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Sample records for naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs

  1. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. ||

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  3. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. PMID:25582704

  4. Expression of heat shock protein 27 and troponin T and troponin I after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Almela, Pilar; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-11-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp27) renders cardioprotection from stress situations but little is known about its role in myofilaments. In this study we have evaluated the relationship between Hsp27 and troponin response after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. Rats were treated with two morphine (75mg) pellets during six days. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone on day seven. Hsp27 expression, Hsp27 phosphorylated at serine 82 (Ser82), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and µ-calpain were evaluated by immunoblotting in left ventricle. Hsp, cTnT and cTnI was also evaluated by immunofluorescence procedure. Our results show that enhancement in Hsp27 expression and phosphorylation induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal occurs with concomitant increases of cTnT and µ-calpain expression, whereas cTnI was decreased. We also observed co-localization of Hsp27 with cTnT in cardiac tissues. These findings provide new information into the possible role of Hsp27 in the protection of cTnT degradation by µ-calpain (a protease mediating proteolysis of cTnT and cTnI) after morphine withdrawal. PMID:26452515

  5. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonist reverses naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Pais, Gwendolyn; Tapia, Melissa; Gulati, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Long-term use of opioids for pain management results in rapid development of tolerance and dependence leading to severe withdrawal symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate analgesic tolerance. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of central ET mechanisms in opioid withdrawal. The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 on morphine and oxycodone withdrawal was determined in male Swiss Webster mice. Opioid tolerance was induced and withdrawal was precipitated by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Expression of ETA and ETB receptors, nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor was determined in the brain using Western blotting. BQ123 pretreatment reversed hypothermia and weight loss during withdrawal. BQ123 also reduced wet shakes, rearing behavior, and jumping behavior. No changes in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, ETA receptors, and ETB receptors were observed during withdrawal. NGF expression was unaffected in morphine withdrawal but significantly decreased during oxycodone withdrawal. A decrease in NGF expression in oxycodone- but not in morphine-treated mice could be due to mechanistic differences in oxycodone and morphine. It is concluded that ETA receptor antagonists attenuate opioid-induced withdrawal symptoms. PMID:26440527

  6. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an ?2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:26375926

  7. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT2CR agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT2CR activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT2CR agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT2CR antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT2CR protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT2CR can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT2CR may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  8. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (10–60 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  9. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet, a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow, or a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substance of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize “food addiction” may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. PMID:21635910

  10. Reduced emotional signs of opiate withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K.; Holtz, Nathan A.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake exhibit divergent behavioral responses to multiple drugs of abuse, with HiS rats displaying greater vulnerability to drug taking. Previous research indicates that this effect may be due to increased sensitivity to reward in HiS rats and to the aversive effects of acute drug administration in LoS rats. Objective The current study investigated whether HiS and LoS rats also exhibit different behavioral signs of withdrawal following one or repeated opiate exposures. Methods Emotional signs of opiate withdrawal were assessed with potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in male and female HiS and LoS rats. Startle was measured before and 4 h after a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine on days 1, 2, and 7 of opiate exposure. CPA was induced with a two-day, naloxone-precipitated conditioning paradigm. Somatic signs of withdrawal and weight loss were used also measured. Results Male and female LoS rats exhibited lower startle potentiation than HiS rats on the seventh day of morphine exposure. LoS male rats also failed to develop a CPA to morphine withdrawal. No differences in physical withdrawal signs were observed between HiS and LoS rats, but males of both lines had more physical signs of withdrawal than females. Conclusions These results suggest that LoS rats are less vulnerable to the negative emotional effects of morphine withdrawal than HiS rats. A less severe withdrawal syndrome may contribute to decreased levels of drug taking in the LoS line. PMID:23254375

  11. Description and quantification of cocaine withdrawal signs in Planaria.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Desai, Prarthna

    2005-01-25

    Previous work provided indirect evidence that planarians undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine. The present study's purpose was to determine if planarians display withdrawal signs and, if so, to quantify the behaviors. Planarians were soaked in cocaine then transferred to either the same cocaine concentration or cocaine-free water. Compared to the cocaine/cocaine group, the cocaine/water group displayed a significant number of atypical behaviors, providing direct evidence of a 'withdrawal phenomenon' in planarians. PMID:15680960

  12. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Walentiny, D Matthew; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone's abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to ?-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects. PMID:26491062

  13. Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

  14. Withdrawal

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    ... this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Withdrawal KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Birth Control > Withdrawal Print A A A Text Size ...

  15. Alcohol withdrawal

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    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  16. Effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His(26)]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Rylkova, Daria; Boissoneault, Jeffrey; Isaac, Shani; Prado, Melissa; Shah, Hina P; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W

    2008-06-01

    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by dysphoria upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research suggests that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor agonists attenuate negative affective states and somatic withdrawal signs. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His(26)]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function as this procedure can provide a quantitative measure of emotional states in rodents. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. In the first experiment, NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Similar to NPY, [D-His(26)]-NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Neither NPY nor [D-His(26)]-NPY affected the response latencies. In a separate experiment, it was demonstrated that the specific Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 prevented the NPY-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds. NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. [D-His(26)]-NPY did not affect the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal, but decreased the number of abdominal constrictions. Both NPY and [D-His(26)]-NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These findings indicate that NPY and [D-His(26)]-NPY attenuate somatic nicotine withdrawal signs, but do not prevent the deficit in brain reward function associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. In addition, NPY decreases the sensitivity to rewarding electrical stimuli via an Y1 dependent mechanism. PMID:18468678

  17. Effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His26]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rylkova, Daria; Boissoneault, Jeffrey; Isaac, Shani; Prado, Melissa; Shah, Hina P.; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by dysphoria upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research suggests that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor agonists attenuate negative affective states and somatic withdrawal signs. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His26]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function as this procedure can provide a quantitative measure of emotional states in rodents. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. In the first experiment, NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Similar to NPY, [D-His26]-NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Neither NPY nor [D-His26]-NPY affected the response latencies. In a separate experiment, it was demonstrated that the specific Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 prevented the NPY-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds. NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. [D-His26]-NPY did not affect the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal, but decreased the number of abdominal constrictions. Both NPY and [D-His26]-NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These findings indicate that NPY and [D-His26]-NPY attenuate somatic nicotine withdrawal signs, but do not prevent the deficit in brain reward function associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. In addition, NPY decreases the sensitivity to rewarding electrical stimuli via an Y1 dependent mechanism. PMID:18468678

  18. Attenuation of Withdrawal Signs, Blood Cortisol, and Glucose Level with Various Dosage Regimens of Morphine after Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Sadeghi-Hashjin, Goudarz; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem; Karimian, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Morphine withdrawal usually results in unsuccessful outcomes. Despite partial benefits from alternative substances such as methadone, its use may not lead to the desired result due to the lack of mental tranquility during the withdrawal period. In this study, by means of an animal model, morphine itself was used to manage morphine dependence. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups, in which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). Afterwards, the animals received morphine for 14 days by either of the following regimens: Once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls)Increasing the interval (each time 6 hours longer than the previous interval)Irregular interval in every 36, 12 and 24 hours until the 21th day12, 24, 36 hours decreasing doses (each time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Negative controls received saline solution only. On day 22, total withdrawal index (TWI) was determined by injecting 3 mg/kg of naloxone. Thereafter, blood samples were taken for the measurement of cortisol and glucose levels. TWI significantly decreased in all test groups in comparison with the positive control animals (P<0.001). Cortisol levels significantly decreased when either the dosage or the administration frequencies were decreased on a regular and gradual basis (P<0.005). Blood glucose levels significantly decreased in animals that received decreasing doses of morphine (P<0.005). This study suggests that no other measures may be required in clinical practice except for changing the dosage regimen of morphine for the cessation of self-administration. PMID:26722146

  19. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

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    ... Home Safety Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Safety Alerts Archive. Sign up to receive Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts . Filter by Keyword(s): Filter ...

  20. Pleiotrophin modulates morphine withdrawal but has no effects on morphine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-09-14

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important functions in addiction and neurodegenerative disorders. Morphine administration induces an increase in the expression of PTN and Midkine (MK), the only other member of this family of cytokines, in brain areas related with the addictive effects of drug of abuse, like the Ventral Tegmental Area or the hippocampus. In spite of previous studies showing that PTN modulates amphetamine and ethanol rewarding effects, and that PTN is involved in morphine-induced analgesia, it was still unknown if the rewarding effects of morphine may be regulated by endogenous PTN. Thus, we aim to study the role of PTN in the reward and physical dependence induced by morphine. We used the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Second, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN-/- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26222257

  1. Extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats is blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Brian R.; Carlezon, William A.; Myers, Karyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive conditioned responses (CRs) contribute to psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders and addiction. Methods of reducing these CRs have been considered as possible therapeutic approaches. One such method is extinction, which involves exposure to CR-eliciting cues in the absence of the event they once predicted. In animal models, extinction reduces both fear and addiction-related CRs, and in humans, extinction-based cue exposure therapy (CET) reduces fear CRs. However, CET is less effective in drug addicts, for reasons that are not clear. Increased understanding of the neurobiology of extinction of drug-related CRs as compared to fear CRs may help illuminate this issue. Here, we examine the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependence of extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Using a place conditioning paradigm, we trained morphine-dependent rats to associate an environment with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. We then extinguished that association by returning the rats repeatedly to the environment in the absence of acute withdrawal. In some rats we administered the NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (AP5) intracerebroventricularly immediately prior to extinction training. In a subsequent test session, these rats avoided the formerly naloxone-paired environment, similar to rats that had not undergone extinction training. By contrast, rats that received vehicle prior to extinction training did not avoid the formerly naloxone-paired environment. This finding indicates that extinction of a drug-related CR (conditioned opiate withdrawal) is dependent on NMDA receptors, similar to extinction of conditioned fear. The locus of the critical NMDA receptors is unclear but may include basolateral amygdala and/or medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:23416323

  2. Cocaine withdrawal

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    ... vomiting and shaking that accompanies the withdrawal from heroin or alcohol. In the past, people underestimated the ... enzymes (look for evidence of heart damage or heart attack) CBC (complete blood count, measures red and white ...

  3. Nicotine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Ian; Dani, John A.; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    An aversive abstinence syndrome manifests 4–24 h following cessation of chronic use of nicotine-containing products. Symptoms peak on approximately the 3rd day and taper off over the course of the following 3–4 weeks. While the severity of withdrawal symptoms is largely determined by how nicotine is consumed, certain short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to predispose individuals to consume larger amounts of nicotine more frequently—as well as to more severe symptoms of withdrawal when trying to quit. Additionally, rodent behavioral models and transgenic mouse models have revealed that specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, cellular components, and neuronal circuits are critical to the expression of withdrawal symptoms. Consequently, by continuing to map neuronal circuits and nAChR subpopulations that underlie the nicotine withdrawal syndrome—and by continuing to enumerate genes that predispose carriers to nicotine addiction and exacerbated withdrawal symptoms—it will be possible to pursue personalized therapeutics that more effectively treat nicotine addiction. PMID:25638335

  4. New mechanisms and perspectives in nicotine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Muldoon, P P; De Biasi, M; Damaj, M I

    2015-09-01

    Diseases associated with tobacco use constitute a major health problem worldwide. Upon cessation of tobacco use, an unpleasant withdrawal syndrome occurs in dependent individuals. Avoidance of the negative state produced by nicotine withdrawal represents a motivational component that promotes continued tobacco use and relapse after smoking cessation. With the modest success rate of currently available smoking cessation therapies, understanding mechanisms involved in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome are crucial for developing successful treatments. Animal models provide a useful tool for examining neuroadaptative mechanisms and factors influencing nicotine withdrawal, including sex, age, and genetic factors. Such research has also identified an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in different aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome (e.g., physical vs. affective signs). In addition to nicotinic receptors, the opioid and endocannabinoid systems, various signal transduction pathways, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides have been implicated in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Animal studies have informed human studies of genetic variants and potential targets for smoking cessation therapies. Overall, the available literature indicates that the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is complex, and involves a range of neurobiological mechanisms. As research in nicotine withdrawal progresses, new pharmacological options for smokers attempting to quit can be identified, and treatments with fewer side effects that are better tailored to the unique characteristics of patients may become available. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25433149

  5. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  6. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  7. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

  8. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  9. Vital Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

  10. Wilderness Sign

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wilderness sign beside a mountain hiking trail in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. This image was taken while the photographer was participating in the 2009 Joint Annual Meeting of these leading scientific societies: Mycological Society of America, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, ...

  11. Distinct Profiles of Anxiety and Dysphoria during Spontaneous Withdrawal from Acute Morphine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Patrick E.; Thomas, Mark J.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.

