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Sample records for nanocrystalline ni-fe alloy

  1. Effect of grain orientation on ductility in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Misra, Amit; Liaw, Peter K; Choo, Hahn

    2008-01-01

    The influence of columnar grain geometry on mechanical property was studied in an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy. The compressive results show that the strength is independent of grain orientation. However, the plastic strain increased remarkably when the loading axis is parallel to the direction of grain columns, which is due to the enhanced grain boundary and dislocation activities. The significance of the current study is that a new strategy was developed to improve the ductility of nanocrystalline materials.

  2. Microstructure Evolution during Cold Rolling in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy Determined by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Li; Ungar, Prof Tomas; Wang, Y. D.; Morris, James R; Tichy, G.; Lendvai, J.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, Y.; Choo, H.; Liaw, Peter K

    2009-01-01

    Stress softening after cold rolling is observed in an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy. The grain-size distribution becomes much broader after the cold rolling. Microstructure changes, though moderate, such as simultaneously decreased dislocation and twin densities with grain growth during cold rolling, are systematically proved by synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction, and transmission-electron microscopy and differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC). The amorphous fractions in the form of grain boundaries are evidenced by the diffuse-background scatterings and large DSC values. Partial dislocation separation calculation, a dislocation mean free path and annihilation model, and texture development together reveal that the current nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy exhibits the combined behavior of perfect dislocation slip and grain-boundary mediated deformation.

  3. Dislocation density evolution during high pressure torsion of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Wang, Y B; Ho, J C; Cao, Y; Liao, X Z; Ringer, S P; Zhu, Y T; Zhao, Y H; Lavernia, E J

    2009-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) induced dislocation density evolution in a nanocrystalline Ni-20wt.%Fe alloy was investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results suggest that the dislocation density evolution is different from that in coarse-grained materials. An HPT process first reduces the dislocation density within nanocrystalline grains and produces a large number of dislocations located at small-angle sub grain boundaries that are formed via grain rotation and coalescence. Continuing the deformation process eliminates the sub grain boundaries but significantly increases the dislocation density in grains. This phenomenon provides an explanation of the mechanical behavior of some nanostructured materials.

  4. Mechanism of grain growth during severe plastic deformation of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Wang, Y B; Ho, J C; Liao, X Z; Zhu, Y T; Ringer, S P

    2009-01-01

    Deformation induced grain growth has been widely reported in nanocrystalline materials. However, the grain growth mechanism remains an open question. This study applies high-pressure torsion to severely deform bulk nanocrystalline Ni-20 wt % Fe disks and uses transmission electron microscopy to characterize the grain growth process. Our results provide solid evidence suggesting that high pressure torsion induced grain growth is achieved primarily via grain rotation for grains much smaller than 100 nm. Dislocations are mainly seen at small-angle subgrain boundaries during the grain growth process but are seen everywhere in grains after the grains have grown large.

  5. Structure modulation driven by cyclic deformation in nanocrystalline NiFe

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xun-Li; Zhao, Yh; Wang, Yinmin; Liaw, Peter K; Lavernia, Ej

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical modeling suggests that the grain size remains unchanged during fatigue crack growth in nanocrystalline metals. Here we demonstrate that a modulated structure is generated in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy under cyclic deformation. Substantial grain coarsening and loss of growth twins are observed in the path of fatigue cracks, while the grains away from the cracks remain largely unaffected. Statistical analyses suggest that the grain coarsening is realized through the grain lattice rotation and coalescence and the loss of growth twins may be related to the detwinning process near crack tip.

  6. Synergism between polyurethane and polydopamine in the synthesis of Ni-Fe alloy monoliths.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, Thangavel; Sivabalan, Santhana; Chandrasekaran, Naveen; Phani, Kanala Lakshminarasimha

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we report the first synthesis of a light-weight macroporous 3-D alloy monolith of Ni-Fe/C using synergism between polydopamine (pDA) and polyurethane (pU); in situ formed polyurethane (pU) enables efficient mixing of pDA (carbon source) and Ni-FeOx resulting in Ni-Fe alloy monoliths at a temperature as low as ∼600 °C. The monolithic Ni-Fe/C exhibits enhanced oxygen evolution activity. PMID:25531680

  7. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  8. High-frequency permeability of electroplated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhen, Fernando M. F.; McCloskey, Paul; O'Donnell, Terence; Roy, Saibal

    We have investigated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C electrodeposited by pulse reverse plating (PRP) and direct current (DC) techniques. CoNiFe(PRP) films with composition Co 59.4Fe 27.7Ni 12.8 show coercivity of 95 A m -1 (1.2 Oe) and magnetization saturation flux ( μ0Ms) of 1.8 T. Resistivity of CoNiFe (PRP) is about 24 μΩ cm and permeability remains almost constant μr' ˜475 up to 30 MHz with a quality factor ( Q) larger than 10. Additionally, the permeability spectra analysis shows that CoNiFe exhibits a classical eddy current loss at zero bias field and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) when biased with 0.05 T. Furthermore, a crossover between eddy current and FMR loss is observed for CoNiFe-PRP when baised with 0.05 T. DC and PRP plated CoNiFe-C, which have resistivity and permeability of 85, 38 μΩ cm, μr'=165 and 35 with Q>10 up to 320 MHz, respectively, showed only ferromagnetic resonance losses. The ferromagnetic resonance peaks in CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C are broad and resembles a Gaussian distribution of FMR frequencies. The incorporation of C to CoNiFe reduces eddy current loss, but also reduces the FMR frequency.

  9. A NiFeCu alloy anode catalyst for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Huaiyu; Yang, Guangming; Park, Hee Jung; Jung, Doh Won; Kwak, Chan; Shao, Zongping

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a new anode catalyst based on a NiFeCu alloy is investigated for use in direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The influence of the conductive copper introduced into the anode catalyst layer on the performance of the SOFCs is systematically studied. The catalytic activity for partial oxidation of methane and coking resistance tests are proposed with various anode catalyst layer materials prepared using different methods, including glycine nitrate process (GNP), physical mixing (PM) and impregnation (IMP). The surface conductivity tests indicate that the conductivities of the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (PM) and NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalysts are considerably greater than that of NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (GNP), which is consistent with the SEM results. Among the three preparation methods, the cell containing the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalyst layer performs best on CH4-O2 fuel, especially under reduced temperatures, because the coking resistance should be considered in real fuel cell conditions. The cell containing the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalyst layer also delivers an excellent operational stability using CH4-O2 fuel for 100 h without any signs of decay. In summary, this work provides new alternative anode catalytic materials to accelerate the commercialization of SOFC technology.

  10. Magnetic properties of pulse-reverse electrodeposited nanocrystalline NiFe/Cu composite wires in relation to the anodic current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seet, H. L.; Li, X. P.; Lee, K. S.; Chia, H. Y.; Zheng, H. M.; Ng, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    Ni80Fe20/Cu composite wires were developed using the pulse-reverse electrodeposition technique with the cathodic (positive) current Ic fixed at 1 mA and the anodic (negative) current IA varied from 10 to 90% of Ic. The relationship between the magnetic properties of pulse reverse electrodeposited nanocrystalline NiFe/Cu composite wires and the anodic current was investigated. The results showed that the smaller the magnitude of the anodic current, the smaller was the average nanocrystalline grain size of the deposited material and the better was the uniformity of the surface, and consequently, the better the magnetic properties.

  11. Magnetism in NiFeMo disordered alloys: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Mitali; Banerjee, Rudra; Majumdar, A. K.; Mookerjee, Abhijit; Sanyal, Biplab; Nigam, A. K.

    2010-10-01

    In this communication we carry out experimental investigation of the behavior of magnetization with temperature and magnetic field of six samples at different compositions of the disordered ternary alloy NiFeMo. We analyze the data using a fist-principles density functional based electronic structure method and a mean-field phase diagram study.

  12. PVD synthesis and high-throughput property characterization of NiFeCr alloy libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Rar, A.; Frafjord, J. J.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Specht, E. D.; Rack, P. D.; Santella, M. L.; Bei, H.; George, E. P.; Pharr, G. M.

    2004-12-16

    Three methods of alloy library synthesis, thick-layer deposition followed by interdiffusion, composition-spread codeposition and electron-beam melting of thick deposited layers, have been applied to Ni-Fe-Cr ternary and Ni-Cr binary alloys. Structural XRD mapping and mechanical characterization by means of nanoindentation have been used to characterize the properties of the libraries. The library synthesis methods are compared from the point of view of the structural and mechanical information they can provide.

  13. Martensite Transformation and Magnetic Properties of Ni-Fe-Ga Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Hrusikesh; Phanikumar, Gandham

    2015-11-01

    Compositional instability and phase formation in Ni-Fe-Ga Heusler alloys are investigated. The alloys are synthesized into two-phase microstructure. Their structures are identified as fcc and L 21, respectively. The γ-phase formation could be suppressed with higher Ga-content in the alloy as Ga stabilizes austenite phase, but Ga lowers the martensite transformation temperature. The increase of Fe content improves the magnetization value and the increase of Ni from 52 to 55 at. pct raises the martensite transformation temperature from 216 K to 357 K (-57 °C to 84 °C). Magnetic properties and martensitic transformation behavior in Ni-Fe-Ga Heusler alloys follow opposite trends, while Ni replaces either Fe or Ga, whereas they follow similar trends, while Fe replaces Ga. Modulated martensite structure has low twinning stress and high magneto crystalline anisotropic properties. Thus, the observation of 10- and 14 M-modulated martensite structures in the studied Ni-Fe-Ga Heusler alloys is beneficial for shape memory applications. The interdependency of alloy composition, phase formation, magnetic properties, and martensite transformation are discussed.

  14. Phonon densities of states of face-centered-cubic Ni-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Munoz, Jorge A.; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Leontsev, S. O.; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, P; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering were used to determine the phonon densities of states of face-centered-cubic Ni-Fe alloys. Increasing Fe concentration results in an average softening of the phonon modes. Chemical ordering of the Ni0.72Fe0.28 alloy results in a reduction of the partial vibrational entropy of the Fe atoms but does not significantly change the partial vibrational entropy of the Ni atoms. Changes in the phonon densities of states with composition and chemical ordering are discussed and analyzed with a cluster expansion method.

  15. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  16. Spin-driven ordering of Cr in the equiatomic high entropy alloy NiFeCrCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, C.; Zaddach, A. J.; Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; Hurt, J. W.; LeBeau, J. M.; Koch, C. C.; Irving, D. L.

    2015-04-01

    Spin-driven ordering of Cr in an equiatomic fcc NiFeCrCo high entropy alloy (HEA) was predicted by first-principles calculations. Ordering of Cr is driven by the reduction in energy realized by surrounding anti-ferromagnetic Cr with ferromagnetic Ni, Fe, and Co in an alloyed L12 structure. The fully Cr-ordered alloyed L12 phase was predicted to have a magnetic moment that is 36% of that for the magnetically frustrated random solid solution. Three samples were synthesized by milling or casting/annealing. The cast/annealed sample was found to have a low temperature magnetic moment that is 44% of the moment in the milled sample, which is consistent with theoretical predictions for ordering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed and the presence of ordered nano-domains in cast/annealed samples throughout the equiatomic NiFeCrCo HEA was identified.

  17. Spin-driven ordering of Cr in the equiatomic high entropy alloy NiFeCrCo

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, C.; Zaddach, A. J.; Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Koch, C. C.; Irving, D. L.; Hurt, J. W.

    2015-04-20

    Spin-driven ordering of Cr in an equiatomic fcc NiFeCrCo high entropy alloy (HEA) was predicted by first-principles calculations. Ordering of Cr is driven by the reduction in energy realized by surrounding anti-ferromagnetic Cr with ferromagnetic Ni, Fe, and Co in an alloyed L1{sub 2} structure. The fully Cr-ordered alloyed L1{sub 2} phase was predicted to have a magnetic moment that is 36% of that for the magnetically frustrated random solid solution. Three samples were synthesized by milling or casting/annealing. The cast/annealed sample was found to have a low temperature magnetic moment that is 44% of the moment in the milled sample, which is consistent with theoretical predictions for ordering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed and the presence of ordered nano-domains in cast/annealed samples throughout the equiatomic NiFeCrCo HEA was identified.

  18. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys Relevant to Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, Suraj

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and weld metals was investigated in simulated environments representative of high temperature water used in the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear power plants. The mechanism of primary water SCC (PWSCC) was studied in Alloys 600, 690, 800 and Alloy 82 dissimilar metal welds using the internal oxidation model as a guide. Initial experiments were carried out in a 480°C hydrogenated steam environment considered to simulate high temperature reducing primary water. Ni alloys underwent classical internal oxidation intragranularly resulting in the expulsion of the solvent metal, Ni, to the surface. Selective intergranular oxidation of Cr in Alloy 600 resulted in embrittlement, while other alloys were resistant owing to their increased Cr contents. Atom probe tomography was used to determine the short-circuit diffusion path used for Ni expulsion at a sub-nanometer scale, which was concluded to be oxide-metal interfaces. Further exposures of Alloys 600 and 800 were done in 315°C simulated primary water and intergranular oxidation tendency was comparable to 480°C hydrogenated steam. Secondary side work involved SCC experiments and electrochemical measurements, which were done at 315°C in acid sulfate solutions. Alloy 800 C-rings were found to undergo acid sulfate SCC (AcSCC) to a depth of up to 300 microm in 0.55 M sulfate solution at pH 4.3. A focused-ion beam was used to extract a crack tip from a C-ring and high resolution analytical electron microscopy revealed a duplex oxide structure and the presence of sulfur. Electrochemical measurements were taken on Ni alloys to complement crack tip analysis; sulfate was concluded to be the aggressive anion in mixed sulfate and chloride systems. Results from electrochemical measurements and crack tip analysis suggested a slip dissolution-type mechanism to explain AcSCC in Ni alloys.

  19. Nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 and nanocomposites of (NiFe2O4)(1-x)(Al2O3)x (x = 0.25, 0.40): superparamagnetic behavior and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Acharya, S; Das, D; Chakrabarti, P K

    2010-09-01

    Nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 with different particle sizes and nanocomposites of (NiFe2O4)(1-x)(Al2O3)x (x = 0.25, 0.40) were prepared by using co-precipitation method. In this method two techniques viz., 'ultrasonication' and 'magnetic stirring' during co-precipitation were used. The as prepared samples were annealed at different temperatures to obtain samples with different particle sizes. The formation of the nanocrystalline spinel phases of all the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The sizes of the nanoparticles of all the samples were calculated from the broadening of the (311) line in the XRD pattern. The distribution of sizes are remarkably less in samples obtained from 'ultrasonication' technique compared to those obtained in 'magnetic stirring' technique. The different soft magnetic quantities viz., coercive field, magnetization, remanance, hysteresis losses etc. were extracted from the ac hysteresis loops observed at different frequencies. The variations of coercive field and hysteresis loss as functions of frequency and particle sizes have been studied. Mössbauer spectra of the samples along with the hysteresis loops recorded at room temperature indicate the presence of superparamagnetic (SPM) relaxations of the nanoparticles. Also, SPM relaxations have been introduced in the samples annealed at higher temperature by encapsulating the nanoparticles in non-magnetic matrix of Al2O3 with 40% coating. PMID:21133083

  20. Microstructural and magnetic characterization of iron precipitation in Ni-Fe-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Duman, Nagehan; Mekhrabov, Amdulla O.; Akdeniz, M. Vedat

    2011-06-15

    The influence of annealing on the microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 50}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 50-x} alloys for x = 20, 25, and 30 has been investigated. Solidification microstructures of as-cast alloys reveal coarse grains of a single B2 type {beta}-phase and typical off eutectic microstructure consisting of proeutectic B2 type {beta} dendrites and interdendritic eutectic for x = 20 and x > 20 at.% Fe respectively. However, annealing at 1073 K results in the formation of FCC {gamma}-phase particles along the grain boundaries as well as grain interior in x = 20 at.% Fe alloy. The volume fraction of interdentritic eutectic regions tend to decrease and their morphologies start to degenerate by forming FCC {gamma}-phase for x > 20 at.% Fe alloys with increasing annealing temperatures. Increasing Fe content of alloys induce an enhancement in magnetization and a rise in the Curie transition temperature (T{sub C}). Temperature scan magnetic measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that a transient rise in the magnetization at temperatures well above the T{sub C} of the alloys would be attributed to the precipitation of a nano-scale ferromagnetic BCC {alpha}-Fe phase. Retained magnetization above the Curie transition temperature of alloy matrix, together with enhanced room temperature saturation magnetization of alloys annealed at favorable temperatures support the presence of ferromagnetic precipitates. These nano-scale precipitates are shown to induce significant precipitation hardening of the {beta}-phase in conjunction with enhanced room temperature saturation magnetization in particular when an annealing temperature of 673 K is used. - Research Highlights: {yields} Evolution of microstructure and magnetic properties with varying Fe content. {yields} Transient rise in magnetization via the formation of ferromagnetic phase. {yields} Enhancements in saturation magnetization owing to precipitated ferromagnetic phase. {yields} Nanoscale

  1. Damage tolerance of wrought alloy 718 Ni-Fe-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M. . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Koul, A.K.; Au, P.; Terada, T. . Structures and Materials Lab.)

    1994-06-01

    The influence of a modified heat treatment (MHT) and the standard heat treatment (SHT) on the damage tolerance of alloy 718 turbine disk material has been studied over a range of temperature -- from room temperature to 650 C. The influence of these heats treatments on creep, low-cycle fatigue (LCF), notch sensitivity, cyclic stability, and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties has been studied. The microstructure developed through the MHT sequence is shown to be damage tolerant over the temperature range studied. Shot peening leads to a marked improvement in the LCF crack initiation life of the MHT material relative to the SHT material at 650 C. Serrated grain boundaries formed through controlled precipitation of grain-boundary [delta] phase are beneficial to elevated-temperature FCGRs. The [delta]-phase precipitates formed at an angle to the grain boundaries do not make the material notch sensitive.

  2. Damage tolerance of wrought alloy 718 Ni- Fe-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M.; Koul, A. K.; Au, P.; Terada, T.

    1994-06-01

    The influence of a modified heat treatment (MHT) and the standard heat treatment (SHT) on the damage tolerance of alloy 718 turbine disk material has been studied over a range of temperatures— from room temperature to 650 °. The influence of these heat treatments on creep, low-cycle fatigue (LCF), notch sensitivity, cyclic stability, and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties has been studied. The microstructure developed through the MHT sequence is shown to be damage tolerant over the temperature range studied. Shot peening leads to a marked improvement in the LCF crack initiation life of the MHT material relative to the SHT material at 650 °. Serrated grain boundaries formed through controlled precipitation of grain-boundary 5 phase are beneficial to elevated- temperature FCGRs. The S-phase precipitates formed at an angle to the grain boundaries do not make the material notch sensitive.

  3. Microstructural change during (liquid phase sintering) of W-Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Eun, K.Y. ); Kang, S.L

    1989-05-01

    The changes of bulk density and microstructures during heating and liquid phase sintering of 98W-1Ni-1Fe compacts prepared from 1 and 5 {mu}m W powders have been observed in order to characterize the densification behavior. The compact prepared from a fine (1 {mu}m) W powder begins to densify rapidly at about 1200{degrees}C in the solid state during heating, attaining about 95 pct density upon reaching the liquid phase sintering temperature of 1460{degrees}C. The compact prepared from a coarse (5 {mu}m) W powder begins to densify rapidly at about 1400{degrees}C in the solid state, attaining about 87 pct density upon reaching the liquid phase sintering temperature. Thus, the skeleton of grains is already formed prior to liquid formation. During the isothermal liquid phase sintering, substantial grain growth occurs, and the liquid flows into both open and closed pores, filling them sequentially from the regions with small cross-sections. The grains subsequently grow into the liquid pockets which have been formed at the pore sites. The sequential pore filling by first liquid thus is shown to be the dominant densification process during the liquid phase sintering of this alloy.

  4. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  5. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  6. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  7. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.

    2011-01-17

    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  8. Fabrication of glass/Ni-Fe-P ternary alloy core/shell composite hollow microspheres through a modified electroless plating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhen-guo; Zhang, Jing-jie; Pan, Shun-long

    2008-12-01

    Glass/Ni-Fe-P ternary alloy core/shell composite hollow microspheres were fabricated by a modified electroless plating process. In the process, a coupling procedure was employed with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane as the coupling agent and silver nitrate was used as the activator. The effect of process parameters, such as mole ratio of (NH 4) 2Fe(SO 4) 2/NiSO 4, pH value of the plating solution and reaction temperature, on plating rate and properties of the composite microspheres were investigated. The results showed that the coupling treatment could improve the uniformity of Ni-Fe-P deposits remarkably. The plating rate was reduced rapidly with the increase of mole ratio of (NH 4) 2Fe(SO 4) 2/NiSO 4. The increase of the pH value could enhance the plating rate and the percentage of iron in the deposits. The as-obtained microspheres were magnetically soft at room temperature and their magnetic properties got better with the enhancement of the percentage of iron in the deposits.

  9. Ductility enhancement from interface dislocation sources in a directionally solidified beta + gamma + gamma-prime Ni-Fe-Al composite alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M.; Misra, A.; Hartfield-Wunsch, S.; Noebe, R.; Gibala, R.

    1990-01-01

    A directionally solidified beta + gamma + gamma-prime Ni-Fe-Al in situ composite alloy of composition Ni50Fe30Al20 has been used to investigate the effect of a plastically soft second phase on the mechanical behavior of a B2 ordered intermetallic alloy. This material exhibits extensive plasticity during compressive deformation at room temperature and fails in shear with extensive gamma + gamma-prime lamellar or rod pullout. The material also exhibits about 10 percent tensile elongation to fracture at room temperature, with final fracture that includes substantial necking of the gamma + gamma-prime lamellae or rods. Observation of slip lines and dislocation substructures discloses that the normally brittle beta matrix undergoes extensive plasticity in order to deform compatibly with the more ductile gamma phase. The plasticity of the beta matrix is accomplished by the generation of glissile dislocations into the beta matrix from the beta/gamma interface region and is enhanced because of a favorable beta-gamma orientation relationship for slip transfer. Ductility enhancement from interface-generated mobile dislocations generated from beta-gamma interfaces is compared to that observed in film-coated beta-NiAl single crystals and FeAl polycrystals.

  10. Temperature dependent cation distribution correlated with optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline NiFe1.8Gd0.2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    Nano crystalline NiFe1.8Gd0.2O4 ferrite was synthesized through citrate method at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C. Samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel structure in all the samples. From Rietveld analysis, the system is found to be inverse spinal structure with Gd3+ residing on octahedral 16c B-site and the grain boundary, while Ni2+ occupying the B-site at both 16c and 16d. The effect of preparation temperature on the crystalline phase, crystallite size, morphology, magnetic and optical properties was investigated in detail. The PL intensity of the ferrite material is enhanced upon increasing the sintering temperature from 500 to 800 °C. Upon increasing the sintering temperature, the coercive field first decreases then increases; while, on the contrary, the saturation of magnetization (Ms) first deceases then increases.

  11. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of two 50 Ni-Fe crystalline alloys and an iron-based amorphous alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of experimental data that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency is almost nonexistent. An experimental investigation was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz to determine the effects of temperature and frequency on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops of three different soft magnetic materials; and oriented grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, a nonoriented grain 50Ni-Fe alloy, and an iron based amorphous material (Metglas 2605SC). A comparison of these materials shows that the nonoriented grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy tends to have either the lowest or next lowest core loss for all temperatures and frequencies investigated.

  12. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming

    2011-12-01

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism ( Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment.

  13. Influence of the chemical composition of rapidly quenched amorphous alloys (Ni, Fe, Cr)-B-Si on its crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmanov, G.; Dzhumaev, P.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Skrytnyi, V.; Ruslanov, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of research of the structure and phase transformations during the multistage crystallization of the metallic glasses with the compositions Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 labeled as AWS BNi-2 according to American Welding Society. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used as experimental research methods. The influence of the alloys chemical composition (boron, manganese and iron) on the temperatures and the exothermic heat effects of phase transformations, as well as on the phase composition of alloys at three stages of crystallization was analyzed. We present a thermodynamic explanation of the observed heat effects. It has been shown that manganese has the main influence on the phase transformations temperatures and heat effects in these two alloys. It is also assumed that at the final crystallization stage simultaneously with the formation of phases Ni3B and β1-Ni3Si should occur the nucleation of borides of CrB type with high Cr and low Si content.

  14. Comparison of high frequency, high temperature core loss and B-H loop characteristics of an 80 Ni-Fe crystalline alloy and two iron-based amorphous alloys. [Ni; Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Wieserman, W.R. ); Schwarze, G.E. ); Niedra, J.M. )

    1991-01-10

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H characteristics of a nickel-iron crystalline magnetic alloy (Supermalloy) and two-iron-based amorphous magnetic materials (Metglas 2605S-3A and Metglas 2605SC) over the frequency range of 1--50 kHz and temperature range of 23--300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The effects of maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined. The Supermalloy and Metglas 2605S-3A and 2605SC data are used to compare the core loss of transformers with identical kVA and voltage ratings.

  15. Room-temperature deformation behavior of a directionally solidified {beta} (B2)-(Ni-Fe-Al) intermetallic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A.; Kim, J.T.; Gibala, R.

    1997-01-01

    The room-temperature mechanical behavior of a directionally solidified columnar-grained, single-phase {beta} (B2)-(Ni-20 at. pct Fe-30 At. pct Al) intermetallic alloy deformed along the hard {l_angle}001{r_angle} direction has been characterized. The 0.2 pct offset compressive yield stress was found to be comparable to that of {l_angle}001{r_angle} single crystals of stoichiometric NiAl. The dislocation substructure consisted of a preponderance of long, straight a{l_angle}111{r_angle} screw dislocations on {l_brace}112{r_brace} planes, with cross-slip on {l_brace}123{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes. The superpartials were not resolved by weak-beam imaging conditions, indicating that the antiphase boundary (APB) energy of NiAl is not reduced significantly by the Fe addition. The dislocation substructure was analyzed as a function of strain and compared to the dislocation substructure in {l_angle}001{r_angle} NiAl and body-centered cubic (bcc) metals deformed at low homologous temperatures. The debris left behind by a{l_angle}111{r_angle} screw dislocations consisted of prismatic edge dipole loops 5 to 25 nm in diameter.

