephrotic syndrome related to withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with nephrotic syndrome developed fatal fulminant hepatitis B following withdrawal of prednisolone or cyclophosphamide. Immunosuppressive therapy probably enhanced hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and widespread infection of hepatocytes; its withdrawal permitted a return of immune competence resulting in massive destruction of infected hepatocytes. Prior screening of all patients for hepatitis B surface antigen, gradual withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs with careful monitoring, and prompt intervention with corticosteroids at the first clinical or biochemical signs of liver cell damage may prevent this complication.

Onwubalili, J. K.

1988-01-01

55

American Sign Language  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections, and Deafness American Sign Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

56

Spontaneous and precipitated withdrawal after chronic intragastric administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: ?-Hydroxybuyrate (GHB) is a cur- rent drug of abuse that may produce physical dependence. Objectives: The present study characterized the behavior- al effects of chronic GHB in baboons (n=4), and evaluated whether signs of withdrawal occurred (1) after adminis- tration of the GABA-B antagonist CGP36742 during chronic GHB administration (precipitated withdrawal) and (2) following discontinuation of chronic GHB administra-

Elise M. Weerts; Amy K. Goodwin; Roland R. Griffiths; P. Rand Brown; Wolfgang Froestl; Cornelis Jakobs; K. Michael Gibson

2005-01-01

57

A case of withdrawal psychosis from internet addiction disorder.  

PubMed

Similar to substance use disorder, patients with Internet addiction disorder (IAD) show excessive use, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. We report a case of a patient with withdrawal psychosis who showed persecutory delusion and disorganized behaviors in addition to common withdrawal symptoms such as agitation and irritability. A 25-year-old male developed a full-blown psychotic episode within one day after discontinuing an Internet game that he had been playing for at least eight hours a day for two years. Upon admission, he had no abnormal brain imaging findings and laboratory tests. With antipsychotic medication (quetiapine up to 800 mg), his psychotic symptoms rapidly subsided and after four days of treatment, he no longer showed any signs of psychosis. This case report suggests that brief psychosis can develop during withdrawal from long-term excessive use of an Internet and the central pathology beneath the IAD is more likely a form of addiction than impulse control. PMID:24843379

Paik, Ahyoung; Oh, Daeyoung; Kim, Daeho

2014-04-01

58

A Case of Withdrawal Psychosis from Internet Addiction Disorder  

PubMed Central

Similar to substance use disorder, patients with Internet addiction disorder (IAD) show excessive use, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. We report a case of a patient with withdrawal psychosis who showed persecutory delusion and disorganized behaviors in addition to common withdrawal symptoms such as agitation and irritability. A 25-year-old male developed a full-blown psychotic episode within one day after discontinuing an Internet game that he had been playing for at least eight hours a day for two years. Upon admission, he had no abnormal brain imaging findings and laboratory tests. With antipsychotic medication (quetiapine up to 800 mg), his psychotic symptoms rapidly subsided and after four days of treatment, he no longer showed any signs of psychosis. This case report suggests that brief psychosis can develop during withdrawal from long-term excessive use of an Internet and the central pathology beneath the IAD is more likely a form of addiction than impulse control.

Paik, Ahyoung; Oh, Daeyoung

2014-01-01

59

Gammahydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal syndrome is increasingly encountered in emergency departments among patients presenting for health care after discontinuing frequent GHB use. This report describes the characteristics, course, and symptoms of this syndrome. Methods: A retrospective review of poison center records identified 7 consecutive cases in which patients reporting excessive GHB use were admitted for symptoms consistent with a

Jo Ellen Dyer; Brett Roth; Bruce A. Hyma

2001-01-01

60

Alcohol withdrawal seizures.  

PubMed

The topic of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), including delirium tremens and especially seizures, is reviewed. From mice and rat studies, it is known that both N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in AWS. During alcohol intoxication chronic adaptations of NMDA and GABA receptors occur, and during alcohol withdrawal a hyperexcitable state develops. In studies on humans, during intoxication the NMDA receptors are activated and mediate tonic inhibition. In withdrawal, a rebound activation of these receptors occurs. Both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, especially the alpha2 subunit of GABA-A receptors, are also likely involved. Homocysteine increases with active drinking, and in withdrawal, excitotoxicity likely is induced by a further increase in homocysteine, viewed as a risk factor for AWS and also as a screening tool. The dopamine transporter gene is also associated with AWS. Characteristics involves changes in the ECG, especially an increase in QT interval, and EEG changes, including abnormal quantified EEG, at times periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, and especially seizures, usually occurring 6-48h after the cessation of drinking. Therapy has emphasized benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and lorazepam, but more standard antiepileptic drugs, like carbamazepine and topiramate, are also effective and safe. PMID:19249388

Hughes, John R

2009-06-01

61

Naloxone-induced cardiovascular depression in rats that had received chronic morphine-treatment.  

PubMed Central

1. Cardiovascular changes in response to intravenous injection of naloxone were studied in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats which had been given morphine in their drinking water for 1-21 days. The mechanisms of the observed changes were investigated in intact animals and in isolated hearts and tail arteries. 2. In rats that had received chronic morphine-treatment, intravenous administration of naloxone caused immediate decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular pressure and dLVP/dtmax which were followed by the occurrence of atrial or ventricular extrasystoles and other signs of opiate withdrawal such as faecal passage and muscle twitching. 3. The intensities of the naloxone-precipitated cardiovascular changes were directly related to the duration of chronic morphine pretreatment, reaching statistically significant levels on day 2 or 3 and maximal levels on day 7 or 14. This phenomenon disappeared on days 3 to 14 following opiate withdrawal in animals which had been treated previously with morphine for 21 days. 4. Either atropine or clonidine pretreatment significantly prevented the occurrence of faecal passage or muscle twitching during naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal. However, clonidine, but not atropine or yohimbine, abolished the decreases in various haemodynamic parameters. The occurrence of cardiac extrasystoles was not affected. 5. In isolated heart or tail artery preparations from chronically morphine-treated rats, naloxone administration did not elicit reactions which differed from those of the preparations from naive animals. These findings suggest that under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, the cardiovascular systems of rats that had received chronic morphine treatment exhibit inhibitory, instead of excitatory, reactions to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal.

Dai, S.; Wang, Y.

1991-01-01

62

Social Withdrawal in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood.

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

2013-01-01

63

Transitions in viscous withdrawal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process analogous to flow-focusing occurs in extended and stably stratified layers of immiscible, viscous liquids. In viscous withdrawal, an axisymmetric converging flow is imposed in the upper layer. When the upper layer flow is weak, the interface forms a hump. No liquid from the lower layer is entrained. When the upper layer flow is strong, liquid from the lower layer is entrained and the interface becomes a spout. Here I summarize recent results on the fundamental mechanisms controlling these regimes. For selective withdrawal, a clear picture has emerged, with good agreement between theory, simulation and experiment. The regime ends when the viscous stress exerted by the upper layer flow overcomes surface tension, creating a saddle-node bifurcation in the hump solution. Less is understood about viscous entrainment. A long-wavelength model including only local information is degenerate, possessing many solutions for the same withdrawal condition. Including information about the global geometry removes this degeneracy but also makes the surprising prediction that global geometry can change the nature of the transition. First-order, weakly first-order or continuous transitions are all possible. How these results relate to the variety of experimental phenomena, such as stable, micron-sized spouts, intricate patterns of hysteresis and multiple stable spout states under the same condition, is at present unclear. (Includes material from joint works with Blanchette, Cohen, Kleine Berkenbusch, and Schmidt.)

Zhang, Wendy W.

2008-11-01

64

Dual Inhibition of Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzymes Produces Enhanced Antiwithdrawal Effects in Morphine-Dependent Mice  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of the endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) attenuates naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal signs in mice via activation of CB1 receptors. Complete FAAH inhibition blocks only a subset of withdrawal signs, whereas complete MAGL inhibition elicits enhanced antiwithdrawal efficacy, but is accompanied with some cannabimimetic side effects. Thus, the primary objective of the present study was to determine whether combined, full FAAH inhibition and partial MAGL represents an optimal strategy to reduce opioid withdrawal. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether combined administration of high-dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 and low-dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, as well as the novel dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57, which is 100-fold more potent in inhibiting FAAH than MAGL, would prevent spontaneous withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, a model with greater face validity than precipitating withdrawal with ?-opioid receptor antagonists. Strikingly, a combination of low-dose JZL184 and high-dose PF-3845 as well as the dual inhibitor SA-57 reduced all abrupt withdrawal signs (ie, platform jumping, paw flutters, head shakes, diarrhea, and total body weight loss), but did not elicit any cannabimimetic side effects. In addition, JZL184 or PF-3845 blocked naloxone-precipitated hypersecretion in morphine-dependent small intestinal tissue. Collectively, these results are the first to show that endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors reduce abrupt withdrawal in morpine-dependent mice and are effective in a novel in vitro model of opioid withdrawal. More generally, these findings support the idea that joint MAGL and FAAH inhibition represents a promising approach for the treatment of opioid dependence.

Ramesh, Divya; Gamage, Thomas F; Vanuytsel, Tim; Owens, Robert A; Abdullah, Rehab A; Niphakis, Micah J; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

2013-01-01

65

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid for treatment of opiate withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) (25 mg/kg orally) suppressed most of the withdrawal symptomatology in 14 heroin addicts and 13 methadone-maintained subjects. The GHB effect was prompt (within 15 minutes) and persisted for between 2 and 3 hours. Subsequently, the same patients received GHB in an open study every 2 to 4 hours for the first 2 days and 4 to 6 hours for the following 6 days: most abstinence signs and symptoms remained suppressed and patients reported felling well. Urine analysis failed to detect any presence of opiate metabolites. No withdrawal symptomatology recurred after 8 days of treatment when GHB was suspended, and patients were challenged with an intravenous injection of 0.4 mg naloxone. The results indicate that GHB may be useful in the management of opiate withdrawal. PMID:8397726

Gallimberti, L; Cibin, M; Pagnin, P; Sabbion, R; Pani, P P; Pirastu, R; Ferrara, S D; Gessa, G L

1993-08-01

66

Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the field of clinical neurology and psychiatry. It relates specifically to compounds, compositions and methods for the treatment of patients experiencing the alcohol abstinence (withdrawal) syndrome characterized by tremulousness,...

M. A. Rogawski B. Tabakoff K. Grant

1991-01-01

67

Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration  

Cancer.gov

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

68

Sign Retroreflectivity Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Signing is a big yearly cost to state DOTs in sign maintenance and replacement costs. In 2001 the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) replaced 14,930 signs at a cost of $1,067,931 and did maintenance work on 34,084 signs at a cost of $2,136,076. ...

A. Bischoff D. Bullock

2002-01-01

69

Sign Retroreflectivity Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signing is a big yearly cost to state DOT’s in sign maintenance and replacement costs. In 2001 the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) replaced 14,930 signs at a cost of $1,067,931 and did maintenance work on 34,084 signs at a cost of $2,136,076. Recently, guidelines have been proposed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for minimum retroreflectivity of traffic signs

Austin Lyons Bischoff; Darcy M. Bullock

2002-01-01

70

Endocannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Protracted Nicotine Withdrawal: Effect of FAAH Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg/rat/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed at 16 and 34 hours following removal of nicotine patches, respectively. Further behavioral manifestations including decrease in locomotor activity and increased weight gain also occurred during withdrawal. Expression of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal was accompanied by fluctuation in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in several brain structures including the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, levels of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol were not significantly altered. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular degradation of AEA, by URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced withdrawal-induced anxiety as assessed by the elevated plus maze test and the shock-probe defensive burying paradigm, but did not prevent the occurrence of somatic signs. Together, the results indicate that pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing endocannabinoid signaling may offer therapeutic advantages to treat the negative affective state produced by nicotine withdrawal, which is critical for the maintenance of tobacco use.

Cippitelli, Andrea; Astarita, Giuseppe; Duranti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Stopponi, Serena; Kallupi, Marsida; Sagratini, Gianni; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Piomelli, Daniele; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2011-01-01

71

Effects exerted by otilonium bromide administration on precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in rats.  

PubMed

An opioid withdrawal syndrome was induced in rats by repeated morphine administration and final naloxone injection. The withdrawal causes alteration of several physiological signs. The aim of the study was to prevent the altered physiological profiles by utilising otilonium bromide. Morphine was administered in three daily i.p. injections for 4 days at doses of 9, 16 and 25 mg/kg (1st day), 25, 25 and 50 mg/kg (2nd day), 50, 50 and 50 mg/kg (3rd day) and 50, 50 and 100 mg/kg (4th day). Naloxone was injected (30 mg/kg) i.p. 180 min after the last morphine injection. Otilonium bromide was administered orally at 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, 120 min before the naloxone administration. Signs like faecal and urine excretion, rectal temperature and pain threshold levels, salivation, jumping and wet dog shakes were affected in different ways. Notably the administration of otilonium bromide in rats receiving morphine together with naloxone decreased the intensity of certain withdrawal symptoms, such as excretion of faeces, wet dog shake behaviour, and elevated the nociceptive threshold values. The effects exhibited by otilonium bromide administration may be explained through its calcium antagonist activity interfering with a mechanism involved in the regulation of these previously mentioned withdrawal symptoms. The use of this drug is thus suggested as a possible control of some acute opioid withdrawal signs in heroin addicts. PMID:9274799

Pinelli, A; Trivulzio, S; Vignati, S

1997-09-26

72

l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.  

PubMed

l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

2012-12-01

73

Signs of Overload  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs of Overload Healthy Living Listen Signs of Overload Article Body Although stress is a part of ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

74

Psoriasis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments M - P Psoriasis Signs, symptoms Psoriasis: Signs and symptoms What you see and feel ... listed below, or you may have many. Plaque psoriasis (also called psoriasis vulgaris) Raised, reddish patches on ...

75

42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a) Withdrawal of proposed...

2013-10-01

76

49 CFR 365.123 - Applicant withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Applicant withdrawal. 365.123 Section 365.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...AUTHORITY How To Apply for Operating Authority § 365.123 Applicant withdrawal. If the applicant wishes...

2013-10-01

77

Sign, Symbol and Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signs are such a commonplace sight in our everyday lives, that we can easily miss the artistic beauty and graphic harmony of the symbols used. Thoughtfully well designed and planned signs communicate with a simplicity and directness that signmakers and designers have adhered to for ages. Even contemporary signs still reflect their timelessness…

Ballinger, Louise Bowen; Ballinger, Raymond A.

78

Morphological traffic sign recognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main attentions are focused on a binary machine vision problem, e.g., morphological traffic sign recognition. In order to recognize informational inner sign shapes of Korean traffic signs on roads, four quantitative similarity measures are developed, which are based on mathematical morphology and binary rank statistics. Using them, maximum similarity or minimum distance matching algorithms are proposed. Simulation results show

Gang Yi Jiang; Tae Young Choi; Yi Zheng

1996-01-01

79

British Sign Name Customs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2010-01-01

80

Vital Signs Rate Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the vital signs rate meter described in this report is an outgrowth from previous studies on noninvasive measurement methods and systems for vital signs detection. The purpose of the vital signs rate meter is to assist medical technicians in...

C. S. Lessard W. C. Wong E. T. Schorsch J. J. Im S. Mesibov

1987-01-01

81

27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

2013-04-01

82

Withdrawal Strength of Threaded Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threaded nails are used in wood construction because of their superior performance, but relatively few tests have been conducted on nails larger than 12d (3.76 mm diameter). Experience has suggested that threaded nail withdrawal design values are too conservative. The Forest Products Laboratory and Washington State University have been cooperatively characterizing the strength of threaded nails over a range of

Douglas R. Rammer; Steve G. Winistorfer; Donald A. Bender

2001-01-01

83

Decreased withdrawal symptoms but normal tolerance to nicotine in mice null for the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit.  

PubMed

Withdrawal symptoms are a major deterrent when people try to quit smoking. The alpha7 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is highly expressed in the brain, and has been suspected to play a major role in nicotine addiction. We studied the influence of alpha7-containing nAChRs on nicotine withdrawal and tolerance, in wild type mice and mice null for the alpha7 nAChR subunit (alpha7 -/-). For withdrawal experiments, animals were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering nicotine for 13 days. A single intraperitoneal injection of the nAChR antagonists mecamylamine (MEC) or methyllycaconitine (MLA) was used to precipitate withdrawal. In wild type mice, both MEC- and MLA-precipitated somatic signs of withdrawal such as increased grooming, scratching and shaking. In alpha7 -/- mice, the somatic effects of MEC-precipitated nicotine withdrawal were significantly reduced. Interestingly, the presumed alpha7-specific antagonist MLA also precipitated withdrawal. Tolerance, which was measured as a decrease in nicotine-induced hypolocomotion after subchronic nicotine treatment, was normal in alpha7 -/- mice. Finally, because anxiety and withdrawal symptoms are highly correlated in humans, we studied anxiety-like behaviors in alpha7 -/- mice using a battery of anxiety-related tests. The behavior of alpha7 -/- mice was indistinguishable from that of control mice. Our results point to the alpha7 subunit as one of the players in nicotine withdrawal, but not in nicotine tolerance or basal anxiety-like behavior. PMID:17920082

Salas, Ramiro; Main, Adam; Gangitano, David; De Biasi, Mariella

2007-12-01

84

On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

Paales, Liina

2010-01-01

85

Cannabis withdrawal in adolescent treatment seekers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valid cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been demonstrated in controlled studies with adult marijuana abusers, yet few published reports have examined cannabis withdrawal among adolescents. Adolescents presenting for outpatient substance abuse treatment, whose primary substance of abuse was cannabis, completed a questionnaire reporting the presence and severity of withdrawal symptoms during past periods of cannabis abstinence. Nearly two-thirds of the

Ryan Vandrey; Alan J. Budney; Jody L. Kamon; Catherine Stanger

2005-01-01

86

Reward and somatic changes during precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats: centrally and peripherally mediated effects.  

PubMed

The negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal have been hypothesized to contribute to tobacco dependence. In the present studies in rats, brain stimulation reward thresholds, conditioned place aversions, and somatic signs of withdrawal were used to investigate the role of central and peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors in nicotine withdrawal. Rats prepared with s.c. osmotic mini-pumps delivering 9.0 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate or saline were administered various doses of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine (s.c.), chlorisondamine (s. c. or i.c.v.), dihydro-beta-erythroidine (s.c.), or the opiate antagonist naloxone (s.c.). Nicotine-treated rats receiving mecamylamine or i.c.v. chlorisondamine exhibited elevated thresholds and more somatic signs than saline-treated rats. Nicotine-treated rats receiving s.c. chlorisondamine, at doses that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, exhibited more somatic signs than saline-treated rats with no threshold elevations. Naloxone administration produced threshold elevations and somatic signs only at high doses that induced similar magnitude effects in both nicotine- and saline-treated subjects. Mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erythroidine administration induced conditioned place aversions in nicotine-treated rats but required higher doses than those needed to precipitate threshold elevations. In contrast, naloxone administration induced conditioned place aversions at lower doses than those required to precipitate threshold elevations and somatic signs. These data provide evidence for a dissociation between centrally mediated elevations in reward thresholds and somatic signs that are both centrally and peripherally mediated. Furthermore, threshold elevations and somatic signs of withdrawal appear to be mediated by cholinergic neurotransmission, whereas conditioned place aversions appear to be primarily mediated by the opioid system. PMID:10688623

Watkins, S S; Stinus, L; Koob, G F; Markou, A

2000-03-01

87

Modified 'Joyce model' of opioid dependence/withdrawal  

PubMed Central

By comprehensive and detailed measurement of the time course of withdrawal signs in rats, Joyce et al. (J. Theo. Biol. 240:531–537, 2006) recently provided a creative quantitative model of onset of drug-dependence based on the requirement of protein synthesis. Because the initial model fit the data imperfectly over the full time course, the authors postulated that additional features would be needed. We report excellent fit of the data (R2 = 0.96) by adding: (1) a transient early phase, and (2) a delay in the buildup of protein.

Raffa, Robert B.; Tallarida, Ronald J.

2006-01-01

88

Smoking withdrawal dynamics in unaided quitters.  

PubMed

Considerable research shows that withdrawal severity is inconsistently related to smoking cessation outcomes. This may result from measurement problems or failure to scrutinize important dimensions of the withdrawal experience. Two recent studies demonstrated that withdrawal elevation and variations in the time course of withdrawal were related to relapse in smokers treated with the nicotine patch (T. M. Piasecki, M. C. Fiore, & T. B. Baker, 1998). This article reports a conceptual replication and extension of those findings in unaided quitters. Evidence for temporal heterogeneity was found across different types of withdrawal symptoms. Patterns or slopes of affect and urge reports over time predicted smoking status at follow-up, as did mean elevation in withdrawal symptoms. These results suggest that affect and urge withdrawal symptoms make independent contributions to relapse and that relapse is related to both symptom severity and trajectory. PMID:10740938

Piasecki, T M; Niaura, R; Shadel, W G; Abrams, D; Goldstein, M; Fiore, M C; Baker, T B

2000-02-01

89

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

2006-11-06

90

Effects of the beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone on nicotine withdrawal and nicotine-induced reinstatement of preference in mice  

PubMed Central

Rationale Several studies suggest that repeated nicotine administration causes alterations in glutaminergic transmission that may play an important role in developing and maintaining nicotine addiction. Chronic nicotine administration in rats decreases the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cysteine–glutamate exchanger (system xC?) in the nucleus accumbens. We hypothesized that ceftriaxone, a GLT-1 and system xC? activator, would decrease murine behavioral aspects of nicotine dependence. Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated ceftriaxone administration on the behavioral effects of nicotine using mouse models of conditioned reward and withdrawal. Method Using male ICR mice, the ability of repeated ceftriaxone injections to modulate the development and reinstatement of a nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP) was evaluated. Additionally, nicotine withdrawal-associated signs were assessed. These included both physical (somatic signs and hyperalgesia) and affective (anxiety-related behaviors) withdrawal signs in mice. Finally, the effects of ceftriaxone on nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia after acute nicotine injection were measured. Result Ceftriaxone had no effect on the development of nicotine preference but significantly attenuated nicotine-induced reinstatement of CPP. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reversed all nicotine withdrawal signs measured in mice. Conclusion Altogether, these findings show that a ?-lactam antibiotic reduces nicotine withdrawal and nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results suggest that the documented efficacy of ceftriaxone against cocaine and morphine dependence-related behaviors effects extends to nicotine.

Alajaji, M.; Bowers, M. S.; Knackstedt, L.

2013-01-01

91

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

92

Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Withdrawal syndrome may influence patient's motivation for participation in addiction treatment programs. Management of the symptoms can improve the success rate of addiction treatment programs. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse. Methods In the present clinical trial, 81 patients were assigned into case and control groups. The control group was treated with methadone and placebo for 4 weeks. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis for the same interval. Occurrence of withdrawal syndrome was compared between groups on days 3, 7, and 14 after beginning of the treatment, and the possible signs and symptoms of withdrawal syndrome were checked. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was used for evaluation of withdrawal syndrome in the patients. Findings Patients in the case group experienced less severe withdrawal syndrome compared to those in the control group; chiefly bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia. Conclusion The present study showed that rosemary can be used as an optional extra drug for treatment of withdrawal syndrome during treatment programs for opium addiction and possibly addiction to other opioids.

Solhi, Hassan; Salehi, Bahman; Alimoradian, Abbas; Pazouki, Shirin; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Saleh, Ali Mohammad; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

2013-01-01

93

Traffic Sign Recognition Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The rst part of this paper provides an overview of previous work on tra c sign recognition. Various components are discussed, such as detection, classi cation and temporal integration. The second part of this paper covers a recently developed shape-based system, based on dis-tance transforms. This system has been quite successful in detecting and recognizing tra c signs in

Dariu Gavrila

1999-01-01

94

American Sign Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Sign Museum is the only public collection of its kind, and it is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its fun, colorful website just may bring back memories for some visitors. Users should definitely watch the video tour of the museum with the founder, Tod Swormstedt. The link can be found near the top of the homepage, and is entitled "Take a Video Tour." The founder explains his goals in opening the museum, which are to show "the history of the sign industry and its significant contribution to commerce and the American landscape." He also goes on to reference the urban renewal program from the 1960s called SOS, which meant Scrap Our Signs, as a source of many of the museum's holdings. The excellent "Exhibits" link on the left hand menu contains a link to the museum's permanent collection and visitors will find it is divided into eight categories, including "Painted/Non-illuminated Signs," "Plastic Signs," and "Neon Signs and Displays: The Glory Days." The Exhibits link also offers to visitors half a dozen sections of signs that can be seen from the road (On the Road), while walking around (Walking Tours), or from an armchair (Sign History).

