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1

Examining the effect of the CaMKII inhibitor administration in the locus coeruleus on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug addiction is an occurrence with physiological, psychological, and social outcomes. Repeated drug exposure causes neuronal adaptations and dependency. It has been shown that CaMKII? enzyme contributes to morphine dependency. The locus coeruleus nucleus has been implied in the morphine withdrawal syndrome. This research focuses on the behavioral and molecular adaptations that occur in the locus coeruleus neurons in response

M. Navidhamidi; S. Semnanian; M. Javan; M. Goudarzvand; K. Rohampour; H. Azizi

2

A pilot study of dextromethorphan in naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextromethorphan and its metabolite dextrorphan antagonize N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated activity in pre-clinical studies. We examined dextromethorphan's effects on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in opiate-dependent subjects stabilized on 25 mg of methadone. Subjects received challenges on three different days with 0.4 mg of intramuscular naloxone. Pretreatment 1 h before naloxone was with dextromethorphan in a double-blind, balanced, randomized design with either placebo, dextromethorphan

Marc I. Rosen; Thomas J. McMahon; Scott W. Woods; H. Rowland Pearsall; Thomas R. Kosten

1996-01-01

3

A pilot study of dextromethorphan in naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal.  

PubMed

Dextromethorphan and its metabolite dextrophan antagonize N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated activity in pre-clinical studies. We examined dextromethorphan's effects on naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in opiate-dependent subjects stabilized on 25 mg of methadone. Subjects received challenges on three different days with 0.4 mg of intramuscular naloxone. Pretreatment 1 h before naloxone was with dextromethorphan in a double-blind, balanced, randomized design with either placebo, dextromethorphan 60 mg, or dextromethorphan 120 mg for six subjects; and placebo, dextromethorphan 120 mg, or dextromethorphan 240 mg for five subjects. There was considerable inter-individual variability in the response to dextromethorphan, but no net attenuation by dextromethorphan on any withdrawal measure assessed. Two of three subjects detoxified from methadone with dextromethorphan 60 mg orally every 4 h demonstrated considerable withdrawal. PMID:8836612

Rosen, M I; McMahon, T J; Woods, S W; Pearsall, H R; Kosten, T R

1996-07-01

4

Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal  

SciTech Connect

To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

5

Ethopharmacological analysis of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats: a newly-developed "etho-score".  

PubMed

The intensity of opiate withdrawal syndrome in rats is usually quantified on the basis of selected physical signs or global scores. However, the selection criteria of signs and scores have not been subjected to an ethological discussion, hence they appear to be somewhat arbitrary. The objectives of this study were thus: i) to analyse the rat's behaviour during the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome, ii) to evaluate the validity of classic methods, and iii) to design a new "etho-score". Ten rats were implanted with morphine pellets (75 mg x 2, SC), all receiving different naloxone doses following a within-subject design (0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg SC). Twenty unexperienced rats and 20 with placebo pellets were injected with either saline or naloxone. Behaviour was videotaped and later analysed by computer-based ethological techniques. The ethogram encompassed 16 patterns displayed by rats during morphine withdrawal. Frequency, duration and latency of each pattern was measured, and a cluster analysis allowed discerning the structure of behaviour. Several physical signs and the Gellert-Holtzman score were also evaluated. The data revealed that writhing responses linearly changed in a dose-related fashion, and mastication was also enhanced after naloxone. Wet-dog shakes and jumping changed following an U-shaped curve. Significant changes in weight loss were found to be dose-dependent, and highly correlated to diarrhea. Learning effects were found to reliably affect exploration, writhing responses and some physical signs. The Gellert-Holtzman score was gradually enhanced after naloxone, being affected by learning as well. Naloxone affected lying and self-care responses in placebo rats. To sum up, the data indicated that: i) classic signs are useful, although most of them are disrupted by high naloxone or affected by learning effects, ii) the Gellert-Holtzman score was validated in this study, and iii) mastication and weight loss are good indicators of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, representing the basis of an "etho-score" which is herein proposed. PMID:8848527

Fdez Espejo, E; Cador, M; Stinus, L

1995-11-01

6

Effect of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on c-fos expression in rat corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus and extended amygdala.  

PubMed

Morphine withdrawal is characterized by physical symptoms and a negative affective state. The 41 amino acid polypeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is hypothesized to mediate, in part, both the negative affective state and the physical withdrawal syndrome. Here, by means of dual-immunohistochemical methodology, we examined the co-expression of the c-Fos protein and CRH following naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Rats were treated with slow-release morphine 50 mg/kg (subcutaneous, s.c.) or vehicle every 48 h for 5 days, then withdrawn with naloxone 5 mg/kg (s.c.) or saline 48 h after the final morphine injection. Two hours after withdrawal rats were perfused transcardially and their brains were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry. We found that naloxone-precipitated withdrawal of morphine-dependent rats increased c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in CRH positive neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus. Withdrawal of morphine-dependent rats also increased c-Fos-IR in the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, however these were in CRH negative neurons. PMID:15147776

Hamlin, A S; Buller, K M; Day, T A; Osborne, P B

2004-05-13

7

Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R

2014-01-01

8

Inhibition of reinforcing effects of morphine and naloxone: precipitated opioid withdrawal by novel glycine site and uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycine site (MRZ 2\\/570 and L-701,324), and uncompetitive (MRZ 2\\/579) NMDA receptor antagonists inhibited morphine-produced behaviors related to drug-abuse. The expression of morphine dependence was blocked by pretreatment with all three compounds (3–7.5 mg\\/kg); the effects of glycine\\/NMDA antagonists were not dose-dependent. Mice which were morphine-free for 3 days still displayed a significant severity of the withdrawal syndrome when

P. Popik; J. Mamczarz; M Fr?czek; M Wid?a; M. Hesselink; W. Danysz

1998-01-01

9

Yohimbine co-treatment during chronic morphine administration attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal without diminishing tail-flick analgesia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noradrenergic neuronal hyperactivity following chronic morphine administration has been postulated to cause withdrawal signs and symptoms. Suppression of this hyperactivity, for example, by clonidine attenuates withdrawal. It might follow, therefore, that the prevention of suppression of noradrenergic systems during chronic morphine administration might diminish hyperactivity and prevent withdrawal. If the normalization of noradrenergic activity during opioid administration did not also

J. R. Taylor; V. O. Lewis; J. D. Elsworth; P. Pivirotto; R. H. Roth; D. E. Redmond

1991-01-01

10

Alleviation of Morphine Withdrawal Signs but Not Tolerance by the Essential Oil of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute treatment of the essential oil (EO) of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Mice were rendered tolerant to and dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine over a period of 5 days. Tolerance was assessed using the tail-pinch test and withdrawal signs of morphine were precipitated by injecting naloxone 2?h after the final morphine injection. Repeated injection of the EO of K. odoratissima (5 and 10?mg/kg) for 4 days significantly suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps, a sign of the development of dependence to opiate as assessed by naloxone precipitation withdrawal on day 5 of testing. A single injection (25, 50, 100?mg/kg) of the EO on day 5, 1?h prior to morphine failed to produce any significant change in morphine withdrawal signs. Neither the acute nor the chronic administration of EO of the K. odoratissima did significantly influence the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Alleviation in morphine signs of withdrawal after chronic injection with K. odoratissima is indicative of reversal of neuronal adaptation that takes place during morphine presence in the brain. PMID:22829859

Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Izadi, Azadeh

2012-01-01

11

Blockade by narcotic drugs of naloxone-precipitated jumping in morphine-dependent mice.  

PubMed

A dose regimen for administration of morphine, test drugs with potential to cause physical dependence and naloxone was determined to allow within one experimental day acquisition of morphine-dependent mice and evaluation of the narcotic drugs for their ability to prevent naloxone-precipitated jumping. This test procedure can be used to assess capacity of unknown drugs to suppress morphine withdrawal symptoms; the mechanism of suppression can be subsequently determined in secondary tests. However, for known morphine-like analgesics, the test procedure appears to reliably assess physical dependence properties. The results obtained on subcutaneous administration of five selected narcotic drugs and apomorphine show that their order of potency was methadone greater than meperidine equal apomorphine greater than d-propoxyphene greater than pentazocine. Codeine, also tested subcutaneously, did not substitute at sublethal doses. Except for apomorphine, which might have masked naloxone-precipitated jumping by inducing behavioral aggression, the order of potency compares favorably with the degree of physical dependence reported in humans. Thus, the described procedure might be employed to evaluate morphine substitution and hence potential physical dependence liability of unknown narcotic-like analgesics. PMID:1168251

Iorio, L C; Deacon, M A; Ryan, E A

1975-01-01

12

Anatomically dissociable effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists on reward and relief of withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Chronic opiate administration induces neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA)\\u000a that can contribute to dependence. We have shown that morphine dependence shifts the behavioral consequences of D1 dopamine\\u000a (DA) receptor signaling: systemic administration of a D1 receptor agonist is rewarding and blocks naloxone-precipitated withdrawal\\u000a signs in morphine-dependent rats, but has minimal effects in nondependent rats.

Elena H. Chartoff; Matthew F. Barhight; Steve D. Mague; Allison M. Sawyer; William A. Carlezon Jr

2009-01-01

13

Blockade of Endocannabinoid Hydrolytic Enzymes Attenuates Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms in MiceS?  

PubMed Central

?9-Tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has long been known to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. Although THC produces most of its pharmacological actions through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the role these receptors play in reducing the variety of opioid withdrawal symptoms remains unknown. The endogenous cannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), activate both cannabinoid receptors but are rapidly metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. The objective of this study was to test whether increasing AEA or 2-AG, via inhibition of their respective hydrolytic enzymes, reduces naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms in in vivo and in vitro models of opioid dependence. Morphine-dependent mice challenged with naloxone reliably displayed a profound withdrawal syndrome, consisting of jumping, paw tremors, diarrhea, and weight loss. THC and the MAGL inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) dose dependently reduced the intensity of most measures through the activation of CB1 receptors. JZL184 also attenuated spontaneous withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. The FAAH inhibitor N-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yloxy)benzyl)-piperdine-1-carboxamide (PF-3845) reduced the intensity of naloxone-precipitated jumps and paw flutters through the activation of CB1 receptors but did not ameliorate incidence of diarrhea or weight loss. In the final series of experiments, we investigated whether JZL184 or PF-3845 would attenuate naloxone-precipitated contractions in morphine-dependent ilea. Both enzyme inhibitors attenuated the intensity of naloxone-induced contractions, although this model does not account mechanistically for the autonomic withdrawal responses (i.e., diarrhea) observed in vivo. These results indicate that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes are promising targets to treat opioid dependence. PMID:21719468

Ramesh, Divya; Ross, Gracious R.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Owens, Robert A.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Kinsey, Steven G.; Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

2011-01-01

14

Description and quantification of cocaine withdrawal signs in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work provided indirect evidence that planarians undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine. The present study's purpose was to determine if planarians display withdrawal signs and, if so, to quantify the behaviors. Planarians were soaked in cocaine then transferred to either the same cocaine concentration or cocaine-free water. Compared to the cocaine\\/cocaine group, the cocaine\\/water group displayed a significant number of

Robert B. Raffa; Prarthna Desai

2005-01-01

15

Gap junction blockers: a potential approach to attenuate morphine withdrawal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background The exact mechanisms of morphine-induced dependence and withdrawal symptoms remain unclear. In order to identify an agent that can prevent withdrawal syndrome, many studies have been performed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of gap junction blockers; carbenoxolone (CBX) or mefloquine (MFQ); on morphine withdrawal symptoms in male rat. Adult male Wistar rats (225 – 275 g) were selected randomly and divided into 10 groups. All groups underwent stereotaxic surgery and in order to induce dependency, morphine was administered subcutaneously) Sc) at an interval of 12 hours for nine continuous days. On the ninth day of the experiment, animals received vehicle or CBX (100, 400, 600 ?g/10 ?l/rat, icv) or MFQ (50, 100 and 200 ?g/10 ?l/rat, icv) after the last saline or morphine (Sc) injection. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were precipitated by naloxone hydrochloride 10 min after the treatments. The withdrawal signs including: jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdomen writhing, wet dog shake and stool weight, were recorded for 60 minutes. Results Results showed that CBX and MFQ decreased all withdrawal signs; and the analysis indicated that they could attenuate the total withdrawal scores significantly. Conclusion Taking together it is concluded that gap junction blockers prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. PMID:24143922

2013-01-01

16

The nucleus paragigantocellularis and opioid withdrawal-like behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation of the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) in mediation of opioid withdrawal was examined in conscious, unrestrained, non-opioid-dependent rats, using electrical stimulation of the PGi. A characteristic series of behaviors, which resembled those seen during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from dependence on the opioid agonist, butorphanol, was elicited during 30 min of PGi stimulation. Thus, the behavioral syndrome has been termed opioid withdrawal-like.

Robin W. Rockhold; Niansen Liu; Dominick Coleman; Stephen Commiskey; Jonathan Shook; Ing K. Ho

2000-01-01

17

The Nucleus Paragigantocellularis and Opioid Withdrawal-Like Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation of the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) in mediation of opioid withdrawal was examined in conscious, unrestrained, non-opioid-dependent rats, using electrical stimulation of the PGi. A characteristic series of behaviors, which resembled those seen during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from dependence on the opioid agonist, butorphanol, was elicited during 30 min of PGi stimulation. Thus, the behavioral syndrome has been termed opioid withdrawal-like.

Robin W. Rockhold; Niansen Liu; Dominick Coleman; Stephen Commiskey; Jonathan Shook; Ing K. Ho

2000-01-01

18

Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the expression of withdrawal diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice.  

PubMed

The withdrawal syndrome after the cessation of ?-opioid receptor agonists remains an obstacle in the clinical treatment of pain. We recently showed that peripheral opioid receptors play a significant role in the withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of morphine-induced withdrawal symptoms, especially the peripheral oriented body-weight loss that accompanied diarrhea, in mice. Withdrawal signs were precipitated by the injection of naloxone 1 day after the slow-release emulsion administration of morphine. Withdrawal body-weight loss and diarrhea precipitated by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were significantly suppressed by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), olanzapine (5-HT2/D2 receptor antagonist) and fullerene (a free radical scavenger), whereas neither ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) nor atropine (a muscarine receptor antagonist) significantly suppressed naloxone-precipitated diarrhea. 5-HT3-receptors (but not 5-HT2-receptors) are known to play a significant role in 5-HT-induced diarrhea. Therefore, we also examined the effects of ritanserin and fullerene on 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice. Ritaserin significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice, but not saline-treated mice. These results suggest that peripheral 5-HT2-receptor function could be altered in morphine-dependent mice, and the blockade of 5-HT2 receptor or free radical scavengers may be useful for the treatment of opioid-withdrawal diarrhea. PMID:25034809

Mori, Tomohisa; Komiya, Sachiko; Ohya, Jumpei; Uzawa, Naoki; Sugiyama, Koichi; Saitoh, Yusuke; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

2014-10-01

19

The selective mGlu2\\/3 receptor agonist LY354740 attenuates morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of locus coeruleus neurons and behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naltrexone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induces hyperactivity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, as well as a plethora of behavioral withdrawal signs. Previous research has demonstrated that an increased release of glutamate and activation of AMPA receptors, particularly in the LC, play an important role in opiate withdrawal. LY354740 is a novel Group II metabotropic glutamate mGlu2\\/3 receptor agonist that decreases the release

Jim Vandergriff; Kurt Rasmussen

1999-01-01

20

The selective mGlu2\\/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 exacerbates behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal and morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of locus coeruleus neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that mGlu2\\/3 agonists can decrease many behavioral signs and the activation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons observed during morphine withdrawal. However, it is not known if mGlu2\\/3 receptors are activated during morphine withdrawal by endogenous glutamate. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a novel metabotropic glutamate 2, 3 (mGlu2\\/3) receptor antagonist (LY341495) on naltrexone-precipitated behavioral signs

Kurt Rasmussen; Mei-Ann Hsu; Jim Vandergriff

2004-01-01

21

Anatomically dissociable effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists on reward and relief of withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Chronic opiate administration induces neuro-adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) that can contribute to dependence. We have shown that morphine dependence shifts the behavioral consequences of D1 dopamine (DA) receptor signaling: systemic administration of a D1 receptor agonist is rewarding and blocks naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rats, but has minimal effects in nondependent rats. These data suggest that D1 receptors acquire the ability to regulate reward and withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. The brain regions involved in these effects are not known. Objective Studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the nucleus accumbens shell (NASh) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are important sites for mediating the behavioral effects of D1 receptor activation in morphine-dependent rats. Materials and methods The effects of microinjecting the D1 receptor agonist SKF 82958 into the NASh or the VTA on place conditioning and somatic withdrawal signs were studied in morphine-dependent and nondependent rats. Results Intra-NASh microinjection of SKF 82958 (1 ?g/side) established conditioned place preferences in morphine-dependent but not nondependent rats, but had no effect on naloxone-induced place aversions or somatic withdrawal signs. Intra-VTA microinjection of SKF 82958 (2 ?g) did not establish place preferences under any conditions, but blocked naloxone-induced place aversions without effects on somatic withdrawal signs. Conclusions There is an anatomical dissociation between D1 receptor-mediated reward and relief of withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. When combined, the individual effects of D1 receptor activation in the NASh and VTA on the affective signs of precipitated morphine withdrawal resemble those seen with systemic administration. PMID:19148621

Barhight, Matthew F.; Mague, Steve D.; Sawyer, Allison M.; Carlezon, William A.

2010-01-01

22

Activation of stress-related hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression during morphine withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphine withdrawal results in serious affective and somatic symptoms including activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenocortical (HPA) axis. To reveal secretory, activational and transcriptional changes in the hypothalamus of morphine- dependent rats during naloxone precipitated opioid withdrawal, we measured corticosterone secretion, c-Fos induction and heteronuclear (hn)RNA levels of corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in naõ¨ve and morphine dependent

Cristina Nunez; Anna Földes; M. Luisa Laorden; M. Victoria Milanes; Krisztina J. Kovács

2007-01-01

23

Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine  

PubMed Central

Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes, despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC). Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent) received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC) for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent) received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28), all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC) at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS) was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg) and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods. PMID:25250285

Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Motaghinejad, Ozra

2014-01-01

24

Exploratory behavior and withdrawal signs in crayfish: chronic central morphine injections and termination effects.  

PubMed

Functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward seeking >is a symbol of survival. It is found in most animals from insects to humans. Exploration is a component of a wide range of drug-elicited behaviors that reflects an appetitive motivational state when animals seek natural rewards such as food, water, and shelter for survival. Not only does the characterization of exploratory behaviors indicate the specific components of appetitive motor patterns, it also reveals how exploratory behavioral patterns are implemented via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli. The current work demonstrates that novel stimuli appear to directly augment exploration in crayfish, while injections of morphine directly into the brain of crayfish enhanced robust arousal resulting in increased locomotion and exploration of the environment. Elimination of morphine suppressed exploratory motor patterns. Crayfish displayed atypical behavioral changes evident of withdrawal-like states when saline is injected into the brain. With proven evidence of rewarding to the exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse, modularly organized and experimentally accessible nervous system makes crayfish exceptionally suitable for characterizing the central workings of addiction at its key behavioral and neuroanatomic locations. PMID:24512767

Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Okon, Marvin; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I

2014-05-01

25

Alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

2012-11-01

26

Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. PMID:24906198

Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

2014-09-01

27

The relative potency of inverse opioid agonists and a neutral opioid antagonist in precipitated withdrawal and antagonism of analgesia and toxicity.  

PubMed

Opioid antagonists can be classified as inverse agonists and neutral antagonists. In the opioid-dependent state, neutral antagonists are significantly less potent in precipitating withdrawal than inverse agonists. Consequently, neutral opioid antagonists may offer advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose. In this study, the relative potency of three opioid antagonists to block opioid analgesia and toxicity and precipitate withdrawal was examined. First, the potency of two opioid inverse agonists (naltrexone and naloxone) and a neutral antagonist (6beta-naltrexol) to antagonize fentanyl-induced analgesia and lethality was determined. The order of potency to block analgesia was naltrexone > naloxone > 6beta-naltrexol (17, 4, 1), which was similar to that to block lethality (13, 2, 1). Next, the antagonists were compared using withdrawal jumping in fentanyl-dependent mice. The order of potency to precipitate withdrawal jumping was naltrexone > naloxone 6beta-naltrexol (1107, 415, 1). The relative potencies to precipitate withdrawal for the inverse agonists compared with the neutral antagonist were dramatically different from that for antagonism of analgesia and lethality. Finally, the effect of 6beta-naltrexol pretreatment on naloxone-precipitated jumping was determined in morphine and fentanyl-dependent mice. 6beta-Naltrexol pretreatment decreased naloxone precipitated withdrawal, indicating that 6beta-naltrexol is a neutral antagonist. These data demonstrate that inverse agonists and neutral antagonists have generally comparable potencies to block opioid analgesia and lethality, whereas the neutral opioid antagonist is substantially less potent in precipitating opioid withdrawal. These results support suggestions that neutral antagonists may have advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose. PMID:19435929

Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V; Madia, Priyanka A; Yoburn, Byron C

2009-08-01

28

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. PMID:24845493

Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

2014-06-01

29

Dopamine-dependent increases in phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) during precipitated morphine withdrawal in primary cultures of rat striatum  

PubMed Central

Chronic morphine leads to compensatory up-regulation of cAMP signaling pathways in numerous brain regions. One potential consequence of up-regulated cAMP signaling is increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor that may regulate neuroadaptations related to morphine dependence. Altered gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a ventral component of the striatum that receives substantial dopaminergic input, may play a role in some of the motivational aspects of opiate withdrawal. To determine if morphine withdrawal leads to increased CREB phosphorylation in striatal tissues, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on CREB phosphorylation in primary cultures of rat striatal neurons. Precipitated morphine withdrawal was associated with enhanced dopamine-, SKF 82958 (D1 receptor agonist)-, and forskolin-induced CREB phosphorylation. During precipitated withdrawal, D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation was dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Precipitated withdrawal also led to up-regulation of c-fos mRNA in response to SKF 82958. CREB protein levels were not altered by acute or chronic morphine. These results suggest that D1 receptor-mediated signal transduction is enhanced during morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, they are consistent with in vivo evidence suggesting that increased CREB activation in portions of the striatum (e.g. the NAc) is related to dysphoric states associated with drug withdrawal. PMID:12969258

Chartoff, Elena H.; Papadopoulou, Maria; Konradi, Christine; Carlezon, William A.

2014-01-01

30

The effect of isoquinoline alkaloids on opiate withdrawal.  

PubMed

Our interest has been centered on isoquinoline alkaloids obtained from Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae), Aristolochia constricta (Aristolochiaceae) and the opium alkaloid, papaverine. In this respect, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was investigated on contractions induced by naloxone of isolated guinea pig ileum acutely exposed to morphine in vitro. The activity of these alkaloids was compared to the control compound, papaverine. Furthermore, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was also determined on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in isolated guinea pig ileum exposed to DAMGO (highly selective mu opioid receptor agonist) and U50-488H (highly selective kappa opioid receptor agonist) to test whether the possible interaction of isoquinoline alkaloids on opioid withdrawal involves mu- and/or kappa-opioid receptors. Isoquinoline alkaloids from A. mexicana (from 5 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-4) M), from A. constricta (1 x 10(-5) x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-4) M) as well as papaverine treatment (1 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-6) M) before or after the opioid agonists were able of both preventing and reversing the naloxone-induced contraction after exposure to mu (morphine and DAMGO) or kappa (U50-488H) opiate receptor agonists in a concentration-dependent manner. Both acetylcholine response and electrical stimulation were also reduced by isoquinoline alkaloids and papaverine treatment as well as the final opiate withdrawal was still reduced. The results of the present study indicate that isoquinoline alkaloids as well as papaverine were able to produce significant influence on the opiate withdrawal in vitro and these compounds were able to exert their effects both at mu and kappa opioid agonists. PMID:16611069

Capasso, A; Piacente, S; De Tommasi, N; Rastrelli, L; Pizza, C

2006-01-01

31

Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast)  

PubMed Central

Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused 3-to-5-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, whilst improving analgesia. PMID:18938237

Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Susannah S.; Coats, Benjamen D.; Skyba, David A.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M.; Judd, Charles M.; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.; Johnson, Kirk W.

