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Sample records for naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs

  1. Role of calcium in morphine dependence and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Vikas; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Moghe, Vijay; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To explore the role of calcium in morphine withdrawal syndrome using various agents affecting calcium levels in cytoplasm. Methods Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine, and withdrawal was induced 4 hours later by injecting the opioid antagonist, naloxone. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for signs of withdrawal, ie, characteristic jumping, hyperactivity, urination, and diarrhea. Various calcium channel blockers were injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes before naloxone to evaluate their influence on the severity of the withdrawal syndrome. We also tested the effect of combination levodopa-carbidopa pretreatment and its interaction with a selective alpha-1 blocker, terazosin, on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice acutely dependent on morphine. Results A significant dose-dependent attenuation of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome was observed with calcium channel blockers, ie, verapamil 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and diltiazem 30 mg/kg (P < 0.01). Combination levodopa-carbidopa pretreatment facilitated the morphine withdrawal syndrome, and this was found to be blocked by terazosin, although not to a statistically significant (P > 0.05) extent. Conclusion The results indicate that calcium plays an important role in the genesis of morphine dependence and withdrawal, and suggest the usefulness of calcium channel blockers in the management of morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. ||

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  3. Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases pontine glutamate levels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Feng, Y; Rockhold, R W; Ho, I K

    1994-01-01

    Extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) were measured in the locus coeruleus (LC) during morphine withdrawal by using microdialysis in conscious morphine-dependent Sprague-Dawley rats. Guide cannulae were implanted chronically and rats were given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of morphine (26 nmol/1 microliters/hr) or saline (1 microliters/hr) for 3 days. Microdialysis probes (2 mm tip) were inserted into the LC 24 hr before precipitation of withdrawal by i.c.v. injection of naloxone (12 or 48 nmol/5 microliters). Behavioral evidence of withdrawal (teeth-chattering, wet-dog shakes, etc.) was detected following naloxone challenge in morphine, but not in saline-infused rats. Increases (P < 0.01) in ECF levels of Glu (and Asp, to a lesser degree) were noted after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal only in the morphine group. The ECF Glu levels in the LC increased from 9.6 +/- 2.7 to 15.5 +/- 5.0 microM following 12 nmol/5 microliters naloxone, and from 9.5 +/- 1.9 to 20.5 +/- 3.3 microM following 48 nmol/5 microliters naloxone, before and in the first 15 min sample after the precipitation of withdrawal in the morphine-dependent rats, respectively. These results provide direct evidence to support the role of excitatory amino acids within the LC in morphine withdrawal. PMID:7912397

  4. Effect of five common anticonvulsant drugs on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, V.; Abed-Natanzi, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of five common anticonvulsant drugs on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Male mice (25-35 g) were made dependent by increasing doses of morphine (30-90 mg/kg). At least three doses of phenytoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, lamotrigine and topiramate were injected i.p. to morphine-dependent mice 45 min prior to induction of withdrawal syndrome by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Control animals received vehicle. Number of jumpings was counted and ptosis, tremor, piloerection and diarrhea were checked in a 30 min period started just after naloxone injection. Results showed that lamotrigine, phenytoin and sodium valproate were ineffective in suppression of withdrawal syndrome while carbamazepine produced a dose-dependent reduction of jumpings. Topiramate at the maxium applied dose (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced number of naloxone-elicited jumpings. It seems that carbamazepine by inhibition of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors and topiramate by inhibiting kainite-activated (AMPA) receptor antagonists suppress morphine withdrawal syndrome but further studies are needed to have a definite conclusion. PMID:22049278

  5. Cardiac adverse effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on right ventricle: Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Zaragoza, J.; Martínez-Laorden, E.; Mora, L.; Hidalgo, J.; Milanés, M.V.; Laorden, M.L.

    2014-02-15

    Opioid addiction is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms linking opioid addiction and cardiovascular disease remain unclear. This study investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor in mediating somatic signs and the behavioural states produced during withdrawal from morphine dependence. Furthermore, it studied the efficacy of CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154,526 to prevent the cardiac sympathetic activity induced by morphine withdrawal. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation pathways were evaluated. Like stress, morphine withdrawal induced an increase in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and an enhancement of noradrenaline (NA) turnover. Pre-treatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, NA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser31 in the right ventricle. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In addition, CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss during morphine treatment and suppressed some of morphine withdrawal signs. Altogether, these results support the idea that cardiac sympathetic pathways are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal suggesting that treatment with a CRF1 receptor antagonist before morphine withdrawal would prevent the development of stress-induced behavioural and autonomic dysfunction in opioid addicts. - Highlights: • Morphine withdrawal caused an increase in myocardial sympathetic activity. • ERK regulates TH phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. • CRF1R is involved in cardiac adaptive changes during morphine dependence.

  6. Modulation of histone deacetylase attenuates naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Rachamalla, Mahesh; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2012-06-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase and/or N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-al (Ac-DEVD-CHO), a selective interleukin-1β converting enzyme inhibitor, on the development of naloxone-induced opioid withdrawal syndrome both in vitro and in vivo and the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition on histone H3 acetylation in brain. Sub-acute morphine administration followed by a single injection of naloxone (8 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to precipitate opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice. Behavioral observations were made immediately after naloxone treatment. Withdrawal syndrome was quantitatively assessed in terms of withdrawal severity score and frequency of jumping, rearing, fore paw licking and circling. Separately naloxone-induced contraction in morphine-dependent isolated rat ileum was employed as an in vitro model. An isobolographic study design was employed to assess potential synergistic activity between trichostatin A and Ac-DEVD-CHO. Brain histone acetylation status was examined by western blotting. Injection of naloxone precipitated a severe form of abstinence syndrome in morphine-dependent mice along with strong contracture in isolated rat ileum. Administration of tributyrin (1.5, 3 and 6 g/kg, p.o.), trichostatin A (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, p.o.) and Ac-DEVD-CHO (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly and dose dependently attenuated naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome in vivo as well as in vitro in rat ileum. Trichostatin A was also observed to exert a synergistic interaction with Ac-DEVD-CHO. Western blot analysis revealed that multiple administration with the effective dose of tributyrin or trichostatin A in the in vivo experiments induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 in the mouse brain. Thus, it is proposed that histone deacetylase activation linked mechanism might be involved in the development of opioid dependence and the precipitation of its withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22362134

  7. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawalNaloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases PKA expression in the heart. • CRF1 receptor is implicated in the sympathetic activity induced by morphine withdrawal.

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  9. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. PMID:25582704

  10. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. Synapse, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Synapse 70:187-197, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789010

  11. Baclofen reestablishes striatal and cortical dopamine concentrations during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Kemmling, Alma K; Balerio, Graciela N

    2003-03-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of baclofen (BAC) on mice brain neurochemical alterations during the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome. Male Swiss-Webster albino mice (27-33 g) were rendered dependent by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MOR (2mg/kg), twice daily for 9 days. On day 10, the dependent animals were divided into two groups: one receiving naloxone (NAL; 6 mg/kg i.p.) to precipitate the withdrawal syndrome 60 min after the last dose of MOR and the other received BAC (2mg/kg, i.p.) followed by NAL (6 mg/kg, i.p.), injected 30 and 60 min after the last dose of MOR, respectively. Ten minutes after these treatments, mice were killed by decapitation and the striatum, cortex and hippocampus were dissected to determine endogenous concentrations of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Striatal DA, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations as well as cortical DA concentrations of the withdrawal groups decreased significantly with respect to the control groups. BAC attenuated the decrease in DA and DOPAC concentrations observed during the withdrawal, without modifying per se the control DA concentrations. No changes on 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were observed during the MOR abstinence syndrome. The prevention caused by BAC on the decreased concentrations of DA induced by MOR withdrawal could have a therapeutic interest for the management of withdrawal syndrome. PMID:12470702

  12. Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal in Subjects Maintained on 100 mg of Daily Methadone*

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, James; Walsh, Sharon L.; Bigelow, George E.; Strain, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Acute doses of buprenorphine can precipitate withdrawal in opioid dependent persons. The likelihood of this withdrawal increases as a function of the level of physical dependence. Objectives To test the acute effects of sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in volunteers with a higher level of physical dependence. The goal was to identify a dose that would precipitate withdrawal (Phase 1), then determine if withdrawal could be attenuated by splitting this dose (Phase 2). Methods Residential laboratory study; subjects (N=16) maintained on 100 mg per day of methadone. Phase 1: Randomized, double blind, triple dummy, within subject study. Conditions were sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (4/1, 8/2, 16/4, 32/8 mg), intramuscular naloxone (0.2 mg), oral methadone (100 mg), or placebo. Medication conditions were randomized, but buprenorphine/naloxone doses were ascending within the randomization. Phase 2: Conditions were methadone, placebo, naloxone, 100% of the buprenorphine/naloxone dose that precipitated withdrawal in Phase 1 (full dose), and 50% of this dose administered twice in a session (split dose). Analyses covaried by trough methadone serum levels. Results Six subjects did not complete the study. Of the ten who completed, three tolerated up to 32/8 mg of buprenorphine/naloxone without evidence of precipitated withdrawal. For the seven completing both phases, split doses generally produced less precipitated withdrawal compared to full doses. Conclusions There is considerable between subject variability in sensitivity to buprenorphine's antagonist effects. Low, repeated doses of buprenorphine/naloxone (e.g., 2/0.5 mg) may be an effective mechanism for safely dosing this medication in persons with higher levels of physical dependence. PMID:17517480

  13. Pharmacokinetic aspects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female prepubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Hermida, María P; Joannas, Leonel D; Olivera, Mónica; Ridolfi, Adriana; Villaamil, Edda C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that the expression of the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome precipitated by naloxone (NAL) is more intense in male mice than in females, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether this sexual dimorphism might be due to differences in MOR and/or NAL plasma levels after a chronic treatment with MOR. Prepubertal Swiss male and female mice were rendered dependent by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MOR (2 mg/kg), twice daily for 9 days. On day 10 dependent mice received NAL (6 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min after MOR injection. Blood samples were taken at different times in order to determine MOR and NAL plasma levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no differences between male and female mice either for MOR or for NAL. In conclusion, although males and females respond differentially to NAL-precipitated withdrawal, this dimorphic behavior would not be influenced by a pharmacokinetic factor. PMID:17570125

  14. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:26375926

  15. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 μ M) had mixed effects (≥20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  16. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT(2C)R agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT(2C)R activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT(2C)R agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT(2C)R protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT(2C)R can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT(2C)R may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  17. Double Dissociation of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition and CB1 Antagonism in the Central Amygdala, Basolateral Amygdala, and the Interoceptive Insular Cortex on the Affective Properties of Acute Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wills, Kiri L; Petrie, Gavin N; Millett, Geneva; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rock, Erin M; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2016-06-01

    Both CB1 receptor antagonism and agonism, in particular by 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), have been shown to reduce somatic symptoms of morphine withdrawal (MWD). Here we evaluated the effects of both systemic pretreatment with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor MJN110 (which selectively elevates 2-AG) and central administration of both MJN110 and the CB1 antagonist (AM251) on the affective properties of MWD. Acute MWD induced place aversion occurs when naloxone is administered 24 h following a single exposure to a high dose of morphine. Systemic pretreatment with the MAGL inhibitor, MJN110, prevented the aversive effects of acute MWD by a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, in a double dissociation, AM251 infusions into the central amygdala, but MJN110 infusions into the basolateral amygdala, interfered with the naloxone-precipitated MWD induced place aversion. As well, MJN110, but not AM251, infusions into the interoceptive insular cortex (a region known to be activated in acute MWD) also prevented the establishment of the place aversion by a CB1 mechanism of action. These findings reveal the respective sites of action of systemically administered MJN110 and AM251 in regulating the aversive effects of MWD. PMID:26647976

  18. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milans, Mara-Victoria; Laorden, Mara Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (1060 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  19. [Extension of the concept of withdrawal signs].

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin

    2015-12-01

    If the conditions including normal-dose dependence in which withdrawal signs are observed in the absence of definite psychic dependence are classified as dependence, this classification should be regarded as inappropriate extension of the concept of drug dependence. These conditions should be diagnosed as 'withdrawal' as specified by the DSM-5 or ICD-10. Advancements of research have clarified that an increased number of drugs cause withdrawal signs. Some Japanese researchers use the concept of 'withdrawal signs of psychic dependence.' Their definition of drug dependence and concept of withdrawal signs, however, are different from the definition established by the WHO and the researchers specializing in this field. Thus, the concept of 'withdrawal signs of psychic dependence' raises a lot of questions. PMID:26964289

  20. A protein kinase inhibitor, H-7, blocks naloxone-precipitated changes in dopamine and its metabolites in the brains of opioid-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, S; Ho, I K; Yamamoto, T

    2000-07-15

    The influence of an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, H-7 [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine], on naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist)-precipitated withdrawal signs and changes in levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in morphine- or butorphanol-dependent rats was investigated. Animals were infused continuously with morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) or butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa mixed opioid receptor agonist) for 3 days. Naloxone precipitated withdrawal syndrome and decreased the levels of DA in the cortex, striatum, and midbrain; 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cortex, striatum, limbic areas, and midbrain; and homovanilic acid (HVA) in the striatum, limbic areas, and midbrain regions. In animals rendered dependent on butorphanol, the results obtained were similar to those of morphine-dependent rats except for the changes in DOPAC levels. Concomitant infusion of H-7 and opioid blocked both the expression of withdrawal signs and the decreases in DA, DOPAC, and HVA levels in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the enhancement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and/or protein kinase C activity accompanying the increase of DA neuron activity during continuous infusion of opioids leads to an abrupt reduction in levels of DA and its metabolites precipitated by naloxone, which is intimately involved in the expression of physical dependence on opioids. PMID:10922515

  1. Naloxone-precipitated changes in biogenic amines and their metabolites in various brain regions of butorphanol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, S; Wakabayashi, H; Hoskins, B; Ho, I K

    1996-06-01

    Influence of a naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) challenge (5 mg/kg, IP) on levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites in various brain regions of rats infused continuously with butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa mixed opioid receptor agonist; 26 nmol/microliter/h) or morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist; 26 nmol/microliter/h) was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). Naloxone precipitated a withdrawal syndrome and decreased the levels of: dopamine (DA) in the cortex and striatum, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the striatum, homovanilic acid (HVA) in the striatum, limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla regions in butorphanol-dependent rats. However, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the regions studied were not affected by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In addition, naloxone increased the HVA/DA ratio in the cortex, while this ratio was reduced in the limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla. The reduction of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was also detected in the limbic area. In the animals rendered dependent on morphine, the results obtained were similar to those of butorphanol-dependent rats except for changes of 5-HIAA levels in some brain regions. These results suggest that an alteration of dopaminergic neuron activity following a reduction of DA and its metabolites in specific brain regions (e.g., striatum, limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla) play an important role in the expression of the opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:8743609

  2. Blockade of Endocannabinoid Hydrolytic Enzymes Attenuates Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms in MiceS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Divya; Ross, Gracious R.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Owens, Robert A.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Kinsey, Steven G.; Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2011-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has long been known to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. Although THC produces most of its pharmacological actions through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the role these receptors play in reducing the variety of opioid withdrawal symptoms remains unknown. The endogenous cannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), activate both cannabinoid receptors but are rapidly metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. The objective of this study was to test whether increasing AEA or 2-AG, via inhibition of their respective hydrolytic enzymes, reduces naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms in in vivo and in vitro models of opioid dependence. Morphine-dependent mice challenged with naloxone reliably displayed a profound withdrawal syndrome, consisting of jumping, paw tremors, diarrhea, and weight loss. THC and the MAGL inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) dose dependently reduced the intensity of most measures through the activation of CB1 receptors. JZL184 also attenuated spontaneous withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. The FAAH inhibitor N-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yloxy)benzyl)-piperdine-1-carboxamide (PF-3845) reduced the intensity of naloxone-precipitated jumps and paw flutters through the activation of CB1 receptors but did not ameliorate incidence of diarrhea or weight loss. In the final series of experiments, we investigated whether JZL184 or PF-3845 would attenuate naloxone-precipitated contractions in morphine-dependent ilea. Both enzyme inhibitors attenuated the intensity of naloxone-induced contractions, although this model does not account mechanistically for the autonomic withdrawal responses (i.e., diarrhea) observed in vivo. These results indicate that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes are promising targets to treat opioid dependence. PMID:21719468

  3. Effect of environmental enrichment on physical and psychological dependence signs and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependency and withdrawal on the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days following rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for withdrawal signs after naloxone injection, anxiety (the elevated plus maze) and depression-related behavior (sucrose preference test), and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm, in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats. The results showed that EE decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, but not anxiety or sucrose preference during dependence on morphine. The EE-withdrawn rats showed an increase in the elevated plus maze open arm time and entries and higher levels of sucrose preference than SE rats. Voluntary consumption of morphine was lower in the EE-withdrawn rats than in the SE groups in the second period of drug intake. Thus, exposure to EE reduced the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary consumption of morphine, alongside reductions in anxiety and depression-related behavior in morphine-withdrawn rats. PMID:26397757

  4. Barium potentiates the conditioned aversion to, but not the somatic signs of, morphine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mio; Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko

    2005-09-20

    The effect of barium, a putative blocker of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, on naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice was investigated. Mice were chronically treated with morphine (8-45 mg/kg) for 6 days. The morphine-dependent mice were then given naltrexone (1 and 3 mg/kg), after which they showed several somatic signs of withdrawal, as well as conditioned aversion, increased cortical noradrenaline turnover, and decreased dopamine turnover in the limbic forebrain. Pretreatment with barium (1.25 and 2.5 nmol) significantly potentiated the naltrexone-precipitated conditioned aversion and augmented the decrease in dopamine turnover in the limbic forebrain. However, barium pretreatment did not affect the naltrexone-precipitated somatic signs of withdrawal and increased cortical noradrenaline turnover. These findings suggest that modification of GIRK channels may be involved in the expression of aversion to morphine withdrawal mediated through the dopaminergic system but it is not involved in the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal mediated through the noradrenergic system. PMID:16122731

  5. The selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 attenuates morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of locus coeruleus neurons and behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Vandergriff, J; Rasmussen, K

    1999-02-01

    Naltrexone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induces hyperactivity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, as well as a plethora of behavioral withdrawal signs. Previous research has demonstrated that an increased release of glutamate and activation of AMPA receptors, particularly in the LC, play an important role in opiate withdrawal. LY354740 is a novel Group II metabotropic glutamate mGlu2/3 receptor agonist that decreases the release of glutamate. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LY354740 on naltrexone-precipitated morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of LC neurons and behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. In in vivo recordings from anesthetized rats, pretreatment with LY354740 (3-30 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently attenuated the morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of LC neurons. In unanesthetized, morphine-dependent animals, pretreatment with LY354740 (3-30 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently suppressed the severity and occurrence of many naltrexone-precipitated morphine-withdrawal signs. These results indicate mGlu2/3 receptor agonists: (1) can attenuate the morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of LC neurons and many behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal; and (2) may have therapeutic effects in man for the treatment of opiate withdrawal. PMID:10218862

  6. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Walentiny, D Matthew; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone's abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to μ-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects. PMID:26491062

  7. Spironolactone decreases the somatic signs of opiate withdrawal by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacological evidence has accumulated showing that glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) facilitate several responses to different drugs of abuse. Recent findings have attributed a prominent role to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in modulating behavior during the addictive process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MR blockade on: brain stress system responses to naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, the somatic signs of abstinence; the effects of morphine withdrawal on noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), c-Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser31 levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2); and finally, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. The role of MR signaling was assessed with i.p. pretreatment with the MR antagonist, spironolactone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later rats were pretreated with spironolactone or vehicle 30min before naloxone. The physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression and the HPA axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. Spironolactone attenuated the somatic signs of withdrawal that were seen after naloxone administration to chronic morphine treated animals. On the other hand, pretreatment with spironolactone resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression or HPA axis activity that occurred during morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that somatic signs of opiate withdrawal are modulated by MR signaling. However, blockade of MR did not significantly alter the brain stress system response to morphine withdrawal. PMID:25308750

  8. Effects of the cell type-specific ablation of the cAMP-responsive transcription factor in noradrenergic neurons on locus coeruleus firing and withdrawal behavior after chronic exposure to morphine.