    2009-01-01

    The negative motivational aspects of withdrawal include symptoms of both anxiety and depression, and emerge following termination of chronic drug use as well as after acute drug exposure. States of acute withdrawal are an inherent part of intermittent drug use in humans, but the contribution of acute withdrawal to the development of addiction has received limited systematic investigation, due to a lack of preclinical models for withdrawal states that emerge spontaneously after acute drug exposure. Here, we have characterized a spontaneous increase in the magnitude of the acoustic startle reflex (i.e., spontaneous withdrawal-potentiated startle) that emerges following acute morphine administration in rats, and compared the time course of startle potentiation and place conditioning. We find that startle potentiation appears related to a decrease in opiate receptor occupancy and reflects an anxiety-like state with a pharmacological profile similar to other signs of opiate withdrawal. Spontaneous startle potentiation emerges before the rewarding effects of morphine have subsided, even though naloxone administration after a single morphine exposure causes both startle potentiation and conditioned place aversion (CPA). These results demonstrate that negative emotional signs of withdrawal develop following just one exposure to morphine, and are likely a recurrent aspect of intermittent drug use that may contribute to the earliest adaptations underlying the development of addiction. Furthermore, the dissociation between spontaneous startle potentiation and CPA suggests anxiogenic and dysphoric manifestations of opiate withdrawal may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms that are progressively engaged as withdrawal unfolds. PMID:19494807

  12. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  13. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Dress for success At a recent physics teachers meeting a colleague commented to me on the generally poor state of the throng's sartorial elegance. It's not that she thought they should all be clothes horses or catwalk models but certain rules seem to have been ignored. This didn't just apply to the older people in the crowd. In the interests of physics we drew up a few basic rules that seemed to have gone awry and we present them here for the benefit of new members of the profession: Trousers should meet shoes, or at least come within 2 cm of the laces. NB. Pedal pushers are not acceptable male attire. Sandals and socks should also be avoided. One of the few equations that all of the general public know (like E = mc2) is Socks + Sandals = Beard. Hair should be washed at least once a week (whether it needs to be or not), combing should take place more frequently. Particular styles are not important, but avoid hiding receding hair using the comb-over. If your jacket/cardigan frays at the elbow throw it away. Patching it up with leather patches is not decorous or clever. NB. Carpet samples are not an acceptable alternative. If you are watching a re-run of a 1970s television show one afternoon and you find yourself thinking how much you admire the actors' dress sense then it is time to go clothes shopping. Colours should match and complement each other. Some combinations should be banned, for example brown jacket with orange shirts are a no-no. Under no circumstances should you try to match brown tweed with anything, unless it's the inside of your dustbin. Men and ties. It is very common to want to wear one's old school or college tie to show off your origins and this is to be commended. However, it is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Ironing should be done on all outer garments, though there is no need to iron creases (fore and aft) so sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  14. Venlafaxine withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sablji?, Vladimir; Ruži?, Klementina; Rakun, Radmir

    2011-03-01

    Dual-action antidepressants serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SRNIs) are widely used to treat depression. Owing to its efficiency and safety, venlafaxine holds a prominent place in this group of depressants. Abrupt venlafaxine discontinuation involves a high risk of withdrawal syndrome. Mechanism of its development is similar to that of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but of higher intensity. Venlafaxine withdrawal symptoms may include several somatic symptoms as well as several psychiatric symptoms. In some cases, symptoms may look like a stroke. A treatment option is re-inclusion of venlafaxine or a SSRI antidepressant. The paper presents the case of a 70-year-old patient who discontinued of her own accord to take venlafaxine, which she had been taking regularly at a daily dose of 225 mg for more than a year. A few hours after taking the last dose, withdrawal syndrome occurred with severe symptoms resembling a stroke. The patient was examined by a neurologist and the CT and laboratory parameters showed no irregularities. Diagnosis was made after psychiatric observation. Venlafaxine, 150 mg per day, was prescribed, the symptoms disappeared relatively quickly, and the patient fully recovered. Withdrawal syndrome is a real risk for each venlafaxine treated patient. The possibility of its occurrence should be always kept in mind and patients should be timely informed about it. In this way, the risk of venlafaxine withdraw syndrome could be reduced, unnecessary stress to patients prevented and the costs of medical treatment lowered. PMID:21448114

  15. Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Santwana; Malhotra, Mahima

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure, which is a very rare and uncommon event, occurred after discontinuation of steroid therapy that was taken to increase weight by the patient. The pathogenesis is not well understood. In this submission, we have highlighted the fact that withdrawal of steroid has a propensity to cause seizure as a rare withdrawal phenomenon. PMID:25969660

  16. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

  17. Sign Language Diglossia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C., Jr.

    Charles A. Ferguson's concept of "diglossia" (1959, 1964) is used in analyzing sign language. As in Haitian Creole or Swiss German, "two or more varieties" of sign language are "used by the same speakers under different conditions"--these are here called "High" (H) sign language and "Low" (L) sign language. H sign language is formally taught…

  18. Outpatient management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muncie, Herbert L; Yasinian, Yasmin; Oge', Linda

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 2% to 9% of patients seen in a family physician's office have alcohol dependence. These patients are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome if they abruptly abstain from alcohol use. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome begins six to 24 hours after the last intake of alcohol, and the signs and symptoms include tremors, agitation, nausea, sweating, vomiting, hallucinations, insomnia, tachycardia, hypertension, delirium, and seizures. Treatment aims to minimize symptoms, prevent complications, and facilitate continued abstinence from alcohol. Patients with mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal syndrome can be treated as outpatients, which minimizes expense and allows for less interruption of work and family life. Patients with severe symptoms or who are at high risk of complications should receive inpatient treatment. In addition to supportive therapy, benzodiazepines, either in a fixed-dose or symptom-triggered schedule, are recommended. Medication should be given at the onset of symptoms and continued until symptoms subside. Other medications, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, and gabapentin, have less abuse potential but do not prevent seizures. Typically, physicians should see these patients daily until symptoms subside. Although effective treatment is an initial step in recovery, long-term success depends on facilitating the patient's entry into ongoing treatment. PMID:24364635

  19. Acne: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Acne Signs, symptoms Acne: Signs and symptoms Blackheads and whiteheads Blackheads and ... sandpaper. View as one page View as slideshow Acne signs Many people think that acne is just ...

  20. Hyperphagia in neonates withdrawing from methadone

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, A.; Kastner, B.; Taeusch, H

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To examine whether hyperphagia is a clinically significant problem in infants born to women receiving methadone maintenance.?METHODS—The volume of feeds, changes in infant body weight, as well as occurrence of adverse clinical effects in infants withdrawing from methadone were studied during the first month of life. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all infants at San Francisco General between 1992 and 1995, born to women receiving methadone maintenance during their pregnancy. Forty four infants were identified and the data obtained from hospital medical records. The daily oral intake of these infants was recorded during the first month of life. The incidence of hyperphagia (oral intake> 190 cc/kg/day) was measured. Associations between infant oral intake and maternal methadone dose were studied using correlation analysis as well as Anova for repeated measures. Adverse clinical symptoms were also recorded. A subset of premature infants was studied separately.?RESULTS—The incidence of hyperphagia was 26% by day 8 and 56% by day 16 of life in the infants. Hyperphagia was not associated with maternal methadone dose or with infant withdrawal scores. Infants who were hyperphagic lost significantly more weight during the first week of life than those who were not. Despite significantly greater intake, the hyperphagic infants did not gain weight more rapidly during the first month of life compared with those infants with lower oral intake. Infants who were hyperphagic (maximum intake of 290 cc/kg/day) did not experience increased vomiting, aspiration, diarrhoea, or abdominal distention.?CONCLUSIONS—Hyperphagia is commonly found in infants withdrawing from methadone and can be persistent in a significant number. Hyperphagia was not associated with either increased neonatal weight gain or with adverse gastrointestinal consequences. Hyperphagia may occur in infants withdrawing from methadone who have high metabolic demands due to clinical signs not controlled by opiate treatment.?? PMID:10212077

  1. [Ambulatory alcohol withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Grehl, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol addiction is a common problem in daily life as well as in medicine. Apart from inpatient therapy programs, ambulatory withdrawal is a relatively new option, which may be done safely, efficient and cost-effective close to the domicile an without stigmatisation of the patient. PMID:25257113

  2. Suicide Warning Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ways to kill oneself by seeking access to firearms, available pills, or other means n Talking or ... there’s no way out n Increasing alcohol or drug use n Withdrawing from friends, family, and society ...

  3. Withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus) as a Sexual Risk Reduction Strategy: Perspectives from African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Jennifer R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents’ beliefs about the benefits and risks of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) with respect to both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the course of qualitative interviews with African-American youth aged 14–19 (n = 124) about sexuality and risk, 24 adolescents spontaneously introduced the subject of withdrawal as a sexual risk reduction strategy. Eighteen percent of the sexually experienced adolescents mentioned their own use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method. From adolescents’ accounts of their own and their peers’ use of withdrawal, we learned that the cultural meanings of withdrawal within the context of adolescent relationships were multifaceted. Using withdrawal could signal sexual prowess in male youth, was seen as promoting trust and caring within a stable relationship, and was seen as mitigating the risk of pregnancy. However, adolescents also recognized that withdrawal did not protect against most STIs. Beliefs about withdrawal as a gendered skill and as a sign of trust may undermine some adolescents’ attempts to negotiate condom use for protection against STIs. PMID:18293076

  4. Effects of age, but not sex, on elevated startle during withdrawal from acute morphine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Radke, Anna K; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-08-01

    Investigations into animal models of drug withdrawal have largely found that emotional signs of withdrawal (e.g. anxiety, anhedonia, and aversion) in adolescents are experienced earlier and less severely than in their adult counterparts. The majority of these reports have examined withdrawal from ethanol or nicotine. To expand our knowledge about the emotional withdrawal state in adolescent rats, we used potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex after an acute dose of morphine (10?mg/kg, subcutaneously) as a measure of opiate withdrawal. Startle was measured at four time points after morphine injection (2, 3, 4, and 5?h) in 28-day-old and 90-day-old male and female rats. The results of this experiment revealed that peak potentiation of the startle reflex occurred at 3?h in the adolescent rats and at 5?h in the adult rats, and that the magnitude of withdrawal was larger in the adults. No sex differences were observed. Overall, these results affirm that, similar to withdrawal from ethanol and nicotine, opiate withdrawal signs are less severe in adolescent than in adult rats. PMID:26154436

  5. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  6. Bedbugs: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Bedbugs: Signs and symptoms Bedbug bites : The bites often ... hiding place. Serious and life-threatening reactions to bedbug bites Although less common, it is possible to ...

  7. American Sign Language

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Langue des Signes Française).Today’s ASL includes some elements of LSF plus the original local sign languages, ... can also be used to model the essential elements and organization of natural language. Another NIDCD-funded ...

  8. Shingles: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more ... painful before the shingles appeared. Learn more about shingles: Shingles Shingles: Who gets, causes Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, ...

  9. Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals

    E-print Network

    Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals Louisiana New Hampshire Florida Idaho Washington Oregon Nevada California New,000 9,000 to 13,000 Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. Estimated Use

  10. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  11. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala ?-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6??g) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. PMID:26105136

  12. Agmatine: identification and inhibition of methamphetamine, kappa opioid, and cannabinoid withdrawal in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Gerber, Kristin; Ding, Zhe; Roth, Christopher; Raffa, Robert B

    2008-12-01

    Agmatine blocks morphine physical dependence in mammals, but its effects on withdrawal signs caused by other abused drugs have been less studied. One of the reasons is that withdrawal to some of these drugs is difficult to quantify in mammals. An alternative to mammals is planarians, a type of flatworm. Planarians possess mammalian-like neurotransmitters and display withdrawal from amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids. The withdrawal is manifested as a reduction in locomotor behavior following discontinuation of drug exposure. In the present study, our goal was to identify agmatine in planarians and to determine if planarians exposed to agmatine display withdrawal to methamphetamine, a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2), or a kappa-opioid receptor agonist (U-50,488H). Neurochemical experiments revealed that the concentration of agmatine in planarians was 185 +/- 33.7 pmol per mg of planarian weight (dry weight). In behavioral experiments, withdrawal (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) was observed when planarians exposed to each drug (10 microM) for 60 min were placed into water. The withdrawal was attenuated when methamphetamine- or U-50,488H-exposed planarians were tested in agmatine (100 microM). Withdrawal was inhibited similarly when planarians coexposed to agmatine (100 microM) plus methamphetamine (10 microM), WIN 55,212-2 (10 microM), or U-50,488H (10 microM) were tested in water. Arginine, the metabolic precursor to agmatine, was ineffective. Our results identify endogenous agmatine in planarians and demonstrate that agmatine exposure blocks withdrawal to three different drugs in planarians. This suggests that a change in agmatine signaling is a common mechanism in the withdrawal caused by these drugs, at least in planarians. PMID:18792993

  13. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal. 74.18 Section 74.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Permitting Procedures § 74.18 Withdrawal. (a) Withdrawal through administrative amendment. An opt-in source may request to withdraw...

  14. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  15. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  16. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  17. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  18. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  19. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  20. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  1. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  2. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

  3. Social withdrawal after laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Danker, Helge; Wollbrück, Dorit; Singer, Susanne; Fuchs, Michael; Brähler, Elmar; Meyer, Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    This investigation focuses on the psychosocial concomitants of a laryngectomy. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 218 laryngectomized patients. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess patients' social activity (FPAL, EORTC QLQ-C30), intelligibility of speech (PLTT, FPAL), mental well-being (HADS), and perceived stigmatisation (FPAL). More than 40% of the patients withdrew from conversation. Only one-third of all patients regularly took part in social activities. About 87% perceived stigmatisation because of their changed voice and more than 50% felt embarrassed because of their tracheostoma. Almost one-third of the patients had increased anxiety and depression scores. Moderate objective speech intelligibility was found, though patients were not particularly satisfied with their voice. Social activity emerged to be independent from age, gender, treatment variables, and stage of disease. Multivariate analysis resulted in two independent factors representing two patterns of social withdrawal. On the one hand, there was withdrawal from conversation accompanied by increased depression and poor speech intelligibility. On the other hand, there were reduced social activities accompanied by increased anxiety and perceived stigmatisation. PMID:19760214

  4. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    PubMed

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. PMID:25744958

  5. Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Kenney, Justin W.; Sullivan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze in 8 strains of inbred mice. Strain-dependent effects of acute nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze were observed, but no association between the effects of acute nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning were observed, suggesting that different genetic substrates may mediate these effects. The identification of genetic factors that may alter the effects of nicotine on cognition may lead to more efficacious treatments for nicotine addiction. PMID:21822688

  6. Varenicline enhances dopamine release facilitation more than nicotine after long-term nicotine treatment and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Xiomara A; Khroyan, Taline V; McIntosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2015-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2–3 months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at ?6?2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in ?6?2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:25692023

  7. Varenicline enhances dopamine release facilitation more than nicotine after long-term nicotine treatment and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Perez, Xiomara A; Khroyan, Taline V; McIntosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2015-02-01

    An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2-3 months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at ?6?2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in ?6?2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:25692023

  8. Eponymous signs in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

  9. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS...of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from...