2009-01-01

32

The antagonizing effect of aspartic acid on morphine withdrawal and levallorphan-precipitated abstinence syndrome signs and on associated changes in brain levels of free amino acids in the rat.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated the antagonizing effect of aspartic acid on some effects of morphine and on the development of physical dependence on, and tolerance to, morphine. In the present study, we have withdrawal from morphine or administration of a morphine antagonist. For this purpose sixty five white rats were given morphine and aspartic acid separately and in combination in a 5% saccharose solution instead of drinking water for 30 days. Some of the dependent rats were then withdrawn and others were injected with levallorphan. Flying, jumping, wet-dog shaking, body weight loss and motor activity were estimated and free amino acid levels in the brain were determined. Aspartic acid was found to prevent or antagonize the behavioural signs and the changes in the free amino acid levels in the brain. The results are discussed in the light of the previous data. PMID:108753

Koyuncuo?lu, H; Güngör, M; Ero?lu, L; Sa?duyu, H

1979-03-29

33

20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...your application? (a) Request for withdrawal filed before a determination is made. You may withdraw your application for SVB before we make a determination on it if— (1) You, or a person who may sign an application for you under §...

2010-04-01

34

29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section 4219...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal...

2010-07-01

35

Effect of nicotine on the tobacco withdrawal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the ability of nicotine to alleviate the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal were measured in 100 smokers who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for tobacco dependence and a past history of tobacco withdrawal. After 2 evenings of baseline measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either nicotine or placebo gum in a double blind manner.

John R. Hughes; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Roy W. Pickensl; Dean Krahn; Shlomo Malin; Alice Luknic

1984-01-01

36

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Groundwater withdrawals West­east division for this report and State, 2005. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs

37

Why Withdrawal? Why Not Withdrawal? Men's Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal is an ancient and prevalent form of male contraception which has largely been ignored by family planning programme managers all over the world. The objective of this study was to understand men's perspectives on withdrawal use, both users and non-users. In-depth interviews with 62 male factory workers in western Turkey are reported, on use of withdrawal, attitudes to family

Nuriye Ortayli; Ay?en Bulut; Metin Ozugurlu; Muhtar Çokar

2005-01-01

38

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Groundwater withdrawals 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 Haw aiiAlaskaOregon W,IN MILLIONGALLONSPERDAY WEST EAST Total, surface-water, and groundwater withdrawals, 2005. EstimatedUseofWaterintheUnitedStatesin2005 USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/ Source: Kenny, J.F., Barber, N

39

Why withdrawal? Why not withdrawal? Men's perspectives.  

PubMed

Withdrawal is an ancient and prevalent form of male contraception which has largely been ignored by family planning programme managers all over the world. The objective of this study was to understand men's perspectives on withdrawal use, both users and non-users. In-depth interviews with 62 male factory workers in western Turkey are reported, on use of withdrawal, attitudes to family planning, information on contraception, marital and sexual experience, and gender values and attitudes. Advantages reported both by users and non-users of withdrawal were being free from side effects, ease of access and having no cost. While current users said withdrawal was easy to use and practical, non-users complained about the difficulties of using withdrawal, that it was coitus-dependent, caused anxiety and decreased pleasure during sexual intercourse. Current users emphasised taking responsibility as husbands for family planning and protecting their wives from possible adverse effects of contraceptives. Withdrawal should be seen as a valuable choice in a world where increasing method choice, male participation and responsibility taking in reproductive health are all desirable. With its cited advantages withdrawal is likely to fill an important niche among current contraceptive practices and deserves more attention and support. PMID:16035610

Ortayli, Nuriye; Bulut, Ay?en; Ozugurlu, Metin; Cokar, Muhtar

2005-05-01

40

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

-water livestock withdrawals Groundwater livestock withdrawals TOTALWITHDRAWALS,IN MILLIONGALLONSPERDAY WEST EAST 0 in the United States in 2005 - Livestock USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs

41

Treatment of Acute Opioid Withdrawal with Ibogaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibogaine is an alkaloid with putative effect in acute opioid with- drawal. Thirty-three cases of treatments for the indication of opi- oid detoxiécation performed in non-medical settings under open label conditions are summarized involving an average daily use of heroin of .64 ± .50 grams, primarily by the intravenous route. Resolution of the signs of opioid withdrawal without further drug

Kenneth R. Alper; Howard S. Lotsof; M. N. Frenken; Daniel J. Luciano; Jan Bastiaans

1999-01-01

42

27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of a signed photocopy of a permit to withdraw and use alcohol free of tax issued on form TTB F 5150.9 under part 22 of this...signed photocopy of a permit to procure spirits free of tax for use of the United States or any governmental agency,...

2013-04-01

43

27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of a signed photocopy of a permit to withdraw and use alcohol free of tax issued on form TTB F 5150.9 under part 22 of this...signed photocopy of a permit to procure spirits free of tax for use of the United States or any governmental agency,...

2012-04-01

44

27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.  

...of a signed photocopy of a permit to withdraw and use alcohol free of tax issued on form TTB F 5150.9 under part 22 of this...signed photocopy of a permit to procure spirits free of tax for use of the United States or any governmental agency,...

2014-04-01

45

27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of a signed photocopy of a permit to withdraw and use alcohol free of tax issued on form TTB F 5150.9 under part 22 of this...signed photocopy of a permit to procure spirits free of tax for use of the United States or any governmental agency,...

2011-04-01

46

Efficacy of clonidine in treatment of alcohol withdrawal state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonidine hydrochloride 5 µg\\/kg and placebo were given orally to 11 patients experiencing well-developed alcohol withdrawal states. Active drug and placebo were given in a randomised, cross-over double blind fashion 2 h apart. Clonidine significantly suppressed heart rate (P=0.002), arterial blood pressure (P=0.006), and an accumulated score of withdrawal symptoms and signs (P=0.004). These data suggest that clonidine may be

A. J. Wilkins; W. J. Jenkins; J. A. Steiner

1983-01-01

47

How to Withdraw From Courses Home Students Withdraw  

E-print Network

meet the deadlines. Students should check with their dean's office concerning their college or schoolHow to Withdraw From Courses Home » Students » Withdraw Officially Withdraw from all semester classes (Boulder Main Campus Students) Financial Concerns and Tuition Assessment How to Withdraw

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

48

Dollar Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use number sense and mental math strategies to estimate the price of a sign. Learners pretend they are in charge of making signs for businesses and must calculate the cost of three orders using estimation. This activity provides an opportunity for learners to practice making estimates of the sum of more than two numbers. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-09-19

49

Warning signs for suicide in Internet forums.  

PubMed

The presence of 10 warning signs for suicide proposed by the American Association of Suicidology was compared in 215 postings on a suicide forum and 94 postings on a self-injury forum. The suicide forum postings received a higher score on the 10 signs than the self-injury forum postings, and significant differences were found for 6 of the 10 signs: suicidal ideation, purposelessness, trapped, hopelessness, withdrawal, and, in the reverse direction, recklessness. Overall, the findings support the usefulness of the warning signs in identifying suicidal individuals. PMID:23045860

McSwain, Stephanie; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

2012-08-01

50

?-Opioid withdrawal in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drug-abusers engage in poly-drug abuse, but there has been relatively little quantification of withdrawal from poly-drug use. Planarians are an advantageous model for these studies due to mammalian-relevant neurotransmitter systems (e.g. dopamine, opioid, and 5-HT). We recently developed a metric that quantified an acute cocaine withdrawal phenomenon in planarians. However, despite much indirect evidence, we lacked direct evidence of

Robert B. Raffa; Gregory W. Stagliano; Sumiyo Umeda

2003-01-01

51

Alcohol withdrawal seizures.  

PubMed

The topic of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), including delirium tremens and especially seizures, is reviewed. From mice and rat studies, it is known that both N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in AWS. During alcohol intoxication chronic adaptations of NMDA and GABA receptors occur, and during alcohol withdrawal a hyperexcitable state develops. In studies on humans, during intoxication the NMDA receptors are activated and mediate tonic inhibition. In withdrawal, a rebound activation of these receptors occurs. Both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, especially the alpha2 subunit of GABA-A receptors, are also likely involved. Homocysteine increases with active drinking, and in withdrawal, excitotoxicity likely is induced by a further increase in homocysteine, viewed as a risk factor for AWS and also as a screening tool. The dopamine transporter gene is also associated with AWS. Characteristics involves changes in the ECG, especially an increase in QT interval, and EEG changes, including abnormal quantified EEG, at times periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, and especially seizures, usually occurring 6-48h after the cessation of drinking. Therapy has emphasized benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and lorazepam, but more standard antiepileptic drugs, like carbamazepine and topiramate, are also effective and safe. PMID:19249388

Hughes, John R

2009-06-01

52

Student Withdrawal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the problem of students withdrawing from courses before completion and in the process attempts to devise ways that Mendocino College can aid students complete their courses. The report uses findings from two research reports. The first report was completed at the Florida Community College (FCC), which discovered that 75% of…

Hayward, Craig

53

Cocaine withdrawal in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine-exposed planarians displayed abstinence-induced withdrawal behavior when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. The effect, manifested and quantified using a new spontaneous locomotor velocity metric, was dose-dependently related to cocaine exposure (8×10?9 to 8×10?5 M). Ultraviolet light (254 nm=7.83×10?19 J), which was previously shown to interfere with drug-receptor interactions in Planaria, enhanced the abstinence-induced decreased locomotor velocity.

Robert B Raffa; Joseph M Valdez

2001-01-01

54

Social Withdrawal in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

2013-01-01

55

Outpatient management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Approximately 2% to 9% of patients seen in a family physician's office have alcohol dependence. These patients are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome if they abruptly abstain from alcohol use. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome begins six to 24 hours after the last intake of alcohol, and the signs and symptoms include tremors, agitation, nausea, sweating, vomiting, hallucinations, insomnia, tachycardia, hypertension, delirium, and seizures. Treatment aims to minimize symptoms, prevent complications, and facilitate continued abstinence from alcohol. Patients with mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal syndrome can be treated as outpatients, which minimizes expense and allows for less interruption of work and family life. Patients with severe symptoms or who are at high risk of complications should receive inpatient treatment. In addition to supportive therapy, benzodiazepines, either in a fixed-dose or symptom-triggered schedule, are recommended. Medication should be given at the onset of symptoms and continued until symptoms subside. Other medications, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, and gabapentin, have less abuse potential but do not prevent seizures. Typically, physicians should see these patients daily until symptoms subside. Although effective treatment is an initial step in recovery, long-term success depends on facilitating the patient's entry into ongoing treatment. PMID:24364635

Muncie, Herbert L; Yasinian, Yasmin; Oge', Linda

2013-11-01

56

Neurological soft signs. Their relationship to psychiatric disorder and intelligence in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Sixty-three male and 27 female adolescents known to have had neurological soft signs at the age of 7 years were compared with controls with no soft signs at age 7. Adolescents with early soft signs had significantly lower IQs and were more likely to have a psychiatric disorder characterized by anxiety, withdrawal, and depression. All the girls and 80% (12/15) of the boys with an anxiety-withdrawal diagnosis showed early soft signs. There was no relationship between early soft signs and attention deficit or conduct disorders. Examination of the relative contributions of anxiety at age 7, IQ, and social and family disadvantage to later diagnosis showed that most of the variance was accounted for by soft signs independently of IQ. Soft signs and anxious dependent behavior at age 7 were strongly predictive of persistent psychiatric disorder characterized by anxiety and withdrawal. PMID:3977551

Shaffer, D; Schonfeld, I; O'Connor, P A; Stokman, C; Trautman, P; Shafer, S; Ng, S

1985-04-01

57

Signing off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology teachers in your own time. D Read the textbook ten minutes before the class. Mostly A's: Traditional physics teacher, will fit straight in. Within days of taking up post you will wonder why he isn't already wearing a fine coating of chalk after years of teaching. Make a good offer of a long contract. Mostly B's: Slightly trendy and progressive. Consider buying a good computer instead. Mostly C's: A dangerous and possibly offensive teacher: they make you feel old and are liable to disrupt timetabling by making teaching popular. Don't worry - they will soon burn out and retire. Mostly D's: As a normal human being, this person is totally unsuited to physics teaching - they expect to work less than 50 hours each week, and enjoy living. KP

2001-09-01

58

Withdrawal-induced c-Fos expression in the rat centromedial amygdala 24 h following a single morphine exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale An opiate antagonist was found to induce motivational withdrawal signs 24 h or even up to 48 h after a single dose of morphine in rats. Objective The present study was undertaken to determine whether such a withdrawal state would modify the neuronal activity in the brain. Methods A conditioned place aversion was established following a one-trial paradigm in rats undergoing

Chunyu Jin; Hiroaki Araki; Mari Nagata; Katsuya Suemaru; Kazuhiko Shibata; Hiromu Kawasaki; Takashi Hamamura; Yutaka Gomita

2004-01-01

59

Taking Withdrawal from Unesco Seriously.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depicts the U.S. withdrawal from UNESCO as an opportunity to initiate a new approach to international cooperation. Summarizes the reasons for U.S. withdrawal, inherent risks (isolationism, Soviet dominance, lack of a suitable replacement program), and steps in developing a new international educational organization more acceptable to U.S. values.…

Farnham, Nicholas

1986-01-01

60

A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.  

PubMed

In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. PMID:24809146

Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

61

Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals  

E-print Network

Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals Louisiana New Hampshire Florida Idaho Washington Oregon Nevada California New,000 9,000 to 13,000 Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. Estimated Use

62

Fulminant hepatic failure in nephrotic syndrome related to withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with nephrotic syndrome developed fatal fulminant hepatitis B following withdrawal of prednisolone or cyclophosphamide. Immunosuppressive therapy probably enhanced hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and widespread infection of hepatocytes; its withdrawal permitted a return of immune competence resulting in massive destruction of infected hepatocytes. Prior screening of all patients for hepatitis B surface antigen, gradual withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs with careful monitoring, and prompt intervention with corticosteroids at the first clinical or biochemical signs of liver cell damage may prevent this complication. PMID:3186580

Onwubalili, J. K.

1988-01-01

63

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2013-07-01

64

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

...source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative...withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the designated representative...opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply with all...

2014-07-01

65

Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for

1996-01-01

66

Endocannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Protracted Nicotine Withdrawal: Effect of FAAH Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system modulates the addictive properties of nicotine. In the present study, we hypothesized that spontaneous withdrawal resulting from removal of chronically implanted transdermal nicotine patches is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. A 7-day nicotine dependence procedure (5.2 mg/rat/day) elicited occurrence of reliable nicotine abstinence symptoms in Wistar rats. Somatic and affective withdrawal signs were observed at 16 and 34 hours following removal of nicotine patches, respectively. Further behavioral manifestations including decrease in locomotor activity and increased weight gain also occurred during withdrawal. Expression of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal was accompanied by fluctuation in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in several brain structures including the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, levels of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol were not significantly altered. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular degradation of AEA, by URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced withdrawal-induced anxiety as assessed by the elevated plus maze test and the shock-probe defensive burying paradigm, but did not prevent the occurrence of somatic signs. Together, the results indicate that pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing endocannabinoid signaling may offer therapeutic advantages to treat the negative affective state produced by nicotine withdrawal, which is critical for the maintenance of tobacco use. PMID:22140525

Cippitelli, Andrea; Astarita, Giuseppe; Duranti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Stopponi, Serena; Kallupi, Marsida; Sagratini, Gianni; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Piomelli, Daniele; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2011-01-01

67

Reward, Addiction, Withdrawal to Nicotine  

PubMed Central

Nicotine is the principle addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users’ knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the ?4 and ?2 subunits, often in combination with the ?6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the ?5, ?2, and ?4 nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal. PMID:21438686

De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A.

2011-01-01

68

l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.  

PubMed

l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors. PMID:22935630

Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

2012-12-01

69

Effects exerted by otilonium bromide administration on precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in rats.  

PubMed

An opioid withdrawal syndrome was induced in rats by repeated morphine administration and final naloxone injection. The withdrawal causes alteration of several physiological signs. The aim of the study was to prevent the altered physiological profiles by utilising otilonium bromide. Morphine was administered in three daily i.p. injections for 4 days at doses of 9, 16 and 25 mg/kg (1st day), 25, 25 and 50 mg/kg (2nd day), 50, 50 and 50 mg/kg (3rd day) and 50, 50 and 100 mg/kg (4th day). Naloxone was injected (30 mg/kg) i.p. 180 min after the last morphine injection. Otilonium bromide was administered orally at 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, 120 min before the naloxone administration. Signs like faecal and urine excretion, rectal temperature and pain threshold levels, salivation, jumping and wet dog shakes were affected in different ways. Notably the administration of otilonium bromide in rats receiving morphine together with naloxone decreased the intensity of certain withdrawal symptoms, such as excretion of faeces, wet dog shake behaviour, and elevated the nociceptive threshold values. The effects exhibited by otilonium bromide administration may be explained through its calcium antagonist activity interfering with a mechanism involved in the regulation of these previously mentioned withdrawal symptoms. The use of this drug is thus suggested as a possible control of some acute opioid withdrawal signs in heroin addicts. PMID:9274799

Pinelli, A; Trivulzio, S; Vignati, S

1997-09-26

70

Vitiligo: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments U - W Vitiligo Signs, symptoms Vitiligo: Signs and symptoms Vitiligo causes loss of color. ... amount of color loss or type of vitiligo. Vitiligo has types and subtypes If you are diagnosed ...

71

Signs of Overload  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs of Overload Healthy Living Listen Signs of Overload Article Body Although stress is a part of ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

72

Shingles: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more ... painful before the shingles appeared. Learn more about shingles: Shingles Shingles: Who gets, causes Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, ...

73

Sign, Symbol and Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signs are such a commonplace sight in our everyday lives, that we can easily miss the artistic beauty and graphic harmony of the symbols used. Thoughtfully well designed and planned signs communicate with a simplicity and directness that signmakers and designers have adhered to for ages. Even contemporary signs still reflect their timelessness…

Ballinger, Louise Bowen; Ballinger, Raymond A.

74

40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01...18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting... To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...

2012-07-01

75

29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219.12...Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a) Liability for de...

2010-07-01

76

Office of the Registrar Withdraw Checklist Checklist: Dropping or Withdrawing Student  

E-print Network

Office of the Registrar Withdraw Checklist Checklist: Dropping or Withdrawing Student Utilize with the Office of Student Financial Aid & Scholarships (pdx.edu/finaid/withdrawing) to find out whether-withdrawal) to clarify impacts at vaffairs@pdx.edu or 503-725-8380. Drop your classes. Courses may not be dropped

Caughman, John

77

How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money  

E-print Network

How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money you may withdraw money at any time, the TFSA is not meant to be a substitute for a chequing or bank-style savings account. Processing fees may apply to withdrawals. Use the TFSA for money you don't anticipate

Northern British Columbia, University of

78

Mechanistic insights into nicotine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Smoking is responsible for over 400,000 premature deaths in the United States every year, making it the leading cause of preventable death. In addition, smoking-related illness leads to billions of dollars in healthcare expenditures and lost productivity annually. The public is increasingly aware that successfully abstaining from smoking at any age can add years to one’s life and reduce many of the harmful effects of smoking. Although the majority of smokers desire to quit, only a small fraction of attempts to quit are actually successful. The symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal are a primary deterrent to cessation and they need to be quelled to avoid early relapse. This review will focus on the neuroadaptations caused by chronic nicotine exposure and discuss how those changes lead to a withdrawal syndrome upon smoking cessation. Besides examining how nicotine usurps the endogenous reward system, we will discuss how the habenula is part of a circuit that plays a critical role in the aversive effects of high nicotine doses and nicotine withdrawal. We will also provide an updated summary of the role of various nicotinic receptor subtypes in the mechanisms of withdrawal. This growing knowledge provides mechanistic insights into current and future smoking cessation therapies. PMID:21782803

Paolini, Michael; De Biasi, Mariella

2012-01-01

79

UF 403(b) Retirement Plan Hardship Withdrawal  

E-print Network

UF 403(b) Retirement Plan Hardship Withdrawal Employee Statement Form The following documents are required to apply for a hardship withdrawal from UF's 403(b) plan: 1. The Hardship Withdrawal Employee the Retirement Manager system: You can access the system at https://www.myretirementmanager.com/?uof. A reference

Mazzotti, Frank

80

Eponymous signs in dermatology  

PubMed Central

Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

2012-01-01

81

Enhanced c-Fos in periaqueductal grey GABAergic neurons during opioid withdrawal.  

PubMed

The ventrolateral subdivision of periaqueductal grey is crucial for expression of opioid withdrawal signs. Previous investigations suggest that interneurons rather than the medullary projecting output neurons in this midbrain region are hyperexcited during opioid withdrawal. In the present study, transgenic mice with glutamic acid decarboxylase-containing neurons coupled to enhanced green fluorescent protein expression were used as a marker for GABAergic neurons and for studying opioid withdrawal. We found that these transgenic mice exhibited a full range of opioid withdrawal signs on abrupt cessation of chronic opioid action. Consistent with previous studies, c-Fos expression was also robustly enhanced (two-fold) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. Furthermore, about one third (30%) of glutamic acid decarboxylase-containing neurons coupled to enhanced green fluorescent protein in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey were stained c-Fos positive (i.e. a four-fold increase from control mice). These results indicate hyperexcitation of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey during opioid withdrawal. PMID:16056125

Chieng, Billy C H; Hallberg, Catharina; Nyberg, Fred J; Christie, MacDonald J

2005-08-22

82

Vision and Manipulation-based Signs in Taiwan Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

An fMRI experiment was conducted to investigate how iconic elements are represented in sign languages and how such representation affects the linkage be- tween language and brain. Iconic signs are those that clearly resemble the actions, objects, or characteristics they represent. In Taiwan Sign Language (TSL), expres- sions involve two kinds of signs: vision-based signs and manipulation- based signs. It

Yi-Hsuan Chiu; Jen-Chuen Hsieh; Wen-Jui Kuo; Daisy L. Hung; Ovid J. L. Tzeng

2005-01-01

83

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of these ... production has lasted a month, this could indicate lung disease. Wheezing - Noisy breathing or wheezing is a sign ...

84

Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Withdrawal syndrome may influence patient's motivation for participation in addiction treatment programs. Management of the symptoms can improve the success rate of addiction treatment programs. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse. Methods In the present clinical trial, 81 patients were assigned into case and control groups. The control group was treated with methadone and placebo for 4 weeks. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis for the same interval. Occurrence of withdrawal syndrome was compared between groups on days 3, 7, and 14 after beginning of the treatment, and the possible signs and symptoms of withdrawal syndrome were checked. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was used for evaluation of withdrawal syndrome in the patients. Findings Patients in the case group experienced less severe withdrawal syndrome compared to those in the control group; chiefly bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia. Conclusion The present study showed that rosemary can be used as an optional extra drug for treatment of withdrawal syndrome during treatment programs for opium addiction and possibly addiction to other opioids. PMID:24494164

Solhi, Hassan; Salehi, Bahman; Alimoradian, Abbas; Pazouki, Shirin; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Saleh, Ali Mohammad; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

2013-01-01

85

Signs for Instructional Purposes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrations depict 465 new manual signs for use in high school and college instruction of deaf students. The signs represent words or phrases, usually made up of many letters, which are important to the following subject matters; sciences and mathematics (general terms), biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, psychology, humanities (general…

Kannapell, Barbara M.; And Others

86

American Sign Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Sign Museum is the only public collection of its kind, and it is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its fun, colorful website just may bring back memories for some visitors. Users should definitely watch the video tour of the museum with the founder, Tod Swormstedt. The link can be found near the top of the homepage, and is entitled "Take a Video Tour." The founder explains his goals in opening the museum, which are to show "the history of the sign industry and its significant contribution to commerce and the American landscape." He also goes on to reference the urban renewal program from the 1960s called SOS, which meant Scrap Our Signs, as a source of many of the museum's holdings. The excellent "Exhibits" link on the left hand menu contains a link to the museum's permanent collection and visitors will find it is divided into eight categories, including "Painted/Non-illuminated Signs," "Plastic Signs," and "Neon Signs and Displays: The Glory Days." The Exhibits link also offers to visitors half a dozen sections of signs that can be seen from the road (On the Road), while walking around (Walking Tours), or from an armchair (Sign History).