95

Signed Binary Representations Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common method for computing exponentiation of random elements in Abelian groups are sliding window schemes, which enhance the eciency of the binary method at the expense of some precomputation. In groups where inversion is easy (e.g. elliptic curves), signed representations of the exponent are meaningful because they de- crease the amount of required precomputation. The asymptotic best signed

Katsuyuki Okeya; Katja Schmidt-samoa; Christian Spahn; Tsuyoshi Takagi

2004-01-01

96

The reversal sign.  

PubMed

We report a 36-year-old woman with a bacterial meningitis. CT after resuscitation showed a striking "reversal sign." Opinions on the pathogenesis of this sign are discussed; it indicates serious brain damage and carries a poor prognosis. PMID:1630613

Vergote, G; Vandeperre, H; De Man, R

1992-01-01

97

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

98

Pregabalin and topiramate regulate behavioural and brain gene transcription changes induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the actions of pregabalin and topiramate on behavioural and gene transcription alterations induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice. Tolerance was induced in mice by administration of CP-55,940 (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours; i.p.; 7 days). Behavioural assessment of spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal was performed by measuring motor activity, somatic signs and anxiety-like behaviour on days 1 and 3 after cessation of treatment with CP-55,940. On days 1-3 of cannabinoid withdrawal, mice received pregabalin (40 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) or topiramate (50 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) and their actions on signs of withdrawal and anxiety-like behaviour were evaluated. The administration of CP-55,940 decreased rectal temperature and motor activity on day 1. On day 1 after interruption of cannabinoid administration, motor activity and the number of rearings increased compared with control group. Anxiety-like behaviour induced by cessation of cannabinoid treatment increased significantly on days 1 and 3 of withdrawal. The administration of pregabalin or topiramate blocked the motor signs and reduced significantly anxiety-like behaviour. Cannabinoid withdrawal decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area and µ-opioid receptor gene expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased CB1 receptor gene expression in the NAcc. Treatment with topiramate or pregabalin blocked the decrease of TH and the increase of CB1 gene expressions induced by cannabinoid withdrawal. Both drugs failed to alter µ-opioid receptor gene expression. These results suggest that pregabalin and topiramate may result useful for the treatment of anxiety-like behaviour and motor symptoms associated with spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal. PMID:22017514

Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Almela, Pilar; Manzanares, Jorge

2013-03-01

99

Environmental changes modify the expression of Diazepam withdrawal.  

PubMed

Early results from our laboratory have demonstrated a positive correlation between increased hippocampal synaptic plasticity and development of tolerance to hypolocomotive effect of Diazepam (DZ). We have found recently, that pre-exposure to DZ administration context impairs increase of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in conjunction with tolerance to DZ. These findings have suggested, that the tolerance to DZ is context specific. Furthermore, the hippocampus can be critically involved in the behavioral expression of conditioned tolerance to DZ. The results of the present investigation show that animals chronically treated with DZ for 18 days exhibit withdrawal signs, evaluated as an increased anxiety in an elevated plus maze. These animals also show, a facilitation in the threshold to induce long-term potentiation in the hippocampal formation. These phenomena have a strong dependency on the drug administration context, since both are reversed after the introduction of some changes in the drug administration environment. Furthermore, the alteration of some environmental cues increased the locomotive activity in animals that did not show anxiety as a withdrawal signs. We conclude that a common neural system could underlie the behavioral expression of the conditioned tolerance and dependence on DZ. PMID:12385792

Pérez, Mariela F; Maglio, Laura E; Marchesini, Gerardo R; Molina, Juan C; Ramírez, Oscar A

2002-10-17

100

Gammahydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: To raise awareness among health care workers of the risk of withdrawal symptoms after longstanding and intense abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23 year old Caucasian woman presented with gamma-hydroxybutyric addiction and withdrawal syndrome. The symptoms of gamma-hydroxybutyric withdrawal in this patient initially went unrecognized, upon which her situation deteriorated in such a way that she needed

Michael A Kuiper; Nicole Peikert; E Christiaan Boerma

2009-01-01

101

Antecedents and consequences of demand/withdraw.  

PubMed

The authors examined the immediate antecedents and consequences of the demand/withdraw interaction pattern within naturally occurring conflicts. Both partners in 75 couples, including gay, lesbian, and straight couples, were interviewed individually regarding 2 recent conflicts, 1 chosen by each partner, and completed postinterview questionnaires. Interviews were coded for antecedents (e.g., upset prior to conflict), consequences (e.g., resolution of conflict), and demand/withdraw behaviors. In the postinterview questionnaires, participants rated demand/withdraw behaviors and their satisfaction with the outcome of the discussion. Results demonstrated that demand/withdraw behavior shifts depending on whose issue is under discussion, but other proximal antecedents did not significantly predict demand/withdraw. Regarding consequences, results indicated that most conflicts do not result in resolution, and most resolutions do not involve agreed-on change. Demand/withdraw did not predict a decreased likelihood of resolution. However, for those issues that were resolved, demand/withdraw resulted in a decreased likelihood of changes being agreed on. Furthermore, demand/withdraw predicted less satisfaction with the outcome of the discussion, even when controlling for the substantive outcome. Results were generally replicated across both self-report and coder ratings of demand/withdraw. PMID:19803610

McGinn, Meghan M; McFarland, Pamela T; Christensen, Andrew

2009-10-01

102

The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of

David J. Allsop; Melissa M. Norberg; Jan Copeland; Shanlin Fu; Alan J. Budney

2011-01-01

103

Suicide Warning Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge Suicide Warning Signs n Acting reckless or engaging in ... you or someone you love at risk of suicide? Get the facts and take appropriate action. Printed: ...

104

Pertussis Signs & Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Disclaimer policy. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Pertussis Homepage About Pertussis Causes & Transmission Causes & Transmission-Spanish Signs & Symptoms Symptoms-Spanish Complications Complications-Spanish Diagnosis & ...

105

Rosacea: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment. Subtype 1: Facial redness, flushing, visible blood vessels Signs and symptoms Flushing and redness in the center of the face. Visible broken blood vessels (spider veins). Swollen skin. Skin may be very ...

106

Warning Signs of Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... away . Back to top Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

107

ALMA Antenna Contract Signed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 6, ESO signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe.

2005-12-01

108

The ?2 adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, but not the serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907, partially attenuated reward deficits associated with nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal in rats  

PubMed Central

Based on phenomenological similarities between anhedonia (reward deficits) associated with drug withdrawal and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we showed previously that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine attenuated reward deficits associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. Antagonism of ?2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to these effects of clozapine. We investigated here whether blockade of ?2 or 5-HT2A receptors by idazoxan and M100907, respectively, would reverse anhedonic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal. Idazoxan treatment facilitated recovery from spontaneous nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal by attenuating reward deficits and increased number of somatic signs. Thus, ?2 adrenoceptor blockade may have beneficial effects against nicotine withdrawal and may be involved in the effects of clozapine previously observed. M100907 worsened the anhedonia associated with nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal suggesting that monotherapy with M100907 may exacerbate the expression of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia or nicotine withdrawal symptoms in people, including schizophrenia patients, attempting to quit smoking.

Markou, Athina

2013-01-01

109

Mechanisms of Withdrawal-Associated Increases in Heroin Self-Administration: Pharmacologic Modulation of Heroin vs. Food Choice in Heroin-Dependent Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-hr heroin self-administration sessions. One hr after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys chose between heroin (0-0.1 mg/kg/inj) and food (1 gm pellets) during 2-hr choice sessions. Under these conditions, heroin maintained a dose-dependent increase in heroin choice, such that monkeys responded primarily for food when low heroin doses were available (0- 0.01 mg/kg/inj) and primarily for heroin when higher heroin doses were available (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/injection). Periods of spontaneous withdrawal were intermittently introduced by omitting one 21-hr heroin self-administration session, and test drugs were administered during these withdrawal periods. Untreated withdrawal robustly increased heroin choice during choice sessions. Withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice were completely suppressed by the mu opioid agonist morphine (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/hr IV), but not by the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist clonidine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/hr IV), the dopamine/norepinephrine releaser amphetamine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/hr IV), or the kappa opioid antagonist 5?-guanidinonaltrindole (1.0 mg/kg IM). The corticotropin releasing factor 1 antagonist antalarmin (1.0-10 mg/kg/day IM) produced a morphine-like suppression of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice in one of three monkeys. These results suggest that mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in the relative reinforcing efficacy of opioid agonists may be different from mechanisms of many other somatic, mood-related and motivational signs of opioid withdrawal.

Negus, S. Stevens; Rice, Kenner C.

2008-01-01

110

Sign detection for autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots currently cannot detect and read arbitrary signs. This is a major hindrance to mobile robot usability, since they cannot be tasked using directions that are intuitive to humans. It also limits their ability to report their position relative to intuitive landmarks. Other researchers have demonstrated some success on traffic sign recognition, but using template based methods limits the set of recognizable signs. There is a clear need for a sign detection and recognition system that can process a much wider variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. We are developing a system for Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN), that detects signs from various cues common to most signs: vivid colors, compact shape, and text. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach on a variety of signs in both indoor and outdoor locations.

Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnús S.; Cartwright, Dustin; Stube, Brian; Stevens, Mark R.; Ablavsky, Vitaly X.

2003-09-01

111

The histidine triad nucleotide binding 1 protein is involved in nicotine reward and physical nicotine withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

Smoking rates among individuals with schizophrenia are significantly higher than the general population. One possible explanation for this comorbidity is that there are shared genes and biological pathways between smoking and schizophrenia. The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) is a potential candidate, as genetic association and expression studies implicate the gene in both schizophrenia and nicotine dependence; however, the behavioral role of HINT1 in nicotine dependence is unknown. Thus, the goal of the current study was to determine the behavioral role of HINT1 in nicotine dependence. We tested male HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice in the nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) test of reward, a nicotine withdrawal model assessing both physical and affective signs, and the nicotine withdrawal conditioned place aversion (CPA) test. HINT1 -/- mice failed to develop a significant nicotine CPP and physical withdrawal signs (hyperalgesia and somatic signs) were attenuated in HINT1 -/- mice. Conversely, HINT1 -/- mice developed a significant nicotine withdrawal CPA similar to their ++ counterparts. Overall, our data support a role for the HINT1 gene in mediating behaviors associated with nicotine reward and physical nicotine withdrawal, and provide insight into the role of HINT1 in nicotine dependence-like behaviors. PMID:23810802

Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Damaj, M I; Chen, X

2013-08-29

112

21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7 Section 571.7 Food...7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner...data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon...

2010-04-01

113

21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7 Section 171.7 Food...7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner...data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon...

2009-04-01

114

21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7 Section 171.7 Food...7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner...data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon...

2010-01-01

115

19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.38 Withdrawal...consumption of merchandise in bonded warehouses shall be filed on Customs Form 7501, in...

2013-04-01

116

Oxazepam versus Clomethiazol in Alcohol Withdrawal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacological management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome associated with alcohol dependence is heterogeneous; however, according to the guidelines, clomethiazol is the standard medication in Germany. Benzodiazepines offer another safe possibility of treating alcohol withdrawal. In a retrospective study, alcohol-dependent patients treated either with oxazepam (n = 141) or clomethiazol (n = 357) were assessed with respect to the course

Walter de Millas; Florian Ganzer; Silke Kuhn; Christian Haasen

2010-01-01

117

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... melanoma appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

118

American Sign Language University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more people become interested in learning American Sign Language, there have been a number of individuals who have begun to create websites that offer free resources related to this language. Dr. Bill Vicars is one such individual, and his site contains resources for students, teachers, parents, and your garden-variety web surfer. In the section designed for students, visitors can use the online sign language dictionary (complete with demonstration photographs), fingerspelling lessons, and numbers lessons. The section for teachers is a real gem, as it includes a number of sample syllabi, general guidelines for instructors, as well as an online library that includes subjects such as regional dialects in ASL, Chinese Sign Language and the National Theater of the Deaf. Finally, the site contains a special section for parents. Here, they can learn more about communicating effectively with their child who is deaf.

Vicars, William G.

119

The Meaning of Signs:  

PubMed Central

This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions.

Stein, Claudia

2006-01-01

120

Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability\\u000a of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory.\\u000a The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear\\u000a conditioning, somatic signs, and

George S. Portugal; Derek S. Wilkinson; Justin W. Kenney; Colleen Sullivan; Thomas J. Gould

121

Rapid increase in basal acetylcholine release in the hippocampus of freely moving rats induced by withdrawal from long-term ethanol intoxication.  

PubMed

The effect of ethanol withdrawal on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by brain microdialysis in rats rendered ethanol dependent by repeated forced administration of a 20% ethanol solution for 7 days. The behavioral signs of ethanol withdrawal were accompanied by an increase in hippocampal ACh output that was significantly 6 h after the last ethanol administration, reached a maximum (fourfold) at 12 h, and persisted for >72 h. Administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or gamma-hydroxybutyrate (1 g/kg, intragastric) 12 h after the last ethanol administration completely antagonized, within 30 min, the increase in ACh output induced by ethanol withdrawal. Thus, the rapid and marked increase in ACh output might contribute to the changes in cognitive function associated with ethanol withdrawal, and the septohippocampal cholinergic system may play a major role in the response to withdrawal of addictive drugs. PMID:9518686

Imperato, A; Dazzi, L; Carta, G; Colombo, G; Biggio, G

1998-02-16

122

Signs of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to make a well-designed signage package that is effective and enhances visitor first impressions of an institution. Examines questions to ask when planning traffic-pattern signage and the significance of the different hierarchy of signs; concludes with advice on signage design. (GR)

Styles-Lopez, Robin

1998-01-01

123

Flemish Sign Language Standardisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Flemish Deaf community officially rejected standardisation of Flemish Sign Language. It was a bold choice, which at the time was not in line with some of the decisions taken in the neighbouring countries. In this article, we shall discuss the choices the Flemish Deaf community has made in this respect and explore why the Flemish Deaf…

Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

2009-01-01

124

Derivative Sign Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

Clark, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

125

The matrix sign function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the matrix sign function is presented including some historical background, definitions and properties, approximation theory and computational methods, and condition theory and estimation procedures, Applications to areas such as control theory, eigendecompositions, and roots of matrices are outlined, and some new theoretical results are also given

Charles S. Kenney; Alan J. Laub

1995-01-01

126

Hydrometrocolpos: the Fjord sign.  

PubMed

We want to stress a diagnostic sign in the diagnosis of pelvic cysts in newborns. In these cases the detection of an attached uterus is proof of a hydrocolpos or in cases with a dilated uterine cavity of a hydrometrocolpos. PMID:17599284

Schumacher, R; Brzezinska, R

2007-10-01

127

A study of abrupt lithium withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve patients were abruptly switched from lithium to placebo as part of a double-blind cross-over study. In contrast to other drugs effective in mood disorders, lithium produced no withdrawal syndrome.

Arthur Rifkin; Frederic Quitkin; Alfreda Howard; Donald F. Klein

1975-01-01

128

Water Withdrawals for Irrigation in Drought Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken to provide Georgia water use planners with realistic estimates of amount and timing of irrigation withdrawals that could be expected during those years when competition for water is the greatest. The specific objectives of the pro...

J. E. Hook

1991-01-01

129

Vital signs monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

130

Pentobarbital for severe gamma-butyrolactone withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) have become popular drugs of abuse. Acute overdose with either agent results in a well-recognized syndrome of central nervous system and respiratory depression. Recently, a withdrawal syndrome has been described for GHB. We report a severe form of GBL withdrawal, characterized by delirium, psychosis, autonomic instability, and resistance to benzodiazepine therapy. Methods: We

Marco L. A. Sivilotti; Michael J. Burns; Cynthia K. Aaron; Michael J. Greenberg

2001-01-01

131

Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135–146; P.R. Finley, P.E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151–152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U.

Maria H. Moran; Sheryl S. Smith

1998-01-01

132

Retroreflective requirements for traffic signs: A stop sign case study  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes a study on the performance of stop signs based on their retroreflective properties. A candidate procedure to assess the signs' adequacy based on these retroreflective properties, thereby determining whether a particular sign needs to be replaced, is presented. Findings from this study will (a) aid in establishing minimum in-service levels of retroreflectivity for stop signs, (b) assist field personnel in determining whether a stop sign is providing the desired recognition distance or whether it should be replaced, and (c) give an insight to the feasibility of creating minimum retroreflective standards for other types of signs.

Morales, J.M.

1987-11-01

133

Road sign detection and recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road sign detection is important to a robotic vehicle that automatically drives on roads. In this paper, road signs are detected by means of rules that restrict color and shape and require signs to appear only in limited regions in an image. They are then recognized using a template matching method and tracked through a sequence of images. The method is fast and can easily be modified to include new classes of signs. The road sign detection is used as part of a control system that autonomously drives a vehicle over paved roads. The primary application is to detect intersections, which are usually marked with street name signs or stop signs. An estimate of the range to the sign is computed based on the size of the sign and provides a cue to intersection detection software and driving control.

Shneier, Michael

2006-06-01

134

Precipitation by yohimbine of the withdrawal syndromes of clonidine, guanfacine, and methyldopa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed

In conscious spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats, continuously infused with clonidine (500 micrograms/kg/day s.c.) for 12 days, yohimbine (3 or 10 mg/kg i.p.) dose dependently precipitated an overshoot of heart rate and other withdrawal symptoms, such as blood pressure upswings, diarrhea, ptosis, body shivering, jumping, and wet-dog shakes. Naloxone (3 or 30 mg/kg i.p.) or prazosin (1 mg/kg i.p.) did not evoke withdrawal signs in clonidine-treated SH rats. In SH rats treated for 12 days with guanfacine (10 mg/kg/day s.c.), the administration of yohimbine elicited a withdrawal pattern similar in severity and appearance to that observed in clonidine-treated rats. In methyldopa-treated (200 mg/kg/day) SH rats, the yohimbine-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were much less pronounced than those observed in the clonidine- and guanfacine-treated animals, despite the equipotency of the infusions in reducing mean arterial pressure. These results indicate that the clonidine-withdrawal syndrome can be precipitated by acute alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade. The previously observed minor severity of the guanfacine-discontinuation syndrome in the rat should be attributed to the longer half-life of this drug as compared to clonidine. On the other hand, alpha-methylnoradrenaline much less intensively triggers the mechanisms underlying withdrawal symptoms than clonidine or guanfacine. PMID:6188894

Thoolen, M J; Hendriks, J C; Timmermans, P B; van Zwieten, P A

1983-01-01

135

Influence of plasma-protein binding on analgesic effect of methadone in rats with spontaneous withdrawal.  

PubMed

The effect of spontaneous withdrawal on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels and methadone protein binding has been studied in the rat. Animals were made physically dependent on morphine by providing morphine HCl in drinking water for three weeks. The natural opiate withdrawal was induced in rats by substituting the morphine solution with drinking water. The severity of the abstinence syndrome was assessed at various time intervals. After 12 h of withdrawal, the animals showing abstinence signs and low morphine levels were injected with intravenous methadone (0.35 mg kg-1) and the analgesic effect was measured by the tail-flick method and compared with animals receiving water. The oral administration of morphine produced an increase in AAG levels from 0.64 +/- 0.05 g L-1 in control animals to 1.47 +/- 0.92 g L-1 in experimental animals at the point of withdrawal and 1.21 +/- 0.09 g L-1 24 h after withdrawal. The percentage of methadone unbound was significantly lower in morphine-treated than in control animals. A significant correlation between AAG levels and percentage of methadone bound was observed. A parallel analgesic effect after intravenous methadone, as measured by AUC in the tail-flick test, was less in abstinence animals than in control (287.6 +/- 24.8 compared with 401.0 +/- 37.06s min). We suggest that in the withdrawal syndrome an adjustment of methadone dose may be necessary because of changes in protein binding. PMID:8737054

Garrido, M J; Jiminez, R; Gomez, E; Calvo, R

1996-03-01

136

Designing radiation protection signs  

SciTech Connect

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

1995-03-01

137

American Sign Language Fingerspelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the method of a computer typing program meets flash-cards, this website lets you practice your skills and speed at recognizing spelled out words in American Sign Language. Beginners and experienced fingerspellers will appreciate this website: the site offers various reference charts for beginners, including printable versions. For those who know fingerspelling well, they can increase the speed settings. Overall, this site would be useful to new students attempting to learn, more experienced students wanting to practice as well as for instructors.

2006-11-07

138

Ergonomic Guidelines for Traffic Sign Design Increase Sign Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research directly tests the relationship between comprehension prob- ability of highway signs and the extent to which they comply with three ergonomic principles of design: sign-content compatibility, familiarity, and standardization. Back- ground: A recent study that evaluated comprehension of traffic signs in four different countries showed that comprehension level varies widely and is apparently related to the extent

Tamar A. Ben-Bassat; David Shinar

2006-01-01

139

Job Attitudes and Organizational Withdrawal: An Examination of Retirement and Other Voluntary Withdrawal Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 82 academic and 84 nonacademic university staff about their retirement intentions and attitudes, work attitudes, and withdrawal behaviors found that dissatisfied individuals are more likely to engage in organizational withdrawal behavior, such as lateness, absenteeism, and retirement. Academic personnel had greater satisfaction and…

Hanisch, Kathy A.; Hulin, Charles L.

1990-01-01

140

Improving Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Acute Care  

PubMed Central

Context Excessive alcohol consumption is the nation’s third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Objective: Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. Design: In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Results: Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%–12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%–44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%–15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Conclusion: Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes.

Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; McWilliams, James; Horton, Terry

2014-01-01

141

CRF2 mediates the increased noradrenergic activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the negative state of morphine withdrawal in rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signalling is involved in modulating the negative symptoms of opiate withdrawal. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to further characterize the role of CRF-type 2 receptor (CRF2) signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation), as well as CRF2 expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract-A2 noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The contribution of CRF2 signalling in opiate withdrawal was assessed by i.c.v. infusion of the selective CRF2 antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (AS-30). Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with AS-30 or saline 10 min before naloxone and the physical signs of abstinence, the HPA axis activity, NA turnover, TH activation and CRF2 expression were measured using immunoblotting, RIA, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS Rats pretreated with AS-30 showed decreased levels of somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal, but the corticosterone response was not modified. AS-30 attenuated the increased production of the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, as well as the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Finally, AS-30 antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Serine40 induced by morphine withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by CRF2 signalling. Furthermore, they indicate a marginal role for the HPA axis in CRF2-mediation of opiate withdrawal.

Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Nunez, Cristina; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Laorden, M Luisa; Valverde, Olga; Milanes, M Victoria

2011-01-01

142

INFINITY construction contract signed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

2010-01-01

143

Alopecia Areata: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Alopecia areata Signs, symptoms Alopecia areata: Signs and symptoms If you have alopecia areata, ... dents, white spots, and roughtness. Learn more about alopecia areata: Alopecia areata Alopecia areata: Who gets and causes ...

144

Warning Signs for Cardiac Arrest  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs for Cardiac Arrest Updated:Oct 5,2011 Cardiac arrest strikes immediately ... content was last reviewed on 07/12/2011." Cardiac Arrest • Home • About Cardiac Arrest • Warning Signs for Cardiac ...

145

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

146

Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as ?-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. PMID:24781751

Perry, Elizabeth C

2014-05-01

147

Cardiac arrhythmias after abrupt clonidine withdrawal.  