    PubMed

    Parlato, Rosanna; Cruz, Hans; Otto, Christiane; Murtra, Patricia; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Martin, Miquel; Bura, Simona A; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver; Maldonado, Rafael; Schütz, Günther; Lüscher, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Repeated exposure to opiates leads to cellular and molecular changes and behavioral alterations reflecting a state of dependence. In noradrenergic neurons, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent pathways are activated during opiate withdrawal, but their contribution to the activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons and behavioral manifestations remains controversial. Here, we test whether the cAMP-dependent transcription factors cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) in noradrenergic neurons control the cellular markers and the physical signs of morphine withdrawal in mice. Using the Cre/loxP system we ablated the Creb1 gene in noradrenergic neurons. To avoid adaptive effects because of compensatory up-regulation of CREM, we crossed the conditional Creb1 mutant mice with a Crem-/- line. We found that the enhanced expression of tyrosine hydroxylase normally observed during withdrawal was attenuated in CREB/CREM mutants. Moreover, the withdrawal-associated cellular hyperactivity and c-fos expression was blunted. In contrast, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, such as jumping, paw tremor, tremor and mastication were preserved. We conclude by a specific genetic approach that the withdrawal-associated hyperexcitability of noradrenergic neurons depends on CREB/CREM activity in these neurons, but does not mediate several behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. PMID:20367754

  9. Serotonin involvement in Rhodiola rosea attenuation of nicotine withdrawal signs in rats.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, C; Navarra, M; Calzavara, E; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

    2012-09-15

    Rhodiola rosea has been used for centuries in the traditional medicine to stimulate nervous system, to enhance physical and mental performance and to treat fatigue. It is known that administration of Rhodiola rosea extract elicits antidepressant activity, but the mechanism of action still remains unclear. Evidence from animal models and human studies show that nicotine reduces symptoms of depression and that nicotine cessation induces depressive-like symptoms. We investigated the effects of Rhodiola rosea on nicotine withdrawal signs. Nicotine dependence was induced by subcutaneous nicotine injection (2 mg/kg, four times daily) for 14 days. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (for 14 days) and successively with Rhodiola rosea extract was co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (1 mg/kg). After nicotine withdrawal animals were evaluated for behavioural parameters (locomotor activity, abstinence signs, marble burying test), diencephalic serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptor-1A expression. Results show a significant increase of 5-HT content in N treated with R. rosea, with a significant increase of serotonin receptor 1A, suggesting an involvement of serotonin in beneficial effects of R. rosea on suffering produced by nicotine withdrawal. PMID:22921986

  10. Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the expression of withdrawal diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Komiya, Sachiko; Ohya, Jumpei; Uzawa, Naoki; Sugiyama, Koichi; Saitoh, Yusuke; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-10-01

    The withdrawal syndrome after the cessation of μ-opioid receptor agonists remains an obstacle in the clinical treatment of pain. We recently showed that peripheral opioid receptors play a significant role in the withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of morphine-induced withdrawal symptoms, especially the peripheral oriented body-weight loss that accompanied diarrhea, in mice. Withdrawal signs were precipitated by the injection of naloxone 1 day after the slow-release emulsion administration of morphine. Withdrawal body-weight loss and diarrhea precipitated by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were significantly suppressed by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), olanzapine (5-HT2/D2 receptor antagonist) and fullerene (a free radical scavenger), whereas neither ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) nor atropine (a muscarine receptor antagonist) significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated diarrhea. 5-HT3-receptors (but not 5-HT2-receptors) are known to play a significant role in 5-HT-induced diarrhea. Therefore, we also examined the effects of ritanserin and fullerene on 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice. Ritaserin significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice, but not saline-treated mice. These results suggest that peripheral 5-HT2-receptor function could be altered in morphine-dependent mice, and the blockade of 5-HT2 receptor or free radical scavengers may be useful for the treatment of opioid-withdrawal diarrhea. PMID:25034809

  11. Effects of diltiazem, a Ca2+ channel blocker, on naloxone-precipitated changes in dopamine and its metabolites in the brains of opioid-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, S; Ho, I K

    1996-05-01

    The effects of diltiazem, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, on naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist)-precipitated withdrawal signs and changes in extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in various brain regions of morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) or butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa mixed opioid receptor agonist) dependent rats were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography fitted with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). Rats were rendered opioid-dependent by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion with morphine (26 nmol/microliters per h) or butorphanol (26 nmol/microliters per h) for 3 days. The expression of physical dependence produced by these opioids, as evaluated by naloxone (5 mg/kg. i.p.)-precipitated withdrawal signs, was reduced by concomitant infusion of diltiazem (10 and 100 nmol/microliters per h). Under the same condition, naloxone decreased the levels of: DA in the cortex, striatum, and midbrain; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cortex, striatum, limbic areas, and midbrain: and homovanilic acid (HVA) in the striatum, limbic areas, and midbrain regions. In animals rendered dependent on butorphanol, the results obtained were similar to those of morphine-dependent rats except for the changes in DOPAC levels. Furthermore, concomitant infusion of diltiazem and opioids blocked the decreases in levels of DA, DOPAC, and HVA in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the augmentation of intracellular Ca2+ mediated through L-type Ca2+ channels during continuous opioid infusion results in a decrease in extracellular levels of DA and its metabolites in some specific regions, which are intimately involved in the expression of withdrawal syndrome precipitated by naloxone. PMID:8783387

  12. GC-MS-based plasma metabolomic investigations of morphine dependent rats at different states of euphoria, tolerance and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruoxu; Cheng, Jianhua; Yang, Jingwen; Ding, Xinghua; Yang, Shuguang; Dong, Fangting; Guo, Ning; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    Long-term or excessive application of morphine leads to tolerance and addiction, which hindered its conventional applications as a drug. Although tremendous progress has been made on the mechanisms of morphine, crucial evidence elaborating the neurobiological basis of tolerance and dependence is still lacking. To further explore the physiological adaptions during morphine's application, a systematic screening of small molecules in blood has been carried out. The plasma of morphine dependent rats was collected at different time points with or without naloxone treatment, and was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and the Student's t Tests with the false discovery rate (FDR) correction were conducted on the normalized data for the distinction of groups and the identification of the most contributed metabolites. Clear separation is observed between different treatments, and 29 out of 41 metabolites changes significantly compared with the corresponding controls. The concentration of threonine, glycine, serine, beta-d-glucose and oxalic acid are consistently changed in all morphine treated groups compared with controls. Through this experiment we find characteristic metabolites in different dependent states and discuss the possible compensation effects. The interpretation of these metabolites would throw light on the biological effects of morphine and reveal the possibilities to become marker of morphine addiction. PMID:25472920

  13. Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes, despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC). Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent) received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC) for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent) received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28), all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC) at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS) was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg) and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods. PMID:25250285

  14. Effects of high-dose selegiline on morphine reinforcement and precipitated withdrawal in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Grasing, K; He, S

    2005-02-01

    Selegiline is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with psychostimulant and neuroprotective effects. Several lines of evidence suggest that treatment with selegiline at doses that exceed levels required for inhibition of MAO can produce distinct pharmacologic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with high-dose selegiline on extinction responding, cue-induced reinstatement, morphine reinforcement and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. After pretreatment with noncontingent morphine to establish opiate dependence, rats acquired self-administration of 3.2 mg/kg per injection of morphine under a progressive ratio schedule. Daily treatment with saline or 6.4 mg/kg per day of selegiline was then administered over extinction, reinstatement and re-acquisition of morphine self-administration. To enhance or diminish the potential for psychostimulant effects, selegiline was administered either immediately prior to (pre-session) or 1 h following (post-session) extinction, reinstatement and self-administration sessions. Pre-session selegiline decreased the number of ratios completed on days 2, 3 and 4 of extinction, and decreased morphine self-administration during all four re-acquisition sessions. When administered at the same dose level, post-session selegiline decreased responding on the fourth extinction session, and was ineffective in modifying re-acquisition of self-administration. Selegiline administered by either schedule did not modify cue-induced reinstatement. Daily treatment with 6.4 mg/kg per day of selegiline did not modify self-administration of food under a progressive ratio schedule. Acute treatment with single, 6.4 mg/kg doses of selegiline attenuated naloxone-induced increases in ptosis and global withdrawal score, but did not modify any other sign of withdrawal or global withdrawal score calculated without ratings of ptosis. In conclusion, high-dose selegiline can attenuate extinction responding and morphine-reinforced behavior, and these effects may be mediated by psychostimulant metabolites. PMID:15706133

  15. Keeping your distance: attentional withdrawal in individuals who show physiological signs of social discomfort.

    PubMed

    Szpak, Ancret; Loetscher, Tobias; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Spence, Charles J; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2015-04-01

    Being in close social proximity to a stranger is generally perceived to be an uncomfortable experience, which most people seek to avoid. In circumstances where crowding is unavoidable, however, people may seek to withdraw their attention from the other person. This study examined whether social discomfort, as indexed by electrodermal activity, is related to a withdrawal of attention in 28 (m=8, f=20) university students. Students performed a radial line bisection task while alone or together with a stranger facing them. Physiological arousal was indexed by a wrist monitor, which recorded electrodermal activity. Correlational analyses showed that individuals who displayed physiological discomfort when together showed a withdrawal of the perceived midpoint of the line towards them (and away from the stranger). Conversely, individuals who showed no discomfort exhibited an expansion of the perceived midpoint away from them. We propose that participants shift their attention away from the stranger to increase interpersonal distance and reduce anxiety/arousal. PMID:25447057

  16. Plasma malondialdehyde levels and opiate withdrawal signs observed in rats treated with morphine plus naloxone: effects of alpha-lipoic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Arnaldo; Cighetti, Giuliana; Trivulzio, Silvio

    2008-08-01

    A number of experimental studies have found that reactive oxygen species are involved during morphine treatment or withdrawal. The aims of this study were to analyse whether morphine administration and/or removal are related to peroxide generation and/or signs of withdrawal in rats, and whether the changes in antioxidant status induced by the administration of an antioxidant may modify peroxide levels and behavioural signs. We injected morphine or morphine and naloxone into rats and evaluated the plasma levels of peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA) and the appearance of withdrawal signs. We also investigated the effects on these parameters induced by the administration of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (LA). Morphine treatment increased MDA levels. Abrupt naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal caused a further and significant increase in MDA, and the appearance of withdrawal signs such as abnormal fecal excretion, shortened latency times and jumping. The administration of LA lowered MDA levels in the rats treated with morphine or morphine plus naloxone, and also decreased MDA values and abstinence signs in the animals treated with morphine plus naloxone. The effects of LA were attributed to its capacity to scavenge peroxides and interfere with the biogenesis of the arachidonic acid metabolites involved in the expression of abstinence symptoms. PMID:18705754

  17. Opiate withdrawal behavior after focal brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Williams, D A; Thorn, B E

    1984-11-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem abolishes pain, while continued stimulation induces tolerance to the analgesic effect. Analgesic drugs producing tolerance also induce physical dependence, suggesting that the phenomenon of tolerance is associated with addiction. There is evidence that the neural mechanism for stimulation-produced analgesia is related to the release of opiate substances within the brain. We therefore propose that repeated or protracted brain stimulation elicits dependence upon the endorphins released by electrical stimulation of the neurons themselves. To investigate this possibility, rats were given repetitive bursts of analgesic electrical brain stimulation for two hours. Immediately thereafter, they were injected with the opiate antagonist, naloxone. Behaviors associated with low grade opiate withdrawal were observed. These data suggest that prolonged analgesic stimulation can result in naloxone-precipitated behaviors similar to the behaviors exhibited during opiate withdrawal. PMID:6542676

  18. Exploratory behavior and withdrawal signs in crayfish: chronic central morphine injections and termination effects.

    PubMed

    Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Okon, Marvin; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2014-05-01

    Functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward seeking >is a symbol of survival. It is found in most animals from insects to humans. Exploration is a component of a wide range of drug-elicited behaviors that reflects an appetitive motivational state when animals seek natural rewards such as food, water, and shelter for survival. Not only does the characterization of exploratory behaviors indicate the specific components of appetitive motor patterns, it also reveals how exploratory behavioral patterns are implemented via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli. The current work demonstrates that novel stimuli appear to directly augment exploration in crayfish, while injections of morphine directly into the brain of crayfish enhanced robust arousal resulting in increased locomotion and exploration of the environment. Elimination of morphine suppressed exploratory motor patterns. Crayfish displayed atypical behavioral changes evident of withdrawal-like states when saline is injected into the brain. With proven evidence of rewarding to the exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse, modularly organized and experimentally accessible nervous system makes crayfish exceptionally suitable for characterizing the central workings of addiction at its key behavioral and neuroanatomic locations. PMID:24512767

  19. Assessment of affective and somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice using a short term ethanol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Perez, EE; De Biasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent addictive substances in the world. Withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption in habitual drinkers. The emergence of both affective and physical symptoms produces a state that promotes relapse. Mice provide a preclinical model that could be used to study alcohol dependence and withdrawal while controlling for both genetic and environmental variables. The use of a liquid ethanol diet offers a reliable method for the induction of alcohol dependence in mice, but this approach is impractical when conducting high throughput pharmacological screens or when comparing multiple strains of genetically engineered mice. The goal of this study was to compare withdrawal associated behaviors in mice chronically treated with a liquid ethanol diet vs. mice treated with a short-term ethanol treatment that consisted of daily ethanol injections containing the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole. Twenty-four hours after ethanol treatment, mice were tested in the open field arena, the elevated plus maze, the marble burying test or for changes in somatic signs during spontaneous ethanol withdrawal. Anxiety-like and compulsive-like behavior, as well as physical signs, were all significantly elevated in mice undergoing withdrawal, regardless of the route of ethanol administration. Therefore, a short-term ethanol treatment can be utilized as a screening tool for testing genetic and pharmacological agents before investing in a more time consuming ethanol treatment. PMID:25817777

  20. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  1. Attenuation of Withdrawal Signs, Blood Cortisol, and Glucose Level with Various Dosage Regimens of Morphine after Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Sadeghi-Hashjin, Goudarz; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem; Karimian, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Morphine withdrawal usually results in unsuccessful outcomes. Despite partial benefits from alternative substances such as methadone, its use may not lead to the desired result due to the lack of mental tranquility during the withdrawal period. In this study, by means of an animal model, morphine itself was used to manage morphine dependence. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups, in which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). Afterwards, the animals received morphine for 14 days by either of the following regimens: Once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls)Increasing the interval (each time 6 hours longer than the previous interval)Irregular interval in every 36, 12 and 24 hours until the 21th day12, 24, 36 hours decreasing doses (each time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Negative controls received saline solution only. On day 22, total withdrawal index (TWI) was determined by injecting 3 mg/kg of naloxone. Thereafter, blood samples were taken for the measurement of cortisol and glucose levels. TWI significantly decreased in all test groups in comparison with the positive control animals (P<0.001). Cortisol levels significantly decreased when either the dosage or the administration frequencies were decreased on a regular and gradual basis (P<0.005). Blood glucose levels significantly decreased in animals that received decreasing doses of morphine (P<0.005). This study suggests that no other measures may be required in clinical practice except for changing the dosage regimen of morphine for the cessation of self-administration. PMID:26722146

  2. Attenuation of Withdrawal Signs, Blood Cortisol, and Glucose Level with Various Dosage Regimens of Morphine after Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Sadeghi-Hashjin, Goudarz; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem; Karimian, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Morphine withdrawal usually results in unsuccessful outcomes. Despite partial benefits from alternative substances such as methadone, its use may not lead to the desired result due to the lack of mental tranquility during the withdrawal period. In this study, by means of an animal model, morphine itself was used to manage morphine dependence. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups, in which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). Afterwards, the animals received morphine for 14 days by either of the following regimens: Once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls)Increasing the interval (each time 6 hours longer than the previous interval)Irregular interval in every 36, 12 and 24 hours until the 21(th) day12, 24, 36 hours decreasing doses (each time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Negative controls received saline solution only. On day 22, total withdrawal index (TWI) was determined by injecting 3 mg/kg of naloxone. Thereafter, blood samples were taken for the measurement of cortisol and glucose levels. TWI significantly decreased in all test groups in comparison with the positive control animals (P<0.001). Cortisol levels significantly decreased when either the dosage or the administration frequencies were decreased on a regular and gradual basis (P<0.005). Blood glucose levels significantly decreased in animals that received decreasing doses of morphine (P<0.005). This study suggests that no other measures may be required in clinical practice except for changing the dosage regimen of morphine for the cessation of self-administration. PMID:26722146

  3. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents.

    PubMed

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-05-20

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. PMID:26744024

  4. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. PMID:26744024

  5. Differential Changes in Expression of Stress- and Metabolic-Related Neuropeptides in the Rat Hypothalamus during Morphine Dependence and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Núnez, Cristina; Zelei, Edina; Polyák, Ágnes; Milanés, M. Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Chronic morphine treatment and naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal activates stress-related brain circuit and results in significant changes in food intake, body weight gain and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to reveal hypothalamic mechanisms underlying these effects. Adult male rats were made dependent on morphine by subcutaneous implantation of constant release drug pellets. Pair feeding revealed significantly smaller weight loss of morphine treated rats compared to placebo implanted animals whose food consumption was limited to that eaten by morphine implanted pairs. These results suggest reduced energy expenditure of morphine-treated animals. Chronic morphine exposure or pair feeding did not significantly affect hypothalamic expression of selected stress- and metabolic related neuropeptides - corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin 2 (UCN2) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) compared to placebo implanted and pair fed animals. Naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal resulted in a dramatic weight loss starting as early as 15–30 min after naloxone injection and increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone, prolactin and corticosterone plasma levels in morphine dependent rats. Using real-time quantitative PCR to monitor the time course of relative expression of neuropeptide mRNAs in the hypothalamus we found elevated CRH and UCN2 mRNA and dramatically reduced POMC expression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA levels were transiently increased during opiate withdrawal. These data highlight that morphine withdrawal differentially affects expression of stress- and metabolic-related neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus, while relative mRNA levels of these neuropeptides remain unchanged either in rats chronically treated with morphine or in their pair-fed controls. PMID:23805290

  6. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. PMID:24845493

  7. Withdrawal from acute morphine dependence is accompanied by increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongqi; Schulteis, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment with a single moderate dose of morphine (e.g. 5.6-10 mg/kg) 4-24 hr prior to challenge with an opioid antagonist such as naloxone results in reliable expression of behaviors that resemble aversive or emotional consequences of withdrawal from chronic opioid exposure, including suppression of operant responding, elevations in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned place aversion. Repeated daily or weekly treatment with these same morphine doses results in a progressive increase in naloxone potency to elicit these withdrawal signs. The current study sought to determine whether increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal from chronic opioid dependence is also seen after acute morphine exposure, and progresses with repeated intermittent treatment. Male Wistar rats were handled and injected with either vehicle or morphine for 4 consecutive days. Three injection regimens were employed: Morphine Naive (4 vehicle injections), Acute Morphine (3 vehicle injections, 4th injection 5.6 or 10 mg/kg morphine), or Repeat Morphine (all 4 injections with 5.6 or 10 mg/kg morphine). Acute pretreatment with 5.6 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg morphine resulted in time-dependent increases in exploration of the open arms of the plus maze in naloxone-naive rats when rats were tested at 2, 4 or 8 hr after the final pretreatment injection, with the effects at the higher dose appearing later (4 hr) than after the lower dose (2 hr). This pattern of results, in combination with a separate study which confirmed a significant anxiolytic-like effect of a low dose of morphine (0.56 mg/kg) administered 15 min prior to test, suggested that low residual morphine levels in the plasma remaining at 2-4 hr after 5.6 and 10 mg/kg morphine may be sufficient to elicit anxiolytic-like effects. Repeat treatment with either dose of morphine resulted in a further increase in the magnitude and duration of this anxiolytic-like effect. These effects had dissipated by 8 hr post-morphine, and therefore precipitation of withdrawal by one of several doses of naloxone (0.10-3.3 mg/kg) was assessed in separate cohorts of rats 8 hr after the final pretreatment under Morphine Naïve, Acute Morphine, or Repeat Morphine conditions. Naloxone resulted in a significant dose-dependent expression of anxiety-like behavior with no effects on general activity after Acute Morphine pretreatment at either 5.6 or 10 mg/kg morphine. A further significant shift in naloxone potency was observed after Repeat Morphine pretreatment at the 10 mg/kg but not the 5.6 mg/kg dose. Thus, anxiety-like behavior is a prominent feature of the negative emotional consequences of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from acute opioid dependence. PMID:18308382

  8. Elevated mu-opioid receptor expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract accompanies attenuated withdrawal signs after chronic low dose naltrexone in opiate-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, E J; Rudoy, C; Mannelli, P; Oropeza, V; Qian, Y

    2006-02-15

    We previously described a decrease in withdrawal behaviors in opiate-dependent rats that were chronically treated with very low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. Attenuated expression of withdrawal behaviors correlated with decreased c-Fos expression and intracellular signal transduction elements [protein kinase A regulatory subunit II (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB)] in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. In this study, to determine whether similar cellular changes occurred in forebrain nuclei associated with drug reward, expressions of PKA and pCREB were analyzed in the ventral tegmental area, frontal cortex, striatum, and amygdala of opiate-treated rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. No significant difference in PKA or pCREB was detected in these regions following drug treatment. To examine further the cellular mechanisms in noradrenergic nuclei that could underlie attenuated withdrawal behaviors following low dose naltrexone administration, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and locus coeruleus (LC) were examined for opioid receptor (OR) protein expression. Results showed a significant increase in muOR expression in the NTS of morphine-dependent rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water, and increases in muOR expression were also found to be dose dependent. Protein expression of muOR in the LC and deltaOR in either brain region remained unchanged. In conclusion, our previously reported decreases in c-Fos and PKA expression in the NTS following pretreatment with low doses of naltrexone may be partially explained by a greater inhibition of NTS neurons resulting from increased muOR expression in this region. PMID:16385558

  9. Evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acid pathways in the development of precipitated withdrawal from acute and chronic morphine: an in vivo voltammetric study in the rat locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Hong, M; Milne, B; Jhamandas, K

    1993-09-24

    Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of excitatory amino acid (EAA) pathways projecting to the locus coeruleus may be involved in the increased firing of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons during opioid withdrawal. Using differential normal pulse voltammetry to monitor catechol oxidation current (CA.OC), an index of neuronal activity in the LC, the role of EAA pathways in naloxone precipitated withdrawal after acute and chronic morphine treatment was examined. Acute morphine treatment (10 micrograms i.c.v.) significantly reduced the CA.OC signal in the LC to 54.3 +/- 3.1% of baseline. Naloxone challenge (1 mg/kg i.v.) completely reversed the morphine effect and produced a significant increase in the CA.OC signal above baseline, peak 145.4 +/- 10.1% of baseline. This naloxone-induced rebound response was attenuated by pretreatment with the EAA receptor antagonists gamma-D-glutamylglycine (DGG) (2, 20, 200 micrograms i.c.v.) and (-)-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-APH), but not L-APH (25 micrograms i.c.v.). In chronically morphine-treated rats (25 micrograms/h i.c.v., 5 days), naloxone challenge (1 mg/kg i.v.) produced a significant increase in CA.OC signal, peak 466.5 +/- 112.7% of baseline. This naloxone-induced response was attenuated by pretreatment with DGG (200 micrograms i.c.v.) or D-APH (25 micrograms i.c.v.). To the extent that CA.OC reflects locus coeruleus neuronal activity, the present findings further suggest that increases in locus coeruleus activity during naloxone precipitated withdrawal after both acute and chronic morphine treatment are mediated at least in part by activation of EAA pathways. PMID:8221081

  10. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  11. Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine.