  16. Nanocrystalline Pd alloy films coated by electroless deposition.

    PubMed

    Strukov, G V; Strukova, G K; Batov, I E; Sakharov, M K; Kudrenko, E A; Mazilkin, A A

    2011-10-01

    The structures of palladium and palladium alloys thin films deposited from organic electrolytes onto metallic substrates by electroless plating method have been investigated. The coatings are dense, pore-free 0.005-1 microm thick films with high adhesive strength to the substrate surface. EDX, XRD, SEM and TEM methods were used to determine the composition and structure of alloy coatings of the following binary systems: Pd-Au, Pd-Ag, Pd-Ni, Pd-Pb, and ternary system Pd-Au-Ni. The coatings of Pd-Au, Pd-Ag and Pd-Ni have a solid solution structure, whereas Pd-Pb is intermetallic compound. It has been found that the deposited films consist of nanocrystalline grains with sizes in the range of 11-35 nm. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal the existence of clusters formed by nanocrystalline grains. The origin for the formation of nanocrystalline structures of coating films is discussed. PMID:22400291

  17. Bulk CoNiFe-SiB Amorphous and Nanostructured Alloys Produced by Plasma Spray Deposition and Dynamic Compaction: Formation of Soft Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Elena; Kuzovnikova, Ludmila; Iskhakov, Rauf; Kuzovnikov, Aleksandr; Lepeshev, Anatoly; Nemtsev, Ivan; Saunin, Viktor; Telegin, Sergey; Bondarenko, Galina; Mal`tsev, Vadim

    The bulk nanostructured Co58Ni10Fe5B16Si11 alloys were prepared by dynamic compaction and plasma spray deposition techniques. The investigation of structure and magnetic properties of bulk samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and correlation magnetometry. The bulk samples produced by both methods can be characterized as a heterophase system. The highest value of permeability 20 · 103 for plasma spraying coating is achieved when volume fraction of nanocrystalline phase with Curie temperature Tc ∼ 640 K is increased to 30%. The magnetic characteristics, such as the saturation magnetization, the Bloch constant, the local magnetic anisotropy field, the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, and the coercivity remain unchanged after both compaction techniques. It was shown that the plasma spraying method allows to obtain bulk magnetically soft materials with magnetic parameters that are not inferior to the characteristics of a thermally treated rapidly quenched ribbon with the same composition.

  18. Investigations of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline materials by microacoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubief, P.; Hunsinger, J. J.; Gaffet, E.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine whether yes or no, there is a difference between the physico-chemical properties of the nanocrystalline and the microcrystalline materials. This paper deals with the acoustical behavior of nanocrystalline materials which were prepared by ball- milling and mechanical alloying. Based on two specific techniques (acoustic microinterferometry and acoustic microechography), some of the mechanical properties (elastic ones) may be determined, related to a materials volume of about a few micrometers 3 (for the high frequency 600 MHz apparatus). Thus the mechanically alloyed powders (typically 200 micrometers in diameter), behave as massive materials in this range of frequency. The measurements are directly obtained on the grains and do not take into account the voids induced by further sinthering process. The result of such a micromechanical approach will be given for pure ball-milled elements (Fe) and for the supersaturated solid phase Fe(Si) obtained by mechanical alloying.

  19. Corrosion properties of nanocrystalline cobalt and cobalt-phosphorus alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hundal

    In this thesis, the corrosion properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co and Co-1.1 and 2.1 wt% P alloys (7 to 20 nm grain size) were investigated in a wide range of solution pH by using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques along with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. In 0.1 M H2SO 4 and 0.5 M Na2SO4 solutions (pH 1 and 3, respectively), nanocrystalline Co showed higher anodic and cathodic reaction rates and reduced localized corrosion attack compared to coarse grained Co counterparts. An enhanced electrochemical reaction rate of nanocrystalline Co was correlated to a significant increase in grain boundaries and triple junctions. For pure Co, a catalytic mechanism has been suggested to rationalize a more favorable route for their anodic dissolution reaction. An addition of P leads to a significant increase of corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline Co-P due to the increased elemental P concentration on the corroded surface at Eoc following an initial selective dissolution of Co. However, at higher anodic overpotential, the superior corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline Co-P did not last due to the formation of a porous and defective surface film. The excellent corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline Co-P deteriorated from heat treatment at 350°C and 800°C due to higher chemical heterogeneity. In a 3.56% NaCl solution at pH 6.2, nanocrystalline Co-P showed a higher anodic dissolution rate than that of nanocrystalline Co due to a reduced adsorption area of chloride ions. However, the corrosion rate of nanocrystalline Co-P decreased in comparison to nanocrystalline Co due to a much smaller cathodic exchange current density for oxygen reduction on nanocrystalline Co-P. A physical model was elaborated to explain the different response of annealed nanocrystalline Co-P by considering the different adsorption properties

  20. Resputtering Effect on Nanocrystalline Ni-Ti Alloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priydarshini, B. Geetha; Esakkiraja, N.; Aich, Shampa; Chakraborty, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the effect of resputtering on the properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ti alloy thin films deposited using co-sputtering of Ni and Ti targets. In order to facilitate the formation of nanocrystalline phases, films were deposited at room temperature and 573 K (300 °C) with substrate bias voltage of -100 V. The influence of substrate material on the composition, surface topography microstructure, and phase formations of nanocrystalline Ni-Ti thin films was also systematically investigated. The preferential resputtering of Ti adatoms was lesser for Ni-Ti films deposited on quartz substrate owing to high surface roughness of 4.87 nm compared to roughness value of 1.27 nm for Si(100) substrate.

  1. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of an innovative low-alloy high-strength aluminum cast alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is applied for treatment of castings of innovative low-ally high-strength aluminum alloy, nikalin ATs6N0.5Zh based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system. The influence of HIP on the structure and properties of castings is studied by means of three regimes of barometric treatment with different temperatures of isometric holding: t 1 = 505 ± 2°C, p 1 = 100 MPa, τ1 = 3 h (HIP1); t 2 = 525 ± 2°C, p 2 = 100 MPa, τ2 = 3 h (HIP2); and t 3 = 545 ± 2°C, p 3 = 100 MPa, τ3 = 3 h (HIP3). It is established that high-temperature HIP leads to actually complete elimination of porosity and additional improvement of the morphology of second phases. Improved structure after HIP provides improvement properties, especially of plasticity. In particular, after heat treatment according of regime HIP2 + T4 (T4 is natural aging), the alloy plasticity is improved by about two times in comparison with the initial state (from ~6 to 12%). While applying regime HIP3 + T6 (T6 is artificial aging for reaching the maximum strength), the plasticity has improved by more than three times in comparison with the initial state, as after treatment according to regimes HIP1 + T6 and HIP2 + T6 (from ~1.2 to ~5.0%), which are characterized by a lower HIP temperature.

  2. On the remarkable thermal stability of nanocrystalline cobalt via alloying

    PubMed Central

    Bachmaier, A.; Motz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured Co materials are produced by severe plastic deformation via alloying with small amounts of C and larger amounts of Cu. The thermal stability of the different nanostructured Co materials is studied through isothermal annealing at different temperatures for various times and compared to the stability of severe plastically deformed high-purity nanocrystalline Co. The microstructural changes taking place during annealing are evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. In the present work it is shown that the least stable nanostructured material is the single-phase high purity Co. Alloying with C improves the thermal stability to a certain extent. A remarkable thermal stability is achieved by alloying Co with Cu resulting in stabilized nanostructures even after annealing for long times at high temperatures. The essential reason for the enhanced thermal stability is to be found in the immiscibility of both components of the alloy. PMID:25892849

  3. Diffusion, phase equilibria and partitioning experiments in the Ni-Fe-Ru system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on thin-film diffusion experiments designed to investigate phase equilibria in systems containing high concentrations of Pt-group elements, such as Ni-Fe-Ru-rich systems containing Pt, at temperatures of 1273, 1073, and 873 K. The rate of Ru diffusion in Ni was determined as a function of temperature, and, in addition, the degree of Pt and Ir partitioning between phases in a Ni-Fe-Ru-rich system and of V between phases in a Ni-Fe-O-rich system at 873 were determined. It was found that Pt preferentially partitions into the (gamma)Ni-Fe phase, whereas Ir prefers the (epsilon)Ru-Fe phase. V partitions strongly into Fe oxides relative to (gamma)Ni-Fe. These results have direct application to the origin and thermal history of the alloys rich in Pt-group elements in meteorites.

  4. Electrode characteristics of nanocrystalline AB{sub 5} compounds prepared by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, D.; Huang, P.; Su, Y.; Lue, M.

    1998-10-01

    Nanocrystalline LaNi{sub 5} and LaNi{sub 4.5}Si{sub 0.5} synthesized by mechanical alloying were used as negative materials for Ni-MH batteries. It was found that the electrodes prepared with the nanocrystalline powders had similar discharge capacities, better activation behaviors, and longer cycle lifetimes, compared with the negative electrode prepared with polycrystalline coarse-grained LaNi{sub 5} alloy. The properties of the electrodes prepared with these nanocrystalline materials were attributed to the structural characteristics of the compounds caused by mechanical alloying.

  5. Structural and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Asheesh; Banerjee, S. Sudarsan, V.; Meena, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    Nano-crystalline Fe-Ni alloys have been synthesized in ethylene glycol medium. Based on XRD studies it is confirmed that, in these alloys Fe atoms are incorporated at Ni site to form Ni-Fe solid solutions. Mössbauer studies have established that for alloy particles having smaller size there is significant concentration of two different types of paramagnetic Fe species and their relative concentration decreased with increase in particle size.

  6. Optical Properties of ZnO-Alloyed Nanocrystalline Films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Che, Hui; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Michelle; Yeh, Wei Jiang; Tarun, M. C.; McCluskey, M. D.; Bergman, Leah

    2012-01-01

    ZnO is emore » merging as one of the materials of choice for UV applications. It has a deep excitonic energy level and a direct bandgap of ~3.4 eV. Alloying ZnO with certain atomic constituents adds new optical and electronic functionalities to ZnO. This paper presents research on M g x Z n 1 − x O and Z n S 1 − x O x nanocrystalline flexible films, which enable tunable optical properties in the deep-UV and in the visible range. The ZnO and Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O films were found to have bandgaps at 3.35 and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence of the Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O exhibited a bandedge emission at 3.95 eV, and at lower energy 3.38 eV due to the limited solubility inherent to these alloys. ZnS 0 .76 O 0 .24 and ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 were found to have bandgaps at 3.21 and 2.65 eV, respectively. The effect of nitrogen doping on ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 is discussed in terms of the highly lattice mismatched nature of these alloys and the resulting valence-band modification.« less

  7. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  8. Elastic moduli of nanocrystalline binary Al alloys with Fe, Co, Ti, Mg and Pb alloying elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babicheva, Rita I.; Bachurin, Dmitry V.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhang, Ying; Kok, Shaw Wei; Bai, Lichun; Zhou, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the elastic moduli of nanocrystalline (NC) Al and NC binary Al-X alloys (X is Fe, Co, Ti, Mg or Pb) by using molecular dynamics simulations. X atoms in the alloys are either segregated to grain boundaries (GBs) or distributed randomly as in disordered solid solution. At 0 K, the rigidity of the alloys increases with decrease in atomic radii of the alloying elements. An addition of Fe, Co or Ti to the NC Al leads to increase in the Young's E and shear μ moduli, while an alloying with Pb decreases them. The elastic moduli of the alloys depend on a distribution of the alloying elements. The alloys with the random distribution of Fe or Ti demonstrate larger E and μ than those for the corresponding alloys with GB segregations, while the rigidity of the Al-Co alloy is higher for the case of the GB segregations. The moduli E and μ for polycrystalline aggregates of Al and Al-X alloys with randomly distributed X atoms are estimated based on the elastic constants of corresponding single-crystals according to the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, which neglects the contribution of GBs to the rigidity. The results show that GBs in NC materials noticeably reduce their rigidity. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of μ for the NC Al-X alloys is analyzed. Only the Al-Co alloy with GB segregations shows the decrease in μ to the lowest extent in the temperature range of 0-600 K in comparison with the NC pure Al.

  9. Study of Fe Zr U B and Fe Zr U Cu B nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sólyom, A.; Petrovič, P.; Marko, P.; Kováč, J.; Konczos, G.

    2000-06-01

    The influence of uranium and copper additives on the crystallization process and magnetic properties was studied in Fe 87Zr 7B 6 amorphous alloys. The addition of copper resulted in homogeneous nanocrystalline precipitates and improvement of soft magnetic properties. The alloying with uranium led to the formation of inhomogeneous microstructure and increase in coercive force.

  10. Microstructure and aging behavior of conventional and nanocrystalline aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys with scandium additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuniga, Alejandro

    The influence of small amounts of scandium (0.15 and 0.3 wt.%) on the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties of 2618 (Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni) and C416 (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag-Mn) alloys was studied. It was observed the overall precipitation sequence and the general morphology of the aging curve were not affected by the addition of small amounts of Sc. It was also observed that a separate population of small Al3Sc particles improved the aging response and mechanical properties of low-Cu, low-Sc Al-Cu-Mg alloys, while the formation of Al5-8Cu7-4Sc particles resulted in a decrease of the mechanical properties in high-Cu Sc-containing alloys. The Sc-modified with the best aging response (2618 + 0.15 % Sc) was cryomilled in order to produce Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc nanocrystalline powders. Bulk nanocrystalline samples were consolidated from the cryomilled powder using three different techniques: hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, spark plasma sintering, cold spraying. The influence of consolidation technique on the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties was analyzed. The extruded and spark plasma sintered Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc nanocrystalline samples presented a bimodal grain structure consisting of coarse-grained regions located at the inter-particle region, and nanocrystalline regions at the particle interiors. The aging behavior of the nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc alloy was characterized by softening instead of hardening. This behavior was rationalized on the basis of changes in the precipitation processes that occur in the nanocrystalline state. On the other hand, the cold spray process promoted the formation of truly nanocrystalline coatings. The mechanisms influencing the coating formation of conventional and nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc samples were analyzed.

  11. Giant and reversible room-temperature elastocaloric effect in a single-crystalline Ni-Fe-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Good mechanical properties and large adiabatic temperature change render Heusler-type Ni2FeGa-based magnetic shape memory alloys as a promising candidate material for solid-state mechanical cooling application at ambient conditions. Superelastic behavior and associated elastocaloric effect strongly reply on deformation conditions (e.g. applied strain rate and strain level) of stress-induced martensitic transformations. With the aim of developing high-performance elastic cooling materials, in this work, we have carried out a systematic study on a Ni54Fe19Ga27 [420]-oriented single crystal by exploring the interaction between dynamic deformation parameters and thermal response. A giant and reversible adiabatic temperature change of ±7.5 K triggered by a low stress of 30 MPa was achieved. Such a high specific cooling performance thus offers the great advantage for the small scale solid-state mechanical cooling applications. Besides, a significant temporary residual strain effect has been observed at high strain rate, which is unfavorable for reversible elastocaloric effect but can be overcome by reducing stress hysteresis, and/or by elevating initial environmental temperature. The established criterion for the desirable reversible elastocaloric properties goes beyond the present system, and can be applicable for other shape memory alloys used for elastic cooling techniques. PMID:27138030

  12. Giant and reversible room-temperature elastocaloric effect in a single-crystalline Ni-Fe-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Good mechanical properties and large adiabatic temperature change render Heusler-type Ni2FeGa-based magnetic shape memory alloys as a promising candidate material for solid-state mechanical cooling application at ambient conditions. Superelastic behavior and associated elastocaloric effect strongly reply on deformation conditions (e.g. applied strain rate and strain level) of stress-induced martensitic transformations. With the aim of developing high-performance elastic cooling materials, in this work, we have carried out a systematic study on a Ni54Fe19Ga27 [420]-oriented single crystal by exploring the interaction between dynamic deformation parameters and thermal response. A giant and reversible adiabatic temperature change of ±7.5 K triggered by a low stress of 30 MPa was achieved. Such a high specific cooling performance thus offers the great advantage for the small scale solid-state mechanical cooling applications. Besides, a significant temporary residual strain effect has been observed at high strain rate, which is unfavorable for reversible elastocaloric effect but can be overcome by reducing stress hysteresis, and/or by elevating initial environmental temperature. The established criterion for the desirable reversible elastocaloric properties goes beyond the present system, and can be applicable for other shape memory alloys used for elastic cooling techniques. PMID:27138030

  13. Abiotic ammonium formation in the presence of Ni-Fe metals and alloys and its implications for the Hadean nitrogen cycle

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Alexander; Hausner, Douglas; Laffers, Richard; Strongin, Daniel R; Schoonen, Martin AA

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with dinitrogen-, nitrite-, nitrate-containing solutions were conducted without headspace in Ti reactors (200°C), borosilicate septum bottles (70°C) and HDPE tubes (22°C) in the presence of Fe and Ni metal, awaruite (Ni80Fe20) and tetrataenite (Ni50Fe50). In general, metals used in this investigation were more reactive than alloys toward all investigated nitrogen species. Nitrite and nitrate were converted to ammonium more rapidly than dinitrogen, and the reduction process had a strong temperature dependence. We concluded from our experimental observations that Hadean submarine hydrothermal systems could have supplied significant quantities of ammonium for reactions that are generally associated with prebiotic synthesis, especially in localized environments. Several natural meteorites (octahedrites) were found to contain up to 22 ppm Ntot. While the oxidation state of N in the octahedrites was not determined, XPS analysis of metals and alloys used in the study shows that N is likely present as nitride (N3-). This observation may have implications toward the Hadean environment, since, terrestrial (e.g., oceanic) ammonium production may have been supplemented by reduced nitrogen delivered by metal-rich meteorites. This notion is based on the fact that nitrogen dissolves into metallic melts. PMID:18489746

  14. Giant and reversible room-temperature elastocaloric effect in a single-crystalline Ni-Fe-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Good mechanical properties and large adiabatic temperature change render Heusler-type Ni2FeGa-based magnetic shape memory alloys as a promising candidate material for solid-state mechanical cooling application at ambient conditions. Superelastic behavior and associated elastocaloric effect strongly reply on deformation conditions (e.g. applied strain rate and strain level) of stress-induced martensitic transformations. With the aim of developing high-performance elastic cooling materials, in this work, we have carried out a systematic study on a Ni54Fe19Ga27 [420]-oriented single crystal by exploring the interaction between dynamic deformation parameters and thermal response. A giant and reversible adiabatic temperature change of ±7.5 K triggered by a low stress of 30 MPa was achieved. Such a high specific cooling performance thus offers the great advantage for the small scale solid-state mechanical cooling applications. Besides, a significant temporary residual strain effect has been observed at high strain rate, which is unfavorable for reversible elastocaloric effect but can be overcome by reducing stress hysteresis, and/or by elevating initial environmental temperature. The established criterion for the desirable reversible elastocaloric properties goes beyond the present system, and can be applicable for other shape memory alloys used for elastic cooling techniques.

  15. Influence of partial shape memory deformation on the burst character of its recovery in heated Ni-Fe-Ga-Co alloy crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, V. I.; Yakushev, P. N.; Malygin, G. A.; Averkin, A. I.; Pulnev, S. A.; Zograf, G. P.; Kustov, S. B.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2016-04-01

    Room-temperature stress-strain curves of Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 alloy single crystals possessing shape memory (SM) have been studied. Specific features of these diagrams are revealed upon compressive loading of these single crystals in the [110] A direction. The influence of preliminary SM deformation on the process of its recovery during the reverse martensite transformation has been studied. It is established that SM deformation above 4.2% leads to a sharp increase in the shape recovery on heating and the process exhibits a burst character, involving motion of the entire crystal. The experimental data are analyzed and stress-strain curves are simulated in the framework of the theory of diffuse martensitic transitions.

  16. Giant magnetoresistance in evaporated NiFe/Cu and NiFeCo/Cu multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltser, A. M.; Smith, Neil

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of electron beam evaporated (Ni83Fe17/Cu)10 and (Ni66Fe16Co18/Cu)10 multilayers (ML) were studied as a function of the Cu spacer and magnetic layer thicknesses (tCu and tNiFe), annealing conditions and Ta buffer layer thickness. The ML were evaporated in a magnetic field at deposition rates ˜ 2 Å/s and background pressure <5×10-8 mbar on Si/SiO2 substrates at Ts=200 °C. These ML exhibited two unique features: (1) ΔR/R and the interlayer coupling did not show oscillatory behavior as a function of tCu; and (2) after magnetic post annealing, ΔR/R increased from <0.3% in the as-deposited state, to up to ˜6% and 7% in Ta/(NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu), respectively. The coupling between the NiFe layers changed from ferromagnetic in the as-deposited state Mr/Ms˜0.9k;20 to essentially antiferromagnetic Mr/Ms<0.2) after appropriate annealing, and the ML became virtually isotropic in-plane. This is quite different from strong oscillatory behavior of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) previously reported in (NiFe/Cu) as-deposited ML made by ion-beam sputtering. After annealing at 300° and 325 °C for 2 h, the ΔR/R became ˜4.5% and ˜6.5% in (NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu) ML, respectively, and remained approximately constant for tCu=20 to 40 Å. The coupling field generally decreased with an increase in Cu and NiFe and after annealing at 300 °C dropped to as low as ˜25 and 45 Oe in (NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu) ML, respectively. The of ΔR/R Ta/(NiFe/Cu) ML increased with the thickness of Ta buffer layer from 30 to 70 Å. The high-angle θ-2θ x-ray scans of (NiFe/Cu) ML showed (111) texture, essentially independent of annealing temperature. The low-angle x-ray diffraction did not reveal roughening of the Cu-NiFe interfaces as a result of annealing. In many respects the GMR behavior of these ML is similar to that reported in sputtered ``discontinuous'' NiFe/Ag. However, in contrast to the latter, the resistivity of NiFe/Cu monotonically

  17. Corrosion behaviors of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys in NaCl solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Yuxin; Du, Chunfeng; Yan, Biao

    2010-11-01

    Amorphous Fe(73.5)Si(13.5)B9Nb3Cu1 alloy was prepared by the chill block melt-spinning process and nanocrystalline Fe(73.5)Si(13.5)B9Nb3Cu1 alloy was obtained by annealing. The crystallization behaviors were analysed by DSC, XRD and TEM. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors in different annealed states were performed by linear polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results show that the crystallization of amorphous alloy occurs in the two steps. Some nanometer crystals appear when annealing in 550 degrees C and 600 degrees C, respectively with grain size 13 nm and 15 nm. The nanocrystalline alloy has a tendency to passivation and lower anodic current density than amorphous alloy. It indicates that nanocrystalline alloy has a higher corrosion resistance. Amorphous Fe(73.5)Si(13.5)B9Nb3Cu1 alloy consisted of only single semi-circle. When the alloy was annealed in 600 degrees C, its EIS consisted of two time constants, i.e., high frequency and low frequency capacitive loops. The charge transfer reaction resistances increases as annealing temperature rises. PMID:21137903

  18. Recent progress in high Bs Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, M.; Yoshizawa, Y.

    2011-02-01

    High saturation magnetic flux density (high-Bs) alloy has been developed in an Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy system. A nanocrystalline phase with an average grain size of about 20 nm is obtained by annealing Cu-substituted and/or Cu-and-Si-complex-substituted Fe-B amorphous alloys. The alloy exhibits low coercivity of less than 7 A m-1 and a high Bs of more than 1.8 T. The iron loss at 50 Hz and 1.6 T for a toroidal core made of Fe80.5Cu1.5Si4B14 nanocrystalline alloy is 0.46 W kg-1, which is about 2/3 of that of grain-oriented Si steel. Moreover, the iron loss at 10 kHz and 0.2 T for a wound core made of this alloy is 7.5 W kg-1, which is about 25% of that of non-grain-oriented Si steel and about 60% of that of an Fe-based amorphous alloy. In addition, the cut cores made of the alloy show good superimposed dc-current characteristics and appear promising in applications such as power choke coils (at the high-frequency region).

  19. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  20. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys upon annealing treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.H.; Chen, Y.Z.; Ma, X.Y.; Wang, H.T.; Liu, F.

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys exhibit an extraordinary thermal stability at elevated temperatures, which enables their potential applications in various fields. However, there remain concerns regarding the controlling stabilization mechanisms responsible for their thermal stability. In this work, two nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys containing 1 at.% Zr and 5 at.% Zr were annealed at various temperatures (T{sub ann}) up to 900 °C. Microstructural evolution of the alloys upon annealing was investigated by means of an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a 2-dimensional detector and transmission electron microscopy. Below 600 °C, microstructures of the two alloys consist of single nanocrystalline ferrite whose grain size is rather stable upon annealing treatments. Above 600 °C, accompanying the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase, an apparent grain coarsening of ferrite is observed, whereas the thermal stability of the alloys is still considerably higher than that of nanocrystalline pure Fe. Based on the experimental results, it was claimed that stabilization of the nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys should not be totally ascribed to the thermodynamic stabilization mechanism due to the reduction in grain boundary energy as suggested in earlier investigations [K.A. Darling et al., Scr. Mater. 59 (2008) 530 and K.A. Darling et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A527 (2010) 3572]; when T{sub ann} is higher than 600 °C, along with the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr, the effect of thermodynamic stabilization is weakened, the kinetic effect arising from Zener pinning of Fe{sub 3}Zr precipitates turns to be an important mechanism contributing to the stabilization of the nanoscale grain size. - Highlights: • We show clear evidence of precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase above 600 °C. • Stabilization of nanostructure is not solely controlled by thermodynamic mechanism. • Above 600 °C, Zener pinning plays an important role in stabilizing nanostructure.

  1. Characterization of Cu-Zn Alloy Nanocrystalline Powders Prepared by Wire Electrical Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qun, Wang; Hai-Bin, Yang; Wei-Li, Guo; Guang-Tian, Zou

    2000-02-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of Cu-Zn alloy in size ranging from 10 to 140 nm was prepared from α-Cu-Zn alloy wire containing 39.8 at.% Zn by an electrical explosion method. The particles are identified from x-ray diffraction as a mixture of the α, β, γ, and ɛ phases of Cu-Zn alloy. Most of the particles are hexagonal in shape, with only a small part being spherical and cubic. The composition of Zn in the explosion products varied from 6.9 to 45.2 at.% in different particles as determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. A possible mechanism for the formation of the alloy nanocrystalline powders is proposed, in which a redistribution process occurred caused by strong collision and diffusion between the two kinds of atoms during the powder formation.