PubMed

Abrupt clonidine withdrawal may be associated with sharp marked increases in catecholamine levels, heart rate, and blood pressure, which may induce nausea, vomiting, and palpitations. Relatively little information is available on the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in this setting. With continuous ambulatory ECG recordings, we determined the incidence of arrhythmias in seven male hypertensive patients (without active heart disease) after abrupt clonidine withdrawal. Serious ventricular arrhythmias, including brief ventricular tachycardia, developed in two patients who had greater increases in mean systolic blood pressure (28 +/- 3 vs 10 +/- 8 mm Hg) and double product (552 +/- 681 vs 333 +/- 195) than the others. The differences were not significant. Ventricular arrhythmias were not related to age, dose, withdrawal symptoms, initial blood pressure, urinary norepinephrine levels, or ECG abnormalities. We conclude that serious ventricular arrhythmias may be relatively common but unpredictable during clonidine withdrawal, even in patients with no clinically apparent heart disease. The triggering of ventricular arrhythmias should be added to the list of components of clonidine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:6617064

Peters, R W; Hamilton, B P; Hamilton, J; Kuzbida, G; Pavlis, R

1983-10-01

148

The gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is endogenous inhibitory transmitter that, when administered in pharmacological doses, has sedative-hypnotic properties. It is used in anaesthesia for the treatment of narcolepsy/catalepsy and in alcohol/opioid detoxification treatment regimens. Based on its purported anabolic effects, GHB use became established among bodybuilders. As the euphorigenic effects of GHB became publicised, attendees at dance clubs and rave parties began to use it alone or in combination with other psychoactive drugs. Following the ban of GHB in 1990, several precursor products (e.g. gamma-butyrolactone, butanediol) became widely used as replacement drugs until their ultimate proscription from lawful use in 2000. GHB and its precursors, like most sedative-hypnotic agents, can induce tolerance and produce dependence. Although many GHB users will experience a mild withdrawal syndrome upon drug discontinuation, those with chronic heavy GHB use can experience severe withdrawal. This syndrome clinically resembles the withdrawal syndrome noted from alcohol and other sedative-hypnotic drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines). Distinct clinical features of GHB withdrawal are its relatively mild and brief autonomic instability with prolonged psychotic symptoms. Patients with fulminant GHB withdrawal require aggressive treatment with cross-tolerant sedative hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines. PMID:15298492

Tarabar, Asim F; Nelson, Lewis S

2004-01-01

149

Repeated exposure to stress stimuli during ethanol consumption prolongs withdrawal-induced emotional abnormality in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to ascertain the influence of repeated exposure to stress on the development of ethanol dependence in mice. Mice were chronically treated with 3% ethanol for 7 days, with or without exposure to restraint stress for 1h/day. A significant loss of body weight was observed in the ethanol plus stress group compared with the other groups. In the ethanol plus stress group, mice exhibited persistent piloerection, which is considered to be a withdrawal sign that reflects emotion, after the discontinuation of ethanol treatment. The ethanol plus stress group also showed a marked increase in the intake of liquid diet, which is considered to be trying to avoid an unpleasant ethanol-withdrawal symptom, during ethanol withdrawal. In the hole-board test, a significant decrease in head-dipping behavior was observed in both the ethanol alone and ethanol plus stress groups at 6h after the discontinuation of ethanol treatment. This abnormal emotion was recovered in the ethanol alone group, but not in the ethanol plus stress group, at 48 h after the discontinuation of ethanol treatment. These results suggest that repeated exposure to stress may affect the development of ethanol dependence and prolong the expression of withdrawal-induced emotional abnormality. PMID:24120368

Kato, Hideaki; Tsuji, Minoru; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Kotaro; Takeda, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

150

Rapid dispatch emergency signs  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An illuminated sign includes a plurality of sections. Each section includes a mesh of conductors having illuminating pixels located at conductor intersections. The mesh is surrounded by a frame connected to the frame of another section. Once frame sections of the display are unfolded, the display can be supported by a structure attached to a car or other vehicle. A support structure for an illuminated display includes a base which is placed on the ground and over which the tire of a vehicle (e.g., a police car) is parked. A column extends from the base, and a display can be attached to the top of that extending column. The support structure can take the form of a collapsible stand having a trunk which is pivotally attached to a base and which contains a telescoping section.

2008-04-08

151

Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.  

PubMed Central

Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety.

Petursson, H; Lader, M H

1981-01-01

152

Neurotoxic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Withdrawal: Expression Profiling Reveals Importance of Gender Over Withdrawal Severity  

PubMed Central

While women are more vulnerable than men to many of the medical consequences of alcohol abuse, the role of sex in the response to ethanol is controversial. Neuroadaptive responses that result in the hyperexcitability associated with withdrawal from chronic ethanol likely reflect gene expression changes. We have examined both genders for the effects of withdrawal on brain gene expression using mice with divergent withdrawal severity that have been selectively bred from a genetically heterogeneous population. A total of 295 genes were identified as ethanol regulated from each gender of each selected line by microarray analyses. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the arrays revealed that the transcriptional response correlated with sex rather than with the selected withdrawal phenotype. Consistent with this, gene ontology category over-representation analysis identified cell death and DNA/RNA binding as targeted classes of genes in females, while in males, protein degradation, and calcium ion binding pathways were more altered by alcohol. Examination of ethanol-regulated genes and these distinct signaling pathways suggested enhanced neurotoxicity in females. Histopathological analysis of brain damage following ethanol withdrawal confirmed elevated cell death in female but not male mice. The sexually dimorphic response was observed irrespective of withdrawal phenotype. Combined, these results indicate a fundamentally distinct neuroadaptive response in females compared to males during chronic ethanol withdrawal and are consistent with observations that female alcoholics may be more vulnerable than males to ethanol-induced brain damage associated with alcohol abuse.

Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M

2011-01-01

153

Baclofen and GammaHydroxybutyrate Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Benzodiazepine treatment of life-threatening gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal is frequently unsatisfactory. Animal studies\\u000a suggest strongly that treatment with GABAB agonists, such as baclofen, will be a more effective strategy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A case report from the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the university tertiary care hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A 61-year-old woman was admitted to the medical ICU for severe withdrawal symptoms from chronic GHB

Jennifer L. LeTourneau; Daniel S. Hagg; Stephen M. Smith

2008-01-01

154

The right to withdraw from research.  

PubMed

The right to withdraw from participation in research is recognized in virtually all national and international guidelines for research on human subjects. It is therefore surprising that there has been little justification for that right in the literature. We argue that the right to withdraw should protect research participants from information imbalance, inability to hedge, inherent uncertainty, and untoward bodily invasion, and it serves to bolster public trust in the research enterprise. Although this argument is not radical, it provides a useful way to determine how the right should be applied in various cases. PMID:21338028

Schaefer, G Owen; Wertheimer, Alan

2010-12-01

155

[Outpatient withdrawal programme: advanced practice in addictology].  

PubMed

Advanced nursing practices are procedures enabling nurses to carry out, in a structured and predefined manner, tasks usually entrusted to doctors. Introduced in France by the Berland reports of 2003 and 2006, advanced nursing practices remain under-developed in the fields of psychiatry and addictology. In this context, Lille regional and university hospital has set up an outpatient programme for alcohol withdrawal, a scheme coordinated by a nurse, authorised to modifythe treatment dosage according to the patient's clinical state and who is supported by a network of caregivers during the period of medicalised withdrawal. PMID:23951744

Tisserand, Laurence; Mezerette, Caroline; Rolland, Benjamin; Cottencin, Olmer; Vignau, Jean; Muyssen, Arnaud; Danel, Thierry; David, François

2013-01-01

156

Withdrawal of peripheral vasodilators in primary care  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the use of peripheral vasodilators in selected practices in primary care and to observe the effect of withdrawing therapy in a sample of patients. Methods Patients receiving repeat prescriptions for peripheral vasodilators, identified from two practices in Grampian, were interviewed prior to and following withdrawal of therapy. Results Of the 35 patients, review of the continued need for therapy was documented in the medical notes of only one patient. Treatment was successfully withdrawn from 17 patients, generating considerable savings. Conclusions Review of peripheral vasodilators merits further attention in larger numbers of patients.

Stewart, Derek; Krska, Janet; Kendle, Keith; Wintour, David; McGregor, Campbell

1999-01-01

157

Separate GABA Afferents to Dopamine Neurons Mediate Acute Action of Opioids, Development of Tolerance, and Expression of Withdrawal.  

PubMed

GABA release from interneurons in VTA, projections from the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) was selectively activated in rat brain slices. The inhibition induced by ?-opioid agonists was pathway dependent. Morphine induced a 46% inhibition of IPSCs evoked from the RMTg, 18% from NAc, and IPSCs evoked from VTA interneurons were almost insensitive (11% inhibition). In vivo morphine treatment resulted in tolerance to the inhibition of RMTg, but not local interneurons or NAc, inputs. One common sign of opioid withdrawal is an increase in adenosine-dependent inhibition. IPSCs evoked from the NAc were potently inhibited by activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors, whereas IPSCs evoked from RMTg were not changed. Blockade of adenosine receptors selectively increased IPSCs evoked from the NAc during morphine withdrawal. Thus, the acute action of opioids, the development of tolerance, and the expression of withdrawal are mediated by separate GABA afferents to dopamine neurons. PMID:24857021

Matsui, Aya; Jarvie, Brooke C; Robinson, Brooks G; Hentges, Shane T; Williams, John T

2014-06-18

158

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233...SERVICE AUTHORITY § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation...satisfactory evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone...

2013-07-01

159

37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section...CASES Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written...

2010-07-01

160

37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section...CASES Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. An...

2009-07-01

161

20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application?...

2013-04-01

162

75 FR 70044 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.39  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0354] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.39 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of a Regulatory Guide: Regulatory Guide 1.39, ``Housekeeping Requirements for...

2010-11-16

163

37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section...Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a)...

2013-07-01

164

Landsat 6 contract signed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

Maggs, William Ward

165

Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

Cohen, David

2007-01-01

166

Design of withdrawal-weighted SAW filters.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new design algorithm for a withdrawal-weighted surface acoustic wave (SAW) transversal filter. The proposed algorithm is based on the effective transmission loss theory and a delta function model of a SAW transversal filter. The design process consists of three steps, which eventually determine eight geometrical design parameters for the filter in order to satisfy given performance specifications. First, the number of fingers in the input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs), plus their geometrical sizes is determined using the insertion loss specification. Second, the number and positions of the polarity reverses in the output IDT are determined using the bandwidth and ripple specifications. Third, the number and position for withdrawing and switching specific fingers in the output IDT and attached electrode area are determined to achieve the desired sidelobe level. The efficiency of the technique is illustrated using a sample design of an IF filter consisting of a uniform input IDT and withdrawal-weighted output IDT. The proposed algorithm is distinct from conventional techniques in that it can optimize the structural geometry of a withdrawal-weighted SAW filter in a direct manner by considering all the performance specifications simultaneously. PMID:12322883

Lee, Youngjin; Lee, Seunghee; Roh, Yongrae

2002-03-01

167

Work satisfaction, organizational commitment and withdrawal behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The focus of this research paper is on the effects of work satisfaction and organizational commitment on withdrawal behaviours. In order to acquire a better understanding of this relationship, the moderating effects of work satisfaction and organizational commitment are examined. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire study was undertaken with Dutch and Slovakian respondents. Findings – Although the results do

Karin Falkenburg; Birgit Schyns

2007-01-01

168

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

169

76 FR 2726 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.154  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0010] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.154 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.154, ``Format and Content of Plant-Specific...withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.154, ``Format and Content of...

2011-01-14

170

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behav- ior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability

Wonjung Oh; Kenneth H. Rubin; Julie C. Bowker; Cathryn Booth-LaForce; Linda Rose-Krasnor; Brett Laursen

2007-01-01

171

Ritalin tm for nicotine withdrawal: Nesbitt's paradox revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a unblinded clinical trial of the stimulant methylphenidate (RitalinTM) for nicotine withdrawal. Nineteen nicotine-dependent smokers received oral methylphenidate (30 mg target daily dosage) for 5 days following abrupt cessation. Tobacco withdrawal, Spielberger state anxiety, blood pressure, and pulse were measured at baseline, then serially for 7 days. Tobacco withdrawal and state anxiety increased significantly, but 12 (71%) of

Mark D. Robinson; Geraldine D. Anastasio; John M. Little; J. Lewis Sigmon; Darlyne Menscer; Yvonne J. Pettice; H. James Norton

1995-01-01

172

Research participation and the right to withdraw.  

PubMed

Most ethics committees which review research protocols insist that potential research participants reserve unconditional or absolute 'right' of withdrawal at any time and without giving any reason. In this paper, I examine what consent means for research participation and a sense of commitment in relation to this right to withdraw. I suggest that, once consent has been given (and here I am excluding incompetent minors and adults), participants should not necessarily have unconditional or absolute rights to withdraw. This does not imply that there should be a complete absence of rights, or, indeed, an abandonment of the right to withdraw. The point of this paper is to show that the supposed unconditional or absolute nature of these rights may be self-defeating and so fail to respect the autonomy of participants. In addition, and on a more positive note, I suggest that, attaching certain conditions on the right to withdraw, may better respect the autonomy of these participants by underlining the idea that autonomy is more than mere whim or indifference to the fate of others. On the contrary, research staff are currently unable to 'push' participants, who may merely have logistical difficulties unrelated to the research itself, but who really want to stay the course, for fear of coercing them. Furthermore, researchers now try to 'screen out' people they think may be unreliable to protect the science of the study and so groups at risk of dropping out may be unfairly denied access to research treatments. I conclude that on-going negotiation between the relevant parties could be on balance the only truly acceptable way forward but concede certain important limitations to take into account. PMID:15943021

Edwards, Sarah J L

2005-04-01

173

Simulated effects of potential withdrawals from wells near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The effects of potential future withdrawals from wells J-12, J-13, and UE-25c {number_sign}3 on the ground-water flow system in the area surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were simulated by using an existing (1997) three-dimensional regional ground-water flow model. The 1997 regional model was modified only to include changes at the pumped wells. Two steady-state simulations (baseline and predictive) were conducted to estimate changes in water level and changes in ground-water outflow from Jackass Flats, where the pumped wells are located, south to the Amargosa Desert.

Tucce, Patrick; Faunt, Claudia C.

1999-09-20

174

Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

2005-01-01

175

Campus Signs: Delivering the Message.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses campus signage and the image it gives to visitors about the institution itself, as well as ways to evaluate existing sign systems to determine whether they are properly conveying the messages intended. How design, graphics, colors, logos, fabrication, and locations support the principal function of signs, not detract from them, are…

Chance, Barbara J.

1998-01-01

176

Sign Program for a University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A co-ordinated sign program for a multi-campus university not only helps students and visitors find their way around, but is a design element that adds identification and unity. Graphic designer, Paul Arthur, has designed a modular sign system for the University of Tennessee with all elements having standard color, lettering, size and materials.…

Architectural and Engineering News, 1968

1968-01-01

177

Dictionary of Braille Music Signs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dictionary gathers into a single resource definitions of braille music signs used since 1888 and provides explanations of the wide variety of formats in which these signs have been used at different times by publishers around the world. More than 400...

B. Krolick

1979-01-01

178

The Typology of Literary Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the usefulness for literary studies of some of Pierce's key terms and concepts: icon, index, symbol, image, and diagram. Argues that Pierce's description of signs may be usefully applied to literary signs and particularly to the problem of symbolism. Charts. (RB)

Browne, Robert M.

1971-01-01

179

Spanish Sign in the Americas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spanish Sign Language (SSL) is now the second most used sign language. This article introduces resources for the study of SSL, including three SSL dictionaries--two from Argentina and one from Puerto Rico. Differences in SSL between and within the two countries are noted. Implications for deaf educators in North America are drawn. (Author/DB)

Schein, Jerome D.

1995-01-01

180

Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

Stokoe, William C.

181

Real Time Road Signs Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a road signs detection and classification system based on a three-step algorithm composed of color segmentation, shape recognition, and a neural network. The final goal of this algorithm is to detect and classify almost all road signs present along Italian roads. Color segmentation was suggested by the aim to achieve real time execution, since color-based segmentation is

Alberto Broggi; Pietro Cerri; Paolo Medici; Pier Paolo Porta; Guido Ghisio

2007-01-01

182

Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

2013-01-01

183

Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

2007-01-01

184

The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of marijuana smokers develop a cannabis use disorder and seek treatment for their marijuana use on their own initiative.\\u000a A less well-known consequence of daily, repeated marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome, characterized by a time-dependent\\u000a constellation of symptoms: irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and decreased\\u000a food intake. Treatment studies show that rates

Margaret Haney

2005-01-01

185

[Depersonalization after withdrawal from cannabis usage].  

PubMed

The phenomenon of depersonalization during cannabis usage (intoxication) is commonly known. However, its appearance after drug stoppage is relatively unknown. This article reviews the literature on depersonalization after cannabis withdrawal and discusses three representing cases demonstrating the severity of the problem. Clinical features are described as well as effects on functioning and the long-term nature of this disorder. The treatment approach in each case is also presented. PMID:15889607

Shufman, E; Lerner, A; Witztum, E

2005-04-01

186

Ground-Water-Withdrawal Component of the Michigan Water-Withdrawal Screening Tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

2009-01-01

187

Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice  

PubMed Central

Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25-30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30-90 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P<0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions.

Ghannadi, A.; Hajhashemi, V.; Abrishami, R.

2012-01-01

188

Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

2013-07-01

189

Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

2013-01-01

190

Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

2013-07-01

191

Atopic Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms Atopic dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Atopic dermatitis (AD) looks different in infants, children, and adults. The ... what you feel) for each age group. Infants AD can begin early. A child may be 2 ...

192

On multivariate signed rank tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of affine-invariant signed rank test statistics is considered for the one-sample multivariate location problem. This class is obtained by modifying Randles’ sign test which uses the transformation–retransformation approach of Chakraborty, Chaudhuri and Oja along with a directional transformation due to Tyler. It contains test statistics that have been previously studied for this problem. For the class of symmetric

Ziyad R. Mahfoud; Ronald H. Randles

2005-01-01

193

Repeated Dosing with Oral Cocaine in Humans: Assessment of Direct Effects, Withdrawal and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n=9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses [875 mg/day]) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) 2- to 3-fold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects [liking, high, good effects] and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours.

Walsh, Sharon L.; Stoops, William W.; Moody, David E.; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E.

2009-01-01

194

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction To raise awareness among health care workers of the risk of withdrawal symptoms after longstanding and intense abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Case presentation A 23 year old Caucasian woman presented with gamma-hydroxybutyric addiction and withdrawal syndrome. The symptoms of gamma-hydroxybutyric withdrawal in this patient initially went unrecognized, upon which her situation deteriorated in such a way that she needed to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for airway protection and mechanical ventilation. Treatment with high doses of benzodiazepines led to liberation of the ventilator and further recovery. Conclusion Withdrawal symptoms of gamma-hydroxybutyric addiction are often not well recognized and the responsible physicians at Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit and the Psychiatry ward need better understanding of diagnose and treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid withdrawal is potentially life threatening and its management may require a multidisciplinary approach. Early recognition of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid withdrawal may lead to better management of these patients.

2009-01-01

195

International Road Signs: Interpretability and Training Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The drivers in a battalion about to be deployed to Germany were taught the meanings of international road signs using one of the following techniques: Sign Only, in which the road signs were presented via a slide projector and the names of the slides provided orally by the instructor; Sign Elaboration, which was identical to the Sign Only…

Griffith, Douglas; Actkinson, Tomme R.

196

Drivers' awareness of traffic sign information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate drivers' levels of awareness of traffic sign information under normal driving conditions, and to validate the laboratory technique. The reliability and sensitivity of the experimental measure (RSI—the level of reported sign information) were sufficient to show significant effects of factors such as sign ‘action potential’, traffic density, type of sign, sign

WENDY A. MACDONALD; ERROL R. HOFFMANN

1991-01-01

197

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in\\u000a a community sample (N?=?392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate\\u000a valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual\\u000a (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and

Wonjung Oh; Kenneth H. Rubin; Julie C. Bowker; Cathryn Booth-LaForce; Linda Rose-Krasnor; Brett Laursen

2008-01-01

198

The relationship between organizational culture and withdrawal intentions and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The goal of the present study is to examine the influence of five dimensions of organizational culture (i.e. job challenge, communication, trust, innovation and social cohesiveness) on employees’ withdrawal intentions and behavior. Specifically, three forms of employees’ withdrawal intentions (i.e. from the occupation, job, and organization), and one form of employees’ withdrawal behavior (i.e. self-reported absenteeism) are examined.

Abraham Carmeli

2005-01-01

199

Impaired cerebral autoregulation during acute alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk for all major types of stroke and is associated with autonomic dysfunction during alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Cerebral autoregulation is the mechanism by which cerebral perfusion is maintained stable, representing an intrinsic protective system of the cerebral circulation. Here, we aimed to analyze the influence of acute AWS on cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol-dependent patients. We investigated 20 men in the unmedicated acute state of AWS and repeated the investigation 24h after initiation of clomethiazole treatment. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) was assessed by the correlation coefficient index and transfer function analysis (phase and gain) from oscillations of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). The vasomotor reserve (VMR) was measured by the CO(2)-reactivity test. In addition, we assessed autonomic modulation by means of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity. We observed impaired dynamic autoregulation as shown by a multivariate analysis of variance (p<0.038) including all parameters of dCA. Similar results were found for VMR at admission (p<0.05). Pair-wise comparison between baseline and treatment with clomethiazole revealed a significant improvement for the systolic correlation coefficient index (Sx; p<0.001). Furthermore, we found a strong association of autonomic dysfunction and impaired autoregulation indicated by a correlation between the LF/HF ratio and Sx (p<0.001). In conclusion, cerebral autoregulation and VMR are disturbed during acute AWS. Influences of autonomic dysbalance and mental state during withdrawal are suggested. The finding of an affected autoregulation during acute withdrawal might indicate an increased risk for cerebro-vascular disease. PMID:20456871

Jochum, Thomas; Reinhard, Matthias; Boettger, Michael K; Piater, Maik; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

2010-08-01

200

Successful management of prolonged gamma-hydroxybutyrate and alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

A 27-year-old man was admitted with tremulousness, diaphoresis, tachypnea (28 breaths/min), full-body rigidity, irritability, paranoia, and auditory and visual hallucinations 2 days after stopping long-term gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and 8 hours after stopping alcohol intake. He received intravenous fluids and tapering dosages of lorazepam to control agitation and rigidity, and recovered with no significant sequelae after 8 days. Abrupt cessation of GHB after high-dosage abuse can precipitate a clinically significant withdrawal syndrome. Lorazepam should be considered for treatment of GHB withdrawal. Concomitant alcohol abuse may mask early GHB withdrawal symptoms and exacerbate withdrawal. PMID:11213862

Bowles, T M; Sommi, R W; Amiri, M

2001-02-01

201

Predictors of withdrawal: Possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder  

PubMed Central

Relations of avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) with shyness and inhibition suggest that a precursor of AvPD is withdrawal. Using a sample of 4.5- to 7-year-olds studied four times, 2 years apart, four and three classes of children differing in trajectories of mother- and teacher-reported withdrawal, respectively, were identified. Mothers and teachers generally did not agree on children’s trajectories but the pattern of findings in the two contexts did not differ markedly. The mother-identified high and declining withdrawal class, in comparison with less withdrawn classes, and the teacher-identified high and declining class compared with low withdrawal classes, were associated with relatively high levels of anger and low levels of attentional control and resiliency. The mother-identified moderate and increasing withdrawal class was distinguished from less problematic withdrawal classes by higher anger, lower resiliency, and sometimes, lower attentional control. The teacher-identified low and increasing withdrawal class was distinguished from less problematic withdrawal classes by lower resiliency and lower attentional control. Findings are discussed in terms of the developmental precursors to social withdrawal and avoidant behavior.

EGGUM, NATALIE D.; EISENBERG, NANCY; SPINRAD, TRACY L.; VALIENTE, CARLOS; EDWARDS, ALISON; KUPFER, ANNE S.; REISER, MARK

2009-01-01

202

Sign Luminance Requirements for Various Background Complexities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal standards (FP-79) for luminance of retroreflective materials for traffic signs are acceptance standards; they provide no differentiation based on driver need. Driver needs for sign luminance are of 3 types -- luminance for sign comprehension, ...

D. J. Mace R. B. King G. W. Dauber

1985-01-01

203

The Withdrawal Assessment Tool - Version 1 (WAT-1)  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and test the validity and reliability of the Withdrawal Assessment Tool - Version 1 (WAT-1) for monitoring opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in pediatric patients. Design Prospective psychometric evaluation. Pediatric critical care nurses assessed eligible at-risk pediatric patients for the presence of 19 withdrawal symptoms and rated the patient’s overall withdrawal intensity using a numeric rating scale (NRS) where 0 indicated no withdrawal and 10 indicated worst possible withdrawal. The 19 symptoms were derived from the Opioid and Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Score (OBWS), the literature and expert opinion. Setting: Two Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) in university-affiliated academic children’s hospitals. Patients 83 pediatric patients, median age 35 months (IQR: 7months -10 years), recovering from acute respiratory failure who were weaning from more than 5 days of continuous infusion or round-the-clock opioid and benzodiazepine administration. Interventions Repeated observations during analgesia and sedative weaning. A total of 1040 withdrawal symptom assessments were completed, with a median (IQR) of 11 (6-16) per patient over 6.6 (4.8-11) days. Measurements and Main Results Generalized linear modeling was used to analyze each symptom in relation to withdrawal intensity ratings, adjusted for site, subject and age group. Symptoms with high redundancy or low levels of association with withdrawal intensity ratings were dropped, resulting in an 11-item (12-point) scale. Concurrent validity was indicated by high sensitivity (.872) and specificity (.880) (WAT-1 ?3 predicting NRS ?4). Construct validity was supported by significant differences in drug exposure, length of treatment and weaning from sedation, length of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay for patients with WAT-1 scores ?3 compared to those with lower scores. Conclusions The WAT-1 shows excellent preliminary psychometric performance when used to assess clinically important withdrawal symptoms in the PICU setting. Further psychometric evaluation in diverse at-risk groups is needed.