    PubMed

    Alper, K R; Lotsof, H S; Frenken, G M; Luciano, D J; Bastiaans, J

    1999-01-01

    Ibogaine is an alkaloid with putative effect in acute opioid withdrawal. Thirty-three cases of treatments for the indication of opioid detoxification performed in non-medical settings under open label conditions are summarized involving an average daily use of heroin of .64 +/- .50 grams, primarily by the intravenous route. Resolution of the signs of opioid withdrawal without further drug seeking behavior was observed within 24 hours in 25 patients and was sustained throughout the 72-hour period of posttreatment observation. Other outcomes included drug seeking behavior without withdrawal signs (4 patients), drug abstinence with attenuated withdrawal signs (2 patients), drug seeking behavior with continued withdrawal signs (1 patient), and one fatality possibly involving surreptitious heroin use. The reported effectiveness of ibogaine in this series suggests the need for systematic investigation in a conventional clinical research setting. PMID:10506904

  12. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) α, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

  13. Expression of c-Fos in the rat central amygdala accompanies the acquisition but not expression of conditioned place aversion induced by withdrawal from acute morphine dependence.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunyu; Araki, Hiroaki; Nagata, Mari; Shimosaka, Riho; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    2005-06-01

    Conditioned reinforcement is hypothesized to be critically involved in drug addiction as a factor contributing to compulsive drug use and relapse. The present study focused on the neurobiology involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned reinforcing effects of morphine withdrawal employing a conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm in acute-dependent rats. Expression of c-Fos in the amygdala (the central nucleus, CeA; the medial nucleus, MeA; the basolateral nucleus, BLA) following naloxone-precipitated withdrawal and the CPA test was examined using a range of naloxone doses (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg). Naloxone dose-dependently produced CPA in rats given a single morphine exposure. In CeA, but not MeA with high-level constitutive neuronal activity, the naloxone-induced modification in c-Fos immunoreactivity following morphine pretreatment exhibited a dose-dependent pattern similar to that seen in the behavioral study. On the other hand, none of the three amygdaloid nuclei examined including CeA, MeA and BLA showed notable sensitivity of c-Fos to the conditioned withdrawal stimulus. These results suggest that CeA may play a role in the negative affective aspect of withdrawal from acute dependence, and in part suggest that the acquisition and expression of CPA may involve different neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:15904717

  14. Orexins in the midline thalamus are involved in the expression of conditioned place aversion to morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; Wang, Huiying; Qi, Keke; Chen, Xiaoyu; Li, Sa; Sui, Nan; Kirouac, Gilbert J

    2011-01-10

    Previous studies have implicated the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of the amygdala and the shell of the nucleus accumbens (collectively called the extended amygdala) as playing an important role in mediating the aversive emotion associated with opioid withdrawal. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) provides a very dense input to the extended amygdala, and the PVT is densely innervated by orexin neurons, which appear to be involved in producing some of the physical and emotional effects associated with morphine withdrawal. In the present study, we confirm that the PVT is densely innervated by orexin fibers, whereas the regions of the extended amygdala associated with the effects of morphine withdrawal are poorly innervated. Microinjections of the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 or the orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist TCSOX229 at doses of 5.0 or 15.0 microg into the PVT region did not affect the acquisition of the conditioned place aversion (CPA) nor the physical effects produced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In contrast, microinjections of TCSOX229 (15.0 microg) in the PVT region significantly attenuated the expression of naloxone-induced CPA while microinjections of SB334867 at the same dose had no effect. The results from these experiments indicate a role for OX2R in the PVT on the expression of CPA associated with morphine withdrawal. Orexins may mediate the aversive effects of morphine withdrawal by engaging the extended amygdala indirectly through the action of orexins on the PVT. PMID:20951152

  15. Involvement of noradrenergic transmission in the PVN on CREB activation, TORC1 levels, and pituitary-adrenal axis activity during morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martín, Fátima; Núñez, Cristina; Marín, M Teresa; Laorden, M Luisa; Kovács, Krisztina J; Milanés, M Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and clinical findings have shown that administration of adrenoceptor antagonists alleviated different aspects of drug withdrawal and dependence. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in CREB activation and phosphorylated TORC1 levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal as well as the HPA axis activity arises from α(1)- and/or β-adrenoceptor activation. The effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on CREB phosphorylation (pCREB), phosphorylated TORC1 (pTORC1), and HPA axis response were measured by Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay in rats pretreated with prazosin (α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist). In addition, the effects of morphine withdrawal on MHPG (the main NA metabolite at the central nervous system) and NA content and turnover were evaluated by HPLC. We found an increase in MHPG and NA turnover in morphine-withdrawn rats, which were accompanied by increased pCREB immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone concentrations. Levels of the inactive form of TORC1 (pTORC1) were decreased during withdrawal. Prazosin but not propranolol blocked the rise in pCREB level and the decrease in pTORC1 immunoreactivity. In addition, the HPA axis response to morphine withdrawal was attenuated in prazosin-pretreated rats. Present results suggest that, during acute morphine withdrawal, NA may control the HPA axis activity through CREB activation at the PVN level. We concluded that the combined increase in CREB phosphorylation and decrease in pTORC1 levels might represent, in part, two of the mechanisms of CREB activation at the PVN during morphine withdrawal. PMID:22355339

  16. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a lot of cocaine cuts down or quits taking the drug. Symptoms ... even if the user is not completely off cocaine and still has some of the drug in ...

  17. Nicotine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Ian; Dani, John A.; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    An aversive abstinence syndrome manifests 4–24 h following cessation of chronic use of nicotine-containing products. Symptoms peak on approximately the 3rd day and taper off over the course of the following 3–4 weeks. While the severity of withdrawal symptoms is largely determined by how nicotine is consumed, certain short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to predispose individuals to consume larger amounts of nicotine more frequently—as well as to more severe symptoms of withdrawal when trying to quit. Additionally, rodent behavioral models and transgenic mouse models have revealed that specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, cellular components, and neuronal circuits are critical to the expression of withdrawal symptoms. Consequently, by continuing to map neuronal circuits and nAChR subpopulations that underlie the nicotine withdrawal syndrome—and by continuing to enumerate genes that predispose carriers to nicotine addiction and exacerbated withdrawal symptoms—it will be possible to pursue personalized therapeutics that more effectively treat nicotine addiction. PMID:25638335

  18. Formation of aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal requires BDNF expression in the amygdala in acute morphine-dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yun-yue; Long, Jian-dong; Liu, Yao; Liu, Jing-gen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in learning and memory in multiple brain areas. In the present study, we investigated the roles of BDNF in aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats. Methods: Conditioned place aversion (CPA) was induced in male SD rats exposed to a single dose of morphine (10 mg/kg, sc) followed by naloxone (0.3 mg/kg, sc). In some rats, BDNF receptor antagonist K252a (8.5 ng per side) or BDNF scavenger TrkB-FC (0.65 μg per side) was bilaterally microinjected into amygdala before naloxone injection. BDNF mRNA and protein expression levels in amygdala were detected after the behavior testing. Results: CPA behavior was induced in rats by the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, which was accompanied by significantly increased levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the amygdala. Bilateral microinjection of TrkB-FC or K252a into the amygdala completely blocked CPA behavior in the rats. Conclusion: Formation of aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats requires BDNF expression in the amygdala. PMID:26567727

  19. Pleiotrophin modulates morphine withdrawal but has no effects on morphine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-09-14

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important functions in addiction and neurodegenerative disorders. Morphine administration induces an increase in the expression of PTN and Midkine (MK), the only other member of this family of cytokines, in brain areas related with the addictive effects of drug of abuse, like the Ventral Tegmental Area or the hippocampus. In spite of previous studies showing that PTN modulates amphetamine and ethanol rewarding effects, and that PTN is involved in morphine-induced analgesia, it was still unknown if the rewarding effects of morphine may be regulated by endogenous PTN. Thus, we aim to study the role of PTN in the reward and physical dependence induced by morphine. We used the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Second, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN-/- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26222257

  20. Calcium channel inhibitors suppress the morphine-withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bongianni, F.; Carla, V.; Moroni, F.; Pellegrini-Giampietro, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the Ca2+-channel blockers verapamil and nimodipine, on the behavioural signs of naloxone (1 mg kg-1)-induced abstinence syndrome in morphine-dependent rats, were evaluated. The content of noradrenaline (NA) and of its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) was measured, using high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in various brain regions of these animals. Possible interactions of nimodipine and verapamil with opioid receptors were evaluated by examining their ability to displace [3H]-naloxone binding to brain membranes. Verapamil (5, 10 and 50 mg kg-1) and nimodipine (1, 5 and 10 mg kg-1) dose-dependently reduced most of the signs of morphine abstinence. Naloxone-precipitated abstinence decreased the NA content in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum. In the same brain regions the content of MHPG increased, suggesting an increased release of the amine during morphine abstinence. Nimodipine (10 mg kg-1 i.v.) did not change the content of NA or MHPG in the cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. However, nimodipine pre-treatment markedly reduced the changes in NA and MHPG content induced by the abstinence syndrome. Neither verapamil nor nimodipine displaced [3H]-naloxone from its binding sites. These results suggest that Ca2+-channel blockers suppress the behavioural and neurochemical expressions of morphine abstinence by a mechanism that differs from those of opioids or alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:3017487

  1. Extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats is blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Brian R; Carlezon, William A; Myers, Karyn M

    2013-04-29

    Maladaptive conditioned responses (CRs) contribute to psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders and addiction. Methods of reducing these CRs have been considered as possible therapeutic approaches. One such method is extinction, which involves exposure to CR-eliciting cues in the absence of the event they once predicted. In animal models, extinction reduces both fear and addiction-related CRs, and in humans, extinction-based cue exposure therapy (CET) reduces fear CRs. However, CET is less effective in drug addicts, for reasons that are not clear. Increased understanding of the neurobiology of extinction of drug-related CRs as compared to fear CRs may help illuminate this issue. Here, we examine the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependence of extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Using a place conditioning paradigm, we trained morphine-dependent rats to associate an environment with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. We then extinguished that association by returning the rats repeatedly to the environment in the absence of acute withdrawal. In some rats we administered the NMDA receptor antagonist d,l-2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (AP5) intracerebroventricularly immediately prior to extinction training. In a subsequent test session, these rats avoided the formerly naloxone-paired environment, similar to rats that had not undergone extinction training. By contrast, rats that received vehicle prior to extinction training did not avoid the formerly naloxone-paired environment. This finding indicates that extinction of a drug-related CR (conditioned opiate withdrawal) is dependent on NMDA receptors, similar to extinction of conditioned fear. The locus of the critical NMDA receptors is unclear but may include basolateral amygdala and/or medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:23416323

  2. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, P P; Chen, J; Harenza, J L; Abdullah, R A; Sim-Selley, L J; Cravatt, B F; Miles, M F; Chen, X; Lichtman, A H; Damaj, M I

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abrupt discontinuation of nicotine, the main psychoactive component in tobacco, induces a withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent animals, consisting of somatic and affective signs, avoidance of which contributes to drug maintenance. While blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the primary catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), exacerbates withdrawal responses in nicotine-dependent mice, the role of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main hydrolytic enzyme of a second endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), in nicotine withdrawal remains unexplored. Experimental Approach To evaluate the role of MAGL enzyme inhibition in nicotine withdrawal, we initially performed a genetic correlation approach using the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel. We then assessed nicotine withdrawal intensity in the mouse after treatment with the selective MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, and after genetic deletion of the enzyme. Lastly, we assessed the association between genotypes and smoking withdrawal phenotypes in two human data sets. Key Results BXD mice displayed significant positive correlations between basal MAGL mRNA expression and nicotine withdrawal responses, consistent with the idea that increased 2-AG brain levels may attenuate withdrawal responses. Strikingly, the MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, dose-dependently reduced somatic and aversive withdrawal signs, which was blocked by rimonabant, indicating a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. MAGL-knockout mice also showed attenuated nicotine withdrawal. Lastly, genetic analyses in humans revealed associations of the MAGL gene with smoking withdrawal in humans. Conclusions and Implications Overall, our findings suggest that MAGL inhibition maybe a promising target for treatment of nicotine dependence. PMID:25258021

  3. Opiate and opioid withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... opiate withdrawal; Oxycontin - opiate withdrawal; Hydrocodone - opiate withdrawal; Detox - opiates; Detoxification - opiates ... facilities set up to help people with detoxification (detox). In a regular hospital, if symptoms are severe. ...

  4. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  5. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  6. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  7. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  8. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  9. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  10. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

  11. Vital Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your weight. Respiratory rate, which measures your breathing. Mild breathing changes can be from causes such as a ... nose or hard exercise. But slow or fast breathing can also be a sign of a serious ...

  12. Withdrawal strategies for outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Mezciems, Edgar

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses outpatient withdrawal strategies for patients addicted to alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and opiates and describes some practical ways to support recovery. PMID:8828877

  13. Two newborns of heroin-addicted mothers suffering neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kale-Çekinmez, Eren; Mutlu, Birgül; Yapıcıoğlu, Hacer; Ozlü, Ferda; Asker, Hüseyin; Mert, Kurthan; Narlı, Nejat; Satar, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal withdrawal syndrome is characterized by non-specific signs and symptoms that occur in infants following in-utero drug exposure. The incidence of neonatal withdrawal syndrome is 16-90% in infants of mothers abusing heroin. Clinical signs of withdrawal syndrome usually occur within the first 48-72 hours after birth. Central nervous system and gastrointestinal system symptoms are the main symptoms. In this case report, two newborns born to the mothers addicted to heroin who suffered neonatal withdrawal syndrome are presented. They were successfully treated with phenobarbital and morphine infusion. PMID:23692726

  14. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  15. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  16. Decreased brain reward produced by ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Schulteis, G; Markou, A; Cole, M; Koob, G F

    1995-01-01

    Abstinence from chronic administration of various drugs of abuse such as ethanol, opiates, and psychostimulants results in withdrawal syndromes largely unique to each drug class. However, one symptom that appears common to these withdrawal syndromes in humans is a negative affective/motivational state. Prior work in rodents has shown that elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) reward thresholds provide a quantitative index that serves as a model for the negative affective state during withdrawal from psychostimulants and opiates. The current study sought to determine whether ICSS threshold elevations also accompany abstinence from chronic ethanol exposure sufficient to induce physical dependence. Rats prepared with stimulating electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus were trained in a discrete-trial current-intensity ICSS threshold procedure; subsequently they were subjected to chronic ethanol administration in ethanol vapor chambers (average blood alcohol level of 197 mg/dl). A time-dependent elevation in ICSS thresholds was observed following removal from the ethanol, but not the control, chambers. Thresholds were significantly elevated for 48 hr after cessation of ethanol exposure, with peak elevations observed at 6-8 hr. Blood alcohol levels were directly correlated with the magnitude of peak threshold elevation. Ratings of traditional overt signs of withdrawal showed a similar time course of expression and resolution. The results suggest that decreased function of reward systems (elevations in reward thresholds) is a common element of withdrawal from chronic administration of several diverse classes of abused drugs. PMID:7597046

  17. Vital Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

  18. Wilderness Sign

    Wilderness sign beside a mountain hiking trail in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. This image was taken while the photographer was participating in the 2009 Joint Annual Meeting of these leading scientific societies: Mycological Society of America, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, ...

  19. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  20. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    McKeon, A; Frye, M A; Delanty, Norman

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients. PMID:17986499

  1. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Dress for success At a recent physics teachers meeting a colleague commented to me on the generally poor state of the throng's sartorial elegance. It's not that she thought they should all be clothes horses or catwalk models but certain rules seem to have been ignored. This didn't just apply to the older people in the crowd. In the interests of physics we drew up a few basic rules that seemed to have gone awry and we present them here for the benefit of new members of the profession: Trousers should meet shoes, or at least come within 2 cm of the laces. NB. Pedal pushers are not acceptable male attire. Sandals and socks should also be avoided. One of the few equations that all of the general public know (like E = mc2) is Socks + Sandals = Beard. Hair should be washed at least once a week (whether it needs to be or not), combing should take place more frequently. Particular styles are not important, but avoid hiding receding hair using the comb-over. If your jacket/cardigan frays at the elbow throw it away. Patching it up with leather patches is not decorous or clever. NB. Carpet samples are not an acceptable alternative. If you are watching a re-run of a 1970s television show one afternoon and you find yourself thinking how much you admire the actors' dress sense then it is time to go clothes shopping. Colours should match and complement each other. Some combinations should be banned, for example brown jacket with orange shirts are a no-no. Under no circumstances should you try to match brown tweed with anything, unless it's the inside of your dustbin. Men and ties. It is very common to want to wear one's old school or college tie to show off your origins and this is to be commended. However, it is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Ironing should be done on all outer garments, though there is no need to iron creases (fore and aft) so sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  2. Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Santwana; Malhotra, Mahima

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure, which is a very rare and uncommon event, occurred after discontinuation of steroid therapy that was taken to increase weight by the patient. The pathogenesis is not well understood. In this submission, we have highlighted the fact that withdrawal of steroid has a propensity to cause seizure as a rare withdrawal phenomenon. PMID:25969660

  3. Mirtazapine withdrawal-induced mania.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressant withdrawal mania is not a commonly reported occurrence. To date, there is only one published report of hypomanic episode on withdrawal of mirtazapine. A case is presented herein of a patient who experienced manic episode on withdrawal of mirtazapine. PMID:26816474

  4. Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Nichole M; Einstein, Emily B; Lopez, Maria B; McClure-Begley, Tristan D; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R

    2013-08-01

    Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [³H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of β4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of β4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

  5. Student Withdrawal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Craig

    This document addresses the problem of students withdrawing from courses before completion and in the process attempts to devise ways that Mendocino College can aid students complete their courses. The report uses findings from two research reports. The first report was completed at the Florida Community College (FCC), which discovered that 75% of…

  6. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

  7. Social Withdrawal in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  8. Social withdrawal in childhood.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Kenneth H; Coplan, Robert J; Bowker, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  9. Pharmacological modulation of geranylgeranyltransferase and farnesyltransferase attenuates opioid withdrawal in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2013-08-01

    Geranylgeranyltransferase and farnesyltransferase I, are noted to mediate a number of signal transduction cascades which are known to be involved in the causation of opioid withdrawal syndrome. GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 are selective modulators of geranylgeranyltransferase and farnesyltransferase subtype 1 respectively. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 on propagation of morphine dependence and resultant withdrawal signs in vivo, in sub-chronic morphine mouse model, and in vitro, in isolated rat ileum. Morphine was administered twice daily for 5 days following which a single day 6 injection of naloxone (8 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice. Withdrawal syndrome was quantitatively assessed in terms of withdrawal severity score and the frequency of jumping, rearing, fore paw licking & circling. Naloxone induced contraction in morphine withdrawn isolated rat ileum was employed as an in vitro model of opioid withdrawal syndrome. An isobolographic study design was employed to assess a potential synergistic activity between GGTI-2133 and FTI-276. GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 dose dependently attenuated naloxone induced morphine withdrawal syndrome both in vivo and in vitro. GGTI-2133 was also observed to exert a synergistic interaction with FTI-276. It is concluded that GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 attenuate the propagation of morphine dependence and reduce withdrawal signs possibly by a geranylgeranyl transferase; farnesyltransferase activation pathway linked mechanisms potentially in an interdependent manner. PMID:23415632

  10. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:24809146

  11. Confined Selective Withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse simple and composite emulsions possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy, materials science and industry. Here we present both experiments and slender-body theory regarding the generation of simple emulsions using a configuration that we have called Confined Selective Withdrawal, since it is an improved configuration of the classical Selective Withdrawal. We consider two different situations, namely, the cases when the outer flow Reynolds number is high and low, respectively. Several geometrical configurations and a wide range of viscosity ratios are analyzed so that the physics behind the phenomenon can be fully understood. In addition, we present both experiments and theory regarding the generation of composite emulsions. This phenomenon is only feasible when the outer flow Reynolds number is low enough. In this case, we propose a more complex theory which requires the simultaneous resolution of two interfaces in order to predict the shape of the jet and the sizes of the drops formed. The excellent agreement between our slender-body approximation and the experimental evidence fully validates our theories.