  2. Deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline aluminum alloys and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byungmin

    Nanocrystalline or ultrafine-grained Al alloys are often produced by severe plastic deformation methods and exhibit remarkably enhanced strength and hardness compared to conventional coarse-grained materials, resulting in great potential for structural applications. To achieve nanocrystalline structure, grains were refined by cryomilling (mechanical milling at cryogenic temperature) pre-alloyed powders. Cryomilling provides capability for rapid grain refinement and synthesis of commercial quantities (30-40 kg). The cryomilled powder was primarily consolidated by hot or cold isostatic pressing in general. Secondary consolidation was achieved by extrusion or forging. Alternatively, quasi-isostatic forging was applied either as an initial consolidation or as a further deformation step. To improve insufficient ductility and toughness of nanocrystalline materials, an intelligent design with microstructural modification was introduced by generation of multiple size scales. A bimodal grain structure consisting of nanocrystalline grains and inclusions of coarse-grained material was produced by consolidation of blended powders. The resulting materials exhibited enhanced ductility compared to 100% nanocrystalline materials, with only moderate decreases in strength. A similar process was used to produce hybrid trimodal microstructures comprised of regions of nanocrystalline and coarse grains, as well as hard ceramic particles, providing super-high compressive strength. For cryomilled nanocrystalline Al alloys, effects of degassing temperature were investigated in terms of microstructural evolution. Higher degassing temperatures resulted in higher density and lower hydrogen content, which can reduce loss of toughness in consolidated materials. Different consolidation methods were compared with regard to the relation between the microstructures and mechanical properties. Quasi-isostatic forging led to greater and more isotropic fracture toughness, compared with other processing

  3. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-11-17

    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  4. Structural, thermal and magnetic investigations on immiscible Ag-Co nanocrystalline alloy with addition of Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Chabri, S.; Sardar, G.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2016-08-01

    50Ag-50Co (at%) and 40Ag-40Co-20Mn (at%) alloys prepared by ball milling up to 50 h and subsequent isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350-650 °C for 1 h has been investigated systematically. Mn promotes early formation of the nanostructures and solid solutions of the alloys by ball milling. In contrast, annealing at 350 °C of Ag-Co alloy resulted the dissolution of hcp Co. Annealing above 350 °C decomposes the metastable Ag-Co alloy into the polycrystalline and segregated Ag and fcc Co. Enthalpy of mixing of both the alloy has increased with increase in milling time. Both the nanocrystalline alloys prepared by ball milling and annealing have been revealed the ferromagnetic behavior. The most significant improvement of magnetic properties is yielded in as-milled Ag-Co-Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h.

  5. Influence of Weak External Magnetic Field on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Degmova, J.; Sitek, J.

    2010-07-13

    Nanoperm, Hitperm and Finamet amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were measured by Moessbauer spectrometry in a weak external magnetic field of 0.5 T. It was shown that the most sensitive parameters of Moessbauer spectra are the intensities of the 2nd and the 5th lines. Rather small changes were observed also in the case of internal magnetic field values. The spectrum of nanocrystalline Nanoperm showed the increase in A{sub 23} parameter (ratio of line intensities) from 2.4 to 3.7 and decrease of internal magnetic field from 20 to 19 T for amorphous subspectrum under the influence of magnetic field. Spectrum of nanocrystalline Finemet shown decrease in A{sub 23} parameter from 3.5 to 2.6 almost without a change in the internal magnetic field value. In the case of amorphous Nanoperm and Finemet samples, the changes are almost negligible. Hitperm alloy showed the highest sensitivity to the weak magnetic field, when the A{sub 23} parameter increased from 0.4 to 2.5 in the external magnetic fields. The A{sub 23} parameter of crystalline subspectrum increased from 2.7 to 3.8 and the value of internal magnetic field corresponding to amorphous subspectrum increased from 22 to 24 T. The behavior of nanocrystalline alloys under weak external magnetic field was analyzed within the three-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics in an assembly of single-domain particles.

  6. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  7. Atmospheric Corrosion of Different Fe-based Alloys in Nanocrystalline State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlačková, K.; Seberíni, M.

    2005-07-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys are interesting for their soft magnetic properties. Because these alloys are potentially applicable in outdoor-working components, their corrosion behaviour requires careful analysis. This work presents the results of the atmospheric corrosion tests in industrial and rural environments performed for up to 6 months. We compared the corrosion behaviour of two different compositions of NANOPERM-type alloys: Fe87.5Zr6.5B6 and Fe76Mo8Cu1B15 with classical FINEMET alloys of the nominal composition of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 type. The techniques of Mössbauer spectroscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to compare their corrosion rate, characterize corrosion products and inspect the structural changes of the nanocrystalline structure. It was found that the Si-containing FINEMET alloys are the most corrosion-resistant whereas worse corrosion properties were observed for molybdenum-containing Fe76Mo8Cu1B15 alloy. The corrosion product formed on the surface of NANOPERM-type alloys showed a needlelike morphology and a poor crystalline order and has been identified as lepidocrocite, γ-FeOOH.

  8. CORROSION OF AMORPHOUS AND NANOCRYSTALLINE Fe-BASED ALLOYS IN NaCl AND H2SO4 SOLUTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Yan, Biao; Pan, Deng

    2013-07-01

    Corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy was investigated and compared to its amorphous counterpart. Low-temperature crystallization occurred during the annealing of amorphous tapes was used to obtain a nanocrystalline structure. The influence of annealing condition on the structure and corrosion resistance of the alloy in NaCl and H2SO4 solutions was investigated. Based on the testing results, it was found that nanocrystalline tapes have higher corrosion resistance than amorphous counterpart and H2SO4 can promote the occurrence of corrosion compared with NaCl.

  9. Microstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic powder cores of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yapi; Yi, Yide; Shao, Wei; Shao, Yanfang

    2013-03-01

    With the development of modern ferromagnetic technology, soft magnetic powder cores (MPCs) of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys have been intensively studied for their excellent soft magnetic properties such as high flux density, low coercivity and reduced core loss due to amorphous state and nanocrystalline grains of 10-20 nm dispersed in a residual amorphous matrix. In this paper, the microstructures and soft magnetic properties, i.e., maximum magnetic induction Bm, effective permeability μe, DC-bias properties and volume power losses PCV of MPCs made from amorphous powder of gas atomization and nanocrystalline powder of pulverized melt-spun ribbon were investigated and also compared on the basis of the same level of μe. It is found that μe of both kinds of MPC keeps unchanged up to 1 MHz. The amorphous MPC has lower PCV at lower frequency range, while the nanocrystalline MPC has lower PCV at high frequency range instead. Also, the nanocrystalline MPC has better DC-bias property. Moreover, the DC magnetic properties and the changes of PCV of both MPCs with frequency and flux density are also studied. Furthermore, the electromagnetic characteristics, the microstructures and the mechanisms accounting for these phenomena of both MPCs are also discussed.

  10. Domain Structures and Anisotropy in Exchange-coupled [Co/Pd]-NiFe and [Co/Ni]-NiFe Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Chung, Sunjae; Mohseni, Majid; Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Åkerman, Johan; Guo, Feng; McMichael, Robert D.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2014-03-01

    Exchange-coupled multilayers [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed to use in spin-torque switching and oscillators devices with tilted fixed and free layer to improve their functional performance. We present an experimental study of the magnetization behavior of [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe multilayers measured using magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a function of the thickness of the top NiFe layer. We varied the thickness of the NiFe layer in [Co/Pd]5-NiFe (t), t = 0 - 80 nm and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe (t), t = 0.5 - 2.5 nm in order to study the interplay between perpendicular magnetization of the Co/Pd or Co/Ni multilayers and in-plane magnetization of the NiFe. Our magnetometry and FMR data suggest that the [Co/Ni]4/NiFe multilayer behaves like a homogeneous ferromagnetic film with anisotropy that reorients towards in-plane as the NiFe thickness increases, whereas the [Co/Pd]5/NiFe multilayer reveals more complex behavior in which the [Co/Pd] layer retains out-of-plane anisotropy while the magnetization of NiFe layer tilts in-plane with increasing thickness. MFM showed that domains with ~0.1 +/-m size were visible in [Co/Pd]-/NiFe with NiFe thickness of 20-80 nm. Multilayers were patterned into sub-100 nm dots using ion beam etching and their magnetization behavior are compared with unpatterned films.

  11. Giant magnetoresistance in evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu and Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltser, Alexander M.; Smith, Neil

    1996-06-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of electron-beam evaporated (Ni83Fe17/Cu)10 and (Ni66Fe16Co18/Cu)10 multilayers were studied as a function of the Cu spacer, magnetic layer and Ta buffer layer thicknesses, as well as annealing conditions. All multilayers exhibited very small giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect (<0.3%) in the as-deposited state, however, after magnetic post-annealing at 300-325 °C, GMR increased up to 4.5%-7%, depending on the multilayer type. In contrast to sputtered Ni-Fe-(Co)/Cu multilayers, GMR showed no oscillatory behavior as a function of Cu thickness. Similar to that reported in sputtered ``discontinuous'' Ni-Fe/Ag multilayers, it is believed that Cu diffusion along the Ni-Fe-(Co) grain boundaries creates intra-layer magnetic discontinuities in Ni-Fe-(Co) layers which promote inter-layer antiferromagnetic coupling. The evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu multilayers exhibited very low remanence, exceptionally low hysteresis, and quite uniform GMR properties through the thickness of the multilayer. All of these makes them potentially attractive for application to future magnetoresistive reproduce heads for very high areal density magnetic storage systems.

  12. Structural and microstructural characterizations of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized by mechanical alloying.

    PubMed

    Lala, S; Satpati, B; Kar, T; Pradhan, S K

    2013-07-01

    Single phase nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder has been synthesized by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric mixture of CaCO3 and CaHPO4 powders in open air at room temperature, for the first time, within 2 h of milling. Nanocrystalline hexagonal single crystals are obtained by sintering of 2h milled sample at 500 °C. Structural and microstructural properties of as-milled and sintered powders are revealed from both the X-ray line profile analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Shape and lattice strain of nanocrystalline HAp particles are found to be anisotropic in nature. Particle size of HAp powder remains almost invariant up to 10h of milling and there is no significant growth of nanocrystalline HAp particles after sintering at 500 °C for 3 h. Changes in lattice volume and some primary bond lengths of as-milled and sintered are critically measured, which indicate that lattice imperfections introduced into the HAp lattice during ball milling have been reduced partially after sintering the powder at elevated temperatures. We could achieve ~96.7% of theoretical density of HAp within 3h by sintering the pellet of nanocrystalline powder at a lower temperature of 1000 °C. Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the uni-axially pressed (6.86 MPa) pellet of nanocrystalline HAp is 4.5 GPa at 100 gm load which is close to the VHN of bulk HAp sintered at higher temperature. The strain-hardening index (n) of the sintered pellet is found to be >2, indicating a further increase in microhardness value at higher load. PMID:23623111

  13. Superior magnetic softness at elevated temperature of Si-rich Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui-min; Wang, Zhi; Jia, Yun-yun; Wen, Zhuan-ping; Wang, Bo-wen; Zhang, Tao

    2012-10-01

    An excellent high-temperature magnetic softness was observed in a Si-rich nanocrystalline Fe74.5Cu1Nb2Si17.5B5 alloy. The Curie temperatures of amorphous and crystal phases, TCA* and TCcry, for this alloy were detected to be 365 °C and 580 °C, respectively. For the 480 °C-annealed alloy, the initial permeability μi drops to nearly zero just above TCA*; however, for the 540 °C-annealed alloy, the μi of about 10 000 at f = 10 kHz has no perceivable decline in this temperature range and can hold up to more than 400 °C. Such a magnetic softness at elevated temperature is superior to that of Finemet-type Fe-based nanocrystalline alloys ever reported. The origin of the high temperature magnetic softness was interpreted by the enhancement effect of Curie temperature in residual amorphous matrix.

  14. Thermal Stability Comparison of Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Binary Alloy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. G.; Hattar, K.; Marshall, M. T.; Chookajorn, T.; Boyce, B. L.; Schuh, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest; yet, they have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dominated systems. Although traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloys can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdoch et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results show improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison with the Fe-Cu, and thermally-evolved microstructures that are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Thermal stability comparison of nanocrystalline Fe-based binary alloy pairs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Marshall, Michael Thomas; Chookajorn, Tonghai; Boyce, Brad L.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2016-02-01

    Here, the widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest, yet have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dense systems. While traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloy can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdock et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.%more » Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results indicate improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison to the Fe-Cu, and observed microstructures are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  16. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of two 50 Ni-Fe crystalline alloys and an iron-based amorphous alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wieserman, W.R.; Schwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The availability of experimental data that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency is almost non-existent. An experimental investigation was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz to determine the effects of temperature and frequency on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops of three different soft magnetic materials; an oriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, a nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, and an iron-based amorphous material (Metglas 2605SC). A comparison of these materials show that the nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy tends to have either the lowest or next lowest core loss for all temperatures and frequencies investigated.

  17. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of two 50 Ni-Fe crystalline alloys and an iron-based amorphous alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of experimental data that characterize the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency is almost nonexistent. An experimental investigation was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz to determine the effects of temperature and frequency on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops of three different soft magnetic materials: an oriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, a nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, and an iron-based amorphous material (Metglas 2605SC). A comparison of these materials shows that the nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy tends to have either the lowest or the next lowest core loss for all temperatures and frequencies investigated.

  18. Some industrial applications of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, V. K.; Maslov, V. V.; Kirilchuk, V. V.; Kochkubey, A. P.

    2008-02-01

    The example of successful realization of developments of Institute for Metal Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the field of nanotechnology is organization and successful, during 14 years, functioning of production of modern precision amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic cores in the frames of the small research-and-production enterprise MELTA Ltd. The most important, from the practical standpoint, high heat-time stability of initial magnetic permeability of cores is provided by using new methods of final treatment of cores, minimization of their package influence on characteristics of the process using liquid impregnation heat-resistant materials and new polymeric coatings. The most effective fields of industrial use of MELTA® magnetic cores are ground leakage current sensors, current measuring transformers (converters), power medium frequency, broadband and pulse small-size transformers, filter chokes, reactors, storage transformers and ferroprobes.

  19. Corrosion Properties of Ultrasonic Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline and Amorphous Patterned Ni-W Alloy Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yuhong; Yan, Biao; Mo, Fan

    2013-07-01

    Ni-W alloy coating is a kind of promising environmental friendly alloy to substitute for hard chrome plating, for its excellent functional properties. Their properties depend mainly on the structure and defect, such as cracks. The crack is catastrophe to both physical and chemical properties and crystalline state also affect their properties and application. In this work, nanocrystalline nickel tungsten alloy (nc Ni-W) coating, amorphous nickel tungsten alloy (a Ni-W) coating and crystalline nickel tungsten alloy (c Ni-W) coating were prepared under ultrasonic direct current (UDC) electroplating. The aim of the present study is to achieve structure control and high surface quality of Ni-W alloy coatings, and investigate corrosion properties of these coatings to explain the contradiction of better corrosion resistance of nc Ni-W coating than a Ni-W coating in experiment and theory. Thus X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) were used to examine the composition, crystalline state, microstructures and defects of the samples. Moreover, potentiodynamic polarization test was used to study the corrosion behavior of electroplated nickel-tungsten alloys.

  20. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Alloys by Solute Additions and A Thermodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mostafa

    Nanocrystalline alloys show superior properties due to their exceptional microstructure. Thermal stability of these materials is a critical aspect. It is well known that grain boundaries in nanocrystalline microstructures cause a significant increase in the total free energy of the system. A driving force provided to reduce this excess free energy can cause grain growth. The presence of a solute addition within a nanocrystalline alloy can lead to the thermal stability. Kinetic and thermodynamic stabilization are the two basic mechanisms with which stability of a nanoscale grain size can be achieved at high temperatures. The basis of this thesis is to study the effect of solute addition on thermal stability of nanocrystalline alloys. The objective is to determine the effect of Zr addition on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed nanocrysatillne Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni alloys. In Fe-Cr-Zr alloy system, nanoscale grain size stabilization was maintained up to 900 °C by adding 2 at% Zr. Kinetic pinning by intermetallic particles in the nanoscale range was identified as a primary mechanism of thermal stabilization. In addition to the grain size strengthening, intermetallic particles also contribute to strengthening mechanisms. The analysis of microhardness, XRD data, and measured grain sizes from TEM micrographs suggested that both thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms are possible mechanisms. It was found that alpha → gamma phase transformation in Fe-Cr-Zr system does not influence the grain size stabilization. In the Fe-Ni-Zr alloy system, it was shown that the grain growth in Fe-8Ni-1Zr alloy is much less than that of pure Fe and Fe-8Ni alloy at elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the ternary Fe-8Ni-1Zr alloy remains in the nanoscale range up to 700 °C. Using an in-situ TEM study, it was determined that drastic grain growth occurs when the alpha → gamma phase transformation occurs. Accordingly, there can be a synergistic relationship between grain growth

  1. Anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe cores integrated into microinductors for high-frequency dc-dc power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooncheol; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Jung-Kwun; Herrault, Florian; Allen, Mark G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a rectangular, anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core that possesses a magnetically hard axis in the long geometric axis direction. Previously, we have developed nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300-1000 nm thick metallic alloys (i.e. Ni80Fe20 or Co44Ni37Fe19) based on sequential electrodeposition, demonstrating suppressed eddy-current losses at MHz frequencies. In this work, magnetic anisotropy was induced to the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores by applying an external magnetic field (50-100 mT) during CoNiFe film electrodeposition. The fabricated cores comprised tens to hundreds of layers of 500-1000 nm thick CoNiFe laminations that have the hard-axis magnetic property. Packaged in a 22-turn solenoid test inductor, the anisotropic core showed 10% increased effective permeability and 25% reduced core power losses at MHz operation frequency, compared to an isotropic core of the identical geometry. Operating the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core in a step-down dc-dc converter (15 V input to 5 V output) demonstrated 81% converter efficiency at a switching frequency of 1.1 MHz and output power of 6.5 W. A solenoid microinductor with microfabricated windings integrated with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core was fabricated, demonstrating a constant inductance of 600 nH up to 10 MHz and peak quality factor exceeding 20 at 4 MHz. The performance of the microinductor with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core is compared with other previously reported microinductors.

  2. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe85.7Si0.5B9.5P3.5Cu0.8)99C1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (Hc)~4.5 A/m, high Bs~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60-100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors

  3. Magnetocaloric response of amorphous and nanocrystalline Cr-containing Vitroperm-type alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Ramírez, L. M.; Blázquez, J. S.; Franco, V.; Conde, A.; Marsilius, M.; Budinsky, V.; Herzer, G.

    2016-07-01

    The broad compositional range in which transition metal (TM) based amorphous alloys can be obtained, yields an easily tunable magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in a wide temperature range. In some TM-based alloys, anomalous behaviors are reported, as a non-monotonous trend with magnetic moment (e.g. FeZrB alloys). Moreover, in certain Cr-containing Vitroperm alloys anomalously high values of the magnetic entropy change were published. In this work, a systematic study on MCE response of Cr-containing amorphous alloys of composition Fe74-xCrxCu1Nb3Si15.5B6.5 (with x=2, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 20) has been performed in a broad Curie temperature range from 100 K to 550 K. Curie temperature and magnetic entropy change peak of the amorphous alloys decrease with the increase of Cr content at rates of -25.6 K/at% Cr and -54 mJ kg-1 K-1/at% Cr, respectively, following a linear trend with the magnetic moment in both cases. The presence of nanocrystalline phases has been considered as a possible cause in order to explain the anomalies. The samples were nanocrystallized in different stages, however, the magnetocaloric response decreases as crystallization progresses due to the large separation of the Curie temperatures of the two phases.

  4. Comparison of high frequency, high temperature core loss and B-H loop characteristics of an 80 Ni-Fe crystalline alloy and two iron-based amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, William R.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.

    1991-01-01

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H characteristics of a nickel-iron crystalline magnetic alloy (Supermalloy) and two iron-based amorphous magnetic materials (Metglas 2605S-3A and Metglas 2605SC) over the frequency range of 1-50 kHz and temperature range of 23-300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The effects of maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined. The Supermalloy and Metglass 2605S-3A and 2605SC data are used to compare the core loss of transformers with identical kVA and voltage ratings.

  5. Nanocrystalline CuNi alloys: improvement of mechanical properties and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogues, Josep; Varea, A.; Pellicer, E.; Sivaraman, K. M.; Pane, S.; Nelson, B. J.; Surinach, S.; Baro, M. D.; Sort, J.

    2014-03-01

    Nanocrystalline metallic films are known to benefit from novel and enhanced physical and chemical properties. In spite of these outstanding properties, nanocrystalline metals typically show relatively poor thermal stability which leads to deterioration of the properties due to grain coarsening. We have studied nanocrystalline Cu1-xNix (0.56 < x < 1) thin films (3 μm-thick) electrodeposited galvanostatically onto Cu/Ti/Si (100) substrates. CuNi thin films exhibit large values of hardness (6.15 < H < 7.21 GPa), which can be tailored by varying the composition. However, pure Ni films (x = 1) suffer deterioration of their mechanical and magnetic properties after annealing during 3 h at relatively low temperatures (TANN > 475 K) due to significant grain growth. Interestingly, alloying Ni with Cu clearly improves the thermal stability of the material because grain coarsening is delayed due to segregation of a Cu-rich phase at grain boundaries, thus preserving both the mechanical and magnetic properties up to higher TANN.

  6. Electrodeposited Nanolaminated CoNiFe Cores for Ultracompact DC-DC Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Kim, M; Herrault, F; Park, JY; Allen, MG

    2015-09-01

    Laminated metallic alloy cores (i.e., alternating layers of thin film metallic alloy and insulating material) of appropriate lamination thickness enable suppression of eddy current losses at high frequencies. Magnetic cores comprised of many such laminations yield substantial overall magnetic volume, thereby enabling high-power operation. Previously, we reported nanolaminated permalloy (Ni-80 Fe-20) cores based on a sequential electrodeposition technique, demonstrating negligible eddy current losses at peak flux densities up to 0.5 T and operating at megahertz frequencies. This paper demonstrates improved performance of nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300-500-nm-thick CoNiFe films that exhibit superior magnetic properties (e.g., higher saturation flux density and lower coercivity) than permalloy. Nanolaminated CoNiFe cores can be operated up to a peak flux density of 0.9 T, demonstrating improved power handling capacity and exhibiting 30% reduced volumetric core loss, attributed to lowered hysteresis losses compared to the nanolaminated permalloy core of the same geometry. Operating these cores in a buck dc-dc power converter at a switching frequency of 1 MHz, the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores achieved a conversion efficiency exceeding 90% at output power levels up to 7 W, compared to an achieved permalloy core conversion efficiency below 86% at 6 W.

  7. The lattice structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. D.; Lu, K.; Ding, B. Z.; Hu, Z. Q.; Zhu, J.; Jiang, J.

    1994-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys with different grain sizes were synthesized by crystallization of an amorphous alloy. Two nanophases, α-Fe(Se) and Fe 2B, were noticed in all samples. XRD results reveal that the lattice constant of the α-Fe(Si) phase increases; the a-axis is elongated and the c-axis is shortened in the Fe 2B phase upon reducing the grain size. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the changes in the lattice parameters were attributed to the solution of vacancies in the above two phases. Owing to the lattice distortion of the α-Fe(Si) and Fe 2B phases, the crystallite with small size is found to exhibit a disordered character to some extent, which is manifested by large values of the half linewidth (HLW) and isomer shift (IS) of various Fe configurations in the Mössbauer parameters.

  8. Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite/Si Coating by Mechanical Alloying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hannora, Ahmed E.; Mukasyan, Alexander S.; Mansurov, Zulkhair A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) films on titanium substrates by using mechanical alloying (MA) technique has been developed. However, it was shown that one-hour heat treatment at 800°C of such mechanically coated HA layer leads to partial transformation of desired HA phase to beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) phase. It appears that the grain boundary and interface defects formed during MA promote this transformation. It was discovered that doping HA by silicon results in hindering this phase transformation process. The Si-doped HA does not show phase transition to β-TCP or decomposition after heat treatment even at 900°C. PMID:22312324

  9. Biocompatible nanocrystalline natural bonelike carbonated hydroxyapatite synthesized by mechanical alloying in a record minimum time.

    PubMed

    Lala, S; Brahmachari, S; Das, P K; Das, D; Kar, T; Pradhan, S K

    2014-09-01

    Single phase nanocrystalline biocompatible A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp) powder has been synthesized by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric mixture of CaCO3 and CaHPO4.2H2O powders in open air at room temperature within 2h of milling. The A-type carbonation in HAp is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Structural and microstructure parameters of as-milled powders are obtained from both Rietveld's powder structure refinement analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Size and lattice strain of nanocrystalline HAp particles are found to be anisotropic in nature. Mechanical alloying causes amorphization of a part of crystalline A-cHAp which is analogous to native bone mineral. Some primary bond lengths of as-milled samples are critically measured. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay test reveals high percentage of cell viability and hence confirms the biocompatibility of the sample. The overall results indicate that the processed A-cHAp has a chemical composition very close to that of biological apatite. PMID:25063165

  10. Magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in multiferroic heterostructures with different thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Yao

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric(ME) coupling characteristics in multiferroic heterostructures with different thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy has been investigated at low frequency. The ME response with obvious hysteresis, self-biased and dual-peak phenomenon is observed for multiferroic heterostructures, which results from strong magnetic interactions between two ferromagnetic materials with different magnetic properties, magnetostrictions and optimum bias magnetic fields Hdc,opti. The proposed multiferroic heterostructures not only enhance ME coupling significantly, but also broaden dc magnetic bias operating range and overcomes the limitations of narrow bias range. By optimizing the thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy Tf, a significantly zero-biased ME voltage coefficient(MEVC) of 14.8mV/Oe (185 mV/cmṡ Oe) at Tf = 0.09 mm can be obtained, which is about 10.8 times as large as that of traditional PZT/Terfenol-D composite with a weak ME coupling at zero bias Hdc,zero. Furthermore, when Tf increases from 0.03 mm to 0.18 mm, the maximum MEVC increases nearly linearly with the increased Tf at Hdc,opti. Additionally, the experimental results demonstrate the ME response for multiferroic heterostructures spreads over a wide magnetic dc bias operating range. The excellent ME performance provides a promising and practicable application for both highly sensitive magnetic field sensors without bias and ME energy harvesters.

  11. Phase transformation during mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe–32Mn–6Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Rasool; Shamsipoor, Ali; Ghaffari, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Morteza; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2013-10-15

    Mechano-synthesis of Fe–32Mn–6Si alloy by mechanical alloying of the elemental powder mixtures was evaluated by running the ball milling process under an inert argon gas atmosphere. In order to characterize the as-milled powders, powder sampling was performed at predetermined intervals from 0.5 to 192 h. X-ray florescence analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and high resolution transmission electron microscope were utilized to investigate the chemical composition, structural evolution, morphological changes, and microstructure of the as-milled powders, respectively. According to the results, the nanocrystalline Fe–Mn–Si alloys were completely synthesized after 48 h of milling. Moreover, the formation of a considerable amount of amorphous phase during the milling process was indicated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy image and its selected area diffraction pattern. It was found that the α-to-γ and subsequently the amorphous-to-crystalline (especially martensite) phase transformation occurred by milling development. - Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe–32Mn–6Si shape memory alloys in the powder form: amorphous phase formation, α-to-γ phase transformation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, and martensite phase formation during the process. Highlights: • During MA, the α-to-γ phase transformation and amorphization occurred. • Mechano-crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at sufficient milling time. • The formation of high amount of ε-martensite was evidenced at high milling times. • The platelet, spherical, and then irregular particle shapes was extended by MA. • By MA, the particles size was increased, then reduced, and afterward re-increased.