  10. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for exportation...exportation of shipments arriving under warehouse withdrawals for indirect...

  11. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for exportation...exportation of shipments arriving under warehouse withdrawals for indirect...

  12. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS...of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from...

  13. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  14. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  15. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  16. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Authorized withdrawals free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw...

  17. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  18. L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.

    2013-01-01

    L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, L-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether L-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether L-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. L-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5 h. L-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that L-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

  19. Sign On to Computers: A Dictionary of Computer Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zier, Cathy Diane; And Others

    This manual defines basic computer terminology and presents sign language gestures for the terms. The manual uses the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf's Manually Coded English Sign Language System, a compilation of signs derived from Signing Exact English and American Sign Language; it also indicates those instances where fingerspelling is…

  20. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... away . Back to top Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  1. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Article Body Although stress is a part of ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  2. Every sign of life

    E-print Network

    Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

  3. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? A reddish or purplish rash and scaly, rough ... organs can be damaged as a result. Disease: Dermatomyositis (DM) Printer-friendly version Send by email Dermatomyositis ...

  4. University Sign - 1 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    . For him, conversation-like means of exchange (basically anxious contests for social and economic control) can include animal traps, footpaths, wampum (embellished shells), dances, animal imitations, ceremonial posts, medical rituals, sign language..., cooked food, among other means for signifying intentions expressed ?within a continuous informational topography? (28). Cohen ?reads? such signs as texts that once were as rich and communicatively nuanced as were circulated missives and printed books...

  5. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

  6. Measuring the incentive value of escalating doses of heroin in heroin-dependent Fischer rats during acute spontaneous withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Brian; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Rationale/objectives Although continued heroin use and relapse are thought to be motivated, in part, by the positive incentive-motivational value attributed to heroin, little is understood about heroin’s incentive value during the relapse-prone state of withdrawal. This study uses place preference to measure the incentive value attributed to escalating-dose heroin in the context of heroin dependence. Methods Male Fischer rats were exposed chronically to escalating doses of heroin in the homecage and during place preference conditioning sessions. Conditioned preference for the context paired with escalating-dose heroin was tested after homecage exposure was discontinued and rats entered acute spontaneous withdrawal. Individuals’ behavioral and locomotor responses to heroin and somatic withdrawal signs were recorded. Results Conditioned preference for the heroin-paired context was strong in rats that received chronic homecage exposure to escalating-dose heroin and were tested in acute withdrawal. Behavioral responses to heroin (e.g., stereotypy) varied widely across individuals, with rats that expressed stronger heroin preference also expressing stronger behavioral activation in response to heroin. Individual differences in preference were also related to locomotor responses to heroin but not to overt somatic withdrawal signs. Conclusions Escalating doses of heroin evoked place preference in rats, suggesting that positive incentive-motivational value is attributed to this clinically relevant pattern of drug exposure. This study offers an improved preclinical model for studying dependence and withdrawal and provides insight into individual vulnerabilities to addiction-like behavior. PMID:21748254

  7. Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. )

    1990-02-26

    Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

  8. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  9. How to Wit Withdraw fr

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    to With » How to Wit Withdraw fr al Concerns thdraw for Stud wal Calend ns? re two ways e the regist egistering s office con versity, stud ime Out Pro ourses ses (Boulde ment or volunteering e University edures liste Service s must eith by default ( mpus classe and tendance or to drop a ass, the stud grade. lasses rath

  10. Alcohol Withdrawal and Cerebellar Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Marianna E

    2015-08-01

    Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new therapy to manage cerebellar disorders associated with hyperexcitatory CNS disorders like ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25195804

  11. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  13. Industrial withdrawals by source and State, 2005. EXPLANATION

    E-print Network

    Industrial withdrawals by source and State, 2005. EXPLANATION Water withdrawals, in million gallonsHuron Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Total industrial withdrawals Surface-water industrial withdrawals Groundwater industrial withdrawals WEST EAST Haw aiiAlaskaOregon W ashington California Nevada

  14. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  15. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  16. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  17. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a...

  18. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in...

  19. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in...

  20. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001 Section 330.1001...Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition. An applicant for competitive...applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a...

  1. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation... Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another...

  2. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation... Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another...

  3. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  4. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  5. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign language…

  6. CRF2 mediates the increased noradrenergic activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the negative state of morphine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Núñez, Cristina; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Laorden, M Luisa; Valverde, Olga; Milanés, M Victoria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signalling is involved in modulating the negative symptoms of opiate withdrawal. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to further characterize the role of CRF-type 2 receptor (CRF2) signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation), as well as CRF2 expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract-A2 noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The contribution of CRF2 signalling in opiate withdrawal was assessed by i.c.v. infusion of the selective CRF2 antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (AS-30). Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with AS-30 or saline 10 min before naloxone and the physical signs of abstinence, the HPA axis activity, NA turnover, TH activation and CRF2 expression were measured using immunoblotting, RIA, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS Rats pretreated with AS-30 showed decreased levels of somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal, but the corticosterone response was not modified. AS-30 attenuated the increased production of the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, as well as the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Finally, AS-30 antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Serine40 induced by morphine withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by CRF2 signalling. Furthermore, they indicate a marginal role for the HPA axis in CRF2-mediation of opiate withdrawal. PMID:20973778

  7. Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

  8. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  9. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  10. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human...withdraw approval. For new drugs approved under this subpart, FDA may withdraw approval, following a hearing as provided in...

  11. Ineffective VTA Disinhibition in Protracted Opiate Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Barrot, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Kaufling and Aston-Jones showed that, under protracted opiate withdrawal, control of dopamine activity by the tail of the ventral tegmental area shifts from a bidirectional influence towards one-way inhibition. Beyond dysphoric states accompanying withdrawal, these results may also impact research on depression and individual differences in coping and affect. PMID:26549881

  12. College Student Withdrawal: A Motivational Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; Fetters, William B.

    The process of withdrawal from two- and four-year institutions of higher education was studied. Data were drawn from the base year and the first and second follow-ups of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicated that: (1) women students were more likely to withdraw only in two-year colleges; (2) white…

  13. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  14. Withdrawing benzodiazepines in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Tylee, Andre; Donoghue, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of benzodiazepine anxiolytics and hypnotics continues to excite controversy. Views differ from expert to expert and from country to country as to the extent of the problem, or even whether long-term benzodiazepine use actually constitutes a problem. The adverse effects of these drugs have been extensively documented and their effectiveness is being increasingly questioned. Discontinuation is usually beneficial as it is followed by improved psychomotor and cognitive functioning, particularly in the elderly. The potential for dependence and addiction have also become more apparent. The licensing of SSRIs for anxiety disorders has widened the prescribers' therapeutic choices (although this group of medications also have their own adverse effects). Melatonin agonists show promise in some forms of insomnia. Accordingly, it is now even more imperative that long-term benzodiazepine users be reviewed with respect to possible discontinuation. Strategies for discontinuation start with primary-care practitioners, who are still the main prescribers.This review sets out the stratagems that have been evaluated, concentrating on those of a pharmacological nature. Simple interventions include basic monitoring of repeat prescriptions and assessment by the doctor. Even a letter from the primary-care practitioner pointing out the continuing usage of benzodiazepines and questioning their need can result in reduction or cessation of use. Pharmacists also have a role to play in monitoring the use of benzodiazepines, although mobilizing their assistance is not yet routine. Such stratagems can avoid the use of specialist back-up services such as psychiatrists, home care, and addiction and alcohol misuse treatment facilities.Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine dependence have been reviewed in detail in a recent Cochrane review, but only eight studies proved adequate for analysis. Carbamazepine was the only drug that appeared to have any useful adjunctive properties for assisting in the discontinuation of benzodiazepines but the available data are insufficient for recommendations to be made regarding its use. Antidepressants can help if the patient is depressed before withdrawal or develops a depressive syndrome during withdrawal. The clearest strategy was to taper the medication; abrupt cessation can only be justified if a very serious adverse effect supervenes during treatment. No clear evidence suggests the optimum rate of tapering, and schedules vary from 4 weeks to several years. Our recommendation is to aim for withdrawal in <6 months, otherwise the withdrawal process can become the morbid focus of the patient's existence. Substitution of diazepam for another benzodiazepine can be helpful, at least logistically, as diazepam is available in a liquid formulation.Psychological interventions range from simple support through counselling to expert cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Group therapy may be helpful as it at least provides support from other patients. The value of counselling is not established and it can be quite time consuming. CBT needs to be administered by fully trained and experienced personnel but seems effective, particularly in obviating relapse.The outcome of successful withdrawal is gratifying, both in terms of improved functioning and abstinence from the benzodiazepine usage. Economic benefits also ensue.Some of the principles of withdrawing benzodiazepines are listed. Antidepressants may be helpful, as may some symptomatic remedies. Care must be taken not to substitute one drug dependence problem for the original one. PMID:19062773

  15. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  16. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  17. 19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.31 Right to withdraw. Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be made only by the person primarily liable for the payment of duties on the merchandise being withdrawn, i.e., the importer of record on the warehouse...

  18. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  19. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal for exportation. 144.37 Section 144.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for exportation. (a) Form....

  20. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal for consumption. 144.38 Section 144.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.38 Withdrawal for consumption. (a)...

  1. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for consumption. 144.38 Section 144.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.38 Withdrawal for consumption. (a)...

  2. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for exportation. 144.37 Section 144.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37 Withdrawal for exportation. (a) Form....

  3. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  4. Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. EXPLANATION

    E-print Network

    Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. 0 to 10 10 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 200 mining withdrawals Freshwater mining withdrawals Saline-water mining withdrawals Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 - Mining USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wumi.html Source

  5. Romberg and his sign.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2005-01-01

    Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873) acquired much of the wisdom and attitudes prevailing in English medicine when in 1820 he translated into German, Andrew Marshall's (1742-1813) The Morbid Anatomy of the Brain and Charles Bell's The Nervous System of the Human Body. He revolutionised European neurology, publishing his Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten des Menschen: the first systematic textbook in neurology. Romberg's contribution to neurology, and his establishing tabes dorsalis as a distinctive disease were of crucial importance. Romberg's sign, once synonymous with tabes dorsalis, became recognised as common to all proprioceptive disorders of the legs. His several major clinical contributions included: a classic description of achondroplasia, progressive facial hemiatrophy, and an unmistakable description of the pupils in tertiary syphilis before E.J. Remak and Argyll Robertson. PMID:16015011

  6. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture. PMID:22316934

  7. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  8. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997...Approach to Define the Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal...

  9. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

  10. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

  11. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

  12. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

  13. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

  14. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 30,2015 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... below you agree to the Terms and Conditions Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  15. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  16. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

  17. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  18. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  19. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

  20. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1?year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  1. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  2. Clinical neuroendocrinology and neuropharmacology of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, J N; Gorelick, D A

    1986-01-01

    A number of alcohol research groups have measured anterior and posterior pituitary hormones, the endogenous opiates, CNS peptides, and putative neurotransmitters during alcohol withdrawal. The data are often complex and contradictory, though a number of themes have emerged. Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased during chronic alcohol exposure and appears to remain altered for at least 2 to 4 weeks after cessation of drinking. There is increased turnover of norepinephrine and enhanced binding of CNS adrenergic receptors. By contrast, there are decreases in CNS activity of select endogenous opiates and GABA. Other CNS compounds that may play a role in alcohol withdrawal are prolactin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), vasopressin, cyclic 3'5'-adenosine monophophate (cAMP), Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP), and iron. Despite many studies in humans and animals, the roles of CNS dopamine and serotonin in withdrawal remain unclear. A number of peptides, including cholecystokinin (CCK), neurotensin, and bombesin, have been shown to interact with the CNS actions of alcohol and may play a role in alcohol withdrawal. Inadequate work has been performed on acetylcholine (ACh), human growth hormone (HGH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Studies of the recently identified GABA-benzodiazepine-barbituate receptor complex indicate that this system is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal. Perturbation studies with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and TRH (with measures of ACTH and cortisol and TSH and prolactin, respectively), may identify patients with withdrawal-related autonomic dysfunction. PMID:3010391

  3. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN General Provisions § 19.6 Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to... copy of any joint report of discrepancy must be made within five business days of agreement and... withdrawal for transportation to another port by a duty-free sales enterprise which meets the...

  4. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN General Provisions § 19.6 Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to... copy of any joint report of discrepancy must be made within five business days of agreement and... withdrawal for transportation to another port by a duty-free sales enterprise which meets the...

  5. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN General Provisions § 19.6 Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to... copy of any joint report of discrepancy must be made within five business days of agreement and... withdrawal for transportation to another port by a duty-free sales enterprise which meets the...

  6. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN General Provisions § 19.6 Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to... copy of any joint report of discrepancy must be made within five business days of agreement and... withdrawal for transportation to another port by a duty-free sales enterprise which meets the...

  7. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN General Provisions § 19.6 Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to... copy of any joint report of discrepancy must be made within five business days of agreement and... withdrawal for transportation to another port by a duty-free sales enterprise which meets the...

  8. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landmark signs. 750.710 Section 750.710 Highways FEDERAL... Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710 Landmark signs. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(c) permits the existence of signs... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic...

  9. Simulated effects of potential withdrawals from wells near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tucce, Patrick; Faunt, Claudia C.

    1999-09-20

    The effects of potential future withdrawals from wells J-12, J-13, and UE-25c {number_sign}3 on the ground-water flow system in the area surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were simulated by using an existing (1997) three-dimensional regional ground-water flow model. The 1997 regional model was modified only to include changes at the pumped wells. Two steady-state simulations (baseline and predictive) were conducted to estimate changes in water level and changes in ground-water outflow from Jackass Flats, where the pumped wells are located, south to the Amargosa Desert.

  10. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  11. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IgM Serology Publications and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  12. Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A - D E - H I - L M - P Melanoma Melasma Merkel cell carcinoma Microdermabrasion Moles Molluscum contagiosum Neurodermatitis Nummular dermatitis Pityriasis rosea Poison ivy Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Q - T ...