Franck, Linda S.; Harris, Sion Kim; Soetenga, Deborah J.; Amling, June K.; Curley, Martha A.Q.

2008-01-01

204

36 CFR 1226.16 - Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority...IMPLEMENTING DISPOSITION § 1226.16 Does NARA ever withdraw disposition authority...maintain efficiency of Government operations, NARA will withdraw disposal...

2013-07-01

205

77 FR 11554 - Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab) Following...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...decision withdrawing approval of the breast cancer indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...DATES: Withdrawal of AVASTIN's breast cancer indication was effective November...

2012-02-27

206

37 CFR 1.770 - Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent...Review § 1.770 Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent...determination on the application. An express withdrawal...

2009-07-01

207

29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. 4203...WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules. (a...contribute that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

2013-07-01

208

40 CFR 123.63 - Criteria for withdrawal of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Criteria for withdrawal of State programs. 123.63 Section 123.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS Program Approval, Revision, and Withdrawal § 123.63 Criteria for withdrawal of State...

2013-07-01

209

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

2004-04-01

210

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

2002-04-01

211

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

1999-04-01

212

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

2000-04-01

213

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

2001-04-01

214

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

1997-04-01

215

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

2003-04-01

216

18 CFR 803.43 - Standards for ground-water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for ground-water withdrawals. 803.43 Section 803...43 Standards for ground-water withdrawals. (a) Requirement. ...meter all approved ground-water withdrawals. The meters shall be...

1998-04-01

217

Gammahydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome: dangerous but not well-known  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and anesthetic agent that is being abused as a ‘club drug.’ Withdrawal symptoms after cessation of GHB use are common and depend on the intensity of use. However, GHB withdrawal syndrome and delirium are unfamiliar to most psychiatrists, probably due to the fact that neither textbooks nor guidelines cover the subject. The GHB

Martijn S. van Noorden; Lieselotte C. A. M. van Dongen; Frans G. Zitman

2009-01-01

218

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Withdrawal: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

GHB is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that can be associated in select cases with growing dependence and a severe withdrawal syndrome. While benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of the withdrawal syndrome, some cases have been described as benzodiazepine-resistant. The authors describe treatment of such a case, which was unsuccessfully treated initially with benzodiazepines, then successfully treated with adjuvant

W. R. Murray Bennett; Lawrence G. Wilson; Peter P. Roy-Byrne

2007-01-01

219

Amphetamine withdrawal: Effects on threshold of intracranial reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether alterations in sensitivity to rewarding stimuli accompany the biochemical and behavioral changes induced by chronic amphetamine treatment and withdrawal, we explored the effects of chronic administration and withdrawal of d-amphetamine on thresholds of intracranial reinforcement in the rat. Rats were injected with d-amphetamine sulfate according to a chronic, escalating dose schedule. Marked decreases in threshold

Geraldine Cassens; Carol Actor; Mitchel Kling; Joseph J. Schildkraut

1981-01-01

220

Clozapine Withdrawal Catatonia and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catatonia as a clozapine withdrawal syndrome has not been documented. We report a case of excited catatonia with fever, autonomic instability, and delirium—a picture of malignant catatonia (lethal catatonia) after abrupt clozapine withdrawal. The use of conventional neuroleptics transformed the excited malignant catatonia into a stuporous state resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Such a transformation of excited lethal catatonia into

Joseph W. Y. Lee; Stephen Robertson

1997-01-01

221

Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety

Beng-Siang Khor; Mohd Fadzly Amar Jamil; Mohamad Ilham Adenan; Alexander Chong Shu-Chien

2011-01-01

222

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

2008-01-01

223

SR 141716 (Rimonabant) precipitates withdrawal in marijuana-dependent mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated marijuana use is known to lead to physical dependence in humans; however, its dependence liability has yet to be adequately assessed in laboratory animals. The goals of the present study were to: assess whether the CB1 antagonist SR 141716 (rimonabant) precipitates withdrawal in mice that had been repeatedly exposed to marijuana smoke, and to compare these precipitated withdrawal effects

David M. Wilson; Stephan A. Varvel; John P. Harloe; Billy R. Martin; Aron H. Lichtman

2006-01-01

224

Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal in Adult Male and Female Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gender differences have been observed in difficulty quitting smoking. A rodent model of nicotine withdrawal has been used by several laboratories, but only in males. Nicotine withdrawal in male and female adult rats was examined in a dimly-lit, comfortabl...

K. R. Hamilton

2008-01-01

225

Lake responses to long-term hypolimnetic withdrawal treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypolimnetic withdrawal is an in-lake restoration technique based on the selective discharge of bottom water to enhance the removal of nutrients and electro-chemically reduced substances that build up when the hypolimnion becomes anoxic. Comparison of water quality variables before and during treatment in about 40 European and 8 North American lakes indicates that hypolimnetic withdrawal is an efficient restoration technique

Gertrud K. Nürnberg

2007-01-01

226

Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

1995-01-01

227

Verbs in American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of verbs in American Sign Language (ASL) is investigated. Verb mutations in ASL are very different from the kinds of grammatical deformations that occur in English, and are different from those that occur in spoken languages as a whole. (HP)

Fischer, Susan; Gough, Bonnie

1978-01-01

228

Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

Johnston, Trevor

2012-01-01

229

Cutaneous signs of systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia,

Laju M. Patel; Phelps J. Lambert; Claude E. Gagna; Amin Maghari; W. Clark Lambert

2011-01-01

230

Endogenous bufadienolide mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal in rats  

PubMed Central

An endogenous natriuretic and vasoconstrictor Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), is implicated in NaCl-induced hypertension and in ethanol addiction. In rats, MBG suppresses voluntary alcohol intake, while immunization against MBG induces alcohol-seeking behavior. Since alcohol withdrawal is associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium retention, we hypothesized that MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, forced ethanol intake (20% v/v, 2.8±0.2 g/day for 7 days) did not affect BP and MBG excretion. Ethanol withdrawal was associated with a 21 mm Hg increase in BP, a 10% decrease in hematocrit, and a three-fold increase in renal MBG excretion. In vivo administration of anti-MBG antibody to rats prevented withdrawal-induced BP elevation. Therefore, MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal, and may link mechanisms of ethanol dependence and hypertension.

Kashkin, Vladimir A.; Zvartau, Edwin E.; Fedorova, Olga V.; Bagrov, Yakov Y.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y

2008-01-01

231

Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

Kugasia, Irfanali R.; Shabarek, Nehad

2014-01-01

232

Attenuated effects of experimenter-administered heroin in adolescent vs. adult male rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early onset of heroin use during adolescence might increase chances of later drug addiction. Prior work from our laboratory suggests, however, that adolescent male rats are actually less sensitive than adults to some enduring effects of heroin self-administration. In the present study, we tested two likely correlates of sensitivity to behavioral reinforcement in rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization. Methods Adolescent (35 days old at start) and adult (79 days old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered escalating doses of heroin, increasing from 1.0 to 8.0 mg/kg (i.p.) every 12 hr, across 13 days. Somatic signs of spontaneous withdrawal were scored 12 and 24 hr after the last injection, then every 24 hr for 5 days; locomotion was recorded concurrently. Challenge injections of heroin (1 mg/kg i.p.) were given at 4 points: as the first of the escalating doses (day 1), at days 7 and 13 during the escalating regimen, and after 12 days of forced abstinence. Body mass and food intake were measured throughout experimentation. Results A heroin withdrawal syndrome was not observed among adolescents as it was among adults, including somatic signs as well as reduced locomotion, body mass, and food intake. On the other hand, heroin-induced locomotor sensitization did not differ across ages. Conclusion Reduced withdrawal is consistent with the attenuated reinforcing effects of heroin among adolescent male rats that we reported previously. Thus, it is possible that adolescent rats could reveal important neuroprotective factors for use in treatment of heroin dependence.

Doherty, James M.; Frantz, Kyle J.

2012-01-01

233

Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal: Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on withdrawal symptoms by giving 109 smokers nicotine gum or placebo. Subjects who believed they had nicotine gum reported fewer physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal, and smoked fewer cigarettes than did those who thought they had placebo. Actual nicotine content of gum had no…

Gottlieb, Andrew M.; And Others

1987-01-01

234

Road-sign detection and tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a visual driver-assistance system, road-sign detection and tracking is one of the major tasks. This study describes an approach to detecting and tracking road signs appearing in complex traffic scenes. In the detection phase, two neural networks are developed to extract color and shape features of traffic signs from the input scenes images. Traffic signs are then located in

Chiung-Yao Fang; Sei-Wang Chen; Chiou-Shann Fuh

2003-01-01

235

Traffic Sign Recognition Based on Pictogram Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of automatic recognition of traffic signs from images captured while driving, to provide a driver aid. Traffic signs can be detected based on their color and classified, also according to their shape, into danger, information, obligation or prohibition classes - special cases are the stop, yield and wrong way signs. Then, traffic signs can be

Carlos Filipe Paulo; Paulo Lobato Correia

2008-01-01

236

Support vector machines for traffic signs recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many traffic sign recognition system, one of the main tasks is to classify the shapes of traffic sign. In this paper, we have developed a shape-based classification model by using support vector machines. We focused on recognizing seven categories of traffic sign shapes and five categories of speed limit signs. Two kinds of features, binary image and Zernike moments,

Min Shi; Haifeng Wu; Hasan Fleyeh

2008-01-01

237

Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

Ktejik, Mish

2013-01-01

238

Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

Mesch, Johanna

2013-01-01

239

Lexical Borrowing in American Sign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written primarily for those studying linguistic topics in the area of sign language, but also can be useful to sign language teachers who want to understand more about American Sign Language (ASL). Pen-and-ink illustrations allow the reader with no knowledge of sign language to follow the discussion. The hypothesis examined in this…

Battison, Robbin

240

Tracheal allotransplantation after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects requires a vascularized allograft. We report successful tracheal allotransplantation after indirect revascularization of the graft in a heterotopic position. Immunosuppressive therapy was administered before the operation, and the tracheal allograft was wrapped in the recipient's forearm fascia. Once revascularization was achieved, the mucosal lining was replaced progressively with buccal mucosa from the recipient. At 4 months, the tracheal chimera was fully lined with mucosa, which consisted of respiratory epithelium from the donor and buccal mucosa from the recipient. After withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, the tracheal allograft was moved to its correct anatomical position with an intact blood supply. No treatment-limiting adverse effects occurred. PMID:20071703

Delaere, Pierre; Vranckx, Jan; Verleden, Geert; De Leyn, Paul; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

2010-01-14

241

Withdrawal of cerivastatin from the world market  

PubMed Central

Cerivastatin was recently withdrawn from the market because of 52 deaths attributed to drug-related rhabdomyolysis that lead to kidney failure. The risk was found to be higher among patients who received the full dose (0.8 mg/day) and those who received gemfibrozil concomitantly. Rhabdomyolysis was 10 times more common with cerivastatin than the other five approved statins. We address three important questions raised by this withdrawal. Should we continue to approve drugs on surrogate efficacy? Are all statins interchangeable? Do the benefits outweigh the risks of statins? We conclude that decisions regarding the use of drugs should be based on direct evidence from long-term clinical outcome trials.

Furberg, Curt D; Pitt, Bertram

2001-01-01

242

Cardiac arrest due to baclofen withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man presented with postcervical traumatic complete quadriparesis under intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) for refractory spasticity. Less than 24 h after having his baclofen pump substituted, he develops hyperthermia, seizures, cognitive depression, acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and cardiovascular instability leading to mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. He was transferred to an intensive care unit with diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia leading to septic shock. He evolved with progressive clinical worsening and multisystem organ failure and cardiac arrest in non-shockable rhythm (pulseless electrical activity)--4 min resuscitation with return of spontaneous circulation. Considering the possible diagnosis of baclofen withdrawal syndrome and, in suspicion of ITB delivery disruption, the catheter system was surgically explored and a leaking tubule attachment was found. Despite aggressive cardiovascular, respiratory and renal support therapy, clinical improvement occurred only after restoration of intrathecal drug delivery. He was discharged from the hospital after 56 days, having returned to baseline status. PMID:24827663

Cardoso, Ana Luísa; Quintaneiro, Claudio; Seabra, Helena; Teixeira, Carla

2014-01-01

243

Interactive effects of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on nicotine self-administration and reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Stimulatory actions of nicotine on mesocorticolimbic dopamine transmission are partly mediated by nicotine-induced glutamate release acting on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. Because both presynaptic inhibitory mGlu2/3 and postsynaptic excitatory mGlu5 receptors provide potential targets for treatment of aspects of nicotine dependence, we examined interacting effects of mGlu5 (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, MPEP) and mGlu2/3 (LY341495) receptor antagonists on nicotine self-administration and brain reward threshold elevations associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal in rats. We hypothesized that increasing glutamate transmission by blocking presynaptic inhibitory mGlu2/3 autoreceptors would antagonize MPEP-induced decreases in nicotine self-administration. We also hypothesized that blocking postsynaptic actions of glutamate on mGlu5 receptors would exacerbate nicotine withdrawal-induced reward deficits, and that this effect would be attenuated by co-administration of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495. MPEP selectively decreased nicotine, but not food, self-administration in rats. LY341495 slightly decreased both nicotine and food self-administration. Co-administration of LY341495 with MPEP attenuated the effectiveness of MPEP in decreasing nicotine intake, although MPEP was still effective. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal induced somatic signs of withdrawal and reward threshold elevations indicating reward deficits. MPEP increased somatic signs and reward deficits in both nicotine- and saline-withdrawing rats. Thus, while mGlu5 receptor antagonists may be therapeutically useful in decreasing tobacco smoking, they worsen nicotine withdrawal. Co-administration of LY341495 reduced MPEP-induced reward deficits in both nicotine- and saline-withdrawing rats. Thus, increasing glutamate transmission via mGlu2/3 autoreceptor blockade reduces the effects of mGlu5 receptor blockade on nicotine self-administration and MPEP-induced exacerbation of brain reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal. PMID:17113075

Liechti, Matthias E; Markou, Athina

2007-01-12

244

Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produces a differential time-related responsiveness in cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene expression in the mouse brain.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the behavioural and neurochemical (cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene expression) changes induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice. Tolerance was assessed by measuring rectal temperature and motor activity in the open-field test after CP-55, 940 administration. Cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms were determined by measuring motor activity and behavioural signs of abstinence. Cessation of CP-55, 940 treatment in tolerant mice induced a spontaneous time-dependent behavioural withdrawal syndrome consisting of marked increases (140%) in motor activity, number of rearings (170%), decreases in grooming (57%), wet dog shakes (73%) and rubbing behaviours (74%) on day 1, progressively reaching values similar to vehicle-treated mice on day 3. Interestingly, this spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal resulted in CB1 gene expression upregulation (20-30%) in caudate-putamen, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, central amygdaloid nucleus and CA1, whereas in the CA3 field of hippocampus, a significant decrease (15-20%) was detected. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that cessation of CP-55, 940 administration in tolerant mice produces a behavioural cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome and a selective and differential responsiveness in CB1 receptor gene expression in several brain regions of the mice. These findings further suggest a time and regional differential role for cannabinoid receptors in short- and long-term neuroadaptations that occur after exposure to cannabis derivatives. PMID:15107186

Oliva, José M; Ortiz, Sergio; Palomo, Tomás; Manzanares, Jorge

2004-03-01

245

Towards reliable traffic sign recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for reliable traffic sign recognition (TSR) increases with the development of safety driven advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Emerging technologies like brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire pave the way for collision avoidance and threat identification systems. Obviously, decision making in such critical situations requires high reliability of the information base. Especially for comfort systems, we need to take into account

Benjamin Hoferlin; Klaus Zimmermann

2009-01-01

246

Science Nation: Signing Made Easy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies show as many as 75 percent of hearing parents of deaf children never become fluent signers. Alarmed by these statistics and with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, computer scientist and Georgia Tech professor Thad Starner began to develop interactive tools, such as video games and cell phone apps, to make sign language easier to learn for both the deaf and the hearing communities.

247

Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

1994-05-03

248

Update on the neurobiology of alcohol withdrawal seizures.  

PubMed

Abrupt cessation of alcohol intake after prolonged heavy drinking may trigger alcohol withdrawal seizures. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are the most characteristic and severe type of seizure that occur in this setting. Generalized seizures also occur in rodent models of alcohol withdrawal. In these models, the withdrawal seizures are triggered by neuronal networks in the brainstem, including the inferior colliculus; similar brainstem mechanisms may contribute to alcohol withdrawal seizures in humans. Alcohol causes intoxication through effects on diverse ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors, including GABA(A) receptors--particularly those containing delta subunits that are localized extrasynaptically and mediate tonic inhibition--and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Alcohol dependence results from compensatory changes during prolonged alcohol exposure, including internalization of GABA(A) receptors, which allows adaptation to these effects. Withdrawal seizures are believed to reflect unmasking of these changes and may also involve specific withdrawal-induced cellular events, such as rapid increases in alpha4 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors that confer reduced inhibitory function. Optimizing approaches to the prevention of alcohol withdrawal seizures requires an understanding of the distinct neurobiologic mechanisms that underlie these seizures. PMID:16372057

Rogawski, Michael A

2005-01-01

249

Absence epilepsy: early prognostic signs.  

PubMed

We have studied 124 children with typical absence epilepsy. The onset of symptoms was in 12% under 4 years, in 51% between 4-8 years and in 37% above 8 years. The F:M ratio was 2:1 in children under 4 years versus 1:1 above 8 years. Absences alone occurred in 82% and absences followed or preceded by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in 6.5% and 11%, respectively. Simple absences were not seen in children under 4 years and were more frequent (14%) in the 4-8 years age group. Family history was positive for epilepsy in 20% and febrile convulsion in 7%. Sixteen percent had a positive past history of febrile convulsions. All patients showed bilateral, synchronous spike-wave discharges from 2.5 to 4 c/s. Lateralized spikes, spike-slow wave complexes were found in 27%. Photosensitivity was present in 18% and was marked in 12%. Monotherapy with sodium valproate or ethosuximide (91% SV) was successful in 85% of patients with absences alone and 68% of the absences with GTCS. Only 2% were not fully controlled either on monotherapy or polytherapy. Treatment was withdrawn in 41 patients and 13 relapsed. We have identified four factors associated with relapses: (a) poor initial response to treatment, (b) lateralized focal EEG abnormality and/or marked photosensitivity, (c) the evolution to myoclonic epilepsy, and (d) early withdrawal of AED (< 3 years). PMID:1344778

Covanis, A; Skiadas, K; Loli, N; Lada, C; Theodorou, V

1992-12-01

250

Eponymous Dermatological Signs in Bullous Dermatoses  

PubMed Central

Clinical signs are evolved by clinicians through their careful clinical examination. Medical professionals are generally familiar with these signs because of the emphasis given to them by the teaching faculty while they were students. Some of these signs are eponymously named after the clinicians giving credit to their observation. Eponymous signs in vesiculobullous diseases such as Nikolsky sign and Asboe Hansen sign (Bulla spread sign) are well known and were described during the 19th and 20th century, respectively. Cerebriform tongue in pemphigus vegetans was described by Premalatha (1981) three decades ago and is well recognized and cited in several text books and articles in leading journals. All these signs are revisited below with an emphasis on cerebriform tongue in pemphigus vegetans which could eponymously be called as Premalatha sign.

Ganapati, Sentamilselvi

2014-01-01

251

Preventing postmarketing changes in recommended doses and marketing withdrawals.  

PubMed

Recent market withdrawals of prescription drug products have brought attention to premarketing safety research. Less known but related to some drug withdrawals are postmarketing dosage changes of newly marketed drugs, including both dosage reductions and increases. These events have serious effects on patients, manufacturers, and regulatory authorities. Most of these harmful events could be avoided by intensive employment of targeted clinical pharmacology investigations to optimize dosage prior to phase III testing and regulatory approval. In this paper, the frequency and implications of postmarketing dosing changes and market withdrawals are considered in light of approaches to preventing them. PMID:17117726

Peck, C

2007-01-01

252

Ketanserin and pirenperone attenuate acute morphine withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

The involvement of serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptors in the expression of opiate withdrawal was examined using a behavioral test for acute morphine dependence. The 5-HT2 antagonists, ketanserin and pirenperone, injected shortly before naloxone, attenuated the naloxone-induced suppression of an autoshaped lever-touch response in rats treated 4 h earlier with a moderate dose of morphine. A low dose of pirenperone was also effective in blocking withdrawal-induced hypothermia. These data support the hypothesis that 5-HT is involved in the expression of opiate withdrawal. PMID:3816979

Neal, B S; Sparber, S B

1986-12-16

253

Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats: withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics compared to recommended withdrawal periods for cows.  

PubMed

Intramammary antibiotics are registered and tested for use in dairy cattle. This study investigated withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics (Curaclox LC [Norbrook Pharmacia AH]), Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) and Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) in dairy goats and compared them to withdrawal periods recommended for use in cattle. Three trials were carried out in two different herds. The withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in eight relatively low producing Saanen goats were 74.3 h (+/- 19.21) measured by Thermo-Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS), 90.0 h (+/- 16.97) measured by colour dye, 99.4 h (+/- 9.07) for cloxacillin measured by Parallux Beta Lactam Assay test (IDEXX distributors), and 92.6 h (+/- 11.41) for ampicillin measured by Parallux. The withdrawal period for Curaclox LC recommended for use in cattle (72 h) was significantly shorter than the withdrawal periods as measured by colour dye (P < 0.001), Parallux testing for cloxacillin (P < 0.001) and ampicillin (P = 0.003). There was a significant difference in withdrawal periods as measured by TRIS (P = 0.009) and colour dye (P = 0.036). The mean withdrawal periods measured on 12 relatively high producing Saanen and Saanen-Toggenburg crossbreed dairy goats measured by TRIS, colour dye and Parallux for ampicillin and cloxacillin were, however, shorter at 42.0 h (+/- 7.077), 64.5 h (+/- 60.26), 77.3 h (+/- 13.56) and 70.7 h (+/- 12.65), respectively. These withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC were significantly longer than the withdrawal periods recommended for cattle as measured by TRIS (P < 0.001) and colour dye (P < 0.001). The combined withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in the two trials as measured by TRIS, colour dye, Parallux testing for Cloxacillin and Ampicillin were 58.64h (+/- 24.31), 75.8 h (+/- 17.70), 87.0 h (+/- 16.10) and 80.3 h (+/- 16.23), respectively. The withdrawal period, when data of the two trials were combined, measured by TRIS (P < 0.001) was significantly longer than the withdrawal period recommended for use in cattle. The mean withdrawal period as measured by TRIS for Spectrazol Milking Cow for seven relatively low producing Saanen dairy goats was 95.3 h (+/- 17.23). This was significantly (P < 0.001) longer than the withdrawal period recommended for use in cattle (60 h) for Spectrazol Milking Cow. The mean withdrawal period as measured by TRIS for Rilexine 200 LC for 20 relatively high producing Saanen and Saanen-Toggenburg crossbreed dairy goats was 36.9 h (+/- 9.943) and was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter than the withdrawal period as recommended for use in cattle (96 h). There were also significant differences in all the one-sample t-tests between withdrawal periods for goats and recommended withdrawal periods for cattle without the 24 h safety margin. PMID:17933363

Karzis, J; Donkin, E F; Petzer, I M

2007-09-01

254

Method and device for traffic sign recognition  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In a method and a device for traffic sign recognition, at least one significant feature for a traffic sign is determined which is standardized for a region. The region that corresponds to the determined feature is determined. At least one classification feature and/or at least one classification method is defined depending on the determined region for the recognition of the traffic sign and/or at least one further traffic sign. The recognition of the traffic sign and/or the at least one further traffic sign is performed by using the defined classification feature and/or the defined classification method.

2014-02-04

255

Agmatine reduces only peripheral-related behavioral signs, not the central signs, of morphine withdrawal in nNOS deficient transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agmatine inhibits morphine tolerance\\/dependence and potentiates morphine analgesia. This study was designed to investigate whether neuronal nitric oxide mediates the actions of agmatine in morphine dependence by using mice lacking a functional form of this enzyme. Mice received agmatine just after the morphine pellet implantation for 3 days twice daily or single injection 30 min before naloxone. In both genotypes

Feyza Aricioglu; Ian A. Paul; Soundar Regunathan

2004-01-01

256

Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

Cagle, Keith Martin

2010-01-01

257

42 CFR 137.236 - When does a withdrawal become effective?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When does a withdrawal become effective? 137.236 Section 137.236 Public Health...SELF-GOVERNANCE Withdrawal § 137.236 When does a withdrawal become effective? A withdrawal becomes effective within...