87

City Signs and Lights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signs/Lights/Boston, a project investigating environmental information systems in urban areas, was undertaken as the first step in a process of planning and controlling signs and lights for purposes of improving the flow of information in the city. This resulting report takes the city as it is and develops explicit means for revealing its form,…

Carr, Stephen

88

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

89

Traffic Sign Recognition Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The rst part of this paper provides an overview of previous work on tra c sign recognition. Various components are discussed, such as detection, classi cation and temporal integration. The second part of this paper covers a recently developed shape-based system, based on dis-tance transforms. This system has been quite successful in detecting and recognizing tra c signs in

Dariu Gavrila

1999-01-01

90

Ghost Signs of Louisville  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the altogether mysterious "ghost sign?" Simply put, it is a painted advertisement on a building, most prominent prior to the 1930s. Many of these advertisements appear on brick walls in urban settings. This unique collection came out of a partnership between the University of Louisville Libraries and the school's Fine Arts department. Students in a course titled Documentary Photography explored different neighborhoods in Louisvlle, and they took over 200 photographs of various ghost signs. 122 of those images were selected for inclusion in this digital collection, and they are all available here. Visitors can browse the images at their leisure and also use the interactive map of sign collections. Some of the signs are particularly interesting, such as the H.G. Young Druggist sign and the one for the Acme Wholesale Furnace supply.

2012-05-25

91

Pregabalin and topiramate regulate behavioural and brain gene transcription changes induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the actions of pregabalin and topiramate on behavioural and gene transcription alterations induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice. Tolerance was induced in mice by administration of CP-55,940 (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours; i.p.; 7 days). Behavioural assessment of spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal was performed by measuring motor activity, somatic signs and anxiety-like behaviour on days 1 and 3 after cessation of treatment with CP-55,940. On days 1-3 of cannabinoid withdrawal, mice received pregabalin (40 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) or topiramate (50 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) and their actions on signs of withdrawal and anxiety-like behaviour were evaluated. The administration of CP-55,940 decreased rectal temperature and motor activity on day 1. On day 1 after interruption of cannabinoid administration, motor activity and the number of rearings increased compared with control group. Anxiety-like behaviour induced by cessation of cannabinoid treatment increased significantly on days 1 and 3 of withdrawal. The administration of pregabalin or topiramate blocked the motor signs and reduced significantly anxiety-like behaviour. Cannabinoid withdrawal decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area and µ-opioid receptor gene expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased CB1 receptor gene expression in the NAcc. Treatment with topiramate or pregabalin blocked the decrease of TH and the increase of CB1 gene expressions induced by cannabinoid withdrawal. Both drugs failed to alter µ-opioid receptor gene expression. These results suggest that pregabalin and topiramate may result useful for the treatment of anxiety-like behaviour and motor symptoms associated with spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal. PMID:22017514

Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Almela, Pilar; Manzanares, Jorge

2013-03-01

92

Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement  

PubMed Central

Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol’s, were scored at 12?h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery. PMID:25324788

Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

2014-01-01

93

Naltrexone, smoking behaviour and cigarette withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the role of endogenous opioids in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was used to study the effects of the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, on smoking behaviour and cigarette withdrawal in 12 heavy smokers. Although naltrexone (50 mg) appeared to reduce the perceived difficulty of abstaining during 24-h cigarette withdrawal, other withdrawal symptoms

G. Sutherland; J. A. Stapleton; M. A. H. Russell; C. Feyerabend

1995-01-01

94

50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is...of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent;...

2011-10-01

95

50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is...of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent;...

2013-10-01

96

50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent; first tax year for which Interim CCF Agreement is...of withdrawals (as qualified) made without first having obtained Secretary's consent;...

2012-10-01

97

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

98

Suicide Warning Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge Suicide Warning Signs n Acting reckless or engaging in ... you or someone you love at risk of suicide? Get the facts and take appropriate action. Printed: ...

99

The du Bois sign.  

PubMed

According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

2011-03-01

100

How to Withdraw From Courses Students How to Withdraw From Courses  

E-print Network

and fees and will receive a failing grade. Students that are considering withdrawing from a semester should correspondence, include your name, student ID number, the semester from which you are withdrawing, the reason student advisor before they withdraw. College of Arts and Sciences, Business and Graduate Schools

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

101

How to Withdraw From Courses Students How to Withdraw From Courses  

E-print Network

for all applicable tuition and fees and will receive a failing grade. Students that are considering you are withdrawing, the reason for your withdrawal, permanent address, and signature. Military and Sciences, Business and Graduate Schools: Students may withdraw through 5:00 PM on the last day of classes

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

102

Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal: the revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A shortened 10-item scale for clinical quantitation of the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been developed. This scale offers an increase in efficiency while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity and reliability. It can be incorporated into the usual clinical care of patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal and into clinical drug trials of alcohol withdrawal.

JOHN T. SULLIVAN; KATHY SYKORA; JOYCE SCHNEIDERMAN; CLAUDIO A. NARANJO; EDWARD M. SELLERS

1989-01-01

103

VOLUNTARY FUNDS WITHDRAWAL FORM (Use this form to withdraw non locked-in voluntary funds)  

E-print Network

VOLUNTARY FUNDS WITHDRAWAL FORM (Use this form to withdraw non locked-in voluntary funds) LAST NAME) TAXES Cash payments are reported as taxable income in the year of the withdrawal. The actual taxes owed will be determined when you file your income tax return. Each payment is subject to a lump sum withholding tax which

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

104

The Effect of Intermittent Alcohol Vapor or Pulsatile Heroin on Somatic and Negative Affective Indices during Spontaneous Withdrawal in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Once dependent on alcohol or opioids, negative affect may accompany withdrawal. Dependent individuals are hypothesized to “self-medicate” in order to cope with withdrawal, which promotes escalated drug or alcohol use. Objectives The current study aimed to develop a reliable animal model to assess symptoms that occur during spontaneous alcohol and opioid withdrawal. Methods Dependence was induced using intermittent alcohol exposure or pulsatile heroin delivery and assessed for the presence of withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal by measuring somatic signs, behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and air-puff induced 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Additional animals subjected to eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure were evaluated for altered somatic signs, operant alcohol self-administration and 22-kHz USV production, as well as performance in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Results During spontaneous withdrawal from pulsatile heroin or intermittent alcohol vapor, animals displayed increased somatic withdrawal signs, FST immobility and 22-kHz USV production, but did not show any behavioral change in the EPM unless the duration of exposure was extended to four weeks. Following eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure, animals displayed somatic withdrawal signs, escalated alcohol self-administration and increased 22-kHz USVs. Conclusions These paradigms provide consistent methods to evaluate the behavioral ramifications, and neurobiological substrates, of alcohol and opioid dependence during spontaneous withdrawal. As immobility in the FST and percent open-arm time in the EPM were dissociable, with 22-kHz USVs paralleling immobility in the FST, assessment of air-puff induced 22-kHz USVs could provide an ethologically-valid alternative to the FST. PMID:22461104

Williams, Angela M.; Reis, Daniel J.; Powell, Alexa S.; Neira, Louis J.; Nealey, Kathryn A.; Ziegler, Cole E.; Kloss, Nina; Bilimoria, Jessica L.; Smith, Chelsea E.; Walker, Brendan M.

2012-01-01

105

Acute withdrawal: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range in severity from mild "hangover" to fatal delirium tremens (DTs). Tremor, hallucinosis, and seizures usually occur within 48 hours of abstinence. Seizures tend to be generalized without focality, occurring singly or in a brief cluster, but status epilepticus is not unusual. DTs usually appears after 48 hours of abstinence and consists of marked inattentiveness, agitation, hallucinations, fluctuating level of alertness, marked tremulousness, and sympathetic overactivity. The mainstay of treatment for alcohol withdrawal is benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy, which can be used to control mild early symptoms, to prevent progression to DTs, or to treat DTs itself. Alternative less evidence-based pharmacotherapies include phenobarbital, anticonvulsants, baclofen, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-blockers, alpha-2-agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockers. Treatment of DTs is a medical emergency requiring heavy sedation in an intensive care unit, with close attention to autonomic instability, fever, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalance. Frequent comorbid disorders include hypoglycemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. PMID:25307572

Brust, John C M

2014-01-01

106

Public-supply withdrawals by source and State, 2005. EXPLANATION  

E-print Network

Huron Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Total withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Groundwater withdrawals in the United States in 2005 USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wups.html Source: Kenny

107

75 FR 43208 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2010-0257] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17, ``Truck Identification Markings...NRC) is withdrawing Regulatory Guide 5.17, ``Truck Identification...

2010-07-23

108

46 CFR 391.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals...CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.6 Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals...Act and this section provide rules for the income tax treatment of qualified withdrawals...

2010-10-01

109

26 CFR 3.6 - Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals...CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.6 Tax treatment of qualified withdrawals...Act and this section provide rules for the income tax treatment of qualified withdrawals...

2010-04-01

110

48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of students. 752.7024 Section 752... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...752.7024 Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts...institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a)...

2010-10-01

111

48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of students. 752.7024 Section 752... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...752.7024 Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts...institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a)...

2013-10-01

112

48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of students. 752.7024 Section 752... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...752.7024 Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts...institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a)...

2011-10-01

113

48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of students. 752.7024 Section 752... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...752.7024 Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts...institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a)...

2012-10-01

114

Determinants of withdrawal behavior: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on college persistence has typically classified nonreturnees as dropouts. Recently, this practice has been criticized by Tinto (1987) who argues that such a practice merges together different types of withdrawal behavior whose determinants may vary as a function of the particular departure behavior under consideration. This paper empirically examines whether the determinants of decisions to withdraw from the institution

Bruce I. Mallette; Alberto F. Cabrera

1991-01-01

115

27 CFR 19.243 - Withdrawal bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal bond. 19.243 Section 19.243 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety § 19.243 Withdrawal bond. Any person (or, in the case...

2010-04-01

116

Withdrawal and Tolerance Phenomenon in Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenological similarities between gambling and substance dependence have led to the conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder. Tolerance and withdrawal are important features of both disorders, suggesting commonalities in the neurobiological processes associated with neuroadaptational underpinnings. However, there are few empirical studies supporting the presence of tolerance and withdrawal reported in the gambling literature. Moreover, there are

Alex Blaszczynski; Michael Walker; Louise Sharpe; Lia Nower

2008-01-01

117

Beta1 adrenergic receptors in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis mediate differential responses to opiate withdrawal.  

PubMed

The negative physical and affective aspects of opioid abstinence contribute to the prolongation of substance abuse. Withdrawal treatment is successful only in a subset of subjects, yet little is known about the neurobiological causes of these individual differences. Here, we compare the somatic and motivational components of opioid withdrawal in animals with high reactivity (HR) vs low reactivity (LR) to novelty, a phenotype associated with differential vulnerability to drug abuse. During withdrawal, HR relative to LR showed increased teeth chattering and eye twitching episodes, somatic signs associated with adrenergic modulation. Given the role of noradrenergic circuitry of the extended amygdala in opioid withdrawal, we examined adrenergic receptor gene expression in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala. Relative to LR, HR rats exhibit a selective increase in beta(1) adrenergic receptor expression in lateral and medial BST. To uncover the functional relevance of this difference, we microinjected betaxolol, a selective beta(1) receptor antagonist, into dorsal BST and assessed somatic and affective responses during withdrawal. Betaxolol microinjection dose-dependently decreased teeth chattering episodes in HR to levels observed in LR animals. Moreover, the antagonist blocked conditioned place aversion, a measure of negative affect associated with withdrawal, in HR but not in LR animals. Our results reveal for the first time that reactivity to novelty predicts somatic and affective aspects of opiate dependence, and that beta(1) receptors in BST are implicated in opiate withdrawal but only in novelty-seeking individuals. PMID:16823388

Cecchi, Marco; Capriles, Nancy; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

2007-03-01

118

Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital  

SciTech Connect

Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.

Lai, H.; Prather, P.L. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States))

1990-02-26

119

Signing the Alphabet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson you will review several sources to help you learn the signs for each letter of the American Alphabet as well as the numbers 1 through 10. Using signs to spell individual words is known as finger spelling. It talkes lots of practice to become a good finger speller. Before we begin learning the letters, we\\'ll start with an overview of finger spelling. Use the link below to read about some facts and tips on finger spelling: Fingerspelling Quiz One of ...

Hemingway, Mark

2008-10-15

120

Sign problem and MEM  

E-print Network

The sign problem is notorious in Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD with the finite density, lattice field theory (LFT) with a $\\theta$ term and quantum spin models. In this report, to deal with the sign problem, we apply the maximum entropy method (MEM) to LFT with the $\\theta$ term and investigate to what extent the MEM is applicable to this issue. Based on this study, we also make a brief comment about lattice QCD with the finite density in terms of the MEM.

Masahiro Imachi; Yasuhiko Shinno; Hiroshi Yoneyama

2006-01-13

121

Sign problem and MEM  

E-print Network

The sign problem is notorious in Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD with the finite density, lattice field theory (LFT) with a $\\theta$ term and quantum spin models. In this report, to deal with the sign problem, we apply the maximum entropy method (MEM) to LFT with the $\\theta$ term and investigate to what extent the MEM is applicable to this issue. Based on this study, we also make a brief comment about lattice QCD with the finite density in terms of the MEM.

Imachi, M; Yoneyama, H; Imachi, Masahiro; Shinno, Yasuhiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

122

Reexposure to nicotine during withdrawal increases the pacemaking activity of cholinergic habenular neurons.  

PubMed

The discovery of genetic variants in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster associated with heavy smoking and higher relapse risk has led to the identification of the midbrain habenula-interpeduncular axis as a critical relay circuit in the control of nicotine dependence. Although clear roles for ?3, ?4, and ?5 receptors in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been established, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that participate in signaling nicotine use and contribute to relapse have not been identified. Here, using translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) profiling, electrophysiology, and behavior, we demonstrate that cholinergic neurons, but not peptidergic neurons, of the medial habenula (MHb) display spontaneous tonic firing of 2-10 Hz generated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) pacemaker channels and that infusion of the HCN pacemaker antagonist ZD7288 in the habenula precipitates somatic and affective signs of withdrawal. Further, we show that a strong, ?3?4-dependent increase in firing frequency is observed in these pacemaker neurons upon acute exposure to nicotine. No change in the basal or nicotine-induced firing was observed in cholinergic MHb neurons from mice chronically treated with nicotine. We observe, however, that, during withdrawal, reexposure to nicotine doubles the frequency of pacemaking activity in these neurons. These findings demonstrate that the pacemaking mechanism of cholinergic MHb neurons controls withdrawal, suggesting that the heightened nicotine sensitivity of these neurons during withdrawal may contribute to smoking relapse. PMID:24082085

Görlich, Andreas; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Ables, Jessica L; Frahm, Silke; Slimak, Marta A; Dougherty, Joseph D; Ibañez-Tallon, Inés

2013-10-15

123

Signs in Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of signs in Elizabeth George Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver," in which a settler youth and a young Indian learn to communicate by signs, and how the signs reveal much about each character's culture. Summarizes the plot elements of the book, including characters who are not as sympathetic to the Indian point of view. (PA)

Moseley, Ann

1995-01-01

124

Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability\\u000a of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory.\\u000a The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear\\u000a conditioning, somatic signs, and

George S. Portugal; Derek S. Wilkinson; Justin W. Kenney; Colleen Sullivan; Thomas J. Gould

125

Derivative Sign Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

Clark, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

126

Hydrometrocolpos: the Fjord sign.  

PubMed

We want to stress a diagnostic sign in the diagnosis of pelvic cysts in newborns. In these cases the detection of an attached uterus is proof of a hydrocolpos or in cases with a dilated uterine cavity of a hydrometrocolpos. PMID:17599284

Schumacher, R; Brzezinska, R

2007-10-01

127

Signing in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

Ashby, Rachael

2013-01-01

128

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE  

E-print Network

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE /RENEWAL WEB SITE IRAN Institute of Higher Education of Alaodoleh Semnani 03.10.2011 www.asihe.ac.ir/en IRAN The University of Isfahn 15.03.2011 www.ui.ac.ir IRAN Islamic-Aviv University 04.03.2010 www.tau.ac.il ISRAEL Technion Israel Institute of Technology 03.12.2013 www

Di Pillo, Gianni

129

Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p?=?0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p?=?0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

2012-01-01

130

The neurology of sign language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forms of sign language have developed in a number of countries. American Sign Language, which originated from French signing, has been most extensively researched. As sign language is based on gestures executed in space and perceived visually it might be thought that it would mainly be a function of the right cerebral hemisphere when this is the non-dominant one. A

Neil Gordon

2004-01-01

131

Handspeak: A Sign Language Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently renamed and updated, this "practical sign language online dictionary" features approximately 2,800 signs and is being added to on a regular basis. Visitors can use a search engine to find American Sign Language (ASL) signs for words or browse by an alphabetical index as well as by a limited subject index. Also included here are four fables told in sign language, a description of International Sign Language (ISL), and some brief, bullet-point discussions of SL culture and language. Note: the signs are demonstrated in stop-action GIF animation, so users need browsers that support this application.

132

Benzodiazepines: Dependence and a Therapeutic Approach to Gradual Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

The extensive use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia has led clinicians to wonder about the dependence potential of these drugs. It is estimated that, in Canada, the United States, and western Europe, between 10% and 20% of the population take tranquilizers or hypnotics (mainly benzodiazepines). Of these, 70% are 50 years of age or older; 15% have been taking these drugs for more than 12 months. One researcher reported that 50% of patients who received a prescription for benzodiazepines renewed it without consulting their physician. In this article, the authors briefly review the concept of dependence, the risk factors, and the clinical signs of a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. They then develop a rational therapeutic approach to make it easier to discontinue these drugs. PMID:21234000

Blais, Diane; Petit, Louise

1990-01-01

133

Vital signs monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

134

Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. EXPLANATION  

E-print Network

Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. 0 to 10 10 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 200 mining withdrawals Freshwater mining withdrawals Saline-water mining withdrawals Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 - Mining USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wumi.html Source

135

75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion...Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997...Approach to Define the Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal...

2010-04-30

136

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2014-01-01

137

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2012-01-01

138

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2013-01-01

139

31 CFR 1010.714 - Withdrawing requests.  

...714 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Administrative Rulings § 1010.714 Withdrawing requests. A...

2014-07-01

140

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2010-01-01

141

14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property right but represent an...

2011-01-01

142

Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

2014-01-01

143

Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for the tails withdrawal station at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The prototype system was done in response to potential problems with the original method for determining the hourly weighted assay averages that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. In the original method the {sup 235}U assay of uranium hexaflouride withdrawn from PORTS cascade into tails cylinders is determined every 5 min by measurements from an in-line assay mass spectrometer. An average value for a 1-h period is then calculated by area control room personnel and assigned to the accumulated weight in the cylinder for the period. A potential problem with this method is that cylinder weight is not automatically recorded as often as the assay. The assay and withdrawal rate can both vary during the given period. This variation results in inaccuracies in the hourly weighted assays that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. Laboratory analysis is considered to be the most accurate method for determining the final cylinder assay; however, the cost and safety considerations of redundant cylinder handling limit the number of cylinders sampled to less than 10%.

Smith, D.E.

1996-01-01

144

Use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant.  

PubMed

Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used primarily as a muscle relaxant to treat spasticity in children and adults. Withdrawal of oral baclofen is known to cause a withdrawal syndrome in adults. Only one previous case describes a withdrawal syndrome in a term infant, manifested by seizures, associated with the use of oral baclofen in the mother. This case describes a withdrawal syndrome and the unique use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant. PMID:23536044

Duncan, S D; Devlin, L A

2013-04-01

145

Gesture in Signing: A Case Study from Taiwan Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign languages are understood to be fully formed, natural human languages. Studies of the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structure of sign lan- guages, also of the psycholinguistic and neurological processes involved in sign language production and comprehension, reveal analogs to spoken language struc- tures and processing at every level. It seems reasonable to assume, therefore, that the gradient gestural, prosodic,

Susan Duncan

2005-01-01

146

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence Theodore J. Cicero*, Bruce Nock, Edward R. Meyer  

E-print Network

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence in the rat Theodore J. Cicero In earlier studies, it was shown that there were gender differences in several aspects of the pharmacological observations with spontaneous withdrawal, we found no gender differences in the naloxone- precipitated

Steinbach, Joe Henry

147

CRF2 mediates the increased noradrenergic activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the negative state of morphine withdrawal in rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signalling is involved in modulating the negative symptoms of opiate withdrawal. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to further characterize the role of CRF-type 2 receptor (CRF2) signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation), as well as CRF2 expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract-A2 noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The contribution of CRF2 signalling in opiate withdrawal was assessed by i.c.v. infusion of the selective CRF2 antagonist, antisauvagine-30 (AS-30). Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with AS-30 or saline 10 min before naloxone and the physical signs of abstinence, the HPA axis activity, NA turnover, TH activation and CRF2 expression were measured using immunoblotting, RIA, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS Rats pretreated with AS-30 showed decreased levels of somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal, but the corticosterone response was not modified. AS-30 attenuated the increased production of the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, as well as the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Finally, AS-30 antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Serine40 induced by morphine withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by CRF2 signalling. Furthermore, they indicate a marginal role for the HPA axis in CRF2-mediation of opiate withdrawal. PMID:20973778

Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Nunez, Cristina; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Laorden, M Luisa; Valverde, Olga; Milanes, M Victoria

2011-01-01

148

Signs of a Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

149

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

150

Sign Standards Table of Contents  

E-print Network

;Sign Standards 4 Exterior Signage Street Identification - Street identification signs are designed hardware. Design Blade style street sign with color matching Pantone 286 blue on top and color matching · Street Identification Page 5 · Parking Lot Identification Page 5 · Monument Page 6 · Off campus locations

Hartman, Chris

151

Warning Signs of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Jul 18,2014 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...

152

Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as ?-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. PMID:24781751

Perry, Elizabeth C

2014-05-01

153

Neurotoxic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Withdrawal: Expression Profiling Reveals Importance of Gender Over Withdrawal Severity  

PubMed Central

While women are more vulnerable than men to many of the medical consequences of alcohol abuse, the role of sex in the response to ethanol is controversial. Neuroadaptive responses that result in the hyperexcitability associated with withdrawal from chronic ethanol likely reflect gene expression changes. We have examined both genders for the effects of withdrawal on brain gene expression using mice with divergent withdrawal severity that have been selectively bred from a genetically heterogeneous population. A total of 295 genes were identified as ethanol regulated from each gender of each selected line by microarray analyses. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the arrays revealed that the transcriptional response correlated with sex rather than with the selected withdrawal phenotype. Consistent with this, gene ontology category over-representation analysis identified cell death and DNA/RNA binding as targeted classes of genes in females, while in males, protein degradation, and calcium ion binding pathways were more altered by alcohol. Examination of ethanol-regulated genes and these distinct signaling pathways suggested enhanced neurotoxicity in females. Histopathological analysis of brain damage following ethanol withdrawal confirmed elevated cell death in female but not male mice. The sexually dimorphic response was observed irrespective of withdrawal phenotype. Combined, these results indicate a fundamentally distinct neuroadaptive response in females compared to males during chronic ethanol withdrawal and are consistent with observations that female alcoholics may be more vulnerable than males to ethanol-induced brain damage associated with alcohol abuse. PMID:17593928

Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M

2011-01-01

154

Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.  

PubMed

This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training. PMID:18079141

Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

2008-01-01

155

Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.  

PubMed

This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture. PMID:22316934

Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

2012-01-01

156

76 FR 16017 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.5  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.5, ``Criticality and Other Interior Evacuation Signals...withdrawing Regulatory Guide 8.5, ``Criticality and Other Interior Evacuation Signals...with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, ``Criticality Accident Alarm System'' and...

2011-03-22

157

5 CFR 1650.32 - Financial hardship withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...financial obligations. The amount of a financial hardship withdrawal request must...000. (b) To be eligible for a financial hardship withdrawal, a participant must have a financial need that results from at least one of the...

2010-01-01

158

26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a...Section 607(h) of the Act provides rules for the tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals, including rules for adjustments to the various...

2010-04-01

159

46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.7 Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals. (a...Section 607(h) of the Act provides rules for the tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals, including rules for adjustments to the various...

2010-10-01

160

38 CFR 39.8 - Withdrawal of grant application.  

...application. A State or Tribal Organization representative may withdraw an application by submitting to VA a written document requesting withdrawal. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501, 2408) [77 FR 4473, Jan. 30,...

2014-07-01

161

27 CFR 19.726 - Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals. 19.726...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits §...

2014-04-01

162

27 CFR 19.726 - Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals. 19.726...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits §...

2011-04-01

163

27 CFR 19.1002 - Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals. 19.1002 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Uses, Withdrawals and Transfers § 19.1002...

2010-04-01

164

27 CFR 19.726 - Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals. 19.726...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits §...

2013-04-01

165

27 CFR 19.726 - Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals. 19.726...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits §...

2012-04-01

166

28 CFR 2.97 - Withdrawal of order of release.  

...97 Withdrawal of order of release. If, after an order for release from active supervision...bring discredit to the parole system, the Commission may, in its...b) Withdraw the order of release from supervision and...