  13. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in personal care Mood changes — Rapid or dramatic shifts in feelings One or two of these symptoms ... clear signs of a diagnosable mental illness, these “red flag” early warning symptoms can be frightening and ...

  14. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... constitutional problem only if that construction is a legitimate one. To ensure that all signing statements... person. This memorandum shall be published in the Federal Register.BARACK OBAMATHE WHITE...

  15. 21 CFR 514.115 - Withdrawal of approval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Withdrawal of approval of applications. 514.115 Section 514.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on Applications § 514.115 Withdrawal of approval of...

  16. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514.7 Section 514.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.7 Withdrawal of applications without...

  17. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  18. Objective determination of monsoon season onset, withdrawal, and length

    E-print Network

    Objective determination of monsoon season onset, withdrawal, and length Benjamin I. Cook1, withdrawal, and length of the summer monsoon season for the years 1951­2005. Our onset metric compares: Cook, B. I., and B. M. Buckley (2009), Objective determination of monsoon season onset, withdrawal

  19. 48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...); (2) Implementation of cost accounting standards (see 48 CFR chapter 99 (Appendix B, FAR loose-leaf... Withholding or withdrawing approval. (a) The ACO shall withhold or withdraw approval of a contractor's... information upon which to make an affirmative determination. The ACO may withdraw approval at any time on...

  20. 48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...); (2) Implementation of cost accounting standards (see 48 CFR chapter 99 (Appendix B, FAR loose-leaf... Withholding or withdrawing approval. (a) The ACO shall withhold or withdraw approval of a contractor's... information upon which to make an affirmative determination. The ACO may withdraw approval at any time on...

  1. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  2. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  3. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  4. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  5. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... file. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 144.37, see the List of CFR Sections... TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.37.... The splitting up for exportation of shipments arriving under warehouse withdrawals for...

  6. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  7. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  8. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  9. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  10. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  11. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  12. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  13. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  14. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  15. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirda?, Arif; Akp?nar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  16. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

  17. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

  18. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  19. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  20. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  1. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  2. 49 CFR 107.111 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal. 107.111 Section 107.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Special Permits § 107.111...

  3. Withdrawal-Emergent Dyskinesias following Varenicline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Toffey, Brittany A; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Varenicline (Chantix[R]) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist used to aid smoking cessation. Adverse psychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are recognized and national drug monitoring has included reports of tardive dyskinesia, but no cases have been described in the literature. We now report the first two cases of varenicline-related withdrawal emergent dyskinesias. PMID:26106454

  4. Using Selective Withdrawal to Coat Microparticles

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Itai

    through a second immiscible fluid to coat small particles with polymer films. Fluid is withdrawn through), emulsion formation (8), polyelectrolyte multilayering (9), and direct polymerization from a surface withdrawal (11, 12) to apply polymer coats of uniform thickness and varying compo- sition onto polydisperse

  5. Transitions in viscous withdrawal Wendy W. Zhang

    E-print Network

    Gardel, Margaret

    Transitions in viscous withdrawal Wendy W. Zhang Physics & James Franck Institute University / viscous entrainment Cohen PRE `04, Zhang PRL `04, Case & Nagel PRL `07, Blanchette & Zhang `08... 2, Girard & Le Bars `02, Schmidt & Zhang `08... 3. Viscous drainage Chaieb `04, Courrech du Pont & Eggers

  6. UF 403(b) Retirement Plan Hardship Withdrawal

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    the Retirement Manager system: You can access the system at https://www.myretirementmanager.com/?uof. A reference the system. 4. Documentation that supports the purpose for the hardship withdrawal and amount. Acceptable on participant's principal residence To pay for college tuition expenses for participant, spouse, or dependent

  7. 46 CFR 390.10 - Nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impaired his working capital and it becomes necessary to reimburse its general funds to the extent of such... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonqualified withdrawals. 390.10 Section 390.10 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469...

  8. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  9. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  10. American Sign Language Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Cheryl; Hochman, Darlene

    A review is provided of the American Sign Language (ASL) program at Suffolk Community College (SCC), in New York. Following definitions of program terms and historical information, the educational and career goals of the program are discussed and the curricula are described for the two sequences of the program, Interpreter for the Deaf and ASL…

  11. Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

    1995-01-01

    A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and link people to free or low-cost services . Community Health Workers (promotores de salud) can Use resources that have been developed to educate the Hispanic community about health risks and preventive services. Everyone can Sign up for health insurance, if ...

  13. Road Signs in Ethical Quicksand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrell, S. Lee; Jerrell, Jeanette M.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the major moral and ethical dilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered. (Author/DWH)

  14. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models, including evaluation of more clinically relevant nicotine dosing regimens and other measures of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs), may be useful for understanding the development of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26658557

  15. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models, including evaluation of more clinically relevant nicotine dosing regimens and other measures of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs), may be useful for understanding the development of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26658557

  16. Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in glioma patients after long-term seizure freedom: design of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is common in patients with a glioma. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but may cause side effects and may negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Besides antiepileptic drugs, anti-tumour treatment, which currently consists of surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, may contribute to seizure control as well. In glioma patients with seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy the question emerges whether AEDs should be continued, particularly in the case where anti-tumour treatment has been successful. We propose to explore the possibility of AED withdrawal in glioma patients with long-term seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy and without signs of tumour progression. Methods/Design We initiate a prospective, observational study exploring the decision-making process on the withdrawal or continuation of AEDs in low-grade and anaplastic glioma patients with stable disease and prolonged seizure freedom after anti-tumour treatment, and the effects of AED withdrawal or continuation on seizure freedom. We recruit participants through the outpatient clinics of three tertiary referral centers for brain tumour patients in The Netherlands. The patient and the treating physician make a shared decision to either withdraw or continue AED treatment. Over a one-year period, we aim to include 100 glioma patients. We expect approximately half of the participants to be willing to withdraw AEDs. The primary outcome measures are: 1) the outcome of the shared-decision making on AED withdrawal or continuation, and decision related arguments, and 2) seizure freedom at 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. We will also evaluate seizure type and frequency in case of seizure recurrence, as well as neurological symptoms, adverse effects related to AED treatment or withdrawal, other anti-tumour treatments and tumour progression. Discussion This study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients. PMID:25124385

  17. Neonatal Withdrawal Syndrome, Michigan, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, Kimberly A.; Grigorescu, Violanda I.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Miller, Corinne E.; Smith, Ruben A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal withdrawal syndrome, which is associated most frequently with opioid use in pregnancy, is an emerging public health concern, with recent studies documenting an increase in the rate of U.S. infants diagnosed. Purpose This study examined neonatal withdrawal syndrome diagnosis among Michigan infants from 2000 to 2009 and hospital length of stay (LOS) between infants with and without the syndrome for a subset of years (2006–2009). Methods Michigan live birth records from 2000 to 2009 were linked with hospital discharge data to identify infants with neonatal withdrawal syndrome. Linked data were restricted to infants born between 2006 and 2009 to examine the difference in hospital LOS between infants with and without the syndrome. Multivariable regression models were constructed to examine the adjusted impact of syndrome diagnosis on infant LOS and fit using negative binomial distribution. Data were analyzed from July 2011 to February 2012. Results From 2000 to 2009, the overall birth rate of infants with neonatal withdrawal syndrome increased from 41.2 to 289.0 per 100,000 live births (p<0.0001). Among infants born from 2006 to 2009, the average hospital LOS for those with the syndrome was between 1.36 (95% CI=1.24, 1.49) and 5.75 (95% CI=5.41, 6.10) times longer than for infants without it. Conclusions Diagnosis of neonatal withdrawal syndrome increased significantly in Michigan with infants who had the syndrome requiring a significantly longer LOS compared to those without it. PMID:23790996

  18. ISIS 9.0 | Student Center Official Withdrawal 1 Updated: 07.27.15

    E-print Network

    Capogna, Luca

    ISIS 9.0 | Student Center ­ Official Withdrawal 1 Updated: 07.27.15 Student Center ­ Official Withdrawal ISIS 9.0 Official Withdrawal from the University Withdrawing for the University means you intend the University voluntarily before the end of the fall or spring semester must withdraw from all classes on ISIS

  19. HARDSHIP WITHDRAWAL PETITION FOR COURSE(S) OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR, BOX 354978

    E-print Network

    Billey, Sara

    HARDSHIP WITHDRAWAL PETITION FOR COURSE(S) OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR, BOX 354978 UNIVERSITY the guidelines of a hardship withdrawal but wishes to WITHDRAW FROM ALL COURSES for the quarter may not petition a student can petition for a hardship withdrawal for all courses is if the withdrawal deadline (the last day

  20. Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

    2011-01-01

    Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

  1. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  2. Chronic Pruritus: a Paraneoplastic Sign

    PubMed Central

    Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Chronic itch could be a presenting sign of malignancy. Pruritus of lymphoma is the common prototype of paraneoplastic itch and can precede other clinical signs by weeks and months. Paraneopalstic pruritus has also been associated with solid tumors and is an important clinical symptom in paraneoplastic skin diseases such as erythroderma, Grovers disease, malignant acanthosis nigricans, generalized granuloma annulare, Bazex syndrome and dermatomyositis. In any case with high index of suspicion a thorough work-up is required. This review highlights the association between itch and malignancy and presents new findings related to pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of itch associated with malignancy. Combinative therapies reducing itch sensitization and transmission using selective serotonin and neuroepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Kappa opioids and Neuroleptics are of prime importance in reducing this bothersome symptom. PMID:21054705

  3. Cutaneous signs of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Raimer, B G; Raimer, S S; Hebeler, J R

    1981-08-01

    Child abuse is a well-established clinical entity affecting over one million children each year in this country. All physicians are responsible for the recognition of this syndrome and for the initiation of prompt treatment. Presented are some of the classical cutaneous signs of child abuse, including physical abuse, neglect, and sexual assault. The abusive pattern is described and the need for physician awareness noted. PMID:7263965

  4. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  5. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  6. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  7. 5 CFR 4.3 - Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. 4.3 Section 4.3 Administrative...Prohibition against securing withdrawal from competition. No person shall influence another person to withdraw from competition for any position in the...

  8. 77 FR 11554 - Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab) Following...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...decision withdrawing approval of the breast cancer indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...DATES: Withdrawal of AVASTIN's breast cancer indication was effective...

  9. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL...LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  10. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL...LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  11. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL...LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  12. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL...LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  13. 29 CFR 4203.3 - Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL...LIABILITY RULES § 4203.3 Plan adoption of special withdrawal rules...that occurred prior to the adoption of the...

  14. 40 CFR 501.33 - Criteria for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Approval, Revision and Withdrawal § 501.33 Criteria for withdrawal of State programs. The criteria for withdrawal of sludge management programs shall be those set forth in 40 CFR 123.63....

  15. 40 CFR 501.34 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Approval, Revision and Withdrawal § 501.34 Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. The procedures for withdrawal of sludge management programs shall be those set forth in 40 CFR 123.64....

  16. 40 CFR 501.33 - Criteria for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Approval, Revision and Withdrawal § 501.33 Criteria for withdrawal of State programs. The criteria for withdrawal of sludge management programs shall be those set forth in 40 CFR 123.63....

  17. 40 CFR 501.34 - Procedures for withdrawal of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Approval, Revision and Withdrawal § 501.34 Procedures for withdrawal of State programs. The procedures for withdrawal of sludge management programs shall be those set forth in 40 CFR 123.64....

  18. Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) may develop within 6-24 h after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for AWS is with benzodiazepines (BZDs). Among the BZDs, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed-dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as ?2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and ?-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptic agents can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for AWS have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents are discussed. PMID:25666543

  19. Dexmedetomidine for Sedation during Withdrawal of Support

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Chris; Tamburro, Robert F; Ceneviva, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Agents used to control end-of-life suffering are associated with troublesome side effects. The use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during withdrawal of support in pediatrics is not yet described. An adolescent female with progressive and irreversible pulmonary deterioration was admitted. Despite weeks of therapy, she did not tolerate weaning of supplemental oxygen or continuous bilevel positive airway pressure. Given her condition and the perception that she was suffering, the family requested withdrawal of support. Despite opioids and benzodiazepines, she appeared to be uncomfortable after support was withdrawn. Ketamine was initiated. Relief from ketamine was brief, and its use was associated with a “wide-eyed” look that was distressing to the family. Ketamine was discontinued and a dexmedetomidine infusion was initiated. The patient’s level of comfort improved greatly. The child died peacefully 24 hours after initiating dexmedetomidine from her underlying disease rather than the effects of the sedative. PMID:26339188

  20. Congestive cardiac failure following laxative withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, J. A.; Brown, A. R.; Walker, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with weakness and hypokalaemia due to excessive use of laxatives. When the laxatives were withdrawn, she developed severe congestive cardiac failure requiring treatment with a diuretic and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. There was no underlying cardiac abnormality, and these drugs were eventually stopped with no recurrence of the cardiac failure. The possible mechanisms of heart failure following laxative withdrawal is discussed. PMID:8796216

  1. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

  2. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

  3. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

  4. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

  5. 18 CFR 430.17 - Registration of existing withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA...withdrawals. (a) Existing users of ground water within the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area whose...

  6. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  13. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen After the "high" of ... English Español "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  14. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  15. Signs and Symptoms of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occurs . Early Signs and Symptoms (3 to 30 days after tick bite) Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle ... examples of EM rashes Later Signs and Symptoms (days to months after tick bite) Severe headaches and ...

  16. Few Americans Know Warning Signs of Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155373.html Few Americans Know Warning Signs of Stroke New song can help people recall symptoms and ... people can't list any warning signs of stroke, research from the American Stroke Association shows. However, ...

  17. The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical children's fa- bles and poetry each signed by a single signer. How- ever, they have a large vocabulary

  18. Non-arbitrariness in novel sign systems 

    E-print Network

    Theisen, Carrie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates non-arbitrariness in novel sets of signs (mappings between signals and meanings). Two common ways of characterizing signs – by the degree of motivatedness they exhibit and by the degree of ...