2013-10-01

258

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Withdrawal: Five Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little medical information available about gamma- hydroxybutyrate (GHB) or gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) dependence or withdrawal. In this study the authors treated and reviewed multiple cases of GHB and GBL withdrawal in high-dose users. Five patients during nine hospitalizations were treated for GHB or GBL withdrawal. The authors describe a spectrum of GHB or GBL withdrawal from mild to severe

Charles H. McDaniel; Karen A. Miotto

2001-01-01

259

46 CFR 67.143 - Restriction on withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Documentation, Exchange or Replacement of Certificate of Documentation, or Return to Documentation; Mortgagee Consent; Validation § 67.143 Restriction on withdrawal of application. A vessel owner making application pursuant to §...

2013-10-01

260

Costs of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Houston-Baytown area of Texas is experiencing subsidence of the land surface due to excessive withdrawals of ground water. Significant property damages and losses have resulted from encroachment of tidewater and permanent or temporary flooding. This s...

J. P. Warren L. L. Jones W. L. Griffin R. D. Lacewell

1974-01-01

261

75 FR 33273 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID: USN-2010-0021] Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DOD. ACTION...a policy that would establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) with contractors that have demonstrated exemplary...

2010-06-11

262

76 FR 69146 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of...proposed rule of October 27, 2011, entitled ``Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program,'' because it was...

2011-11-08

263

Social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence in India.  

PubMed

The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age?=?13.35 years). Peer nominations of peer relations and socioemotional behaviors were gathered, along with self-reports of reasons for being alone and loneliness. Preliminary evidence of validity for the self-report measure of withdrawal subtypes and isolation was found, and factor analyses indicated that shyness, unsociability, and avoidance represent related, but distinct forms of withdrawal that are distinct from isolation. Shyness and avoidance were uniquely associated with loneliness and exclusion, but unsociability was not. The association between avoidance and loneliness was mediated by exclusion. Findings suggest that social withdrawal may be best conceptualized as a multifaceted construct during childhood and adolescence, in Western and non-Western societies. PMID:20922475

Bowker, Julie C; Raja, Radhi

2011-02-01

264

Venlafaxine and Serious Withdrawal Symptoms: Warning to Drivers  

PubMed Central

Venlafaxine is a widely used serotonin- and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor-type antidepressant that causes serious adverse effects in at least 5% of cases. Serious withdrawal symptoms may occur within hours of cessation or reduction of the usual dosage and may affect motor and coordination skills to such a degree that patients should be explicitly urged either to adhere to a strict medication routine or not to drive a car. Recent clinical evidence about withdrawal symptoms is presented that may indicate incidents in noradrenergic activity irrespective of dosage. Objective To present clinical information and a brief review of severe venlafaxine withdrawal symptoms that may occur within hours after cessation and affect the ability to drive a motor vehicle or use heavy or dangerous machinery. Method Review of own and third-party clinical records. Search in PubMed and other databases with terms: venlafaxine, discontinuation, withdrawal, syndrome, serotonin, noradrenaline, noradrenergic, serotonergic, seizures, epilepsy.

Campagne, Daniel M.

2005-01-01

265

29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint. Enforcement of the provisions of section 11(c) is not only a...

2013-07-01

266

19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01... Section 144.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION...TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES... Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be...

2013-04-01

267

Studies on Addiction and Withdrawal in Cell Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After 415 days (70 subcultures) growth in the presence of slowly increased drug concentrations, KB cells with increased tolerance to amphetamine, benadryl, caffeine, codeine, and morphine have developed. No withdrawal symptoms have been observed upon the ...

F. R. Leach M. L. Higgins T. J. Shaw S. Stadnicki

1974-01-01

268

49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The...

2013-10-01

269

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2013-04-01

270

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2010-04-01

271

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2012-04-01

272

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2011-04-01

273

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2014-04-01

274

12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...from membership. 1263.26 Section 1263.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal...

2012-01-01

275

Acute withdrawal but not long-term withdrawal from methamphetamine affects sexual behavior in female rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the long-term effects of repeated methamphetamine (MA) exposure on sexual motivation in female rats tested after a period of drug abstinence. In Experiment 1, female subjects received three injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day, every other day) or saline and were tested for paced mating behavior (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from one male rat) 21 days after their last injection. In Experiment 2, female subjects received 12 consecutive injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day) or saline and were tested for mate choice (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from two male rats simultaneously) 6 days after their last injection. Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 2 except that female subjects received no baseline mating test and were tested for mate choice 24h and 6 days after their last injection. Open field tests were conducted in each experiment to measure locomotor activity after repeated exposure to MA. Although repeated MA exposure increased locomotor activity, mating behavior was not facilitated after either a short (6 days) or long (21 days) period of drug abstinence. Nevertheless, sexual behavior was disrupted during the 24h acute withdrawal period. Therefore, although the present study found no evidence of cross-sensitization between female sexual behavior and MA after either a short or a long period of drug abstinence, sexual behavior in sexually naïve female rats is sensitive to the depressive state associated with acute withdrawal from MA. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MA acts differently from other psychomotor stimulants, and that the effects of MA withdrawal on sexual behavior differ between male and female rats. PMID:23268346

Thibodeau, Rachel B; Ornelas, Laura C; Romero, Jordan; Memos, Nicoletta; Scheible, Matthew; Avila, Alfred; Schumacher, Abby; Navarro, April; Zimmermann, Karen; Cuenod, Bethany A; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

2013-02-01

276

Water withdrawal and use in Maryland, 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1986, about 1,460 million gallons per day of freshwater was withdrawn from the surface-, and groundwater resources of Maryland. In addition, more than 6,240 million gallons per day of saline surface water was withdrawn and used primarily for cooling purposes in the generation of electricity. Most freshwater withdrawals (84%) were from surface water sources and were withdrawn and used in the Potomac drainage basin, whereas most groundwater was withdrawn and used in the Upper Chesapeake drainage basin. The Potomac Group aquifers provided the most groundwater (56 million gallons per day). Ten water use categories comprise the major demands on the surface and groundwater resources of the State: public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power generation, hydroelectric power generation, agricultural (non-irrigation), irrigation, and aquaculture. Public-supply systems withdrew the most water in the State (801 million gallon/day) for use by residents, commercial establishments, and industries. Baltimore City had the largest public-supply use in 1986 (about 151 million gallons/day). (USGS)

Wheeler, J. C.

1990-01-01

277

Effects of Selective Withdrawal on Hydrodynamics of a Stratified Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

In water supply reservoirs, selective withdrawal is commonly implemented to control released water temperature for quality\\u000a purposes. This study investigated the effects of selective withdrawal on hydrodynamics of a stratified reservoir through numerical\\u000a modeling and analytical analysis. A 3-D hydrodynamic model was applied where observations of water temperature time series\\u000a recorded every 30 min at the thermocline and measured temperature profiles

An?l Çal??kan; ?ebnem Elçi

2009-01-01

278

Withdrawal symptoms after graduated cessation of imipramine in children.  

PubMed

In a systematic retrospective study the authors reviewed charts of 22 depressed children on a clinical research unit who were withdrawn from high-dose imipramine. Significant withdrawal symptoms were found over seven symptom categories despite an average tapering period of 6.4 days. These results suggest that withdrawal symptoms in children may be much more prevalent and intense than previously recognized. PMID:7235061

Law, W; Petti, T A; Kazdin, A E

1981-05-01

279

Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals  

PubMed Central

Aims Caffeine withdrawal was included in the research appendix of the DSM-IV to encourage additional research to assist with determining its status for the next version of the manual. Caffeine dependence was not included because of a lack of empirical research at the time of publication. This study assessed the beliefs of addiction professionals about the clinical importance of caffeine withdrawal and dependence. Methods A 6-item survey was developed and delivered electronically to the members of six professional organizations that focus on addiction. Open-ended comments were also solicited. Five hundred members responded. Results The majority (95%) thought that cessation of caffeine could produce a withdrawal syndrome, and that caffeine withdrawal can have clinical importance (73%); however, only half (48%) thought that caffeine withdrawal should be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A majority (58%) believed that some people develop caffeine dependence; however, only 44% indicated that it should be in the DSM. Comments suggested that trepidation about inclusion of caffeine diagnoses was due to the concerns about the field of psychiatry being criticized for including common disorders with a relatively low clinical severity. Others, however, expressed an urgent need to take caffeine-related problems more seriously. Conclusions The majority of addiction professionals believe that caffeine withdrawal and dependence disorders exist and are clinically important; however, these professionals are divided in whether caffeine withdrawal and dependence should be included in DSM. Wider dissemination of the extant literature on caffeine withdrawal and additional research on caffeine dependence will be needed to provide additional guidance to policymakers and healthcare workers.

Brown, Pamela C.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Hughes, John R.; Juliano, Laura M.

2013-01-01

280

Drug metabolism and liver function after methyldopa withdrawal.  

PubMed Central

1 The effects of methyldopa withdrawal on liver function and drug metabolism were investigated in ten elderly females suffering from the drug-induced orthostatic reaction and resistant hypertension. 2 There was a significant increase in serum albumin level, antipyrine metabolism and urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid 6 months after the methyldopa withdrawal. 3 The results suggest that patients treated with methyldopa might show a reduced metabolizing ability in spite of normal liver function tests.

Ylikallio, A; Sotaniemi, E A

1980-01-01

281

Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common genes on all three responses.

Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.

2010-01-01

282

[Neurological signs in aortic dissection].  

PubMed

A substantial number of patients suffering from aortic dissection will show neurological signs. These can dominate the clinical picture and hinder an accurate diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. We present a case of lower extremity pain and a case of transient global amnesia caused by aortic dissection. A third patient suffered from acute cerebral ischemia accompanied by hypotension and back pain, suggestive of aortic dissection. In this third case, aortic dissection was excluded before systemic thrombolytic therapy was administered, for the patient could have suffered disastrous complications caused by this emergency stroke therapy. Clinicians should be aware that a wide range of cerebral, spinal and peripheral neurological signs can be caused by aortic dissection. An unusual combination of symptoms can be a clue for underlying aortic disease. High-risk clinical features are predisposing factors in medical history, typical acute onset back or chest pain, and pulse deficit, blood pressure asymmetry or a new cardiac murmur on physical examination. These features should be explicitly evaluated in patients with an acute neurological deficit. If neurological symptoms and a high-risk clinical feature are present, immediate aortic imaging should be considered since early detection can be life saving. PMID:24330794

Walma, Rinske A; Vermeij, Frederique H; Bakker, Stef L M

2013-01-01

283

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... 5/2013 Symptoms and Signs Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck Cancer Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Symptoms ... on the side of your screen. People with head and neck cancer often experience the following symptoms or signs. ...

284

Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

Schilling, Kenneth

2013-01-01

285

Effects of Sign Illumination on Driver Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study's purpose was to determine the effects on driver performance of illuminating overhead guide signs. The method used was to analyze erratic driving maneuvers at three successive signs, both before and after their illumination. No change in traffic...

K. C. Hahn

1976-01-01

286

Age, cognitive style, and traffic signs.  

PubMed

This study assessed the efficiency with which young and older adults of varying field dependence extract information from traffic signs. It also identified some visual attributes of signs which affect recognition time. Two experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, digitized signs, embedded in rural and urban backgrounds, were presented on a computer monitor. Subjects indicated on which side a target sign had appeared. Analysis showed that recognition times were dependent on age and field-dependence scores. Also, visual backgrounds and spatial frequency of pictographs affected RTs. In Exp. 2, recognition RT to 2 signs with redesigned pictographs was measured as well as time taken to detect signs. The signs showing reduced spatial frequency were the fastest to recognize, although no effect was noticed during detection. The subjects who showed the worst performance when facing the original signs benefitted the most from the modifications. PMID:8022689

Lambert, L D; Fleury, M

1994-04-01

287

Sign Language From the Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

288

Cooperative Sign Language Tutoring: A Multiagent Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sign languages can be learned effectively only with frequent feedback from an expert in the field. The expert needs to watch a performed sign, and decide whether the sign has been performed well based on his/her previous knowledge about the sign. The expert's role can be imitated by an automatic system, which uses a training set as its knowledge base to train a classifier that can decide whether the performed sign is correct. However, when the system does not have enough previous knowledge about a given sign, the decision will not be accurate. Accordingly, we propose a multiagent architecture in which agents cooperate with each other to decide on the correct classification of performed signs. We apply different cooperation strategies and test their performances in varying environments. Further, through analysis of the multiagent system, we can discover inherent properties of sign languages, such as the existence of dialects.

Y?ld?r?m, Ilker; Aran, Oya; Yolum, P?nar; Akarun, Lale

289

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2013-07-01

290

30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

2013-07-01

291

10 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... care and support services. 10 warning signs of Alzheimer's: Memory changes that disrupt daily life One of the most common signs of Alzheimer's, especially in the early stages, is forgetting recently ...

292

Cellular neuroadaptations to chronic opioids: tolerance, withdrawal and addiction  

PubMed Central

A large range of neuroadaptations develop in response to chronic opioid exposure and these are thought to be more or less critical for expression of the major features of opioid addiction: tolerance, withdrawal and processes that may contribute to compulsive use and relapse. This review considers these adaptations at different levels of organization in the nervous system including tolerance at the ?-opioid receptor itself, cellular tolerance and withdrawal in opioid-sensitive neurons, systems tolerance and withdrawal in opioid-sensitive nerve networks, as well as synaptic plasticity in opioid sensitive nerve networks. Receptor tolerance appears to involve enhancement of mechanisms of receptor regulation, including desensitization and internalization. Adaptations causing cellular tolerance are more complex but several important processes have been identified including upregulation of cAMP/PKA and cAMP response element-binding signalling and perhaps the mitogen activated PK cascades in opioid sensitive neurons that might not only influence tolerance and withdrawal but also synaptic plasticity during cycles of intoxication and withdrawal. The potential complexity of network, or systems adaptations that interact with opioid-sensitive neurons is great but some candidate neuropeptide systems that interact with ?-opioid sensitive neurons may play a role in tolerance and withdrawal, as might activation of glial signalling. Implication of synaptic forms of learning such as long term potentiation and long term depression in opioid addiction is still in its infancy but this ultimately has the potential to identify specific synapses that contribute to compulsive use and relapse.

Christie, M J

2008-01-01

293

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend’s withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class.

Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

2013-01-01

294

[Pregabalin for the reduction of opiate withdrawal symptoms].  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a substance which modulates monoamine release in "hyper-excited" neurons. It binds potently to the ?2-? subunit of calcium channels. Pilotstudies on alcohol- and benzodiazepine dependent patients reported a reduction of withdrawal symptoms through Pregabalin. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted so far assessing this effect in opiate dependent patients. We report the case of a 43-year-old patient with Pregabalin intake during opiate withdrawal. Multiple inpatient and outpatient detoxifications from maintenance replacement therapy with Buprenorphine in order to reach complete abstinence did not show success because of extended withdrawal symptoms and repeated drug intake. Finally he disrupted his heroine intake with a simultaneously self administration of 300 ?mg Pregabaline per day and was able to control the withdrawal symptoms. In this time we did control the Pregabalin level in serum and urine in our outpatient clinic. In the course the patient reported that he could treat further relapse with opiate or opioids with Pregabalin successful. This case shows first details for Pregabalin to relief withdrawal symptoms in opiate withdrawal. PMID:22689280

Kämmerer, Nina; Lemenager, Tagrid; Grosshans, Martin; Kiefer, Falk; Hermann, Derik

2012-10-01

295

The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

Keune, A., E-mail: anne.keune@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies (Switzerland)

2012-09-15

296

Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

Turner, Graham H.

2009-01-01

297

Automatic Detection and Classification of Traffic Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes algorithms for the automatic detection of traffic signs from photo or video images and their classification to provide a driver alert system. Several examples taken from Portuguese roads are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Traffic signs are detected by analyzing color information, notably red and blue, contained on the images. The detected signs

Carlos Filipe Paulo; Paulo Lobato Correia

2007-01-01

298

An adaptive system for traffic sign recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic sign recognition is a primary goal of almost all road environment understanding systems. A vision system for traffic sign recognition was developed by Daimler-Benz Research Center Ulm. The two main modules of the system are detection and verification (recognition). Here regions of possible traffic signs in a color image sequence are first detected before each of them is verified

Yong-Jian Zheng; Werner Ritter; R. Janssen

1994-01-01

299

ROAD AND TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION AND RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract. This paper presents an overview of the road and traffic sign detection and recognition. It describes the characteristics of the road signs, the requirements and difficulties behind road signs detection and recognition, how to deal with outdoor images, and the different techniques used in the image segmentation based on the colour analysis, shape analysis. It shows also the

Hasan FLEYEH; Mark DOUGHERTY

300

The University of Michigan Campus Identification Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific information, identification, and direction to and within the campus as factors determining a campus sign system are discussed in terms of--(1) needs requiring an identification sign system, (2) recommendations for initiating a comprehensive sign system for the university, and (3) application procedures as they relate to streets, walkways,…

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.

301

Road traffic sign detection and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vision-based vehicle guidance system for road vehicles can have three main roles: (1) road detection; (2) obstacle detection; and (3) sign recognition. The first two have been studied for many years and with many good results, but traffic sign recognition is a less-studied field. Traffic signs provide drivers with very valuable information about the road, in order to make

A. de la Escalera; L. E. Moreno; M. A. Salichs; J. M. Armingol

1997-01-01

302

Drivers' immediate responses to traffic signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have shown that when stopped on the road and requested to report a traffic sign which they just passed, drivers are able to do it correctly more often if the sign is of significance to them. Thus, such a sign is either better detected or better remembered than the less significant ones. In this study, speed changes of

H. SUMMALA; J. HIETAMÄKI

1984-01-01

303

LEGIBILITY OF TRAFFIC SIGN TEXT AND SYMBOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory daytime and nighttime sign recognition and legibility field driving experiment involving 11 new reflectorized right-shoulder-mounted traffic signs and 10 young, healthy subjects (three replications) is described here. It was hypothesized that daytime conditions would provide longer recognition and legibility distances than nighttime conditions and that signs with bold symbols would provide longer recognition and legibility distances than textual

Helmut T. Zwahlen; Thomas Schnell

1999-01-01

304

Fast and Robust Traffic Sign Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the fast and robust detection of the traffic sign images. A new technique called geometric fragmentation is proposed to detect the red circular traffic signs. It detects the outer ellipses of the signs by combining the left and right fragments of the ellipse objects. A search based on the geometric fragmentation is used to find the

Aryuanto Soetedjo; Koichi Yamada

2005-01-01

305

Fast and robust traffic sign de tection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract – This paper deals with the fast and robust detection of the traffic sign images. A new technique called geometric fragmentation is proposed to detect the red circular traffic signs. It detects the outer ellipses of the signs by combining the left and right fragments of the ellipse objects. A search ,based on the ,geometric fragmentation is used to

A. Soetedjo; K. Yamada

2005-01-01

306

Traffic Sign Recognition Using Dictionary Learning Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent researches have paid more and more attention to traffic sign recognition due to its important role in the intelligence transportation system. In the traditional methods for this task, first the traffic signs are located using the color or shape information of the traffic signs, then a classifier is applied for classification. In this paper, we propose a novel framework

Xiao Deng; Donghui Wang; Lili Cheng; Shu Kong

2010-01-01

307

Traffic Sign Recognition based on Color Standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the key factor affecting recognition rate of traffic sign is the color distortion caused by the color complexity. By analyzing the color characteristics and classification features of traffic signs, this paper proposes a novel model of the traffic sign classification method using color standardization based on the rule of \\

Shuangdong Zhu; Lanlan Liu

2006-01-01

308

New hybrid technique for traffic sign recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid traffic sign recognition scheme combining of knowledge-based analysis and radial basis function neural classifier (RBFNN) is proposed in this paper. Initially, traffic signs are detected from the road scenes using color segmentation method. The extracted signs are then passed to the recognition system for classification. The proposed recognition technique composes of three stages: (i) color histogram classification, (ii)

King Hann Lim; Li-Minn Ang; Kah Phooi Seng

2009-01-01

309

General traffic sign recognition by feature matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic sign recognition is a technology which allows us to recognize signs in real time, typically in videos, or sometimes just (off-line) in photos. It is used for Driver Assistance Systems (DAS), road surveys, or the management of road assets (to improve road safety). In this paper, we propose a method for general traffic sign recognition (tested for the New

FeiXiang Ren; Jinsheng Huang; Ruyi Jiang; Reinhard Klette

2009-01-01

310

Traffic Sign Recognition in Disturbing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic sign recognition is a difficult task if we aim at detecting and recognizing signs in images captured from unfavorable environments. Complex background, weather, shadow, and other lighting-related problems may make it difficult to detect and recognize signs in the rural as well as the urban areas. We employ discrete cosine transform and singular value decomposition for ex- tracting features

Hsiu-ming Yang; Chao-lin Liu; Kun-hao Liu; Shang-ming Huang

2003-01-01

311

A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

2011-01-01

312

Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) in Malay  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.

2010-01-01

313

The Brockenbrough - Braunwald - Morrow Sign  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively common genetic disorder and usually asymptomatic. However, approximately 25% of patients develop left ventricular outflow obstruction and can develop angina, syncope, or congestive heart failure. Initiation and titration of beta-blockade usually results in symptomatic improvement. Patients with medically refractory symptoms can see further symptomatic improvement and relief of obstruction with either surgical myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA). Although surgical myectomy has been the gold standard, ASA has been shown in nonrandomized studies and a meta-analysis to be comparable. In patients undergoing ASA without a rest obstruction, the Brokenbrough-Braunwald-Morrow sign can be used to accurately determine the degree of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction prior to, during, and after ASA.

2014-01-01

314

Early Steroid Withdrawal in Repeat Kidney Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Kidney re-transplantation (KRT) candidates are considered at high risk for graft failure. Most of these patients are kept on a chronic steroid maintenance (CSM) regimen. The safety of early steroid withdrawal (ESW) remains unanswered in KRT. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was aimed at comparing the outcomes of ESW and CSM in KRT. Retrospective analysis of 113 KRT patients (ESW, n = 59; CSM, n = 54) was performed. All patients received rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin/steroid induction and were maintained on mycophenolate/tacrolimus (±steroids). Results One- and 5-year patient survival for the ESW and the CSM group were not significantly different (98 versus 96% and 91 versus 88%, respectively; P = 0.991). No significant difference was seen in the graft survival for both groups at 1 and 5 years (98 versus 93% and 80 versus 74%, respectively; P = 0.779). Mean 1- and 5-year estimated GFR was not statistically different between the groups (P = 0.773 and 0.790, respectively). The incidence of acute rejection at 1 year was 17 and 22% in ESW and CSM patients, respectively (P = 0.635). Compared with the ESW group, patients in the CSM group were more likely to be hyperlipidemic (P = 0.044), osteoporotic (P = 0.010), post-transplant diabetics (P = 0.051) and required more medications to control BP (P = 0.004). Conclusions ESW seems to be a reasonable approach in KRT recipients because the short and intermediate patient survival, graft survival, and graft function is comparable to CSM immunosuppression.

Taber, Tim E.; Goggins, William C.; Yaqub, Muhammad S.; Mishler, Dennis P.; Milgrom, Martin L.; Fridell, Jonathan A.; Lobashevsky, Andrew; Powelson, John A.; Sharfuddin, Asif A.

2011-01-01

315

Selective c-fos induction and decreased dopamine release in the central nucleus of amygdala in rats displaying a mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

In the present study the neuronal expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, was used to study changes in neuronal activity in nerve terminal regions of the ascending dopaminergic system during nicotine withdrawal. Rats were infused for 14 days with nicotine (9 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate) via minipumps, whereas control animals carried empty pumps. Withdrawal was induced by the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.). The behavior of each animal was observed after mecamylamine injection and subsequently its brain was processed for Fos-like immunoreactivity. Following mecamylamine, the score of abstinence signs increased in the nicotine-treated rats as compared to controls. The number of Fos-positive nuclei was substantially increased in the central nucleus of amygdala (CNA) in animals undergoing mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal, whereas no significant changes in c-fos expression were observed in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the core and the shell of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsolateral striatum, or the medial prefrontal cortex. Since there are indications of involvement of amygdaloid dopaminergic neurotransmission in anxiety-a core symptom of withdrawal from dependence-producing drugs-in a second experiment utilizing microdialysis we examined whether nicotine withdrawal affects dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNA. Following mecamylamine injection, dopamine (DA) significantly decreased in nicotine-treated animals compared with controls. These results indicate that the mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal reaction is accompanied by a selective induction of c-fos and a concurrent decrease in DA release in the CNA, which may have a bearing on symptoms such as anxiety and distress, which frequently are associated with the nicotine abstinence reaction in humans. PMID:10579804

Panagis, G; Hildebrand, B E; Svensson, T H; Nomikos, G G

2000-01-01

316

Cannabis withdrawal in chronic cannabis users with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic users of cannabis often report withdrawal symptoms after abstinence from use, but little is known about cannabis withdrawal in people with schizophrenia. Methods Cannabis use patterns and withdrawal symptoms in adults with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use before attempting to quit without formal treatment were assessed with the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a 176-item, semi-structured questionnaire. Results 120 participants, predominantly African–American (62.5%) and male (76.7%), met inclusion criteria. 20.1% reported that their first regular cannabis use (median age 15 years [range 8–48]) preceded their age at first psychotic symptoms (20 [4–50] years). Twenty (16.7%) participants met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse; 98 (81.7%) met surrogate criteria for lifetime cannabis dependence. Withdrawal symptoms were reported by 113 (94.2%) participants, with 74.2% reporting ?4 symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were craving for cannabis (59.2%), feeling anxious (52.57%), feeling bored (47.5%), feeling sad or depressed (45.8%), feeling irritable or jumpy (45.0%), feeling restless (43.3%), and trouble failing asleep (33.3%). One hundred-and-four (92.0%) participants took some action to relieve at least one of their withdrawal symptoms during their index-quit attempt, including 26 (23.0%) participants who reported resuming cannabis use. Conclusion Cannabis withdrawal is a clinically significant feature of cannabis use among people with schizophrenia, may serve as a negative reinforcer for relapse, and deserves greater attention in treatment and research. Clinical Trials registration NCT00679016.