2014-07-01

167

Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan  

E-print Network

Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning

168

Catatonia in mixed alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Catatonia is mostly caused by different neuropsychiatric conditions. We report a case of a 30 year old man suffering from both alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence who exhibited catatonic features soon after stopping the intake of substances. This case will help clinicians to recognize catatonic features within the varied symptomatology of substance withdrawal and thereby helping in its early diagnosis and management.

Basu, Aniruddha; Jagtiani, Amit; Gupta, Rajiv

2014-01-01

169

Functional organization of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial organization of the cutaneous input to hindlimb withdrawal reflexes was studied in spinalized, decerebrated, unanesthetized rats. Reflex activity in plantar flexors of the digits, pronators of the foot, dorsiflexors of the digits, and\\/or the ankle and flexors of the knee was recorded with electromyographic techniques for up to 12 h after spinalization. Graded mechanical (pinch) and thermal stimulation

Jens Schouenborg; Hans Holmberg; Han-Rong Weng

1992-01-01

170

Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

2014-01-01

171

Neonatal Animal Models of Opiate Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of opiate withdrawal in infants are defined as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is a significant cause of morbidity in term and preterm infants. Factors, such as polysubstance abuse, inadequate prenatal care, nu- tritional deprivation, and the biology of the developing cen- tral nervous system contribute to the challenge of evaluating and treating opiate-induced alterations in the newborn.

Kimberlei A. Richardson; Anne-Lise J. Yohay; Estelle B. Gauda; Gabrielle L. McLemore

2006-01-01

172

The blockade of AMPA-kainate and NMDA receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray reduces the effects of diazepam withdrawal in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that the most persistent sign of withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepine use in humans is anxiety. In contrast to other types of drugs of abuse, the emergence of this anxiety does not seem to be linked directly to alterations in the levels of dopamine in the mesolimbic system. Some studies have proposed that fear-like behaviors elicited by

Luiz F. S. Souza-Pinto; Vanessa M. Castilho; Marcus Lira Brandão; Manoel Jorge Nobre

2007-01-01

173

27 CFR 31.137 - Withdrawal of partner(s).  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of partner(s). 31.137 Section 31.137 Alcohol...Information Other Changes § 31.137 Withdrawal of partner(s). Withdrawal of partner(s) requires an amended registration....

2014-04-01

174

27 CFR 31.137 - Withdrawal of partner(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of partner(s). 31.137 Section 31.137 Alcohol...Information Other Changes § 31.137 Withdrawal of partner(s). Withdrawal of partner(s) requires an amended registration....

2010-04-01

175

27 CFR 31.137 - Withdrawal of partner(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of partner(s). 31.137 Section 31.137 Alcohol...Information Other Changes § 31.137 Withdrawal of partner(s). Withdrawal of partner(s) requires an amended registration....

2011-04-01

176

27 CFR 31.137 - Withdrawal of partner(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of partner(s). 31.137 Section 31.137 Alcohol...Information Other Changes § 31.137 Withdrawal of partner(s). Withdrawal of partner(s) requires an amended registration....

2012-04-01

177

27 CFR 31.137 - Withdrawal of partner(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of partner(s). 31.137 Section 31.137 Alcohol...Information Other Changes § 31.137 Withdrawal of partner(s). Withdrawal of partner(s) requires an amended registration....

2013-04-01

178

Heightened aggressive behavior during morphine withdrawal: effects of d -amphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphine withdrawal syndrome is composed of profound short- and long-term changes in autonomic, somato-motor and affective functions. In mice, morphine withdrawal produces heightened aggressive behavior and alterations in motor behavior; however, it is unclear whether these changes in behavior occur in unison and are dependent on a common mechanism or occur independently. In order to characterize the morphine withdrawal

J. W. Tidey; K. A. Miczek

1992-01-01

179

Spontaneous Nicotine Withdrawal Potentiates the Effects of Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal in humans, and may predict an inability to abstain from cigarette smoking. It is not clear if self-reports of anxiety during abstinence reflect increased baseline anxiety and\\/or increased responses to exogenous stressors. We hypothesized that nicotine withdrawal selectively exacerbates reactivity to aversive stimuli in rodents. Here, we investigated the effect of withdrawal

Sietse Jonkman; Victoria B Risbrough; Mark A Geyer; Athina Markou

2007-01-01

180

Spontaneous Nicotine Withdrawal Potentiates the Effects of Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal in humans, and may predict an inability to abstain from cigarette smoking. It is not clear if self-reports of anxiety during abstinence reflect increased baseline anxiety and\\/or increased responses to exogenous stressors. We hypothesized that nicotine withdrawal selectively exacerbates reactivity to aversive stimuli in rodents. Here, we investigated the effect of withdrawal

Sietse Jonkman; Victoria B Risbrough; Mark A Geyer; Athina Markou

2008-01-01

181

Born under a bad sign? Astrological sign and suicide ideation.  

PubMed

This study tests the thesis that the internalization of the traits associated with astrological signs affects suicide ideation. Data are from a national sample (N = 7,508). Only the most negativistic sign of Pisces was significantly associated with suicide ideation. PMID:3399320

Stack, S; Lester, D

1988-04-01

182

Extended Access to Nicotine Self-Administration Leads to Dependence: Circadian Measures, Withdrawal Measures, and Extinction Behavior in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study characterized nicotine intake, circadian pat- terns of food and water intake, precipitated somatic signs of withdrawal, and extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats with 23-h access to intravenous self-administration (IVSA). Separate groups of animals were allowed access to nicotine IVSA (0.015, n 9; 0.03, n 14; 0.06, n 16; mg\\/kg\\/0.1 ml infusion\\/s; fixed ratio 1) and trained

Laura E. O'Dell; Scott A. Chen; Ron T. Smith; Sheila E. Specio; Robert L. Balster; Neil E. Paterson; Athina Markou; Eric P. Zorrilla; George F. Koob

2006-01-01

183

The impacts of nitrous oxide gas on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background Poor quality of sleep among alcoholics and persons undergoing alcohol withdrawal has been described as a possible cause of alcohol relapse. It has been suggested earlier that nitrous oxide gas has a significant effect on the signs of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and thus might be expected to reduce sleep disturbance during withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to investigate sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal, to evaluate the correlation between sleep quality and the severity of AWS and alcohol craving, and to determine if nitrous oxide treatment does counteract withdrawal's effects on the quality of sleep. Voluntary patients (n = 105) admitted to the A-Clinic detoxification center with AWS were included in the study. The AWS patients were randomly assigned to one of the following 45-minute gas treatments: (1) nitrous oxide/oxygen; (2) normal air/O2; and (3) medical (normal) air. The study was single-blind by design. Sleep quality was assessed after these treatments during the inpatient period; sleep time, sleep efficiency and the fragmentation of sleep were recorded by wrist-worn actigraphs. Severity of AWS was evaluated by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and that of alcohol dependence and craving by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale [OCDS] and the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire. Results The fragmentation index and the time awake while in bed were both much above the reference values for the Finnish population. These values reflect the restless and disturbed night sleep of the subjects. The only statistically significant effects between the treatment groups were found in the correlations of CIWA-Ar (severity of AWS) scores, OCDS-scores (alcohol craving) and coffee consumption, all of which were positively associated with movement time and negatively with total sleep time and sleep efficiency. The sleep quality of patients treated with nitrous oxide gas did not differ from the sleep quality of those treated with normal air. Conclusions The severity of AWS and coffee consumption had the most significant negative impact on sleep quality. According to our results, nitrous oxide gas does not differ from placebo in its effect on sleep quality during alcohol withdrawal. PMID:21470436

2011-01-01

184

Physics and Astronomy Department Withdrawal Policy In accordance with university policy, the Physics and Astronomy department permits withdrawals from  

E-print Network

Physics and Astronomy Department Withdrawal Policy In accordance with university policy, the Physics and Astronomy department permits withdrawals from P&A courses up to the withdrawal deadline with associated, co-requisite labs. Physics 101/102, 111/112, 121/122, 220/222, 230/232/ 240/242 Astronomy 115

Bland, Roger

185

Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal: Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relative effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on aversive withdrawal symptoms, we gave 109 smokers attempting to quit either nicotine gum or placebo within a balanced placebo design and monitored their withdrawal symptoms and smoking for 2 weeks. Subjects who believed they were getting nicotine gum reported less physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal, and smoked

Andrew M. Gottlieb; Joel D. Killen; G. Alan Marlatt; C. Barr Taylor

1987-01-01

186

Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal : Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relative effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on aversive withdrawal symp- toms, we gave 109 smokers attempting to quit either nicotine gum or placebo within a balanced placebo design and monitored their withdrawal symptoms and smoking for 2 weeks . Subjects who believed they were getting nicotine gum reported less physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal,

G. Alan; Marlatt C; Barr Taylor

187

Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

2007-01-01

188

Sign Program for a University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A co-ordinated sign program for a multi-campus university not only helps students and visitors find their way around, but is a design element that adds identification and unity. Graphic designer, Paul Arthur, has designed a modular sign system for the University of Tennessee with all elements having standard color, lettering, size and materials.…

Architectural and Engineering News, 1968

1968-01-01

189

NUHOMS{reg_sign} update  

SciTech Connect

NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

Rich, N. [Vectra Technologies, San Jose, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

190

Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

2013-01-01

191

Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

192

Viewpoint invariant sign language recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewpoint invariance is a grand challenge for sign language recognition. In this paper, we propose a novel viewpoint invariant method for sign language recognition. The recognition task is converted to a verification task under the proposed method. This conversion is based on the geometric constraint that the fundamental matrix associated with two views SHOULD BE UNIQUE when the observation and

Qi Wang; Xilin Chen; Liangguo Zhang; Chunli Wang; Wen Gao

2005-01-01

193

Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.  

PubMed

Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

2011-01-01

194

Maternal methadone dose and neonatal withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal methadone dosage correlates with neonatal withdrawal in a large heroin-addicted pregnant population.STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of all maternal\\/neonatal records of pregnancies that were maintained on methadone therapy in our institution was conducted. After in-hospital stabilization, women were given daily methadone therapy under direct surveillance, with liberal dosage increases

Vincenzo Berghella; Pearl J Lim; Mary K Hill; Jennifer Cherpes; Jennifer Chennat; Karol Kaltenbach

2003-01-01

195

Phenobarbital treatment in a patient with resistant alcohol withdrawal syndrome.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the acute care setting. We describe a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department with a new-onset seizure and clinical signs and symptoms consistent with advanced delirium tremens. A symptom-triggered intensive care unit treatment protocol consisting of a benzodiazepine and antiadrenergic agents was started. The manifestations of delirium tremens persisted with titration of a lorazepam infusion in excess of 40 mg/hour. Intravenous phenobarbital was administered in escalating doses of 65 mg followed by 130 mg 15 minutes later, resulting in control of severe agitation in the face of benzodiazepine resistance. Subsequent scheduled phenobarbital administration allowed for a successful and orderly weaning of the continuous benzodiazepine infusion and adjunctive agents used in AWS management. With continued clearing of consciousness, the patient was successfully discharged. The administration of phenobarbital in this patient allowed improved symptom control, minimized the potential for propylene glycol toxicity, was not associated with respiratory depression, and facilitated successful weaning of benzodiazepines. Barbiturates offer a mechanism of action that is different from that of benzodiazepines. Although the cornerstone of treatment for AWS remains benzodiazepines, this case highlights the potential utility of phenobarbital in patients with resistant AWS. PMID:19558262

Hayner, Christopher E; Wuestefeld, Nancy L; Bolton, Pamela J

2009-07-01

196

Cardiac hyper- and hyporesponsiveness after pindolol withdrawal.  

PubMed

Abrupt withdrawal of some beta-adrenergic blockers has resulted in clinical syndromes suggestive of adrenergic hypersensitivity that may be due to an adaptive increase in cardiac beta-receptor responsiveness. it was postulated that the partial agonist activity of pindolol might limit enhanced responsiveness of cardiac beta receptors and prevent or diminish withdrawal manifestations. Pindolol was given to 10 hypertensive patients in doses of 10 mg b.i.d. for at least 4 wk, then abruptly replaced with placebo for 20 days. Cardiac chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol was decreased on pindolol and gradually returned to normal over 10 to 20 days with no evidence of enhanced responsiveness. In contrast, both resting and exercise heart rate showed rebound increase in responsiveness between the second to sixth day after pindolol (P less than 0.05). Resting and exercise blood pressures gradually rose to stable values without rebound. Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine did not change. These data show that abrupt withdrawal of pindolol after long-term dosing leads to transient cardiac hyperresponsiveness of resting and exercise heart rate at the same time as persistent cardiac hyporesponsiveness to isoproterenol. These opposite effects of pindolol on subsets of cardiac beta-adrenergic chronotropic receptors. PMID:7075106

Rangno, R E; Langlois, S; Stewart, J

1982-05-01

197

25 CFR 1000.35 - When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, is the Secretary required to award to the withdrawing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...construction project if the withdrawing Tribe so requests? 1000.35 Section 1000.35 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...Withdrawal from A Consortium Annual Funding Agreement § 1000.35 When a Tribe withdraws from a...

2010-04-01

198

Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice  

PubMed Central

Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25-30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30-90 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P<0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions. PMID:23181090

Ghannadi, A.; Hajhashemi, V.; Abrishami, R.

2012-01-01

199

Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

2013-07-01

200

3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provisions do not require a veto of the entire bill. In recent years, there has been considerable public discussion and criticism of the use of signing statements to raise constitutional objections to statutory provisions. There is no doubt...

2010-01-01

201

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

202

International Road Signs: Interpretability and Training Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The drivers in a battalion about to be deployed to Germany were taught the meanings of international road signs using one of the following techniques: Sign Only, in which the road signs were presented via a slide projector and the names of the slides provided orally by the instructor; Sign Elaboration, which was identical to the Sign Only…

Griffith, Douglas; Actkinson, Tomme R.

203

Preferences for Patient Cost Sharing Among Medicare Beneficiaries after HMO Plan Withdrawals  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess Medicare beneficiaries' willingness to cost share in order to minimize disruptions in coverage from HMO plan withdrawals. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey of Medicare beneficiaries from February 1999 to March 1999. SETTING Ten U.S. counties with the highest HMO plan withdrawal rates. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Seven hundred one Medicare beneficiaries for response rate of 69%. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Percentage of respondents willing to accept more out-of-pocket costs in order to continue their Medicare HMO coverage. Most respondents (67%) were willing to pay more out-of-pocket costs so that their HMO could have continued Medicare coverage. Those who were white (P = .03), had higher incomes (P = .01), and returned to traditional fee-for-service Medicare (P = .004) were more likely than other respondents to accept increased patient cost sharing. Most beneficiaries preferred Medicare policies requiring HMOs to sign longer-term Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) contracts (72%) and to offer coverage to beneficiaries regardless of where they lived in a given state (87%). However, respondents' preferences for such policy options were not associated with the amount of cost sharing that respondents were willing to accept. CONCLUSIONS Most Medicare beneficiaries are willing to accept increased patient cost sharing in order to reduce disruptions in their HMO coverage. Policies intended to reduce HMO plan withdrawals, such as requiring health plans to sign longer-term HCFA contracts, are supported by many Medicare beneficiaries, but these policy preferences were not related to willingness to cost share. In light of an apparent willingness to pay more out-of-pocket medical costs, Medicare beneficiaries in general may accept increased cost sharing in order to retain their HMO coverage. PMID:12133159

Kao, Audiey C; Krasny, Alex J

2002-01-01

204

5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 330.1001 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from...

2010-01-01

205

Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.  

PubMed

Crocus sativus L. has been shown to interact with the opioid system. Thus, the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stigma and its constituents were evaluated on morphine-withdrawal syndrome in mice. Dependence was induced using subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine for 3 days. On day 4, morphine was injected 0.5 h prior the interaperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the extracts, crocin, safranal, clonidine (0.3 mg/kg) or normal saline. Naloxone was injected (5 mg/kg i.p.) 2 h after the final dose of morphine and the number of episodes of jumping during 30 mm was considered as the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome. Clonidine, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron reduced the jumping activity. Safranal was injected (s.c.) 30 mm prior and 1 and 2 h after the injection of morphine. It potentiated some signs of withdrawal syndrome. The aqueous extract decreased the movement in all of the doses (80, 160, 320 mg/kg) and the ethanolic extract decreased it in the dose of 800 mg/kg in open field test. But crocin and the dose of 400 mg/kg ethanolic extract showed no effect on activity in this test. It is concluded that the extracts and crocin may have interaction with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. PMID:19827024

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Jahanian, Zahra

2010-05-01

206

ShowMeTheSign Accessibility App  

E-print Network

systems are presented and how these systems are used to translate speech to text and then to sign language language, signing, mobile application, voice recognition, speech to text systems, and speech to sign

Painter, Kevin

207

Signed Networks in Social Media  

E-print Network

Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the classical theory of structural balance tends to capture certain common patterns of interaction, but that it is also at odds with some of the fundamental phenomena we observe --- particularly related to the evolving, directed nature of these on-line networks. We then develop an alternate theory of status that better explains the observed edge signs and provides insights into the underlying social mechanisms. Our work provides one of the first large-scale evaluations of theories of signed networks using on-line datasets, as ...

Leskovec, Jure; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-01-01

208

Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice did not change from baseline levels of intake. In contrast, HAP-2 females and LAP-2 mice of both sexes did not show changes in ethanol intake as a consequence of intermittent ethanol exposure. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the magnitude of ethanol withdrawal-related seizures is inversely related to inherited ethanol intake preference. Additionally, intermittent ethanol vapor exposure appears more likely to affect high-drinking mice (C57BL/6J and HAP-2) than low drinkers, even though these animals are less affected by ethanol withdrawal. PMID:21314693

Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

2010-01-01

209

Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in glioma patients after long-term seizure freedom: design of a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is common in patients with a glioma. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but may cause side effects and may negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Besides antiepileptic drugs, anti-tumour treatment, which currently consists of surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, may contribute to seizure control as well. In glioma patients with seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy the question emerges whether AEDs should be continued, particularly in the case where anti-tumour treatment has been successful. We propose to explore the possibility of AED withdrawal in glioma patients with long-term seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy and without signs of tumour progression. Methods/Design We initiate a prospective, observational study exploring the decision-making process on the withdrawal or continuation of AEDs in low-grade and anaplastic glioma patients with stable disease and prolonged seizure freedom after anti-tumour treatment, and the effects of AED withdrawal or continuation on seizure freedom. We recruit participants through the outpatient clinics of three tertiary referral centers for brain tumour patients in The Netherlands. The patient and the treating physician make a shared decision to either withdraw or continue AED treatment. Over a one-year period, we aim to include 100 glioma patients. We expect approximately half of the participants to be willing to withdraw AEDs. The primary outcome measures are: 1) the outcome of the shared-decision making on AED withdrawal or continuation, and decision related arguments, and 2) seizure freedom at 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. We will also evaluate seizure type and frequency in case of seizure recurrence, as well as neurological symptoms, adverse effects related to AED treatment or withdrawal, other anti-tumour treatments and tumour progression. Discussion This study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients. PMID:25124385

2014-01-01

210

The aurora sign: an ultrasonographic sign suggesting parenchymal lung disease.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the cause and clinical significance of a large number of ring-down artefact (RA) observed on the dorsal side of the right hepatic lobe on abdominal ultrasound (US). 2000 abdominal US examinations were evaluated to investigate the frequency and number of RA behind the right lobe of the liver. In this study, RA observed by subcostal or intercostal US were described as the "aurora sign" when they were numerous. US findings were correlated with high resolution CT or three-dimensional CT of the right lung base. Experimental study was also performed to investigate the mechanism of the aurora sign. The results were as follows. (1). Aurora sign was noted in 43 patients. In 37 of these 43 patients (86.0%), chest CT or plain radiography revealed diffuse interstitial changes in the right lower lung field. Three-dimensional CT of the lung and the experimental model revealed that the aurora sign derived from the irregularity of air spaces immediately below the pleura associated with interstitial pulmonary disorders. (2). One or more bands of RA were observed in 907 of the 2000 patients (45.4%). Of 177 patients with fatty liver, RA was observed in 14 (7.9%), while of the 1823 patients with no fatty liver, RA was observed in 893 (49.0%). The frequency of RA was significantly different (p<0.001) between the patients with and without fatty liver. In conclusion, parenchymal lung disease should be suspected when the aurora sign is noted on the dorsal side of the right hepatic lobe. However, RAs are rare in patients with fatty liver. PMID:12857701

Kohzaki, S; Tsurusaki, K; Uetani, M; Nakanishi, K; Hayashi, K

2003-07-01

211

The HyperSign Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes ongoing activities and results of the HyperSign Immersion Project developed at the Public School for the Deaf in New York City, New York. The project's objectives were to: (1) provide a means to enable Deaf students to assume a self-directed role in education; (2) provide an on-site prototype of a technologically supportive…

Abdulezer, Susan

212

Sign Language House Program Directors  

E-print Network

of hearing people learn, and new technologies that help them in their homes as well as in public. Action to the Campus Children Center as well as some elementary schools in Downtown Burlington, and we are going to go teach the children American Sign Language. ASL can be an important communication skill for children

Hayden, Nancy J.

213

The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

214

Cutaneous signs of systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia,

Laju M. Patel; Phelps J. Lambert; Claude E. Gagna; Amin Maghari; W. Clark Lambert

2011-01-01

215

Traffic Sign Maintenance/ Management Handbook  

E-print Network

Traffic Sign Maintenance/ Management Handbook #12;Acknowledgements #12;Document Information Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices ­ Background Minnesota Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices MN MUTCD May 2005 #12;Minnesota Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices #12;Old Guidelines New

Minnesota, University of

216

Road Signs in Ethical Quicksand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the major moral and ethical dilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered. (Author/DWH)

Jerrell, S. Lee; Jerrell, Jeanette M.

1985-01-01

217

Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

1995-01-01

218

Sign Language Interpreter Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) in order to evaluate the need for a proposed Sign Language Interpreter program. OCC's study focused on validating and updating findings from a similar research project begun in fall 1989 by Macomb Community College (MCC) in Warren, Michigan. Federal and state legislation, data from…

Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

219

77 FR 11554 - Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab) Following...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Decision on Withdrawal of Breast Cancer Indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...decision withdrawing approval of the breast cancer indication for AVASTIN (Bevacizumab...DATES: Withdrawal of AVASTIN's breast cancer indication was effective...

2012-02-27

220

5 CFR 1650.61 - Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals...WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Spousal Rights § 1650.61 Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals....

2010-01-01

221

5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. 1650.24 Section...THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To...

2013-01-01

222

5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.  

... 2014-01-01 false How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. 1650.24 Section...THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To...

2014-01-01

223

5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. 1650.24 Section...THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To...

2010-01-01

224

5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. 1650.24 Section...THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To...

2011-01-01

225

5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. 1650.24 Section...THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To...

2012-01-01

226

5 CFR 1650.61 - Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals.  

... false Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals. 1650.61...1650.61 Spousal rights applicable to post-employment withdrawals. (a) The...described in this section apply to full post-employment withdrawals when the...

2014-01-01

227

Challenges of withdrawal from chronic antidepressant medication: a healing odyssey.  

PubMed

We report the case of a woman with posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to childhood sexual assault who attempted withdrawal from long-term use of antidepressant medication and experimented with a plethora of different therapies. The complex case history illustrates the potential difficulty of withdrawal from chronic antidepressant medication and the role of integrative therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:23452714

Whedon, James M; Rugo, Nancy A; Lux, Kenneth

2013-01-01

228

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

2008-01-01

229

5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.  

...participant may request that the TSP transfer all or a portion of the withdrawal to a traditional IRA, an eligible employer plan, or a Roth IRA in accordance with § 1650.25. (c) A participant is permitted only one age-based withdrawal for an account....

2014-01-01

230

5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...participant may request that the TSP transfer all or a portion of the withdrawal to a traditional IRA, an eligible employer plan, or a Roth IRA in accordance with § 1650.25. (c) A participant is permitted only one age-based withdrawal for an account....

2013-01-01

231

Colonoscopic withdrawal technique is associated with adenoma miss rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:  Clinical studies have documented differences in detection rates of colorectal cancers and adenomas between experienced colonoscopists, the basis of which is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether colonoscopic withdrawal technique varies between 2 colonoscopists with known differences in adenoma detection rates. Methods:  Ten consecutive colonoscopic withdrawals by each of the 2 colonoscopists were videotaped and

Douglas K. Rex

2000-01-01

232

AGAINST THE INALIENABLE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW FROM RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTIn this paper I argue, against the current consensus, that the right to withdraw from research is sometimes alienable. In other words, research subjects are sometimes morally permitted to waive their right to withdraw. The argument proceeds in three major steps. In the first step, I argue that rights typically should be presumed alienable, both because that is not illegitimately

ERIC CHWANG

2008-01-01

233

A Study of Freshman Student Withdrawal at Salem State College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reasons for the withdrawal of 159 first-semester freshmen from Salem State College, Massachusetts, during the fall 1981 or 1982 semesters were studied. Questionnaire results supported the following assumptions: community problems contribute to student withdrawal, not getting into the dorm contributes to attrition for some students, financial…

McClain, Ruth S.; Sartwell, David

234

Alcohol withdrawal at home. Pilot project for frail elderly people.  