  19. Grandfather Moose: Sign Language Nursery Rhymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Harley

    1987-01-01

    "Grandfather Moose" rhymes, written to follow the Mother Goose tradition, are short, appealing, easy-to-memorize sign language nursery rhymes which employ visual poetic devices such as similar signs and transitional flow of movement. (CB)

  20. Drug-induced regulation of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca sup 2+ channel antagonist binding sites in the brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, V.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of drugs to regulate the voltage-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} channels were assessed by determining the bind of ({sup 3}H)dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists in the heart and brain following administration of these drugs to rats and mice. Mice and rats implanted with morphine pellets for 3 days showed an increase in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, compared to non-treated or placebo treated controls. No increase in dihydropyridine binding sites was observed in the heart. The significance of the increase in binding to physical dependence on morphine is implied from the findings that pretreatment with Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonist drugs led to an attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in both dependent rats and mice. Administration of other drugs, known to depress the CNS, was undertaken to determine whether the changes observed with morphine was a nonspecific response of the brain to depressant drugs. Prolonged administration of reserpine to rats resulted in no changes in dihydropyridine binding sites in the brain, even though the {beta}-adrenergic receptors in this tissue are upregulated. However, reserpine decreased the density of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in the heart of this is accompanied by concomitant increases in {beta}-adrenergic receptors.

  1. Extrapolated withdrawal-interval estimator (EWE) algorithm: a quantitative approach to establishing extralabel withdrawal times.

    PubMed

    Martín-Jiménez, Tomás; Baynes, Ronald E; Craigmill, Arthur; Riviere, Jim E

    2002-08-01

    The extralabel use of drugs can be defined as the use of drugs in a manner inconsistent with their FDA-approved labeling. The passage of the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA) in 1994 and its implementation by the FDA-Center for Veterinary Medicine in 1996 has allowed food animal veterinarians to use drugs legally in an extralabel manner, as long as an appropriate withdrawal period is established. The present study introduces and validates with simulated and experimental data the Extrapolated Withdrawal-Period Estimator (EWE) Algorithm, a procedure aimed at predicting extralabel withdrawal intervals (WDIs) based on the label and pharmacokinetic literature data contained in the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD). This is the initial and first attempt at consistently obtaining WDI estimates that encompass a reasonable degree of statistical soundness. Data on the determination of withdrawal times after the extralabel use of the antibiotic oxytetracycline were obtained both with simulated disposition data and from the literature. A withdrawal interval was computed using the EWE Algorithm for an extralabel dose of 25 mg/kg (simulation study) and for a dose of 40 mg/kg (literature data). These estimates were compared with the withdrawal times computed with the simulated data and with the literature data, respectively. The EWE estimates of WDP for a simulated extralabel dose of 25 mg/kg was 39 days. The withdrawal time (WDT) obtained for this dose on a tissue depletion study was 39 days. The EWE estimate of WDP for an extralabel intramuscular dose of 40 mg/kg in cattle, based on the kinetic data contained in the FARAD database, was 48 days. The withdrawal time experimentally obtained for similar use of this drug was 49 days. The EWE Algorithm can obtain WDI estimates that encompass the same degree of statistical soundness as the WDT estimates, provided that the assumptions of the approved dosage regimen hold for the extralabel dosage regimen. Population models could be fitted to fragmentary data to predict residue concentrations in tissues, validate the EWE estimates, and obtain WDI estimates. PMID:12383725

  2. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  3. A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

  4. 27 CFR 6.102 - Outside signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outside signs. 6.102... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.102 Outside signs. The act by an industry member of giving or selling outside signs to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce within...

  5. 27 CFR 6.102 - Outside signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outside signs. 6.102... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.102 Outside signs. The act by an industry member of giving or selling outside signs to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce within...

  6. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  7. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  8. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  9. The Etymology of an Esoteric Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joseph D.; Moores, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development of a sign that was understood only by certain members of a group. The stages of evolution are studied from its original gross pattern to a refined, simpler sign. The sign had only two years to develop and was influenced by phonological and social-environmental constraints. (PJM)

  10. Reassessment of Lhermitte's sign in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Özakba?, Serkan; Bülbül, Nazl? Gamze; Kösehasano?ullar?, Görkem; Seçil, Yaprak; Bulut, Onur; ?ncesu, Tülay Kurt; Tokuço?lu, Figen; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-12-01

    The reliability and diagnostic value of Lhermitte's sign in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, neurophysiological and neuroradiological correlations of Lhermitte's sign in a cohort of MS patients and reassess the relevance of this phenomenon in the clinical history of the disease. A prospective study of 694 patients with MS and 110 age-matched healthy adults was evaluated by a structured questionnaire that included basic demographic data, age of onset, clinical characteristics of the disease, and the inquiry of Lhermitte's sign. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) and median and tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were performed at the same time. One hundred and twelve (16 %) patients were reported to have Lhermitte's sign; 582 (84 %) patients did not experience Lhermitte's sign during their disease duration (P < 0.026). No correlation was found between Lhermitte's sign and age, gender, EDSS, and disease duration; 88 % of patients with Lhermitte's sign had a demyelinating lesion on the cervical MRI. In negative Lhermitte's sign group, 64 % patients had a positive MRI. SSEP conductions were delayed in 92 % of patients with positive Lhermitte's sign and in 70 % of patients with negative Lhermitte's sign. Regarding the data, a significant correlation was found between MRI lesion and Lhermitte's sign (P < 0.001), and between SSEP abnormality and Lhermitte's sign as well (P < 0.001). This study underlines the relevance of this phenomenon with neuroradiological and neurophysiological abnormalities. PMID:25841671

  11. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  12. Geometry Dependence of the Sign Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglovikov, Vladimir; Khatami, Ehsan; Fye, Richard; Scalettar, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The sign problem is a fundamental limitation to Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the statistical mechanics of interacting fermions and frustrated quantum spins. We produced a comprehensive dataset on the geometry dependence of the sign problem for different densities, interaction strengths, inverse temperatures and spatial lattice sizes. We supplement this data with several observations concerning general patterns/trends in the data, including the dependence on spatial volume and how this can be probed by examining decoupled clusters, the scaling of the sign in the vicinity of a particle-hole symmetric point, and the correlation between the total sign and the signs of the individual spin up and spin down components.

  13. 16.24 Signs and Exhibits Page 1 of 5 Signs and Exhibits

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    16.24 Signs and Exhibits Page 1 of 5 Signs and Exhibits Original Implementation: July, 1980 Last that govern the use of signs and exhibits to attract the attention of others. Students, faculty, and staff are free to express their views, individually or in organized groups by sign or exhibit, on any topic

  14. 75 FR 74743 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension, Corrections to Existing Withdrawal, and Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... application to extend the withdrawal established by PLO No. 6849 (56 FR 16278), for an additional 20-year term... subsequently corrected by Federal Register notice 56 FR 24119, and PLO Nos. 6849 and 6907. The corrections to... populations of native plants and wildlife including large wintering herds of pronghorn antelope, bighorn...

  15. 75 FR 74743 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension, Corrections to Existing Withdrawal, and Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... application to extend the withdrawal established by PLO No. 6849 (56 FR 16278), for an additional 20-year term... subsequently corrected by Federal Register notice 56 FR 24119, and PLO Nos. 6849 and 6907. The corrections to..., pygmy rabbits, and greater sage-grouse. The use of a right-of-way, interagency agreement, or...

  16. 5 CFR 1650.2 - Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLAN General § 1650.2 Eligibility for a TSP...withdraw a portion of his or her account balance in a...eligible to withdraw his or her TSP account in accordance...subpart B of this part. (2) A participant who is...remaining portion of his or her account balance in...

  17. Who Withdraws from Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Andrew J.; Giannakaki, Marina-Stefania; Chambers, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In recent years, withdrawal from initial teacher preparation (ITP) programmes, in England and elsewhere, has become a cause for concern amongst both ITP providers and policy-makers. Purpose: This paper seeks to enhance the presently underdeveloped evidence base on the causes of withdrawal from ITP and on the characteristics of student…

  18. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The right of a... client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal. The practitioner shall not abandon the unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or the client's persistence over...

  19. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The right of a... client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal. The practitioner shall not abandon the unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or the client's persistence over...

  20. 49 CFR 1103.18 - Withdrawal from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.18 Withdrawal from employment. The right of a... client is not always sufficient cause for withdrawal. The practitioner shall not abandon the unfinished task to the detriment of the client except for reasons of honor, or the client's persistence over...

  1. [Detoxification in withdrawal state in methadone maintenance patients].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, IuP; Savchenkov, V A; Aksel'rod, B A; Kubarev, D A; Chichenkov, T O

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study of withdrawal states of 7 methadone maintenance patients and 21 heroin addicts was carried out. The protracted and low predictable course of methadone withdrawal states, along with relatively high resistance to clonidine and other medications, was demonstrated. Similarity of mental disorders, including addictive personality disorders, was found in both groups of patients. PMID:14681963

  2. 17 CFR 3.51 - Withdrawal of application for registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of application for registration. 3.51 Section 3.51 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Denial, Suspension or Revocation of Registration § 3.51 Withdrawal of application for...

  3. 49 CFR 386.51 - Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings. 386.51 Section 386.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules and Hearings § 386.51 Amendment and withdrawal of...

  4. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  5. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  6. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  7. 47 CFR 51.615 - Withdrawal of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of services. 51.615 Section 51.615 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.615 Withdrawal of services. When an incumbent LEC makes a telecommunications...

  8. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for tax purposes required by § 275.81 of the regulations of the Internal Revenue Service (26 CFR § 275... textile category. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 144.38, see the List of CFR... TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse §...

  9. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  10. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  11. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...participant may request that the TSP transfer all or a portion of the withdrawal to a traditional IRA, an eligible employer plan, or a Roth IRA in accordance with § 1650.25. (c) A participant is permitted only one age-based withdrawal for an account....

  13. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...participant may request that the TSP transfer all or a portion of the withdrawal to a traditional IRA, an eligible employer plan, or a Roth IRA in accordance with § 1650.25. (c) A participant is permitted only one age-based withdrawal for an account....

  14. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  15. 75 FR 12804 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6, ``Standard...withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG) 8.6, ``Standard...radiation protection programs needed the guidance included...current. Regulatory guides may be withdrawn when...Guides'' in the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at...

  16. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

  17. Frequency of Occurrence and Information Entropy of American Sign Language

    E-print Network

    Sankar, Lalitha

    1 Frequency of Occurrence and Information Entropy of American Sign Language Andrew Chong, Lalitha of Occurrence and Information Entropy of American Sign Language Introduction American Sign Language (ASL

  18. Tolerance and sensitization to chronic escalating-dose heroin following extended withdrawal in Fischer rats: possible role of mu-opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Seip-Cammack, Katharine M.; Reed, Brian; Zhang, Yong; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Rationale/objectives Heroin addiction is characterized by recurrent cycles of drug use, abstinence and relapse. It is likely that neurobiological changes during chronic heroin exposure persist across withdrawal and impact behavioral responses to re-exposure. We hypothesized that, after extended withdrawal, heroin-withdrawn rats would express behavioral tolerance and/or sensitization in response to heroin re-exposure and that these responses might be associated with altered mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) activity. Methods Male Fischer rats were exposed chronically to escalating doses of heroin (7.5–75mg/kg/day), experienced acute spontaneous withdrawal and extended (10-day) abstinence, and were re-exposed chronically to heroin. Homecage behaviors and locomotor activity in response to heroin, as well as somatic withdrawal signs, were recorded. Separate groups of rats were sacrificed after extended abstinence and MOPr expression and G-protein coupling were analyzed using [3H]DAMGO and [35S]GTP?S assays. Results The depth of behavioral stupor was lower during the initial days of heroin re-exposure compared to the initial days of the first exposure period. Behavioral responses (e.g., stereotypy) and locomotion were elevated in response to heroin re-exposure at low doses. Rats conditioned for heroin place preference during the chronic re-exposure period expressed heroin preference during acute withdrawal; this preference was stronger than rats conditioned during chronic heroin exposure that followed chronic saline and injection-free periods. Extended withdrawal was associated with increased MOPr expression in the caudate-putamen and frontal and cingulate cortices. No changes in G-protein coupling were identified. Conclusions Aspects of tolerance/sensitization to heroin are present even after extended abstinence and may be associated with altered MOPr density. PMID:22829433

  19. Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 ?mol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 ?mol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

  20. Blockade of cholinergic transmission elicits somatic signs in nicotine-naïve adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Clare E.; Manbeck, Katherine E.; Shelley, David; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    High doses of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine can elicit somatic signs resembling those associated with nicotine withdrawal in nicotine-naïve adult rats. Understanding this phenomenon, and its possible modulation by acute nicotine and age, could inform the use of mecamylamine as both an experimental tool and potential pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence and other disorders. This study evaluated the ability of high-dose mecamylamine to elicit somatic signs in adolescent rats, and the potential for acute nicotine pretreatment to potentiate this effect as previously reported in adults. Single or repeated injections of mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited somatic signs in nicotine-naïve adolescents, but this effect was not influenced by 2 h pretreatment with acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). In an initial evaluation of the effects of age in this model, mecamylamine (2.25 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited somatic signs in nicotine-naïve adolescents and adults. This effect was modestly enhanced following acute nicotine injections in adults but not in adolescents, even when a higher nicotine dose (1.0 rather than 0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) was used in adolescents to account for age differences in nicotine pharmacokinetics. These studies are the first to show that mecamylamine elicits somatic signs in nicotine-naïve adolescent rats, an effect that should be considered when designing and interpreting studies examining effects of high doses of mecamylamine in adolescents. Our findings also provide preliminary evidence that these signs may be differentially modulated by acute nicotine pretreatment in adolescents versus adults. PMID:26539119

  1. Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

  2. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home.