Boggs, Douglas L.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared A.; Turner, Hailey; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; McMahon, Robert P.; Gorelick, David A.

2013-01-01

317

Conjoining Word and Image in British Sign Language (BSL): An Exploration of Metaphorical Signs in BSL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lexicon of British Sign Language (BSL), including, and perhaps especially, the productive lexicon, is highly motivated. Many sign linguists in the last few decades have played down the role of iconicity and other types of motivation in signed language. They have suggested that because sign forms and structures conform to rules of linguistic…

Brennan, Mary

2005-01-01

318

Forced Choice Recognition of Sign in Novice Learners of British Sign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of the accuracy of novice learners of British Sign Language (BSL) and sign-naive subjects in recognizing possible and impossible BSL signs and in naming signs suggests that rated iconicity and the ability to process potentially meaningful gestures, determined recognition and naming accuracy. (19 references) (Author/CB)

Campbell, Ruth; And Others

1992-01-01

319

Signs for Instruction: A Reference Manual of Preferred South Carolina Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference manual of preferred sign language signs represents an effort by a special South Carolina task force to develop a single, systematized approach for signing in instructional settings throughout the state. The manual, which contains illustrations and instructions for formation of approximately 2,500 signs, was developed by establishing…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Programs for the Handicapped.

320

Ideogram identification in a realtime traffic sign recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust system for the automatic detection of traffic signs has been developed at the Image Recognition Laboratory of the University of Koblenz. This traffic sign recognition (TSR) system was originally designed to localize traffic signs and to recognize their classes, e.g. prohibition signs, danger signs, beacons, etc. The exact identification of traffic signs is added. Traffic signs are identified

Lutz Priese; Raimund Lakmann; Volker Rehrmann

1995-01-01

321

Senior house officer withdrawals from hospital posts: a questionnaire survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the nature and number of unexpected withdrawal by senior house officers (SHOs) after acceptance of a hospital post at interview, and to investigate the reasons and possible solutions. Design: Postal questionnaire based study. Subjects: Medical staffing departments, accident and emergency (A&E) consultants, and withdrawing SHOs in England. Main outcome measures: Unexpected withdrawals by hospital specialty, three year trend in A&E departments, notice and reasons given, and action taken. Results: 39% of medical staffing departments reported unexpected withdrawals in a broad spectrum of specialties for February 1998. In the specialty of A&E medicine this occurred in 34% of departments. Overall 72% of A&E departments had experienced this problem over a three year period, and the trend is increasing. The majority of A&E consultants (70%) took no action, and there was a lack of consensus among all respondents on the appropriate course of action to prevent this escalating problem. Conclusions: Unexpected SHO withdrawal is a substantial issue in hospital medicine and has been increasing in A&E medicine. Measures to prevent this national problem are urgently needed.

Vickery, D; Bodiwala, G

2002-01-01

322

The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.  

PubMed

Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. PMID:23528199

Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

2014-03-01

323

Withdrawals and consumptive use of water in Pennsylvania, 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total accountable water withdrawals in Pennsylvania during 1984 were 14,033.66 Mga/d (million gallons per day); of that total, 5.2 percent (729.53 Mgal/d) was supplied from ground-water sources in 94.8 percent (13,302.12 Mgal/d) was supplied from surface-water sources. Thermoelectric power generation accounted for 71 percent of the total withdrawals (10,010.60 Mgal/d); this was followed by self-supplied industry, 15 percent (2,055.63 Mgal/d); public supply, 11 percent (1,600.02 Mgal/d); mining (147.73 Mgal/d), self- supplied domestic use (131.63 Mgal/d), livestock and poultry (83.52 Mgal/d) and irrigation (4.52 Mgal/d) collectively made up 3 percent. Total consumptive use of water was 615.22 Mgal/d; self-supplied industry is responsible for the greatest consumptive use--185.53 Mgal/d. Trends in water withdrawals from 1950 to 1984 were examined for public supply, thermoelectric power generation and self-supplied industry. Total population and water withdrawals for public supply gradual increased in those years, whereas withdrawals for self-supplied industry and power generation increased until 1970 and then decreased.

Loper, C. A.; Lent, S. D.; Wetzel, K. L.

1989-01-01

324

CT signs of urethral injury.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is the accepted frontline imaging modality for blunt abdominopelvic trauma. However, urethral injuries are traditionally diagnosed with retrograde urethrography. The CT appearances of urethral injuries and the signs associated with posterior urethral injuries are not well described in the literature. CT scans of patients with pelvic fractures and urethrographically proved posterior urethral injuries were evaluated. CT scans of patients with similar pelvic fractures who did not have urethral injuries were also evaluated. The CT findings of elevation of the prostatic apex, extravasation of urinary tract contrast material above the urogenital diaphragm (UGD), and extravasation of urinary tract contrast material below the UGD were specific for type I, II, and III urethral injuries, respectively. If extraperitoneal bladder rupture is present along with periurethral extravasation of contrast material, the possibility of type IV and IVA urethral injuries should be considered. In addition, the CT findings of distortion or obscuration of the UGD fat plane, hematoma of the ischiocavernosus muscle, distortion or obscuration of the prostatic contour, distortion or obscuration of the bulbocavernosus muscle, and hematoma of the obturator internus muscle were more common in patients with pelvic fractures and associated urethral injuries than in patients with uncomplicated pelvic fractures. PMID:12853670

Ali, Muhammad; Safriel, Yair; Sclafani, Salvatore J A; Schulze, Robert

2003-01-01

325

Yokukansan inhibits morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice: the role of ??A-adrenoceptor.  

PubMed

Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese medicine consisting of seven medicinal herbs that is used for the treatment of neurosis, insomnia, and the behavioral/psychological symptoms of dementia. This study examined the effects of YKS on morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice. Daily oral administration of YKS (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg) for 3 weeks significantly attenuated morphine tolerance and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs (jumps and body weight loss) without affecting the analgesic effect of morphine. The inhibitory effect of YKS on withdrawal jumps in morphine-dependent mice was blocked by a single pretreatment with an ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, but not by an ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin. A similar inhibitory effect on withdrawal jumps was observed by repeated administration of yohimbine. The membrane expression of ?(2A)-adrenoceptors in the pons/medulla was decreased in morphine withdrawn animals; this reduction was prevented by repeated administration of YKS or yohimbine. Competitive radioligand and [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding assays revealed that YKS and its constituent herbs, Glycyrrhiza (GR) and Uncaria hook (UH), had specific binding affinity for and antagonist activity against the ?(2A)-adrenoceptor. Certain chemical constituents, including GR -derived glycyrrhizin and its metabolite, 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid, and UH-derived geissoschizine methyl ether (GME), shared such activities. Repeated administration of GR, UH, glycyrrhizin or GME significantly inhibited morphine withdrawal signs. These results suggest that YKS and its active constituents inhibit morphine tolerance and physical dependence, and that the latter is due at least in part to the prevention of the decreased membrane expression of the ?(2A)-adrenoceptor in the brainstem by its prolonged blockade. PMID:23069764

Nakagawa, T; Nagayasu, K; Nishitani, N; Shirakawa, H; Sekiguchi, K; Ikarashi, Y; Kase, Y; Kaneko, S

2012-12-27

326

Effects of ibogaine on sensory-motor function, activity, and spatial learning in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibogaine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, has been show to reduce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms from morphine. Given the clinical possibilities, it is important to determine ibogaine's effects on sensory-motor function, activity, learning, and memory. Long-Evans rats injected with doses of 20–60 mg\\/kg of ibogaine displayed slower response times on sensory and sensory-motor tests and were impaired in performing specific motor reflexes

Raymond P. Kesner; Pamela Jackson-Smith; Clarissa Henry; Kelly Amann

1995-01-01

327

Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in opioid-dependent patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a GABA metabolite used clinically for sleep induction. The abuse liability of GHB is controversial. As part of a study of the effect of GHB pretreatment on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal, eight opioid-stabilized subjects received a balanced, randomized, double-blind sequence of oral placebo, GHB 15 mg\\/kg and 30 mg\\/kg. GHB had no consistent physiological effects. After GHB

Marc I. Rosen; H. Rowland Pearsall; Scott W. Woods; Thomas R. Kosten

1997-01-01

328

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma butyrolactone (GBL) withdrawal: five case studies.  

PubMed

There is little medical information available about gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) or gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) dependence or withdrawal. In this study the authors treated and reviewed multiple cases of GHB and GBL withdrawal in high-dose users. Five patients during nine hospitalizations were treated for GHB or GBL withdrawal. The authors describe a spectrum of GHB or GBL withdrawal from mild to severe and discuss medications used for treatment. They conclude that patients with GHB or GBL withdrawal may present with agitated psychosis, delirium, and autonomic instability. In this sample, relapse to GHB or GBL use occurred soon after treatment of withdrawal. PMID:11476261

McDaniel, C H; Miotto, K A

2001-01-01

329

Nefazodone decreases anxiety during marijuana withdrawal in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Symptoms of marijuana withdrawal include increased irritability, depression and anxiety, and decreased sleep quality. Nefazodone,\\u000a which is an antidepressant with sedative properties, may attenuate symptoms of marijuana withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present within-subject, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of nefazodone during marijuana withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Marijuana smokers [n=7; averaging 6.0 (±1.3) marijuana cigarettes\\/day, 6.4 (±0.4) days\\/week], not seeking treatment for

Margaret Haney; Carl L. Hart; Amie S. Ward; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

330

Divalproex sodium (Depakote) for alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention.  

PubMed

This pilot study evaluates the safety and efficacy of divalproex sodium (Depakote) for alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention. Sixteen patients in moderate alcohol withdrawal were randomized to receive a standard benzodiazepine detoxification, depakote detoxification, or depakote detox plus maintenance. Symptom reduction occurred more rapidly and consistently in the depakote treated patients than in the benzodiazepine control group, and at six-week follow up a greater percentage of patients in the depakote maintenance group were completely abstinent than either detox-only group. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic or drinking data amongst the three cohort samples at baseline. Our findings suggest that the anticonvulsant divalproex sodium (Depakote) may be a safe and efficacious alternative to benzodiazepines for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. It may be an advantageous alternative for outpatient detoxification, as it has no abuse potential, pharmacologic synergy with alcohol, or substantial cognitive or psychomotor side effects. PMID:11916372

Longo, Lance P; Campbell, Todd; Hubatch, Sandra

2002-01-01

331

A DNA Element Regulates Drug Tolerance and Withdrawal in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Drug tolerance and withdrawal are insidious responses to drugs of abuse; the first increases drug consumption while the second punishes abstention. Drosophila generate functional tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation by increasing neural expression of the slo BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channel gene. After drug clearance this change produces a withdrawal phenotype—increased seizure susceptibility. The drug-induced histone modification profile identified the 6b element (60 nt) as a drug responsive element. Genomic deletion of 6b produces the allele, slo?6b, that reacts more strongly to the drug with increased induction, a massive increase in the duration of tolerance, and an increase in the withdrawal phenotype yet does not alter other slo-dependent behaviors. The 6b element is a homeostatic regulator of BK channel gene expression and is the first cis-acting DNA element shown to specifically affect the duration of a drug action.

Li, Xiaolei; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Pohl, Jascha B.; Bohm, Arun Y.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

2013-01-01

332

Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance), second factor also had four items (24.25% variance), and the third had two items (10.04% variance). Conclusions. Factor analysis reveals the existence of multidimensionality of alcohol withdrawal as measured with CIWA-Ar and we found three factors that can be named as delirious, autonomic and nonspecific factors.

Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Khess, Christoday R. J.; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Soren, Subhas

2014-01-01

333

Ovarian hormone withdrawal-induced "depression" in female rats.  

PubMed

Approximately 15% of child-bearing women develop postpartum depression (PPD), and many women with PPD experience anxious symptoms. It has been proposed that PPD is precipitated by the dramatic decline in reproductive hormones that occurs just after childbirth. To examine this hypothesis, ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) regimen; during the subsequent hormone withdrawal period, rats were tested in the forced swim test or elevated plus-maze, animal models of depression and anxiety, respectively. The HSP regimen consisted of injections with progesterone and escalating doses of estradiol benzoate for 22 days; control rats received daily vehicle injections. One, two, four or seven days after the last hormone injection, separate groups of rats were tested once on either the forced swim test or the elevated plus-maze. To examine any hormone withdrawal-induced changes in activity levels, spontaneous locomotor activity was measured at the same time points. At 2 and 4 days after the last hormone injection, HSP-treated females displayed significant increases in immobility relative to vehicle-treated females in the forced swim test. Behavior on the elevated plus-maze did not differ between the HSP and control groups at any of the withdrawal time points. There were also no differences in spontaneous locomotor activity between the HSP and control females at any of the withdrawal time points. The results of this study suggest that postpartum hormone withdrawal may contribute to depressive symptoms experienced after giving birth, and that the HSP-hormone withdrawal protocol may provide a useful animal model of PPD. PMID:15581673

Stoffel, Erin C; Craft, Rebecca M

2004-12-15

334

Signed magnification sums for general spherical lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the sum of signed magnifications is invariant for mass lens systems. In this paper, we discuss the signed magnification sums of general spherical lens models, including the singular isothermal sphere, the Schwarzschild lens, and the Ellis wormhole, the last of which is an example of the traversable wormholes of the Morris-Thorne class. We show that the signed magnification sums are a very useful tool to distinguish exotic lens objects. For example, we show that one can distinguish the Ellis wormholes from the Schwarzschild lens with the signed magnification sums.

Tsukamoto, Naoki; Harada, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

335

Subjective frequency ratings for 432 ASL signs.  

PubMed

Given the importance of lexical frequency for psycholinguistic research and the lack of comprehensive frequency data for sign languages, we collected subjective estimates of lexical frequency for 432 signs in American Sign Language (ASL). Our participants were 59 deaf signers who first began to acquire ASL at ages ranging from birth to 14 years old and who had a minimum of 10 years of experience. Subjective frequency estimates were made on a scale ranging from 1 = rarely see the sign to 7 = always see the sign. The mean subjective frequency ratings for individual signs did not vary in relation to age of sign language exposure (AoLE), chronological age, or length of ASL experience. Nor did AoLE show significant effects on the response times (RTs) for making the ratings. However, RTs were highly correlated with mean frequency ratings. These results suggest that the distributions of subjective lexical frequencies are consistent across signers with varying AoLEs. The implications for research practice are that subjective frequency ratings from random samples of highly experienced deaf signers can provide a reasonable measure of lexical control in sign language experiments. The Appendix gives the mean and median subjective frequency ratings and the mean and median log(RT) of the ASL signs for the entire sample; the supplemental material gives these measures for the three AoLE groups: native, early, and late. PMID:23943581

Mayberry, Rachel I; Hall, Matthew L; Zvaigzne, Meghan

2014-06-01

336

Review of waterpower withdrawals in Weiser River Basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Weiser River basin is primarily agricultural and is supported by extensive irrigation. The Geological Survey has initiated withdrawals, or has made powersite classifications of lands having value for reservoir sites and for waterpower production. These withdrawals have been examined to see if they should continue in force or if it is in the public interest to restore them. The 1960 report, "Upper Snake River Basin," by the U.S. bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included recommendations conooming potential water resource-development sites in Water River basin. That report furnished much of the information for this review.

Colbert, Jesse Lane; Young, Loyd L.

1964-01-01

337

Investigation of Effects of Ground Water Withdrawals from the Pamet and Chequesset Aquifers, Cape Cod National Seashore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Hydrogeology; Ground water withdrawals; Description of the computer model; Simulated ground water withdrawals; Effects of ground water withdrawals on aquifer discharge; Assessment of existing/potential wellfields; Discussion; Futur...

L. Martin

1993-01-01

338

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease? The signs and symptoms of coronary heart ... will have signs and symptoms of the disease. Heart Disease Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the ...

339

Natural Constraints in Sign Language Phonology: Data from Anatomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three sets of data (signs from the "Dictionary of ASL," 1976; loan signs; and case histories of specific signs) that demonstrate the involvement of the "knuckle-wrist connection" with American Sign Language phonology. (AM)

Mandel, Mark A.

1979-01-01

340

34 CFR 685.307 - Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program...Standards, and Payments for Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.307 Withdrawal procedure for schools participating in the Direct Loan...

2013-07-01

341

77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol...withdrawing approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) and three abbreviated new animal drug applications (ANADAs...NADA/ANADA No. Trade name (drug)...

2012-10-03

342

19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (b) Procedure for...rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption shall be made on Customs Form 7501 (Consumption Entry), in 4 copies...26 CFR part 275) and tax is payable to...

2010-04-01

343

77 FR 20585 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California, New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2040-AF33 Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...regulations to withdraw human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to certain waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and...

2012-04-05

344

42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

2013-10-01

345

42 CFR 5.4 - Notification and publication of designations and withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Notification and publication of designations and withdrawals. ...SHORTAGE AREAS § 5.4 Notification and publication of designations and withdrawals. ...requested the designation, or the date of publication in the Federal Register,...

2012-10-01

346

20 CFR 408.360 - Can you cancel your request to withdraw your application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...408.360 Section 408.360 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.360 Can you cancel your request to withdraw...

2013-04-01

347

24 CFR 570.911 - Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action. 570.911...FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Performance Reviews § 570.911 Reduction, withdrawal, or adjustment of a grant or other appropriate action....

2013-04-01

348

42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

2013-10-01

349

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2010-04-01

350

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2009-04-01

351

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2013-04-01

352

Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

2008-01-01

353

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2009-10-01

354

42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

2010-10-01

355

21 CFR 26.68 - Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. 26.68 Section 26.68...Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. The following procedures...of this part of a conformity assessment body (CAB): (a) A...

2009-04-01

356

21 CFR 26.68 - Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. 26.68 Section 26.68...Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. The following procedures...of this part of a conformity assessment body (CAB): (a) A...

2010-04-01

357

Ethical Analysis of Withdrawal from Life-Sustaining Technologies and Assisted Death. Second Draft,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Analysis of the distinctions among types of withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining technologies (Definition and description of types of withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining technologies, Major considerations in a typology of withhold...

J. F. Childress

1985-01-01

358

5 CFR 890.204 - Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers.  

...2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers. 890.204 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.204 Withdrawal of...

2014-01-01

359

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2010-10-01

360

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2012-10-01

361

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2011-10-01

362

40 CFR 271.22 - Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs. 271.22 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS ...Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs. (a) The...

2013-07-01

363

40 CFR 281.61 - Procedures for withdrawal of approval of state programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for withdrawal of approval of state programs. 281.61 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Withdrawal of Approval of State Programs § 281.61...

2013-07-01

364

40 CFR 271.23 - Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs. 271.23 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS ...Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs. (a) A...

2013-07-01

365

40 CFR 281.60 - Criteria for withdrawal of approval of state programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for withdrawal of approval of state programs. 281.60 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Withdrawal of Approval of State Programs § 281.60...

2013-07-01

366

48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19.506...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

2013-10-01

367

Sleep disturbance and the effects of extended-release zolpidem during cannabis withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSleep difficulty is a common symptom of cannabis withdrawal, but little research has objectively measured sleep or explored the effects of hypnotic medication on sleep during cannabis withdrawal.

Ryan Vandrey; Michael T. Smith; Una D. McCann; Alan J. Budney; Erin M. Curran

2011-01-01

368

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2013-10-01

369

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter range and capital investments...

2010-05-14

370

SOUTH AFRICAN SIGN LANGUAGE ASSISTIVE TRANSLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel approach and practical solution to an interactive sign language machine translation system from English to South African Sign Language. We interface the system with the GNApp application, which is an augmen- tative and alternative communication front-end, in order to resolve word sense ambiguities. This enhances the correct- ness of the rule-based translation system. We also argue

Lynette van Zijl; Guillaume Olivrin

371

Alternative Merge Sign at Signalized Intersections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research study was performed to develop, field test and evaluate a trial merge warning sign to be used for merging at some signalized intersections. At the present time, the Lane Ends sign (W4-2) is commonly used in the United States to alert drivers th...

E. G. Feldblum

2005-01-01

372

Words Recognized as Units: Systematic Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical article proposes that students with deafness in the early grades should be taught easy and familiar words by appropriate sign-language gestures on the fingers and by writing, and that the simple rules of grammar should be explained in the signs in the order of the words. (CR)

Carlin, John

1997-01-01

373

Vision Models Based Identification of Traffic Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 10 years, computer hardware technology has been improved rapidly. Large memory, storage is no longer a problem. Therefore some trade-off (dirty and quick algorithms) for traffic sign recognition between accuracy and speed should be improved. In this study, a new approach has been developed for accurate and fast recognition of traffic signs based on human vision models.

X. Gao; N. Shevtsova; K. Hong; S. Batty; L. Podladchikova; A. Golovan; D. Shaposhnikov; V. Gusakova

374

Traffic sign recognition in noisy outdoor scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a noise-tolerant traffic sign recognition method by using both color and shape attributes. First a discriminant analysis is carried out to obtain the color coordinate system giving the best separation between traffic signs and other objects in the scene. Then a recognition algorithm is devised by cascading three modules: an ART2 neural network module to perform color

N. Kehtarnavaz; A. Ahmad

1995-01-01

375

Traffic sign recognition by fuzzy sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fuzzy approach developed to recognize traffic signs is presented in this paper. More than 3400 images of traffic signs were collected in different light conditions by a digital camera mounted in a car and used for developing and testing this approach. Every RGB image was converted into HSV color space and segmented by using a set of fuzzy

Hasan Fleyeh

2008-01-01

376

Hybrid Approach For Traffic Sign Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel approach for the detection and recognition of traffic signs. Colour images are acquired by a camera mounted in a car. In the first step these images are colour segmented with a pixel classifier. Colour combinations which are characteristic for trafic signs generate hypotheses. These hypotheses are verified using a pictogram classifier. Our system

R. Janssen; W. Ritter; F. Stein; S. Ott

1993-01-01

377

Traffic sign recognition using colour information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel approach for the detection and recognition of traffic signs. Colour images are acquired by a camera mounted in a car. In the first step, these images are colour segmented with a pixel classifier. Colour combinations which are characteristic for traffic signs generate hypotheses. These hypotheses are verified using a pictogram classifier.Our system has

W. Ritter; F. Stein; R. Janssen

1995-01-01

378

Traffic sign recognition system for inventory purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaluation of the characteristics of a real automatic traffic sign detection system. The objective of this review is to provide the basis of quality of a whole system, which is capable of identifying the different signs that can be found in route. At the moment, our work is concerned with the developing of an inventory system

S. Maldonado-Bascon; S. Lafuente-Arroyo; P. Siegmann; H. Gomez-Moreno; F. J. Acevedo-Rodriguez

2008-01-01

379

Traffic sign recognition by Bags of features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road sign recognition method has been studied for realizing drivers assisting system, and various methods have been developed. Road sign alters its shape and color depending on its relative location against camera and surrounding condition such as weather and daytime. The object detection method utilized Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is used in this study. Unless its advantage in the

K. Ohgushi; N. Hamada

2009-01-01

380

A New Approach to Traffic Sign Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach has been developed for accurate and fast recognition of traffic signs based on human vision models. It applies colour appearance model CIECAM97 to segment traffic signs from the rest of scenes. This model takes viewing conditions into account and can recognise colours as accurate as an average observer invariant of lighting sources, background, and surrounding colours. A

X. Gao; N. Shevtsova; K. Hong; S. Batty; L. Podladchikova; A. Golovan; D. Shaposhnikov; V. Gusakova

381

Sign Language Varieties in Costa Rica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a preliminary examination of several sign language varieties in use in Costa Rica and attempts to explain the relationship among these varieties. Based on comparative lexical data, it is postulated that at least four distinct sign languages exist in Costa Rica. Implications for future research are also discussed. (eight references) (JL)

Woodward, James

1991-01-01

382

Is American Sign Language a "Foreign" Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the complexities of the question as to whether or not American Sign Language (ASL) is a foreign language. It reviews the historical oppression of the deaf, the development of ASL and its defining value to proponents of deaf culture, mentions other language systems (including foreign sign systems) used by the…

Belka, Robert W.