PubMed

The need for safe, accessible, client-centred, alcohol withdrawal services for seniors was recognized by health service workers in Victoria. A partnership of health and support service organizations developed and implemented a pilot project for treating alcohol withdrawal in the home. The project provided service that integrated well with a substance-abuse treatment program for seniors. PMID:8688696

Evans, D J; Street, S D; Lynch, D J

1996-05-01

235

An investigation of the process of employee withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the theory that withdrawal of employees from organizations represents a gradual process. All hourly non-exempt employees of a manufacturing organization who separated in one calendar year (N =309) were considered. Excused and unexcused absence measures, and excused and unexcused tardiness measures, were collected for seven weeks prior to separation. Patterns of four withdrawal measures were then considered

Philip G. Benson; Samuel B. Pond

1987-01-01

236

Clozapine Withdrawal Catatonia and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catatonia as a clozapine withdrawal syndrome has not been documented. We report a case of excited catatonia with fever, autonomic instability, and delirium—a picture of malignant catatonia (lethal catatonia) after abrupt clozapine withdrawal. The use of conventional neuroleptics transformed the excited malignant catatonia into a stuporous state resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Such a transformation of excited lethal catatonia into

Joseph W. Y. Lee; Stephen Robertson

1997-01-01

237

Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status. PMID:25024850

Kugasia, Irfanali R.; Shabarek, Nehad

2014-01-01

238

Disseminating drug prescribing information: the cox-2 inhibitors withdrawals.  

PubMed

This case study examined the recent withdrawal of valdecoxib to determine the timeliness of updates in commonly used information sources used by healthcare professionals. The method included assembling a purposive sample of 15 drug reference and warning systems that were then systematically monitored for several months after the withdrawal of valdecoxib to determine the time to update this information. These information sources were classified and described qualitatively. A time to diffusion curve was plotted and the average number of days to report the drug withdrawal or update reference databases was calculated. Only 2 of 15 information systems reported the drug withdrawal on the actual date of the FDA announcement. Institutional electronic textbooks took an average of 109.8 days (+/-14 days) to report the withdrawal. In addition, one pharma-sponsored dissemination source (Peerview Press) had not updated their information as of this publication. PMID:16622163

Strayer, Scott M; Slawson, David C; Shaughnessy, Allen F

2006-01-01

239

Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

Mesch, Johanna

2013-01-01

240

Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

2011-01-01

241

Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal: Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on withdrawal symptoms by giving 109 smokers nicotine gum or placebo. Subjects who believed they had nicotine gum reported fewer physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal, and smoked fewer cigarettes than did those who thought they had placebo. Actual nicotine content of gum had no…

Gottlieb, Andrew M.; And Others

1987-01-01

242

Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice. Synapse 68:508-517, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25042794

Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

2014-11-01

243

Signs and Practices: Coordinating Service and Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is full of signs (symbols, signifiers). They guide us in supermarkets, on highways and in airports. They even guide\\u000a us to the right bathroom. Signs have a huge impact if they are used as logos or in advertisements. Signs also help us when\\u000a we read manuals or when we use a remote control. Signs are used everywhere. Signs

Helge Löbler

2010-01-01

244

[Ethics of research: the freedom to withdraw].  

PubMed

Because they do not have universal access to health care, the poorest people in developing countries often have no other choice but to participate in medical research. In exchange for their contribution to a clinical trial and their adhesion to the study protocol, they receive a bare minimum of health services. Can the notion of informed and free consent be applied under these conditions? Does the provision of care actually constitute a powerful incentive to participate in biomedical research that contradicts the notion of free will? Suppressing this promise of care will not resolve issues for research participants in resource-limited countries. On the contrary the promise of care must be extended to all potential research participants who approach the investigators regardless of their participation in the research. Additionally, all participants should be able to withdraw the trial at any time when he/she considers that his/her interest is better dealt with outside the frame. An individual's consent could be continually renewed, informed by his/her experience throughout the course of the trial independently of the health services that are offered. A standard of care could be offered to those who decide to break the contract that connects them to researchers including the first day after the signature of the consent. Would the provision of care constitute an "even more powerful incentive" for participants to enter into trials and/or create a situation whereby research is no longer possible? Or would it be on the contrary a beneficial reform, forcing research to propose less restricting and heavy protocols, for the obvious potential direct benefits so that the participants would not be tempted to withdraw the programme? This article and the ideas put forward are directly inspired from dialogues presented on the EthicHIV discussion forum, set up by sidaCTlON as a part of their program on ethics in HIV-related research in developing countries. PMID:18543700

de Cenival, M

2008-04-01

245

Living with the Wrong Sign  

E-print Network

We describe a UV complete asymptotically fragile Lorentz-invariant theory exhibiting superluminal signal propagation. Its low energy effective action contains "wrong" sign higher dimensional operators. Nevertheless, the theory gives rise to an S-matrix, which is defined at all energies. As expected for a non-local theory, the corresponding scattering amplitudes are not exponentially bounded on the physical sheet, but otherwise are healthy. We study some of the physical consequences of this S-matrix.

Patrick Cooper; Sergei Dubovsky; Ali Mohsen

2013-12-06

246

Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

1994-05-03

247

Science Nation: Signing Made Easy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies show as many as 75 percent of hearing parents of deaf children never become fluent signers. Alarmed by these statistics and with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, computer scientist and Georgia Tech professor Thad Starner began to develop interactive tools, such as video games and cell phone apps, to make sign language easier to learn for both the deaf and the hearing communities.

248

Pre-treatment with a PKC or PKA inhibitor prevents the development of morphine tolerance but not physical dependence in mice.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors reversed morphine antinociceptive tolerance in 3-day morphine-pelleted mice. The present study aimed at evaluating whether pre-treating mice with a PKC or PKA inhibitor prior to pellet implantation would prevent the development of morphine tolerance and physical dependence. Antinociception was assessed using the warm-water tail immersion test and physical dependence was evaluated by quantifying/scoring naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs. While drug-naïve mice pelleted with a 75 mg morphine pellet for 3 days developed a 5.8-fold tolerance to morphine antinociception, mice pre-treated i.c.v. with the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I, Go-7874 or Go-6976, or with the myristoylated PKA inhibitor, PKI-(14-22)-amide failed to develop any tolerance to morphine antinociception. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether morphine-pelleted mice were physically dependent when pre-treated with PKC or PKA inhibitors. The same inhibitor doses that prevented morphine tolerance were evaluated in other mice injected s.c. with naloxone and tested for precipitated withdrawal. The pre-treatment with PKC or PKA inhibitors failed to attenuate or block the signs of morphine withdrawal including jumping, wet-dog shakes, rearing, forepaw tremor, increased locomotion, grooming, diarrhea, tachypnea and ptosis. These data suggest that elevations in the activity of PKC and PKA in the brain are critical to the development of morphine tolerance. However, it appears that tolerance can be dissociated from physical dependence, indicating a role for PKC and PKA to affect antinociception but not those signs mediated through the complex physiological processes of withdrawal. PMID:18501877

Gabra, Bichoy H; Bailey, Chris P; Kelly, Eamonn; Smith, Forrest L; Henderson, Graeme; Dewey, William L

2008-06-27

249

Ethical Analysis of Withdrawing Ventricular Assist Device Support  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with heart failure supported with a ventricular assist device (VAD) who requested (or whose surrogates requested) withdrawal of VAD support and the legal and ethical aspects pertaining to these requests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from March 1, 2003, through January 31, 2009, who requested (or whose surrogates requested) withdrawal of VAD support and for whom the requests were fulfilled. We then explored the legal and ethical permissibility of carrying out such requests. RESULTS: The median age of the 14 patients identified (13 men, 1 woman) was 57 years. Requests were made by 2 patients and 12 surrogates. None of the patients' available advance directives mentioned the VAD. For 11 patients, multidisciplinary care conferences were held before withdrawal of VAD support. Only 1 patient had an ethics consultation. All 14 patients died within 1 day of withdrawal of VAD support. CONCLUSION: Patients have the right to refuse or request the withdrawal of any unwanted treatment, and we argue that this right extends to VAD support. We also argue that the cause of death in these cases is the underlying heart disease, not assisted suicide or euthanasia. Therefore, patients with heart failure supported with VADs or their surrogates may request withdrawal of this treatment. In our view, carrying out such requests is permissible in accordance with the principles that apply to withdrawing other life-sustaining treatments. PMID:20584919

Mueller, Paul S.; Swetz, Keith M.; Freeman, Monica R.; Carter, Kari A.; Crowley, Mary Eliot; Severson, Cathy J. Anderson; Park, Soon J.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

2010-01-01

250

Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

2011-01-01

251

Overview: a comparison of withdrawal symptoms from different drug classes.  

PubMed

Whereas early formulations of addictive behaviour placed great emphasis upon withdrawal as a defining feature, current views focus more upon compulsive use as its central characteristic. However, the withdrawal syndrome continues to occupy an important place in the study of the addictions. It is interesting both in its own right and in relation to the development and maintenance of the compulsive use of drugs. Despite the attention devoted to withdrawal phenomena over many years, precise demarcation of the withdrawal symptoms associated with drugs of dependence has proved difficult to achieve. Withdrawal from all drugs of dependence appears to lead to mood disturbances although the extent to which these are due to the pharmacological actions of the drugs or to other physiological or psychological processes is unclear. Sleep disturbance is also common, although again direct links with the pharmacological actions of the withdrawn drug are yet to be established. Withdrawal from alcohol, benzodiazepines and opiates is often associated with somatic symptoms. In the former two cases, these can involve sweating, tremor and occasionally seizures. Perceptual disturbances have also been reported. In the case of opiates, flu-like symptoms are often reported, including muscle aches and gastric disturbances. In the case of nicotine, heightened irritability has been established as a direct pharmacological withdrawal effect. Characterization of stimulant withdrawal is still uncertain. There is little evidence of somatic symptoms but depression may occur as a result of a physiological rebound. There is also uncertainty over what role pharmacological withdrawal symptoms play in maintaining compulsive use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7841860

West, R; Gossop, M

1994-11-01

252

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

253

27 CFR 19.537 - Withdrawal of spirits free of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. 19.537 Section 19.537 Alcohol...Transfer and Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax § 19.537 Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. Spirits withdrawn free...

2010-04-01

254

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders —(1) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S...of money or property by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail and...

2012-07-01

255

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders —(1) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S...of money or property by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail and...

2010-07-01

256

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders —(1) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S...of money or property by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail and...

2013-07-01

257

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders —(1) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S...of money or property by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail and...

2011-07-01

258

29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal...

2013-07-01

259

29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal...

2012-07-01

260

29 CFR 1977.17 - Withdrawal of complaint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Procedures § 1977.17 Withdrawal...

2011-07-01

261

30 CFR 35.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.13 Withdrawal of certification. MSHA reserves the right to rescind for cause,...

2010-07-01

262

33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The Coast...

2010-07-01

263

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2012-04-01

264

20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal...

2013-04-01

265

31 CFR 594.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 594.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation....

2014-07-01

266

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2011-04-01

267

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2012-04-01

268

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2013-04-01

269

18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.  

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION...

2014-04-01

270

Water Withdrawals for Development of Marcellus Shale Gas in Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

is the fracking fluid (also called drilling return wa- ter, drilling wastewater, flowback, or produced- ing (fracking), the portion of water withdrawals related to mining is likely to rise. The information

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

271

75 FR 33273 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of the Navy [Docket ID: USN-2010-0021] Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal AGENCY: Department of the Navy...2010, concerning a policy that would establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) with contractors that have demonstrated...

2010-06-11

272

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of...

2013-07-01

273

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of...

2010-07-01

274

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of...

2014-07-01

275

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of...

2011-07-01

276

30 CFR 33.13 - Withdrawal of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.13 Withdrawal of...

2012-07-01

277

33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

2010-07-01

278

33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

2011-07-01

279

33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

2013-07-01

280

33 CFR 151.1018 - Withdrawal of a conditional permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...151.1018 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1018 Withdrawal of a...

2012-07-01

281

33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

2011-07-01

282

33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

2013-07-01

283

33 CFR 67.10-30 - Withdrawal of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-30 Withdrawal of approval. The...

2012-07-01

284

31 CFR 540.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 540.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

2014-07-01

285

27 CFR 19.996 - Withdrawal of spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Uses, Withdrawals...of an alcohol fuel plant, they must be rendered unfit for beverage use as provided in this...free of tax from plant premises exclusively for fuel use. (Sec....

2010-04-01

286

27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits...other removal of fuel alcohol from the alcohol fuel plant premises, the consignor proprietor must...

2014-04-01

287

41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.  

...27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts, fabricated products, catalysts, or solutions, are generally...the Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery...

2014-01-01

288

41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts, fabricated products, catalysts, or solutions, are generally...the Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery...

2012-01-01

289

41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts, fabricated products, catalysts, or solutions, are generally...the Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery...

2010-07-01

290

41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts, fabricated products, catalysts, or solutions, are generally...the Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery...

2013-07-01

291

41 CFR 109-27.5106-2 - Withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106-2 Withdrawals. Pure metals, parts, fabricated products, catalysts, or solutions, are generally...the Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery...

2011-01-01

292

31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No...

2014-07-01

293

27 CFR 22.112 - Regulation of withdrawals.  

...Section 22.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Withdrawal and Receipt of Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.112...

2014-04-01

294

18 CFR 153.22 - Amendments and withdrawals.  

...CONSTRUCT, OPERATE, OR MODIFY FACILITIES USED FOR THE EXPORT OR IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS Paper Media and Other Requirements § 153.22 Amendments...or withdrawals of applications must conform to the requirements of §§ 385.215 and...

2014-04-01

295

9 CFR 354.36 - Withdrawal of application.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.36 Withdrawal of application. Any application for...

2014-01-01

296

9 CFR 354.36 - Withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.36 Withdrawal of application. Any application for...

2013-01-01

297

9 CFR 354.36 - Withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.36 Withdrawal of application. Any application for...

2010-01-01

298

9 CFR 354.36 - Withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.36 Withdrawal of application. Any application for...

2012-01-01

299

9 CFR 354.36 - Withdrawal of application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.36 Withdrawal of application. Any application for...

2011-01-01

300

30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical...

2013-07-01

301

30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

2013-07-01

302

30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and open flames shall be posted where a fire or explosion hazard...

2013-07-01

303

Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

304

Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

Schilling, Kenneth

2013-01-01

305

Sign Language From the Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

306

Sign Programs with Nonverbal Hearing Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a framework for determining if a young severely language delayed child is an appropriate candidate for sign programs; a discussion of specific sign objectives; and guidelines for classroom implementation and family intervention. (Author)

Kriegsmann, Elinor; And Others

1982-01-01

307

12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7? by 3?...

2012-01-01

308

12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.  

...Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7? by 3?...

2014-01-01

309

12 CFR 328.1 - Official sign.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 328.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.1 Official sign. (a) The official sign referred to in this part shall be 7? by 3?...

2010-01-01

310

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Download PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs This section has been ... and Neck Cancer - Diagnosis › f t g e + Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

311

The Paget-Gorman Sign System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Paget-Gorman Sign System, a signed English approach shown to be effective with deaf or hard of hearing children, has been helpful in developing phrase structure in hearing impaired mentally retarded students. (CL)

Rowe, Jacqueline

1981-01-01

312

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Share Compartir Signs and Symptoms What are the signs, symptoms and potential health consequences of HPV? Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms ...

313

The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.  

PubMed Central

Background The pollination drop (PD) is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. Results In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240?h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1?h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100?h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4?h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48?h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma) or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus). Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. Conclusions We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator. When conspecific pollen grains were submerged in the PD, ovule secretion was subsequently terminated and active absorption occurred. These processes cooperated to influence PD withdrawal. In addition, pollen grain behavior within PDs varied dramatically among taxa, and PDs played a role in distinguishing and transporting pollen in G. biloba. PMID:22548734

2012-01-01

314

Status Cataplecticus Precipitated by Abrupt Withdrawal of Venlafaxine  

PubMed Central

Status cataplecticus is a rare manifestation of narcolepsy with cataplexy episodes recurring for hours or days, without a refractory period, in the absence of emotional triggers. This case highlights a narcoleptic patient who developed status cataplecticus after abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. Citation: Wang J; Greenberg H. Status cataplecticus precipitated by abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):715-716. PMID:23853567

Wang, Janice; Greenberg, Harly

2013-01-01

315

Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals  

PubMed Central

Aims Caffeine withdrawal was included in the research appendix of the DSM-IV to encourage additional research to assist with determining its status for the next version of the manual. Caffeine dependence was not included because of a lack of empirical research at the time of publication. This study assessed the beliefs of addiction professionals about the clinical importance of caffeine withdrawal and dependence. Methods A 6-item survey was developed and delivered electronically to the members of six professional organizations that focus on addiction. Open-ended comments were also solicited. Five hundred members responded. Results The majority (95%) thought that cessation of caffeine could produce a withdrawal syndrome, and that caffeine withdrawal can have clinical importance (73%); however, only half (48%) thought that caffeine withdrawal should be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A majority (58%) believed that some people develop caffeine dependence; however, only 44% indicated that it should be in the DSM. Comments suggested that trepidation about inclusion of caffeine diagnoses was due to the concerns about the field of psychiatry being criticized for including common disorders with a relatively low clinical severity. Others, however, expressed an urgent need to take caffeine-related problems more seriously. Conclusions The majority of addiction professionals believe that caffeine withdrawal and dependence disorders exist and are clinically important; however, these professionals are divided in whether caffeine withdrawal and dependence should be included in DSM. Wider dissemination of the extant literature on caffeine withdrawal and additional research on caffeine dependence will be needed to provide additional guidance to policymakers and healthcare workers. PMID:24761276

Brown, Pamela C.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Hughes, John R.; Juliano, Laura M.

2013-01-01

316

Drug metabolism and liver function after methyldopa withdrawal.  

PubMed Central

1 The effects of methyldopa withdrawal on liver function and drug metabolism were investigated in ten elderly females suffering from the drug-induced orthostatic reaction and resistant hypertension. 2 There was a significant increase in serum albumin level, antipyrine metabolism and urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid 6 months after the methyldopa withdrawal. 3 The results suggest that patients treated with methyldopa might show a reduced metabolizing ability in spite of normal liver function tests. PMID:7426273

Ylikallio, A; Sotaniemi, E A

1980-01-01

317

Neonatal withdrawal syndrome due to maternal codeine use  

PubMed Central

Neonatal withdrawal from maternal drugs and medications is not uncommon. Codeine-containing analgesic preparations given to pregnant mothers for headache have been identified as a cause of neonatal withdrawal syndrome. The present case highlights the importance of obtaining a detailed maternal drug history including prescription and nonprescription drugs, and highlights the need for prenatal counselling for women who are taking narcotic-containing analgesics. PMID:23633904

Nair, Vrinda; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Akierman, Albert

2012-01-01

318

Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstinence following daily marijuana use can produce a withdrawal syndrome characterized by negative mood (eg irritability, anxiety, misery), muscle pain, chills, and decreased food intake. Two placebo-controlled, within-subject studies investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: Study 1), and a mood stabilizer, divalproex (Study 2), on symptoms of marijuana withdrawal. Participants (n=7\\/study), who were not seeking treatment for

Margaret Haney; Carl L Hart; Suzanne K Vosburg; Jennifer Nasser; Andrew Bennett; Carlos Zubaran; Richard W Foltin

2004-01-01

319

Subadditive withdrawal from cocaine\\/?-opioid agonist combinations in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously developed and extensively characterized a convenient and sensitive metric for the quantification of withdrawal responses using Planaria. Planaria are particularly valuable for these studies because of their permeable exteriors and their relevant neurotransmitter systems (e.g., dopaminergic, opioid, and serotonergic). In the present study, we used this metric and mathematically rigorous joint-action analysis to investigate poly-drug withdrawal from

Robert B. Raffa; Gregory W. Stagliano; Ronald J. Tallarida

2006-01-01

320

Costs of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal  

E-print Network

TR- 57 1974 Cost of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal J.P. Warren L.L. Jones W.L. Griffin R.D. Lacewell Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...TR- 57 1974 Cost of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal J.P. Warren L.L. Jones W.L. Griffin R.D. Lacewell Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

Warren, J. P.; Jones, L. L.; Griffin, W. L.; Lacewell, R. D.

321

Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend’s withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class. PMID:18193479

Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

2013-01-01

322

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2013-10-01

323

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2010-10-01

324

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2012-10-01

325

47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...survival craft Call sign of the parent ship followed by 2 digits KAAA20...marker buoy Call sign of the parent ship followed by the letters...is assigned, call sign of the parent aircraft followed by a single digit other than 0 or 1...

2011-10-01

326

Library Sign Systems. Workshop Program Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These program materials from the Library Sign Systems Workshop include a news story on the workshop; notes in outline form for a speech presented by Joe Sonderman, president of a graphic designs firm; and an annotated bibliography on signs and sign systems. The news release summarizes a presentation by Dorothy Pollet and Peter Haskell, editors of…

Ridgeway, Patricia M.

327

Residual noise reduction in sign algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual noise of the sign algorithm can be reduced by adding a uniformly distributed noise (dithering) to the sign algorithm input signal. In this paper, a simple equation for the residual noise reduction factor (RNRF) is derived for the case in which the noise in the sign algorithm input signal has a two-level discrete amplitude distribution. It is demonstrated

Saso Tomazic

2000-01-01

328

Effects of ibogaine on sensory-motor function, activity, and spatial learning in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibogaine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, has been show to reduce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms from morphine. Given the clinical possibilities, it is important to determine ibogaine's effects on sensory-motor function, activity, learning, and memory. Long-Evans rats injected with doses of 20–60 mg\\/kg of ibogaine displayed slower response times on sensory and sensory-motor tests and were impaired in performing specific motor reflexes

Raymond P. Kesner; Pamela Jackson-Smith; Clarissa Henry; Kelly Amann

1995-01-01

329

Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons  

PubMed Central

Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 ?mol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 ?mol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

2013-01-01

330

Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) in Malay  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers. PMID:20492717

2010-01-01

331

Cannabis withdrawal in chronic cannabis users with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic users of cannabis often report withdrawal symptoms after abstinence from use, but little is known about cannabis withdrawal in people with schizophrenia. Methods Cannabis use patterns and withdrawal symptoms in adults with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use before attempting to quit without formal treatment were assessed with the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a 176-item, semi-structured questionnaire. Results 120 participants, predominantly African–American (62.5%) and male (76.7%), met inclusion criteria. 20.1% reported that their first regular cannabis use (median age 15 years [range 8–48]) preceded their age at first psychotic symptoms (20 [4–50] years). Twenty (16.7%) participants met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse; 98 (81.7%) met surrogate criteria for lifetime cannabis dependence. Withdrawal symptoms were reported by 113 (94.2%) participants, with 74.2% reporting ?4 symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were craving for cannabis (59.2%), feeling anxious (52.57%), feeling bored (47.5%), feeling sad or depressed (45.8%), feeling irritable or jumpy (45.0%), feeling restless (43.3%), and trouble failing asleep (33.3%). One hundred-and-four (92.0%) participants took some action to relieve at least one of their withdrawal symptoms during their index-quit attempt, including 26 (23.0%) participants who reported resuming cannabis use. Conclusion Cannabis withdrawal is a clinically significant feature of cannabis use among people with schizophrenia, may serve as a negative reinforcer for relapse, and deserves greater attention in treatment and research. Clinical Trials registration NCT00679016. PMID:23146560

Boggs, Douglas L.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared A.; Turner, Hailey; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; McMahon, Robert P.; Gorelick, David A.