  12. Characterization of Magnetic NiFe Nanoparticles with Controlled Bimetallic Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Chi, Yanxiu; Shan, Shiyao; Yin, Jun; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-02-25

    The exploration of the magnetic properties of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles for various technological applications requires the ability to control the morphology, composition, and surface properties. In this report, we describe new findings of an investigation of the morphology and composition of NiFe alloy nanoparticles synthesized under controlled conditions. The controllability over the bimetallic composition has been demonstrated by the observation of an approximate linear relationship between the composition in the nanoparticles and in the synthetic feeding. The morphology of the NiFe nanoparticles is consistent with an fcc-type alloy, with the lattice strain increasing linearly with the iron content in the nanoparticles. The alloy nanoparticles exhibit remarkable resistance to air oxidation in comparison with Ni or Fe particles. The thermal stability and the magnetic properties of the as-synthesized alloy nanoparticles are shown to depend on the composition. The alloy nanoparticles have also be sown to display low saturation magnetization and coercivity values in comparison with the Ni nanoparticles, in line with the superparamagnetic characteristic. These findings have important implications for the design of stable and controllable magnetic nanoparticles for various technological applications.

  13. Development of FeSiBNbCu Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys with High B s and Good Manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fangpei; He, Aina; Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetic flux density (B s) and good manufacturability, the effect of the Nb content on the thermal stability, microstructural evolution and soft magnetic properties of Fe78-x Si13B8Nb x Cu1 (x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) alloys were investigated. It is found that proper Nb addition is effective in widening the optimum annealing temperature range and refining the α-Fe grain in addition to enhancing the soft magnetic properties. For the representative Fe76 Si13B8Nb2Cu1 alloy, the effective annealing time can be over 60 min in the optimal temperature range of 500-600°C. FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with desirable soft magnetic properties including high B s of 1.39 T, low coercivity (H c) of 1.5 A/m and high effective permeability (μ e) of 21,500 at 1 kHz have been developed. The enhanced soft magnetic performance and manufacturability of the FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline alloys are attributed to the high activated energy for the precipitation of α-Fe(Si) and the second phase. These alloys with excellent performance have promising applications in electromagnetic fields like inductors.

  14. Investigating the Thermal and Phase Stability of Nanocrystalline Ni-W Produced by Electrodeposition, Sputtering, and Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Christopher Jonathan

    The development of nanocrystalline materials has been increasingly pursued over the last few decades. They have been shown to exhibit superior properties compared to their coarse-grain counterparts, and thus present a tremendous opportunity to revolutionize the performance of nanoscale devices or bulk structural materials. However, nanocrystalline materials are highly prone to grain growth, and if the nanocrystalline grains coarsen, the beneficial properties are lost. There is a strong effort to determine the most effective thermal stability mechanisms to avoid grain growth, but the physical nature of nanocrystalline grain growth is still unclear due to a lack of detailed understanding of nanocrystalline microstructures. Furthermore, the influence of contamination has scarcely been explored with advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques, nor has there been a direct comparison of alloys fabricated with different bulk processes. Therefore, this research has applied aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to characterize nanocrystalline Ni-W on the atomic scale and elucidate the physical grain growth behavior. Three primary objectives were pursued: (1) explore the thermal stability mechanisms of nanocrystalline Ni-W, (2) evaluate the phase stability of Ni-W and link any findings to grain growth behavior, and (3) compare the influences of bulk fabrication processing, including electrodeposition, DC magnetron sputtering, and mechanical alloying, on the thermal stability and phase stability of Ni-W. Several thermal stability mechanisms were identified throughout the course of this research. First and foremost, W-segregation was scarcely observed to grain boundaries, and it is unclear if W-segregation improves thermal stability contrary to most reports in the 2 literature. Long-range Ni4W chemical ordering was observed in alloys with more than 20 at.% W, and it is likely Ni4W domains reduce grain boundary mobility. In addition, lattice

  15. Synthesis and characterization of the NiFe2O4/Ni3Fe nanocomposite powder and compacts obtained by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinca, T. F.; Neamţu, B. V.; Popa, F.; Tarţa, V. F.; Pascuta, P.; Takacs, A. F.; Chicinaş, I.

    2013-11-01

    Nanocomposite powder and compacts of NiFe2O4/Ni3Fe type were synthesized using mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The samples have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particles size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The nanocomposite powder was obtained by mechanical milling in a high planetary ball mill of nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 and nanocrystalline Ni3Fe powders. The nanocomposite powder consists from Ni3Fe particles covered at the surface with a layer of NiFe2O4 fine particles and NiFe2O4 particles. The nanocomposite particles have the median diameter d50 of 1.6 μm. The sintering in 400-600 °C temperature range preserve the nanocomposite phases but lead to a high porosity. The nanocomposite compacts consist in Ni3Fe clusters surrounded by NiFe2O4. A sintering temperature of 800 °C leads to a good density for the nanocomposite compacts and to the new phase formation. The new phase is a wustite type (Fe1-xNixO) and is formed at the metal/ceramic interface. A change in the Ni/Fe ratio, in the spinel structure, was evidenced during sintering. Sintering at a temperature of 800 °C, leads to the formation of a mixed iron-nickel ferrite with a very small amount of nickel, Ni1-xFexFe2O4.

  16. Substrate dependent ultrafast dynamics in thin NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, C. A. C.; Azevedo, A.; Acioli, L. H.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the ultrafast electronic response of thin NiFe films by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The experiments were performed on films with varying thicknesses, substrates, and pump fluences. It has been observed that for high excitation densities the electron cooling time depends strongly on the nature of the underlying substrate and we attribute our results to transport of hot carriers out of the excited region. In particular, we have observed that for NiFe over NiO, carrier transport should be less important than for NiFe over Si.

  17. Characterization of Nanocrystalline Nickel-Cobalt Alloys Synthesized by Direct and Pulse Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Saidi, A.; Ahmadian, M.; Raeissi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys are electrodeposited by direct (DC) and pulse current (PC) in an electrolyte solution which consisted of nickel sulfate, cobalt sulfate and boric acid. Electrodeposition parameters including current density, electrolyte pH and pulse times in a single electrolyte bath were changed. XRD pattern showed that the structure of the alloys depends on Co content and the synthesis parameter and changed from single phase structure (fcc) to dual phase structure (fcc + hcp). The Co content in the deposited alloys declined from 70 at.% to 50 at.% by increasing in direct current from 70 mA/cm2 to 115 mA/cm2 and also decreased from 75 at.% to 33 at.% with decrease in pH values from 4 to 2. By applying PC the Co content changed from 76 at.% to 41 at.%. Magnetic properties measurements showed the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased with increasing the Co content. There was no significant effect on coercivity values (Hc) with change in Co content and about 40 Oe was obtained for all samples. The grain size of deposited alloys obtained between 24-58 nm and 15-21 nm by applying DC and PC, respectively.

  18. Magnetic properties and structure of nanocrystalline FINEMET alloys with various iron contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushnikov, N. V.; Potapov, A. P.; Shishkin, D. A.; Protasov, A. V.; Golovnya, O. A.; Shchegoleva, N. N.; Gaviko, V. S.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.; Bykov, V. A.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Belozerov, V. Ya.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the composition and annealing temperature on the structure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Mo-Si-B alloys has been studied. An increase in the iron content compared to that in the traditional FINEMET alloy is shown to allow one to increase the magnetic induction by 18% at a coercive force of no less than 6 A/m. It has been found that, along with the amorphous phase, rapidly quenched ribbons of alloys enriched in Fe contain crystalline α-Fe-based phase precipitates, the (100) crystallographic directions of which are perpendicular to the ribbon plane. Thermomagnetic analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the temperatures of structural and magnetic phase transformations of the alloys with different iron contents. It was found that the separation of amorphous phase into areas of different compositions precedes the precipitation of nano-sized soft magnetic Fe-Si phase grains in the rapidly quenched iron-enriched ribbons.

  19. Magnetic dead layers in NiFe/Ta and NiFe/Si/diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Qunwen; Han, Hua; Mao, Ming; Hiner, Craig; Ryan, Francis

    2000-05-01

    NiFe, Ta films were fabricated by ion beam deposition (IBD) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by ion beam chemical vapor deposition (IB-CVD) and filtered cathodic arc (FCA) process. Magnetic dead layers at interfaces of Ta/NiFe/Tn and NiFe/Si/DLC trilayer films were determined by characterizing magnetic flux loss using a B-H loop tracer. Dependence of magnetic dead layer on ion beam voltage and thicknesses of Ta, DLC, and Si layers was investigated. It is found that the thickness of magnetic dead layer increases monotonously with increasing ion beam voltage for Ta and DLC film depositions. The magnetic dead layer of 4-6 Å thick forms at Ta/NiFe and NiFe/Ta interfaces at an ion beam voltage of 1000 V, which can be attributed to the atomic intermixing of incoming energetic adatoms with atoms of grown films at interfaces. Direct ion beam deposition of the DLC film in NiFe/Si/DLC layered structure gives rise to a magnetic thickness loss of 12-18 Å. Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional observations have confirmed the formation of an amorphous-like interfacial layer, as a result of carbonization or silicidation of NiFe at interfaces of the trilayer film.

  20. Thermal Stabilization and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Iron-Nickel-Zirconium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotan, Hasan

    Ultrafine grained and nanostructured materials are promising for structural applications because of the high strength compared to coarse grained counterparts. However, their widespread application is limited by an inherently high driving force for thermally induced grain growth, even at low temperatures. Accordingly, the understanding of and control over grain growth in nanoscale materials is of great technological and scientific importance as many physical properties (i.e. mechanical properties) are functions of the average grain size and the grain size distribution within the microstructure. Here, we investigate the microstructural evolution and grain growth in Fe-Ni alloys with Zr addition and differentiate the stabilization mechanisms acting on grain boundaries. Fe-Ni alloys are chosen for stability investigations since they are important for understanding the behavior of many steels and other ferrous alloys. Zirconium is proven to be an effective grain size stabilizer in pure Fe and Fe-base systems. In this study, nanocrystalline alloys were prepared by high energy ball milling. In situ and ex situ experiments were utilized to directly follow grain growth and microstructural evolution as a function of temperature and composition. The information obtained from these experiments enables the real time observation of microstructural evolution and phase transformation and provides a unique view of dynamic reactions as they occur. The knowledge of the thermal stability will exploit the potential high temperature applications and the consolidation conditions (i.e. temperature and pressure) to obtain high dense materials for advanced mechanical tests. Our investigations reveal that the grain growth of Fe-Ni alloys is not affected by Ni content but strongly inhibited by the addition of 1 at% Zr up to about 700 °C. The microstructural stability is lost due to the bcc-to-fcc transformation (occurring at 700°C) by the sudden appearance of abnormally grown fcc grains

  1. Toward CH4 dissociation and C diffusion during Ni/Fe-catalyzed carbon nanofiber growth: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chen; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Chen, De; Cheng, Hong-Ye; Zhu, Yi-An

    2011-04-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate CH4 dissociation and C diffusion during the Ni/Fe-catalyzed growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Two bulk models with different Ni to Fe molar ratios (1:1 and 2:1) are constructed, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) simulations are conducted to evaluate their reliability. With the comparison between the calculated and experimental XRD patterns, these models are found to be well suited to reproduce the crystalline structures of Ni/Fe bulk alloys. The calculations indicate the binding of the C1 derivatives to the Ni/Fe closest-packed surfaces is strengthened compared to that on Ni(111), arising from the upshift of the weighted d-band centers of catalyst surfaces. Then, the transition states for the four successive dehydrogenation steps in CH4 dissociation are located using the dimer method. It is found that the energy barriers for the first three steps are rather close on the alloyed Ni/Fe and Ni surfaces, while the activation energy for CH dissociation is substantially lowered with the introduction of Fe. The dissolution of the generated C from the surface into the bulk of the Ni/Fe alloys is thermodynamically favorable, and the diffusion of C through catalyst particles is hindered by the Fe component. With the combination of density functional theory calculations and kinetic analysis, the C concentration in catalyst particles is predicted to increase with the Fe content. Meanwhile, other experimental conditions, such as the composition of carbon-containing gases, feedstock partial pressure, and reaction temperature, are also found to play a key role in determining the C concentration in bulk metal, and hence the microstructures of generated CNFs.

  2. Spark plasma sintering of a nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga, Alejandro; Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2006-04-01

    The microstructure and aging behavior of a nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc alloy was studied. The nanocrystalline powders were produced by milling at liquid nitrogen temperature and then consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure after SPS consisted of a bimodal aluminum grain structure (coarse-grained and fine-grained regions), along with Al9FeNi and Al2CuMg particles dispersed throughout. The microstructure observed in the as-consolidated sample is rationalized on the basis of high current densities that are generated during sintering. Solution treatment and aging of the SPS Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc sample resulted in softening instead of hardening. This observation can be explained by the reduced amount of Cu, Mg, and Si in solid solution available to form S' Al2CuMg due to the precipitation of Al7FeCu2 and Si-rich particles, and by the fact that rodlike S' Al2CuMg particles could only precipitate out in the coarse-grained regions, greatly decreasing their influence on the hardness. This lack of precipitation in the fine-grained region is argued to represent a new physical observation and is rationalized on the basis of physical and thermodynamic effects. The nanocrystalline SPS Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc sample was also extremely thermally stable, retaining a fine-grained structure even after solution treatment at 530°C for 5 h. The observed thermal stability is rationalized on the basis of solute drag and Zener pinning caused by the impurities introduced during the cryomilling process.

  3. Corrosive electrochemical behavior of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-P-Si-Mn-V alloys in a moist SO2-contaminated atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, V. V.; Korneev, V. P.; Anosova, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline soft magnetic Finemet alloys, which are currently used in power electrical engineering and electrical equipment, are alloyed with expensive and scarce metals (Nb, Cu). We searched for low-cost soft magnetic alloys that are comparable with Finemets in the corrosion resistance.

  4. Formation of Nanocrystalline Surface of Cu-Sn Alloy Foam Electrochemically Produced for Li-Ion Battery Electrode.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bora; Kim, Sunjung

    2015-10-01

    Cu-Sn alloy foam is a promising electrode material for Li-ion batteries. In this study, Cu-Sn alloy foam was produced by diffusion-limited electrodeposition in alkaline electrolyte using polyurethane (PU) foam template. Our major concern is to form Cu-Sn alloy foam with nanocrystalline surface morphology by adjusting electrodeposition conditions such as deposition potential and metal ion concentration. Cu-Sn alloy layers comprising of nanoclusters such as nanospheres, nanoellipsoids, and nanoflakes were created depending on electrodeposition conditions. Larger surface area of nanocluster-interconnected Cu-Sn alloy layer was created when both Sn concentration and negative deposition potential were higher. After decomposing PU template thermally, Cu-Sn alloy foam of Cu, Cu6Sn5, and Cu3Sn phases was finally produced. PMID:26726491

  5. High-Temperature Stability and Grain Boundary Complexion Formation in a Nanocrystalline Cu-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Cu-3 at.% Zr powders with ~20 nm average grain size were created with mechanical alloying and their thermal stability was studied from 550-950°C. Annealing drove Zr segregation to the grain boundaries, which led to the formation of amorphous intergranular complexions at higher temperatures. Grain growth was retarded significantly, with 1 week of annealing at 950°C, or 98% of the solidus temperature, only leading to coarsening of the average grain size to 54 nm. The enhanced thermal stability can be connected to both a reduction in grain boundary energy with doping as well as the precipitation of ZrC particles. High mechanical strength is retained even after these aggressive heat treatments, showing that complexion engineering may be a viable path toward the fabrication of bulk nanostructured materials with excellent properties.

  6. Comparative Study of Thermal Stability of NiFe and NiFeTa Thin Films Grown by Cosputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal behavior of dynamic permeability spectra for compositionally graded NiFeTa and uniform-composition NiFe thin films has been carried out. We found that the resonance frequency of the compositionally graded NiFeTa film increased with increasing temperature, while it decreased for the case of the uniform-composition NiFe thin film. This finding unambiguously suggests that the compositional gradient of the film is the only reason for the increase of the magnetic anisotropy with temperature due to its stress-induced origin, while the cosputtering technique does not play any role in this peculiar behavior. The temperature dependence of the frequency linewidth is also presented and discussed.

  7. Anti-wear properties of Cr C and Ni Co alloy coatings as substitutes for conventional nanocrystalline Cr coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhang, Junyan

    2008-09-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Co, amorphous Cr-C alloy and nanocrystalline Cr-C coatings were electrodeposited from 'environmentally acceptable' electrolytes as potential substitutes for conventional nanocrystalline Cr coatings electrodeposited from noxious hexavalent chromium. The structure, morphology and hardness of coatings are investigated using a transmission electron microscope, a scanning electronic microscope and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. Anti-wear properties are tested on a pin-on-plate vibrant wear tester. The correlation between the wear resistance, hardness, brittleness and the lubricated state is investigated. The results show that the wear behaviour of specimens significantly depends on their lubricated state, hardness and brittleness. Under the lubricated sliding condition, abrasive wear is the primary wear mechanism for all specimens. With respect to the abrasive wear mechanism, both the elastic and plastic deformations play important roles during the lubricated sliding process. Thus, the amorphous and nanocrystalline Cr-C alloy coatings, with both high brittleness and high hardness, exhibit a lower wear rate than the conventional Cr and Ni-Co coatings. On the other hand, under the dry sliding condition, the annealed Ni-Co coating, with an excellent compromise between high hardness and toughness, exhibits an abrasive wear mechanism and a relatively low wear rate; in contrast, the brittle Cr-matrix coatings exhibit a severe fatigue/delamination wear mechanism and high wear rate.

  8. The generation of wear-resistant antimicrobial stainless steel surfaces by active screen plasma alloying with N and nanocrystalline Ag.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yangchun; Li, Xiaoying; Sammons, Rachel; Dong, Hanshan

    2010-04-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), a large proportion of which are derived from contact transmission, represent a massive global challenge. In this study a novel active screen plasma (ASP) alloying technology has been developed to generate highly durable antimicrobial surfaces by combining a wear-resistant S-phase with nanocrystalline silver for medical grade stainless steel. The phase constituent, microstructure, composition and surface roughness of the alloyed surfaces were fully characterized, and the surface hardness, wear resistance and antimicrobial efficiency of the treated surfaces were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the surface hardness and sliding wear resistance of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel can be effectively improved by the ASP alloying treatment; furthermore, the Ag alloyed S-phase can achieve 93% reduction in Escherichia coli (E. coli) after 6 h contact time. Therefore, the novel ASP alloying treatment can not only improve wear resistance but also confer antibacterial activity to stainless steel surfaces. PMID:20119942

  9. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide and glucose biosensor based on NiFe2/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dong; Yin, Longwei; Ma, Jingyun; Guo, Enyan; Li, Qun; Li, Zhaoqiang; Liu, Kegao

    2015-01-21

    Nanocomposites of NiFex embedded in ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) (x = 0, 1, 2) were prepared by a wet impregnation and hydrogen reduction process and were used to construct electrochemical biosensors for the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or glucose. The NiFe2/OMC nanocomposites were demonstrated to have a large surface area, suitable mesoporous channels, many edge-plane-like defective sites, and a good distribution of alloyed nanoparticles. The NiFe2/OMC and Nafion modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of H2O2 as well. By utilizing it as a bioplatform, GOx (glucose oxidase) cross-linked with Nafion was immobilized on the surface of the electrode for the construction of an amperometric glucose biosensor. Our results indicated that the amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor (NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE) showed good analytical performances in term of a high sensitivity of 4.29 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), wide linearity from 6.2 to 42,710 μM and a low detection limit of 0.24 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3). This biosensor exhibited excellent selectivity, high stability and negligible interference for the detection of H2O2. In addition, the immobilized enzyme on NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE, retaining its bioactivity, exhibited a reversible two-proton and two-electron transfer reaction, a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate and an effective Michaelis-Menten constant (K) (3.18 mM). The GOx + NiFe2/OMC + Nafion + GCE could be used to detect glucose based on the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GOx and exhibited a wide detection range of 48.6-12,500 μM with a high sensitivity of 6.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 2.7 μM (S/N = 3). The enzymic biosensor maintained a high selectivity and stability features, and shows great promise for application in the detection of glucose. PMID:25429370

  10. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Talik, E.; Lipińska, L.; Zajdel, P.; Załóg, A.; Michalska, M.; Guzik, A.

    2013-10-15

    The process of sol–gel synthesis was applied to obtain LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. The samples were characterized by following methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SQUID magnetometry. XPS was used to examine the chemical composition and oxidation state of manganese, in particular the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio from the deconvolution of the complex Mn3p lines. The size of the grains and crystallites were independently obtained from SEM images and XRD patterns, respectively. In all the cases a critical interplay of electronic (Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio), structural (unit cell volume) and magnetic properties was observed depending on the synthesis process. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of Li{sub 0.79}Ni{sub 0.41}Mn{sub 1.35}O{sub 4.45} sample. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} obtained by sol–gel method. • XRD method was used to determine the crystal structure. • SEM/EDX imaging have been done. • XPS electronic structure was examined and discussed. • Experimental effective magnetic moment and the calculated one were compared.

  11. Microstructure of the Al-La-Ni-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil’ev, A. L.; Ivanova, A. G.; Bakhteeva, N. D.; Kolobylina, N. N.; Orekhov, A. S.; Presnyakov, M. Yu.; Todorova, E. V.

    2015-01-15

    The microstructure of alloys based on the Al-La-Ni-Fe system, which are characterized by a unique ability to form metal glasses and nanoscale composites in a wide range of compositions, has been investigated. Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 7}Fe{sub 4}La{sub 4} and Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 9}Fe{sub 2}La{sub 4} alloys have been analyzed by electron microscopy (including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that, along with fcc Al and Al{sub 4}La (Al{sub 11}La{sub 3}) particles, these alloys contain a ternary phase Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (sp. gr. Pnma) isostructural to the Al{sub 3}Ni phase and a quaternary phase Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La isostructural to the Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Eu phase (sp. gr. Pbam). The unit-cell parameters of the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La compounds, determined by ED and refined by XRD, are a = 0.664(1) nm, b = 0.734(1) nm, and c = 0.490(1) nm for Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and a = 1.258(3) nm, b = 1.448(3) nm, and c = 0.405(8) nm for Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La. In both cases Ni and Fe atoms are statistically arranged, and no ordering is found. Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La particles contain inclusions in the form of Al{sub 3}Fe δ layers.

  12. Formation and analysis of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases in Al-Cu-Mg alloy under friction stir processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Shi, Qing-yu

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous amorphous and nanocrystalline phases formed in the nugget zone of a friction stir-processed Al-Cu-Mg alloy have been studied. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated a diffuse scattering peak with characteristics of an amorphous phase existed in the range 15°-29°. Further, TEM analysis proved the existence of an amorphous structure. Friction stir processing provides special physical conditions, such as high temperature, high hydrostatic pressure and large shear stress, which could induce the amorphization of the alloy.

  13. Model study of CO inhibition of [NiFe]hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kabe, Ryota; Nonaka, Kyoshiro; Ando, Tatsuya; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Nakai, Hidetaka; Ogo, Seiji

    2011-09-19

    We propose a modified mechanism for the inhibition of [NiFe]hydrogenase ([NiFe]H(2)ase) by CO. We present a model study, using a NiRu H(2)ase mimic, that demonstrates that (i) CO completely inhibits the catalytic cycle of the model compound, (ii) CO prefers to coordinate to the Ru(II) center rather than taking an axial position on the Ni(II) center, and (iii) CO is unable to displace a hydrido ligand from the NiRu center. We combine these studies with a reevaluation of previous studies to propose that, under normal circumstances, CO inhibits [NiFe]H(2)ase by complexing to the Fe(II) center. PMID:21853978

  14. Structural and Thermal Study of Nanocrystalline Fe-Al-B Alloy Prepared by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsallah, Hana Ibn; Sekri, Abderrahmen; Azabou, Myriam; Escoda, Luiza; Suñol, Joan Josep; Khitouni, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured iron-aluminum alloy of Fe-25 at. pct Al composition doped with 0.2 at. pct B was prepared by mechanical alloying. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring in the studied material during mechanical alloying and during subsequent heating were investigated by SEM, XRD, and DSC techniques. The patterns so obtained were analyzed using the Rietveld program. The alloyed powders were disordered Fe(Al) solid solutions and Fe2B boride phase. The Fe2B boride phase is formed after 4 hours of milling. The crystallite size reduction to the nanometer scale (5 to 8 nm) is accompanied by an increase in lattice strains. The powder milled for 40 hours was annealed at temperatures of 523 K, 823 K, 883 K, and 973 K (250 °C, 550 °C, 610 °C, and 700 °C) for 2 hours. Low temperatures annealing are responsible for the relaxation of the disordered structure, while high temperatures annealing enabled supersaturated Fe(Al) solid solutions to precipitate out fines Fe3Al, Fe2Al5, and Fe4Al13 intermetallics and, also the recrystallization and the grain growth phenomena.

  15. Fabrication of nanocrystalline aluminum-magnesium alloy powders by electrodeposition and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatiparti, Sankara Sarma V.

    Aluminum-magnesium alloy powders can potentially be used as hydrogen storage materials. In order to enhance the kinetics of hydrogenation it is desirable to have agglomerates of fine powders with very small grain size. In this study, nanocrystalline Al-Mg alloys in the form of powders were successfully fabricated by the electrodeposition technique using an organometallic based electrolyte. Mg was introduced into the electrolyte by a process called "pre-electrodeposition". The mechanism for Mg accumulation can be explained considering the electrode reactions as well as the chemical changes in the electrolyte. Using a copper cathode, the effects of the electrolyte composition and current density on composition of the deposit, its constituent phases and morphology were investigated. The magnesium content of the deposits improved with increasing Mg concentration in the electrolyte, temperature and current density. Depending on the composition, the deposits consisted of FCC-Al(Mg) and HCP-Mg(Al) phases and no intermetallic phase was found except for long deposition times. Generally, the deposits formed initially on the copper substrate with three dendritic morphologies namely, rod-like, feather-like and small globular, which eventually evolved into the large globular morphology. This observation is attributed to the establishment of spherical diffusion conditions at the sharp dendrite tips. Potentiostatic studies suggested that the appearance of different morphologies is associated with differing rates of deposition. While the initial dendrites consisted of the FCC Al-rich phase, the large globular morphology manifested as both FCC Al-rich and HCP Mg-rich phases, with the latter always forming over the former. The observation of formation of only the FCC phase implies that the nucleation barrier for the HCP phase on the copper substrate is quite high. The investigation of the effect of substrate, namely, Cu, graphite and Mg, revealed that the HCP phase can directly

  16. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven aluminum-based binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Yunus Eren

    indicates an adiabatic type solidification path where heat of fusion is reabsorbed. It is interesting that this particle size range is also consistent with the appearance of a microcellular growth. While no glass formation is observed within this system, the smallest size powders appear to consist of a mixture of nanocrystalline Si and Al. Al-Sm alloys have been investigated within a composition range of 34 to 42 wt% Sm. Gas atomized powders of Al-Sm are investigated to explore the morphological and structural hierarchy that correlates with different degrees of departure from full equilibrium conditions. The resultant powders show a variety of structural selection with respect to amount of undercooling, with an amorphous structure appearing at the highest cooling rates. Because of the chaotic nature of gas atomization, Cu-block melt-spinning is used to produce a homogeneous amorphous structure. The as-quenched structure within Al-34 to 42 wt% Sm consists of nanocrystalline fcc-Al (on the order of 5 nm) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The nucleation density of fcc-Al after initial crystallization is on the order of 1022-1023 m-3, which is 105-106 orders of magnitude higher than what classical nucleation theory predicts. Detailed analysis of liquid and as-quenched structures using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, high energy transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography techniques revealed an Al-Sm network similar in appearance to a medium range order (MRO) structure. A model whereby these MRO clusters promote the observed high nucleation density of fcc-Al nanocrystals is proposed. The devitrification path was identified using high temperature, in-situ, high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques and the crystallization kinetics were described using an analytical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach.