383

Sign Language and the Brain: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are signed languages processed by the brain? This review briefly outlines some basic principles of brain structure and function and the methodological principles and techniques that have been used to investigate this question. We then summarize a number of different studies exploring brain activity associated with sign language processing…

Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd

2008-01-01

384

Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

2013-01-01

385

Traffic sign recognition in color image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Daimler-Benz Research Center in Ulm a system for traffic sign recognition is under development. The task of the system is to detect and interpret traffic signs in colour image sequences; these images are acquired by a camera mounted in a car. The color segmentation of the incoming images is performed with a high order neural network. Based on

W. Ritter

1992-01-01

386

A Natural Interface for Sign Language Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general goal of our research is the creation of a natu- ral and intuitive interface for input and recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) math signs. The specific objective of this work is the development of two new interfaces for the Mathsignertm application. Mathsignertm is an interactive, 3D animation-based game designed to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children.

Nicoletta Adamo-villani; Bedrich Benes; Matt Brisbin; Bryce Hyland

2006-01-01

387

Signs of Life: Acting and Representation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the different representational practices of acting in the context of a theory of signs. Focuses on the intrinsic characteristics of signs and the representational practices of acting. Discusses the contributions of Stanislavsky and Brecht to this area. (JMF)

Stevens, Tony

1980-01-01

388

WEARABLE SYSTEM FOR VITAL SIGNS MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept in healthcare, aimed to provide continuous remote monitoring of user's vital signs, is emerging. An innovative system named WEALTHY is presented, where conducting and piezoresistive materials in form of fiber and yarn are integrated and used as sensor and electrode elements. The simultaneous recording of vital signs allows parameters' extrapolation and inter-signal elaboration that contribute to produce

Rita Paradiso; Gianni Loriga; Nicola Taccini; Maria Pacelli; Roberto Orselli

2003-01-01

389

IMAGE PROCESSING FOR ROAD SIGNS INVENTORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a detection road sign system, based on the analysis of colour images, is presented. This system aims at recovering the images regions that have colours similar to those present in road signs (red, white, black, blue). For each colour and inside adequate colour space, heuristic threshold decision are identified. Dynamic thresholds don't suffer from the illumination change

390

Luminous Requirements for Traffic Signs: A Comparison of Sign Performance and Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven traffic control signs were studied to determine several visibility thresholds in uncluttered, nighttime conditions with alerted subjects. Initial detection and sign comprehension thresholds were compared, respectively, to analytically determined dr...

K. Perchonok L. Pollack

1981-01-01

391

An Opinion Spreading Model in Signed Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opinion spreading process can be modeled as the spread of an epidemic through a network, which assumes homogeneous relationships between individuals. However, positive and negative relationships in signed networks play different roles in the opinion spreading process, following the general rule that the same opinion will diffuse through friends, while the opposite opinion will likely emerge out of interactions between enemies. In order to explore opinion spreading behavior in signed networks, we proposed a simple opinion spreading model based on the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model. Under the assumption of homogeneous mixing, we also analyzed the phase transition of opinion spreading in signed networks and found that critical spreading rates were closely related to the fraction of positive relationships in signed networks. Finally, we confirmed the correctness of our solutions using numerical simulations of the opinion spreading model in signed networks.

Li, Wei; Fan, Pengyi; Li, Pei; Wang, Hui; Pan, Yiguang

2013-05-01

392

19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mexico is considered a withdrawal for consumption pursuant to § 181.53 of this chapter...tubes subject to internal revenue tax, the statement for tax purposes required...not be withdrawn from warehouse for consumption if during the warehouse period...

2010-04-01

393

45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...State wishes to retain responsibility for only part of the refugee program, it must obtain prior approval from the Director of ORR. Such approval will be granted if it is in the best interest of the Government. (c) When a State withdraws...

2013-10-01

394

Complete regression of hepatocellular adenoma after withdrawal of oral contraceptives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 28-year-old woman who complained of mild abdominal pain was found to have a large liver tumor. Angiography and needle biopsy established the diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma. The tumor was felt to be unresectable because of its size, and no treatment was given other than withdrawal of oral contraceptives. Subsequent hepatic scintiscans documented complete resolution of the tumor over

Urs P. Steinbrecher; Robert Lisbona; S. N. Huang; Seymour Mishkin

1981-01-01

395

MPPAA Withdrawal Liability Assessment: Letting the Fox Guard the Henhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This student note discusses Congress's attempt to regulate group pension plans, and thus protect employees whose employers withdraw from those plans, through the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendment Act of 1980. The author traces the history of multi-employer pension programs, including union and corporate plans, Taft-Hartley plans, and ERISA accounts, which were created through 1974 legislation (the Employee Retirement Income Security

Daniel A. Etna

1986-01-01

396

Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

Pavela, Gary

2005-01-01

397

Withholding and Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration: An Ethical Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in technology have created and led to many ethical dilemmas within health care delivery. Due to these advances, ambulatory care nurses must be prepared to promote open communication with patients, families, and caregivers in facing life decisions. Familiarity with current literature on the issue of withholding\\/withdrawal artificial nutrition and hydration, staff development, and educational programs are methods ambulatory care

Carolyn W. Stevens

1998-01-01

398

Parents, Peers, and Social Withdrawal in Childhood: A Relationship Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter, the authors review the history of the Waterloo Longitudinal Project (WLP), the first longitudinal study (1980-1992) dedicated to the study of social withdrawal, its correlates, and consequences. Theories underlying the WLP are described, as are its empirical findings. Recent research from other labs that has extended the findings…

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Root, Amy Kennedy; Bowker, Julie

2010-01-01

399

Withholding and Withdrawing Medical Treatment: An Emergency Medicine Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In emergency medicine, a significant difference rightfully persists between the withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining medical treatment. The justification for this difference stems in part from the nature of emergency medical practice and the unique manner in which clinicians apply many ethical principles. In the usual setting, the decision to withhold further medical treatment is done quietly, often without input

Kenneth V Iserson

1996-01-01

400

Sex differences in negative affective response during nicotine withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined physiological indicants of the neurobiological mediators of negative affect during acute nicotine withdrawal. Eighty subjects (41 male) were assigned to one of four groups (24-h deprived or nondeprived dependent smokers, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers) and participated in an instructed fear conditioning paradigm involving cued administration of electric shock. Negative affective response was measured with fear-potentiated startle during

Joanne M. Hogle; John J. Curtin

2006-01-01

401

Social Anxiety and Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Social Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…

Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.

2012-01-01

402

Withdrawal Assessment Following Subchronic Oral Ketamine Administration in Cynomolgus macaques.  

PubMed

Preclinical Research Recently there is increased regulatory interest in the assessment of physical dependence and withdrawal as part of the safety assessment for novel therapeutic entities. Choosing appropriate and sensitive parameters to detect withdrawal syndromes, and relevant positive control comparator drugs that can be administered in the same manner as the test agent, are critical study design elements. Pilot studies to determine the effects of oral ketamine in cynomolgus monkeys during, and following cessation of treatment, were explored. Detailed behavioral observations (both remote and interactive), food consumption, and body weight and temperature, were assessed during the dose-ranging, repeat dose (5 or 14 days), and withdrawal phases (3 or 5 days). Doses explored during dose-ranging included 20, 40, 100, or 200?mg/kg ketamine; subsequent withdrawal assessments were conducted following repeat dosing of 150?mg/kg. In the 14-day dosing study, exposure to ketamine and norketamine was assessed following 8 days of dosing. Administration of 150?mg/kg ketamine produced decreased activity, loss of balance, ataxia, hunched posture, nystagmus, lateral recumbence, and changes in alertness levels during dosing phases. When ketamine was withdrawn, increased reactivity, increased activity, and stereotypic behaviors were demonstrated that were absent during baseline or the dosing phase of the studies. PMID:24648280

Walgren, Jennie L; Carfagna, Mark A; Koger, Deanna; Sgro, Mario; Kallman, Mary Jeanne

2014-05-01

403

[Life threatening symptoms of withdrawal of gamma-hydroxybutyrate].  

PubMed

Acute psychosis and extreme agitation brought about by gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB withdrawal can be life-threatening. In order to prevent states of excitement accompanied by aggression and somatic complications it is advisable to intervene by administering strong sedatives. It is argued that GHB should be tapered off as an alternative treatment for fixation and high doses of benzodiazepines. PMID:20544599

Veerman, S R T; Dijkstra, H N; Liefting-Kluft, I

2010-01-01

404

Caffeine: behavioral effects of withdrawal and related issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired tolerance to some behavioral effects of caffeine in humans is widely assumed to occur but is poorly documented and appears, at most, to be of low magnitude. Withdrawal from regular consumption of caffeine has been reported to result in a variety of symptoms, including: irritability, sleepiness, dysphoria, delerium, nausea, vomiting, rhinorrhea, nervousness, restlessness, anxiety, muscle tension, muscle pains and

P. B Dews; C. P O'Brien; J Bergman

2002-01-01

405

Northern Arizona Propose Withdrawal: Environmental Impact Statement. Scoping Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In March 2008, Congressman Raul Grijalva introduced H.R. 5583, the Grand Canyon Watersheds Protection Act, which called for the withdrawal of approximately 1 million acres from mining activity. In June 2008, a resolution from Congress stated that the Bure...

2010-01-01

406

Studies on Addiction and Withdrawal in Cell Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives were to determine if cell cultures of neuronal and/or nonneural cells can be used to study the biochemical changes that occur during long term exposure of cells to drugs which become addictive and from which withdrawal reactions occur. The ...

F. R. Leach M. L. Higgins

1973-01-01

407

Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

2012-01-01

408

Erythromelalgia: An Uncommon Presentation Precipitated by Aspirin Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder frequently associated with myeloproliferative disorders. We describe a case of elderly patient diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder in remission. The patient was on aspirin for secondary prevention of stroke and was taken off aspirin and developed erythromelalgia within two weeks of withdrawal of aspirin. After restarting aspirin, patient's symptoms improved within 2 weeks.

Khalid, Fatima; Hassan, Syed; Qureshi, Sophia; Qureshi, Waqas; Amer, Syed

2012-01-01

409

Erythromelalgia: an uncommon presentation precipitated by aspirin withdrawal.  

PubMed

Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder frequently associated with myeloproliferative disorders. We describe a case of elderly patient diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder in remission. The patient was on aspirin for secondary prevention of stroke and was taken off aspirin and developed erythromelalgia within two weeks of withdrawal of aspirin. After restarting aspirin, patient's symptoms improved within 2 weeks. PMID:22844295

Khalid, Fatima; Hassan, Syed; Qureshi, Sophia; Qureshi, Waqas; Amer, Syed

2012-01-01

410

19 CFR 10.80 - Remission of duty; withdrawal; bond.  

...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Salt for Curing Fish § 10.80 Remission of duty; withdrawal; bond. Imported salt in bond may be used in curing fish...19 U.S.C. 1313(e)). Imported salt entered for warehouse may be...

2014-04-01

411

Colonoscopic Withdrawal Times and Adenoma Detection during Screening Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Colonoscopy is commonly used to screen for neoplasia. To assess the performance of screening colonoscopy in everyday practice, we conducted a study of the rates of detection of adenomas and the amount of time taken to withdraw the colonoscope among endoscopists in a large community-based practice. Methods During a 15-month period, 12 experienced gastroenterologists performed 7882 colonoscopies, of which

Robert L. Barclay; Joseph J. Vicari; Andrea S. Doughty; John F. Johanson; Roger L. Greenlaw

2006-01-01

412

Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Smoking is highly addictive, and nicotine abstinence is associated with withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of sudden nicotine abstinence on the development of agitation and delirium, and on morbidities and outcomes in critically ill patients who required respiratory support, either noninvasive ventilation or intubation, and mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We

Olivier Lucidarme; Amélie Seguin; Cédric Daubin; Michel Ramakers; Nicolas Terzi; Patrice Beck; Pierre Charbonneau; Damien du Cheyron

2010-01-01

413

Signs of Life on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some images, but were absent in the other or altered their shape. What sources of energy, in principle, could be used by life in the high temperature oxigenless atmosphere? The objects found are large enough, they are not micro-organisms. It is most natural to assume that, like on Earth, Venusian fauna is heterotrophic, and the source of its life is hypothetical autotrophic flora. There is enough light for flora's photosynthesis. Since the critical temperature of water on Venus is about 320°C and the temperature at the surface is about 460°C, the metabolism of organisms on Venus (if any) should be built without water, on the basis of some other liquid medium. Based on data analyzed it has been suggested that because of the limited energy capacity of the Venusian fauna, the temporal characteristics of their physical actions can be much longer than that of the Earth.

Ksanfomality, L.

2012-04-01

414

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

415

Effects of Varying Rate of Signing on ASL Manual Signs and Nonmanual Markers  

PubMed Central

Spoken languages are characterized by flexible, multivariate prosodic systems. As a natural language, American Sign Language (ASL), and other sign languages (SLs), are also expected to be characterized in the same way. Artificially created signing systems for classroom use, such as signed English, serve as a contrast to natural sign languages. The present article explores the effects of changes in signing rate on signs, pauses, and, unlike previous studies, a variety of nonmanual markers. Rate was a main effect on the duration of signs, the number of pauses and pause duration, the duration of brow raises, the duration of licensed lowered brows, the number and duration of blinks, all of which decreased with increased signing rate. This indicates that signers produced their different signing rates without making dramatic changes in the number of signs, but instead by varying the sign duration, in accordance with previous observations (Grosjean, 1978, 1979). These results can be brought to bear on three different issues: (1) the difference between grammatical nonmanuals and non-grammatical nonmanuals; (2) the fact that nonmanuals in general are not just a modality effect; and (3) the use of some nonmanuals as pragmatically determined as opposed to overt morphophonological markers reflecting the semantic–syntax–pragmatic interfaces.

Wilbur, Ronnie B.

2009-01-01

416

Chvostek sign, frequently found in healthy subjects, is not a useful clinical sign.  

PubMed

A healthy, 26-year-old resident (video) presented with a bilateral Chvostek sign. This finding prompted us to search for the sign in young healthy subjects in our ward, mainly residents and medical students. We found this sign in 6 of 11 subjects. PMID:23479466

Méneret, Aurélie; Guey, Stéphanie; Degos, Bertrand

2013-03-12

417

Consistent Linguistic Input in the Signing Behavior of Teachers: Modified Signed English. Occasional Paper No. 127.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper addresses problems teachers of the severely hearing impaired have in being bimodal (speech plus signs) English role models as well as in using American Sign Language. The project described in this paper centers around inservice training and in-class demonstrations of the use of a modified form of Signed English to provide a visual…

Stewart, David A.; And Others

418

Social Withdrawal and Maladjustment in a Very Group-Oriented Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary-school children in Cuba and Canada participated in measures of loneliness, sociometric status, friendship, aggression, and social withdrawal. Withdrawal was associated with loneliness in the Cuban data from both cohorts, Grade 4 and Grade 6. In the Canadian data, withdrawal was only linked to loneliness in Grade 6. In contrast with…

Valdivia, Ibis Alvarez; Schneider, Barry H.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Chen, Xinyin

2005-01-01

419

Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Spasticity is an endpoint of a variety of neurologic disorders with upper motor neuron damage. There have been several studies demonstrating improvement in spasticity through administration of intrathecal baclofen. Withdrawal from oral baclofen has been well described. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal has been less frequently reported. We present a case of withdrawal after intrathecal baclofen pump catheter failure. Patient. A

Tord D. Alden; Richard A. Lytle; Michael J. Noetzel; Jeffrey G. Ojemann

2002-01-01

420

34 CFR 650.32 - How does the Secretary withdraw an offer of a fellowship?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...does the Secretary withdraw an offer of a fellowship? 650.32 Section 650.32 Education...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met...the Secretary withdraw an offer of a fellowship? (a) The Secretary withdraws...

2013-07-01

421

Clinical features and management of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To examine the clinical course of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal and generate management guidelines. Design: Review and analysis of all published reports of GHB or GHB precursor withdrawal identified from electronic searches. Findings: In total, 38 cases of GHB (n=28) or GHB precursor (n=10) withdrawal were identified, 36 of which were from the US. A rapidly deteriorating course into delirium

Michael McDonough; Noel Kennedy; Anthony Glasper; Jenny Bearn

2004-01-01

422

27 CFR 19.425 - Withdrawal of spirits free of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. 19.425 Section 19.425 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.425 Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. When a proprietor ships...

2013-04-01

423

Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n?=?90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal.

2013-01-01

424

Withdrawal time in excellent or very poor bowel preparation qualities  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate association(s) between withdrawal time and polyp detection in various bowel preparation qualities. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of screening colonoscopies performed between January 2005 and June 2011 for patients with average risk of colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria included patients with a personal history of adenomatous polyps or colon cancer, prior colonic resection, significant family history of colorectal cancer, screening colonoscopy after other abnormal screening tests such as flexible sigmoidoscopy or barium enema, and screening colonoscopies during in-patient care. All procedures were performed or directly supervised by gastroenterologists. Main measurements were number of colonic segments with polyps and total number of colonic polyps. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of 8331 colonoscopies showed longer withdrawal time was associated with more colonic segments with polyps in good (adjusted OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.13-1.19), fair (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.17), and poor (OR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.11-1.26) bowel preparation qualities. A higher number of total polyps was associated with longer withdrawal time in good (OR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.13-1.18), fair (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.16), and poor (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.13-1.29) bowel preparation qualities. Longer withdrawal time was not associated with more colonic segments with polyps or greater number of colonic polyps in bowel preparations with excellent (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 0.99-1.26; OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.99-1.24, respectively) and very poor (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.99-1.12; OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.99-1.10, respectively) qualities. CONCLUSION: Longer withdrawal time is not associated with higher polyp number detected in colonoscopies with excellent or very poor bowel preparation quality.

Widjaja, David; Bhandari, Manoj; Loveday-Laghi, Vivian; Glandt, Mariela; Balar, Bhavna

2014-01-01

425

Neurological soft signs in mentally disordered offenders.  

PubMed

The study used the Neurological Evaluation Scale to assess neurological soft signs in 351 offenders and 80 healthy comparison subjects. Offenders were also interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Neurological signs were significantly increased in offenders compared with healthy subjects. Offenders with repeated misdemeanors had higher rates of neurological signs than those with a single felony. Neurological scores were significantly predicted by lifetime diagnoses of psychotic, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Each diagnostic category was associated with a distinct pattern of neurological abnormalities. PMID:18070845

Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Noroozian, Maryam; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Yahyazadeh, Omid; Pakravannejad, Mahdi; Aghayan, Shahrokh

2007-01-01

426

Chronic gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid use followed by gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid withdrawal mimic schizophrenia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid is a potentially addictive drug known for its use in “rave” parties. Users have described heightened sexual drive, sensuality and emotional warmth. Its euphoric, sedative and anxiolytic-like properties are also sought by frequent users. Abrupt gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid withdrawal can rapidly cause tremor, autonomic dysfunction and anxiety, and may later culminate in severe confusion, delirium, auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations, or even death. Case presentation A 23-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations. Her psychiatric history included two brief psychotic episodes induced by amphetamines and marijuana. In the last six months, she had demonstrated bizarre behaviour, had been more isolated and apathetic, and unable to take care of daily chores. The patient reported occasional use of gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid, but her initial accounts of drug use were contradictory. Since the toxicology urine screen was negative, a schizophrenic disorder was initially suspected and an antipsychotic medication was prescribed. A few hours after her admission, signs of autonomic dysfunction (tachycardia and hypertension) appeared, lasting 24 hours. Severe agitation and confusion were also present. Restraints and a cumulative dose of 7 mg lorazepam were used to stabilize her. The confusion resolved in less than 72 hours. The patient then revealed that she had been using gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid daily for the last six months as self-medication to treat insomnia and anxiety, before stopping it abruptly 24 hours prior to her visit. Conclusions In our opinion, this original case illustrates the importance of considering gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid withdrawal delirium in the differential diagnosis of a first-break psychosis. In this case, the effects of chronic GHB use were incorrectly identified as the negative symptoms of schizophrenia prodrome. Likewise, severe gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid withdrawal syndrome was initially mistaken for acute positive symptoms of schizophrenia, until autonomic dysfunction manifested itself more clearly.

Constantinides, Prometheas

2009-01-01

427

Hyperostosis frontalis interna mimicking Mount Fuji sign.  

PubMed

We report an interesting case of 'Hyperostosis frontalis interna' in a 73-yr-old female whose MRI pictures mimics the CT appearance of 'Mount Fuji sign' in tension pneumocephalus a neurological emergency. PMID:21751633

Prakash, B; Pranesh, M B; Parimalam, N; Harish Kumar, R

2011-03-01

428

Vital Signs, Pt 1, Cardinal Symptoms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure by means of live action, animation, art work, and sound effects. Tells how these vital signs present a picture of the condition of the body.

1994-01-01

429

Instrumental Colorimetry of Retroreflective Sign Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because color-coded applications of highway signs increase, specification of colors and color tolerances are required. In order to assure that the requirements are met within specified regions, a measurement technique needs to be developed and described. ...

I. Nimeroff W. A. Hall

1975-01-01

430

Age Effects on Symbol Sign Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of symbolic road signs is proliferating on the highways, and the Federal Highway Administration is concerned with their effective use, particularly by the elderly driving population. This report describes an experimental study of problems encounte...

R. W. Allen Z. Parseghian P. G. Van Valkenburgh

1980-01-01

431

HIV/AIDS Basics - Signs & Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS-Signs and Symptoms Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

432

CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adults with Disabilities Physical activity is for everybody May 2014 3x Adults with ... Problem More adults with disabilities need to get physical activity. Adults with disabilities who get no physical activity ...

433

32 CFR 263.8 - Signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.8 Signs. Every driver shall comply with all posted traffic...

2013-07-01

434

Effective Message Design for Dynamic Message Signs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the findings of research on relevant issues for effective design and display of dynamic message sign (DMS) messages. Findings resulting from visits and interviews with staff at five Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) traffic m...

C. L. Dudek B. R. Ullman N. D. Trout M. D. Finley G. L. Ullman

2006-01-01

435

15 CFR 265.14 - Signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.14 Signs. Every driver shall comply with all posted traffic...

2010-01-01

436

Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... your family's history. Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder differs significantly from clinical depression, although the ... or restlessness. Symptoms of mania - the "highs" of bipolar disorder Increased physical and mental activity and energy Heightened ...

437

FMCW radar for life-sign detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the use of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars for detecting life-sign of people, i.e. breathing and heartbeat. An optimum frequency has been selected to observe life-sign, taking into consideration also design factors, such as bandwidth availability and interference with other systems. A new compact X-band FMCW radar has been built at TNO laboratories and

Laura Anitori; Ardjan de Jong; Frans Nennie

2009-01-01

438

Traffic sign recognition system with ? -correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic sign classification represents a classical application of multi-object recognition processing in uncontrolled adverse\\u000a environments. Lack of visibility, illumination changes, and partial occlusions are just a few problems. In this paper, we\\u000a introduce a novel system for multi-class classification of traffic signs based on error correcting output codes (ECOC). ECOC\\u000a is based on an ensemble of binary classifiers that are

Sergio Escalera; Oriol Pujol; Petia Radeva

2010-01-01

439

New results on traffic sign recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperation with Daimler-Benz AG within the European PROMETHEUS project the authors are developing a real-time traffic sign recognition system. The system is installed in a test vehicle of Daimler-Benz that operates autonomously on European highways and performs a vision based environmental analysis that includes, among others, road tracking, obstacle detection, lane traffic analysis and traffic sign recognition. Within the

Lutz Priese; Jens Klieber; Raimund Lakmann; Volker Rehrmann; Rainer Schian

1994-01-01

440

Traffic Sign Recognition Using Discriminative Local Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time road sign recognition has been of great interest for many years. This problem is often addressed in a two-stage\\u000a procedure involving detection and classification. In this paper a novel approach to sign representation and classification\\u000a is proposed. In many previous studies focus was put on deriving a set of discriminative features from a large amount of training\\u000a data using

Andrzej Ruta; Yongmin Li; Xiaohui Liu

2007-01-01

441

Neurological soft signs in mainstream pupils  

PubMed Central

AIMS—(1) To examine the relation between neurological soft signs and measures of cognition, coordination, and behaviour in mainstream schoolchildren. (2) To determine whether high soft sign scores may predict children with significant problems in other areas.?METHODS—A total of 169 children aged between 8 and 13 years from mainstream schools were assessed. They form part of a larger study into the outcome of meningococcal disease in childhood. Half had previous meningococcal disease and half were controls. Assessment involved measurement of six soft signs followed by assessment of motor skills (movement ABC), cognitive function (WISC-III), and behaviour (Conners' Rating Scales).?RESULTS—Children having an age corrected soft sign score above the 90th centile were considered to have an excess of soft signs. When compared to the other children they had significantly worse scores on the other three measures. Median movement ABC score was 15.3v 7. Mean total IQ scores were lower by 10.3 points. Median behaviour scores were significantly higher on both parental and teacher questionnaires. A soft sign score above the 90th centile had a sensitivity of 38% for detecting cognitive impairment, 42% for detecting coordination problems, and 25% for detecting possible attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.?CONCLUSION—In this group of children higher scores on the soft sign battery were related to significantly worse performance on measures of cognition, coordination, and behaviour. However, although soft sign assessment may be of interest it cannot accurately predict which children are likely to have impairment in other areas.??