2013-01-01

332

Bush Signs CAFTA into law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This past Tuesday, President Bush signed into law the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), but only after a rather protracted period of difficult and contentious debate in Congress. After signing the bill, Bush remarked that the agreement would defend against âÂÂforces that oppose democracy, seek to limit economic freedom and want to drive a wedge between the United States and the rest of the Americas." Essentially, CAFTA eliminates a number of tariffs and opens up the region to goods and services originating in the United States. A number of critics emerged during the process of approving CAFTA, including those in organized labor and other industries, many of whom claimed that the agreement would result in fewer jobs in the sugar and textile industries. As CAFTA only squeaked by in the House during the approval process, a number of commentators have suggested that this does not bode well for other free trade agreements with Thailand and Bahrain that have been under development as of late.The first link leads to a Los Angeles Times piece that provides coverage of the recent passage of CAFTA into law. The second link leads to an online article from this WednesdayâÂÂs San Francisco Chronicle about CAFTA, along with some informed commentary from Jon Haverman, a research fellow with the Public Policy Institute of California. The third link will lead visitors to a helpful news article from the Detroit News which discusses the potential effects that the passage of CAFTA may have on various labor groups. The fourth link leads to a Financial Times article (requiring a free trial subscription) that looks at the broader transformation of organized labor, with specific reference to CAFTA. The fifth link leads to a very helpful page maintained by the International Trade Administration within the US Department of Commerce where users can read official factsheets and press releases about CAFTA. The sixth and final link leads to a statement issued by AFL-CIO President John Sweeney on the passage of CAFTA by the House of Representatives.

333

Sign recall by hearing signers: Evidences of dual coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deaf participants' sign recall is affected by sign similarity, sign length, irrelevant signing and manual articulatory suppression, suggesting the existence of a phonological loop for signs. In two experiments we explore whether hearing signers (who have learned Spanish Sign Language as second language) use a phonological loop for signs, whether they use their phonological loop for words or whether they

Javier García-Orza; Patricia Carratalá

2012-01-01

334

Data withdrawal in randomized controlled trials: Defining the problem and proposing solutions: a commentary.  

PubMed

It is not uncommon for a participant to withdraw from a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The withdrawal of a participant results in missing data and the potential for withdrawal bias. Data withdrawal, or a request from a participant to withdraw all of their previously collected data from a study, is particularly problematic because it leaves little opportunity to characterize or statistically address those that have withdrawn to minimize withdrawal bias. The aim of this commentary is to (1) provide a synthesis of available information on the ethical and methodological issues related to data withdrawal in RCTs and (2) provide some suggestions on how to minimize the impact of data withdrawal during the execution or analysis phases of an RCT. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and JSTOR for published articles on data withdrawal. In addition, we used internet sources as an additional tool to identify content on data withdrawal from research ethics guidelines, legislation, research ethics boards, funding agencies, professional organizations and researchers. We did not find any definitive guidelines for dealing with data withdrawal. We propose recommendations for minimizing the occurrence of data withdrawal, including explicit and clear descriptions in consent forms of how data will be handled after participant withdrawal. We also suggest using imputation techniques to deal with the missing data during analysis. The current commentary can be used to minimize the impact of data withdrawal in RCTs. PMID:21300179

Ye, Chenglin; Giangregorio, Lora; Holbrook, Anne; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Thabane, Lehana

2011-05-01

335

Withdrawal and limitation of life support in paediatric intensive care  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To compare the modes of death and factors leading to withdrawal or limitation of life support in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a developing country.?METHODS—Retrospective analysis of all children (< 12 years) dying in the PICU from January 1995 to December 1995 and January 1997to June 1998 (n = 148).?RESULTS—The main mode of death was by limitation of treatment in 68 of 148 patients, failure of active treatment including cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 61, brain death in 12, and withdrawal of life support with removal of endotracheal tube in seven. There was no significant variation in the proportion of limitation of treatment, failure of active treatment, and brain death between the two periods; however, there was an increase in withdrawal of life support from 0% in 1995 to 8% in 1997-98. Justification for limitation was based predominantly on expectation of imminent death (71 of 75). Ethnic variability was noted among the 14 of 21 patients who refused withdrawal. Discussions for care restrictions were initiated almost exclusively by paediatricians (70 of 75). Diagnostic uncertainty (36% v 4.6%) and presentation as an acute illness were associated with the use of active treatment.?CONCLUSIONS—Limitation of treatment is the most common mode of death in a developing country's PICU and active withdrawal is still not widely practised. Paediatricians in developing countries are becoming more proactive in managing death and dying but have to consider sociocultural and religious factors when making such decisions.?? PMID:10208946

Goh, A; Lum, L; Chan, P; Bakar, F; Chong, B

1999-01-01

336

Age-Related Changes in Demand-Withdraw Communication Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

2013-01-01

337

The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.  

PubMed

Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. PMID:23528199

Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

2014-03-01

338

Signed directed acyclic graphs for causal inference  

PubMed Central

Summary Formal rules governing signed edges on causal directed acyclic graphs are described in this paper and it is shown how these rules can be useful in reasoning about causality. Specifically, the notions of a monotonic effect, a weak monotonic effect and a signed edge are introduced. Results are developed relating these monotonic effects and signed edges to the sign of the causal effect of an intervention in the presence of intermediate variables. The incorporation of signed edges into the directed acyclic graph causal framework furthermore allows for the development of rules governing the relationship between monotonic effects and the sign of the covariance between two variables. It is shown that when certain assumptions about monotonic effects can be made then these results can be used to draw conclusions about the presence of causal effects even when data is missing on confounding variables.

VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Robins, James M.

2014-01-01

339

A Signing Avatar on the WWW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented is part of the European project ViSiCAST. In a semi-automatic way, written material is transposed to sequences of signs. The signs are then displayed using computer animation of an avatar. As an application of this technology an avatar signing the weather forecast has been developed. Through a browser plug-in, this application can work on the world- wide-web.

Margriet Verlinden; Corrie Tijsseling; Han Frowein

2001-01-01

340

Estimated Withdrawals and Use of Water in Colorado, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future health and economic welfare of the people and environment of Colorado depend on a continuous supply of fresh water. Detailed, comprehensive information on the use of water from Colorado's diverse surface-water and groundwater resources is important to water managers and planners by providing information they need to quantify current stresses and estimate and plan for future water needs. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP), Statewide water withdrawal and water-use data have been collected or estimated and summarized in this report by county and by four-digit hydrologic unit code for the following seven water-use categories: irrigation (crop and golf course), public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied industrial, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power generation. A summary for instream water use for hydroelectric power generation also is included. This report is published in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. In 2005, an estimated 13,581.22 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater and surface-water sources in Colorado for the seven water-use categories. Withdrawals from surface water represented about 11,035 Mgal/d, or 81.3 percent of the total, whereas withdrawals from groundwater sources represented an estimated 2,546 Mgal/d or 18.7 percent of the total. Irrigation (combined crop and golf course) totaled 12,362.49 Mgal/d or 91 percent of the total water withdrawals in the State of Colorado. Crop irrigation accounted for 99.7 percent (12,321.85 Mgal/d) of the irrigation, whereas the 243 turf golf courses in Colorado accounted for 0.3 percent (40.64 Mgal/d) of the total irrigation water withdrawals. Total withdrawals for the other water-use categories were public supply, 864.17 Mgal/d; self-supplied domestic, 34.43 Mgal/d; self-supplied industrial, 142.44 Mgal/d; livestock, 33.06 Mgal/d; mining, 21.42 Mgal/d (includes both fresh and saline water); and thermoelectric, 123.21 Mgal/d. The counties with the largest total withdrawals (greater than 500 Mgal/d) were Mesa, Weld, Rio Grande, Montrose, Gunnison, and Saguache. Counties with the smallest total withdrawals (less than 5 Mgal/d) were Clear Creek, Gilpin, and San Juan. Four-digit hydrologic unit codes with the greatest withdrawals were 1019 (South Platte River Basin), 1301 (Rio Grande Basin), and 1102 (Arkansas River Basin); the high withdrawal rates were driven by crop irrigation withdrawals. Total instream water use for hydroelectric power generation was 5,253.60 Mgal/d. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated for 2004 for the bedrock and overlying alluvial aquifers in the Denver Basin for irrigation, public supply, commercial/industrial, household use only, and domestic/livestock water-use categories. Withdrawals were estimated for input into the USGS Denver Basin model by using the equations in the Senate Bill 96-074 groundwater model. The greatest withdrawals were for public supply. The smallest withdrawals were for household-use-only wells. Douglas County had the greatest groundwater withdrawals (183.98 Mgal/d), whereas Broomfield County had the smallest (3.09 Mgal/d). Of the seven Denver Basin aquifers, the Lower Arapahoe aquifer had the greatest total estimated withdrawals (287.11 Mgal/d), with Douglas County having the greatest public-supply withdrawal of any county (95.29 Mgal/d) from this aquifer. The Upper Dawson aquifer was the least used of the Denver Basin aquifers, based on estimated withdrawals of 17.64 Mgal/d. As part of the Colorado Statewide Water Supply Initiative (SWSI), forecasts of future water demand were made based on information such as population, climate, and then-current (2000) water-use information and did not include the effects of future water conservation. Categories compared between estimates in the SWSI baseline forecasted water demand and the USGS water-use compilation were limited to county population and w

Ivahnenko, Tamara; Flynn, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

341

The CT halo sign in invasive aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message In immunocompromised patients, the pulmonary computed tomography halo sign is highly suggestive of angioinvasive aspergillosis. Early recognition may be life-saving. PMID:25356263

Shroff, Sheetal; Shroff, Girish S; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Olar, Adriana; Tummala, Sudhakar; Tremont-Lukats, Ivo W

2014-01-01

342

Interpretation of hand signs in Buddhist art.  

PubMed

Hand signs (called mudras in Sanskrit) play an important role in Buddhist art. They represent specific events from the life of Sidharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism. These events symbolize moral principles important to the discipline. There are six important hand signs: (1) dhyana mudra, (2) varada mudra, (3) abhaya mudra, (4) vitarka mudra, (5) dharmachakra mudra, and (6) bhumispara mudra. The use of these hand signs was popularized by Buddhist universities in India around the 4th or 5th century ad. This paper will examine the symbolism behind the six main hand signs and reveal their message, which will be valuable for modern society. PMID:17606078

Ghori, Ahmer K; Chung, Kevin C

2007-01-01

343

Impact of HMO Withdrawals on Vulnerable Medicare Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

The Medicare+Choice (M+C) program has faced successive waves of plan withdrawals since 1999. We collected data from 1,055 beneficiaries who were involuntarily disenrolled from a health maintenance organization (HMO) that withdrew from six large markets in 1999 to investigate how they were impacted by the forced change in coverage. Administrative data from this HMO were used to oversample beneficiaries who were perceived to be vulnerable based on their poor health status in the period before the HMO withdrawal. Although most beneficiaries dealt with the withdrawals without major problems, appreciable numbers of beneficiaries did report adverse impacts. These negative impacts were more likely to occur for low-education, low-income, minority beneficiaries. We found little evidence, however, that beneficiaries who were vulnerable due to their poorer health experienced more adverse effects. PMID:17290625

Schoenman, Julie A.; Parente, Stephen T.; Feldman, Jacob J.; Shah, Mona M.; Evans, William N.; Finch, Michael D.

2005-01-01

344

A DNA Element Regulates Drug Tolerance and Withdrawal in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Drug tolerance and withdrawal are insidious responses to drugs of abuse; the first increases drug consumption while the second punishes abstention. Drosophila generate functional tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation by increasing neural expression of the slo BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channel gene. After drug clearance this change produces a withdrawal phenotype—increased seizure susceptibility. The drug-induced histone modification profile identified the 6b element (60 nt) as a drug responsive element. Genomic deletion of 6b produces the allele, slo?6b, that reacts more strongly to the drug with increased induction, a massive increase in the duration of tolerance, and an increase in the withdrawal phenotype yet does not alter other slo-dependent behaviors. The 6b element is a homeostatic regulator of BK channel gene expression and is the first cis-acting DNA element shown to specifically affect the duration of a drug action. PMID:24086565

Li, Xiaolei; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Pohl, Jascha B.; Bohm, Arun Y.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

2013-01-01

345

Nefazodone decreases anxiety during marijuana withdrawal in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Symptoms of marijuana withdrawal include increased irritability, depression and anxiety, and decreased sleep quality. Nefazodone,\\u000a which is an antidepressant with sedative properties, may attenuate symptoms of marijuana withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present within-subject, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of nefazodone during marijuana withdrawal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Marijuana smokers [n=7; averaging 6.0 (±1.3) marijuana cigarettes\\/day, 6.4 (±0.4) days\\/week], not seeking treatment for

Margaret Haney; Carl L. Hart; Amie S. Ward; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

346

Recovery from disturbed colonic transit time after alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

The effects of alcohol withdrawal on total and segmental transit time were evaluated in 20 chronic alcoholic subjects. After withdrawal, colorectal transit time significantly increased from 24.9 +/- 3.6 to 33.3 +/- 4.5 hours mean +/- SE (P less than 0.01). This was the result of an exclusive increase in rectosigmoid transit time from 2.8 +/- 0.7 to 9.8 +/- 2.1 hours (P less than 0.001). No variations were found in right or left colon transit time. Distal colonic motility is thus a crucial factor in the genesis of diarrhea in chronic alcoholic subjects. PMID:1993406

Bouchoucha, M; Nalpas, B; Berger, M; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

1991-02-01

347

A request for hospice admission from hospital to withdraw ventilation  

PubMed Central

A request to admit a hospital inpatient with motor neurone disease to the hospice generated unusual unease. Significantly, withdrawal of ventilation had already been planned. The presumption that ventilation would be withdrawn after transfer presented a dilemma. Should the hospice accept the admission? If so, should the hospice staff stop the ventilation, and then when and how? Debate centred on the continuity of best interests and the logistics of withdrawing ventilation. The factors making the request contentious identified competing interests within hospice admission decision making that could detrimentally impact on patient care. PMID:15994355

Gannon, C

2005-01-01

348

12 CFR 303.25 - Continuation of deposit insurance upon withdrawing from membership in the Federal Reserve System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdrawing from membership in the Federal Reserve System. 303.25 Section 303...withdrawing from membership in the Federal Reserve System. (a) Content of application...withdrawal from membership in the Federal Reserve System, a...

2010-01-01

349

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease? The signs and symptoms of coronary heart ... will have signs and symptoms of the disease. Heart Disease Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the ...

350

The role of beta-arrestin2 in the severity of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence induced by different opioid pain therapeutics.  

PubMed

Ligands acting at the same receptor can differentially activate distinct signal transduction pathways, which in turn, can have diverse functional consequences. Further, receptors expressed in different tissues may utilize intracellular signaling proteins in response to a ligand differently as well. The mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates many of the pharmacological actions of opiate therapeutics, is also subject to differential signaling in response to diverse agonists. To study the effect of diverse agonists on MOR signaling, we examined the effects of chronic opiate treatment on two distinct physiological endpoints, antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence, in mice lacking the intracellular regulatory molecule, ?arrestin2. While ?arrestin2 knockout (?arr2-KO) mice do not become tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of chronic morphine in a hot plate test, tolerance develops to the same degree in both wild type and ?arr2-KO mice following chronic infusion with methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone. Studies here also assess the severity of withdrawal signs precipitated by naloxone following chronic infusions at three different doses of each opiate agonist. While there are no differences in withdrawal responses between genotypes at the highest dose of morphine tested (48 mg/kg/day), the ?arr2-KO mice display several less severe withdrawal responses when the infusion dose is lowered (12 or 24 mg/kg/day). Chronic infusion of methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone all lead to equivalent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal responses in both genotypes at all doses tested. These results lend further evidence that distinct agonists can differentially impact on opioid-mediated responses in vivo in a ?arrestin2-dependent manner. PMID:20713067

Raehal, Kirsten M; Bohn, Laura M

2011-01-01

351

A Natural Interface for Sign Language Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general goal of our research is the creation of a natu- ral and intuitive interface for input and recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) math signs. The specific objective of this work is the development of two new interfaces for the Mathsignertm application. Mathsignertm is an interactive, 3D animation-based game designed to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children.

Nicoletta Adamo-villani; Bedrich Benes; Matt Brisbin; Bryce Hyland

2006-01-01

352

The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth  

E-print Network

, Ireland {smorri,away}@computing.dcu.ie Computer Science Department, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa lynette@cs.sun.ac.za Abstract Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical

van Zijl, Lynette

353

Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

Weisenberg, Julia

2009-01-01

354

The earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

The earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease Sterling Johnson, PhD Professor Wisconsin Alzheimers Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center (GRECC) Wisconsin Alzheimer's Institute #12;Institute "Earliest Signs of Alzheimer's Disease" · FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: NONE · UNLABELED/UNAPPROVED USES DISCLOSURE

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

355

High performance signed-digit decimal adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimal arithmetic is desirable for high precision requirements of many financial, industrial and scientific applications. Furthermore, hardware support for decimal arithmetic has gained momentum with the revision of the IEEE 754 standard. This paper presents a new scheme for carry-free decimal addition using a signed-digit representation. In order to simplify the hardware requirements, each signed decimal digit uses a two's

Jeff Rebacz; Erdal Oruklu; Jafar Saniie

2009-01-01

356

Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

2011-01-01

357

Japanese Signs as a Learning Resource?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of signs and similar print in the urban environment of Japan can provide authentic materials to support the learning of written Japanese. While there have been some past attempts to use pictures of signs for the teaching of Japanese reading, digital photography now makes it easy to develop electronic resources for a more systematic approach to exploiting these

Paul Black; Masumi Nakahara

358

Fatigue Risks in the Connections of Sign  

E-print Network

mrogram Fatigue Risks in the Connections of Sign archP Support Structures Phase 1 Reseahway SPR. Report No. WHRP 08-05 2. Government Accession No 3. Recipient's Catalog No 4. Title and Subtitle Fatigue. Abstract Wisconsin sought to assess the risk of fatigue-induced fracture in its existing sign support

Foley, Christopher M.

359

Sign Language Varieties in Costa Rica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a preliminary examination of several sign language varieties in use in Costa Rica and attempts to explain the relationship among these varieties. Based on comparative lexical data, it is postulated that at least four distinct sign languages exist in Costa Rica. Implications for future research are also discussed. (eight references) (JL)

Woodward, James

1991-01-01

360

Sign Language Subtitling by Highly Comprehensible "Semantroids"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a new method of sign language subtitling aimed at young deaf children who have not acquired reading skills yet, and can communicate only via signs. The method is based on: 1) the recently developed concept of "semantroid[TM]" (an animated 3D avatar limited to head and hands); 2) the design, development, and psychophysical evaluation…

Adamo-Villani, Nicolleta; Beni, Gerardo

2007-01-01

361

PROFICIENCY TESTING IN FOREIGN & AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGES  

E-print Network

PROFICIENCY TESTING IN FOREIGN & AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGES For More Information JLCAV Revised 1 characters) Hebrew Lithuanian Swahili Exam Fee: To take the exam at NYU, an exam fee will be charged the QC Foreign Language Requirement with American Sign Language (ASL) Students who intend to fulfill

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

362

Prodromal Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenic Relapse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing evidence that decompensation into acute psychosis by schizophrenics can often be avoided with active pharmacological and psychosocial intervention at the early signs of relapse has stimulated research into the signs and symptoms prodromal to acute psychosis. In this study, 6-week periods prior to 17 psychotic relapses and to 11 relapses…

Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

363

Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

2008-01-01

364

27 CFR 31.104 - Withdrawal of one or more partners.  

...Partnerships § 31.104 Withdrawal of one or more partners. When one or more partners withdraw from a partnership that has registered under this part, the remaining partner, or partners, must register the change in control by...

2014-04-01

365

27 CFR 31.104 - Withdrawal of one or more partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Partnerships § 31.104 Withdrawal of one or more partners. When one or more partners withdraw from a partnership that has registered under this part, the remaining partner, or partners, must register the change in control by...

2013-04-01

366

27 CFR 31.104 - Withdrawal of one or more partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Partnerships § 31.104 Withdrawal of one or more partners. When one or more partners withdraw from a partnership that has registered under this part, the remaining partner, or partners, must register the change in control by...

2012-04-01

367

27 CFR 31.104 - Withdrawal of one or more partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Partnerships § 31.104 Withdrawal of one or more partners. When one or more partners withdraw from a partnership that has registered under this part, the remaining partner, or partners, must register the change in control by...

2011-04-01

368

27 CFR 31.104 - Withdrawal of one or more partners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Partnerships § 31.104 Withdrawal of one or more partners. When one or more partners withdraw from a partnership that has registered under this part, the remaining partner, or partners, must register the change in control by...

2010-04-01

369

43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

2011-10-01

370

43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

2012-10-01

371

43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4...Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. (a) Lands covered by...

2013-10-01

372

48 CFR 319.506 - Withdrawing or modifying set-asides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Business 319.506 Withdrawing or modifying set-asides. (d) Immediately upon notice from the Contracting Officer, the SBS shall provide notification of all set-aside withdrawals to the OSDBU Director by both telephone and...

2010-10-01

373

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

374

36 CFR 65.9 - Withdrawal of National Historic Landmark designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) National Historic Landmarks will be considered for withdrawal of designation only at the request of the owner or upon the initiative of the Secretary. (b) Four justifications exist for the withdrawal of National Historic Landmark...

2010-07-01

375

77 FR 40384 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 50-328; NRC-2012-0160] Tennessee Valley Authority; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment...the Commission) has granted the request of Tennessee Valley Authority (the licensee) to withdraw its August...

2012-07-09

376

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2010-10-01

377

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2013-10-01

378

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2012-10-01

379

48 CFR 1815.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1815...revision, and withdrawal of proposals. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b...apply to Announcements of Opportunity, NASA Research Announcements, and...

2011-10-01

380

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2010-01-01

381

16 CFR 1112.47 - What are the grounds for withdrawal of CPSC acceptance?  

16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01...grounds for withdrawal of CPSC acceptance...Section 1112.47 Commercial Practices CONSUMER...grounds for withdrawal of CPSC acceptance...has exerted undue influence on such third...

2014-01-01

382

77 FR 47070 - Withdrawal of the Commission Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Withdrawal of the Commission Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies...ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of Commission policy statement...the Federal Trade Commission issued a Policy Statement on Monetary Remedies in...

2012-08-07

383

40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

... true Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 97.386 Section...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2014-07-01

384

40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.  

... true Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. 96.386 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as...

2014-07-01

385

Withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber  

E-print Network

The overall goal of this research was to was to gain a better understanding of ringshank nail connections, and to critically evaluate allowable design values for withdrawal. Specific goals ]Included: 1) measuring and comparing withdrawal...

Skulteti, Matthew John

2012-06-07

386

17 CFR 250.100 - Orders granting 6 or withdrawing exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Orders granting 6 or withdrawing exemptions. 250.100 Section 250.100 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Miscellaneous Rules § 250.100 Orders granting 6 or withdrawing...

2011-04-01

387

78 FR 70566 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...withdrawing approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) for an arsanilic acid Type A medicated article at...

2013-11-26

388

78 FR 70496 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...withdrawal of approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) for an arsanilic acid Type A medicated article at...

2013-11-26

389

19 CFR 144.39 - Permit to transfer and withdraw merchandise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The approved permit shall be presented by the withdrawer to the warehouse proprietor as evidence of Customs authorization of the transfer or withdrawal. The approved permit copy shall thereafter be retained in the warehouse entry file of the...

2010-04-01

390

76 FR 27332 - Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposal To Withdraw Approval for the Breast Cancer Indication for Bevacizumab; Hearing...proposal to withdraw approval of the breast cancer indication for bevacizumab (Avastin...metastatic [[Page 27333

2011-05-11

391

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn...

2010-05-14

392

An Opinion Spreading Model in Signed Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opinion spreading process can be modeled as the spread of an epidemic through a network, which assumes homogeneous relationships between individuals. However, positive and negative relationships in signed networks play different roles in the opinion spreading process, following the general rule that the same opinion will diffuse through friends, while the opposite opinion will likely emerge out of interactions between enemies. In order to explore opinion spreading behavior in signed networks, we proposed a simple opinion spreading model based on the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model. Under the assumption of homogeneous mixing, we also analyzed the phase transition of opinion spreading in signed networks and found that critical spreading rates were closely related to the fraction of positive relationships in signed networks. Finally, we confirmed the correctness of our solutions using numerical simulations of the opinion spreading model in signed networks.