  17. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Yunus Eren

    2009-01-01

    each other. This deviation indicates an adiabatic type solidification path where heat of fusion is reabsorbed. It is interesting that this particle size range is also consistent with the appearance of a microcellular growth. While no glass formation is observed within this system, the smallest size powders appear to consist of a mixture of nanocrystalline Si and Al. Al-Sm alloys have been investigated within a composition range of 34 to 42 wt% Sm. Gas atomized powders of Al-Sm are investigated to explore the morphological and structural hierarchy that correlates with different degrees of departure from full equilibrium conditions. The resultant powders show a variety of structural selection with respect to amount of undercooling, with an amorphous structure appearing at the highest cooling rates. Because of the chaotic nature of gas atomization, Cu-block melt-spinning is used to produce a homogeneous amorphous structure. The as-quenched structure within Al-34 to 42 wt% Sm consists of nanocrystalline fcc-Al (on the order of 5 nm) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The nucleation density of fcc-Al after initial crystallization is on the order of 1022-1023m-3, which is 105-106 orders of magnitude higher than what classical nucleation theory predicts. Detailed analysis of liquid and as-quenched structures using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, high energy transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography techniques revealed an Al-Sm network similar in appearance to a medium range order (MRO) structure. A model whereby these MRO clusters promote the observed high nucleation density of fcc-Al nanocrystals is proposed. The devitrification path was identified using high temperature, in-situ, high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques and the crystallization kinetics were described using an analytical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach.

  18. Growth in solution of hooked Ni-Fe fibers by oriented rotation and attachment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-ze

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the curved branches of fractal trees, hooked Ni-Fe fibers were grown in situ in Ni-Fe composite coatings on a spheroidal graphite cast iron substrate. These hooked Ni-Fe fibers exhibited inclination angles of about 39°, which was in accordance with the theoretical prediction of 37°. Ni-Fe nanostructures self-assembled to form dendrites and evolved into hooked fibers by an oriented attachment reaction. The orientation rotation of Ni-Fe nanostructures played an important role in the growth of curved hooked Ni-Fe fibers. During sliding wear tests, the volume loss of the spheroidal graphite cast iron substrate was 2.2 times as large as that of the Ni-Fe coating reinforced by hooked fibers. The good load-transferring ability of hooked Ni-Fe fibers led to an improvement in their wear properties during wear tests.

  19. Surface nanocrystalline and hardening effects of Ti-Al-V alloy by electropulsing ultrasonic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoxin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electropulsing ultrasonic shock (EUS) on the surface hardening and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. It was found that electropulsing improved the microhardness dramatically both in the influential depth and maximum value, compared with the only ultrasonic-shocked sample. It's indicated that refined surface layer with nanocrystalline and improved microhardness were obtained on account of surface severe plastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase change, which was implemented at relative low temperature and high strain rate/capacity due to the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects of EUS. It's different from conventional experiments and theory. It's discussed that the positive contributions of EPT in the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure and properties change were attributed to the reduction of nucleation energy barrier and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Therefore, it's supposed that EUS is an energy-saving and high-efficiency method of surface treatment technique with the help of high-energy electropulses, which is promising in cost reduction of the surface engineering and energy management.

  20. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy "NANOMET®" cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, N.; Tanimoto, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys "NANOMET®" exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T), low coercivity (Hc < 10 A/m) and low core loss (W1.7/50 ˜ 0.4 W/kg) even in a ribbon form with a thickness of up to 40 μm. By utilize excellent magnetic softness, several products such as motors or transformers for electrical appliances are now under developing by industry-academia collaboration. In particular, it is found that a brushless DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  1. Properties Evaluation and Studying Production Mechanism of Nanocrystalline NiAl Intermetallic Compound by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajesarvi, Ali; Akbari, Golamhossein

    2016-04-01

    Ni50Al50 intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental mixtures of Ni and Al powders in a planetary ball mill. After 16 hours of milling and obtaining crystallites with a critical size, the initial NiAl compound was formed along with the combustive reaction after opening the vial lid. In the time interval of 16 to 128 hours, the reaction from combustive state reached the explosive state. Finally, after 128 hours of milling, the initial powders were wholly transformed into NiAl before completion of the milling time. Structural changes of powder particles during MA were studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallite size measurements revealed that the grain size of the NiAl phase decreased from 155 to 26 nm with increasing MA time from 8 to 128 hours. Microhardness for nanocrystalline Ni50Al50 intermetallic compound produced after 128 hours of milling was measured as about 350 Hv.

  2. Microstructural refinement of Al-Si alloy upon ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yinsheng; Li, Kejian; Cho, In Shik; Park, In Gyu; Shin, Keesam

    2014-11-01

    In this work, an Al-7 wt.% Si alloy, which is widely used as the structural materials in the automotive and aerospace industries for their high specific strength, was subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment. After UNSM treatment, the effect of UNSM on the microstructural evolution of both Al grain and the dispersed Si particles was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Experimental results show that the ultra-fine grain (UFG, - 400 nm in size) structure is developed in the top surface layer (up to - 15 μm in depth). The coarse Si particles were refined and well dispersed in the UFG Al matrix. Cross-sectional TEM observation revealed that the grain refinement mechanism involved the formation of new grain boundaries dividing the coarse grain into UFG structure. Nanotwin and nanosize Si were formed within the original coarse Si particles. The presence of dispersed Si particles in the Al matrix accelerated the Al grain refinement process. PMID:25958593

  3. Induced Anisotropy in FeCo-Based Nanocrystalline Ferromagnetic Alloys (HITPERM) by Very High Field Annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F.; Garmestani, H.; Chu, S.-Y.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Very high magnetic field annealing is shown to affect the magnetic anisotropy in FeCo-base nanocrystalline soft ferromagnetic alloys. Alloys of composition Fe(44.5)Co(44.5)Zr(7)B(4) were prepared by melt spinning into amorphous ribbons, then wound to form toroidal bobbin cores. One set of cores was crystallized in a zero field at 600 deg. C for 1 h, then, field annealed at 17 tesla (T) at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Another set was crystallized in a 17-T field at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Field orientation was transverse to the magnetic path of the toroidal cores. An induced anisotropy is indicated by a sheared hysteresis loop. Sensitive torque magnetometry measurements with a Si cantilever sensor indicated a strong, uniaxial, longitudinal easy axis in the zero-field-crystallized sample. The source is most likely magnetoelastic anisotropy, caused by the residual stress from nanocrystallization and the nonzero magnetostriction coefficient for this material. The magnetostrictive coefficient lambda(5) is measured to be 36 ppm by a strain gage technique. Field annealing reduces the magnitude of the induced anisotropy. Core loss measurements were made in the zero-field-crystallized, zero-field-crystallized- than-field-annealed, and field-crystallized states. Core loss is reduced 30%-50% (depending on frequency) by field annealing. X-ray diffraction reveals no evidence of crystalline texture or orientation that would cause the induced anisotropy. Diffusional pair ordering is thought to be the cause of the induced anisotropy. However, reannealing the samples in the absence of a magnetic field at 480 deg. C does not completely remove the induced anisotropy.

  4. Predeformation and Subsequent Annealing—A Way for Controlling Morphology of Carbides in Large Dimensional Bulk Nanocrystalline Fe-Al-Cr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongding; La, Peiqing; Shi, Ting; Wei, Yupeng; Jiao, Huisheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a processing route is introduced to control the morphology of carbide and the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix of Fe-Al-Cr alloy. After predeformation followed by annealing treatment, the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix decreased slightly and the Cr7C3 phases transformed from a fiber shape to the globular shape. The yield strength and the flow stress of the alloy increased from 1048 to 1338 MPa and 1150 to 1550 MPa, respectively, while the ductility of the alloy also became better. This proposed method may open a way for controlling the morphology of carbide and the grain size of matrix in bulk nanocrystalline materials to receive higher strength and better plasticity.

  5. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Callori, S. J. Bertinshaw, J.; Cortie, D. L.; Cai, J. W. Zhu, T.; Le Brun, A. P.; Klose, F.

    2014-07-21

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  6. Giant magnetoresistance studies in evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu and Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftek, E.; Zeltser, A. M.; Smith, Neil

    1997-04-01

    Room temperature giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and magnetic properties of (Ni-Fe/Cu)n and (Ni-Fe-Co/Cu)n multilayers were investigated. Alternating layers of Ni-Fe-(Co) and Cu were electron-beam evaporated in a computer-controlled high-vacuum system at base pressure of ⩽4×10-8 Torr and deposition rates of ⩽2 Å/s. To complement and expand our previous investigation,1 GMR properties were additionally studied here as a function of cobalt content of Ni-Fe-Co films, the number (n) of bilayers, deposition temperature, and type of buffer layer. The Co content was varied from 7 to 17 at. %, and the number of bilayers ranged from n=8 to 20. No significant GMR was observed in the as-deposited multilayers. To produce tangible GMR, these multilayers were annealed between 300 and 360 °C for 2 h in a 150 Oe magnetic field in an argon atmosphere. The GMR effect (ΔR/R) was essentially independent of copper spacer thickness, which varied between 25 and 30 Å. For Co containing multilayers the highest ΔR/R=7.6% was obtained for 17 at. % Co deposited at 100 °C. The ΔR/R in all Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers was sensitive to the deposition temperature, and R-H loops always showed significant hysteresis independent of the type of buffer layer. For application of these materials to very high density reproduce heads,2 the best results were obtained for (27 Å NiFe/25 Å Cu)14-18 multilayers deposited at 160 °C on 70 Å Ta buffer layer. For example, n=17 multilayers annealed at 350 °C exhibited ΔR/R=7.5%, half-width at half-maximum of ˜50 Oe, essentially no anisotropy, and virtually zero hysteresis (Fig. 1). Frequency dependent permeability measurements showed constant permeability between 10 and 200 MHz. Low- and high-angle x-ray diffraction as well as atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the effect of different geometries of multilayers on structure and roughness and to correlate them with GMR properties.

  7. Chemical synthesis, characterizations and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi Narayan; Raja, M. Manivel

    2014-04-24

    Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} alloy has been synthesized successfully by chemical reduction route using superhydride as reducing agent and oleic acid and oleylamine as capping agents. Phase purity, crystallite size and lattice parameters of the synthesized NPs are determined by X-ray powder diffraction method. FeCo alloy crystallizes in body centered cubic (bcc) structure having crystallite size equal to 29 nm and lattice parameters equal to 2.8546 Å. The size and shape morphologies of the material were studied by SEM analysis. SEM micrograph study shows the average particle size to be 60 nm and indicates the appearance of agglomerates of the nano-particles consisting of several crystallites. The room temperature magnetic hysteresis studies indicate ferromagnetic behavior of the materials. The values of saturation magnetization and coercivity were 65 emu/g and 460 Oe, respectively. Magnetic properties of the material were interpreted on the basis of fine particle magnetism.

  8. Maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Forzi, Lucia; Sawers, R Gary

    2007-06-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of dihydrogen. Catalysis occurs at bimetallic active sites that contain either nickel and iron or only iron and the nature of these active sites forms the basis of categorizing the enzymes into three classes, the [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the [FeFe]-hydrogenases and the iron sulfur cluster-free [Fe]-hydrogenases. The [NiFe]-hydrogenases and the [FeFe]-hydrogenases are unrelated at the amino acid sequence level but the active sites share the unusual feature of having diatomic ligands associated with the Fe atoms in the these enzymes. Combined structural and spectroscopic studies of [NiFe]-hydrogenases identified these diatomic ligands as CN- and CO groups. Major advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis of these ligands have been achieved primarily through the study of the membrane-associated [NiFe]-hydrogenases of Escherichia coli. A complex biosynthetic machinery is involved in synthesis and attachment of these ligands to the iron atom, insertion of the Fe(CN)2CO group into the apo-hydrogenase, introduction of the nickel atom into the pre-formed active site and ensuring that the holoenzyme is correctly folded prior to delivery to the membrane. Although much remains to be uncovered regarding each of the individual biochemical steps on the pathway to synthesis of a fully functional enzyme, our understanding of the initial steps in CN- synthesis have revealed that it is generated from carbamoyl phosphate. What is becoming increasingly clear is that the metabolic origins of the carbonyl group may be different. PMID:17216401

  9. Structural and soft magnetic properties of a new nanocrystalline Fe-based and B-free alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jianguo; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E.

    2008-04-01

    A new nanocrystalline Fe-based soft magnetic alloy is discussed here. Ingots of nanocrystalline alloys (FeCu)80ZrxSi20-x (x =5, 6, and 8) were prepared by arc melting. The ingots were remelted and cast into 25-30μm thick ribbons by a single roller melt spinning method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the as-spun ribbons to be amorphous. The structural evolution of these samples was studied by XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after annealing at 450, 480, and 550°C. XRD shows the primary nanocrystallization product to be the α-Fe(Si ) phase. The grain size was observed by TEM to be ˜10nm after annealing at 480°C for 1h and 14nm after 550°C for 1h. ac soft magnetic properties were measured using a Walker AMH 401 ac permeameter. The core loss at an exciting frequency f =100kHz and maximum induction Bm=1kG was determined to be less than 19W/kg.

  10. Charge characteristics of Ni/Fe traction cells

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Biwer, R.L.; Tummillo, A.F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The specific energy and cycle life of nickel/iron (Ni/Fe) battery systems exceed those of lead-acid systems. However, in order for the Ni/Fe system to achieve full capacity, a significant overcharge must be applied. As a result, electrolyte consumption and gassing levels are increased, and cycling efficiencies (Ah and Wh) are reduced. In a series of tests performed on 6V Ni/Fe modules, a range of recharge levels and charge rates were examined for three charge methods. The results show that higher discharge capacities are achieved at higher recharge Ah levels, but at lower Ah and Wh cycling efficiencies. However, when the modules are continuously cycled at any recharge level, repeatable module performance is obtained. Consequently, the optimum combination of module discharge capacity and cycle efficiency can be obtained for any given application by proper selection of the recharge level. It was also observed that at a fixed recharge level, module charge acceptance is virtually independent of the charge method. The tested modules also exhibited a self-discharge loss in capacity that was directly related to the length of the open-circuit stand time after charging and module state-of-charge. This paper describes the test procedures used, presents the test data, and discusses the results obtained.

  11. Multiphase and Double-Layer NiFe2O4@NiO-Hollow-Nanosphere-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Powders Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-08-01

    Multicomponent metal oxide hollow-nanosphere decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders are prepared by spray pyrolysis with nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere decorated rGO composite powders are prepared using the first target material. The NiFe-alloy-nanopowder decorated rGO powders are prepared as an intermediate product by post-treatment under the reducing atmosphere of the NiFe2O4/NiO-decorated rGO composite powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. The different diffusion rates of Ni (83 pm for Ni(2+)) and Fe (76 pm for Fe(2+), 65 pm for Fe(3+)) cations with different radii during nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion result in multiphase and double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO hollow nanospheres. The mean size of the hollow NiFe2O4@NiO nanospheres decorated uniformly within crumpled rGO is 14 nm. The first discharge capacities of the nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders with filled NiFe2O4/NiO and hollow NiFe2O4@NiO at a current density of 1 A g(-1) are 1168 and 1319 mA h g(-1), respectively. Their discharge capacities for the 100th cycle are 597 and 951 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacity of the NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders at the high current density of 4 A g(-1) for the 400th cycle is 789 mA h g(-1). PMID:26186601

  12. Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C.-H.; Chi, C.-C.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K.-W.; Lin, T.-L.

    2014-05-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchange bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.

  13. Characterization of ion beam and magnetron sputtered thin Ta/NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, M.; Leng, Q.; Huai, Y.; Johnson, P.; Miller, M.; Tong, H.-C.; Miloslavsky, L.; Qian, C.; Wang, J.; Hegde, H.

    1999-04-01

    Thin Ta/NiFe films were deposited using ion beam deposition (IBD), pulsed, and static magnetron sputtering techniques. These NiFe films show anisotropy field values ˜4 Oe, easy axis coercivities ⩽1 Oe, and hard axis coercivities ⩽0.3 Oe. IBD films exhibit higher magnetoresistance ratios (ΔR/R), while little difference is noted between different deposition techniques in the sheet resistance of NiFe films. A ΔR/R value of 1.8% has been measured for a 90 Å IBD NiFe films. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that NiFe films of the same thickness have about the same grain size regardless of deposition technique, however, IBD films exhibit superior (111) texture and crystallinity. Our results clearly indicate that the superior magnetic properties of thin IBD Ta/NiFe films are a result of high crystallographic quality of these films.

  14. Morphology, structural and thermal characterization of nanocrystalline Ni50Cu30(Fe2B)10P10 powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimi, M.; Suñol, J. J.; Khitouni, M.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical alloying process has been used to prepare nanocrystalline Ni50Cu30(Fe2B)10P10 alloy from powder mixture. The transformations occurring in the material during milling were studied with the use of X-ray diffraction. In addition, lattice microstrain, average crystallite size, dislocation density and the lattice parameter were determined. The patterns so obtained were analyzed using the Maud program. The final product of the mechanical alloying process after 30h of milling was nanocrystalline Ni, Cu3P and Fe2B phases with a mean crystallite size in the range of a few nanometers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphology of the samples as a function of milling times. Thermal behaviour of the milled powders was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  15. The Model [NiFe]-Hydrogenases of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sargent, F

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, hydrogen metabolism plays a prominent role in anaerobic physiology. The genome contains the capability to produce and assemble up to four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, each of which are known, or predicted, to contribute to different aspects of cellular metabolism. In recent years, there have been major advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and roles of the E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, respiratory Hyd-1 isoenzyme has become one of the most important paradigm systems for understanding an important class of oxygen-tolerant enzymes, as well as providing key information on the mechanism of hydrogen activation per se. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, Hyd-2 isoenzyme has emerged as an unusual, bidirectional redox valve able to link hydrogen oxidation to quinone reduction during anaerobic respiration, or to allow disposal of excess reducing equivalents as hydrogen gas. The membrane-bound, cytoplasmically oriented, Hyd-3 isoenzyme is part of the formate hydrogenlyase complex, which acts to detoxify excess formic acid under anaerobic fermentative conditions and is geared towards hydrogen production under those conditions. Sequence identity between some Hyd-3 subunits and those of the respiratory NADH dehydrogenases has led to hypotheses that the activity of this isoenzyme may be tightly coupled to the formation of transmembrane ion gradients. Finally, the E. coli genome encodes a homologue of Hyd-3, termed Hyd-4, however strong evidence for a physiological role for E. coli Hyd-4 remains elusive. In this review, the versatile hydrogen metabolism of E. coli will be discussed and the roles and potential applications of the spectrum of different types of [NiFe]-hydrogenases available will be explored. PMID:27134027

  16. Morphology and magnetic behavior of cobalt rich amorphous/nanocrystalline (Co-Ni)70Ti10B20 alloyed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    The effect of milling time on microstructural and magnetic behavior of mechanically alloyed Co49Ni21Ti10B20 is investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown, with increasing milling time, the crystallite size decreases and finally reaches to a low value after 190 h of milling time. The increase in microstrain is also observed during the milling process. The results indicate the coexistence between amorphous and nanocrystalline phases after 190 h of milling time. Moreover, the lowest magnetic coercivity of about 39 Oe at the final milling stage is observed. The results of annealed sample reveal structural ordering of constituent elements.

  17. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on the structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. D.; Lu, K.; Hu, Z. Q.; Ding, B. Z.; Zhu, J.; Jiang, J.

    1994-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys with grain sizes of 25-90 nm were synthesized by crystallization of the amorphous alloy. Two nanocrystalline phases of α-Fe(Si) and Fe2B were observed in all tested samples. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy investigation on the structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys showed that Si atoms are completely and substitutionally dissolved in Fe bcc lattice and the arrangement of the Si atoms in the α-Fe(Si) phase shows short range order (SRO), whereas 8.5-9.7 at. % of the B atoms were found as Fe2B and the remainder were located in the interfaces. When grains grow larger, the arrangement of the Si atoms in the α-Fe(Si) phase changes. Interestingly, x-ray diffraction results reveal that the lattice constant of α-Fe(Si) phase decreases rapidly with grain coarsening. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the changes in the lattice constant of the α-Fe(Si) phase and SRO of Si atoms in bcc Fe lattices were attributed to the lattice expansion as a result of the variation of vacancy concentration in α-Fe(Si) solid solution. Meanwhile, owing to the interface contribution, the alloy with small grain size is found to exhibit large values of half linewidth (HLW) and isomer shift (IS) in the Mössbauer spectra. The results from electrical resistivity measurements agree and confirm the strong effects of the lattice distortion and interfaces.

  18. Mechanism of hydrogen activation by [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rhiannon M; Brooke, Emily J; Wehlin, Sara A M; Nomerotskaia, Elena; Sargent, Frank; Carr, Stephen B; Phillips, Simon E V; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2016-01-01

    The active site of [NiFe] hydrogenases contains a strictly conserved arginine that suspends a guanidine nitrogen atom <4.5 Å above the nickel and iron atoms. The guanidine headgroup interacts with the side chains of two conserved aspartic acid residues to complete an outer-shell canopy that has thus far proved intractable to investigation by site-directed mutagenesis. Using hydrogenase-1 from Escherichia coli, the strictly conserved residues R509 and D574 have been replaced by lysine (R509K) and asparagine (D574N) and the highly conserved D118 has been replaced by alanine (D118A) or asparagine (D118N/D574N). Each enzyme variant is stable, and their [(RS)2Niμ(SR)2Fe(CO)(CN)2] inner coordination shells are virtually unchanged. The R509K variant had >100-fold lower activity than native enzyme. Conversely, the variants D574N, D118A and D118N/D574N, in which the position of the guanidine headgroup is retained, showed 83%, 26% and 20% activity, respectively. The special kinetic requirement for R509 implicates the suspended guanidine group as the general base in H2 activation by [NiFe] hydrogenases. PMID:26619250

  19. The activity of nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys as electrode materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian Immanuel; Sellschopp, Kai; Tegel, Marcus; Rauscher, Thomas; Kieback, Bernd; Röntzsch, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In view of alkaline water electrolysis, the activities for the hydrogen evolution reaction of nanocrystalline Fe-based electrode materials were investigated and compared with the activities of polycrystalline Fe and Ni. Electrochemical methods were used to elucidate the overpotential value, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity. Structural properties of the electrode surface were determined with SEM, XRD and XPS analyses. Thus, a correlation between electrochemical and structural parameters was found. In this context, we report on a cyclic voltammetric activation procedure which causes a significant increase of the surface area of Fe-based electrodes leading to a boost in effective activity of the activated electrodes. It was found that the intrinsic activity of activated Fe-based electrodes is very high due to the formation of a nanocrystalline surface layer. In contrast, the activation procedure influences only the intrinsic activity of the Ni electrodes without the formation of a porous surface layer.

  20. On the hierarchy of deformation processes in nanocrystalline alloys: Grain boundary mediated plasticity vs. dislocation slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Jonathan; Stukowski, Alexander; Albe, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo simulations on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline Pd-Au are presented. A semi-grandcanonical Monte-Carlo scheme is employed during straining to allow for local relaxation by chemical equilibration and to effectively shortcut diffusional processes. Altering the balance between an imposed straining and local relaxation reveals a strong correlation of the irreversible plastic deformation and the frequency of local relaxation. Using a novel method to quantify the amount of crystal slip strain from atomistic data, it is demonstrated how plastic deformation carried by dislocations changes as a function of the local relaxation. The results indicate that conventional molecular dynamics simulations overestimate the contributions of dislocation slip to the overall plastic deformation of nanocrystalline samples.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a large-dimensional bulk nanocrystalline-based Fe-Al-Cr alloy prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting and followed annealing at 1000 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Peiqing; Wang, Hongding; Liu, Xuemei; Wei, Yupeng; Jiao, Huisheng

    2013-06-01

    A large-dimensional bulk nanocrystalline phase-based Fe-Al-Cr alloy with 10 wt.% Cr, which was about 200 mm in diameter and 10 mm in thickness, was prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting and followed annealing at 1000 °C. Microstructures of the alloy were investigated by optical microscope, electron probe microscope, scanning electron microscope attached with electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The magnetization curves of the alloy were tested by Lake Shore 7410 vibrating sample magnetometer. Compressive properties of the alloy were tested. The results show the alloy was consisted of a Fe-Al-Cr nanocrystalline matrix, Cr7C3 phase and contaminants in micrometre. Average grain size of the nanocrystalline matrix was 19 nm. Volume fraction of the Cr7C3 phase in the alloy was about 4.5%. After annealing, the saturated intensity of magnetization and the specific magnetic susceptibility of the alloy increased slightly from 99 emu/g and 0.083 emu/g Oe to 104 emu/g and 0.113 emu/g Oe, respectively. Compressive strength of the alloy was 1200 MPa and much higher than that of the small-scale nanocrystalline alloy and alloy with grains in micrometre.

  2. Electrical, magnetic, and corrosion resistance properties of TiO2 nanotubes filled with NiFe2O4 quantum dots and Ni-Fe nanoalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahgat, Mohamed; Farghali, Ahmed A.; Moustafa, Ahmed F.; Khedr, Mohamed H.; Mohassab-Ahmed, Mohassab Y.

    2013-06-01

    This work was carried out as an integral part of a project aiming to improve the catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of synthesized TiO2NTs filled with metal ferrites. TiO2 nanotubes in the anatase-phase (TiO2NTs) were prepared using a hydrothermal method followed by ion exchange and phase transformation. The obtained TiO2NTs were filled with NiFe2O4 quantum dots (QDs) and then reacted at 600 °C in a reducing atmosphere to produce TiO2NTs filled with Ni-Fe nanoalloy. The effect of the TiO2NTs' coating on the dissolution rate of Ni-Fe nanoalloy in 0.5 M HCl solution was monitored chemically using a weight-loss technique that was performed at different temperatures. The TiO2NTs' coating exhibited high protective performance and amazing corrosion resistance. The magnetic properties of the TiO2NTs filled with NiFe2O4 QDs and Ni-Fe nanoalloy compacts were analyzed by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The electrical conductivity-temperature dependence of anatase TiO2NTs, anatase TiO2NTs filled with NiFe2O4 quantum dots, anatase TiO2NTs filled with Ni-Fe nanoalloy, and NiFe2O4 was measured in the temperature range of 25-850 °C. The conductivity increased with temperature, indicating the semiconductor-like nature of the sample. During cooling, the conductivity retains values higher than that obtained during heating.