    PubMed

    Papp, Lauren M; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark

    2009-06-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw. PMID:22102789

  3. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw. PMID:22102789

  4. Dextromethorphan psychosis, dependence and physical withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shannon C

    2005-12-01

    As part of a synthesis of evidence regarding the abuse and addiction liability of dextromethorphan (DM), an over-the-counter cough medicine available in over 140 preparations, an uncommonly published case of dextromethorphan dependence (addiction) is described, with specific, rarely published complications. The individual was interviewed and several medical databases were also reviewed (Medline, 1966-present; PubMed) for all content relating to the Keywords: dextromethorphan, abuse, dependence, cough medicine, addiction, withdrawal, psychosis. The patient evidenced history suggesting substance dependence, substance-induced psychosis and substance withdrawal in relation to DM. A literature review revealed that DM has specific serotonergic and sigma-1 opioidergic properties. Dextrorphan (DOR), the active metabolite of DM, has similar properties; however, DOR is a weaker sigma opioid receptor agonist, and a stronger NMDA receptor antagonist. DM and DOR display specific biological features of addiction, and are capable of inducing specific psychiatric sequelae. A specific, reproducible toxidrome with significant psychiatric effects occurred, when DM was abused at greater than indicated doses, with more profound and potentially life-threatening effects at even higher doses. DM withdrawal appears evident. DM's active metabolite, DOR, has pharmacodynamic properties and intoxication effects similar to dissociatives, and may be more responsible for the dissociative effect that this DM abuser sought. However, it is this same metabolite that may be fraught with the potentially life-threatening psychoses and dissociative-induced accidents, as well as addiction. While DM has been hypothesized as the most commonly abused dissociative, health-care providers seem largely unaware of its toxidrome and addiction liability. PMID:16318953

  5. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit. PMID:26493523

  6. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  7. Adrenergic hypersensitivity after beta-blocker withdrawal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, D M; Chan, W L; Stewart, R; Oakley, C M

    1991-09-15

    Withdrawal of beta-blocker therapy has been associated with the development of adrenergic hypersensitivity and adverse clinical effects in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension. The aim of this study was to establish the occurrence and clinical significance of adrenergic hypersensitivity after abrupt withdrawal of long-term beta blockade in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Beta-adrenergic sensitivity was measured using the isoprenaline chronotropic dose25. Symptom assessment chronotropic dose25 calculation, bicycle exercise, echocardiography and Holter monitoring were performed while the patient received beta-blocker therapy and repeated on days 2, 4, 6, 8 (acute withdrawal period) and on day 21 after abrupt withdrawal. The study was terminated after 7 patients had been studied because all patients experienced a marked deterioration in symptoms and several clinical events had occurred. The chronotropic dose25 (mean +/- standard deviation) demonstrated beta 1-adrenergic hypersensitivity with a minimal value of 1.6 +/- 0.8 micrograms during the acute withdrawal period compared with 3.8 +/- 1.7 micrograms on day 21 (p = 0.003). Heart rates during rest and exercise showed an overshoot increase during the acute withdrawal period. The maximal 24-hour ventricular ectopic count was higher during the acute withdrawal period than during day 21 (p = 0.04). Of 3 patients with inducible outflow tract gradients, 2 developed resting gradients greater than 30 mm Hg during the acute withdrawal period. There was an increase in peak late filling velocity of mitral inflow after beta-blocker withdrawal. In conclusion, transient beta-adrenergic hypersensitivity occurs after beta-blocker withdrawal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is associated with significant physiologic changes and adverse clinical consequences. PMID:1892084

  8. Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal: Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Andrew M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on withdrawal symptoms by giving 109 smokers nicotine gum or placebo. Subjects who believed they had nicotine gum reported fewer physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal, and smoked fewer cigarettes than did those who thought they had placebo. Actual nicotine content of gum had no…

  9. 77 FR 11554 - Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab) Following...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN... withdrawing approval of the breast cancer indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab). The Commissioner of Food and... withdraw the approval. DATES: Withdrawal of AVASTIN's breast cancer indication was effective November...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17Ac3-1 - Withdrawal from registration with the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal from registration....17Ac3-1 Withdrawal from registration with the Commission. (a) Notice of withdrawal from registration as... notice to withdraw from registration filed by a transfer agent pursuant to section 17A(c)(4) of the...

  11. 17 CFR 240.17Ac3-1 - Withdrawal from registration with the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from registration....17Ac3-1 Withdrawal from registration with the Commission. (a) Notice of withdrawal from registration as... notice to withdraw from registration filed by a transfer agent pursuant to section 17A(c)(4) of the...

  12. 17 CFR 240.17Ac3-1 - Withdrawal from registration with the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal from registration....17Ac3-1 Withdrawal from registration with the Commission. (a) Notice of withdrawal from registration as... notice to withdraw from registration filed by a transfer agent pursuant to section 17A(c)(4) of the...

  13. -1 -Revised 12/15/04 Petition to WITHDRAW FROM A CLASS after the posted deadline

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    - 1 - Revised 12/15/04 Petition to WITHDRAW FROM A CLASS after the posted deadline Policy, and administrators online and on the Petition to Withdraw from a Course form. C. From the drop deadline through and compelling" reasons should file a Petition to Withdraw, accompanied by documentation, rather than withdrawing

  14. 27 CFR 19.537 - Withdrawal of spirits free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. 19.537 Section 19.537 Alcohol...Transfer and Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax § 19.537 Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. Spirits withdrawn free...

  15. Subjective Frequency Ratings for 432 ASL Signs

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Hall, Matthew L.; Zvaigzne, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of lexical frequency for psycholinguistic research, and the lack of comprehensive frequency data for sign languages, we collected subjective estimates of lexical frequency for 432 signs in American Sign Language. Participants were 59 deaf signers who first began to acquire ASL at ages ranging from birth to 14 years with a minimum of 10 years experience. Subjective frequency estimates were made on a scale ranging from 1 = rarely see the sign to 7 = always see the sign. Mean subjective frequency ratings for individual signs did not vary in relation to age of sign language exposure (AoLE), chronological age, or length of ASL experience. Nor did AoLE show significant effects on response time for making the ratings. However, RT was highly correlated with mean frequency rating. These results suggest that the distributions of subjective lexical frequencies are consistent across signers with varying AoLE. The implications for research practice are that subjective frequency ratings from random samples of highly experienced deaf signers can provide a reasonable measures of lexical control in sign language experiments. The appendix gives the mean and median subjective frequency rating, and the median and mean log(RT) for the ASL signs for the entire sample; the supplemental material gives these measures for three AoLE groups, Native, Early, and Late. PMID:23943581

  16. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  17. Ethical Analysis of Withdrawing Ventricular Assist Device Support

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.; Swetz, Keith M.; Freeman, Monica R.; Carter, Kari A.; Crowley, Mary Eliot; Severson, Cathy J. Anderson; Park, Soon J.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with heart failure supported with a ventricular assist device (VAD) who requested (or whose surrogates requested) withdrawal of VAD support and the legal and ethical aspects pertaining to these requests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from March 1, 2003, through January 31, 2009, who requested (or whose surrogates requested) withdrawal of VAD support and for whom the requests were fulfilled. We then explored the legal and ethical permissibility of carrying out such requests. RESULTS: The median age of the 14 patients identified (13 men, 1 woman) was 57 years. Requests were made by 2 patients and 12 surrogates. None of the patients' available advance directives mentioned the VAD. For 11 patients, multidisciplinary care conferences were held before withdrawal of VAD support. Only 1 patient had an ethics consultation. All 14 patients died within 1 day of withdrawal of VAD support. CONCLUSION: Patients have the right to refuse or request the withdrawal of any unwanted treatment, and we argue that this right extends to VAD support. We also argue that the cause of death in these cases is the underlying heart disease, not assisted suicide or euthanasia. Therefore, patients with heart failure supported with VADs or their surrogates may request withdrawal of this treatment. In our view, carrying out such requests is permissible in accordance with the principles that apply to withdrawing other life-sustaining treatments. PMID:20584919

  18. [Skin signs of systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, St

    2009-02-01

    Many aspects of cutaneous signs are of importance to nondermatologists, as skin manifestations can reflect internal disease states, either directly or as a result of a complication or treatment and therefore can lead to the diagnosis of systemic illness. Serious morbidity and mortality can be avoided by early recognition of only minor cutaneous manifestations signaling internal problems. Limited forms of collagen vascular disease exemplify the important marker function of the skin for diagnosis as well as for prognosis with their typically favorable course permitting a less aggressive treatment. The utmost important prerequisite of diagnosing skin conditions is an accurate and thorough examination of the skin, the adjacent mucous membranes and the integumentary appendages. In a first step, the primary site of the cutaneous condition should be identified (e.g. epidermal, dermal or subdermal) and then the form, the pattern, and distribution should be recognized. There are many comprehensive and excellent textbooks available for guidance. This article focuses on the more common dermatologic conditions linked to different organ systems involved (excluding infectious diseases, metabolic diseases and drug induced conditions). PMID:19096815

  19. Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms Mediate Motivation to Reinstate Smoking During Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (10?cig/day; N=286) attended two counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1-hour vs. 17-hours). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically-unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814

  20. 10 CFR 20.1901 - Caution signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Caution signs. 20.1901 Section 20.1901 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Precautionary Procedures § 20.1901 Caution signs. (a) Standard radiation symbol. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commission, the symbol prescribed by this part shall use the...

  1. Infants Learn Baby Signs from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayanim, Shoshana; Namy, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence that infants learn from infant-oriented educational videos and television programming. This 4-week longitudinal experiment investigated 15-month-olds' (N = 92) ability to learn American Sign Language signs (e.g., patting head for hat) from at-home viewing of instructional video, either with or without parent support,…

  2. Prodromal Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenic Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    Increasing evidence that decompensation into acute psychosis by schizophrenics can often be avoided with active pharmacological and psychosocial intervention at the early signs of relapse has stimulated research into the signs and symptoms prodromal to acute psychosis. In this study, 6-week periods prior to 17 psychotic relapses and to 11 relapses…

  3. World-line approach to Sign Problems

    E-print Network

    Aarts, Gert

    World-line approach to Sign Problems Shailesh Chandrasekharan Duke University #12;Outline XY model + chemical potential world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! Two component bosons + Abelian world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! more flavors + solving sign problems

  4. Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

  5. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George

    2011-01-01

    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  6. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  7. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  8. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  9. Prevention Signs---ew esigns Co pared

    E-print Network

    of fire prevention signing has become dis tin c t. Long, complex, 0 r emotional mes- sages seem best sui by uniform size, shape, and color. Their messages frequently include long involved phrases Voltage" or "Truck Crossing" are a 1 s 0 the same size, shape, and color. Would new signs impress passing

  10. Enhancing Data Trustworthiness via Assured Digital Signing

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shouhuai

    Enhancing Data Trustworthiness via Assured Digital Signing Weiqi Dai, T. Paul Parker, Hai Jin solution, dubbed Assured Digital Signing (ADS), to enhancing the data trustworthiness vouched by digital of an Xen-based ADS system. Index Terms--Data trustworthiness, digital signatures, cryptographic assurance

  11. Sign Language and the Brain: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd

    2008-01-01

    How are signed languages processed by the brain? This review briefly outlines some basic principles of brain structure and function and the methodological principles and techniques that have been used to investigate this question. We then summarize a number of different studies exploring brain activity associated with sign language processing…

  12. 23 CFR 750.707 - Nonconforming signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...lawfully in existence in a commercial or industrial...allows an individual sign at its particular location for the duration of its...Preexisting signs covered by a grandfather clause, which...actually in existence at the time the applicable State...

  13. 23 CFR 750.707 - Nonconforming signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...lawfully in existence in a commercial or industrial...allows an individual sign at its particular location for the duration of its...Preexisting signs covered by a grandfather clause, which...actually in existence at the time the applicable State...

  14. THE PARADOX OF SIGN LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiotemporal cognition, while the sequential patterns can be traced to normal historical development. We attribute the paucity of sequential morphology in sign languages to their youth. This research both brings sign languages much closer to spoken languages in their morphological structure and shows how the medium of communication contributes to the structure of languages.* PMID:22223926

  15. Adapting the "Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test" into American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Charlotte J.; Herman, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed

  16. Sociolinguistic Variation and Change in British Sign Language Number Signs: Evidence of Leveling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first major study to investigate lexical variation and change in British Sign Language (BSL) number signs. As part of the BSL Corpus Project, number sign variants were elicited from 249 deaf signers from eight sites throughout the UK. Age, school location, and language background were found to be significant…

  17. Sign Vocabulary in Deaf Toddlers Exposed to Sign Language since Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Di Renzo, Alessio; Gulli, Tiziana; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Lexical comprehension and production is directly evaluated for the first time in deaf signing children below the age of 3 years. A Picture Naming Task was administered to 8 deaf signing toddlers (aged 2-3 years) who were exposed to Sign Language since birth. Results were compared with data of hearing speaking controls. In both deaf and hearing…

  18. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  19. Workplace Concepts in Sign and Text. A Computerized Sign Language Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

    This document is a dictionary of essential vocabulary, signs, and illustrations of workplace activities to be used to train deaf or hearing-impaired adults. It contains more than 500 entries with workplace-relevant vocabulary, each including an illustration of the signed word or phrase in American Sign Language, a description of how to make the…

  20. The Sign "Institute" and Its Derivatives: A Family of Culturally Important ASL Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalsky, Jilly; Meier, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The sign "institute" is the source of a family of ASL signs that are used to refer to residential schools for deaf children and to other institutions. The members of the "institute" sign family--although initialized--are well-established within the Deaf community and, importantly, are used to refer to highly-valued aspects of Deaf culture. This is…

  1. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...WITHDRAWAL OF CERTIFICATES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENT-LEARNERS, APPRENTICES, LEARNERS, MESSENGERS, HANDICAPPED PERSONS, STUDENT-WORKERS, AND FULL-TIME STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE OR IN RETAIL OR SERVICE...