  12. Cuesta College Student Withdrawal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Peter F.; Cartnal, Ryan

    The spring 1999 student withdrawal survey was made available for approximately two weeks before the final withdrawal deadline to all students who formally dropped a class through the admissions office at either the North County or San Luis Obsipo campus of Cuesta College in California. A total of 438 useable surveys were collected. The identical…

  13. Taking Withdrawal from Unesco Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Depicts the U.S. withdrawal from UNESCO as an opportunity to initiate a new approach to international cooperation. Summarizes the reasons for U.S. withdrawal, inherent risks (isolationism, Soviet dominance, lack of a suitable replacement program), and steps in developing a new international educational organization more acceptable to U.S. values.…

  14. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Safety Home Safety Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  15. Withdrawal-like effects of pentylenetetrazol and valproate in the naive organism: a model of motivation produced by opiate withdrawal?

    PubMed

    Mucha, R F; Fassos, F F; Perl, F M

    1995-07-01

    Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and sodium valproate (VPA) produce acutely in the naive rat various behavioural effects resembling signs of opiate withdrawal in the morphine-treated subject. Suggestions in the literature that these substances may activate directly some of the neural consequences of opiate and drug withdrawal prompted us to look for and examine possible aversive effects of these substances at non-toxic doses. With a sensitive two-flavour, three-trial taste aversion procedure, relatively low doses of PTZ and VPA (5 and 160 mg/kg, respectively) do indeed have aversive effects. The maximum aversions were produced by 10 and 20 mg/kg PTZ and 320 mg/kg VPA and were equivalent to those of morphine withdrawal precipitated by 0.01-0.03 mg/kg naloxone in a morphine pellet-implanted animal. Moreover, the maximum aversions with PTZ and VPA were significantly higher than the maximum aversions seen with naloxone in the drug-naive animal under the same training conditions. Thus, the data from the present study confirmed the notion that low doses of PTZ and VPA in the naive animal may activate processes activated by drug withdrawal, including those important for the motivational effect of withdrawal. However, it was also pointed out that the lowest dose VPA producing aversion was higher than that found here to produce writhes and ataxia (80 mg/kg) but the same as that required for shaking (160 mg/kg), while the PTZ aversion was at a dose lower than that known to produce a PTZ cue. Implications were discussed for using withdrawal-like phenomena as a model in the non-treated organism of clinically-relevant withdrawal effects. PMID:7587968

  16. Withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus) as a Sexual Risk Reduction Strategy: Perspectives from African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Jennifer R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents’ beliefs about the benefits and risks of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) with respect to both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the course of qualitative interviews with African-American youth aged 14–19 (n = 124) about sexuality and risk, 24 adolescents spontaneously introduced the subject of withdrawal as a sexual risk reduction strategy. Eighteen percent of the sexually experienced adolescents mentioned their own use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method. From adolescents’ accounts of their own and their peers’ use of withdrawal, we learned that the cultural meanings of withdrawal within the context of adolescent relationships were multifaceted. Using withdrawal could signal sexual prowess in male youth, was seen as promoting trust and caring within a stable relationship, and was seen as mitigating the risk of pregnancy. However, adolescents also recognized that withdrawal did not protect against most STIs. Beliefs about withdrawal as a gendered skill and as a sign of trust may undermine some adolescents’ attempts to negotiate condom use for protection against STIs. PMID:18293076

  17. 27 CFR 19.164 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal bond. 19.164... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements for Operations and Withdrawal Bonds § 19.164 Withdrawal bond. (a) Requirement for a withdrawal bond. If a...

  18. 27 CFR 19.164 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal bond. 19.164... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements for Operations and Withdrawal Bonds § 19.164 Withdrawal bond. (a) Requirement for a withdrawal bond. If a...

  19. 27 CFR 19.164 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal bond. 19.164... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements for Operations and Withdrawal Bonds § 19.164 Withdrawal bond. (a) Requirement for a withdrawal bond. If a...

  20. 27 CFR 19.164 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal bond. 19.164... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements for Operations and Withdrawal Bonds § 19.164 Withdrawal bond. (a) Requirement for a withdrawal bond. If a...

  1. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  2. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  3. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  4. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  5. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  6. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  7. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  8. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  9. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  10. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  11. American Sign Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Langue des Signes Franaise).Todays ASL includes some elements of LSF plus the original local sign languages, ... can also be used to model the essential elements and organization of natural language. Another NIDCD-funded ...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.18... description of the effect of the withdrawal, including the number of contributing employers that withdrew in... plan, and a description of the effect of the withdrawal on the plan's contribution base. (3)...

  13. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.18... description of the effect of the withdrawal, including the number of contributing employers that withdrew in... plan, and a description of the effect of the withdrawal on the plan's contribution base. (3)...

  14. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.18... description of the effect of the withdrawal, including the number of contributing employers that withdrew in... plan, and a description of the effect of the withdrawal on the plan's contribution base. (3)...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.18... description of the effect of the withdrawal, including the number of contributing employers that withdrew in... plan, and a description of the effect of the withdrawal on the plan's contribution base. (3)...

  16. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more

  17. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  18. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  19. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among

  20. Differential effects of endocannabinoid catabolic inhibitors on morphine withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, Thomas F.; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M.; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibition of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and/or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) reduces somatic morphine withdrawal signs, but its effects on aversive aspects of withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845, or the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor SA-57 would reduce acquisition of morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned place avoidance (CPA) and jumping. Methods Mice were implanted with placebo or 75 mg morphine pellets, 48 h later injected with naloxone or saline and placed in the conditioning apparatus, and assessed for CPA at 72 h. Subjects were also observed for jumping behavior following naloxone challenge. Results Naloxone (0.056 mg/kg) produced robust CPA in morphine-pelleted, but not placebo-pelleted, mice. Morphine pretreatment prevented the occurrence of withdrawal CPA and withdrawal jumping, while clonidine (an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist) only blocked withdrawal CPA. THC, JZL184, and SA-57 significantly reduced the percentage of mice that jumped during the conditioning session, but did not affect acquisition of withdrawal CPA. PF-3845 did not reduce morphine withdrawal CPA or jumping. Finally, neither THC nor the endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors in non-dependent mice elicited a conditioned place preference or aversion. Conclusions These findings suggest that inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes reduces somatic morphine withdrawal signs, but not aversive aspects as inferred in the CPA paradigm. The observation that non-dependent mice administered inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation did not display place preferences is consistent with the idea that that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes might be targeted therapeutically, with reduced risk of abuse. PMID:25479915

  1. Factor Analytical Investigation of Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Withdrawal Syndrome in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-01-01

    Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an addictive and illicit substance used in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. It has become the most commonly used substance among villagers. The study aimed to explore the factor structure of the krathom withdrawal syndrome based on the findings of an earlier qualitative study. The current study was divided into two stages. Cross-sectional data collections were employed in both phases. The samples comprised, respectively, 196 and 330 krathom users aged over 25 years. The characteristics of krathom withdrawal symptoms and signs were identified and the factor structure examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity and multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors predicting the intensity of krathom withdrawal symptoms. The final scale comprised 20 items with four factors: craving-fatigue syndrome; musculoskeletal system and insomnia; mood symptoms; and autonomic nervous system/physical sickness. Symptoms and signs of krathom withdrawal similar to those of the withdrawal syndrome of opioid substances appear to be present in regular krathom users. The krathom withdrawal intensity is predicted by duration of krathom use, frequency, and daily amount of krathom use. PMID:27015537

  2. Who withdraws? Psychological individual differences and employee withdrawal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G

    2016-04-01

    Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595754

  3. A drug-paired taste cue elicits withdrawal and predicts cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Nyland, Jennifer E; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-03-01

    Addiction is a chronic disease where periods of abstinence are riddled with instances of craving, withdrawal, and eventual relapse to escalated drug use. Cues previously associated with drug use can have a deleterious effect on this cycle by precipitating withdrawal symptoms. Here we focus specifically on the relationship between avoidance of a drug-paired taste cue and the ability of the drug-paired cue to elicit withdrawal and, ultimately, drug seeking and taking. We used a rat model of drug addiction and naloxone-induced loss of body weight to test whether a taste cue elicits withdrawal in anticipation of drug availability. Experiment 1 investigated the ability of a taste cue to elicit signs of withdrawal when it predicted experimenter-administered morphine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). In Experiment 2, a saccharin taste cue was paired with the opportunity to actively self-administer cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion, i.v.). The results show that presentation of a morphine- or cocaine-paired taste cue is sufficient to elicit naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, and greater withdrawal predicts greater cocaine self-administration in rats. PMID:23174208

  4. Investigation of allyphenyline efficacy in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Del Bello, Fabio; Domi, Esi; Pigini, Maria; Nasuti, Cinzia

    2015-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that allyphenyline, behaving as ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and ?2A-adrenoceptor antagonist, in mice enhanced morphine analgesia, attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed significant antidepressant-like activity and was devoid of sedative side effects. Opioid and alcohol withdrawal shares several common neurobiological and molecular mechanisms. Therefore, in this study we expanded our analysis of the pharmacological properties of allyphenyline by investigating its ability to prevent the expression of somatic withdrawal signs, anxiety-like behavior and hyperlocomotion associated with chronic ethanol intoxication. Rats were subjected to induction of ethanol dependence via repeated daily intragastric ethanol (20%) administration for 4 consecutive days. Twelve hours after the last alcohol administration, somatic alcohol withdrawal signs were scored. Results revealed a significant expression of physical withdrawal signs that were not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of allyphenyline at the doses of 0.05, 0.275 and 0.5 mg/kg. In contrast, allyphenyline (0.05 and 0.275 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced hyperanxiety-like behavior observed 6 days after alcohol intoxication as measured using the defensive burying test. Allyphenyline also reduced open field hyperlocomotor activity associated with alcohol withdrawal. Notably, the anxiolytic effect of the compound, as well as the already reported antidepressant action, was observed at very low doses, suggesting the involvement of its ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Therefore, the present investigation suggests that allyphenyline might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to investigate the potential of compounds exhibiting ?2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism and ?2A-adrenoceptor antagonism in the treatment of hyperanxiety and hyperlocomotion occurring during alcohol withdrawal in dependent subjects. PMID:25895641

  5. 48 CFR 244.305-70 - Granting, withholding, or withdrawing approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... review, the ACO shall hold an exit conference with the contractor. At the conference, the ACO should— (1) Present the review team's recommendations, signed by the ACO; (2) Request the contractor submit its plan... Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 244.305-70 Granting, withholding, or withdrawing approval. Use...

  6. Varenicline enhances dopamine release facilitation more than nicotine after long-term nicotine treatment and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Xiomara A; Khroyan, Taline V; McIntosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2015-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2–3 months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at α6β2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in α6β2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action. PMID:25692023

  7. Clonidine withdrawal induced sympathetic surge.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael; Matsa, Ramprasad

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old man with a history of epilepsy and substance misuse presented to the hospital with status epilepticus. Difficult seizure control necessitated anaesthetising the patient followed by intubation and ventilation. A clonidine infusion was started as the patient developed withdrawal syndrome and was difficult to wean off mechanical ventilation. Once the withdrawal syndrome was controlled, the clonidine was abruptly stopped. Two hours after stopping the infusion, the patient developed high-grade fever, severe hypertension, tachycardia, profound sweating and lacrimation. The patient then developed respiratory distress syndrome secondary to acute pulmonary oedema. Clonidine withdrawal as a cause of such response was proposed. Reversal of symptoms and successful reweaning was achieved by restarting a low-dose clonidine infusion followed by slow downward titration and use of oral clonidine as a step-down measure. The patient was subsequently discharged from the intensive care unit. PMID:26038384

  8. Signs for Instructional Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannapell, Barbara M.; And Others

    Illustrations depict 465 new manual signs for use in high school and college instruction of deaf students. The signs represent words or phrases, usually made up of many letters, which are important to the following subject matters; sciences and mathematics (general terms), biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, psychology, humanities (general…

  9. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  10. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed

  11. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  12. Lorazepam withdrawal catatonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thanapal; Yadav, Anil; Sood, Mamta; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2013-12-01

    Catatonia is a rare manifestation of benzodiazepine withdrawal in elderly patients who have used it for a long time. We present a case of lorazepam withdrawal catatonia and highlight issues in diagnosis and management. PMID:24309887

  13. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw. 4219.18 Section 4219.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination...

  14. The effects of chronic versus acute desipramine on nicotine withdrawal and nicotine self-administration in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Neil E.; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by depression-like symptomatology that may be mediated by dysregulations in norepinephrine transmission. These aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal and the rewarding effects of nicotine play major roles in maintaining nicotine dependence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of desipramine (DMI), a preferential norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and antidepressant, on preclinical models of nicotine dependence in rats. Methods A rate-independent current-intensity discrete-trial threshold intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess brain reward function during nicotine withdrawal induced by cessation of nicotine infusion via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps (3.16 mg/kg/day, base). Nicotine withdrawal was also measured by somatic signs of withdrawal. DMI was administered acutely (2 or 5 mg/kg, salt) during nicotine/saline withdrawal. In other naïve rats, chronic DMI treatment via minipump (15 mg/kg/day, salt) began after 7 days of nicotine/saline exposure and continued during administration of nicotine/saline for 14 days and during nicotine/saline withdrawal. Additional rats acquired intravenous nicotine- or food-maintained responding, were prepared with DMI/vehicle-containing minipumps, and self-administered nicotine or food during 12 days of DMI/vehicle exposure. Results Acute DMI administration had no effect on threshold elevations observed in nicotine-withdrawing rats. Chronic DMI administration prevented the reward threshold elevations and the increased somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. Although chronic DMI significantly decreased nicotine self-administration, it also decreased food-maintained responding. Conclusions The results suggest that norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may be effective anti-smoking treatments that reduce the anhedonic depression-like and somatic components of nicotine withdrawal, and may alter the rewarding effects of nicotine and food. PMID:18438738

  15. How should opiate withdrawal be measured?

    PubMed

    Turkington, D; Drummond, D C

    1989-10-01

    Comparison is made between subjective and objective measurements of opiate withdrawal severity in a group of 24 regular opiate takers undergoing inpatient detoxification. A lack of correlation is found between patients' subjective ratings, objective nurse ratings and physiological parameters of withdrawal severity. This indicates that in future research the subjective and objective dimensions of withdrawal should be considered and measured separately. PMID:2676443

  16. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

  17. 5 CFR 1604.7 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Withdrawals. A service member may withdraw all or a portion of his or her account under the rules in 5 CFR... spousal rights in the context of a withdrawal (and the process by which a service member may obtain an exception to them) are explained at 5 CFR part 1650. (c) Combat zone contributions. If a service...

  18. 31 CFR 1010.714 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 1010.714 Section 1010.714 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL....714 Withdrawing requests. A person may withdraw a request for an administrative ruling at any...

  19. Amphetamine withdrawal: a behavioral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kokkinidis, L; Zacharko, R M; Anisman, H

    1986-04-28

    The effects of withdrawal from long-term amphetamine treatment of intracranial self-stimulation, forced swim-induced immobility, shuttle escape performance, acoustic startle and locomotor activity were evaluated. Mice implanted with stimulating electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus demonstrated stable and reliable rates of self-stimulation responding. After exposure to a chronic schedule of amphetamine treatment response rates were severely depressed. In addition to modifying intracranial self-stimulation responding, amphetamine withdrawal increased the duration of immobility in a forced-swim situation. Although chronic amphetamine exposure induced pronounced behavioral changes in the intracranial self-stimulation and forced swim tasks, drug withdrawal had little effect on shuttle escape performance, acoustic startle and locomotor activity. Based on these findings it was suggested that the development of post-amphetamine depression in the self-stimulation and forced swim paradigms was not related to variations in motoric or arousal mechanisms resulting from amphetamine withdrawal, but rather involved drug-induced changes in motivational processes. PMID:3702594

  20. Alcohol Withdrawal and Cerebellar Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Marianna E

    2015-08-01

    Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new therapy to manage cerebellar disorders associated with hyperexcitatory CNS disorders like ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25195804

  1. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66mg/kg, 2ml/kg) at set intervals of 24h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2μl) of either bicuculline (15μM) or SB-334867 (3mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors. PMID:26879836

  2. Sign On to Computers: A Dictionary of Computer Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zier, Cathy Diane; And Others

    This manual defines basic computer terminology and presents sign language gestures for the terms. The manual uses the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf's Manually Coded English Sign Language System, a compilation of signs derived from Signing Exact English and American Sign Language; it also indicates those instances where fingerspelling is…

  3. Psycholinguistique et langue des signes (Psycholinguistics and Sign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosjean, Francois

    1979-01-01

    Reviews research on sign language as an instrument of communication and on the psychological validity of sign language. Examines the production of sign language as compared to oral language, perception in sign language, and studies on the role of memory in sign language. (AM)

  4. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Page Content Article Body Although stress is a ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  5. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... away . Back to top Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  6. ALMA Antenna Contract Signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    On December 6, ESO signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe.

  7. Activation of brain NOP receptors attenuates acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal symptoms in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Stopponi, Serena; Braconi, Simone; Clementi, Stefano; Ubaldi, Massimo; Martin-Fardon, Rèmi; Weiss, Friedbert; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol withdrawal, refers to a cluster of symptoms that may occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic or prolonged ingestion. These symptoms make alcohol abstinence difficult and increase the risk of relapse in recovering alcoholics. In previous studies, we demonstrated that treatment with N/OFQ significantly reduces alcohol consumption and attenuates alcohol-seeking behaviour induced by environmental conditioning factors or by stress in rats. In the present study we evaluated whether activation of brain NOP receptors may also attenuate alcohol withdrawal signs in rats. METHODS For this purpose animals were subjected to a 6 day chronic alcohol intoxication (by intragastric administration) and at 8, 10 and 12 hours following cessation of alcohol exposure they were treated intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 μg/rat). Somatic withdrawal signs were scored after ICV treatment. In a subsequent experiment, to evaluate N/OFQ effects on alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety another group of rats was subjected to ethanol intoxication and after one week was tested for anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the last experiment an additional group of rats was tested for anxiety elicited by acute ethanol intoxication (hangover anxiety). For this purpose, animals received an acute dose (3.0 g/kg) of 20% alcohol and 12-h later were tested in the EPM following ICV N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0μg/rat). RESULTS Results showed that N/OFQ significantly reduced the expression of somatic withdrawal signs and reversed anxiety-like behaviors associated with both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. N/OFQ did not affect anxiety scores in nondependent animals. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system may represent a promising target for the development of new treatments to ameliorate alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:21223310

  8. In utero oxcarbazepine and a withdrawal syndrome, anomalies, and hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Rolnitsky, Asaph; Merlob, Paul; Klinger, Gil

    2013-06-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic agent that has been used during pregnancy, although its safety during pregnancy has not been sufficiently established. This article presents an infant born with renal and cardiac malformations who developed a withdrawal syndrome and hyponatremia following in utero exposure to oxcarbazepine. The infant was born at 35 weeks' gestation by urgent cesarean section to a mother in status epilepticus who had been treated with oxcarbazepine throughout her pregnancy. Evaluation for congenital anomalies identified mild aortic stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus, and severe left hydronephrosis due to left ureteropelvic junction stenosis. On the third day of life the infant developed clinical signs of a withdrawal syndrome, which peaked on day 7 and resolved by day 12. Transient hyponatremia resolved by day 8 of life. Follow-up showed normal development at 15 months. The association of a withdrawal syndrome with oxcarbazepine exposure has not been previously reported. The hyponatremia is consistent with adult reports. The possible association of oxcarbazepine with renal and cardiac malformations requires further confirmation. PMID:23668873

  9. [Psychiatric complications of alcoholism: alcohol withdrawal syndrome and other psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Cláudia; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence

    2004-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is an acute condition secondary to total or partial reduction of alcohol consumption, characterized by self limited signs and symptoms and different degrees of severity. It can be complicated by several clinical and/or other psychiatric related problems. The objective of this article is to review the most important psychiatric complications to alcohol withdrawal syndrome as well as other psychiatric disorders associated with alcohol dependence as Wernicke Korsakoff and Marchiava Bignami syndromes. We aim to promote early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, minimizing morbidity and mortality associated with them. PMID:15729445

  10. Paroxetine and neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pogliani, Laura; Schneider, Laura; Dilillo, Dario; Penagini, Francesca; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of neonatal withdrawal syndrome after in utero exposure to paroxetine 20 mg/day. The infant's symptoms, such as poor neonatal adaptation, respiratory distress, decerebrate posturing, irritability and tremors, commenced soon after birth and persisted for 5 days. All neonates exposed to antidepressants, particularly serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), during the last trimester should be followed-up closely for adverse symptoms. PMID:22736561

  11. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C; Page, Michelle E

    2008-05-15

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) have previously been shown to be important neural substrates involved in the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. The hypothesis that low dose naltrexone treatment attenuates noradrenergic hyperactivity typically associated with opiate withdrawal was examined in the present study by assessing norepinephrine tissue content and norepinephrine efflux using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED). The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. Naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal elicited a significant decrease in tissue content of norepinephrine in the BNST and amygdala. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the BNST of rats that received low dose naltrexone pre-treatment compared to controls. No significant difference was observed in the other brain regions examined. In a separate group of rats, norepinephrine efflux was assessed with in vivo microdialysis in the BNST or the FC of morphine dependent rats or placebo treated rats subjected to naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal that received either naltrexone in their drinking water (5 mg/L) or unadulterated water. Following baseline dialysate collection, withdrawal was precipitated by injection of naltrexone and sample collection continued for an additional 4 h. At the end of the experiment, animals were transcardially perfused and the brains were removed for verification of probe placement. Low dose naltrexone pre-treatment significantly attenuated withdrawal-induced increases of extracellular norepinephrine in the BNST, with a smaller effect in the FC. These findings suggest that alterations in norepinephrine release associated with withdrawal may be attenuated in forebrain targets of noradrenergic brainstem neurons that may underlie reduced behavioral signs of withdrawal following low dose naltrexone administration. PMID:18367303

  12. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C.; Page, Michelle E.