  3. [NiFe] hydrogenases: structural and spectroscopic studies of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2009-10-01

    [NiFe] hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of dihydrogen. For this simple reaction the molecule has developed a complex catalytic mechanism, during which the enzyme passes through various redox states. The [NiFe] hydrogenase contains several metal centres, including the bimetallic Ni-Fe active site, iron-sulfur clusters and a Mg(2+) ion. The Ni-Fe active site is located in the inner part of the protein molecule, therefore a number of pathways are involved in the catalytic reaction route. These consist of an electron transfer pathway, a proton transfer pathway and a gas-access channel. Over the last 10-15 years we have been investigating the crystal structures of the [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F, which is a sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacterium. So far the crystal structures of the oxidized, H(2)-reduced and carbon monoxide inhibited states have been determined at high resolution and have revealed a rather unique structure of the hetero-bimetallic Ni-Fe active site. Furthermore, intensive spectroscopic studies have been performed on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structure, a water-soluble Ni-Ru complex has been synthesized as a functional model for the [NiFe] hydrogenases. The present review gives an overview of the catalytic reaction mechanism of the [NiFe] hydrogenases. PMID:19759926

  4. A [NiFe]hydrogenase model that catalyses the release of hydrogen from formic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga T; Mori, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Yatabe, Takeshi; Kabe, Ryota; Nakai, Hidetaka; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2014-11-11

    We report the decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, catalysed by a NiRu complex originally developed as a [NiFe]hydrogenase model. This is the first example of H2 evolution, catalysed by a [NiFe]hydrogenase model, which does not require additional energy. PMID:25234420

  5. Magnetic structure and anisotropy of [Co/Pd ] 5/NiFe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Guo, Feng; Liu, Frank; Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Mohseni, Majid S.; Chung, Sunjae; Fang, Yeyu; Ã kerman, Johan; McMichael, R. D.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetization behavior, magnetic anisotropy, and domain configurations of Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy capped with permalloy is investigated using magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance. The thickness of the Ni80Fe20 layer in [Co/Pd ] 5/NiFe (t ) was varied from t =0 to 80 nm in order to study the interplay between the anisotropy and magnetization directions of Co/Pd and NiFe. By varying the thickness of the NiFe layer, the net anisotropy changes sign, but domains with plane-normal magnetization are present even for the thickest NiFe. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show a decrease in damping with increasing NiFe thickness. The results demonstrate how the magnetic behavior of mixed-anisotropy thin films can be controlled.

  6. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni-Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions. PMID:26818780

  7. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni-Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions.

  8. NiFe2O4/graphene nanocomposites with tunable magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Elham Kamali; Ataie, Abolghasem; Sohi, Mahmoud Heydarzadeh; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2015-04-01

    Novel NiFe2O4/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized via facile, one-pot solvothermal route, and the effects of processing conditions and composition on their magnetic properties have been studied. The nanocomposites consisted of monolayer graphene sheets decorated with uniformly dispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles of 6 nm in diameter. Increases in solvothermal temperature and time gave rise to improved crystallinity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and thus enhanced magnetic properties, while a high NiFe2O4 content resulted in a similar ameliorating effect on saturation magnetization, demonstrating tailored functional properties. A magnetic interaction between NiFe2O4/grahene was observed.

  9. Magnetic properties of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3-xUxSi13.5B9 (x = 1, 2, 3) nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, P.; Füzer, J.; Matta, P.; Švec, T.; Konč, M.

    1996-05-01

    The influence of uranium content and annealing on the magnetic properties and Hall effect of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3-xUxSi13.5B9 (x = 1, 2, 3) nanocrystalline alloys prepared by melt spinning were investigated. Measurements of magnetic properties of surface layers confirmed higher concentration of uranium in the air-side surface layers than in the wheel-side layers.

  10. Optimization of the microstructure and properties of Co-substituted Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, M.; Ping, D. H.; Abe, T.; Onodera, H.; Hono, K.; Yoshizawa, Y.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of Co replacement for Fe on the microstructure and soft magnetic properties of Fe78.8-xCoxNb2.6Si9B9Cu0.6 (x=5-60) nanocrystalline alloys has been studied for improving the soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu type alloys at a high frequency range. The magnetic anisotropy constant increases with x, but the coercivity increases when x exceeds 20, indicating that magnetic softness is degraded by replacing Fe with Co. Three-dimensional atom-probe observations have revealed that the number density of Cu-enriched clusters decreases with x, thereby decreasing the number density of the heterogeneous nucleation sites for bcc-Fe primary crystals. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry measurements show that the Cu clustering temperature shifts to a higher temperature with increasing x, suggesting that the kinetics for the Cu clustering decreases as Co content. These experimental results are discussed from the thermodynamical point of view, and the optimized Cu composition to achieve a low coercivity with 40 at % Co has been found. 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Low-temperature magnetization of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe 76.5- xU xCu 1Si 13.5B 9 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duša, O.; Kováč, J.; Konč, M.; Švec, T.; Kavečanský, V.

    1996-03-01

    The low-temperature magnetization of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe 76.5- xU xCu 1Si 13.5B 9 alloys ( x = 0-11) has been studied in the 4.2-300 K range. All examined magnetic parameters (exchange integral J, range of exchange interactions < r2>, magnetic moment per Fe atom, μFe, spin wave stiffness constant D) are markedly influenced by the uranium substitution for iron. Both the μFe and D are found to increase with decreasing Fe content in amorphous alloys for x = 0 up to about 4. The noncollinear spin structures as a result of competing interactions are supposed to explain this behaviour. Some samples (with U contents of 2-6 at%) annealed for 1 h at 813 K appear to be nanocrystalline. Uranium seems to inhibit grain growth in the investigated FeUCuSiB system, just as Nb does in FeNbCuSiB nanocrystalline alloys.

  12. Influence of quenching rate on the magnetic and martensitic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga melt-spun ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, H.; Uemura, K.

    2010-08-15

    We have fabricated Ni-Fe-Ga {beta} single phase alloy ribbons with Ga content less than 25 at. %. Higher spinning rate of melt-spinning technique can produce {beta} single phase alloys without precipitation of {gamma} particles, whereas lower spinning rate results in the {beta}+{gamma} two phase structure. This higher quenching rate is found to be able to fully suppress the formation of {gamma} phase during fabrication. The martensitic and magnetic transition temperatures of {beta} phase ribbons are both above room temperature, and the ribbon show saturation magnetization as high as 56.5 emu/g at room temperature. These features are attractive for practical applications. The effects of quenching rate on microstructure, martensitic transformation, and magnetic properties are discussed.

  13. A highly active and coke-resistant steam reforming catalyst comprising uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koike, Mitsuru; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    Doing fine with Ni-Fe: The calcination and reduction of a hydrotalcite precursor containing Ni and Fe ions gives uniform Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles mixed with Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O particles. The uniformity of the Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles is connected to the catalyst's high activity and resistance to coke formation in toluene and phenol steam reforming reactions. PMID:23135797

  14. Charge characteristics of Ni/Fe traction cells

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.; Biwer, R.; Tummillo, A.; Yao, N.

    1983-01-01

    In a series of tests performed on 6-V Ni/Fe modules, a range of recharge levels and charge rates were examined for three charge methods. The results show that higher discharge capacities are achieved at higher recharge Ah levels, but at lower Ah and Wh cycling efficiencies. However, when the modules are continuously cycled at any recharge level, repeatable module performance is obtained. Consequently, the optimum combination of module discharge capacity and cycle efficiency can be obtained for any given application by proper selection of the recharge level. It was also observed that at a fixed recharge level, module charge acceptance is virtually independent of the charge method. The tested modules also exhibited a self-discharge loss in capacity that was directly related to the length of the open-circuit stand time after charging and module state-of-charge. This paper describes the test procedures used, presents the test data, and discusses the results obtained. 6 figures.

  15. (Fe,Si,Al)-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniil, Maria; Osofsky, Michael S.; Gubser, Donald U.; Willard, Matthew A.

    2010-04-01

    In this work Al and Si are substituted for Fe in a (Fe,Si,Al)-Nb-B-Cu alloy with the goal of improving its magnetic properties at 77 K. The x-ray diffraction patterns for a series of five alloys annealed at 823 K shows a Fe3(Si,Al) ordered phase with some residual amorphous phase. The lowest coercivity at room temperature was observed for the alloy with composition Fe68Si15.5Al3.5Nb3B9Cu1. At cryogenic temperatures, the saturation magnetization of 99.3 A m2/kg, coercivity of 0.45 A/m, and resistivity of 122 μΩ cm for the Fe63Si17.5Al6Nb3B9Cu1 alloy, compare favorably to commercial alloys at 77 K.

  16. Low core loss of non-Si quaternary Fe83.3B8P8Cu0.7 nanocrystalline alloy with high Bs of 1.7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Akiri; Yamaki, Makoto; Takahashi, Masahiko; Okamoto, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi; Makino, Akihiro

    2012-04-01

    The effect of replacement Si by P on the soft magnetic and structural properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys has been investigated. The nanocrystalline Fe83.3SiXB8P8-XCu0.7 (X = 0, 2, 4, 6) alloy ribbons consist of precipitated α-Fe phase and residual amorphous phase, and initial permeability of these alloy ribbons are enhanced with decreasing Si content. In particular, the nanocrystalline Fe83.3B8P8Cu0.7 (X = 0) alloy has both low core loss of 1.4 W/kg at 1.0 T - 50 Hz and high saturation magnetic flux density of 1.70 T. In addition, this alloy exhibits the most favorable nanocrystalline structure containing the homogeneously precipitated α-Fe grains with 14 nm in mean diameter. Therefore, it can be concluded that the soft magnetic properties and nanostructure of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys are strongly affected by Si and P content. The Fe83.3B8P8Cu0.7 alloy with low core loss and high saturation magnetic flux density compared with a Fe amorphous alloy is suitable for a magnetic core material in electronic devices such as transformers, inductors and motors.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and low temperature electrical conductivity of Polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, G. D.; Prasad, V. B.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2015-02-01

    Conducting polymer/ferrite nanocomposites with an organized structure provide a new functional hybrid between organic and inorganic materials. The most popular among the conductive polymers is the polyaniline (PANI) due to its wide application in different fields. In the present work nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel citrate-nitrate method with an average size of 21.6nm. PANI/NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple general and inexpensive in-situ polymerization in the presence of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The effects of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the dc-electrical properties of polyaniline were investigated. The structural components in the nanocomposites were identified from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The crystalline phase of nanocomposites was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) reveals that there was some interaction between the NiFe2O4 particles and polyaniline and the nanocomposites are composed of polycrystalline ferrite nanoparticles and PANI. The dc conductivity of polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 80K to 300K. It is observed that the room temperature conductivity cRT decreases with increase in the relative content of NiFe2O4. The experimental data reveals that the resistivity increases for all composites with decrease of temperature exhibiting semiconductor behaviour.

  18. Interface-assisted magnetoresistance behavior for ultrathin NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shao-Long; Chen, Xi; Yang, Kang; Han, Gang; Teng, Jiao; Li, Xu-Jing; Yang, Guang; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Yi-Wei; Ding, Lei; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Interface-assisted magnetoresistance (MR) behavior has been studied in Ta/MgO/NiFe/MgO/Ta multilayers by inserting a Mg metal layer between the NiFe layer and the top MgO layer. It is shown that MR ratio is about 31% larger than that in the films without Mg insertion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope analyses show that the enhanced MR is primarily ascribed to effective control of chemical states at the NiFe/MgO interface and crystallization of the top MgO layer.

  19. Si/NiFe seed layers for Ru intermediate layer in perpendicular magnetic recording tape media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saemma, Gaku; Takahashi, Shota; Matsunuma, Satoshi; Inoue, Tetsutaro; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2012-04-01

    Si/NiFe seed layers prepared at room temperature is effective to attain better c-axis orientation of Ru intermediate layer in the FeCoB/Ru/CoPtCr-SiO2 granular type recording tape media. The crystallinity and c-axis orientation of Ru layer with Si/NiFe seed layers were improved than that without Si/NiFe seed layer deposited on the laminated FeCoB SULs. When the Ru is thicker than 8 nm, Δθ50 of the CoPtCr-SiO2 recording layer shows small value of about 6.5°. Furthermore, even though the Ru thickness was only 3 nm, the Δθ50 retained comparatively small value of 8.0°. Si/NiFe layer is effective as a seed layer for the Ru intermediate layer.

  20. Magnetic properties of NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers from Venezuelan petcoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Sarah; Silva, Pedro; Molina, Wilmer; Brämer-Escamilla, Werner; Alcalá, Olgi; Cañizales, Edgard

    2015-05-01

    NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers (NiFe2O4/CNFs) have been successfully synthesized by hydrotermal method using Venezuelan petroleum coke (petcoke) as carbon source and NiFe2O4 as catalyst. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties of nanocomposite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD analysis revealed a cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity. HR-TEM reveals the presence of CNFs with diameters of 4±2 nm. At room temperature, NiFe2O4/CNFs show superparamagnetic behavior with a maximum magnetization of 15.35 emu/g. Our findings indicate that Venezuelan petroleum coke is suitable industrial carbon source for the growth of magnetic CNFs.

  1. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni–Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions. PMID:26818780

  2. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel; Koza, Michael M.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, B.; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param- eter variations.

  3. Mechanisms of Formation and Transformation of Ni-Fe Hydroxycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Refait, Ph.; Jeannin, M.; Reffass, M.; Drissi, S.H.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M.R.

    2005-04-26

    The mechanisms of the transformation of (Ni,Fe)(OH)2 precipitates in carbonated aqueous solutions were studied. The reactions were monitored by measuring the redox potential of the aqueous suspension, and end products were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation processes were compared to those occurring without Ni, that is when the initial hydroxide is Fe(OH)2. Schematically, the oxidation of Fe(OH)2 involves two intermediate compounds, the carbonated GR of formula Fe{sup II}{sub 4}Fe{sup III}{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O, and ferrihydrite, before to lead finally to goethite {alpha}-FeOOH. It proved possible to prepare Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonates with ratios Fe/Ni from 1/6 to 1/3. When the Fe/Ni ratio is larger than 1/3, a two stage oxidation process takes place. The first stage leads to a Ni(II)-Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate. The second stage corresponds to the oxidation of the Fe(II) remaining inside the hydroxycarbonate and leads to a mixture of Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate with ferrihydrite. The main effect of Ni is then to stop the reaction at an intermediate stage, as Ni(II) is not oxidised by O2, leaving unchanged the main features of the mechanisms of transformation.

  4. One-Pot Synthesis of (NiFe2O4)x-(SrFe12O19)1-x Nanocomposites and Their Microwave Absorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Subhenjit; Ghosh, Barun Kumar; Patra, Manoj Kumar; Jani, Raj Kumar; Vadera, Sampat Raj; Ghosh, Narendra Nath

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report a simple but novel aqueous solution based 'one-pot' method for preparation of (NiFe2O4)x-(SrFe12O19)1-x nanocomposites consist of hard ferrite-soft ferrite phases. A physical mixing method has also been employed to prepare nanocomposites having same compositions. The effects of synthetic methodologies on the microstructures of the nanocomposites as well as their magnetic and microwave absorption properties have been evaluated. Crystal structures and microstructures of these composites have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. In the nanocomposites, prepared by both methods, presence of nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 and SrFe12O19 phases was detected. However, nanocomposites, prepared by one-pot method, possessed better homogeneous distribution of hard and soft ferrite phases than the nanocomposites, prepared by physical mixing method. Nanocomposites, prepared by one-pot method, demonstrated significant spring exchange coupling interaction between hard and soft ferrite phases and exhibited magnetically single phase behaviour. The spring exchange coupling interaction enhanced the magnetic properties (high saturation magnetization and coercivity) and microwave absorption properties of the nanocomposites, prepared by one-pot method, in comparison with the nanocomposites prepared by physical mixing method as well as pure NiFe2O4 and SrFe12O19 nanoparticles. Minimum reflection loss of the composite was ~ -17 dB (i.e., 98% absorption) at 8.2 GHz for an absorber thickness of 3.2 mm. PMID:26716212

  5. Synthetic Active Site Model of the [NiFeSe] Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wombwell, Claire; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    A dinuclear synthetic model of the [NiFeSe] hydrogenase active site and a structural, spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis of this complex is reported. [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] (H2‘S2Se2’=1,2-bis(2-thiabutyl-3,3-dimethyl-4-selenol)benzene) has been synthesized by reacting the nickel selenolate complex [Ni(‘S2Se2’)] with [Fe(CO)3bda] (bda=benzylideneacetone). X-ray crystal structure analysis confirms that [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] mimics the key structural features of the enzyme active site, including a doubly bridged heterobimetallic nickel and iron center with a selenolate terminally coordinated to the nickel center. Comparison of [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] with the previously reported thiolate analogue [NiFe(‘S4’)(CO)3] (H2‘S4’=H2xbsms=1,2-bis(4-mercapto-3,3-dimethyl-2-thiabutyl)benzene) showed that the selenolate groups in [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] give lower carbonyl stretching frequencies in the IR spectrum. Electrochemical studies of [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] and [NiFe(‘S4’)(CO)3] demonstrated that both complexes do not operate as homogenous H2 evolution catalysts, but are precursors to a solid deposit on an electrode surface for H2 evolution catalysis in organic and aqueous solution. PMID:25847470

  6. Force Field Development and Molecular Dynamics of [NiFe] Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Xiong, Yijia; Straatsma, TP; Rosso, Kevin M.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-05-09

    Classical molecular force-field parameters describing the structure and motion of metal clusters in [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes can be used to compare the dynamics and thermodynamics of [NiFe] under different oxidation, protonation, and ligation circumstances. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations of small model clusters representative of the active site and the proximal, medial, and distal Fe/S metal centers and their attached protein side chains, we have calculated classical force-field parameters for [NiFe] in reduced and oxidized states, including internal coordinates, force constants, and atom-centered charges. Derived force constants revealed that cysteinate ligands bound to the metal ions are more flexible in the Ni-B active site, which has a bridging hydroxide ligand, than in the Ni-C active site, which has a bridging hydride. Ten nanosecond all-atom, explicit-solvent MD simulations of [NiFe] hydrogenase in oxidized and reduced catalytic states established the stability of the derived force-field parameters in terms of C{alpha} and metal cluster fluctuations. Average active site structures from the protein MD simulations are consistent with [NiFe] structures from the Protein Data Bank, suggesting that the derived force-field parameters are transferrable to other hydrogenases beyond the structure used for testing. A comparison of experimental H{sub 2}-production rates demonstrated a relationship between cysteinate side chain rotation and activity, justifying the use of a fully dynamic model of [NiFe] metal cluster motion.

  7. Electrochemical Evaluation of Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films on Ti-6Al-4V Implant Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Vohra, Yogesh

    2002-03-01

    Some 186,000 hip replacement surgeries are peformed every year in the United States alone. About 10surgeries are revision operations to replace an implant that has most likely failed through mechanical-electrochemical interactions resulting in implant wear. The ability to enhance the resistance to such mechanical-electrochemical interaction and thereby reduce wear could result in significantly increased device lifespan. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V disk samples (processed per ASTM F86 standard for medical implant surface conditions) using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). As a first step, these samples (n=3/test per group) were subjected to electrochemical evaluation in inorganic neutral salt solution at 37 C. The electrochemical evaluation involved both impedence spectroscopy (per ASTM G106) and polarization testing (per ASTM G5). The impedence spectroscopy data indicated a significantly higher charge transfer resistance at the interface due to the protective NCD as compared to the bare or uncoated substrate. The polarization test data confirmed that this increased charge transfer resistance resulted in a decreased current density measurement. This decreased current density measurement resulted in an order of magnitude lower calculated static corrosion rate from the NCD coated samples as opposed to the uncoated controls. Future studies will focus on investigations that will facilitate transfer of these static electrochemical resistance results to a more relevant mechanical-electrochemical interaction milieu.

  8. Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimpoor, Amir A.; Erb, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    Due to their excellent wear and corrosion properties, nanocrystalline cobalt and several cobalt alloys made by electrodeposition are currently being developed as environmentally benign replacement coatings for hard chromium electrodeposits. The focus of this study is on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline cobalt, which are currently not well understood. A comparison is presented for hardness, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties and fracture surface analysis of both nanocrystalline (grain size: 12 nm) and conventional polycrystalline (grain size: 4.8 m) cobalt. It is shown that the hardness and tensile strength of nanocrystalline cobalt is 2-3 times higher than for polycrystalline cobalt. However, in contrast to other nanocrystalline materials tested previously, nanocrystalline cobalt retains considerable ductility with elongation to fracture values up to 7%.

  9. Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-05-07

    The Rashba effect is an interaction between the spin and the momentum of electrons induced by the spin-orbit coupling in surface or interface states. We measured the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect via spin pumping in Ag/Bi and Ag/Sb interfaces. The spin current is injected from the ferromagnetic resonance of a NiFe layer towards the Rashba interfaces, where it is further converted into a charge current. Using spin pumping theory, we quantify the conversion parameter of spin to charge current to be 0.11 ± 0.02 nm for Ag/Bi and a factor of ten smaller for Ag/Sb. The relative strength of the effect is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and first principles calculations. We also vary the interlayer materials to study the voltage output in relation to the change of the effective spin mixing conductance. The spin pumping experiment offers a straight-forward approach of using spin current as an efficient probe for detecting interface Rashba splitting.

  10. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, P.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa Tsai, C. L.; Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C.; Lee, C.-M.

    2014-06-28

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe} = 0–10 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0 nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe} ≥ 3.0 nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10 nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  11. Study of the nanocrystalline Fe{sub 73.5}Nb{sub 4.5}Cr{sub 5}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 16} alloy by the radio-frequency-M{umlt o}ssbauer technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kopcewicz, M.; Grabias, A.; Skorvanek, I.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of Cr on the structural and magnetic properties of iron based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys is studied for the Fe{sub 73.5}Nb{sub 4.5}Cr{sub 5}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 16} alloy by an unconventional technique which combines the M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopy with the effects induced by the radio-frequency (rf) magnetic fields (rf collapse and rf sideband effects). The nanocrystalline bcc-Fe phase, formed by annealing the amorphous precursor for 1 h at temperatures 490{degree}C{endash}550{degree}C, was embedded in the retained amorphous matrix. The conventional M{umlt o}ssbauer measurements allowed the identification of three types of phases in the nanocrystalline alloy: (i) the retained amorphous matrix, (ii) the nanocrystalline bcc-Fe phase, whose abundance increased with increasing annealing temperature, and (iii) the interfacial phase formed at the bcc-Fe grain boundaries. The rf collapse effect observed in the M{umlt o}ssbauer spectra of the samples exposed to the rf field of 60.9 MHz permits the study of the magnetic anisotropy in all phases present. The rf collapse effect occurs only in the amorphous phase, thus revealing that the magnetic anisotropy of the amorphous matrix is significantly smaller than that encountered in the nanocrystalline phase. The rf-M{umlt o}ssbauer experiments performed as a function of the rf field intensity allowed the determination of the distributions of the anisotropy fields in the nanocrystalline-amorphous composite alloy. The rf sidebands effect reveals a strong reduction of magnetostriction related to the formation of the nanocrystalline phase. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel; Koza, Michael M.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, B.; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param-more » eter variations.« less

  13. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  14. The migration behavior of atomic clusters in early nanocrystalline process of soft magnetic Finemet alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Guannan; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

    2010-11-01

    The Finemet alloys are commonly used as cores in transformers and generators, stress and field sensors in technological application for their excellent soft magnetic characteristics. To clarify the nanocrystallization mechanism of Finemet especially about the atomic migration in early stage is very essential for developing their distinctive characteristics. In this study, we investigate the migration behavior of atoms in order to clarify the mechanism of the early-stage nanocrystallization in amorphous Finemet alloys. The Fe(73.5)Si(13.5)B9Nb3Cu1 amorphous ribbons were prepared by single-roller melt-spinning process in argon atmosphere, and then annealed at 350 degrees C-400 degrees C for 10 minutes in vacuum. The atom force microscope (AFM) and the coincidence Doppler broadening spectra (CDB) were used to characterize the migration behavior of different atoms in Fe(73.5)Si(13.5)B9Nb3Cu1 amorphous alloy during the early-stage nanocrystallization. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that all annealed samples are in the amorphous state. But the AFM observation shows clearly that there are many small atomic clusters (nuclei) which distribute in the amorphous matrix of the annealed samples. With increasing annealing temperature, there is a significant increase in the amount of atomic clusters and a dramatic drop in the average size of clusters with very limited Cu contention in the samples, which reflect the structural evolution into more homogeneity. The CDB spectrum indicates that the peaks of positron annihilation spectrum are gradually reduced, which means the number of grain boundary and the defects in samples are gradually increased. It can be concluded that more defects are introduced by the formation of atomic clusters through atomic migration during the early-stage nanocrystallization in Fe(73.5)Si(13.5)B9Nb3Cu1 amorphous alloys. PMID:21137965

  15. Formation of a nanocrystalline structure upon severe thermomechanical treatment and its effect on the superplastic properties of a nickel alloy with nonisomorphic second-phase precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valitov, V. A.; Mukhtarov, Sh. Kh.; Raskulova, Yu. A.

    2006-07-01

    Severe thermomechanical processing of the Inconel 718 alloy has been shown to cause the formation of a nanocrystalline (NC) structure with an average grain size of 0.08 μm. The processing includes discontinuous thermomechanical treatment by the scheme of multiaxial isothermal forging at low strain rates and stepwise decrease of the treatment temperature to 0.6 T m. The thermal stability of the NC structure has been studied upon heating and superplastic deformation. It is established that the structure refinement to the NC state decreases the temperature threshold of the low-temperature superplasticity to 0.57 T m (550°C).