Fellick, J; Thomson, A; Sills, J; Hart, C; STEPHENSON, P

2001-01-01

442

Introducing Arabic Sign Language for Mobile Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the wide spread of smart mobile phones equipped with advanced processing power among deaf people, the need for utilizing\\u000a these devices to serve the deaf people requirements is becoming an evolving research trend. In this paper we present the idea\\u000a of a portable Arabic sign language translator for mobile phones to convert typed Arabic text to sign language animation

Hend S. Al-Khalifa

2010-01-01

443

Abuse-Free Optimistic Contract Signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We introduce the notion of abuse-free distributed contractsigning, that is, distributed contract signing in which no party ever canprove to a third party that he is capable of choosing whether to validateor invalidate the contract. Assume Alice and Bob are signing a contract.If the contract protocol they use is not abuse-free, then it is possiblefor one party, say Alice,

Juan A. Garay; Markus Jakobsson; Philip D. Mackenzie

1999-01-01

444

Traffic Sign Recognition Using SIFT Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes an algorithm for traffic sign recognition using SIFT features. The algorithm works in four steps. First, feature points are extracted out of an input image. Secondly, the amount of the features of the feature points is computed by SIFT Descriptor. Thirdly, the final recognition result is classified by matching feature points and voting feature points. The experimental results indicate that 88.7% of the traffic signs are correctly identified under various environmental conditions.

Takaki, Masanari; Fujiyoshi, Hironobu

445

Reversible "Pulvinar sign" in Wernicke's encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Young onset dementia is a challenge. We describe a case, where a patient presented with psychosis, dementia and MRI showing pulvinar sign, all of this typical of variant Cruetzfelt Jacob disease (CJD). Subsequent investigations lead to the diagnosis of a treatable illness and patient was improved and MRI sign reversed, underlining again the importance of search needed for treatable diseases in any “typical” case of fatal illness.

Gopalakrishnan, Biju; Ashraf, VV; Kumar, Praveen; Kiran, Krishna

2014-01-01

446

Epigenetic down regulation of nerve growth factor during alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

We investigated the Cytosin-phosphatidyl-Guanin (CpG) island promoter methylation (mean and methylation of individual CpG-sites) of the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene in the blood of alcohol-dependent patients (57 male patients) during withdrawal (days 1, 7 and 14). Methylation and NGF serum levels did not change significantly from days 1-7. From days 7-14, mean methylation increased (F?=?30.55, P?withdrawal. PMID:21392176

Heberlein, Annemarie; Muschler, Marc; Frieling, Helge; Behr, Michael; Eberlein, Christian; Wilhelm, Julia; Gröschl, Michael; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

2013-05-01

447

Using selective withdrawal to encapsulate pancreatic islets for immunoisolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply selective-withdrawal for encapsulating insulin-producing pancreatic islets within thin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coats. Islets placed in an aqueous PEG solution are drawn into the selective-withdrawal spout which then breaks up, leaving the islets surrounded by a thin, 20?m, polymer coat. These coats, whose thickness is independent of the size of the encapsulated islet, are photo-crosslinked to form hydrogel capsules. We can apply multiple coats of varying chemical composition. These coats provide a semi-permeable membrane which allows the islets to respond to changes in glucose concentration by producing insulin in a manner similar to that of unencapsulated islets. Furthermore, the hydrogel capsules exclude large molecules the size of the smallest antibodies. Our results suggest that this microencapsulation technique may be useful for the transplantation of islets for treatment of Type I diabetes.

Wyman, Jason; Murphy, William; Mrksich, Milan

2005-11-01

448

Prognostic tests and antiepileptic drug withdrawal after epilepsy surgery.  

PubMed

Approximately one in three patients with a successful epilepsy surgery will have seizure recurrence following antiepileptic drugs (AED) withdrawal. The value of postoperative testing for predicting seizure relapse after AED tapering is not clear. The purpose of this study was to review the literature for evidence on the use of postoperative investigations before AED discontinuation after successful epilepsy surgery. We were unable to identify studies on the prognostic value of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and AED blood levels. The literature review yielded seven studies on the predictive value of electroencephalography. Four studies found no association between interictal discharges (IED) and seizure relapse. These studies suffered from various limitations due to their retrospective design and generally small cohorts. Two of the three studies reporting a positive association were prospective and provided strong evidence of an increased risk of seizure recurrence with presence of postoperative IED in successfully operated patients undergoing AED withdrawal. PMID:24878462

Harroud, Adil; Weil, Alexander G; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

2014-07-01

449

Zolpidem dependence, abuse and withdrawal: A case report.  

PubMed

Zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, binds to the benzodiazepine binding site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors. Many studies have reported efficacy and safety of zolpidem in treatment of insomnia, low abuse, and dependence capability. However, many cases of zolpidem abuse and dependence were reported around the world. This case showed that zolpidem can exert abuse capability, euphoric mood, tolerance, and withdrawal syndrome. PMID:24520235

Heydari, Mostafa; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

2013-11-01

450

Zolpidem dependence, abuse and withdrawal: A case report  

PubMed Central

Zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, binds to the benzodiazepine binding site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors. Many studies have reported efficacy and safety of zolpidem in treatment of insomnia, low abuse, and dependence capability. However, many cases of zolpidem abuse and dependence were reported around the world. This case showed that zolpidem can exert abuse capability, euphoric mood, tolerance, and withdrawal syndrome.

Heydari, Mostafa; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

2013-01-01

451

Tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of ethanol during ethanol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has indicated that tolerance develops to the antinociceptive effects of ethanol and continues even during withdrawal. Three potential pharmacological mechanisms for this tolerance are examined, using nitrendipine (L-type calcium channel blocker), theophylline (adenosine A1\\/A2 antagonist) and flumazenil (benzodiazepine antagonist). Rats received 10 days of exposure to an ethanol-containing liquid diet (6.5% w\\/v). A radiant heat tail-flick assay was

Michael B. Gatch

2006-01-01

452

Maternal Acceptability of Treatments for Child Withdrawal and Agression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a case analogue methodology, this study examined the acceptability of four alternative treatment procedures (positive reinforcement, self-instruction, time-out, and reprimands) as applied to one externalizing child problem, aggression, and one internalizing child problem, withdrawal. One hundred and three mothers served as raters and completed the Treatment Evaluation Inventory. The identity of the interventionist (parents\\/teachers vs. psychologist) and previous therapeutic

Grace R. Kalfus; Kristina M. Razzano

1993-01-01

453

On the ethics of withholding and withdrawing medical treatment  

PubMed Central

A general rationale is presented for withholding and withdrawing medical treatment in end-of-life situations, and an argument is offered for the moral irrelevance of the distinction, both in the context of pharmaceutical treatments, such as chemotherapy in cancer, and in the context of life-sustaining treatments, such as the artificial ventilator in lateral amyotrophic sclerosis. It is argued that this practice is not equivalent to sanctioning voluntary active euthanasia and that it is not likely to favour it.

2014-01-01

454

Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability,\\u000a avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India\\u000a during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age?=?13.35 years). Peer nominations of peer relations and socioemotional behaviors were gathered, along with self-reports\\u000a of reasons for

Julie C. Bowker; Radhi Raja

2011-01-01

455

INTELLIGENT MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SIGN RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed an intelligent machine vision system to recognize traffic signs captured from a video camera installed in a vehicle. By recognizing the traffic signs automatically, it helps the driver to recognize the signs properly when drivig, to avoid accidents caused by mis-recognized the traffic signs.The system is divided into two stages : detection stage to localize signs from a

Koichi Yamada; F. Yudi Limpraptono

456

Traffic sign classification using invariant features and Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach to recognize traffic signs using invariant features and support vector machines (SVM). Images of traffic signs are collected by a digital camera mounted in a vehicle. They are color segmented and all objects which represent signs are extracted and normalized to 36 x 36 pixels images. Invariant features of sign rims and speed-limit sign

Hasan Fleyeh; Mark Dougherty

2008-01-01

457

Reaction Time as an Index of Traffic Sign Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal reaction times to identify and to classify 20 traffic sign messages were measured under three conditions-sign alone, sign plus visual loading task, and sign plus visual loading task plus visual distraction. Similar trends were found in the three experiments: reaction times were smaller for the classification task than for the identification task, smaller for warning than for regulatory signs,

Robert E. Dewar; Jerry G. Ells; Glen Mundy

1976-01-01

458

[Adjuvant therapy with parenteral piracetam in alcohol withdrawal delirium].  

PubMed

The author reports his results of parenteral piracetam treatment in 193 patients admitted to the Psychiatric Department of Semmelweis Hospital with alcohol withdrawal delirium. Alcohol withdrawal delirium is a complex metabolic disorder, the disturbance of the highest cerebral integrative functions, which is caused by the impairment of cerebral oxidative metabolism. Piracetam is effective on most neurotransmitter systems, without a specific receptor agonism or antagonism, increases the effectivity of different biogenic amine systems, has also an effect on membrane permeability, increases the concentration of NMDA (methyl-D-aspartate) receptors in the impaired brain and improves cognitive functions. In the patients suffered from alcohol dependence piracetam produces positive morphologic changes, by decreasing lipofuscin accumulation. In early stage it prevents the development of delirium. Despite of the great number (approximately 150) of medication that were tried in the treatment of delirium, the ideal one still has not been found. Among the accessible therapeutic possibilities the author searched for methods which make the treatment more effective. The administration of parental piracetam, therefore was brought into his therapeutical protocol. Parenteral piracetam--similarly to literature data--proved to be effective in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal delirium. Considering the present--insufficient--hospital financing, it is remarkable that though the costs of the new therapy are higher than the traditional meprobamat therapy, through less side effect it is more economical (overall costs lower) and by decreasing the time of delirium it is more humane to the patients. PMID:12809069

Kalmár, Sándor

2003-05-11

459

HPA axis dysregulation following prenatal opiate exposure and postnatal withdrawal.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to the long acting opiate l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) followed by postnatal withdrawal on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in neonatal and adult rats and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Female rats were treated with LAAM (0, 0.2, or 1.0 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage for 28 days prior to and continuing throughout pregnancy. Pups were fostered at birth to nontreated, lactating dams and underwent opiate withdrawal. On postnatal day (PND) 18, prenatal opiate-exposed male and female rat pups displayed a decreased corticosterone response 2 h after the application of an immunological stressor and 15 min following a social stressor compared to controls. In contrast, in adulthood, prenatal opiate-treated rats showed a heightened corticosterone response compared to prenatal water-treated controls at 3 h, but not 8 h, following an immunological stressor. Males prenatally treated with 1.0 mg/kg LAAM displayed elevated startle responding compared to the other prenatally treated male groups, but there was no effect of prenatal treatment in females. There were no effects of prenatal treatment in the open field test in either sex. These results suggest that prenatal opiate exposure followed by postnatal withdrawal dysregulated the HPA axis response to stressors in the neonate and adult and differentially affected adult anxiety-like behavior in males and females. PMID:15681124

Hamilton, Kathryn L; Harris, Andrew C; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Sparber, Sheldon B; Schrott, Lisa M

2005-01-01

460

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: patterns of use, effects and withdrawal.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is gaining popularity as a drug of abuse. Reports of toxicity and lethality associated with GHB use have increased. This survey study was designed to identify patterns of GHB use, its effects, and withdrawal syndrome. A survey inquiring about the effects of GHB was administered to 42 users. The results showed that GHB was used to increased feelings of euphoria, relaxation, and sexuality. Adverse effects occurred more frequently in daily users and polydrug users than in occasional GHB users. Loss of consciousness was reported by 66%, overdose by 28%, and amnesia by 13% of participants during GHB use and by 45% after GHB use. Three daily users developed a withdrawal syndrome that presented with anxiety, agitation, tremor, and delirium. Participants described GHB intoxication as having similarities to sedative-hypnotic or alcohol intoxication. Regular use has been shown to produce tolerance and dependence. Participants dependent on GHB reported using multiple daily doses around the clock. High frequency users appeared at the greatest risk for developing withdrawal delirium and psychosis after abrupt discontinuation of GHB use. PMID:11579621

Miotto, K; Darakjian, J; Basch, J; Murray, S; Zogg, J; Rawson, R

2001-01-01

461

Delayed multifocal recurrent stress-induced cardiomyopathy after antidepressants withdrawal.  

PubMed

Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is an acute disease characterized by a large left ventricular apical dyskinesia ("apical ballooning"), triggered by intense emotional or physical stress, acute illnesses or, rarely, by alcohol or opiates withdrawal. Connection to stress and apical asynergy suggest a catecholamine-mediated pathogenesis. We recently observed a typical apical stress-induced cardiomyopathy, arising two weeks after a long-lasting antidepressant treatment withdrawal and recurring, a week later, with evidence of inferior wall akinesia. The reported case has several unusual features: 1) both episodes were not preceded by relevant triggering event (except antidepressant discontinuation); 2) early heterozonal relapse was observed; 3) the latency between antidepressant discontinuation and stress-induced cardiomyopathy onset is unusually long. The lack of relevant triggering stress and the evidence of multifocal asynergies could support the hypothesis of a non-catecholaminergic pathogenesis. Moreover, the long latency after antidepressant withdrawal may suggest that prolonged antidepressant treatments may have delayed pathological consequences, possibly related to their known neuroplastic effects. PMID:24794783

Marabotti, Claudio; Venturini, Elio; Marabotti, Alberto; Pingitore, Alessandro

2014-01-01

462

Phytotherapy of opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Development of tolerance and dependence is a major problem associated with opioid treatment. Withdrawal syndrome is common between medical and illicit users of these agents. Phytomedicine has shown promise in the treatment of this complicated psychosomatic condition. In this study, the effects of plant extracts and active components on morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome are discussed. Proper keywords were used to search through PubMed, Google Scholar, and SciVerse, as well as two local scientific databases, www.iranmedex.com and www.SID.com. All relevant results (original articles, meeting abstracts, patents, etc.) published from 2000 to 2013 were chosen for final review. A total of 35 plant species were studied on this subject. Plants from Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families were especially effective. A few studies were carried out on human subjects and the rest in animal models. Opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome remain an intimidating challenge. Nonetheless, plants and their derivatives are suitable sources for their treatment. Although there are several plants shown to be effective in animal models, few clinical studies are available. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24151030

Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Dashti, Saeedeh; Doosti, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2014-06-01

463

Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease.  

PubMed

The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. PMID:16896267

Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

2006-10-01

464

Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms in Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ?1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ?10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ? moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment.

Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.

2010-01-01

465

30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77...Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2013-07-01

466

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins? The signs and symptoms of varicose veins include: ... signs of other, more serious conditions. Complications of Varicose Veins Varicose veins can lead to dermatitis (der-ma- ...

467

14 CFR 139.311 - Marking, signs, and lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authorized by the Administrator, the signs required by paragraphs (b...properly maintain each marking, sign, or lighting system installed...prevent interference with air traffic control and aircraft operations...and maintenance of marking, sign, and lighting systems...

2014-01-01

468

23 CFR 750.154 - Standards for directional signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...effectiveness of an official traffic sign, signal, or device, or obstruct...approaching, merging, or intersecting traffic. (3) Signs which are erected or maintained...effectiveness of or obscure an official traffic sign, device, or signal....

2013-04-01

469

A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

470

Detection and classification of road signs in natural environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic road sign recognition system first locates road signs within images captured by an imaging sensor on-board of\\u000a a vehicle, and then identifies the detected road signs. This paper presents an automatic neural-network-based road sign recognition\\u000a system. First, a study of the existing road sign recognition research is presented. In this study, the issues associated with\\u000a automatic road sign

Yok-yen Nguwi; Abbas Z. Kouzani

2008-01-01

471

Arm levitation sign in acute right frontoparietal infarct.  

PubMed

We present the case of an 80-year-old female with acute right fronto-parietal stroke and an interesting neurological sign on clinical examination; the arm levitation sign. We discuss the imaging correlates of this sign and hypothesize on the possible functional etiology of the sign. We also discuss in brief, the possibility of neuronal misconnections causing the sign and the resultant problems with rehabilitation when patients have this sign. PMID:21206448

Alanazy, Mohammed H; Menon, Bijoy K; Demchuk, Andrew M

2011-01-01

472

A review on dural tail sign  

PubMed Central

“Dural tail sign” (DTS) which is a thickening of the dura adjacent to an intracranial pathology on contrast-enhanced T1 MR Images, was first thought to be pathognomonic of meningioma, however, many subsequent studies demonstrated this sign adjacent to various intra- and extra-cranial pathologies and in spinal lesions. In this paper we outline the history, accompanying pathologies and the differentiation and probable pathophysiology of DTS. We also discuss whether we can predict tumoral involvement of the dural tail before surgery and whether the dural tail adjacent to a tumor should be resected.

Sotoudeh, Houman; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

2010-01-01

473

A review on dural tail sign.  

PubMed

"Dural tail sign" (DTS) which is a thickening of the dura adjacent to an intracranial pathology on contrast-enhanced T1 MR Images, was first thought to be pathognomonic of meningioma, however, many subsequent studies demonstrated this sign adjacent to various intra- and extra-cranial pathologies and in spinal lesions. In this paper we outline the history, accompanying pathologies and the differentiation and probable pathophysiology of DTS. We also discuss whether we can predict tumoral involvement of the dural tail before surgery and whether the dural tail adjacent to a tumor should be resected. PMID:21161034

Sotoudeh, Houman; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

2010-05-28

474

Seat Belt Sign and Its Significance  

PubMed Central

Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term “seat belt sign” was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

2013-01-01

475

Brazilian Sign Language Lexicography and Technology: Dictionary, Digital Encyclopedia, Chereme-based Sign Retrieval, and Quadriplegic Deaf Communication Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Brazilian Sign language digital encyclopedia, which contains a databank of 5,600 signs glossed in Portuguese and English, along with descriptions and illustrations of their signed form. (Author/VWL)

Capovilla, Fernando C.; Duduchi, Marcelo; Raphael, Walkiria D.; Luz, Renato D.; Rozados, Daniela; Capovilla, Alessandra G. S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

2003-01-01

476

Building an "Assessment Use Argument" for Sign Language: The BSL Nonsense Sign Repetition Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we adapt a concept designed to structure language testing more effectively, the "Assessment Use Argument" ("AUA"), as a framework for the development and/or use of sign language assessments for deaf children who are taught in a sign bilingual education setting. By drawing on data from a recent investigation of deaf children's…

Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe R.

2010-01-01

477

Truncated sequential CFAR detectors using weighted sign and weighted conditional sign tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose truncated sequential constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors which are approximations of the optimum sequential sign and sequential conditional sign detectors. The particular approximations used here allow exact evaluation of the performances. These detectors form a test statistic by taking the weighted sum of the outputs of a hard-limiter in one case and a dead-zone

Sawasd Tantaratana

1995-01-01

478

Acquisition of signs from American sign language in hearing individuals following left hemisphere damage and aphasia.  

PubMed

Three severely aphasic hearing patients with no prior knowledge of sign language were able to acquire competency in aspects of American Sign Language (ASL) lexicon and finger spelling, in contrast to a near complete inability to speak the English counterparts of these visuo-gestural signs. Two patients with damage in left postero-lateral temporal and inferior parietal cortices mastered production and comprehension of single signs and short meaningful sign sequences, but the one patient with damage to virtually all left temporal cortices was less accurate in single sign processing and was unable to produce sequences of signs at all. These findings suggest that conceptual knowledge is represented independently of the auditory-vocal records for the corresponding lexical entries, and that left anterior temporal cortices outside of traditional "language areas" are part of the neural network which supports the linkage between conceptual knowledge and linguistic signs, especially as they are used in the sequenced activations required for production or comprehension of meaningful sentences. PMID:1376447

Anderson, S W; Damasio, H; Damasio, A R; Klima, E; Bellugi, U; Brandt, J P

1992-04-01

479

[Cleft lobe sign. A curious clinical sign or an ischemic heart disease marker?].  

PubMed

The majority of studies have demonstrated a correlation between diagonal earlobe creases sign with coronary artery disease and atheroscleosis. Diagonal earlobe creases run from the lower pole of the external meatus, diagonally backwards to the edge of the lobe at approximately 45. The objective of this paper is review the evidence related to this interesting clinical sign. PMID:20957821

Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Carrillo-Córdova, Luis Daniel

2010-01-01

480

Mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: an autoradiographic study of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.  

PubMed

A previous study from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) was able to prevent the behavioral expression of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect, we conducted this study, with the aims of analyzing ?4?2 nicotinic receptor density during NIC withdrawal and, in case we found any changes, of determining whether they could be prevented by pretreatment with BAC. Swiss Webster albino mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and brain autoradiography with [(3)H]epibatidine was carried out at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling during NIC withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), medial habenular nucleus (HbM), thalamic nuclei, dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus (fr), ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus and superior colliculus. BAC pretreatment prevented the increased ?4?2 nicotinic receptor binding sites in the AcbSh, MHb, thalamic nuclei, DLG nucleus and fr. The present results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling, evidenced in specific brain areas in NIC withdrawn animals. PMID:23500668

Varani, Andrés P; Antonelli, Marta C; Balerio, Graciela N

2013-07-01

481

Response to CPAP Withdrawal in Patients with Mild Versus Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), even those generally compliant with CPAP therapy, often intermittently discontinue CPAP. Study Objective: Examine the impact of CPAP withdrawal on sleep, sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and daytime function in subjects with varying severity of OSAHS. Patients and Interventions: Forty-two subjects (26M/16 F) with OSAHS (AHI4% = 45.2 ± 35.5/h pretreatment) on CPAP for 4 months were evaluated on the second night of CPAP withdrawal. Sleep architecture, SDB indices, and subjective/objective daytime function were assessed pretreatment, on CPAP therapy, and after CPAP withdrawal. Comparisons were made between pretreatment and CPAP withdrawal for the entire group, and for subgroups of mild/moderate (AHI4% < 30/h, n = 22) and severe (AHI4% > 30/h, n = 20) SDB. Results: Overall, and for mild/moderate subjects, SDB indices returned to pretreatment values on CPAP withdrawal but with fewer apneas and more hypopneas/RERAs. For severe SDB, the event frequency (AI, AHI4%, and RDI) was lower and O2 desaturation was improved on CPAP withdrawal. Across SDB severity, sleep architecture showed lower %REM (15.6% vs 12.9%, P = 0.009) on the CPAP withdrawal compared to pretreatment. Stanford Sleepiness Score, MSLT, and PVT measures were not significantly different between pretreatment and CPAP withdrawal. Conclusions: Over a wide range of SDB severity CPAP withdrawal results in recurrence of SDB, albeit with less severe O2 desaturation. Subjective/objective daytime function returned to pretreatment levels. Sleep architecture changes on CPAP withdrawal (acute SDB) may reflect reduced sleep pressure compared to pretreatment chronic SDB. Our data suggest detrimental effects of even brief withdrawal of CPAP in subjects with both mild and severe OSAHS. Citation: Young LR; Taxin ZH; Norman RG; Walsleben JA; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. Response to CPAP withdrawal in patients with mild versus severe obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(3):405-412.

Young, Laura R.; Taxin, Zachary H.; Norman, Robert G.; Walsleben, Joyce A.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

2013-01-01

482

Stress-Induced Suppression of the Immune System after Withdrawal from Chronic Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that withdrawal from cocaine shares similarities to the stress response. Here, we examine whether withdrawal from chronic cocaine produces immune system alterations and whether the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved. Sprague-Dawley male rats received cocaine (10 mg\\/kg i.p., b.i.d.) or saline, followed by 2 h, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 14 days of withdrawal. Proliferation responses of peripheral

ALBERT H. AVILA; CAMILLE A. MORGAN; BARBARA M. BAYER

2003-01-01