    2009-01-01

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) have previously been shown to be important neural substrates involved in the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. The hypothesis that low dose naltrexone treatment attenuates noradrenergic hyperactivity typically associated with opiate withdrawal was examined in the present study by assessing norepinephrine tissue content and norepinephrine efflux using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED). The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. Naltrexone precipitated withdrawal elicited a significant decrease in tissue content of norepinephrine in the BNST and amygdala. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the BNST of rats that received low dose naltrexone pretreatment compared to controls. No significant difference was observed in the other brain regions examined. In a separate group of rats, norepinephrine efflux was assessed with in vivo microdialysis in the BNST or the FC of morphine dependent rats or placebo treated rats subjected to naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal that received either naltrexone in their drinking water (5 mg/L) or unadulterated water. Following baseline dialysate collection, withdrawal was precipitated by injection of naltrexone and sample collection continued for an additional four hours. At the end of the experiment, animals were transcardially perfused and the brains were removed for verification of probe placement. Low dose naltrexone pre-treatment significantly attenuated withdrawal-induced increases of extracellular norepinephrine in the BNST, with a smaller effect in the FC. These findings suggest that alterations in norepinephrine release associated with withdrawal may be attenuated in forebrain targets of noradrenergic brainstem neurons that may underlie reduced behavioral signs of withdrawal following low dose naltrexone administration. PMID:18367303

  13. Gastrointestinal motor alterations induced by precipitated benzodiazepine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J; Fargeas, M J; Bueno, L

    1992-03-01

    The effects of benzodiazepine withdrawal on intestinal motor activity and propulsion were investigated in two groups of diazepam-dependent rats (15 mg/kg/day for 8 days). Withdrawal was precipitated by injection of two benzodiazepine antagonists (Ro 15.1788 and PK 11.95) acting on central and peripheral-type receptors, respectively. Intestinal motor activity was assessed by implanting electrodes for long-term electromyographic recordings. Gastrointestinal transit was evaluated after gavage by a marker (51CrO4Na2) and radioactivity counting. Both RO 15.1788 (15 mg/kg) and PK 11.195 (5 mg/kg) triggered an abstinence syndrome with behavioral and autonomic signs. At the intestinal level, Ro 15.1788 induced a phase of strong irregular spiking activity (173 +/- 63 min) which remained located in the duodenum. In contrast, PK 11.195 induced a period of propagated myoelectric complexes characterized by phases II and III of high amplitude. The cecal frequency was doubled during the 1st hr after withdrawal induced by the two antagonists. Both Ro 15.1788 and PK 11.195 at this dosage had no effect per se on intestinal motility in vehicle-treated rats. In the second group of rats, gastric emptying was enhanced by 49.4 and 45.6% by Ro 15.1788 and PK 11.195, respectively. In contrast, PK 11.195 was able to accelerate the intestinal transit more than did Ro 15.1788 (geometric center, 5.9 +/- 0.43 and 5.3 +/- 0.49, respectively, vs. 4.1 +/- 0.31 in control rats). Our study shows that precipitated benzodiazepine withdrawal in diazepam-dependent rats induces alterations of the intestinal myoelectrical activity leading to an increase of the gastrointestinal transit. Central and peripheral-type receptors are involved in these effects. PMID:1312156

  14. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  15. Eponymous signs in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

  16. Signs in Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of signs in Elizabeth George Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver," in which a settler youth and a young Indian learn to communicate by signs, and how the signs reveal much about each character's culture. Summarizes the plot elements of the book, including characters who are not as sympathetic to the Indian point of view. (PA)

  17. Measuring the incentive value of escalating doses of heroin in heroin-dependent Fischer rats during acute spontaneous withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Brian; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Rationale/objectives Although continued heroin use and relapse are thought to be motivated, in part, by the positive incentive-motivational value attributed to heroin, little is understood about heroin’s incentive value during the relapse-prone state of withdrawal. This study uses place preference to measure the incentive value attributed to escalating-dose heroin in the context of heroin dependence. Methods Male Fischer rats were exposed chronically to escalating doses of heroin in the homecage and during place preference conditioning sessions. Conditioned preference for the context paired with escalating-dose heroin was tested after homecage exposure was discontinued and rats entered acute spontaneous withdrawal. Individuals’ behavioral and locomotor responses to heroin and somatic withdrawal signs were recorded. Results Conditioned preference for the heroin-paired context was strong in rats that received chronic homecage exposure to escalating-dose heroin and were tested in acute withdrawal. Behavioral responses to heroin (e.g., stereotypy) varied widely across individuals, with rats that expressed stronger heroin preference also expressing stronger behavioral activation in response to heroin. Individual differences in preference were also related to locomotor responses to heroin but not to overt somatic withdrawal signs. Conclusions Escalating doses of heroin evoked place preference in rats, suggesting that positive incentive-motivational value is attributed to this clinically relevant pattern of drug exposure. This study offers an improved preclinical model for studying dependence and withdrawal and provides insight into individual vulnerabilities to addiction-like behavior. PMID:21748254

  18. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  19. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  20. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks

  1. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  2. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  3. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  4. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The

  5. Signs of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles-Lopez, Robin

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to make a well-designed signage package that is effective and enhances visitor first impressions of an institution. Examines questions to ask when planning traffic-pattern signage and the significance of the different hierarchy of signs; concludes with advice on signage design. (GR)

  6. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126

  7. L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.

    2013-01-01

    L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, L-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether L-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether L-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. L-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5 h. L-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that L-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

  8. l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

    2012-12-01

    l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

  9. Withdrawing benzodiazepines in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Tylee, Andre; Donoghue, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of benzodiazepine anxiolytics and hypnotics continues to excite controversy. Views differ from expert to expert and from country to country as to the extent of the problem, or even whether long-term benzodiazepine use actually constitutes a problem. The adverse effects of these drugs have been extensively documented and their effectiveness is being increasingly questioned. Discontinuation is usually beneficial as it is followed by improved psychomotor and cognitive functioning, particularly in the elderly. The potential for dependence and addiction have also become more apparent. The licensing of SSRIs for anxiety disorders has widened the prescribers' therapeutic choices (although this group of medications also have their own adverse effects). Melatonin agonists show promise in some forms of insomnia. Accordingly, it is now even more imperative that long-term benzodiazepine users be reviewed with respect to possible discontinuation. Strategies for discontinuation start with primary-care practitioners, who are still the main prescribers.This review sets out the stratagems that have been evaluated, concentrating on those of a pharmacological nature. Simple interventions include basic monitoring of repeat prescriptions and assessment by the doctor. Even a letter from the primary-care practitioner pointing out the continuing usage of benzodiazepines and questioning their need can result in reduction or cessation of use. Pharmacists also have a role to play in monitoring the use of benzodiazepines, although mobilizing their assistance is not yet routine. Such stratagems can avoid the use of specialist back-up services such as psychiatrists, home care, and addiction and alcohol misuse treatment facilities.Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine dependence have been reviewed in detail in a recent Cochrane review, but only eight studies proved adequate for analysis. Carbamazepine was the only drug that appeared to have any useful adjunctive properties for assisting in the discontinuation of benzodiazepines but the available data are insufficient for recommendations to be made regarding its use. Antidepressants can help if the patient is depressed before withdrawal or develops a depressive syndrome during withdrawal. The clearest strategy was to taper the medication; abrupt cessation can only be justified if a very serious adverse effect supervenes during treatment. No clear evidence suggests the optimum rate of tapering, and schedules vary from 4 weeks to several years. Our recommendation is to aim for withdrawal in <6 months, otherwise the withdrawal process can become the morbid focus of the patient's existence. Substitution of diazepam for another benzodiazepine can be helpful, at least logistically, as diazepam is available in a liquid formulation.Psychological interventions range from simple support through counselling to expert cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Group therapy may be helpful as it at least provides support from other patients. The value of counselling is not established and it can be quite time consuming. CBT needs to be administered by fully trained and experienced personnel but seems effective, particularly in obviating relapse.The outcome of successful withdrawal is gratifying, both in terms of improved functioning and abstinence from the benzodiazepine usage. Economic benefits also ensue.Some of the principles of withdrawing benzodiazepines are listed. Antidepressants may be helpful, as may some symptomatic remedies. Care must be taken not to substitute one drug dependence problem for the original one. PMID:19062773

  10. N-acetylcysteine decreased nicotine reward-like properties and withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, M.S.; Jackson, A.; Maldoon, P.P.; Damaj, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale N-acetylcysteine can increase extrasynaptic glutamate and reduce nicotine self-administration in rats and smoking rates in humans. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteine modulates the development of nicotine place conditioning and withdrawal in mice. Methods N-acetylcysteine was given to nicotine-treated male ICR mice. Experiment 1: reward-like behavior. N-acetylcysteine (0, 5, 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 15 min before nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline (10 ml/kg, s.c.) in an unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Conditioning for highly palatable food served as control. Experiment 2: spontaneous withdrawal. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (0, 15, 30, 120 mg/kg, i.p.) on anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs, and hyperalgesia were measured 18 - 24 hrs after continuous nicotine (24 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Experiment 3: Mecamylamine-precipitated, withdrawal-induced aversion. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (0, 15, 30, 120 mg/kg, i.p.) on mecamylamine (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitated withdrawal was determined after continuous nicotine (24 mg/kg, i.p., 28 days) using the conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. Results Dose-related reductions in the development of nicotine CPP, somatic withdrawal signs, hyperalgesia, and CPA were observed after N-acetylcysteine pretreatment. No effect of N-acetylcysteine were found on palatable food CPP, anxiety-like behavior, or motoric capacity (crosses between plus maze arms). Finally, N-acetylcysteine did not affect any measure in saline-treated mice at doses effective in nicotine-treated mice. Conclusions These are the first data suggesting that N-acetylcysteine blocks specific mouse behaviors associated with nicotine reward and withdrawal, which adds to the growing appreciation that N-acetylcysteine may have high clinical utility in combating nicotine dependence. PMID:26676982

  11. Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. )

    1990-02-26

    Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

  12. Oxidative Stress During Alcohol Withdrawal and its Relationship with Withdrawal Severity

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramamourty; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sridhar, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative parameters are altered during alcohol withdrawal and are said to contribute towards withdrawal symptoms in alcoholic patients. Aims: To study levels of five selected oxidative parameters during alcohol withdrawal state and after treatment of the withdrawal state and to assess the association of the oxidative parameters with the severity of alcohol withdrawal. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study done in a De-addiction clinic of a tertiary teaching centre, Southern India. 50 persons having alcohol withdrawal symptoms were included. The oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were assessed in during the withdrawal phase and again after the withdrawal had subsided. The same oxidative stress parameters were measured in the control group. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. One way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used for finding the association between the oxidative stress parameters levels and the severity of alcohol withdrawal. Multiple linear regression analysis done to predict variables associated with level of oxidative parameters. Results: During alcohol withdrawal the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde was elevated compared to that in the control group. Among the antioxidant enzymes the superoxide dismutase was higher and catalase was lower than the control group levels. After remission of the alcohol withdrawal both malondialdehyde remained higher and superoxide dismutase lower than in the control group. The levels of oxidative stress parameters not correlated with the severity of alcohol withdrawal. Conclusions: oxidative stress parameters show changes during alcohol withdrawal and during the remission of withdrawal. However, levels of oxidative stress parameters not correlated with the severity of withdrawal. PMID:25969603

  13. Withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... They Work? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? Do You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? Does Douching Prevent Pregnancy? About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) IUD Gyn Checkups About Birth Control Contact ...

  14. A Case Report of Clonazepam Dependence: Utilization of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring During Withdrawal Period.

    PubMed

    Kacirova, Ivana; Grundmann, Milan; Silhan, Petr; Brozmanova, Hana

    2016-03-01

    Clonazepam is long-acting benzodiazepine agonist used in short-acting benzodiazepine withdrawal; however, recent observations suggest the existence of its abuse.We demonstrate a 40-year-old man with a 20-year history of psychiatric care with recently benzodiazepine dependence (daily intake of ∼60 mg of clonazepam and 10 mg of alprazolam). High serum levels of both drugs were analyzed 3 weeks before admission to hospitalization (clonazepam 543.9 ng/mL, alprazolam 110 ng/mL) and at the time of admission (clonazepam 286.2 ng/mL, alprazolam 140 ng/mL) without any signs of benzodiazepine intoxication. Gradual withdrawal of clonazepam with monitoring of its serum levels and increase of gabapentin dose were used to minimize physical signs and symptoms of clonazepam withdrawal. Alprazolam was discontinued promptly. Clinical consequences of the treatment were controllable tension, intermittent headache, and rarely insomia.It is the first case report showing utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring during withdrawal period in the patient with extreme toleration to severe benzodiazepine dependence. PMID:26945373

  15. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  16. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.

  17. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  18. Acute withdrawal: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Brust, John C M

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range in severity from mild "hangover" to fatal delirium tremens (DTs). Tremor, hallucinosis, and seizures usually occur within 48 hours of abstinence. Seizures tend to be generalized without focality, occurring singly or in a brief cluster, but status epilepticus is not unusual. DTs usually appears after 48 hours of abstinence and consists of marked inattentiveness, agitation, hallucinations, fluctuating level of alertness, marked tremulousness, and sympathetic overactivity. The mainstay of treatment for alcohol withdrawal is benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy, which can be used to control mild early symptoms, to prevent progression to DTs, or to treat DTs itself. Alternative less evidence-based pharmacotherapies include phenobarbital, anticonvulsants, baclofen, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-blockers, alpha-2-agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockers. Treatment of DTs is a medical emergency requiring heavy sedation in an intensive care unit, with close attention to autonomic instability, fever, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalance. Frequent comorbid disorders include hypoglycemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. PMID:25307572

  19. 27 CFR 19.243 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal bond. 19.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety § 19.243 Withdrawal bond. Any person (or, in the case of a corporation, a corporation and its controlled...

  20. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  1. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  2. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  3. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  4. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  5. 42 CFR 1008.40 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion 1008.40 Withdrawal. The requestor of an advisory opinion may withdraw the request prior to the issuance of a formal advisory opinion... withdrawn, the requestor must pay the costs expended by the OIG in processing the opinion, as discussed...

  6. Spinal Surgery and Abrupt Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Karl; Brodsky, Jay B

    2015-11-01

    Abrupt cessation of intrathecal baclofen can lead to a serious withdrawal syndrome. The anesthesiologist must be prepared to avoid intraoperative interruption of baclofen delivery before starting spinal surgery and to recognize and treat the symptoms of baclofen withdrawal in the immediate postoperative period. PMID:26528702

  7. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to § 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  8. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to § 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  9. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to § 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  10. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to § 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  11. College Student Withdrawal: A Motivational Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; Fetters, William B.

    The process of withdrawal from two- and four-year institutions of higher education was studied. Data were drawn from the base year and the first and second follow-ups of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicated that: (1) women students were more likely to withdraw only in two-year colleges; (2) white…

  12. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public... Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... amendment, or any portion of a proposed State plan or plan amendment, at any time during the review...

  13. Selection for pentobarbital withdrawal severity: correlated differences in withdrawal from other sedative drugs.

    PubMed

    Kliethermes, Christopher L; Metten, Pamela; Belknap, John K; Buck, Kari J; Crabbe, John C

    2004-05-29

    In mice, withdrawal from agents that depress central nervous system function, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, results in the production of a withdrawal syndrome, one feature of which is increased severity of handling induced convulsions (HICs). High and Low Pentobarbital Withdrawal mice (HPW and LPW) were selectively bred to display severe and mild pentobarbital withdrawal HICs, respectively. These mice provide a valuable means to assess genetic correlations between withdrawal from pentobarbital and other sedative agents. We tested HPW and LPW mice for severity of HICs elicited during withdrawal from ethanol, diazepam, and zolpidem, and measured consumption of and preference for pentobarbital solutions in HPW and LPW mice. HPW mice displayed greater HICs than LPW mice during ethanol and zolpidem withdrawal, but differed less robustly during diazepam withdrawal. LPW mice consumed more pentobarbital in a solution of a moderate concentration than did HPW mice, but did not consume more pentobarbital at a higher or lower concentration. These results indicate that some of the same genes that affect the severity of withdrawal from pentobarbital also influence ethanol and zolpidem withdrawal, but that diazepam withdrawal may be less influenced by these genes. PMID:15120579

  14. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group. PMID:21226286

  15. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign language…

  16. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  17. Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K

    1982-01-01

    Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered. PMID:7166130

  18. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  19. Quine and the Segregrational Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, George

    1999-01-01

    In the context of theory of integrational linguistics, the segregational sign is distinguished from the integrational sign, and the operation of the former is analyzed. Focus is on how logic guides the sign, and how the theory of W. V. Quine accounts for these issues. (MSE)

  20. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  1. Tamoxifen withdrawal response. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Belani, C P; Pearl, P; Whitley, N O; Aisner, J

    1989-02-01

    A postmenopausal patient with breast cancer with a left infrahilar lung mass was treated with tamoxifen. She became asymptomatic, but after having stable disease for eight months, she developed progressive increase in the size of the mass necessitating tamoxifen withdrawal. Complete resolution of the mass occurred following withdrawal of tamoxifen. Withdrawal responses, though known to occur with additive hormonal treatment, especially complete regression of metastatic disease as seen in our patient, is not widely recognized. Thus, when clinically possible, patients should be observed off treatment for up to six weeks, before initiating a new therapeutic modality. PMID:2537066

  2. 5 CFR 1650.32 - Financial hardship withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial hardship withdrawals. 1650.32 Section 1650.32 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.32 Financial hardship withdrawals. (a) A participant who has not separated...

  3. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de minimis amounts. An employer shall be liable for de minimis amounts to the extent...

  4. 19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to withdraw. 144.31 Section 144.31 Customs... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.31 Right to... with § 141.20 of this chapter, or the transferee if the right to withdraw the merchandise has...

  5. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign. PMID:12712903

  6. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A... obligation under the agreement, the Secretary will consider among other things, (1) the effect of the...

  7. 46 CFR 390.10 - Nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... losses; (ii) The party desires to make an expenditure for research, development or design and such an expenditure is incident to new and advanced ship design, machinery and equipment; (iii) The withdrawal...