  16. Production of biohydrogen by recombinant expression of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hydrogenases catalyze reversible reaction between hydrogen (H2) and proton. Inactivation of hydrogenase by exposure to oxygen is a critical limitation in biohydrogen production since strict anaerobic conditions are required. While [FeFe]-hydrogenases are irreversibly inactivated by oxygen, it was known that [NiFe]-hydrogenases are generally more tolerant to oxygen. The physiological function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 is still ambiguous. We herein investigated the H2 production potential of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 of Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro. The hyaA and hyaB genes corresponding to the small and large subunits of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 core enzyme, respectively, were expressed in BL21, an E. coli strain without H2 producing ability. Results Recombinant BL21 expressing [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 actively produced H2 (12.5 mL H2/(h·L) in 400 mL glucose minimal medium under micro-aerobic condition, whereas the wild type BL21 did not produce H2 even when formate was added as substrate for formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) pathway. The majority of recombinant protein was produced as an insoluble form, with translocation of a small fraction to the membrane. However, the membrane fraction displayed high activity (~65% of total cell fraction), based on unit protein mass. Supplement of nickel and iron to media showed these metals contribute essentially to the function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 as components of catalytic site. In addition, purified E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 using his6-tag displayed oxygen-tolerant activity of ~12 nmol H2/(min·mg protein) under a normal aeration environment, compared to [FeFe]-hydrogenase, which remains inactive under this condition. Conclusions This is the first report on physiological function of E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 for H2 production. We found that [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 has H2 production ability even under the existence of oxygen. This oxygen-tolerant property is a significant advantage because it is not necessary to protect

  17. Self-biased magnetoelectric coupling characteristics of three-phase composite transducers with nanocrystallin soft magnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongyan; Lu, Caijiang; Bing, Han

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) effects in composites consisting of high-permeability Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB), pure nickel (Ni) and piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The FeCuNbSiB ribbons are fabricated on traditional laminates Ni/PZT/Ni through two modes: the attached mode (F-NPN-F) and the laminated mode (F/NPN/F). The F-NPN-F composite sufficiently reveals that the high-permeability FeCuNbSiB ribbons concentrate more magnetic flux in magnetostrictive Ni, which results in the self-biased ME effects of F-NPN-F. For the F/NPN/F composite, the FeCuNbSiB acts as the dynamic driver to enhance the effective piezomagnetic coefficient of Ni. The giant self-biased ME effects of F/NPN/F are because of the internal magnetic field between Ni and FeCuNbSiB due to their different magnetic characteristics. The influences of the numbers of FeCuNbSiB layers ( L) on the resonant ME voltage coefficients ( α ME ,r ) for F-NPN-F and F/NPN/F composites are investigated in detail. The experiments demonstrate that the maximum α ME ,r at zero-biased field is 80 V/cm Oe for F-NPN-F with L = 2, and 85 V/cm Oe for F/NPN/F with L = 4. This paper demonstrates that these two ME composites are suitable for achieving zero-biased ME transducers, power-free magnetic field sensors and energy harvesters.

  18. The effects of fuel type in synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by microwave assisted combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcıoğlu Karakaş, Zeynep; Boncukçuoğlu, Recep; Karakaş, İbrahim H.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, it was investigated the effects of the used fuels on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of nanoparticles in nanoparticle synthesis with microwave assisted combustion method with an important method in quick, simple and low cost at synthesis of the nanoparticles. In this aim, glycine, urea and citric acid were used as fuel, respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. We observed that fuel type is quite effective on magnetic properties and surface properties of the nanoparticles. X-ray difractograms of the obtained nanoparticles were compared with standard powder diffraction cards of NiFe2O4 (JCPDS Card Number 54-0964). The results demonstrated that difractograms are fully compatible with standard reflection peaks. According to the results of the XRD analysis, the highest crystallinity was observed at nanoparticles synthesized with glycine. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared with urea has the highest surface area. The micrographs of SEM showed that all of the nanoparticles have nano-crystalline behaviour and particles indication cubic shape. VSM analysis demonstrated that the type of fuel used for synthesis is highly effective a parameter on magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

  19. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline FeCuNb(Sb/W)SiB alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Degro, J.; Vojtanik, P.; Konc, M.; Zentko, A.; Csach, K.; Ocelik, V.

    1994-03-01

    The magnetic relaxation {Delta}r/r, the perminvar critical field H{sub CR}, the initial susceptibility {chi}{sub 10}, the coercive field H{sub c} as a function of annealing temperature in Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 2.95}Sb{sub 0.05}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} and Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}W{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} alloys were investigated. DSC measurements and thermomagnetic analyses were also done. The results using random anisotropy model can be explained.

  20. [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 surpasses platinum as an electrode for H2 oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Eguchi, Shigenobu; Nakai, Hidetaka; Hibino, Takashi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2014-08-18

    Reported herein is an electrode for dihydrogen (H2) oxidation, and it is based on [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 ([NiFe]S77). It has a 637 times higher mass activity than Pt (calculated based on 1 mg of [NiFe]S77 or Pt) at 50 mV in a hydrogen half-cell. The [NiFe]S77 electrode is also stable in air and, unlike Pt, can be recovered 100 % after poisoning by carbon monoxide. Following characterization of the [NiFe]S77 electrode, a fuel cell comprising a [NiFe]S77 anode and Pt cathode was constructed and shown to have a a higher power density than that achievable by Pt. PMID:24895095

  1. Structural, thermal, and photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline Cr3Ge produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates, P. B.; Maliska, A. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Poffo, C. M.; Borges, Z. V.; de Lima, J. C.; de Biasi, R. S.

    2015-10-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Cr-Ge system suggested that it was possible to produce a nanostructured Cr3Ge phase by mechanical alloying. The same analysis showed that, due to low activation energies, Cr-poor crystalline and/or amorphous alloy could also be formed. In fact, when the experiment was performed, Cr11Ge19 and amorphous phases were present for small milling times. For milling times larger than 15 h these additional phases decomposed and only the nanostructured Cr3Ge phase remained up to the highest milling time used (32 h). From the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the Avrami exponent n was obtained, indicating that the nucleation and growth of the nanostructured Cr3Ge phase may be restricted to one or two dimensions, where the Cr and Ge atoms diffuse along the surface and grain boundaries. In addition, contributions from three-dimensional diffusion with a constant nucleation rate may be present. The thermal diffusivity of the nanostructured Cr3Ge phase was determined by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Structural, thermal, and photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}Ge produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Prates, P. B.; Maliska, A. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Borges, Z. V.; Lima, J. C. de

    2015-10-21

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Cr-Ge system suggested that it was possible to produce a nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase by mechanical alloying. The same analysis showed that, due to low activation energies, Cr-poor crystalline and/or amorphous alloy could also be formed. In fact, when the experiment was performed, Cr{sub 11}Ge{sub 19} and amorphous phases were present for small milling times. For milling times larger than 15 h these additional phases decomposed and only the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase remained up to the highest milling time used (32 h). From the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the Avrami exponent n was obtained, indicating that the nucleation and growth of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase may be restricted to one or two dimensions, where the Cr and Ge atoms diffuse along the surface and grain boundaries. In addition, contributions from three-dimensional diffusion with a constant nucleation rate may be present. The thermal diffusivity of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase was determined by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  3. Determination of Microstructural Parameters of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Manafi, Sahebali

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues. HA can support bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications. In this research, HA nanostructure was synthesized by mechanical alloying method. Phase development, particle size and morphology of HA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. XRD pattern has been used to determination of the microstructural parameters (crystallite size, lattice parameters and crystallinity percent) by Williamson-Hall equation, Nelson-Riley method and calculating the areas under the peaks, respectively. The crystallite size and particle size of HA powders were in nanometric scales. SEM images showed that some parts of HA particles have agglomerates. The ratio of lattice parameters of synthetic hydroxyapatite (c/a = 0.73) was determined in this study is the same as natural hydroxyapatite structure.

  4. Kinetics of crystallization in FeB based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Nasab, Farzad; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Beitollahi, Ali; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-06-01

    An attempt is made to study the effect of substituting Si and Cu atoms for B in Fe84B16 alloys on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the resulting melt spun compositions (i.e., Fe84B14Si2 and Fe84B12Si3.3Cu0.7). As-spun and annealed samples were characterized by various techniques to investigate their crystallization kinetics and the magnetic properties of the resulting microstructures. Experiments have revealed that Fe84B12Si3.3Cu0.7 composition exhibits the optimum magnetic properties of MS=1.92 T and HC=11 A/m among the three samples under study.

  5. Purification and Characterization of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Heald, Steve M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Sybirna, Kateryna; Bottin, Herve; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-08-02

    The γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 possesses a periplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenase (MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase) that was implicated in both H2 production and oxidation as well as technetium [Tc(VII)] reduction. To characterize the roles of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase in these proposed reactions, the genes encoding both subunits of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase were cloned into a protein expression vector. The resulting plasmid was transformed into a MR-1 mutant deficient in H2 formation. Expression of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase in trans restored the mutant’s ability to produce H2 at 37% of that for wild type. Following expression, MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase was purified to near homogeneity. The purified MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase could couple H2 oxidation to reduction of Tc(VII) and methyl viologen directly. Change of the buffers used affected MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase-mediated Tc(VII) but not methyl viologen reductions. Under the conditions tested, Tc(VII) reduction was complete in Tris buffer but not in HEPES buffer. The reduced Tc(IV) was soluble in Tris buffer but insoluble in HEPES buffer. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Tc(IV) precipitates formed in HEPES buffer were packed with crystallites. Although X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements confirmed that the reduction products found in both buffers were Tc(IV), extended X-ray adsorption fine-structure measurements revealed that these products were very different. While the product in Tris buffer could not be determined, the Tc(IV) product in HEPES buffer was very similar to Tc(IV)O2•nH2O. These results shows for the first time that MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase is a bidirectional enzyme that catalyzes both H2 formation and oxidation as well as Tc(VII) reduction directly by coupling H2 oxidation.

  6. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of monochloroacetic acid in wastewater using Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by ball milling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xu, Fuyuan; Zhao, Jianzhuang; Jia, Linfang; Wu, Kunming

    2015-09-01

    Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is a chemically stable and biologically toxic pollutant. It is often generated during the production of the pesticide dimethoate. Conventional wastewater treatment processes have difficulty degrading it. In this work, the dechlorination effects of Ni-Fe bimetal prepared using ball milling (BM) technology for the high concentrations of MCA in wastewater were examined. The MCA in aqueous solution was found to be degraded efficiently by the Ni-Fe bimetal. However, S-(methoxycarbonyl) methyl O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (SMOPD) in wastewater, a by-product of the dimethoate production process, significantly inhibited the reductive dechlorination activity of Ni-Fe bimetal. Increasing the reaction temperature in the MCA wastewater enhanced the reduction activity of the Ni-Fe bimetal effectively. Oxygen was found to be unfavorable to dechlorination. Sealing the reaction to prevent oxidation was found to render the degradation process more efficient. The process retained over 88% efficiency after 10 treatment cycles with 50 g/L of Ni-Fe bimetal under field conditions. PMID:25976331

  7. Magnetic resonance of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles in the gigahertz range

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report an adjustable magnetic resonance frequency from 1.45 to 2.54 GHz for NiFe2O4 nanoparticles which were prepared by a sol–gel process. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results indicate that the samples are polycrystalline nanoparticles, and the size of the particles increases obviously with the thermal treatment temperature. The consequence of the surface composition suggests that the oxygen defects are present in the nanoparticle surface, and this surface magnetic state can show a strong surface anisotropy. With decreasing size of the particle, the surface magnetic effect is predominant, resulting in an increase of resonance frequency for NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. This finding provides a new route for NiFe2O4 materials that can be used in the gigahertz range. PMID:24083340

  8. Mechanism of inhibition of NiFe hydrogenase by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, Pierre; Etienne, Emilien; Dementin, Sébastien; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Léger, Christophe; Burlat, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenases reversibly catalyze the oxidation of molecular hydrogen and are inhibited by several small molecules including O2, CO and NO. In the present work, we investigate the mechanism of inhibition by NO of the oxygen-sensitive NiFe hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans by coupling site-directed mutagenesis, protein film voltammetry (PFV) and EPR spectroscopy. We show that micromolar NO strongly inhibits NiFe hydrogenase and that the mechanism of inhibition is complex, with NO targeting several metallic sites in the protein. NO reacts readily at the NiFe active site according to a two-step mechanism. The first and faster step is the reversible binding of NO to the active site followed by a slower and irreversible transformation at the active site. NO also induces irreversible damage of the iron-sulfur centers chain. We give direct evidence of preferential nitrosylation of the medial [3Fe-4S] to form dinitrosyl-iron complexes. PMID:26827939

  9. Tensile Properties and Deformation Characteristics of a Ni-Fe-Base Superalloy for Steam Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhihong; Gu, Yuefeng; Yuan, Yong; Shi, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Fe-base superalloys due to their good manufacturability and low cost are the proper candidates for boiler materials in advanced power plants. The major concerns with Ni-Fe-base superalloys are the insufficient mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. In this paper, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture characteristics of a Ni-Fe-base superalloy primarily strengthened by γ' precipitates have been investigated from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). The results showed a gradual decrease in the strength up to about 973 K (700 °C) followed by a rapid drop above this temperature and a ductility minimum at around 973 K (700 °C). The fracture surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were determined by the observation of deformed microstructures using transmission electron microscopy. An attempt has been made to correlate the tensile properties and fracture characteristics at different temperatures with the observed deformation mechanisms.

  10. Electrical manipulation of ferromagnetic NiFe by antiferromagnetic IrMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshitoyan, V.; Ciccarelli, C.; Mihai, A. P.; Ali, M.; Irvine, A. C.; Moore, T. A.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that an antiferromagnet can be employed for a highly efficient electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet. In our study, we use an electrical detection technique of the ferromagnetic resonance driven by an in-plane ac current in a NiFe/IrMn bilayer. At room temperature, we observe antidampinglike spin torque acting on the NiFe ferromagnet, generated by an in-plane current driven through the IrMn antiferromagnet. A large enhancement of the torque, characterized by an effective spin-Hall angle exceeding most heavy transition metals, correlates with the presence of the exchange-bias field at the NiFe/IrMn interface. It highlights that, in addition to the strong spin-orbit coupling, the antiferromagnetic order in IrMn governs the observed phenomenon.

  11. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Lindsey A.; Parkin, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  12. Strong magnetization damping induced by Ag nanostructures in Ag/NiFe/Ag trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley Domínguez, D.; da Silva, G. L.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2013-07-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance has been used to investigate the magnetization relaxation in trilayers of Ag(t)/NiFe(10 nm)/Ag(t), sputter deposited on Si(001) where the thickness of the Ag layer varied from 0 nm to 24 nm. In the first stages of formation, the Ag layers form islands that work as mold to imprint defects or inhomogeneities on the NiFe film surface. The magnetic inhomogeneities and defects imprinted on the surface of the NiFe film act as extrinsic sources of magnetization relaxation in addition to the intrinsic Gilbert damping mechanism. Weak inhomogeneities are associated to the two-magnon scattering source and the strong inhomogeneities are associated to the fluctuations of the local magnetization. By adding the three different sources of magnetization damping, we were able to explain the azimuthal dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth.

  13. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Lindsey A; Parkin, Alison

    2016-02-15

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  14. High-sensitivity planar Hall sensor based on simple gaint magneto resistance NiFe/Cu/NiFe structure for biochip application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Dinh Tu; Danh Tran, Mau; Nguyen, Huu Duc; Binh Nguyen, Hai

    2013-03-01

    The planar Hall effect (PHE) sensor based on a simple giant magneto resistance (GMR) trilayer structure NiFe/Cu/NiFe has been designed and fabricated successfully using conventional clean room fabrication methods. The PHE sensor is integrated by 24 sensor patterns with dimensions of 50 × 50 μm. Influence of individual layer thickness to sensitivity of sensor has been investigated. Sensitivity and planar Hall voltage increases with the decrease of Cu-layer thickness. The results are discussed in terms of the reinforcement of the antiferromagnetic interaction between NiFe layers and shunting current through the layer Cu. The optimum configuration has been found in the structure with the Cu-layer of 1 nm. In this case a single planar Hall effect sensor exhibits a high sensitivity of about 8 μV Oe-1 and a maximal of the signal change as large as ▵V ˜ 55 μV. These values are comparable to those of the typical PHE sensor based on complex GMR spin-valve structure. With a high sensitivity and simple structure, this sensor is very promising for practical detection of magnetic beads and identifying multiple biological agents in the environment.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allafchian, Alireza; Jalali, Seyed Amir Hossein; Bahramian, Hamid; Ahmadvand, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    We have described a facile fabrication of silver deposited on the TiO2, Poly Acrylonitrile Co Maleic Anhydride (PAMA) polymer and nickel ferrite composite (NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2) through a three-step procedure. A pre-synthesized NiFe2O4 was first coated with PAMA polymer and then Ag-TiO2 was deposited on the surface of PAMA polymer shell. After the characterization of this three-component composite by various techniques, such as FTIR, XRD, FESEM, BET, TEM and VSM, it was impregnated in standard antibiotic discs. The antibacterial activity of NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite was investigated against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria by employing disc diffusion assay and then compared with that of naked NiFe2O4, NiFe2O4/Ag, AgNPs and NiFe2O4/PAMA. The results demonstrated that the AgNPs, when embedded in TiO2 and combined with NiFe2O4/PAMA, became an excellent antibacterial agent. The NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite could be readily separated from water solution after the disinfection process by applying an external magnetic field.

  16. Atomic simulation of mechanical behavior of Mg in a super-lattice of nanocrystalline Mg and amorphous Mg-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H. Y.; An, M. R.; Li, Y. L. Deng, Q.

    2014-12-07

    The mechanical properties of a super-lattice architecture composed of nanocrystalline Mg and Mg-Al amorphous alloy are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The results indicate that deformation mechanism of nanocrystalline Mg is obviously affected by the amorphous boundary spacing and temperature. The strength of the material increases with the decrease of amorphous boundary spacing, presenting a Hall-Petch effect at both 10 K and 300 K. A stress platform and following stiffness softening, as well as a linear strengthening in the plastic stage, are observed when the amorphous boundary spacing below 8.792 nm at 10 K. The implying reason may be that the amorphous boundary acts as the dislocations emission and absorption source. However, the second stress peak is not observed for the models at 300 K. Instead, the flow stress in plastic stage is a nearly constant value. The simulation demonstrates the emergence of the new grain, accompanied by the deformation twins and stacking faults associated with the plastic behaviors at 300 K. The general conclusions derived from this work may provide a guideline for the design of high-performance hexagonal close-packed metals.

  17. Degradation of tetrachloromethane and tetrachloroethene by Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Liu, F.; Li, H. D.

    2009-09-01

    The study investigated the potential of nanoscale Ni/Fe bimetallic particles reduction for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). BET specific surface areas of the laboratory synthesized Ni/Fe (2% wt.) particle, with diameter on the order of 20-60nm, was approximately 52.61m2/g. Batch studies demonstrated that rapid transformations of PCE and CT were achieved with nanoscale Ni/Fe particles. The degradation process appeared to be pseudo-first-order. Values of the surface area normalized rate coefficients (KSA) of PCE and CT for the reaction with nano Ni/Fe were 2.068mL/(m2·h), 10.08mL/(m2·h), respectively. This indicated that the degradation rate of CT was about 5 times larger than that of PCE under comparable environmental condition. Significant amounts of DCM were detected for the reaction with CT unlike the PCE transformation where ethane was the only end-product, amount to 103% of the initial PCE carbon. Both DCM (~15%) and methane (~27%) were the major end products for CT reaction. Based on the rapid rate of degradation and no or less chlorinated byproducts, the nanoscale particles technology offered great opportunities for both fundamental research and technological application for remediation of contaminated ground water.

  18. Ternary NiFeMn layered double hydroxides as highly-efficient oxygen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyi; Qian, Li; Tian, Yang; Li, Yaping; Sun, Xiaoming; Duan, Xue

    2016-01-18

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a family of layer materials that receive heightened attention. Herein a ternary NiFeMn-LDH is investigated with superior oxygen evolution activity, which is attributed to the Mn(4+) doping in the intralayer, which modifies the electronic structure and improves the conductivity of the electrocatalyst. PMID:26579843

  19. Magnetic NiFe/Au barcode nanowires with self-powered motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, In Tak; Yoon, Seung Jae; Kim, Bong Gun; Lee, Ji Sung; An, Boo Hyun; Ju, Jae-Seon; Wu, Jun Hua; Kim, Young Keun

    2012-04-01

    NiFe/Au barcode nanowires were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition using anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate, comprising magnetic, catalytic, and optical segments, respectively. The self-powered motion of the BNWs due to the catalytic reaction was observed in aqueous H2O2. The approach demonstrates how sophistication in barcode nanoarchitecture can be used to synthesize a wide range of hybrid materials.

  20. Study of magnetic behavior in ball-milled nanocrystalline Fe-50 at.%Al alloy as a function of milling time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, S.; Shukla, R.; Kumar, A.; Vyas, A.; Brajpuriya, R.

    2015-04-01

    Ball milling technique has been extensively used to prepare different metastable states with nanocrystalline microstructures from intermetallic compounds. The present study was made on the identification of the changes in magnetic and electronic properties as a result of high-energy ball milling of Fe-50 at.%Al alloy samples. The phase formation and physical properties of the alloys were determined as a function of milling time by means of Mössbauer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Mössbauer results show the formation of nanostructured body-centered cubic (BCC) FeAl alloy only after 5 h of mechanical milling and the same is also confirmed by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Mössbauer studies further confirm that there is magnetic behavior retention in the FeAl alloy samples even after 5 h of milling but magnetization decreases as the milling time increases. The reason for the same is due to the shocks and fracturing of the Al atoms embedded in the sites of Fe and as a result of which Fe-Fe nearest neighbors decreases. Secondly, with the increase in milling time, the particle size and the number density of equiatomic BCC Fe50Al50 grains decrease while the volume of grain boundary containing a solid solution of BCC FeAl and concentration of Al in a solid solution of BCC FeAl at the grain boundary increases as a result of which magnetization decreases. The shift in the binding energy of Fe2p and Al2p core level towards higher binding energy also supports the alloy formation after milling.

  1. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Tamisari, M.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2015-05-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  2. Fabrication of Magnetic NiFe2O4 Nanorods and Their Removal Performances of Congo Red.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunlong; Lu, Lu; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Dan; Ma, Liyu; Liu, Ruijiang

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic NiFe2O4 nanorods were prepared successfully via a facile solution combustion process, the morphology, chemical composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of as-prepared NiFe2O4 nanorods were investigated by XRD, VSM, SEM, TEM, EDX, SAED and BET techniques. The magnetic NiFe2O4 nanorods were characterized with average length of about 130 nm, the diameter of around 25 nm, the specific magnetization of 105.2 Am2/kg, and the specific surface area of 88.8 m2/g. The nanorods were employed to remove congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions, the adsorption kinetic and adsorption isotherm of CR onto NiFe2O4 nanorods at room temperature were investigated. The regression equation was found in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model in a range of initial CR concentrations of 80-400 mg/L. Compared with Freundlich and Temkin models, Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm of CR onto NiFe2O4 nanorods better, which suggested that the adsorption of CR onto NiFe2O4 nanorods was a monolayer absorbing mechanism. Meanwhile, the adsorption capacity of CR onto NiFe2O4 nanorods is large when pH is less than 9. PMID:27427682

  3. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G. Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.; Tamisari, M.

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  4. Hierachical Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles through epitaxial growth of γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on in situ formed Ni nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Herzberger, Jana; Natalio, Filipe; Köhler, Oskar; Branscheid, Robert; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Panthöfer, Martin; Kolb, Ute; Frey, Holger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water. PMID:26818395

  5. Improvement of in-plane anisotropy field in FeCoB/NiFe/Si thin films by Kr sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Ito, S.; Nakagawa, S.

    2007-03-01

    Deterioration of magnetic anisotropy field in the FeCoB/NiFe/Si trilayers deposited on glass substrates was investigated. It was found that the choice of Kr as sputtering gas instead of Ar was quite effective to improve the soft magnetic characteristics of FeCoB/NiFe/Si thin films deposited on glass substrates. Kr sputtering is effective to reduce compressive residual stress in the film. The rotatable magnetic anisotropy observed in the FeCoB/NiFe/Si films deposited by Ar sputtering disappeared in the film deposited by Kr sputtering, even though they are prepared on glass disk substrates.

  6. Morphology and composition of chalcopyrite, chromite, Cu, Ni-Fe, pentlandite, and troilite in vugs of 76015 and 76215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.; Clanton, U. S.; Laughon, R. B.; Mckay, D. S.; Usselman, T. M.; Fuhrman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Vugs from 76015 and 76215 are lined with euhedral crystals of plagioclase, pyroxene, ilmenite, Ni-Fe, and troilite. Smaller crystals of chromite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite occur on the surface of the troilite in 76015. Wire Cu and dendritic-metallic Cu occurs with metallic Ni-Fe and troilite in some vugs of 76215. Troilite in both samples may have crystallized from an immiscible sulfide liquid. With falling temperature, chalcopyrite, and pentlandite may have exsolved from the troilite in 76015. By contrast, metallic Cu may have formed in 76215 by thermal breakdown of a bornite, troilite, and Ni-Fe assemblage which originally crystallized from a low-Ni immiscible sulfide liquid.

  7. Electrodeposited anisotropic NiFe 45/55 thin films for high-frequency micro-inductor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Terence; Wang, Ningning; Kulkarni, Santosh; Meere, Ronan; Rhen, Fernando M. F.; Roy, Saibal; O'Mathuna, S. C.

    2010-05-01

    Micro-inductors, with an electrodeposited nickel-iron core have been fabricated on silicon substrates, and have been characterized in the frequency range up to 100 MHz. The core consists of a nickel iron, 45:55 alloy which is deposited using pulse-reverse electroplating in the presence of a magnetic field to control anisotropy. The operation of the inductors with low loss at high-frequency critically depends on core thickness, which is used to control eddy-current loss as the frequency is increased. However, it is shown that the permeability of NiFe 45/55 has a dependency on thickness, and decreases with increasing thickness. For example, the permeability is measured to be approximately 1000 for a 1-μm-thick film, decreasing to approximately 400 for a 5-μm-thick film. In order to correctly design micro-inductors for operation up to 100 MHz, it is important that this characteristic of the material is taken into account.

  8. Point defect processes in neutron irradiated Ni, Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Ti-added modified SUS316SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.

    2013-05-01

    The defect structures in Ni, Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Ti-added modified SUS316SS (modified SUS316) were examined after neutron irradiation below 0.3 dpa by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and Belgian Reactor 2 to compare their defect structural evolution. The growth behaviour of interstitial-type dislocation loops (I-loops), stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) and voids was found to be quite different among these specimens. I-loops developed at lower temperatures in Ni than in Fe-15Cr-16Ni and modified SUS316, and more swelling occurred in Ni than in Fe-15Cr-16Ni. Finally, there were no voids in modified SUS316. These results were analysed in terms of the I-loop energy. A large discrepancy was found between the analytical results and experimental observations for Ni and modified SUS316, which suggests the formation of unfaulted I-loops directly from collision cascades. The growth of SFTs was detected in Fe-15Cr-16Ni and modified SUS316, and can be explained by a change in the dislocation bias of SFTs resulting from the absorption of alloying elements.