Li, Wei; Fan, Pengyi; Li, Pei; Wang, Hui; Pan, Yiguang

2013-05-01

393

Bidirectional selection for susceptibility to ethanol withdrawal seizures in Mus musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using within-family selection from a genetically heterogeneous population of HS\\/Ibg mice, lines and replicates have been selected for high (withdrawal seizure prone; WSP) and low (withdrawal seizure resistant; WSR) susceptibility to convulsions after withdrawal from chronic exposure to ethanol. Two nonselected control lines (withdrawal-seizure control; WSC) have also been maintained. The response was bidirectional in both replicates across 11 selected

John C. Crabbe; Ann Kosobud; Emmett R. Young; Brenda R. Tam; John D. McSwigan

1985-01-01

394

Signs of Life on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some images, but were absent in the other or altered their shape. What sources of energy, in principle, could be used by life in the high temperature oxigenless atmosphere? The objects found are large enough, they are not micro-organisms. It is most natural to assume that, like on Earth, Venusian fauna is heterotrophic, and the source of its life is hypothetical autotrophic flora. There is enough light for flora's photosynthesis. Since the critical temperature of water on Venus is about 320°C and the temperature at the surface is about 460°C, the metabolism of organisms on Venus (if any) should be built without water, on the basis of some other liquid medium. Based on data analyzed it has been suggested that because of the limited energy capacity of the Venusian fauna, the temporal characteristics of their physical actions can be much longer than that of the Earth.

Ksanfomality, L.

2012-04-01

395

Preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure leads to acute nicotine dependence but does not affect the rewarding effects of nicotine or nicotine withdrawal in adulthood in rats  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies indicate that parental smoking increases the risk for smoking in children. However, the underlying mechanisms by which parental smoking increases the risk for smoking are not known. The aim of these studies was to investigate if preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure, postnatal days 21–35, affects the rewarding effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal in adult rats. The rewarding effects of nicotine were investigated with the conditioned place preference procedure. Nicotine withdrawal was investigated with the conditioned place aversion procedure and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Elevations in brain reward thresholds in the ICSS paradigm reflect a dysphoric state. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels in the preadolescent rats immediately after smoke exposure were 188 ng/ml and 716 ng/ml, respectively. Preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure lead to the development of nicotine dependence as indicated by an increased number of mecamylamine-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the preadolescent tobacco smoke exposed rats compared to the control rats. Nicotine induced similar place preference in adult rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke or air during preadolescence. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced place aversion in nicotine dependent rats but there was no effect of preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure. Finally, preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure did not affect the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated or spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These studies indicate that passive exposure to tobacco smoke during preadolescence leads to the development of nicotine dependence but preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure does not seem to affect the rewarding effects of nicotine or nicotine withdrawal in adulthood. PMID:20211642

Yamada, Hidetaka; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Keijzers, Kim F. M.; van Tuijl, Irma A.; Small, Elysia; Shah, Hina P.; Bauzo, Rayna M.; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Sabarinath, Sreedharan N.; Derendorf, Hartmut; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

2012-01-01

396

A polyamine-deficient diet opposes hyperalgesia, tolerance and the increased anxiety-like behaviour associated with heroin withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

In humans, hyperalgesia, tolerance and anxiety disorders are common symptoms during heroin withdrawal syndrome. Significant evidence supports a role of NMDA receptors in these phenomena. Because polyamines may positively modulate the functioning of NMDA receptors and mainly originate from dietary intake, one hypothesis is that a polyamine deficient diet (PD diet) may reduce withdrawal symptoms. To address this question, we investigated the ability of a PD diet to prevent or to alleviate some symptoms of withdrawal syndrome as hyperalgesia, and increased anxiety-like behaviour in rats receiving 14 once daily subcutaneous heroin injections. Here, we show that a PD diet has both preventive and curative properties for reducing certain signs of withdrawal such as hyperalgesia, tolerance and increased anxiety-like behaviour observed in rats fed with a standard diet. Moreover, in heroin-withdrawn rats which were returned to basal pain sensitivity level, hyperalgesia following acute analgesia induced by a single heroin dose was observed in heroin-treated rats fed with standard diet, not in rats fed with a PD diet. Similarly, a stress-induced hyperalgesia induced by a non-nociceptive environmental stress session was observed in heroin-treated rats fed with standard diet. In contrast, a stress-induced analgesia was observed in heroin-treated rats fed with a PD diet, as it was observed in non heroin-treated rats. Since a PD diet for several weeks did not induce appreciable side-effects in rats, these preclinical results suggest that a PD diet could be an effective strategy for improving the relief of certain negative emotional states of heroin withdrawal syndrome and to allow reducing other medications generally used, such as opioid maintenance drugs. PMID:23085099

Le Roy, Chloé; Laboureyras, Emilie; Laulin, Jean-Paul; Simonnet, Guy

2013-01-01

397

Workplace Concepts in Sign and Text. A Computerized Sign Language Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a dictionary of essential vocabulary, signs, and illustrations of workplace activities to be used to train deaf or hearing-impaired adults. It contains more than 500 entries with workplace-relevant vocabulary, each including an illustration of the signed word or phrase in American Sign Language, a description of how to make the…

Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

398

The Sign "Institute" and Its Derivatives: A Family of Culturally Important ASL Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sign "institute" is the source of a family of ASL signs that are used to refer to residential schools for deaf children and to other institutions. The members of the "institute" sign family--although initialized--are well-established within the Deaf community and, importantly, are used to refer to highly-valued aspects of Deaf culture. This is…

Kowalsky, Jilly; Meier, Richard P.

2013-01-01

399

Adapting the "Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test" into American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed

Enns, Charlotte J.; Herman, Rosalind C.

2011-01-01

400

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

401

Effects of Varying Rate of Signing on ASL Manual Signs and Nonmanual Markers  

PubMed Central

Spoken languages are characterized by flexible, multivariate prosodic systems. As a natural language, American Sign Language (ASL), and other sign languages (SLs), are also expected to be characterized in the same way. Artificially created signing systems for classroom use, such as signed English, serve as a contrast to natural sign languages. The present article explores the effects of changes in signing rate on signs, pauses, and, unlike previous studies, a variety of nonmanual markers. Rate was a main effect on the duration of signs, the number of pauses and pause duration, the duration of brow raises, the duration of licensed lowered brows, the number and duration of blinks, all of which decreased with increased signing rate. This indicates that signers produced their different signing rates without making dramatic changes in the number of signs, but instead by varying the sign duration, in accordance with previous observations (Grosjean, 1978, 1979). These results can be brought to bear on three different issues: (1) the difference between grammatical nonmanuals and non-grammatical nonmanuals; (2) the fact that nonmanuals in general are not just a modality effect; and (3) the use of some nonmanuals as pragmatically determined as opposed to overt morphophonological markers reflecting the semantic–syntax–pragmatic interfaces. PMID:19624032

Wilbur, Ronnie B.

2009-01-01

402

Continuous co-administration of dextromethorphan or MK-801 with morphine: attenuation of morphine dependence and naloxone-reversible attenuation of morphine tolerance.  

PubMed

N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been repeatedly shown to attenuate the development of opiate tolerance and dependence in rodents. In the present experiments, continuous subcutaneous infusion of either MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg/h but not 0.005 mg/kg/h) or DM (0.133, 0.67 and 1.33 mg/kg/h) reliably prolonged the antinociceptive effect of continuous subcutaneous infusion of morphine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg/h), indicating attenuation of the development of morphine tolerance. Furthermore, this prolonged antinociception was completely reversible by naloxone (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Doses of MK-801 and DM that were equipotent in attenuating morphine tolerance (0.01 mg/kg/h and 1.33 mg/kg/h, respectively) revealed different profiles of effects, however, on locomotor activity and naloxone-precipitated abstinence/withdrawal symptoms. With regard to locomotor activity, rats having received continuous (48 h) subcutaneous infusion of morphine sulfate and MK-801, but not rats having received morphine sulfate and DM, displayed a reliable and striking increase in locomotor activity as compared with rats having received morphine alone. With regard to naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms, continuous (48 h) subcutaneous co-infusion of either MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg/h) or DM (1.33 mg/kg/h) with morphine attenuated naloxone-precipitated hyperalgesia as compared with rats infused with morphine alone. MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg/h) was more effective than DM (0.133, 0.67, or 1.33 mg/kg/h), however, in reducing other naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms (teeth chattering, jumping and wet dog shakes). The effects of MK-801 on all withdrawal symptoms were confounded, however, by the appearance of flaccidity following naloxone administration to rats having received MK-801 and morphine. These results extend previous observations by showing that the prolonged antinociception observed following co-administration of morphine and an NMDA antagonist is completely naloxone-reversible, supporting the notion that this antinociception reflects prolongation of an opioid receptor-mediated effect. The different profiles of side effects associated with MK-801 and DM, however, suggest that (1) attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms by MK-801 may be an artifact of toxicity, and (2) DM may prove clinically useful for the prevention of morphine tolerance, given its lack of observable side effects when administered concurrently with morphine to rodents. PMID:8895234

Manning, B H; Mao, J; Frenk, H; Price, D D; Mayer, D J

1996-09-01

403

19 CFR 10.80 - Remission of duty; withdrawal; bond.  

... General Provisions Salt for Curing Fish § 10.80 Remission of duty; withdrawal...Imported salt in bond may be used in curing fish taken by vessels licensed to engage in the fisheries, and in curing fish in the shores of the navigable...

2014-04-01

404

Smoking withdrawal symptoms in two weeks of abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study trends in smoking withdrawal symptoms, 35 participants in a smoking cessation clinic completed four questionnaires daily for 2 weeks. The questionnaire dealt with a variety of symptoms which a factor analysis showed could be grouped into four factors: stimulation, desire to smoke, and physical and psychological symptoms. Changes were observed in reports of symptoms over days.

Saul M. Shiffman; Murray E. Jarvik

1976-01-01

405

Valuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals  

E-print Network

death benefit (GMDB), viscosity solution, impulse control, fully implicit penalty method Acknowledgment are particularly popular in the United States and the United Kingdom since the investment gains are taxValuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals A. C. B´elanger , P. A

Forsyth, Peter A.

406

Neuropsychopharmacology . Author manuscript Neurotensin receptor antagonist administered during cocaine withdrawal  

E-print Network

during cocaine withdrawal decreases locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference Klara-treatments with cocaine or amphetamine, alters some behavioral effects of these drugs in rats. However, its efficacy when applied following repeated cocaine administration remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the ability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

2012-01-01

408

U.S. Withdraws from Education Reform in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the withdrawal of the United States government from educational reform in Iraq. It has however, through the U.S. Agency for International Development, awarded a two-year National Capacity Development contract, which is aimed at helping Iraq's government ministries to function better. This article discusses how security…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

409

Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

2011-01-01

410

28 CFR 2.97 - Withdrawal of order of release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Parolees § 2.97 Withdrawal of order of release. If, after an order for release from active supervision under former § 2.95 has been issued by the Commission, and prior to the expiration date of the sentence(s) being served, the...

2010-07-01

411

Withdrawal of Visual Feedback Improves Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Withdrawal of Visual Feedback Improves Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease William G. Ondo, MD, Pankaj Satija, MD Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology presenting feature of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We assessed a simple writing paradigm in 40 PD patients

Lichtarge, Olivier

412

Valuing the Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit Clause with Partial Withdrawals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give a method for computing the fair insurance fee associated with the guaranteed minimum death benefit (GMDB) clause included in many variable annuity contracts. We allow for partial withdrawals, a common feature in most GMDB contracts, and determine how this affects the GMDB fair insurance charge. Our method models the GMDB pricing problem as an impulse

A. C. Bélanger; P. A. Forsyth; G. Labahn

2009-01-01

413

Withdrawal Rates, Savings Rates, and Valuation-Based Asset Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most everyone would agree that valuations matter, the question remains as to whether clients with a long-term outlook (such as those planning for retirement) can hope to act successfully on information about valuations. This article provides favorable evidence based on the historical record for long-term conservative investors to obtain improved retirement planning outcomes (lower savings rates, higher withdrawal rates)

Wade Donald Pfau

2011-01-01

414

Colonoscopic Withdrawal Times and Adenoma Detection during Screening Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Colonoscopy is commonly used to screen for neoplasia. To assess the performance of screening colonoscopy in everyday practice, we conducted a study of the rates of detection of adenomas and the amount of time taken to withdraw the colonoscope among endoscopists in a large community-based practice. Methods During a 15-month period, 12 experienced gastroenterologists performed 7882 colonoscopies, of which

Robert L. Barclay; Joseph J. Vicari; Andrea S. Doughty; John F. Johanson; Roger L. Greenlaw

2006-01-01

415

Community College Student Retention: Student Characteristics and Withdrawal Reasons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the profile of community college dropouts, in an attempt to identify how this cohort differs from university-level dropouts and to identify reasons for community college students' withdrawal from school. The authors argue that the profile of a typical community college student--a person who has a full- or part-time job, lives…

Zhai, Lijuan; Monzon, Rey

416

Participation and Withdrawal among Fourth-Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom participation and nonparticipation were studied for 1,388 fourth graders rated by their teachers as active participators, passive participators, or nonparticipators. Participators appeared distinct on achievement measures since the first grade and maintained those distinctions. Youngsters who withdraw from classroom participation should…

Finn, Jeremy D.; Cox, Deborah

1992-01-01

417

Alcohol and withdrawal: from animal research to clinical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The withdrawal syndrome in alcohol-dependent patients appears to be a major stressful event whose intensity increases with repetition of detoxifications according to a kindling process. Disturbances in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neural processes are reflected in a perturbed physical state while disturbances in the balance between positive and negative reinforcements are reflected in a perturbed mood state. Our

Ph. De Witte; E. Pinto; M. Ansseau; P. Verbanck

2003-01-01

418

Withdrawals and adjustment calendars: a how to process  

E-print Network

of this process since going to this software in version SA 7. We are now in version SA 8. I have builtWithdrawals and adjustment calendars: a how to process Session #155 Monday March 17th 1:15 p the "Last Date of Attendance" and reason of "WDRW". Reason was personal but lists here as WDRW #12;Last date

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

419

Reversal of Caffeine Withdrawal by Ingestion of a Soft Beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following regular use, acute cessation of caffeine is associated with a characteristic withdrawal syndrome. Despite this, caffeine remains popular with its consumers. The aim of this study was to examine the physiologic and psychologic effects of small caffeine doses, administered in the form of a market-leading soft drink, on healthy women who were acutely withdrawn from caffeine. After 48-h abstinence

Joanne M Watson; Michael J Lunt; Steven Morris; Melanie J Weiss; David Hussey; David Kerr

2000-01-01

420

Sex differences in negative affective response during nicotine withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined physiological indicants of the neurobiological mediators of negative affect during acute nicotine withdrawal. Eighty subjects (41 male) were assigned to one of four groups (24-h deprived or nondeprived dependent smokers, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers) and participated in an instructed fear conditioning paradigm involving cued administration of electric shock. Negative affective response was measured with fear-potentiated startle during

Joanne M. Hogle; John J. Curtin

2006-01-01

421

Cutting Back Military Spending: The Vietnam Withdrawal and the Recession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present public complacency about the possible economic effect of further defense cuts probably reflects not so much a confidence that we could adjust to defense cuts without hardship, as a doubt that any further substantial cuts are imminent. Indeed, despite the Vietnam withdrawal, and despite Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, the outlook for major cuts now seems unpromising for the

Emile Benoit

1973-01-01

422

24 CFR 13.3 - Withdrawal of data.  

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...13.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...Department of Housing and Urban Development USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN...LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 13.3 Withdrawal...

2014-04-01

423

The effect of chewing gum on tobacco withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

When smokers are in situations where smoking is prohibited, chewing gum is believed to reduce cravings to smoke. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this widely held assumption. The present study assessed craving for a cigarette and nicotine withdrawal in 20 dependent cigarette smokers under one of two conditions. All subjects smoked an initial cigarette upon arrival to

Lee M. Cohen; Frank L. Collins; Dana M. Britt

1997-01-01

424

Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n?=?90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal. PMID:24118963

2013-01-01

425

21 CFR 26.68 - Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. 26.68 Section...Provisions § 26.68 Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. The following...withdrawal from subpart B of this part of a conformity assessment body (CAB):...

2010-04-01

426

The development and validation of a conditional reasoning test of withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed and evaluated a measure of implicit dispositional tendencies associated with lateness, absenteeism, and permanent withdrawal behaviors. The conditional reasoning framework developed by Lawrence James and colleagues was adopted. Novel cognitive biases or justification mechanisms associated with withdrawal were proposed, drawing on research and theory from the attribution (marginalization of withdrawal), commitment (revocable commitment), and fairness\\/equity (social injustice

Levi Ryan gust Nieminen

2012-01-01

427

The development and validation of a conditional reasoning test of withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed and evaluated a measure of implicit dispositional tendencies associated with lateness, absenteeism, and permanent withdrawal behaviors. The conditional reasoning framework developed by Lawrence James and colleagues was adopted. Novel cognitive biases or justification mechanisms associated with withdrawal were proposed, drawing on research and theory from the attribution (marginalization of withdrawal), commitment (revocable commitment), and fairness\\/equity ( social

Levi R. G Nieminen

2012-01-01

428

Why Iranian married women use withdrawal instead of oral contraceptives? A qualitative study from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Withdrawal as a method of birth control is still used in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore married women's perspectives and attitudes on withdrawal use instead of oral contraceptive (OC) in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. Participants were 50 married women, not currently pregnant, not desiring pregnancy and who had been using withdrawal

Parvin Rahnama; Alireza Hidarnia; Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi; Anoushiravan Kazemnejad; Deborah Oakley; Ali Montazeri

2010-01-01

429

27 CFR 19.425 - Withdrawal of spirits free of tax.  

...2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. 19.425 Section 19.425 Alcohol...Receipts, and Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.425 Withdrawal of spirits free of tax. When a proprietor ships...

2014-04-01

430

Attempting to Predict Withdrawal from Higher Education Using Demographic, Psychological and Educational Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic, psychological and secondary level examination measures were obtained at the start of undergraduate courses in an attempt to predict first-year higher education (HE) withdrawal. As usual, withdrawal was greatest for males. Overall, intrinsic motivation and independent study expectations were better predictors of withdrawal than…

Charlton, John P.; Barrow, Corinne; Hornby-Atkinson, Pat

2006-01-01

431

WITHDRAWAL OF A VOLUNTEER PLAN FROM THE NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ACT PROGRAM  

E-print Network

v.04.2013 WITHDRAWAL OF A VOLUNTEER PLAN FROM THE NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ACT PROGRAM If an approved annual or three year NMP. No sample letter is provided as this is not a program requirement or withdrawal the plan from the Act 38 program. When withdrawing a volunteer nutrient management plan from

Guiltinan, Mark

432

Withdrawal time in excellent or very poor bowel preparation qualities  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate association(s) between withdrawal time and polyp detection in various bowel preparation qualities. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of screening colonoscopies performed between January 2005 and June 2011 for patients with average risk of colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria included patients with a personal history of adenomatous polyps or colon cancer, prior colonic resection, significant family history of colorectal cancer, screening colonoscopy after other abnormal screening tests such as flexible sigmoidoscopy or barium enema, and screening colonoscopies during in-patient care. All procedures were performed or directly supervised by gastroenterologists. Main measurements were number of colonic segments with polyps and total number of colonic polyps. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of 8331 colonoscopies showed longer withdrawal time was associated with more colonic segments with polyps in good (adjusted OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.13-1.19), fair (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.17), and poor (OR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.11-1.26) bowel preparation qualities. A higher number of total polyps was associated with longer withdrawal time in good (OR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.13-1.18), fair (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.16), and poor (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.13-1.29) bowel preparation qualities. Longer withdrawal time was not associated with more colonic segments with polyps or greater number of colonic polyps in bowel preparations with excellent (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 0.99-1.26; OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.99-1.24, respectively) and very poor (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.99-1.12; OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.99-1.10, respectively) qualities. CONCLUSION: Longer withdrawal time is not associated with higher polyp number detected in colonoscopies with excellent or very poor bowel preparation quality. PMID:24891931

Widjaja, David; Bhandari, Manoj; Loveday-Laghi, Vivian; Glandt, Mariela; Balar, Bhavna

2014-01-01

433

False localizing signs in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Hemiparesis ipsilateral to a mass-occupying lesion can be due to Kernohan-Woltman Notch Phenomenon (KWNP). This syndrome implies a false-localizing sign because clinical findings lead the examiner to an incorrect neuroanatomical diagnosis. The contralateral crus cerebri (pyramidal tract) is pressed against the tentorial incisum and a resultant hemiparesis is found on the same side of the lesion. Review A detailed literature search of false-localizing signs is presented. Conclusions Not infrequently, patients presenting to a physiatrist may have incomplete records. The existence of false localizing signs may point the physician towards the wrong underlying pathology. PMID:19557561

MCKENNA, CRISTIN; FELLUS, JONATHAN; BARRETT, ANNA M.

2010-01-01

434

A double blind, within subject comparison of spontaneous opioid withdrawal from buprenorphine versus morphine.  

PubMed

Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical ?-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of buprenorphine withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0-100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation. PMID:24227768

Tompkins, D Andrew; Smith, Michael T; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Campbell, Claudia M; Strain, Eric C

2014-02-01

435

Common signs & symptoms of meningitis & septicaemia  

E-print Network

Common signs & symptoms of meningitis & septicaemia � Meningitis Trust July 2011 � Next review July rates may vary. The Meningitis Trust relies on voluntary donations to provide lifelong support for people affected by meningitis Meningitis Septicaemia Meningitis & Septicaemia Meningococcal Septicaemia

436

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

MedlinePLUS

... 13MB] Request a higher resolution file Share this Video Embed: What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

437

Sign iconicity and receptive vocabulary testing.  

PubMed

Development of valid receptive sign vocabulary tests and the influence of sign iconicity on test performance were investigated. Forty items were taken from the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (Lloyd M. Dunn & Leota M. Dunn, 1982). For each target item, three alternative distractor items were developed to draw nonsigning participants away from a perceptual matching strategy. The sample comprised 34 deaf signing undergraduates and 36 hearing nonsigning undergraduates. Deaf students outperformed hearing students on both sets of items. Hearing students' scores on the original items were significantly higher than on the manipulated items, but both exceeded chance level (25%), indicating that many of the items were iconic for this sample. Complete elimination of iconicity is difficult for sophisticated participants. Recommendations for development of tests for signing deaf students include involvement of nonsigning hearing participants to reduce the effects of iconicity in obtaining valid results. PMID:18488532

Miller, Margery

2008-01-01

438

Rim sign: association with acute cholecystitis  

SciTech Connect

In a retrospective analysis of 218 hepatobiliary studies in patients clinically suspected of acute cholecystitis, a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gallbladder fossa (the rim sign) has been evaluated as a scintigraphic predictor of confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of 28 cases with pathologic confirmation of acute cholecystitis in this series, 17 (60%) demonstrated this sign. When associated with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr, the positive predictive value of this photon-intense rim for acute cholecystitis was 94%. When the rim sign was absent, the positive predictive value of nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr for acute cholecystitis was only 36%. As this sign was always seen during the first hour postinjection, it can, when associated with nonvisualization, reduce the time required for completion of an hepatobiliary examination in suspected acute cholecystitis.

Bushnell, D.L.; Perlman, S.B.; Wilson, M.A.; Polcyn, R.E.

1986-03-01

439

CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Child Passenger Safety Buckle up every age, every trip ... on the road. Parents and caregivers can keep children safe by: Knowing how to use car seats, ...

440

CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Making Health Care Safer Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now ... CRE infections on your state's Notifiable Diseases list. Health Care CEOs/Medical Officers can Require and strictly enforce ...

441

CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines August 2013 1 in ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

442

American Sign Language & Heterogeneous Communication Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to understand American Sign Language (ASL) as heterogeneous communication and to use it as a model for developing in other modalities alternative heterogeneous communication systems with the same advantages. (26 references) (CK)

Macken, Elizabeth; And Others

1995-01-01

443

Discovering How to Sign for Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary school class that learned sign language also benefited from several positive side effects. As the students developed a new means of communication, they also become more aware of deaf individuals and their needs. (DF)

Silliman, Deborah

1985-01-01

444

33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. ...Dangerous Cargo No Visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each...

2010-07-01

445

14 CFR 406.111 - Signing documents.  

...or reversal of existing law; and (3) Not unreasonable or...section, the administrative law judge or the FAA decisionmaker must: (1) Strike the pleading signed in violation...discovery by the party; (3) Deny the motion or...

2014-01-01

446

14 CFR 406.111 - Signing documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or reversal of existing law; and (3) Not unreasonable or...section, the administrative law judge or the FAA decisionmaker must: (1) Strike the pleading signed in violation...discovery by the party; (3) Deny the motion or...

2012-01-01

447

14 CFR 406.111 - Signing documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or reversal of existing law; and (3) Not unreasonable or...section, the administrative law judge or the FAA decisionmaker must: (1) Strike the pleading signed in violation...discovery by the party; (3) Deny the motion or...