  8. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture. PMID:22316934

  9. Severe Relapsing Clozapine-Withdrawal Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Shahrour, Tarek; Siddiq, Muez; Ghalib, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined. PMID:26788394

  10. Severe Relapsing Clozapine-Withdrawal Catatonia.

    PubMed

    Shahrour, Tarek; Siddiq, Muez; Ghalib, Saad; Alsaadi, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined. PMID:26788394

  11. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  12. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Choudhary, Mona; Chandra, Mina

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on 'Alcohol withdrawal syndrome' in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  13. Withdrawing Benzodiazepines in Patients With Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Kyriacou, Andri

    2016-01-01

    The large class of CNS-depressant medications-the benzodiazepines-have been extensively used for over 50years, anxiety disorders being one of the main indications. A substantial proportion (perhaps up to 20-30%) of long-term users becomes physically dependent on them. Problems with their use became manifest, and dependence, withdrawal difficulties and abuse were documented by the 1980s. Many such users experience physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms on attempted cessation and may develop clinically troublesome syndromes even during slow tapering. Few studies have been conducted to establish the optimal withdrawal schedules. The usual management comprises slow withdrawal over weeks or months together with psychotherapy of various modalities. Pharmacological aids include antidepressants such as the SSRIs especially if depressive symptoms supervene. Other pharmacological agents such as the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, and the hormonal agent, melatonin, remain largely experimental. The purpose of this review is to analyse the evidence for the efficacy of the usual withdrawal regimes and the newer agents. It is concluded that little evidence exists outside the usual principles of drug withdrawal but there are some promising leads. PMID:26733324

  14. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  15. Gene Targeting Studies of Hyperexcitability and Affective States of Alcohol Withdrawal in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, G D; Crabbe, J C

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered rodents can be used to examine the influence of single genes on alcoholism-related phenotypes. We review studies that employed gene targeting with a focus on ethanol withdrawal-associated behaviors. Earlier studies targeted the glutamate and GABA systems as contributors to the underlying hyperexcitable state of convulsions or similar signs of ethanol withdrawal. Over the past decade, many gene-targeting studies have continued to focus on the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems; however, an increasing number of these studies have focused on other withdrawal outcomes such as anxiety-like behavior and escalated ethanol consumption. Although negative affective states may drive escalated ethanol drinking, few reported studies examined the phenotypes together. However, there is significant overlap in the systems that were manipulated in relation to studying the phenotypes individually. These studies reveal common genetic influences on withdrawal-associated anxiety, convulsions, and escalated drinking that may contribute to relapse, setting the stage for the identification of novel medications to jointly target these effects. PMID:27055618

  16. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  17. Job Attitudes and Organizational Withdrawal: An Examination of Retirement and Other Voluntary Withdrawal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Kathy A.; Hulin, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 82 academic and 84 nonacademic university staff about their retirement intentions and attitudes, work attitudes, and withdrawal behaviors found that dissatisfied individuals are more likely to engage in organizational withdrawal behavior, such as lateness, absenteeism, and retirement. Academic personnel had greater satisfaction and…

  18. Inflated reward value in early opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Linker, Kay E; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-03-01

    Through incentive learning, the emotional experience of a reward in a relevant need state (e.g. hunger for food) sets the incentive value that guides the performance of actions that earn that reward when the need state is encountered again. Opiate withdrawal has been proposed as a need state in which, through experience, opiate value can be increased, resulting in escalated opiate self-administration. Endogenous opioid transmission plays anatomically dissociable roles in the positive emotional experience of reward consumption and incentive learning. We, therefore, sought to determine if chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal produces a disruption in the fundamental incentive learning process such that reward seeking, even for non-opiate rewards, can become maladaptive, inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption and irrespective of need. Rats trained to earn sucrose or water on a reward-seeking chain were treated with morphine (10-30 mg/kg, s.c.) daily for 11 days prior to testing in withdrawal. Opiate-withdrawn rats showed elevated reward-seeking actions, but only after they experienced the reward in withdrawal, an effect that was strongest in early (1-3 days), as opposed to late (14-16 days), withdrawal. This was sufficient to overcome a negative reward value change induced by sucrose experience in satiety and, in certain circumstances, was inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption. Lastly, we found that early opiate withdrawal-induced inflation of reward value was blocked by inactivation of basolateral amygdala mu opioid receptors. These data suggest that in early opiate withdrawal, the incentive learning process is disrupted, resulting in maladaptive reward seeking. PMID:25081350

  19. Carisoprodol: abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S

    2010-03-01

    Carisoprodol (N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; N-isopropylmeprobamate) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose primary active metabolite is meprobamate, a substance with well established abuse potential similar to that of benzodiazepines. A number of reports show that carisoprodol has been abused for its sedative and relaxant effects, to augment or alter the effects of other drugs, and by the intentional combination of carisoprodol and other noncontrolled medications because of the relative ease (as compared to controlled substances) of obtaining prescriptions. The diversion and abuse of carisoprodol and its adverse health effects appear to have dramatically increased over the last several years. Clinicians have begun to see a withdrawal syndrome consisting of insomnia, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, anxiety, and ataxia in patients who abruptly cease intake of large doses of carisoprodol. Hallucinations and delusions may also occur. The withdrawal symptoms are very similar to those previously described for meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that what may actually be occurring is withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated as a result of intake of excessive amounts of carisoprodol. However carisoprodol itself is capable of modulating GABA(A) function, and this may contribute both to the drugs abuse potential and to the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation of intake. Carisoprodol has been classified as a controlled substance in several states in the US and restrictions on the use of the drug have been imposed in some European countries. Carisoprodol is metabolized to a controlled substance, has clear evidence of abuse potential and increasing incidence of abuse, and has shown evidence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation from intake. This article will discuss the abuse potential of carisoprodol and the associated withdrawal syndrome, and consider implications for future use of the drug. PMID:20088817

  20. Improving Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; McWilliams, James; Horton, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Context Excessive alcohol consumption is the nations third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Objective: Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. Design: In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Results: Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Conclusion: Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes. PMID:24867561

  1. A DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL OF GABAPENTIN VS. LORAZEPAM IN THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Malcolm, Robert; Randall, Patrick K.; Boyle, Elizabeth; Anton, Raymond F.; Becker, Howard C.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Some anticonvulsants ameliorate signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, but have an unacceptable side effect burden. Among the advantages of using anticonvulsant agents in this capacity is their purported lack of interaction with alcohol that could increase psychomotor deficits, increase cognitive impairment, or increase intoxication. The aim of the current study was to evaluate alcohol use and symptom reduction of gabapentin as compared to lorazepam in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Methods One hundred individuals seeking outpatient treatment of alcohol withdrawal with Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) ratings ≥10 were randomized to double-blind treatment with two doses of gabapentin (900 mg tapering to 600 mg or 1200 tapering to 800 mg) or lorazepam (6 mg tapering to 4 mg) for four days. Severity of alcohol withdrawal was measured by the CIWA-Ar on days 1-4 of treatment and on days 5, 7 and 12 post-treatment and alcohol use monitored by verbal report and breath alcohol levels Results CIWA-Ar scores decreased over time in all groups; high-dose gabapentin was statistically superior but clinically similar to lorazepam (p=0.009). During treatment, lorazepam-treated participants had higher probabilities of drinking on the first day of dose decrease (day 2) and the second day off medication (day 6) as compared to gabapentin-treated participants (p=.0002). Post-treatment, gabapentin-treated participants had less probability of drinking during the follow-up post-treatment period (probability=.2 for 900 mg and probability=.3 for 1200mg) compared to the lorazepam-treated participants (probability=.55). The gabapentin groups also had less craving, anxiety, and sedation compared to lorazepam. Conclusions Gabapentin was well tolerated and effectively diminished the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal in our population especially at the higher target dose (1200mg) used in this study. Gabapentin reduced the probability of drinking during alcohol withdrawal and in the immediate post-withdrawal week as compared to lorazepam. PMID:19485969

  2. Separate GABA afferents to dopamine neurons mediate acute action of opioids, development of tolerance and expression of withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aya; Jarvie, Brooke C; Robinson, Brooks G; Hentges, Shane T; Williams, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary GABA release from interneurons in VTA, projections from the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) was selectively activated in rat brain slices. The inhibition induced by μ-opioid agonists was pathway dependent. Morphine induced a 46% inhibition of IPSCs evoked from the RMTg, 18% from NAc and IPSCs evoked from VTA interneurons were almost insensitive (11% inhibition). In vivo morphine treatment resulted in tolerance to the inhibition of RMTg inputs, but not local interneurons or NAc inputs. One common sign of opioid withdrawal is an increase in adenosine-dependent inhibition. IPSCs evoked from the NAc were potently inhibited by activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors, whereas IPSCs evoked from RMTg were not changed. Blockade of adenosine receptors selectively increased IPSCs evoked from the NAc during morphine withdrawal. Thus, the acute action of opioids, the development of tolerance, and the expression of withdrawal are mediated by separate GABA afferents to dopamine neurons. PMID:24857021

  3. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  4. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production

  5. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  6. Campus Signs: Delivering the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses campus signage and the image it gives to visitors about the institution itself, as well as ways to evaluate existing sign systems to determine whether they are properly conveying the messages intended. How design, graphics, colors, logos, fabrication, and locations support the principal function of signs, not detract from them, are…

  7. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  8. A dynamical Marshall sign convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Monte Carlo sampling of quantum spin models is only practical when it is possible to gauge away simultaneously all negative signs in the coefficients of the ground state wavefunction. The existence of such a transformation is related to the possibility of establishing a bipartite pattern of magnetic order on the lattice and to the choice of a so-called Marshall sign convention. In practice, identifying the correct Marshall sign convention is the responsibility of the QMC practitioner, and the convention itself is generally hard coded. It turns out, however, that a locally optimal sign convention can be determined dynamically within the simulation---meaning that for nonfrustrated systems the simulation quickly establishes a Marshall sign convention that leads to sign-problem-free sampling and that for frustrated systems the Marshall sign convention continually evolves in Monte Carlo time so as to minimize the severity of the sign problem. For concreteness, we focus on a worm algorithm formulated in the basis of singlet product states.

  9. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  10. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

  11. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. PMID:24781751

  12. Withdrawal From Coparenting Interactions During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Donna; McHale, James; Talbot, Jean; Parmley, Meagan; Kuersten-Hogan, Regina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines early withdrawal in the coparenting system, and the utility of a brief problem-solving discussion about coparenting responsibilities as a means for evaluating such withdrawal. One hundred and fifteen couples were evaluated both prenatally and at 3 months postpartum. During prenatal assessments, parents rated their personalities and completed marital assessments. After the baby arrived, they completed a negotiation task in which they discussed disputes about parenting roles and responsibilities, and interacted together with the baby in a triadic play assessment. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was associated with greater disengagement and less warmth during triadic play and with fathers’ feelings that mothers did not respect their parenting. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was also forecast by low ego resilience and by an increase in depressive symptomatology during the postpartum. As the negotiation task appeared to be an effective provocateur of withdrawal when confronting coparenting disagreement, it may prove useful for eliciting this aspect of coparental process in work with couples. PMID:19130789

  13. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  14. Divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Myrick, H; Brady, K T; Malcolm, R

    2000-02-01

    The present study represents an open-label clinical trial comparing treatment with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) to divalproex in 11 inpatients with uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The trial used the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) scale. There were no significant differences in demographics or substance use parameters between the divalproex group (n = 6) or the lorazepam group (n = 5). A significant Group x CIWA-Ar score interaction [F(8,72) = 2.57, p < or = .01] was confirmed and further substantiated by a quadratic trend component for the interaction [F(1,9) = 24.9, p < or = .001]. This preliminary study supports further investigation of divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. PMID:10718170

  15. Complications of alcohol withdrawal: pathophysiological insights.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, L A; Boutros, N; Petrakis, I L; Krystal, J H

    1998-01-01

    Disease processes or events that accompany acute alcohol withdrawal (AW) can cause significant illness and death. Some patients experience seizures, which may increase in severity with subsequent AW episodes. Another potential AW complication is delirium tremens, characterized by hallucinations, mental confusion, and disorientation. Cognitive impairment and delirium may lead to a chronic memory disorder (i.e., Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Psychiatric problems associated with withdrawal include anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. In addition, alterations in physiology, mood, and behavior may persist after acute withdrawal has subsided, motivating relapse to heavy drinking. Recent advances in neurobiology may support the development of improved medications to decrease the risk of AW complications and support long-term sobriety. PMID:15706735

  16. Drug withdrawals and the lessons within.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dennis A; Schmid, Esther F

    2006-01-01

    Drug withdrawals over recent decades have triggered changes in the way that drug targets and screening programs are researched and designed. In the cases having the greatest impact, the reason for withdrawal was the reversible interaction of a drug or its metabolite with a single receptor, ion channel or enzyme (primary or secondary pharmacology). Once this interaction is identified, screens can be established and validated. When the mechanism is complex (eg, organ toxicity), however, such screens are difficult to implement and usually examine only the initial step, leading to considerable problems in extrapolation and risk definition. This review classifies drugs withdrawn from the US market over the last 25 years by their reasons for withdrawal, and examines how drug discovery programs have been modified in response to these events. PMID:16445116

  17. Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

  18. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/ . PMID:25630312

  19. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  20. Children's judgements of social withdrawal behaviours.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn

    2015-06-01

    Ding et al. (Brit. J. Dev. Psychol., 2015; 33, 159-173) demonstrated that Chinese children discriminate between the three subtypes of social withdrawal: Shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance. This commentary on the Ding et al.'s paper highlights the need to further explore the following: (1) children's understanding of the implications of being shy, unsociable, or socially avoidant, including assessing these which we know are associated with outcomes for socially withdrawn children; (2) what additional subtypes might exist naturally within the Chinese culture; and (3) consider the implications of social withdrawal on children's developing social skills. PMID:25853224

  1. Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, R J

    2000-10-01

    Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapies is ethical and medically appropriate in some circumstances. This article summarizes the American Medical Association's Education for Physicians on End-of-life Care (EPEC) curriculum module on withholding or withdrawing therapy. Before reviewing specific treatment preferences, it is useful to ask patients about their understanding of the illness and to discuss their values and general goals of care. Family physicians should feel free to provide specific advice to patients and families struggling with these decisions. Patients with decision-making capacity can opt to forego any medical intervention, including artificial nutrition/hydration and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:11037073

  2. [Vital signs of hemodynamic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Celotto, S; Nesci, M; Lucchini, A; Bellani, S; Bombino, M

    2003-04-01

    The aim of hemodynamic monitoring in intensive care is to recognize derangements in physiologic variables, which herald the progression toward organ failure. Traditionally the term "vital signs" refers to heart rate, arterial pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature monitoring. Continuous monitoring of vital signs, is advocated, since trends are more significant than single measurements, and is still a cornerstone, in the hemodynamic evaluation of a critically ill patient. Nevertheless, the spectrum of hemodynamic derangements that can arise during intensive care unit stay is very large and often additional information, beside the vital signs, are needed to evaluate correctly the individual patient. PMID:12766722

  3. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal: Second Generation Education Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25816126

  4. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section 1650.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has...

  5. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section 1650.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has...

  6. Ivy Sign in Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Saglam, Muzaffer; Yildiz, Bulent; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2016-02-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the progressive stenosis and collateral development of the distal internal carotid arteries. In this disease, several collateral vascular structures develop following stenosis and occlusion. The ivy sign is a characteristic Magnetic rezonance imaging (MRI) finding frequently encountered in patients with moyamoya. It can be observed both in post contrast T1-weighted images and Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. While this sign manifests in the form of contrasting on the cortical surfaces due to the formation of leptomeningeal collateral development and increased numbers of pial vascular webs on post contrast images, in FLAIR images it originates from the slow arterial flow in the leptomeningeal collateral vascular structures. In this case, we presented the Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) signs of moyamoya disease and "ivy sign" in MRI and its development mechanism in a 16 years old female patient. PMID:27026766

  7. Meningococcal Disease: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Signs & Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. Chickenpox (Varicella) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Chickenpox Home About Chickenpox Signs & Symptoms Complications Transmission Prevention & Treatment Photos Fact Sheet for Kids Vaccination ... Surveillance Outbreaks Control & Investigation of Varicella Outbreaks Outbreaks Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline ...

  9. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 By themselves, any one ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  10. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  11. Signs of the Menopausal Transition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopause: Time for a Change Heath and Aging Menopause: Time for a Change Signs of the Menopausal ... feeling tired, especially in the years just before menopause and during postmenopause. But, it is difficult to ...

  12. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  13. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  14. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  15. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  16. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  17. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  18. 5 CFR 2422.14 - Effect of withdrawal/dismissal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of withdrawal/dismissal. 2422.14 Section 2422.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... withdrawal/dismissal. (a) Withdrawal/dismissal less than sixty (60) days before contract expiration. When...

  19. 28 CFR 29.10 - Owner withdrawal from the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Owner withdrawal from the program. 29.10 Section 29.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.10 Owner withdrawal from the program. An owner may withdraw from the program at any time...

  20. 28 CFR 29.10 - Owner withdrawal from the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Owner withdrawal from the program. 29.10 Section 29.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.10 Owner withdrawal from the program. An owner may withdraw from the program at any time...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  6. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors and Their Relationship with Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdemli, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Problem Situation: People experience ups and downs in their job satisfaction and motivation levels at different points of their work lives for various reasons. One of the outputs of low job satisfaction and motivation is defined as "withdrawal behaviors" in the literature. Withdrawal behaviors are any employee behavior of withdrawal from…

  7. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  8. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  9. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  10. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  11. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  12. 29 CFR 2700.11 - Withdrawal of pleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of pleading. 2700.11 Section 2700.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.11 Withdrawal of pleading. A party may withdraw a pleading at any stage of...

  13. Student Withdrawals in Personalized and Lecture/Discussion Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semb, George, And Others

    Student withdrawals were compared to course completers in two variants of a contingency-managed lecture (CML) course and a personalized instruction (PI) course. Within both CML sections, withdrawals performed 10-25% worse on unit quizzes and 20-30% worse on review exams than did peers who completed the course. Within PI, withdrawals had a retake…

  14. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible...

  15. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  16. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  17. Student Withdrawals in Personalized and Lecture/Discussion Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semb, George, And Others

    Student withdrawals were compared to course completers in two variants of a contingency-managed lecture (CML) course and a personalized instruction (PI) course. Within both CML sections, withdrawals performed 10-25% worse on unit quizzes and 20-30% worse on review exams than did peers who completed the course. Within PI, withdrawals had a retake

  18. 29 CFR 2700.11 - Withdrawal of pleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of pleading. 2700.11 Section 2700.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.11 Withdrawal of pleading. A party may withdraw a pleading at any stage of...

  19. 29 CFR 2700.11 - Withdrawal of pleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of pleading. 2700.11 Section 2700.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.11 Withdrawal of pleading. A party may withdraw a pleading at any stage of...

  20. 29 CFR 2700.11 - Withdrawal of pleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of pleading. 2700.11 Section 2700.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.11 Withdrawal of pleading. A party may withdraw a pleading at any stage of...

  1. 29 CFR 2700.11 - Withdrawal of pleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of pleading. 2700.11 Section 2700.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.11 Withdrawal of pleading. A party may withdraw a pleading at any stage of...

  2. 19 CFR 10.60 - Forms of withdrawals; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forms of withdrawals; bond. 10.60 Section 10.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.60 Forms of withdrawals; bond. (a) Withdrawals from warehouse...

  3. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  4. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  5. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  6. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  7. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  8. 12 CFR 341.5 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from registration. 341.5 Section 341... POLICY REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES TRANSFER AGENTS § 341.5 Withdrawal from registration. (a) Notice of withdrawal from registration. Any transfer agent registered under this part that ceases to engage in...

  9. Course Withdrawals: A Probit Model and Policy Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John L.; Becker, William E.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of student decisions to withdraw from specific courses before assignment of grades but after the "add-drop" period at the University of Minnesota is presented. In a probit model, withdrawals appear to occur randomly, with notable exceptions. Student, class, and teacher characteristics are considered as variables related to withdrawal.…

  10. 75 FR 1658 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5, ``Administrative Guide for Obtaining Exemptions From Certain NRC Requirements Over... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG) 7.5, ``Administrative Guide for...

  11. 76 FR 16017 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.5 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.5, ``Criticality and Other Interior Evacuation Signals.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing Regulatory Guide 8.5, ``Criticality...

  12. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of application. 2.817 Section 2.817 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rulemaking § 2.817 Withdrawal of application. (a) The Commission may permit an applicant to withdraw an application for a standard...

  13. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  14. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  15. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  16. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  17. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  18. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of...

  19. Triage of the Sign Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss the sign problem in QCD at nonzero chemical potential and its relation with chiral symmetry breaking and the spectrum of the Dirac operator using the framework of chiral random matrix theory. We show that the Banks--Casher formula is not valid for theories with a sign problem and has to be replaced by an alternative mechanism that is worked out in detail for QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential.

  20. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., construction or reconstruction its fair market value. The party must obtain the prior written permission of the... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C. 53509...: (i) The acquisition, construction or reconstruction of a qualified agreement vessel; (ii)...

  1. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., construction or reconstruction its fair market value. The party must obtain the prior written permission of the... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C. 53509...: (i) The acquisition, construction or reconstruction of a qualified agreement vessel; (ii)...

  2. 31 CFR 103.84 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 103.84 Section 103.84 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.84...

  3. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  4. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  5. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for

  6. Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

  7. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

  8. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a...