  2. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug...prejudice to a future filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to...

  3. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  4. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  5. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document...different models. This science policy document was...S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Pesticide...public comment. This science policy document was...S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) PDP...

  6. 30 CFR 35.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to rescind for cause,...

  7. 33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

  8. 33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

  9. 33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

  10. 33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

  11. 33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

  12. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  13. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  14. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  15. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  16. 30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to...

  17. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  18. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  19. 31 CFR 592.604 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 592.604 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  20. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  1. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  2. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  3. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

  4. 31 CFR 545.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 545.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation....

  5. Feed Withdrawal and Transport Interactions with Intestinal and Peripheral Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple stressors associated with transporting finishing pigs to slaughter can result in increased shedding of pathogens. Previously we found feed withdrawal by itself or followed by transportation increased Salmonella concentrations in ileal contents. However, no difference was found among treatm...

  6. 77 FR 67269 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...RIN 2120-AK16 Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations; Withdrawal AGENCY...launch operators that conduct certain amateur rocket launches to voluntarily apply for...Others expressed doubts about whether amateur rockets could ever meet chapter III...

  7. 18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...development and management of the Susquehanna...regional uses are protected. (3) Impose...delineate the area of shortage and...declare such areas protected from further depletion...withdraw from any protected area water for...

  8. 76 FR 69146 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of...proposed rule of October 27, 2011, entitled ``Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program,'' because it was...

  9. Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing (Updated May 7, 2014)

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing (Updated May 7, 2014) Hydraulic require millions of gallons of water. In Pennsylvania, for example, hydraulic gallons of water over a 2 to 5 day period (SRBC). Natural gas industry

  10. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

  11. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  12. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  13. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  14. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  15. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

  16. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  17. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

  1. Venlafaxine and Serious Withdrawal Symptoms: Warning to Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    Venlafaxine is a widely used serotonin- and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor-type antidepressant that causes serious adverse effects in at least 5% of cases. Serious withdrawal symptoms may occur within hours of cessation or reduction of the usual dosage and may affect motor and coordination skills to such a degree that patients should be explicitly urged either to adhere to a strict medication routine or not to drive a car. Recent clinical evidence about withdrawal symptoms is presented that may indicate incidents in noradrenergic activity irrespective of dosage. Objective To present clinical information and a brief review of severe venlafaxine withdrawal symptoms that may occur within hours after cessation and affect the ability to drive a motor vehicle or use heavy or dangerous machinery. Method Review of own and third-party clinical records. Search in PubMed and other databases with terms: venlafaxine, discontinuation, withdrawal, syndrome, serotonin, noradrenaline, noradrenergic, serotonergic, seizures, epilepsy. PMID:16369248

  2. 31 CFR 586.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 586.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If,...

  3. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for...to the rinsed packages, and the gross weight shall be determined after the...incorrect. From the proofs and the net weights of the packages, the wine...

  4. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for...to the rinsed packages, and the gross weight shall be determined after the...incorrect. From the proofs and the net weights of the packages, the wine...

  5. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for...to the rinsed packages, and the gross weight shall be determined after the...incorrect. From the proofs and the net weights of the packages, the wine...

  6. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for...to the rinsed packages, and the gross weight shall be determined after the...incorrect. From the proofs and the net weights of the packages, the wine...

  7. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for...to the rinsed packages, and the gross weight shall be determined after the...incorrect. From the proofs and the net weights of the packages, the wine...

  8. Baclofen and pregnancy: birth defects and withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    A comparison of 134 pregnant women who had taken baclofen in early pregnancy and 400 pregnant controls showed an increased risk of major malformations. Several infants exposed to baclofen until birth exhibited withdrawal symptoms. PMID:26417633

  9. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation...

  10. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation...

  11. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation....

  12. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation...

  13. 31 CFR 593.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 593.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation...

  14. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    In theoretical work we distinguish living beings from inanimate objects on the basis of some paramount attributes, such as agency and autonomy. These abstract features are not directly accessible to our scrutiny, but we surmise their nature through observation of the purpose-oriented behavior of organisms. I intend to show that organismal purposefulness springs from the intrinsic, constitutive kind of finality that is the hallmark of all semiotic transactions. To this aim I develop a dispositionalist account of organismal causation based on a distinction between two kinds of causal dispositions: fixed (efficient) dispositions and traveling dispositions. Fixed dispositions are rigidly attached to physical structures and processes; these are the dispositions regularly invoked in current discussions of causal explanation. Traveling dispositions are able to move freely from one location to another by becoming embodied into suitable supporting media. I introduce these notions to articulate a view of semiosis I deem best suited to the life sciences, and contend that sign tokens are vehicles of traveling dispositions. This account places the origin of purposive behavior at the interaction of physical and semiotic causation. To properly motivate the discussion I briefly review some recent developments in the philosophy of science concerning various forms of causation invoked by scientists across disciplines to frame explanations and make predictions. The ensuing discussion gives particular prominence to mechanistic (as distinct from mechanicist) explanatory accounts of biological phenomena. This review is followed by a brief characterization of a "nomological machine," a comprehensive schema introduced and developed by Nancy Cartwright with the goal of explaining causal mechanisms in a general setting. By capitalizing on this model's heuristic virtues I seek to formulate a compelling view of the interactions between physical and semiotic causation at play in semiotic scaffolding. These interactions transpire between energetic causal chains and a wide range of converging semiotic transactions unfolding within each individual organism and between organisms and their environment. The perspective advanced here helps elucidate the manner in which physical and semiotic causation cooperate in an orchestrated fashion, giving rise to an ever-expanding profusion of scaffolding structures and processes. Using simple examples I outline some mechanisms that bring about this orchestration as well as the resultant channeling activities that eventually merge and find their culmination in the enactment of goal-oriented behavior. PMID:26276462

  15. Cannabis Withdrawal in Patients With and Without Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Chauchard, Emeline; Goncharov, Oleg; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Gorelick, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is common among opioid-dependent individuals, but little is known about cannabis withdrawal in this population. Method Thirty inpatients (57% men) completed the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ) after completing acute heroin detoxification treatment in St. Petersburg, Russia. The MJQQ collected data on motivations for quitting, withdrawal symptoms, and coping strategies used to help maintain abstinence during their most “userious” (self-defined) quit attempt made without formal treatment outside a controlled environment. Results At the start of their quit attempt, 70% of participants smoked cannabis at least weekly (40% daily), averaging [SD] 2.73 [1.95] joints daily; 60% were heroin-dependent. Subjects with heroin dependence were significantly older at the start of their quit attempt (22.9 [3.6] years vs. 19.1 [2.9] years), were significantly less likely to report withdrawal irritability/anger/aggression (22% vs. 58%), restlessness (0% vs. 25%), or physical symptoms (6% vs. 33%), or to meet diagnostic criteria for DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal syndrome (6% vs. 33%), and had shorter duration of abstinence (29.6 [28.7] months vs. 73.7 [44.1] months) than those without heroin dependence. Conclusion Cannabis users with opioid dependence are less likely to experience cannabis withdrawal, suggesting that opiate use may prevent or mask the experience of cannabis withdrawal. Results should be considered preliminary due to small convenience sample and retrospective data. PMID:24745656

  16. Sign-out snapshot: cross-sectional evaluation of written sign-outs among specialties

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Amy R.; Al-Damluji, Mohammed Salim; Horwitz, Leora I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sign-out is the process (written, verbal, or both) by which one clinical team transmits information about patients to another team. Poor quality sign-outs are associated with adverse events and delayed treatment. How different specialties approach written sign-outs is unknown. Objective To compare written sign-out practices across specialties and to determine consistency of content, format, and timeliness. Methods The authors evaluated all non-Intensive Care Unit written sign-outs from five inpatient specialties on January 18, 2012, at Yale-New Haven Hospital, focusing on content elements, format style, and whether the sign-outs had been updated within 24 hours. In our institution, all specialties used a single standardized sign-out template, which was built into the electronic medical record. Results The final cohort included 457 sign-outs: 313 medicine, 64 general surgery, 36 pediatrics, 30 obstetrics, and 14 gynecology. Though nearly all sign-outs (96%) had been updated within 24 hours, they frequently lacked key information. Hospital course prevalence ranged from 57% (gynecology) to 100% (pediatrics) (p<0.001). Clinical condition prevalence ranged from 34% (surgery) to 72% (pediatrics) (p=0.005). Conclusion Specialties have varied sign-out practices, and thus structured templates alone do not guarantee inclusion of critical content. Sign-outs across specialties often lacked complex clinical information such clinical condition, anticipatory guidance, and overnight tasks. PMID:23996093

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Recipe for Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MMWR RSS VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file File Formats Help: How do I view different file ... October 29, 2013 Content source: Error processing SSI file Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ...

  18. 10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical ... brain disease that causes a slow decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. There are 10 warning signs and symptoms. ...

  19. An approach for traffic prohibition sign detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingquan; Xu, Dihong; Li, Bijun; Zeng, Zhe

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents an off-line traffic prohibition sign detection approach, whose core is based on combination with the color feature of traffic prohibition signs, shape feature and degree of circularity. Matlab-Image-processing toolbox is used for this purpose. In order to reduce the computational cost, a pre-processing of the image is applied before the core. Then, we employ the obvious redness attribute of prohibition signs to coarsely eliminate the non-redness image in the input data. Again, a edge-detection operator, Canny edge detector, is applied to extract the potential edge. Finally, Degree of circularity is used to verdict the traffic prohibition sign. Experimental results show that our systems offer satisfactory performance.

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Other Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Get Email Updates ... en Español [PDF - 2.7 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing ...

  1. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b)...

  2. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b)...

  3. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b)...

  4. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of your family's history. Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder differs significantly from clinical depression, although ... or restlessness. Symptoms of mania - the "highs" of bipolar disorder Increased physical and mental activity and energy Heightened ...

  5. Battle's sign - behind the ear (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Skull fractures are common in children and result from accidents (the majority are automobile or auto/bike ... sign is seen several days following a basilar skull fracture. There may have been bloody drainage from ...

  6. On the temporal dynamics of sign production: An ERP study in Catalan Sign Language (LSC).

    PubMed

    Baus, Cristina; Costa, Albert

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the temporal dynamics of sign production and how particular aspects of the signed modality influence the early stages of lexical access. To that end, we explored the electrophysiological correlates associated to sign frequency and iconicity in a picture signing task in a group of bimodal bilinguals. Moreover, a subset of the same participants was tested in the same task but naming the pictures instead. Our results revealed that both frequency and iconicity influenced lexical access in sign production. At the ERP level, iconicity effects originated very early in the course of signing (while absent in the spoken modality), suggesting a stronger activation of the semantic properties for iconic signs. Moreover, frequency effects were modulated by iconicity, suggesting that lexical access in signed language is determined by the iconic properties of the signs. These results support the idea that lexical access is sensitive to the same phenomena in word and sign production, but its time-course is modulated by particular aspects of the modality in which a lexical item will be finally articulated. PMID:25801115

  7. Being and Sign in the "Enneads"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomulet, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The intention of this work is to show that Plotinus' metaphysics, his theory of Intellect, can be interpreted as a philosophy of the sign. The fact that Plotinus describes Intellect, the world of real beings, as a sign or a trace of the One is well-known, and we use this aspect in our work. However, what is even more important from our perspective…

  8. Characterization of the duplicate L-SIGN and DC-SIGN genes in miiuy croaker and evolutionary analysis of L-SIGN in fishes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chang; Wang, Shanchen; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN/CD209) and liver/lymph node-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (L-SIGN/CD299) which are homologues of DC-SIGN are important members in C-type lectin receptors family as key molecules to recognize and eliminate pathogens in the innate immune system. DC-SIGN and L-SIGN have become hot topics in recent studies which both served as cell adhesion and phagocytic pathogen recognition receptors in mammals. However, there have been almost no studies of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN structure and characters in fish, only DC-SIGN in the zebrafish had been studied. In our study, we identified and characterized the full-length miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) DC-SIGN (mmDC-SIGN) and L-SIGN (mmL-SIGN) genes. The sequence analysis results showed that mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN have the same domains with other vertebrates except primates, and share some conserved motifs in CRD among all the vertebrates which play a crucial role in interacting with Ca(2+) and for recognizing mannose-containing motifs. Gene synteny of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN were analyzed for the first time and gene synteny of L-SIGN was conserved among the five fishes. Interestingly, one gene next to L-SIGN from gene synteny had high similarity with L-SIGN gene that was described as L-SIGN-like in fish species. While only one L-SIGN gene existed in other vertebrates, two L-SIGN in fish may be in consequence of the fish-specific genome duplication to adapt the specific environment. The evolutionary analysis showed that the ancestral lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes experienced purifying selection and the current lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestral lineages and current lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes underwent different evolutionary patterns. Both mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN were expressed in all tested tissues and ubiquitously up-regulated in infected liver, spleen and kidney at different sampling time points, indicating that the mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN participated in the immune response to defense against bacteria infection. PMID:25596146

  9. Conceptual representation of actions in sign language.

    PubMed

    Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Hummert, Marja; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The idea that knowledge of events entails a universal spatial component, that is conceiving agents left of patients, was put to test by investigating native users of German sign language and native users of spoken German. Participants heard or saw event descriptions and had to illustrate the meaning of these events by means of drawing or arranging toys. Two types of verbs were tested, differing in the way they are signed. Verbs with a horizontal transient are typically signed with a left-to-right directionality, from the addressee's point of view. In contrast, verbs with sagittal transients display transitions moving toward or away from speaker. Signers showed a direct mapping preference for verbs with horizontal transients, by putting agents at the same position in space as in the signed message (i.e., mirroring signing space). No such effect was found for verbs with sagittal transients. In all, the data fit with the idea that interpretations of signed or spoken languages are modulated by task and culture as well as language-related factors and constraints. PMID:21339342

  10. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF FOUR SMOKING WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOM SCALES