2013-01-01

448

14 CFR 406.111 - Signing documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or reversal of existing law; and (3) Not unreasonable or...section, the administrative law judge or the FAA decisionmaker must: (1) Strike the pleading signed in violation...discovery by the party; (3) Deny the motion or...

2011-01-01

449

14 CFR 406.111 - Signing documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or reversal of existing law; and (3) Not unreasonable or...section, the administrative law judge or the FAA decisionmaker must: (1) Strike the pleading signed in violation...discovery by the party; (3) Deny the motion or...

2010-01-01

450

CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Alcohol Screening and Counseling An effective but underused health ... for alcohol screening and counseling. Key points on alcohol consumption from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines for ...

451

Neurological soft signs in mainstream pupils  

PubMed Central

AIMS—(1) To examine the relation between neurological soft signs and measures of cognition, coordination, and behaviour in mainstream schoolchildren. (2) To determine whether high soft sign scores may predict children with significant problems in other areas.?METHODS—A total of 169 children aged between 8 and 13 years from mainstream schools were assessed. They form part of a larger study into the outcome of meningococcal disease in childhood. Half had previous meningococcal disease and half were controls. Assessment involved measurement of six soft signs followed by assessment of motor skills (movement ABC), cognitive function (WISC-III), and behaviour (Conners' Rating Scales).?RESULTS—Children having an age corrected soft sign score above the 90th centile were considered to have an excess of soft signs. When compared to the other children they had significantly worse scores on the other three measures. Median movement ABC score was 15.3v 7. Mean total IQ scores were lower by 10.3 points. Median behaviour scores were significantly higher on both parental and teacher questionnaires. A soft sign score above the 90th centile had a sensitivity of 38% for detecting cognitive impairment, 42% for detecting coordination problems, and 25% for detecting possible attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.?CONCLUSION—In this group of children higher scores on the soft sign battery were related to significantly worse performance on measures of cognition, coordination, and behaviour. However, although soft sign assessment may be of interest it cannot accurately predict which children are likely to have impairment in other areas.?? PMID:11668095

Fellick, J; Thomson, A; Sills, J; Hart, C; STEPHENSON, P

2001-01-01

452

Being and Sign in the "Enneads"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this work is to show that Plotinus' metaphysics, his theory of Intellect, can be interpreted as a philosophy of the sign. The fact that Plotinus describes Intellect, the world of real beings, as a sign or a trace of the One is well-known, and we use this aspect in our work. However, what is even more important from our perspective…

Tomulet, Daniel

2010-01-01

453

[Minor neurological signs and pediatric psychiatric vulnerability].  

PubMed

In the present study we investigate the quantity of Neurologic Soft Signs in connection with the type of Psychiatric Disorders in a sample of thirty boys and thirty girls of age between four and fifteen years. The results shaw that the Neurologic Soft Signs mentioned are present in a significant quantity with regard to the gravity of the psychiatric disorders. Likewise, their evaluation can be very useful to determine the child's neuro-maturational condition and psychiatry vulnerability. PMID:1699394

Díaz Atienza, J; Blánquez Rodríguez, M P

1990-01-01

454

Sign-symmetry of temperature structure functions.  

PubMed

New scalar structure functions with different sign-symmetry properties are defined. These structure functions possess different scaling exponents even when their order is the same. Their scaling properties are investigated for second and third orders, using data from high-Reynolds-number atmospheric boundary layer. It is only when structure functions with disparate sign-symmetry properties are compared can the extended self-similarity detect two different scaling ranges that may exist, as in the example of convective turbulence. PMID:15244734

Aivalis, Konstantinos G; Kurien, Susan; Schumacher, Jörg; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

2004-06-01

455

Sonographic windsock sign of a duodenal web.  

PubMed

We report a neonate with a duodenal web demonstrating the windsock appearance on US. In neonates, duodenal web is rare and its windsock appearance is also rarely seen. The windsock sign of duodenal web has been a well-known finding on upper gastrointestinal series. The corresponding windsock appearance may be demonstrated on US. Duodenal web can, therefore, be accurately diagnosed by identifying the sonographic windsock sign even in neonates. PMID:11727020

Yoon, C H; Goo, H W; Kim, E A; Kim, K S; Pi, S Y

2001-12-01

456

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

457

Hepatitis C Virus Targets DC-SIGN and L-SIGN To Escape Lysosomal Degradation  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem. However, the mechanism of hepatocyte infection is largely unknown. We demonstrate that the dendritic cell (DC)-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN and its liver-expressed homologue L-SIGN/DC-SIGNR are important receptors for HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2. Mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that both HCV E1 and E2 bind the same binding site on DC-SIGN as the pathogens human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and mycobacteria, which is distinct from the cellular ligand ICAM-3. HCV virus-like particles are efficiently captured and internalized by DCs through binding of DC-SIGN. Antibodies against DC-SIGN specifically block HCV capture by both immature and mature DCs, demonstrating that DC-SIGN is the major receptor on DCs. Interestingly, internalized HCV virus-like particles were targeted to nonlysosomal compartments within immature DCs, where they are protected from lysosomal degradation in a manner similar to that demonstrated for HIV-1. Lewis X antigen, another ligand of DC-SIGN, was internalized to lysosomes, demonstrating that the internalization pathway of DC-SIGN-captured ligands may depend on the structure of the ligand. Our results suggest that HCV may target DC-SIGN to “hide” within DCs and facilitate viral dissemination. L-SIGN, expressed by THP-1 cells, internalized HCV particles into similar nonlysosomal compartments, suggesting that L-SIGN on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells may capture HCV from blood and transmit it to hepatocytes, the primary target for HCV. We therefore conclude that both DCs and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells may act as reservoirs for HCV and that the C-type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN, as important HCV receptors, may represent a molecular target for clinical intervention in HCV infection. PMID:15254204

Ludwig, Irene S.; Lekkerkerker, Annemarie N.; Depla, Erik; Bosman, Fons; Musters, Rene J. P.; Depraetere, Stany; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

2004-01-01

458

Withdrawing from participating in a biobank--a comparative study.  

PubMed

The development of biobanks worldwide is considered to hold great promise for the provision of new insights into the connection between genes and environment and to have a positive impact on public health. There is, however, a constant tension between the rights of individuals on one hand and the progress of research on the other hand. One of the rights developed to protect the autonomy and free will of participants and reflecting the basic principles regulating medical research according to the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki is the right to be able to withdraw from the biobank at any time as an expression of the participant's free will and autonomy. There are two important problems to withdrawing, namely the 'what' and 'when'--what can be withdrawn and when can it be withdrawn. PMID:19180978

Gertz, Renate

2008-12-01

459

Using selective withdrawal to encapsulate pancreatic islets for immunoisolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply selective-withdrawal for encapsulating insulin-producing pancreatic islets within thin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coats. Islets placed in an aqueous PEG solution are drawn into the selective-withdrawal spout which then breaks up, leaving the islets surrounded by a thin, 20?m, polymer coat. These coats, whose thickness is independent of the size of the encapsulated islet, are photo-crosslinked to form hydrogel capsules. We can apply multiple coats of varying chemical composition. These coats provide a semi-permeable membrane which allows the islets to respond to changes in glucose concentration by producing insulin in a manner similar to that of unencapsulated islets. Furthermore, the hydrogel capsules exclude large molecules the size of the smallest antibodies. Our results suggest that this microencapsulation technique may be useful for the transplantation of islets for treatment of Type I diabetes.

Wyman, Jason; Murphy, William; Mrksich, Milan

2005-11-01

460

Epigenetic down regulation of nerve growth factor during alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

We investigated the Cytosin-phosphatidyl-Guanin (CpG) island promoter methylation (mean and methylation of individual CpG-sites) of the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene in the blood of alcohol-dependent patients (57 male patients) during withdrawal (days 1, 7 and 14). Methylation and NGF serum levels did not change significantly from days 1-7. From days 7-14, mean methylation increased (F?=?30.55, P?withdrawal. PMID:21392176

Heberlein, Annemarie; Muschler, Marc; Frieling, Helge; Behr, Michael; Eberlein, Christian; Wilhelm, Julia; Gröschl, Michael; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

2013-05-01

461

Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Consequences of Chronic Ethanol Intake and Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined if long-term (13 months) alcohol consumption and the same treatment followed by a 6-week withdrawal period cause different neuropathological changes in rats. Spatial reference and working memory of alcohol-consuming and withdrawn rats were evaluated by comparison of their performance with age-matched controls in the Morris water maze. In the reference memory task we did not observe significant

Nikolai V Lukoyanov; M. Dulce Madeira

1999-01-01

462

Behavioral effects of withdrawal from sweetened vegetable shortening in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that withdrawal from intermittent access to a sweet fat mixture would lead to an exaggerated motivation and craving for palatable food. Male Long–Evans rats were divided into three weight-matched groups based on access to sweetened vegetable shortening (SVS). Groups received 1-hour SVS access everyday (7D group), 1-hour SVS access intermittently, 3days\\/week (3D group), or no

Heidi M. McGee; Bekaluwa Amare; Amy L. Bennett; Elizabeth A. Duncan-Vaidya

2010-01-01

463

Can We Predict the Sustainable Withdrawal Rate for New Retirees?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigate how well market valuation and yield measures predict the maximum sustainable withdrawal rate (MWR) that a person can use with their retirement savings to obtain inflation-adjusted income over a 30-year period. The regression framework includes variables to predict long-term stock returns, bond returns, and inflation (the components driving a retiree's remaining portfolio balance). It produces estimates that fit

Wade Donald Pfau

2011-01-01

464

Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine withdrawal in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether azathioprine can prevent relapse in ulcerative colitis. DESIGN--One year placebo controlled double blind trial of withdrawal or continuation of azathioprine. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of five hospitals. SUBJECTS--79 patients with ulcerative colitis who had been taking azathioprine for six months or more. Patients in full remission for two months or more (67), and patients with chronic low grade or

A. B. Hawthorne; R. F. Logan; C. J. Hawkey; P. N. Foster; A. T. Axon; E. T. Swarbrick; B. B. Scott; J. E. Lennard-Jones

1992-01-01

465

The Withdrawal of Nontraditional Students: Developing an explanatory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade there has been a dramatic growth in UK student numbers, with students from non-traditional and under-represented groups being encouraged to participate in higher education. However, levels of withdrawal in those higher education institutions that have a greater proportion of non-traditional students have also been increasing. Higher education institutions have introduced various strategies in an effort to

Chris Laing; Alan Robinson

2003-01-01

466

Sensitization to morphine withdrawal in guinea-pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether sensitization occurred to morphine withdrawal. Guinea-pigs were treated twice daily with increasing doses of morphine (10–100 mg\\/kg s.c.) for 3 days followed by injection of morphine 100 mg\\/kg on the fourth day. Sixty min after the last morphine injection, animals were withdrawn from morphine with naltrexone, 15 mg\\/kg s.c., and locomotor

Akiko Mizutani; Jenny Arvidsson; Loris A. Chahl

2005-01-01

467

Nicotine replacement: ten-week effects on tobacco withdrawal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the long-term effects of nicotine replacement on tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Smokers (N=40 community volunteers) maintained biologically validated smoking abstinence under closely monitored conditions while chewing 2 mg nicotine gum (Nicorette; average of 6.9 pieces per day) or placebo gum during the first 10 weeks following smoking cessation. During the first postcessation week symptoms of irritability, anxiety, impatience,

Janet Gross; Maxine L. Stitzer

1989-01-01

468

Hepatitis C virus targets DC-SIGN and L-SIGN to escape lysosomal degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem. However, the mechanism of hepatocyte infection is largely unknown. We demonstrate that the dendritic cell (DC)-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN and its liver-expressed homologue L-SIGN\\/DC-SIGNR are important receptors for HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2. Mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that both HCV E1 and E2 bind the same binding site on DC-SIGN as

Irene S. Ludwig; Annemarie N. Lekkerkerker; Erik Depla; Fons Bosman; R. J. P. Musters; S. Depraetere; Kooijk van Y; T. B. H. Geijtenbeek

2004-01-01

469

Neural Effects of Positive and Negative Incentives during Marijuana Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms. PMID:23690923

Filbey, Francesca M.; Dunlop, Joseph; Myers, Ursula S.

2013-01-01

470

Delayed multifocal recurrent stress-induced cardiomyopathy after antidepressants withdrawal.  

PubMed

Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is an acute disease characterized by a large left ventricular apical dyskinesia ("apical ballooning"), triggered by intense emotional or physical stress, acute illnesses or, rarely, by alcohol or opiates withdrawal. Connection to stress and apical asynergy suggest a catecholamine-mediated pathogenesis. We recently observed a typical apical stress-induced cardiomyopathy, arising two weeks after a long-lasting antidepressant treatment withdrawal and recurring, a week later, with evidence of inferior wall akinesia. The reported case has several unusual features: 1) both episodes were not preceded by relevant triggering event (except antidepressant discontinuation); 2) early heterozonal relapse was observed; 3) the latency between antidepressant discontinuation and stress-induced cardiomyopathy onset is unusually long. The lack of relevant triggering stress and the evidence of multifocal asynergies could support the hypothesis of a non-catecholaminergic pathogenesis. Moreover, the long latency after antidepressant withdrawal may suggest that prolonged antidepressant treatments may have delayed pathological consequences, possibly related to their known neuroplastic effects. PMID:24794783

Marabotti, Claudio; Venturini, Elio; Marabotti, Alberto; Pingitore, Alessandro

2014-01-01

471

Phytotherapy of opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Development of tolerance and dependence is a major problem associated with opioid treatment. Withdrawal syndrome is common between medical and illicit users of these agents. Phytomedicine has shown promise in the treatment of this complicated psychosomatic condition. In this study, the effects of plant extracts and active components on morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome are discussed. Proper keywords were used to search through PubMed, Google Scholar, and SciVerse, as well as two local scientific databases, www.iranmedex.com and www.SID.com. All relevant results (original articles, meeting abstracts, patents, etc.) published from 2000 to 2013 were chosen for final review. A total of 35 plant species were studied on this subject. Plants from Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families were especially effective. A few studies were carried out on human subjects and the rest in animal models. Opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome remain an intimidating challenge. Nonetheless, plants and their derivatives are suitable sources for their treatment. Although there are several plants shown to be effective in animal models, few clinical studies are available. PMID:24151030

Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Dashti, Saeedeh; Doosti, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2014-06-01

472

Evaluation of Un-Medicated, Self-Paced Alcohol Withdrawal  

E-print Network

It is currently unclear how effective un-medicated, self-paced alcohol withdrawal is in reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol dependent clients. To address this question, the current study examined the reduction in alcohol consumption, assessed by breath alcohol and drink diary self-report, of 405 alcohol-dependent clients over a 10-day, un-medicated, selfpaced alcohol reduction program that included group discussion of strategies for titrating between withdrawal and intoxication. It was found that attendance at treatment sessions was associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption, reflected in both breath alcohol and diary measures, and these two measures were significantly correlated. Overall, 35 % of clients achieved a zero breath alcohol reading by their final session, although this percentage increased to 56 % of clients who attended all 10 sessions. Withdrawal seizures occurred in only 0.5 % of clients despite 17.2 % having a history of seizures in other settings. It is concluded that the alcohol reduction protocol outlined here provides an effective and safe method for reducing alcohol consumption in severely alcohol dependent clients, and that methods for augmenting attendance, such as contingency management, should enhance the effectiveness of this treatment.

Martin Craig; Antonio Pennacchia; Neil R. Wright; Henry W. Chase; Lee Hogarth

2011-01-01

473

Signs of trespass/signs of play: proper reading and Under the volcano  

E-print Network

SIGNS OF TRESPASS/SIGNS OF PLAY: PROPER READING AND UNDER THE VOLCANO A Thesis by LISA GAIL HOUSTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF ARTS December 1989 Major Subject: English SIGNS OF TRESPASS/SIGNS OF PLAY: PROPER READING AND UNDER THE VOLCANO A Thesis by LISA GAIL HOUSTON Approved as to style and content by: Ro er ewman (Chair of Committee) e ante aw orne (Member) ic...

Houston, Lisa Gail

2012-06-07

474

Oral administration of dextromethorphan prevents the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined oral administration of morphine sulfate (MS) and the over-the-counter antitussive drug and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dextromethorphan (DM) prevented the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of MS (15, 24, or 32 mg\\/kg) in rats. This combined oral treatment regimen also attenuated signs of naloxone-precipitated physical dependence on morphine in the same rats. A wide range of ratios of

Jianren Mao; Donald D. Price; Frank S. Caruso; David J. Mayer

1996-01-01

475

30 CFR 816.11 - Signs and markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signs and markers. 816.11 Section 816.11 Mineral...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.11 Signs and markers. (a) Specifications. Signs and markers required under this part shall—...

2010-07-01

476

30 CFR 817.11 - Signs and markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signs and markers. 817.11 Section 817.11 Mineral...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.11 Signs and markers. (a) Specifications. Signs and markers required under this part shall—...

2010-07-01

477

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia? Lower than normal numbers of red blood cells, ... most of the signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia. Signs and Symptoms of Low Blood Cell Counts ...

478

36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.  

...DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for...

2014-07-01

479

36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.  

...BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which...

2014-07-01

480

36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.  

...BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which...

2014-07-01

481

29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION...signs, other than automotive traffic signs specified in paragraph...white background. (g) Traffic signs. (1)...

2010-07-01

482

29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION...signs, other than automotive traffic signs specified in paragraph...white background. (g) Traffic signs. (1)...

2012-07-01

483

29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION...signs, other than automotive traffic signs specified in paragraph...white background. (g) Traffic signs. (1)...

2013-07-01

484

29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION...signs, other than automotive traffic signs specified in paragraph...white background. (g) Traffic signs. (1)...

2011-07-01

485

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure? The most common signs and symptoms of heart ... in your lungs. The condition requires emergency treatment. Heart Failure Signs and Symptoms The image shows the major ...

486

Abstinence-related expectancies predict smoking withdrawal effects: implications for possible causal mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Rationale Despite the decades-long emphasis on withdrawal in leading models of addiction, the causal mechanisms driving smoking withdrawal effects are not well known. This gap in the knowledge base has stalled theory and treatment development for smoking dependence. Objectives As cognitive factors have been largely neglected as predictors of withdrawal, the current study sought to examine how smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies relate to withdrawal symptomatology. Methods Adult smokers (N=180; ?10 cigarettes/day) participated in two counterbalanced experimental sessions involving either 16 h of abstinence or smoking as usual. At baseline, participants completed three withdrawal-related scales of the Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire (Withdrawal, Optimistic Outcomes, and Weight Gain scales), a self-report measure of smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies. During experimental sessions, participants completed a number of instruments that covered the range of smoking withdrawal effects (i.e., negative affect, urge/craving to smoke, diminished positive affect, concentration difficulty, hunger, and physiological symptoms). Results Even after controlling for the influence of demographic characteristics and cigarette dependence, smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies were meaningful predictors of abstinence-induced changes in various withdrawal symptoms (mean adjusted standardized ?=0.22). Stronger expectancies for withdrawal and weight gain predicted more severe withdrawal effects, whereas stronger expectancies for optimistic outcomes predicted less severe withdrawal effects. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the notion that expectancies actively shape future experience and are the first to support the suggestion that smokers’ abstinence-related expectancies may be causal agents of withdrawal symptomatology. Future research is required to more conclusively determine whether abstinence-related expectancies mold withdrawal effects. PMID:23812761

Hendricks, Peter S.; Leventhal, Adam M.

2014-01-01

487

A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

488

Sign ambiguity in the K Sigma channel  

E-print Network

Ambiguities of the signs of $N\\to \\Sigma K$ coupling constants are studied in a multichannel partial wave analysis of a large body of pion and photo-induced reactions. It is shown that the signs are not free from some ambiguities, and further experimental data are needed. Data on the reactions $\\pi^+p\\to \\Sigma^+K^+$ and $\\gamma p\\to K^+\\Sigma^0$ define rather well the isospin 3/2 contributions to these channels. However the lack of information on polarization observables for the reactions $\\pi^-p\\to \\Sigma^0K^0$, $\\pi^-p\\to \\Sigma^-K^+$ and $\\gamma p\\to K^0\\Sigma^+$ does not allow us to fix uniquely the signs of $N\\to \\Sigma K$ coupling constants. As a consequence, also the contributions of nucleon resonances to these channels remain uncertain.

A. V. Anisovich; E. Klempt; V. A. Nikonov; A. V. Sarantsev; U. Thoma

2013-10-14

489

Universal access to essential vital signs monitoring.  

PubMed

Much more than a telephone, today's mobile device has become an integral part of the way we interface with the world. Mobile devices have the computing capability, display, and battery power to become powerful medical devices that measure vital signs and provide intelligent interpretation or immediate transmission of information. The widespread adoption of mobile devices, even in low-resource settings, promises to make vital signs monitoring available anywhere and at low cost. This readily available computing power will also extend the utility of vital signs monitoring to new clinical indications, especially with the use of additional processing and integration of information. This review will focus on the universal promotion of pulse oximetry and advanced processing of plethysmography to assess variables such as respiratory rate, capillary refill time, and fluid responsiveness, and how these measurements may assist with perioperative monitoring, diagnosis, and management of pneumonia in children and preeclampsia in pregnancy when combined with mobile devices. PMID:24023026

Ansermino, J Mark

2013-10-01

490

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Hanging Sign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to torque due to frictional force. It involves a system in which a 1050 kg sign is attached to a rod perpendicular to a rough wall. A guy wire is affixed to the end of the rod and to the wall, bearing the load of the sign. Students must determine the smallest value of coefficient of friction possible for the sign to stay in place. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, from conceptual analysis through quantitative calculation. To promote critical thinking, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-10

491

20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.  

...RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.113 Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings. Medical findings consist of symptoms, signs...chemical tests, electrophysiological studies (electrocardiogram,...

2014-04-01

492

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hypotension?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hypotension? Orthostatic Hypotension and Neurally Mediated Hypotension The signs and symptoms of orthostatic hypotension and neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) are similar. ...

493

Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages within "Oral" Schools for the Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in…

Anglin-Jaffe, Hannah

2013-01-01

494

Brazilian Sign Language Lexicography and Technology: Dictionary, Digital Encyclopedia, Chereme-based Sign Retrieval, and Quadriplegic Deaf Communication Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Brazilian Sign language digital encyclopedia, which contains a databank of 5,600 signs glossed in Portuguese and English, along with descriptions and illustrations of their signed form. (Author/VWL)

Capovilla, Fernando C.; Duduchi, Marcelo; Raphael, Walkiria D.; Luz, Renato D.; Rozados, Daniela; Capovilla, Alessandra G. S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

2003-01-01

495

Mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: an autoradiographic study of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.  

PubMed

A previous study from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) was able to prevent the behavioral expression of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect, we conducted this study, with the aims of analyzing ?4?2 nicotinic receptor density during NIC withdrawal and, in case we found any changes, of determining whether they could be prevented by pretreatment with BAC. Swiss Webster albino mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and brain autoradiography with [(3)H]epibatidine was carried out at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling during NIC withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), medial habenular nucleus (HbM), thalamic nuclei, dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus (fr), ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus and superior colliculus. BAC pretreatment prevented the increased ?4?2 nicotinic receptor binding sites in the AcbSh, MHb, thalamic nuclei, DLG nucleus and fr. The present results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling, evidenced in specific brain areas in NIC withdrawn animals. PMID:23500668

Varani, Andrés P; Antonelli, Marta C; Balerio, Graciela N

2013-07-01

496

Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

2010-01-01

497

33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.  

...following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each letter on the sign must be...7.6 centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the product...

2014-07-01

498

Inverses of Infinite Sign Regular Matrices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let A be an infinite sign regular (SR) matrix which can be viewed as a bounded linear operator from L sub infinity to itself. It is proved here that if the range of A contains the sequence (...,1,-1,1,-1,...), then A is onto. If (inverse of A) exists then...

C. de Boor, S. Friedland, A. Pinkus

1980-01-01

499

The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By introducing the mathematical concept of orientation, the significance of the minus sign in Faraday's law may be made clear to students with some knowledge of vector calculus. For many students, however, the traditional approach of treating the law as a relationship between positive scalars and of relying on Lenz's law to provide the information…

O'Sullivan, Colm; Hurley, Donal

2013-01-01

500

Laboratory Emergency Information Signs What Are They?  

E-print Network

Protection Association (NFPA) 704 Hazard Identification System. FLAMMABILITY (0-4) HEALTH (0-4) SPECIAL (W - Minimal The NFPA system uses a "diamond shape" to succinctly display the type and severity of hazards PDF version of the sign is available online at: http://safety.caltech.edu/documents/70-nfpa_2008.pdf

Heaton, Thomas H.