  9. Withdrawal-Emergent Dyskinesias following Varenicline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Toffey, Brittany A; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Varenicline (Chantix[R]) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist used to aid smoking cessation. Adverse psychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are recognized and national drug monitoring has included reports of tardive dyskinesia, but no cases have been described in the literature. We now report the first two cases of varenicline-related withdrawal emergent dyskinesias. PMID:26106454

  10. 5 CFR 1620.22 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Government employment. (2) In addition to the circumstance described in paragraph (a)(1) of this... (2) Is not receiving retired pay as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawals. 1620.22 Section...

  11. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca L. Karas... Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997. RG 1.165 provides general...-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.165 does not alter the...

  12. 7 CFR 1902.10 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds § 1902.10 Withdrawals. (a) The Servicing Official will not countersign checks on the supervised bank account for the use of funds... credited to the supervised bank account established through the use of Form FmHA or its successor...

  13. 7 CFR 1902.10 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds § 1902.10 Withdrawals. (a) The Servicing Official will not countersign checks on the supervised bank account for the use of funds... credited to the supervised bank account established through the use of Form FmHA or its successor...

  14. 7 CFR 1902.10 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds § 1902.10 Withdrawals. (a) The Servicing Official will not countersign checks on the supervised bank account for the use of funds... credited to the supervised bank account established through the use of Form FmHA or its successor...

  15. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or

  16. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  17. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  18. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  19. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  20. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  1. Boys Withdraw More in One-on-One Interactions, Whereas Girls Withdraw More in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Heath, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Past research predicts that males will be more likely to withdraw in one-on-one interactions versus groups, whereas females will be more likely to withdraw in groups than in one-on-one interactions. Ninety-eight 10-year-old children engaged in a word generation task either in same-sex dyads or in groups. Boys completed significantly more words in…

  2. International Road Signs: Interpretability and Training Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Douglas; Actkinson, Tomme R.

    The drivers in a battalion about to be deployed to Germany were taught the meanings of international road signs using one of the following techniques: Sign Only, in which the road signs were presented via a slide projector and the names of the slides provided orally by the instructor; Sign Elaboration, which was identical to the Sign Only…

  3. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2014-02-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30% and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The total absolute error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we considered a reference scenario where per capita withdrawals were kept constant in time. Although there are large variations from region to region, this resulted in a European average increase of water withdrawals of 16%. If we extrapolate the average reduction in per capita withdrawals seen between 2000 and 2008, we forecast a reduction in average total water withdrawals of 4%. Considering a scenario where all countries converge to an optimal water use efficiency, we see an average decrease of 28%.

  4. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and of the psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugo-like body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrhoeic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell’s sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions by drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the “hidden” signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:20808514

  5. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Strumia, Renata

    2009-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and of the psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugo-like body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrhoeic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, acral coldness.The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell's sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions by drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:20808514

  6. Ivy Sign in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Saglam, Muzaffer; Yildiz, Bulent; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the progressive stenosis and collateral development of the distal internal carotid arteries. In this disease, several collateral vascular structures develop following stenosis and occlusion. The ivy sign is a characteristic Magnetic rezonance imaging (MRI) finding frequently encountered in patients with moyamoya. It can be observed both in post contrast T1-weighted images and Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. While this sign manifests in the form of contrasting on the cortical surfaces due to the formation of leptomeningeal collateral development and increased numbers of pial vascular webs on post contrast images, in FLAIR images it originates from the slow arterial flow in the leptomeningeal collateral vascular structures. In this case, we presented the Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) signs of moyamoya disease and “ivy sign” in MRI and its development mechanism in a 16 years old female patient. PMID:27026766

  7. Passive immunization with a nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody decreases brain nicotine levels but does not precipitate withdrawal in nicotine-dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Roiko, Samuel A.; Harris, Andrew C.; LeSage, Mark G.; Keyler, Daniel E.; Pentel, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination against nicotine is under investigation as a treatment for tobacco dependence. Passive immunization with nicotine-specific antibodies represents a complementary strategy to vaccination. A potential adverse effect of passive immunization in nicotine-dependent individuals is that it may lead to a rapid reduction in brain nicotine levels and trigger withdrawal. The goal of this study was to determine if passive immunization with the nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody Nic311 precipitated withdrawal in nicotine-dependent rats as measured by increases in brain reward thresholds and somatic signs. Another cohort of rats was used to measure brain nicotine levels after Nic311 administration. Nic311 30, 80 or 240 mg/kg reduced brain nicotine concentrations by 45, 83 or 92% compared to controls. None of these Nic311 doses precipitated withdrawal measured at intervals up to 72 hours following antibody administration. Administration of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine precipitated a robust nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, a substantial, but not complete, acute reduction in brain nicotine levels following passive immunization was not sufficient to precipitate nicotine withdrawal in nicotine-dependent rats. The Nic311 doses used have been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of nicotine, suggesting that the use of passive immunization to treat nicotine addiction is not likely to precipitate withdrawal. PMID:19393688

  8. Passive immunization with a nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody decreases brain nicotine levels but does not precipitate withdrawal in nicotine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Roiko, Samuel A; Harris, Andrew C; LeSage, Mark G; Keyler, Daniel E; Pentel, Paul R

    2009-08-01

    Vaccination against nicotine is under investigation as a treatment for tobacco dependence. Passive immunization with nicotine-specific antibodies represents a complementary strategy to vaccination. A potential adverse effect of passive immunization in nicotine-dependent individuals is that it may lead to a rapid reduction in brain nicotine levels and trigger withdrawal. The goal of this study was to determine if passive immunization with the nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody Nic311 precipitated withdrawal in nicotine-dependent rats as measured by increases in brain reward thresholds and somatic signs. Another cohort of rats was used to measure brain nicotine levels after Nic311 administration. Nic311 30, 80 or 240 mg/kg reduced brain nicotine concentrations by 45, 83 or 92% compared to controls. None of these Nic311 doses precipitated withdrawal measured at intervals up to 72 h following antibody administration. Administration of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine precipitated a robust nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, a substantial, but not complete, acute reduction in brain nicotine levels following passive immunization was not sufficient to precipitate nicotine withdrawal in nicotine-dependent rats. The Nic311 doses used have been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of nicotine, suggesting that the use of passive immunization to treat nicotine addiction is not likely to precipitate withdrawal. PMID:19393688

  9. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Patrick; Garfinkel, Doron; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 1880 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation. Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 612 months PRM treatment. Methods Data from a prospective 612-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary), adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]). Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM. Results Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as good or very good was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production. Conclusion Results support the efficacy and safety of PRM in primary insomnia patients aged 2080 throughout 612 months of continuous therapy. PRM discontinuation even after 12 months was not associated with adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, or suppression of endogenous melatonin production. PMID:21845053

  10. Attenuation of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome by Various Dosages of Curcumin in Comparison with Clonidine in Mouse: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Hosseini, Pantea; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Background Herbal medical compounds and their major constituent have been used in the management and treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and pain. This study was carried out to clarify the effect of curcumin, the major compound of turmeric, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mouse model and its possible mechanisms of pain relieving activity by assessing in writhing test as a model of visceral pain. Methods Due to two separate protocols (withdrawal syndrome and pain), 144 male albino mice were divided in two major groups. In withdrawal syndrome group, test effect of various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was assessed on withdrawal signs and compared with positive and negative control and standard treatment (clonidine 0.4 mg/kg) groups. In pain groups, to determine the mechanism of pain relieving activity of curcumin, various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) in three separated groups, were used against acetic acid induced writhing (which is a constriction) test. The most effective dose (40 mg/kg) was used in writhing test and compared with groups pretreated with antagonist of major neurotransmitters involved in pain; and compared with group pretreated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.05%) as control. Results Curcumin attenuates withdrawal syndrome in a dose dependent manner in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05). It also indicated that pretreatment with naloxone and cyproheptadine significantly attenuate antinociception effect of curcumin (P<0.05). Conclusion This study advocate that antinociception of curcumin was mediated by opioidergic and adrenergic system. PMID:25821292

  11. Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) may develop within 6-24 h after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for AWS is with benzodiazepines (BZDs). Among the BZDs, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed-dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as α2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and β-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptic agents can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for AWS have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents are discussed. PMID:25666543

  12. Dexmedetomidine for Sedation during Withdrawal of Support

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Chris; Tamburro, Robert F; Ceneviva, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Agents used to control end-of-life suffering are associated with troublesome side effects. The use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during withdrawal of support in pediatrics is not yet described. An adolescent female with progressive and irreversible pulmonary deterioration was admitted. Despite weeks of therapy, she did not tolerate weaning of supplemental oxygen or continuous bilevel positive airway pressure. Given her condition and the perception that she was suffering, the family requested withdrawal of support. Despite opioids and benzodiazepines, she appeared to be uncomfortable after support was withdrawn. Ketamine was initiated. Relief from ketamine was brief, and its use was associated with a “wide-eyed” look that was distressing to the family. Ketamine was discontinued and a dexmedetomidine infusion was initiated. The patient’s level of comfort improved greatly. The child died peacefully 24 hours after initiating dexmedetomidine from her underlying disease rather than the effects of the sedative. PMID:26339188

  13. Caffeine reinforcement: the role of withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Schuh, K J; Griffiths, R R

    1997-04-01

    This study examined caffeine's acute and withdrawal effects in moderate caffeine consumers (mean = 379 mg/day caffeine) to compare the relative contributions each might have to caffeine reinforcement. Subjects were caffeine restricted on the night before each of three sessions, which generally occurred at weekly intervals; these restrictions lasted until the session was completed approximately 19 h later. During the first two sessions, subjects received either placebo or caffeine (each subject's average daily intake). These two conditions occurred using a double-blind, quasi-random, crossover design. At the end of each session subjects completed the POMS, a caffeine withdrawal questionnaire, and a Multiple-Choice Form on which subjects made a series of discrete choices between receiving the drug again or receiving varying amounts of money. This form also included negative money amounts to assess how much subjects would forfeit to avoid placebo (e.g., withdrawal symptoms after placebo). During the third session, one of the previous choices was randomly selected and the consequence of that choice was implemented. Placebo increased self-reported feelings of "worn out," "headache," and "flu-like feelings," and decreased "alert," "upset stomach," "helpful," and "well-being" relative to caffeine. On the Multiple-Choice Forms, subjects chose to receive caffeine rather than an average of $0.38 and to forfeit $2.51 to avoid receiving placebo again. "Headache" was significantly correlated with amount of money forfeited to avoid placebo. These results suggest that, under these conditions, choice of caffeine is more potently controlled by avoiding withdrawal than it is by the positive effects of caffeine. PMID:9160847

  14. [Insomnia therapy and withdrawal of hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Garma, L; Widlöcher, D; Scherrer, J

    1982-11-18

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a treatment prescribed, in the course of an hospital consultation for sleep pathology, to patients suffering from chronic insomnia not improved by longstanding and sustained medication with hypnotic drugs. The basis of the treatment is a progressive but total withdrawal of hypnotics in so far taken regularly. The withdrawal of hypnotics was prescribed to 79 patients: 33 aged 17 to 39 years (group 1, mean age 30) and 46 aged 40 to 70 years (group 2, mean age 51). 41 showed primary psychophysiological insomnia and 28 showed insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders. In patients of group 1, the average durations were 8 years for insomnia and 3 years for sustained hypnotic use; these durations were 15 and 5 years respectively in patients of group 2. Hypnotic drug withdrawal was achieved without placebos in 3 months in group 1 patients and 5 months in group 2 patients. 65 patients completely stopped the continual use of hypnotics. Subjective improvement of insomnia was reported by 51 of these patients (as well as by 6 patients who were given simultaneous antidepressant therapy). 16 of the 51 improved patients have resorted to hypnotics occasionally (at intervals of 10 days or more). After complete withdrawal, patients went on consulting for various lengths of time: 5 months average for group 1, 14 months average for group 2. This study of a fairly large group of insomniacs shows the frequent ineffectiveness of a sustained use of currently available hypnotics. It also shows that two times out of three the complete stop of sustained hypnotic medication proved beneficial to the patient. PMID:6297032

  15. Ground-Water-Withdrawal Component of the Michigan Water-Withdrawal Screening Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  16. [Exogenous Cushing's syndrome and glucocorticoid withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Romanholi, Daniella J P C; Salgado, Luiz Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are widely used in clinical practice to control the activity of autoimmune, inflammatory, allergic diseases and other nosological entities. Therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids are often administered inappropriately and it is a particular problem because chronic therapy has many side effects, ranging from suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome to infections and changes in mental status. Factors influencing both the therapeutic and adverse effects of glucocorticoids include the pharmacokinetic properties of the glucocorticoid, daily dosage, individual differences in steroid metabolism and the duration of treatment. When used to control the activity of these diseases, four aspects of glucocorticoid withdrawal deserve special attention. First, the illness treated by steroids may relapse. Second, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may remain suppressed for a long time. Third, psychological dependence to these hormones often develops. Fourth, a nonspecific withdrawal syndrome may develop even while patients are receiving physiological replacement doses of glucocorticoids. The severity of the withdrawal syndrome depends on the phase and degree of dependence and includes many symptoms as anorexia, nausea, emesis, weight loss, fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, abdominal pain, lethargy, postural hypotension, fever, and skin desquamation. PMID:18209866

  17. The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

  18. Road Sign for USGS Crews

    A road sign warns drivers to watch for USGS crews measuring streamflow on the Bonnet Carré Spillway during flooding. In late 2015/early 2016, unusually large rainfall in the Upper Mississippi River Valley led to flooding throughout Arkansas, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Te...

  19. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español ( ... www.vaccineinformation.org). Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: ...

  20. The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven

  1. Hair-on-End Sign.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leslie; Rackard, Forrest

    2016-05-12

    A 35-year-old man with a history of sickle cell disease presented with a sickle cell crisis and headaches. CT of the head revealed a thickened calvaria with perpendicular proliferation of the trabeculae, a finding termed the hair-on-end sign. PMID:27168449

  2. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  3. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... not quite right” about their thinking, feelings or behavior before one of these illnesses appears in its full-blown form. One half of all mental illness begins by age 14 and 75% begins by age 24. Learning about developing symptoms, or early warning signs, and ...

  4. Library Signs and the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Marjorie A.

    This essay outlines general criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of an existing or proposed sign system for libraries with respect to the needs of physically disabled library users, specifically the deaf, the blind, and those confined to wheelchairs. The function of the International Symbol of Access is described, and design considerations

  5. The Multiplication of Signed Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlot, William; Roberts, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    Certain properties of lenses provide a physical model of the mathematical concepts of multiplication of integral numbers and of similarity transformations in geometry. Further, they can provide a realistic concrete representation for rules governing multiplication of signed numbers. Suggestions for problems and classroom demonstrations involving…

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Other Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Hispanic ...

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Other Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... the MMWR Science Clips Secondhand ...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Other Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... the MMWR Science Clips Preventing ...

  9. The HyperSign Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulezer, Susan

    This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive…

  10. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  11. [Neurobiology of alcohol withdrawal inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters].

    PubMed

    E?el, Ertu?rul

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a syndrome that is the result of adaptive changes in the brain secondary to chronic alcohol use and is associated with changes in many neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, and hormonal systems. Long-term exposure to ethanol leads to an imbalance in different excitatory (especially glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid), and inhibitory neurotransmitter (especially GABA, a major inhibitory amino acid) systems. When alcohol consumption is reduced or completely ceases, these imbalances are behaviorally expressed in the form of alcohol withdrawal. Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal are mainly associated with the hypofunction of GABA receptors and enhanced function of NMDA receptors. The imbalance between receptors may be exacerbated by repeated withdrawal. Some of these alterations may last for months following alcohol cessation and cause symptoms of protracted alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to the continuation of the cycle of alcohol addiction relapses. The search for biological alterations during alcohol withdrawal may not only render some important insights into the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but might also identify new targets for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and for preventing relapses following withdrawal. Therapists specializing in the treatment of addiction should be cognizant of the underlying biological mechanisms of alcohol withdrawal in order to more adequately understand the physiopathology of substance dependence in general. In this paper, we will review the changes in the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems involved in alcohol withdrawal, and we will discuss their roles in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:16755413

  12. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

  13. Enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but not cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during withdrawal from acute alcohol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Hollin M.; Hueston, Cara M.; Bishop, Christopher; Deak, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol withdrawal is associated with reduced activity, increased anxiety, and other signs of distress. Objective The goal of the current studies was to determine whether acute ethanol exposure would alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and cytokine responses to stress challenges imposed during the withdrawal period. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 4g/kg of ethanol to simulate acute binge-like ethanol intake. After characterizing the blood ethanol concentrations (BECs; Experiment 1), exploratory activity in a novel environment was explored at 10, 14 and 18 hr after ethanol (Experiment 2) to characterize altered activity patterns indicative of withdrawal. In Experiment 3, rats were exposed to footshock during withdrawal to examine whether prior ethanol exposure would alter cytokine and HPA axis responses to stress. Experiments 4–5 investigated HPA axis sensitivity and gene expression changes during restraint imposed during withdrawal. Results Prior ethanol exposure produced a period of stress hyper-reactivity evidenced by an enhanced HPA axis response (increased corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone) observed during withdrawal. While this hyper-reactivity in response to two different stress challenges (novel environment and restraint) was accompanied by profound behavioral changes indicative of withdrawal, no alterations in cytokine changes evoked by stress were observed. Conclusions Taken together, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol withdrawal enhances HPA axis reactivity to stress challenges, though not likely not as the result of heightened inflammatory signaling, and may have implications for understanding the mechanisms by which stress impacts relapse drinking in humans. PMID:21735074

  14. Repeated Dosing with Oral Cocaine in Humans: Assessment of Direct Effects, Withdrawal and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sharon L.; Stoops, William W.; Moody, David E.; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n=9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses [875 mg/day]) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) 2- to 3-fold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects [liking, high, good effects] and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours. PMID:19653786

  15. 23 CFR 750.707 - Nonconforming signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issued to a single sign owner, obviously in anticipation of the passage of a State control law. (ii.... 131 and the provisions of subpart D, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR. The conditions which establish a... regardless of when or where they are erected. (b) Nonconforming signs. A nonconforming sign is a sign...

  16. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze

  17. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  18. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  19. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or

  20. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are

  1. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  2. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  3. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  4. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  5. A calcium channel antagonist stereoselectively decreases ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability but not that due to bicuculline, in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, M. A.; Little, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made from CA1 area of isolated hippocampal slices of the mouse after chronic ethanol administration in vivo, with orthodromic stimulation of the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibres. 2. The (+)-isomer of the calcium channel antagonist PN 200-110 (isradipine) significantly decreased all the recorded signs of hyperexcitability in the slices during ethanol withdrawal. These included increased paired pulse potentiation and decreases in the thresholds for elicitation of single and multiple population spikes. 3. The (-)-isomer of PN 200-100 did not affect ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability in the slices. 4. Neither isomer of PN 200-110 affected the field potentials in slices from control animals. 5. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, lowered thresholds for eliciting population spikes in hippocampal slices from untreated animals. The active, (+)-isomer of PN 200-110 did not affect this action of bicuculline in hippocampal slices from untreated animals. 6. The stereoisomerism of the action of PN 200-110 on ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability in the hippocampal slice was therefore the same as that seen in blockade of calcium channels. The results suggested that ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability recorded in the isolated hippocampal slice involved increased activity of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. PMID:1832063

  6. Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

    2011-01-01

    Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

  7. The drug management of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, M. A.; Lichtigfeld, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the various phases of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome with special reference to the pitfalls of using neuroleptics. We outline the importance of adequate sedation using either benzodiazepines or chlormethiazole. We provide a critical appraisal of the currently employed anti-epileptic medication in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We also indicate the usefulness of analgesic nitrous oxide as a screening test in differentiating the cases of alcohol withdrawal syndrome needing further intensive therapy to prevent progression to delirium tremens. PMID:1982178

  8. Chronic Pruritus: a Paraneoplastic Sign

    PubMed Central

    Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Chronic itch could be a presenting sign of malignancy. Pruritus of lymphoma is the common prototype of paraneoplastic itch and can precede other clinical signs by weeks and months. Paraneopalstic pruritus has also been associated with solid tumors and is an important clinical symptom in paraneoplastic skin diseases such as erythroderma, Grovers disease, malignant acanthosis nigricans, generalized granuloma annulare, Bazex syndrome and dermatomyositis. In any case with high index of suspicion a thorough work-up is required. This review highlights the association between itch and malignancy and presents new findings related to pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of itch associated with malignancy. Combinative therapies reducing itch sensitization and transmission using selective serotonin and neuroepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Kappa opioids and Neuroleptics are of prime importance in reducing this bothersome symptom. PMID:21054705

  9. Spectrum of Signs of Pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Laura Schillirò, Maria; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Chiaese, Vincenzo; Romano, Luigia; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Pneumoperitoneum is caused by rupture of a hollow viscus that includes the stomach, small bowel, and large bowel, with the exception of those portions that are retroperitoneal in the duodenum and colon. The causes of pneumoperitoneum are numerous, ranging from iatrogenic and benign causes to more life-threatening conditions. In the absence of a benign cause of pneumoperitoneum, the identification of free intraperitoneal gas usually indicates the need for emergency surgery to repair a perforated bowel. The plain film is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting pneumoperitoneum: multiple signs of free intraperitoneal air can be found especially on supine abdominal radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) examination has been shown to be more sensitive than abdominal radiographs for the detection of free intraperitoneal air. It is important that the radiologist become familiar with the signs of pneumoperitoneum that can be discerned on abdominal radiographs, on CT scout view, and on CT scan. PMID:26827732

  10. Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

    1994-05-03

    The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

  11. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming. PMID:26704173

  12. Ethanol withdrawal in mice precipitated and exacerbated by hyperbaric exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Galleisky, G.G.; Syapin, P.J.; Malcolm, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Mice were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 9 days. On removal of the diet, exposure to 12 atmospheres absolute of a mixture of helium and oxygen precipitated earlier withdrawal, increased withdrawal scores for the first 6 hours, and increased the peak withdrawal intensity compared to dependent animals exposed to control conditions. The enhanced withdrawal did not appear to reflect alterations in ethanol elimination, oxygen or helium partial pressures, body temperature, or general excitability. These results extend to chronically treated animals the evidence that hyperbaric exposure antagonizes the membrane actions of ethanol.