    PubMed Central

    Javitz, Harold S.; Lerman, Caryn; Swan, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Examine the association of person-specific trajectories of withdrawal symptoms of urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger during the first 7 days after smoking cessation with abstinence at end of treatment (EOT) and 6 months. Design Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to model person-specific trajectory parameters (level, slope, curvature and volatility) for withdrawal symptoms. Setting University-based smoking cessation trials. Participants Treatment seeking smokers in clinical trials of transdermal nicotine versus nicotine spray (n=514) and bupropion versus placebo (n=421) Measurements Self-reported withdrawal symptoms for 7 days after the planned quit date, and 7 day point prevalence and continuous abstinence at EOT and 6 months. Findings In regressions that included trajectory parameters for one group of withdrawal symptoms, both urge-to-smoke and negative affect were predictive of abstinence while physical symptoms and hunger were generally not predictive. In stepwise regressions that included the complete set of trajectory parameters across withdrawal symptoms (for urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger), with a single exception, only the trajectory parameters for urge-to-smoke were predictive. Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was 0.594 for covariates alone, and 0.670 for covariates plus urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters. Conclusion Among a number of different withdrawal symptoms (urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger) urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters (level, slope, and volatility) over the first 7 days of smoking cessation show the strongest prediction of both short and long term relapse. Other withdrawal symptoms increase the predictive ability by negligible amounts. PMID:22321019

  11. The Use of Sign Language Pronouns by Native-Signing Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-07-01

    We report the first study on pronoun use by an under-studied research population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to American Sign Language from birth by their deaf parents. Personal pronouns cause difficulties for hearing children with ASD, who sometimes reverse or avoid them. Unlike speech pronouns, sign pronouns are indexical points to self and other. Despite this transparency, we find evidence from an elicitation task and parental report that signing children with ASD avoid sign pronouns in favor of names. An analysis of spontaneous usage showed that all children demonstrated the ability to point, but only children with better-developed sign language produced pronouns. Differences in language abilities and self-representation may explain these phenomena in sign and speech. PMID:25643865

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure? The most common signs and symptoms of heart ... in your lungs. The condition requires emergency treatment. Heart Failure Signs and Symptoms The image shows the major ...

  13. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease may not cause signs or symptoms until it severely narrows or blocks a carotid artery. Signs and symptoms may include a bruit, a ...

  14. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sarcoidosis? Many people who have sarcoidosis have no signs ... symptom is more common in women than men. Sarcoidosis Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the major ...

  15. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Heart Attack WARNING SIGNS OF HEART ATTACK, STROKE & CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK WARNING SIGNS CHEST DISCOMFORT ... nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack STROKE WARNING SIGNS Spot a stroke F.A.S.T.: - ...

  16. Geomechanics of subsurface water withdrawal and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.

  17. 21 CFR 814.46 - Withdrawal of approval of a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.46 Withdrawal of approval of a PMA. (a) FDA may issue an order withdrawing approval...any information available to the agency, FDA determines that: (1) Any of...

  18. Venture Capitalists' Decision to Withdraw: The Role of Portfolio Configuration From a Real Options Lens

    E-print Network

    Li, Yong; Chi, Tailan

    2012-01-01

    When does a venture capital firm withdraw from an investment project prior to its completion? This study offers a real options view on this decision by examining the contingent effects of portfolio configuration. We explore how project withdrawal...

  19. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  20. 20 CFR 408.360 - Can you cancel your request to withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...application? 408.360 Section 408.360 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.360 Can you cancel your request to withdraw...

  1. 19 CFR 159.52 - Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal...Suspension of Liquidation § 159.52 Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal. Liquidation of a warehouse or rewarehouse entry shall be...

  2. 19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits. 144.15...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS... Requirements and Procedures for Warehouse Entry § 144.15 Entry and...

  3. 19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits. 144.15...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS... Requirements and Procedures for Warehouse Entry § 144.15 Entry and...

  4. 19 CFR 159.52 - Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal...Suspension of Liquidation § 159.52 Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal. Liquidation of a warehouse or rewarehouse entry shall be...

  5. 48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19...ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

  6. 48 CFR 1419.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 1419.506 Section 1419...THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.506 Withdrawing or...

  7. 48 CFR 1419.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 1419.506 Section 1419...THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.506 Withdrawing or...

  8. 48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19...ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

  9. 48 CFR 1419.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 1419.506 Section 1419...THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.506 Withdrawing or...

  10. 48 CFR 1419.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 1419.506 Section 1419...THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.506 Withdrawing or...

  11. 48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19...ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

  12. 48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19...ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

  13. 48 CFR 1419.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 1419.506 Section 1419...THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.506 Withdrawing or...

  14. 48 CFR 19.506 - Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Withdrawing or modifying small business set-asides. 19.506 Section 19...ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.506 Withdrawing or modifying...

  15. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. 4211.32 Section 4211.32... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO...Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method...

  16. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. 4211.32 Section 4211.32... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO...Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method...

  17. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. 4211.32 Section 4211.32... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO...Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method...

  18. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. 4211.33 Section 4211.33... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO...Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive...

  19. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. 4211.32 Section 4211.32... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO...Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method...

  20. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. 4211.32 Section 4211.32... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO...Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method...

  1. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  2. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  3. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  4. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  5. 48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

  6. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  7. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  8. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  9. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  10. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  11. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  12. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  13. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  14. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  15. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

  16. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

  17. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

  18. 40 CFR 281.61 - Procedures for withdrawal of approval of state programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for withdrawal of approval of state programs. 281.61 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Withdrawal of Approval of State Programs § 281.61...

  19. 40 CFR 271.22 - Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs. 271.22 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS ...Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs. (a) The...

  20. 40 CFR 281.60 - Criteria for withdrawal of approval of state programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for withdrawal of approval of state programs. 281.60 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Withdrawal of Approval of State Programs § 281.60...

  1. 40 CFR 281.61 - Procedures for withdrawal of approval of state programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for withdrawal of approval of state programs. 281.61 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Withdrawal of Approval of State Programs § 281.61...

  2. 40 CFR 271.23 - Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs. 271.23 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS ...Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs. (a) A...

  3. 40 CFR 271.22 - Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs. 271.22 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS ...Criteria for withdrawing approval of State programs. (a) The...

  4. 40 CFR 271.23 - Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs. 271.23 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS ...Procedures for withdrawing approval of State programs. (a) A...

  5. 40 CFR 281.60 - Criteria for withdrawal of approval of state programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for withdrawal of approval of state programs. 281.60 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Withdrawal of Approval of State Programs § 281.60...

  6. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  7. 42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

  8. 42 CFR 426.480 - Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.480 Withdrawing an appeal of an ALJ's decision. (a) Withdrawal of an appeal of an ALJ's decision....

  9. 42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. 426.423 Section 426...LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance...

  10. 77 FR 34052 - Pfizer, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Indication for CELEBREX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pfizer, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Indication for CELEBREX AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of the familial adenomatous polyposis...

  11. Honors Student Statuses There are four Honors Statuses: OK, Issues, Probation, and Withdraw.

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    , Probation, and Withdraw. OK: An honors student's status is OK if it is not either Withdraw, Probation, or Issues. Issues: Issues are red flags Student from an Honors College Advisor is not returned. #12; Probation

  12. 9 CFR 351.20 - Withdrawal of service from certified plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. 351.20 Section 351.20...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. (a) After opportunity for hearing has been accorded the operator of a certified plant, the certification service,...

  13. 9 CFR 351.20 - Withdrawal of service from certified plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. 351.20 Section 351.20...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. (a) After opportunity for hearing has been accorded the operator of a certified plant, the certification service,...

  14. 9 CFR 351.20 - Withdrawal of service from certified plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. 351.20 Section 351.20...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. (a) After opportunity for hearing has been accorded the operator of a certified plant, the certification service,...

  15. 9 CFR 351.20 - Withdrawal of service from certified plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. 351.20 Section 351.20...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. (a) After opportunity for hearing has been accorded the operator of a certified plant, the certification service,...

  16. 9 CFR 351.20 - Withdrawal of service from certified plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. 351.20 Section 351.20...Withdrawal of service from certified plants. (a) After opportunity for hearing has been accorded the operator of a certified plant, the certification service,...

  17. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  18. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  19. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  20. 42 CFR 35.8 - Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. 35.8... General § 35.8 Safekeeping of money and effects; withdrawals. (a) A place for the safekeeping of money and effects of patients shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 514.116 - Notice of withdrawal of approval of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Notice of withdrawal of approval of application. 514.116 Section 514.116 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on Applications § 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of approval of...

  2. 76 FR 27332 - Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing...proposal to withdraw approval of the breast cancer indication for bevacizumab (Avastin...metastatic [[Page 27333

  3. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...proposing to withdraw Federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes in Wisconsin....

  4. 77 FR 20585 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California, New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...2040-AF33 Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...regulations to withdraw human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to certain waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and...

  5. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin...is withdrawing the federal aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute...endrin and selenium applicable to certain waters of the Great Lakes System in...

  6. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied... Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the deepwater port license application for the proposed Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET). All actions related to the processing and agency coordination...

  7. Withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber 

    E-print Network

    Skulteti, Matthew John

    1996-01-01

    resistances of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber, 2) identifying candidate probability distributions for the withdrawal data, 3) critically evaluating currently published design values for withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails, and 4...

  8. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wastage; withdrawal for consumption. (a) Except where absolute deductions have been allowed in the... rewarehouse entry account. (b) Upon the withdrawal for consumption of metal so smelted or refined, or...

  9. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn...

  10. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...USCG-2006-24644] Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port...Maritime Administration (MARAD) announces TORP Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the...

  11. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals... benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the...

  12. 29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after... allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the sum of...

  13. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method... unfunded vested benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial...

  14. 29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after... allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the sum of...

  15. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method... unfunded vested benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial...

  16. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals... benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the...

  17. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method... unfunded vested benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial...

  18. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals... benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the...

  19. 29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after... allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the sum of...

  20. 29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after... allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the sum of...

  1. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method... unfunded vested benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial...

  2. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals... benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the...

  3. 29 CFR 4211.33 - Modified presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.33 Modified presumptive method... unfunded vested benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial...

  4. 29 CFR 4211.34 - Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.34 Rolling-5 method for withdrawals after... allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the sum of...

  5. 29 CFR 4211.32 - Presumptive method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.32 Presumptive method for withdrawals... benefits allocable to an employer that withdraws from a merged plan after the initial plan year is the...

  6. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  7. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  8. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  9. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  10. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  11. 5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... request form or use the TSP Web site to initiate a request. (A participant's ability to complete a post-employment withdrawal on the Web will depend on his or her retirement system coverage, withdrawal...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.41 - How to obtain an age-based withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... record keeper a properly completed paper TSP age-based withdrawal request form or use the TSP Web site to initiate a request. A participant's ability to complete an age-based withdrawal on the Web will depend...

  13. 5 CFR 1650.41 - How to obtain an age-based withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... record keeper a properly completed paper TSP age-based withdrawal request form or use the TSP Web site to initiate a request. A participant's ability to complete an age-based withdrawal on the Web will depend...

  14. 5 CFR 1650.41 - How to obtain an age-based withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... record keeper a properly completed paper TSP age-based withdrawal request form or use the TSP Web site to initiate a request. A participant's ability to complete an age-based withdrawal on the Web will depend...

  15. Arm levitation sign in acute right frontoparietal infarct.

    PubMed

    Alanazy, Mohammed H; Menon, Bijoy K; Demchuk, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of an 80-year-old female with acute right fronto-parietal stroke and an interesting neurological sign on clinical examination; the arm levitation sign. We discuss the imaging correlates of this sign and hypothesize on the possible functional etiology of the sign. We also discuss in brief, the possibility of neuronal misconnections causing the sign and the resultant problems with rehabilitation when patients have this sign. PMID:21206448

  16. Adapting the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test into American sign language.

    PubMed

    Enns, Charlotte J; Herman, Rosalind C

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this time a standardized measure of ASL does not exist. There have been tests developed in other signed languages, for example, British Sign Language, that can serve as models in this area. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test for use in ASL in order to begin the process of developing a standardized measure of ASL skills. The results suggest that collaboration between researchers in different signed languages can provide a valuable contribution toward filling the gap in the area of signed language assessment. PMID:21402732

  17. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) in Malay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers. PMID:20492717

  18. Haloperidol withdrawal and weight changes in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Silva, R R; Malone, R P; Anderson, L T; Shay, J; Campbell, M

    1993-01-01

    The long-term effects of haloperidol on weight were assessed in 30 children, 25 males and 5 females, diagnosed with autistic disorder whose ages ranged from 3.08 to 8.42 years. They received haloperidol (0.25-3.50 mg/day; mean 1.26 +/- 0.84) for 6 months followed by a 4-week drug withdrawal period. Weights obtained on the last day of the 6-month haloperidol period were compared to weights obtained following drug withdrawal. There was no significant difference between the mean weights obtained on the last day of haloperidol administration (24.799 +/- 9.741 kg) compared to the mean weights at the end of the fourth week of the placebo period (24.644 +/- 9.833 kg). Weights increased during the first week of drug discontinuation (24.879 +/- 9.855 kg), but decreased during each following week of drug withdrawal. Weight was measured monthly during the 6-month haloperidol treatment period for 8 of the 30 subjects. In this subsample, weight gain was greater during the 1-month period lasting from the end of the 4-week drug withdrawal to the end of the first month after resuming haloperidol treatment than weight gain prior to drug withdrawal, between the fifth and sixth month of haloperidol treatment. PMID:8290679

  19. Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n?=?90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal. PMID:24118963

  20. Procedures regarding voluntary withdrawal Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University

    E-print Network

    Kaji, Hajime

    of withdrawal/ Deadline for application documents submission Applications for withdrawal are to be submitted in accordance with the following table. However, in the event that school fees for the semester during which". Date of withdrawal End of Spring semester (September 20) End of Fall semester (March 31) Submission