  13. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  14. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries... Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. (a) Periods controlling... “Period (cc)”. (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness...

  15. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries... Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. (a) Periods controlling... “Period (cc)”. (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness...

  16. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries... Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. (a) Periods controlling... “Period (cc)”. (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness...

  17. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries... Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. (a) Periods controlling... “Period (cc)”. (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness...

  18. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries... Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. (a) Periods controlling... “Period (cc)”. (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness...

  19. 75 FR 74743 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension, Corrections to Existing Withdrawal, and Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... application to extend the withdrawal established by PLO No. 6849 (56 FR 16278), for an additional 20-year term... subsequently corrected by Federal Register notice 56 FR 24119, and PLO Nos. 6849 and 6907. The corrections to... States mining laws to protect the wildlife habitat and unique resource values of the refuge lands....

  20. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  1. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit. PMID:26493523

  2. [A case report on methadone withdrawal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chuang, Peing

    2009-12-01

    As methadone replacement therapy (MRT) has been practiced in Taiwan for only two years, little is known regarding its effects. This case report introduces methadone withdrawal symptoms experienced by a heroin addict who used MRT for a period of four months. The author provided direct counseling and support to the patient as well as worked to empower colleagues and family members to support the patient's successful break with methadone. Discussions and suggestions relevant to MRT policies and the care of methadone users are provided at the end of this report. PMID:19953462

  3. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models, including evaluation of more clinically relevant nicotine dosing regimens and other measures of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs), may be useful for understanding the development of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26658557

  4. The α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, but not the serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907, partially attenuated reward deficits associated with nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Based on phenomenological similarities between anhedonia (reward deficits) associated with drug withdrawal and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we showed previously that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine attenuated reward deficits associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. Antagonism of α2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to these effects of clozapine. We investigated here whether blockade of α2 or 5-HT2A receptors by idazoxan and M100907, respectively, would reverse anhedonic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal. Idazoxan treatment facilitated recovery from spontaneous nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal by attenuating reward deficits and increased number of somatic signs. Thus, α2 adrenoceptor blockade may have beneficial effects against nicotine withdrawal and may be involved in the effects of clozapine previously observed. M100907 worsened the anhedonia associated with nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal suggesting that monotherapy with M100907 may exacerbate the expression of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia or nicotine withdrawal symptoms in people, including schizophrenia patients, attempting to quit smoking. PMID:20627663

  5. Which young adults are most likely to use withdrawal?

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Use of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) has consequences for reproductive health, but few nationally representative studies exist. We 1) examined patterns of withdrawal among 15–24 year-old women men, and 2) explored withdrawal’s associations with socio-demographic, psychological, and sexual factors. Study design Using data from the 2006–10 National Survey of Family Growth, we assessed reports of any and only withdrawal use at last sexual episode in the last month from 3,517 sexually active 15–24 year-old women and men at risk of unintended pregnancy. Logistic regression documented associations with withdrawal. Results 14% of young women and 17% of young men reported any use of withdrawal at last sex; 7% and 6% respectively reported only use of withdrawal. Though associated with few socio-demographic factors, withdrawal was significantly linked with pregnancy- and condom attitudes. In regression models, compared to those who said they would be upset if they discovered they were pregnant, young women who said they would be pleased about a pregnancy were 2.2–2.6 times as likely to have used any/only withdrawal (p<0.01). For both women and men, those who felt that condoms were likely to diminish sexual pleasure were more likely to have used any/only withdrawal (ORs=1.8–2.6, p<0.05). Conclusions A greater proportion of young adults used withdrawal in conjunction with other methods than by itself. The psychological and sexual variables of orientation toward pregnancy and attitudes about condoms and pleasure were more strongly linked with withdrawal practices than most socio-demographic variables. PMID:25530102

  6. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

  7. Temperature regulation during withdrawal from ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Crawshaw, L.I.; Hayteas, D.L.; O'Connor, C.S.; Crabbe, J.C. Veterans Administration Hospital, Portland, OR )

    1991-03-11

    Male HS mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 hrs. The ethanol concentration in the air during this period was increase from 4-9 mg{center dot}1{sup {minus}1}. At time zero, the mice were injected with a pyrazole and ethanol. At 24 and 48 hrs, the pyrazole alone was administered. Control groups received either pyrazole or saline, but no ethanol vapor. The vapor dosing resulted in blood ethanol concentrations which increased from 0.64 {plus minus} 0.09 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 24 hr. to 1.89 {plus minus} 0.40 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 72 hrs. The mice carried intraperitoneally implanted mini-mitter temperature transmitters, which sensed core temperature. The selected temperature was quantified by monitoring the position of the mice within the tubes. During the 24 hr. of withdrawal, the core temperature of the experimental and control groups were very similar. During the first 10 hr., the selected temperature was lower for the withdrawal group than for the saline or pyrazole controls. By the end of the 24 hr., the selected temperature was similar for all three groups.

  8. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice. PMID:25042794

  9. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS ESTABLISHMENT OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS § 287.10 Withdrawals from fund. (a) Withdrawals for... contract for the construction or acquisition of new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of existing or... contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of...

  10. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-10 Withdrawals from fund. (a) Withdrawals for obligations or... the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of existing or... contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of...

  11. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATORS ESTABLISHMENT OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS § 287.10 Withdrawals from fund. (a) Withdrawals for... contract for the construction or acquisition of new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of existing or... contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of...

  12. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-10 Withdrawals from fund. (a) Withdrawals for obligations or... the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of existing or... contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of...

  13. Anhedonia as a Component of the Tobacco Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jessica W.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Animal research suggests that anhedonia is a tobacco withdrawal symptom, but this topic has not been addressed definitively in research with humans. This research sought to determine whether anhedonia is: 1) an element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans and 2) an impediment to successful tobacco cessation. Data were from 1175 smokers (58.3% women; 85.5% white) participating in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Ecological momentary assessments for 5 days before and 10 days after the target quit day were used to assess anhedonia and other established withdrawal symptoms. Consistent with drug withdrawal, anhedonia showed an inverted-U pattern of change in response to tobacco cessation and was associated with the severity of other withdrawal symptoms and tobacco dependence. Postquit anhedonia was associated with decreased latency to relapse (HR=1.09, 95%CI[1.02,1.17]) and with lower 8-week point prevalence abstinence (OR=.91, 95%CI[.86,.97])—relations that remained significant when other withdrawal symptoms were included as predictors. Finally, nicotine replacement therapy nearly fully suppressed the increase in abstinence-related anhedonia (β = −.66, p<.001), suggesting agonist suppression of withdrawal. Results suggest that anhedonia is a unique and motivationally significant element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans. These results have implications for defining and assessing tobacco use disorder and for understanding and treating tobacco addiction. PMID:25384069

  14. Conceptions of Aggression and Withdrawal in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Jessica W.; Heyman, Gail D.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigate young children's beliefs about aggression and withdrawal in others with reference to the possibility of stability and change. Study 1 (N = 41) provides evidence that preschool children (1) view aggression in more essentialist ways (i.e. they believe it to be more stable and less changeable) than withdrawal and (2) believe…

  15. Why Students Drop Classes and Withdraw from American River College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Richard A.; And Others

    In an effort to determine the causes of student attrition, a study was conducted at American River College (ARC) in December 1979, involving: (1) a survey of 1,174 students who had dropped at least one class while at ARC, and (2) a categorization of the reasons for college withdrawal indicated by 591 students on ARC's standardized withdrawal form.…

  16. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint. Enforcement of the provisions...

  17. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint. Enforcement of the provisions...

  18. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint. Enforcement of the provisions...

  19. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint. Enforcement of the provisions...

  20. 29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of complaint. 1977.17 Section 1977.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal of complaint. Enforcement of the provisions...

  1. 31 CFR 360.44 - Withdrawal of request for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of request for payment. 360.44 Section 360.44 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Provisions for Payment § 360.44 Withdrawal of request...

  2. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  3. 33 CFR 20.311 - Withdrawal or dismissal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subsection 10(d) of Executive Order 12777 (56 FR 54757; 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351)—that the Coast Guard... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal or dismissal. 20.311... Pleadings and Motions § 20.311 Withdrawal or dismissal. (a) An administrative proceeding may end...

  4. 37 CFR 1.313 - Withdrawal from issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from issue. 1.313... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.313 Withdrawal from issue. (a) Applications may be withdrawn from issue for further action...

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawals. 109-27.5106-2 Section 109-27.5106-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  10. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

  11. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  12. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  13. Physician characteristics associated with decisions to withdraw life support.

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, N A; Asch, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study was undertaken to identify attributes of physicians associated with physicians' decisions to withdraw life support. METHODS. Of the 862 Pennsylvania internists surveyed and asked to make decisions in response to hypothetical vignettes and to report their actual experience with the withdrawal of life support, 485 (56%) responded. The data were analyzed with regression models. RESULTS. With other factors controlled, physicians were more willing to withdraw life support if they were young, practiced in a tertiary care setting, or spent more time in clinical practice; they were less willing if they were Catholic or Jewish. Physicians reported a higher frequency of actually withdrawing life support if they were young, had more contact with ICU patients, spent more time in clinical practice, or were specialists. Physicians with a greater willingness to withdraw were more likely to report having done so. CONCLUSIONS. Physicians' personal characteristics are associated with both their preferences and their practice in the withdrawal of life support, and a greater willingness to withdraw is associated with a higher frequency of withdrawal. The influence of physician characteristics demonstrates that patient preferences and clinical circumstances do not exclusively govern such ethical decisions. PMID:7892921

  14. 24 CFR 13.3 - Withdrawal of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 13.3 Withdrawal of data. HUD... a three month period from the date the National Center receives information or notice that a child... Center of the need to withdraw from circulation penalty mail envelopes and other materials related to...

  15. 24 CFR 13.3 - Withdrawal of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 13.3 Withdrawal of data. HUD... a three month period from the date the National Center receives information or notice that a child... Center of the need to withdraw from circulation penalty mail envelopes and other materials related to...

  16. The Relationship of Personality Variables to Organizational Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardin, H. John

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of personality characteristics to organizational withdrawal and tests the Porter and Steers "polar" hypothesis, i.e., employees with high levels of emotional instability, anxiety, achievement orientation, aggression, independence, self-confidence and sociability were more apt to withdraw from organizations than…

  17. 46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. 391.7 Section...-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general. Section 607(h) of the Act provides rules for the tax treatment of...

  18. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. 3.7 Section 3.7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In...

  19. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. 3.7 Section 3.7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In...

  20. 46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. 391.7 Section...-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general. Section 607(h) of the Act provides rules for the tax treatment of...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  2. 10 CFR 2.817 - Withdrawal of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... proposed rulemaking or notice of proposed rulemaking was published on the NRC Web site, then the notice of action on the withdrawal will also be published on the NRC Web site. (b) The withdrawal of an...

  3. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  4. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  5. 30 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 74.18 Section 74.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.18 Withdrawal...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  9. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  10. 49 CFR 386.51 - Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment and withdrawal of pleadings. 386.51 Section 386.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules and Hearings § 386.51 Amendment and withdrawal of...

  11. 17 CFR 3.51 - Withdrawal of application for registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of application for registration. 3.51 Section 3.51 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Denial, Suspension or Revocation of Registration § 3.51 Withdrawal of application for...

  12. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... requesting an advisory opinion may withdraw the request before CMS issues a formal advisory opinion....

  13. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... requesting an advisory opinion may withdraw the request before CMS issues a formal advisory opinion....

  14. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... requesting an advisory opinion may withdraw the request before CMS issues a formal advisory opinion....

  15. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... requesting an advisory opinion may withdraw the request before CMS issues a formal advisory opinion....

  16. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... requesting an advisory opinion may withdraw the request before CMS issues a formal advisory opinion....

  17. Who Withdraws from Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Andrew J.; Giannakaki, Marina-Stefania; Chambers, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In recent years, withdrawal from initial teacher preparation (ITP) programmes, in England and elsewhere, has become a cause for concern amongst both ITP providers and policy-makers. Purpose: This paper seeks to enhance the presently underdeveloped evidence base on the causes of withdrawal from ITP and on the characteristics of student…

  18. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.6 Section 900.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... committed fraud, or has submitted material false statements to the agency, FDA may withdraw its approval...

  19. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.6 Section 900.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... committed fraud, or has submitted material false statements to the agency, FDA may withdraw its approval...

  20. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.6 Section 900.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Accreditation § 900.6 Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation activities of § 900.5,...

  1. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.6 Section 900.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Accreditation § 900.6 Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation activities of § 900.5,...

  2. 21 CFR 900.6 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.6 Section 900.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... committed fraud, or has submitted material false statements to the agency, FDA may withdraw its approval...

  3. 21 CFR 900.24 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.24 Section 900.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY States as Certifiers § 900.24 Withdrawal of approval. If FDA determines, through the evaluation activities of...

  4. 7 CFR 62.203 - How to withdraw service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to withdraw service. 62.203 Section 62.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service § 62.203 How to withdraw service. Service may be withdrawn by the applicant at any...

  5. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Register of September 3, 2008 (73 FR 51490), we announced that Zentox Corp., c/o Burdock Group, 801 North... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY:...

  6. 27 CFR 19.536 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.536 Section 19.536 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax § 19.536 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. Pursuant to the regulations in this chapter, spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises free of tax— (a) On receipt of a...

  7. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  8. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  9. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  10. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  11. 75 FR 43208 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... because the guidance is outdated. Former Sec. 73.31(e) has been deleted (44 FR 68184; November 28, 1979... COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17, ``Truck Identification Markings''. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert...

  12. Rare Form of Dyskinetic Movements Associated with Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Sathya; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders are known to occur during alcohol withdrawal. Tremor, choreoathetosis, transient parkinsonism, myoclonus and dystonia have been previously described. The present report describes involuntary ‘fluttering’ movements of fingers developing during alcohol withdrawal reminiscent of a rare form of tardive dyskinesia. Such a presentation has not been described earlier.

  13. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  14. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  15. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  16. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  18. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ANNULMENT OR WITHDRAWAL OF CERTIFICATES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENT-LEARNERS, APPRENTICES, LEARNERS, MESSENGERS, HANDICAPPED...

  19. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ANNULMENT OR WITHDRAWAL OF CERTIFICATES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENT-LEARNERS, APPRENTICES, LEARNERS, MESSENGERS, HANDICAPPED PERSONS,...

  7. 29 CFR 528.3 - Withdrawal and annulment of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.3 Withdrawal and annulment of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal and annulment of certificates. 528.3 Section 528.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.23 Standards for water withdrawals. (a) The project sponsors of...

  9. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.23 Standards for water withdrawals. (a) The project sponsors of...

  10. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published... substantial public impact, that it does not duplicate a standard published by a private...

  11. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen After the "high" of ... English Español "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Current issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Cancer Cardiovascular ...

  13. 49 CFR 234.245 - Signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.245 Signs. Each sign mounted on a highway-rail grade crossing signal post shall...

  14. Cooperative Sign Language Tutoring: A Multiagent Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ilker; Aran, Oya; Yolum, Pınar; Akarun, Lale

    Sign languages can be learned effectively only with frequent feedback from an expert in the field. The expert needs to watch a performed sign, and decide whether the sign has been performed well based on his/her previous knowledge about the sign. The expert's role can be imitated by an automatic system, which uses a training set as its knowledge base to train a classifier that can decide whether the performed sign is correct. However, when the system does not have enough previous knowledge about a given sign, the decision will not be accurate. Accordingly, we propose a multiagent architecture in which agents cooperate with each other to decide on the correct classification of performed signs. We apply different cooperation strategies and test their performances in varying environments. Further, through analysis of the multiagent system, we can discover inherent properties of sign languages, such as the existence of dialects.

  15. Grandfather Moose: Sign Language Nursery Rhymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Harley

    1987-01-01

    "Grandfather Moose" rhymes, written to follow the Mother Goose tradition, are short, appealing, easy-to-memorize sign language nursery rhymes which employ visual poetic devices such as similar signs and transitional flow of movement. (CB)

  16. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  17. The Paget-Gorman Sign System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jacqueline

    1981-01-01

    The Paget-Gorman Sign System, a signed English approach shown to be effective with deaf or hard of hearing children, has been helpful in developing phrase structure in hearing impaired mentally retarded students. (CL)

  18. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen People who are trying ... Previous Index Next Español English Español "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  19. Signs and Symptoms of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs . Early Signs and Symptoms (3 to 30 days after tick bite) Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle ... examples of EM rashes Later Signs and Symptoms (days to months after tick bite) Severe headaches and ...

  20. 78 FR 69992 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Carbarsone; Roxarsone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... observed, consult a efficiency; and for veterinarian; withdraw treatment of swine 5 days before dysentery... weight). dysentery; and for observed, consult a treatment of bacterial veterinarian; withdraw...

  1. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw. PMID:22102789

  2. Are withholding and withdrawing therapy always morally equivalent?

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, D P; Sugarman, J

    1994-12-01

    Many medical ethicists accept the thesis that there is no moral difference between withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. In this paper, we offer an interesting counterexample which shows that this thesis is not always true. Withholding is distinguished from withdrawing by the simple fact that therapy must have already been initiated in order to speak coherently about withdrawal. Provided that there is a genuine need and that therapy is biomedically effective, the historical fact that therapy has been initiated entails a claim to continue therapy that cannot be attributed to patients who have not yet received therapy. This intrinsic difference between withholding and withdrawing therapy is of moral importance. In many instances, patients will waive this claim. But when one considers withdrawing therapy from one patient to help another in a setting of scarce resources, this intrinsic moral difference comes into sharp focus. In an era of shrinking medical resources, this difference cannot be ignored. PMID:7861426

  3. Using Sign Language in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Constance D.

    This paper reviews the research on use of American Sign Language in elementary classes that do not include children with hearing impairment and also reports on the use of the manual sign language alphabet in a primary class learning the phonetic sounds of the alphabet. The research reported is overwhelmingly positive in support of using sign

  4. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  5. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... survival craft Whenever a call sign 2 is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this... Commission may elect to assign a separate call sign to each station in a different class. (In addition to...

  6. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... survival craft Whenever a call sign 2 is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... Commission may elect to assign a separate call sign to each station in a different class. (In addition to...

  7. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... survival craft Whenever a call sign 2 is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... Commission may elect to assign a separate call sign to each station in a different class. (In addition to...

  8. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... survival craft Whenever a call sign 2 is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... Commission may elect to assign a separate call sign to each station in a different class. (In addition to...

  9. Sign Language Conversational Interaction between Chimpanzees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Roger S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Systematic sampling was done of signing between five home-reared chimpanzees who had had 4-7 years of complete immersion in integrating their signing interaction into their nonverbal communication. Eight-eight percent of all signs reported fell into the social categories of reassurance, social interaction, and play. (SL)

  10. A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

  11. Phonological Similarity in American Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Ursula; Corina, David

    2002-01-01

    Investigates deaf and hearing subjects' ratings of American Sign Language (ASL) signs to assess whether linguistic experience shapes judgments of sign similarity. Findings are consistent with linguistic theories that posit movement and location as core structural elements of syllable structure in ASL. (Author/VWL)

  12. 12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official sign. 328.1 Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7″ by...

  13. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including

  14. The Etymology of an Esoteric Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joseph D.; Moores, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development of a sign that was understood only by certain members of a group. The stages of evolution are studied from its original gross pattern to a refined, simpler sign. The sign had only two years to develop and was influenced by phonological and social-environmental constraints. (PJM)

  15. The University of Michigan Campus Identification Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.

    Specific information, identification, and direction to and within the campus as factors determining a campus sign system are discussed in terms of--(1) needs requiring an identification sign system, (2) recommendations for initiating a comprehensive sign system for the university, and (3) application procedures as they relate to streets, walkways,…

  16. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  17. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  18. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  19. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language…

  20. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…