  9. Partitioning behavior of Al in a nanocrystalline Fe{sub 71.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1}Al{sub 2} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.J.; Todd, I.; Davies, H.A.; Cerezo, A.; Gibbs, M.R.J.; Kendall, D.; Major, R.V.

    1999-11-05

    The nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu alloy, known as FINEMET, is now a well established commercial soft magnetic material exhibiting excellent permeability while maintaining a high saturation magnetization. It is produced by melt-spinning to form a ribbon with an amorphous structure. The purpose of this investigation was to use 3-dimensional atom probe microanalysis to experimentally quantify the local phase chemistries of this nanocomposite microstructure, with particular reference to the partitioning behavior of the Al.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and near in situ analysis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Trevor P; Fay, Mike; Zhu, Yanqiu; Brown, Paul D

    2012-11-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis (HS) of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated using a novel valve-assisted pressure autoclave. This approach has facilitated the rapid quenching of hydrothermal suspensions into liquid nitrogen, providing 'snapshots' representative of the near in situ physical state of the synthesis reaction products as a function of known temperature. The acquired samples were examined using complementary characterisation techniques of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The HS of NiFe2O4 NPs (< 25 nm) at pH - 8 proceeded through the formation and dissolution of intermediate amorphous Fe(OH)3 and FeNi3Cl2(OH)8 x H2O sheets with increasing reaction temperature. The near in situ nature of the HS suspension resulted in the formation of NaCI by-product during drying in advance of XRD investigation, not during the HS process. PMID:23421289

  11. Effects of two-temperature model on cascade evolution in Ni and NiFe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samolyuk, German D.; Xue, Haizhou; Bei, Hongbin; Weber, William J.

    2016-07-05

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of Ni ion cascades in Ni and equiatomic NiFe under the following conditions: (a) classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations without consideration of electronic energy loss, (b) classical MD simulations with the electronic stopping included, and (c) using the coupled two-temperature MD (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions. Our results indicate that the electronic e ects are more profound in the higher energy cascades and that the 2T-MD model results in a smaller amount of surviving damage and smaller defect clusters, while less damage is produced in NiFe than inmore » Ni.« less

  12. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit. PMID:27433687

  13. Metal — Insulator Transition-like in Nano-Crystallized Ni-Fe-Zr Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, F.; Obaidat, I. M.; Benkraouda, M.

    2007-08-01

    Ni-Fe-Zr based Metallic glassy ribbons were prepared by melt spinning technique. The compositional and structural integrity of the melt spun ribbons were verified by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDX and DSC. 5 to 7 cm long ribbons of Ni-Fe-Zr based metallic glasses with different compositions were sealed inside quartz ampoules under vacuum. The sealed metallic glassy ribbons were nano-crystallized at 973 K for varying periods of time. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of the nano-crystallized samples had been investigated over the temperature range 25-280 K. The crystallized ribbons at 973 K for periods for less than 4 hours displayed insulating electrical behavior like at low temperatures, while those annealed for more than 4 hours showed metallic behavior like. Nonlinear I-V characteristics were also observed at low temperatures for samples annealed for less than four hours.

  14. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junctions

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes. PMID:26868638

  15. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-02-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes.

  16. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junctions.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes. PMID:26868638

  17. Hydriding of TiZrNiFe nanocompounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żywczak, A.; Shinya, Daigo; Gondek, Ł.; Takasaki, Akito; Figiel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ti-based quasicrystals belong to the second largest group of the stable quasicrystals, showing attractive properties as hydrogen storage materials. The Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17 intermetallic compound forms an icosahedral ( i-phase) structure, in which Ti and Zr atoms possess very good chemical affinity for hydrogen absorption. We modified the Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17 compounds by substituting 3d metals (iron) for Ni to obtain amorphous phase. The samples were produced by mechanical alloying. The 3d metal atoms are located in the same positions as nickel. The structural characterization was made by means of XRD measurements. Thermodynamic properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The obtained amorphous phases Ti 45Zr 38Ni (9,13)Fe (8,4) transform to the i-phase at the similar temperature range as Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17. The final concentration of absorbed hydrogen depends on the amount of Fe. When increasing the amount of iron, the hydrogen release temperature becomes lower. After hydriding, the samples decompose into simple metal hydrides.

  18. Constraints on Explosive Silicon Burning in Core-collapse Supernovae from Measured Ni/Fe Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Timmes, F. X.; Magkotsios, G.; Sim, S. A.; Fransson, C.; Spyromilio, J.; Müller, B.; Heger, A.; Sollerman, J.; Smartt, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of explosive nucleosynthesis yields in core-collapse supernovae provide tests for explosion models. We investigate constraints on explosive conditions derivable from measured amounts of nickel and iron after radioactive decays using nucleosynthesis networks with parameterized thermodynamic trajectories. The Ni/Fe ratio is for most regimes dominated by the production ratio of 58Ni/(54Fe + 56Ni), which tends to grow with higher neutron excess and with higher entropy. For SN 2012ec, a supernova (SN) that produced a Ni/Fe ratio of 3.4 ± 1.2 times solar, we find that burning of a fuel with neutron excess η ≈ 6× {10}-3 is required. Unless the progenitor metallicity is over five times solar, the only layer in the progenitor with such a neutron excess is the silicon shell. SNe producing large amounts of stable nickel thus suggest that this deep-lying layer can be, at least partially, ejected in the explosion. We find that common spherically symmetric models of {M}{ZAMS}≲ 13 {M}⊙ stars exploding with a delay time of less than one second ({M}{cut}\\lt 1.5 {M}⊙ ) are able to achieve such silicon-shell ejection. SNe that produce solar or subsolar Ni/Fe ratios, such as SN 1987A, must instead have burnt and ejected only oxygen-shell material, which allows a lower limit to the mass cut to be set. Finally, we find that the extreme Ni/Fe value of 60-75 times solar derived for the Crab cannot be reproduced by any realistic entropy burning outside the iron core, and neutrino-neutronization obtained in electron capture models remains the only viable explanation.

  19. Microstructure and magnetic properties in FeCoB/NiFe double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Sok-hyun; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2004-05-01

    The origin of high anisotropy field Hk and low coercivity Hc of Fe-Co-B/Ni-Fe double layered film with high 4 πMs was investigated. In-plane and out-of-plane XRD studies clarified that the lattice spacing of planes along the easy axis direction was expanded than that along the hard axis direction. The fact was confirmed that such stress caused by the lattice expansion had significant effects on the magnetoelastic energy in this double layer.

  20. [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenase diversity, mechanism, and maturation.

    PubMed

    Peters, John W; Schut, Gerrit J; Boyd, Eric S; Mulder, David W; Shepard, Eric M; Broderick, Joan B; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-06-01

    The [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the formal interconversion between hydrogen and protons and electrons, possess characteristic non-protein ligands at their catalytic sites and thus share common mechanistic features. Despite the similarities between these two types of hydrogenases, they clearly have distinct evolutionary origins and likely emerged from different selective pressures. [FeFe]-hydrogenases are widely distributed in fermentative anaerobic microorganisms and likely evolved under selective pressure to couple hydrogen production to the recycling of electron carriers that accumulate during anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, many [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze hydrogen oxidation as part of energy metabolism and were likely key enzymes in early life and arguably represent the predecessors of modern respiratory metabolism. Although the reversible combination of protons and electrons to generate hydrogen gas is the simplest of chemical reactions, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases have distinct mechanisms and differ in the fundamental chemistry associated with proton transfer and control of electron flow that also help to define catalytic bias. A unifying feature of these enzymes is that hydrogen activation itself has been restricted to one solution involving diatomic ligands (carbon monoxide and cyanide) bound to an Fe ion. On the other hand, and quite remarkably, the biosynthetic mechanisms to produce these ligands are exclusive to each type of enzyme. Furthermore, these mechanisms represent two independent solutions to the formation of complex bioinorganic active sites for catalyzing the simplest of chemical reactions, reversible hydrogen oxidation. As such, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases are arguably the most profound case of convergent evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases. PMID:25461840

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  2. Magnetic properties of mixed spinel BaTiO3-NiFe2O4 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Babusona; Dalal, Biswajit; Dev Ashok, Vishal; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Mitra, Amitava; De, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    Solid solution of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) and barium titanate (BaTiO3), (100-x)BaTiO3-(x) NiFe2O4 has been prepared by solid state reaction. Compressive strain is developed in NiFe2O4 due to mutual structural interaction across the interface of NiFe2O4 and BaTiO3 phases. Quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photo electron spectrum suggest mixed spinel structure of NiFe2O4. A systematic study of composition dependence of composite indicates BaTiO3 causes a random distribution of Fe and Ni cations among octahedral and tetrahedral sites during non-equilibrium growth of NiFe2O4. The degree of inversion decreases monotonically from 0.97 to 0.75 with increase of BaTiO3 content. Temperature dependence of magnetization has been analyzed by four sublattice model to describe complex magnetic exchange interactions in mixed spinel phase. Curie temperature and saturation magnetization decrease with increase of BaTiO3 concentration. Enhancement of strain and larger occupancy of Ni2+ at tetrahedral site increase coercivity up to 200 Oe. Magnetostructual coupling induced by BaTiO3 improves coercivity in NiFe2O4. An increase in the demagnetization and homogeneity in magnetization process in NiFe2O4 is observed due to the interaction with diamagnetic BaTiO3.

  3. The biosynthetic routes for carbon monoxide and cyanide in the Ni-Fe active site of hydrogenases are different.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Winfried; Blokesch, Melanie; Böck, August; Albracht, Simon P J

    2005-01-17

    The incorporation of carbon into the carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands of [NiFe]-hydrogenases has been investigated by using (13)C labelling in infrared studies of the Allochromatium vinosum enzyme and by (14)C labelling experiments with overproduced Hyp proteins from Escherichia coli. The results suggest that the biosynthetic routes of the carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands in [NiFe]-hydrogenases are different. PMID:15642360

  4. He, Ne and Ar in chondritic Ni-Fe as irradiation hardness sensors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Funk, H.; Schultz, L.; Signer, P.

    1973-01-01

    Noble gas analyses of the Ni-Fe of 9 L, 5 H, and 2 LL chondrites quantitatively support previous suggestions of radiogenic He-4 recoil and He-3 deficits. Furthermore, noble gases in the Ni-Fe show evidence for in situ produced radiogenic He-4 and in some cases for recoil loss of Ar-38 and gain of Ne-21. The ratio of spallogenic Ar-38 and Ne-21 in the metal phase is found to correlate strongly with He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-22/Ne-21 in bulk samples of these chondrites. This is proof of the dependence of these ratios on the irradiation hardness experienced by the meteoroid in space. 'Hardness indices' n equals 1.9-2.2 are found, indicating that on the average the stone meteoroids from which the samples came were smaller in mass than iron meteoroids. The spallogenic Ne-21/Ar-38 ratio in metallic Ni-Fe can be used with the semi-empirical production model deduced from the Grant iron meteorite to calibrate spallogenic He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-21/Ar-38 in bulk samples of L, LL and H chondrites for meteoroid size and sample location allowing the estimation of minimal meteoroid masses.

  5. Magnetic properties of Ni-Fe nanowire arrays: effect of template material and deposition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Aravamudhan, Shyan; Goddard, Paul A; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the magnetic properties of arrays of Ni-Fe nanowires electrodeposited in different template materials such as porous silicon, polycarbonate and alumina. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of template material, applied magnetic field (parallel and perpendicular) during deposition, wire length, as well as magnetic field orientation during measurement. The results show that application of magnetic field during deposition strongly influences the c-axis preferred orientation growth of Ni-Fe nanowires. The samples with magnetic field perpendicular to template plane during deposition exhibits strong perpendicular anisotropy with greatly enhanced coercivity and squareness ratio, particularly in Ni-Fe nanowires deposited in polycarbonate templates. In case of polycarbonate template, as magnetic field during deposition increases, both coercivity and squareness ratio also increase. The wire length dependence was also measured for polycarbonate templates. As wire length increases, coercivity and squarness ratio decrease, but saturation field increases. Such magnetic behavior (dependence on template material, magnetic field, wire length) can be qualitatively explained by preferential growth phenomena, dipolar interactions among nanowires, and perpendicular shape anisotropy in individual nanowires.

  6. Magnetic and electrical characterization of nickel-rich NiFe thin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition and subsequent thermal reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, A. P.; Zierold, R.; Gooth, J.; Dendooven, J.; Detavernier, C.; Escrig, J.; Nielsch, K.

    2016-08-01

    Nickel-rich NiFe thin films (Ni92Fe8, Ni89Fe11 and Ni83Fe17) were prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a subsequent thermal reduction process. In order to obtain Ni x Fe1‑x O y films, one ALD supercycle was performed according to the following sequence: m NiCp2/O3, with m = 1, 2 or 3, followed by one FeCp2/O3 cycle. The supercycle was repeated n times. The thermal reduction process in hydrogen atmosphere was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction studies as a function of temperature. The metallic nickel iron alloy thin films were investigated and characterized with respect to crystallinity, morphology, resistivity, and magnetism. As proof-of-concept magnetic properties of an array of Ni83Fe17, close to the perfect Permalloy stoichiometry, nanotubes and an isolated tube were investigated.

  7. Magnetic and electrical characterization of nickel-rich NiFe thin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition and subsequent thermal reduction.

    PubMed

    Espejo, A P; Zierold, R; Gooth, J; Dendooven, J; Detavernier, C; Escrig, J; Nielsch, K

    2016-08-26

    Nickel-rich NiFe thin films (Ni92Fe8, Ni89Fe11 and Ni83Fe17) were prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a subsequent thermal reduction process. In order to obtain Ni x Fe1-x O y films, one ALD supercycle was performed according to the following sequence: m NiCp2/O3, with m = 1, 2 or 3, followed by one FeCp2/O3 cycle. The supercycle was repeated n times. The thermal reduction process in hydrogen atmosphere was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction studies as a function of temperature. The metallic nickel iron alloy thin films were investigated and characterized with respect to crystallinity, morphology, resistivity, and magnetism. As proof-of-concept magnetic properties of an array of Ni83Fe17, close to the perfect Permalloy stoichiometry, nanotubes and an isolated tube were investigated. PMID:27454574

  8. Bio-inspired fabrication of hierarchical Ni-Fe-P coated skin collagen fibers for high-performance microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Liao, Xuepin; Zhang, Wenhua; Shi, Bi

    2015-01-21

    In the present investigation, skin collagen fiber (CF) with a well defined hierarchical 3D fibrous structure was employed for the bio-inspired fabrication of high-performance microwave absorption materials. The hierarchical 3D structure of the CF was retained in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites, and the formation of the Ni-Fe-P coating on the CF surface was identified by XRD and XPS analysis. Based on the electromagnetism parameter measurements, the maximum reflection loss (RL) of the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites reached -31.0 dB, and the width of the absorption band where reflection loss values exceeded -10.0 dB covered the whole Ku-band and some parts of the X-band (9.5-18.0 GHz). The complex permittivity and complex permeability measurements indicated that electronic loss and magnetic loss were involved in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites for microwave absorption. In addition, due to the magnetic properties of the Ni-Fe-P coating, these CF@Ni-Fe-P composites exhibited excellent magnetic characteristics with high saturation magnetization and low coercivity values. The present investigation indicates a new possibility for the bio-matrix-based fabrication of high-performance microwave absorbing materials with lightweight and efficient absorption properties. PMID:25484199

  9. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kelvin Y; Wang, Yanbo; Zhao, Yonghao; Chang, Li; Wang, Guocheng; Chen, Zibin; Cao, Yang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Sarrafpour, Babak; Zoellner, Hans; Ringer, Simon P

    2013-08-01

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. PMID:23706243

  10. One-pot synthesis of NiFe layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide composite as an efficient electrocatalyst for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Park, Yoon Bin; Kim, Jae Young; Magesh, Ganesan; Jang, Youn Jeong; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-10-01

    As an efficient non-precious metal catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in electrochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting, NiFe layered double hydroxide (LDH)/reduced graphene oxide (NiFe/RGO) composite is synthesized by a simple solvothermal method in one-pot. NiFe LDHs are uniformly deposited on RGO layers of high electrical conductivity and large surface area. In electrochemical water splitting, NiFe/RGO shows superior OER performance compared to bare NiFe and reference IrO2 with a lower benchmark η10 value (required overpotential to drive 10 mA cm-2) of 0.245 V. Furthermore, NiFe/RGO substantially increases the performance of a hematite photoanode in photoelectrochemical water oxidation, demonstrating its potential as an OER co-catalyst for photoelectrodes.

  11. Catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Ni/Fe nanoparticles prepared in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Deming; Zheng, Yiya; Li, Min; Baig, Shams Ali; Wu, Donglei; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-09-01

    In this study, nickle/iron (Ni/Fe) nanoparticles were synthesized by liquid phase reductive method in the presence of 20 kHz ultrasonic irradiation to improve nanoparticles' disparity and avoid agglomeration. The characterized results showed that this method has obviously modified most of the particles in term of sizes and specific surface areas. Meanwhile, the improved nanoscale Ni/Fe particles were employed for the reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a function of some influential factors (Ni content, Ni/Fe nanoparticles dosage, reaction temperature and initial pH values) and degradation path. Experimental results showed that 2,4-DCP was first adsorbed by Ni/Fe nanoparticles, then quickly reduced to o-chlorophenol (o-CP), p-chlorophenol (p-CP), and finally to phenol (P). The application of ultrasonic irradiation for Ni/Fe nanoparticles synthesis was found to significantly enhance the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP. Consequently, the phenol production rates increased from 68% (in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation) to 87% (in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation) within 180 min. Nearly 96% of 2,4-DCP was removed after 300 min reaction with these optimized conditions: Ni content over Fe(0) 3 wt%, initial 2,4-DCP concentration 20 mg L(-1), Ni/Fe dosage 3 g L(-1), initial pH value 3.0, and reaction temperature 25 °C. The degradation of 2,4-DCP followed pseudo-first-order kinetics reaction and the apparent pseudo-first-order kinetics constant was 0.0737 min(-1). This study suggested that the presence of ultrasonic irradiation in the synthesis of nanoscale Ni/Fe particles could be a promising technique to enhance nanoparticle's disparity and avoid agglomeration. PMID:24679843

  12. Modifying exchange-spring behavior of CoPt/NiFe bilayer by inserting a Pt or Ru spacer

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Jen-Hwa Tsai, C. L.; Lee, C.-M.; Saravanan, P.

    2015-05-07

    We herein explore the possibility of obtaining tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in ordered-CoPt (5 nm)/NiFe(t{sub NiFe}) bilayers through modifying their exchange spring behavior by inserting Pt and Ru-spacers. The tuning process of tilt angle magnetization of NiFe-layer was systematically investigated by varying the Pt or Ru thickness (t{sub Pt} or t{sub Ru}) from 0 to 8 nm at different thicknesses of NiFe (t{sub NiFe} = 1.5, 4.0, and 6.0 nm). Polar magneto-optic Kerr effect (p-MOKE) studies reveal that the bilayers grown in absence of spacers exhibit almost a rectangular hysteresis loop. With the insertion of Pt-spacer, the loop becomes more and more tilted as t{sub Pt} increases; whereas, in the case of Ru-spacer, the nature of the loops is not simply changing in one direction. The estimated SQR{sub ⊥} (= θ{sub r}/θ{sub s}) values from the p-MOKE loops are found to monotonically decrease with increasing t{sub Pt} when t{sub Pt} ≦ 4 nm. In contrast, in the case of Ru-spacer, an oscillatory behavior for the SQR{sub ⊥} values is apparent when t{sub Ru} ≦ 4 nm. As a result, an oscillatory tilted angle of NiFe spin configuration was obtained in the case of Ru-spacer; while a decoupling effect was prominent for the Pt-spacer. The results of present study reveal that the insertion of Pt and Ru-spacers as an appropriate means for realizing tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in the CoPt/NiFe exchange springs.

  13. High-coercivity (NdDy){sub 2}(FeNb){sub 14}B{endash}{alpha}{endash}Fe nanocrystalline alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, M.; Li, F.; Zhou, S.; Wang, R.; Gong, W.

    1997-04-01

    High coercivity, high remanence, and high energy product (NdDy){sub 2}(FeNb){sub 14}B{endash}{alpha}{endash}Fe nanocrystalline alloys containing 0 to 30 wt{percent} {alpha}{endash}Fe have been prepared by melt spinning and subsequent annealing. The best magnetic properties of remanence (B{sub r}), coercivity (H{sub ci}), and maximum energy product [(BH){sub max}] are 1.02 T, 702 kA/m, and 134 kJ/m{sup 3}, respectively, for Nd{sub 8.16}Dy{sub 1}Fe{sub 85.26}Nb{sub 1}B{sub 4.58}. The microstructure consists of a two phase nanocomposite of hard magnetic (NdDy){sub 2}(FeNb){sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}{endash}Fe with an average size of about 30 nm. These small dimensions allow effective exchange coupling between hard and soft magnetic grains and result in the simultaneous enhancement of B{sub r}, H{sub ci}, and (BH){sub max}. A systematic study on the effect of annealing temperature and time on the microstructure and magnetic properties has been carried out. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Novel multifunctional NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids for dye removal by adsorption, photocatalysis and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru; Fu, Yong-Qian; Li, Rong-Rong; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Tao

    2016-04-01

    Novel multifunctional NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids were prepared by a hydrothermal method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA, VSM, BET and UV-vis DRS. The adsorption and photocatalytic performance of NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids were systematically investigated using congo red as a model contaminant. With the introduction of NiFe2O4, NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids can absorb the whole light from 300 nm to 700 nm. The adsorption capacity (221.73 mg g-1) of NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids is higher than those of NiFe2O4, ZnO and mechanically mixed NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids. The removal of congo red solution (20 mg L-1) by NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids was about 94.55% under simulated solar light irradiation for 10 min. rad OH and h+ play important roles in the decolorization of congo red solution by NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids under simulated solar light irradiation. The decolorization efficiency of congo red solution is 97.23% for the fifth time by NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids under simulate solar light irradiation, indicating the high photostability and durability. NO3- and Cl- anions which are ubiquitous components in dye-containing wastewater have negligible influence on the effectiveness of NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids. Moreover, the magnetic NiFe2O4/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated from the reacted solution by an external magnet.

  15. Surface morphology, optical, and electrochromic properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) prepared by sol-gel method: effects of Ni/Fe molar ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhan, Z.; Ghodsi, F. E.; Mazloom, J.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured nickel ferrite (NF) was prepared by the sol-gel method and calcined at 500 °C for 2 h. The effect of Ni/Fe molar ratios (0, 10, 30, 50 %) on structural, morphological, compositional, optical, and magnetic properties of samples was investigated using analytical tools. XRD patterns indicated the presence of hematite phase in the pure and 10 % NF samples. The samples of 30 and 50 % Ni/Fe molar ratios showed the formation of nickel ferrite structure. Using AFM images, power spectrum density analysis were performed for Ni/Fe with different molar ratio. Also the effect of thickness on morphology of 30 % sample was studied. The fractal dimension increases by increasing the Ni/Fe molar ratio. Optical parameters were evaluated by theoretical approach, and compositional dependence of these parameters was discussed comprehensively. Band gap narrowing was observed in nickel ferrite thin films by increasing the nickel contents from 10 to 50 %. Magnetic analysis revealed that increasing nickel content improved the saturation magnetization. Electrochemical measurements indicated that NF thin films have higher total charge density rather than Fe2O3 thin films and the ion storage capacitance of NF thin films increased by increasing the Ni/Fe content.

  16. Influences of intergranular structure on the magnetic properties of directly cast nanocrystalline NdFeCoTiNbBC alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Hong, Y.; Jiao, D. L.; Qiu, Z. G.; Zhou, Q.; Hussain, M.; Liu, Z. W.; Greneche, J. M.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The millimeter-sized Nd9.5Fe61.5Co10Ti2.5Nb0.5B16‑x C x (x  =  0–1.25) alloy rods with various compositions were fabricated by direct casting. Nano-sized hard phase Nd2(FeCo)14B, soft phase ɑ-FeCo, and amorphous phase were observed in all alloys. An optimized amount of carbon additions improved the magnetic properties by enhancing the glass forming ability and forming near single domain-sized Nd2(FeCo)14B grains around the rod surface. Various intergranular structures were observed in the alloys with x  =  0.25–1. Micromagnetic simulation using the images obtained from the magnetic force microscope and transition electron microscope indicates that the distribution and magnetism of the intergranular phase have an important influence on the magnetic properties and demagnetization process of the alloys. A uniformly distributed nonmagnetic intergranular amorphous phase may enhance the magnetic properties, but the coercivity decreases when the amorphous phase is magnetic. It is important to modify the structure and distribution of the inter-grain amorphous phase in order to achieve high hard magnetic properties in these alloys.

  17. Non-local detection of spin dynamics via spin rectification effect in yttrium iron garnet/SiO{sub 2}/NiFe trilayers near simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin

    2015-08-15

    The spin rectification effect (SRE), a phenomenon that generates dc voltages from ac microwave fields incident onto a conducting ferromagnet, has attracted widespread attention due to its high sensitivity to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as well as its relevance to spintronics. Here, we report the non-local detection of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) spin dynamics by measuring SRE voltages from an adjacent conducting NiFe layer up to 200 nm thick. In particular, we detect, within the NiFe layer, SRE voltages stemming from magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) of the adjacent bulk YIG which are excited by a shorted coaxial probe. These non-local SRE voltages within the NiFe layer that originates from YIG MSSWs are present even in 200 nm-thick NiFe films with a 50 nm thick SiO{sub 2} spacer between NiFe and YIG, thus strongly ruling out the mechanism of spin-pumping induced inverse spin Hall effect in NiFe as the source of these voltages. This long-range influence of YIG dynamics is suggested to be mediated by dynamic fields generated from YIG spin precession near YIG/NiFe interface, which interacts with NiFe spins near the simultaneous resonance of both spins, to generate a non-local SRE voltage within the NiFe layer.

  18. Non-local detection of spin dynamics via spin rectification effect in yttrium iron garnet/SiO2/NiFe trilayers near simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Peng, Bin; Ong, C. K.

    2015-08-01

    The spin rectification effect (SRE), a phenomenon that generates dc voltages from ac microwave fields incident onto a conducting ferromagnet, has attracted widespread attention due to its high sensitivity to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as well as its relevance to spintronics. Here, we report the non-local detection of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) spin dynamics by measuring SRE voltages from an adjacent conducting NiFe layer up to 200 nm thick. In particular, we detect, within the NiFe layer, SRE voltages stemming from magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) of the adjacent bulk YIG which are excited by a shorted coaxial probe. These non-local SRE voltages within the NiFe layer that originates from YIG MSSWs are present even in 200 nm-thick NiFe films with a 50 nm thick SiO2 spacer between NiFe and YIG, thus strongly ruling out the mechanism of spin-pumping induced inverse spin Hall effect in NiFe as the source of these voltages. This long-range influence of YIG dynamics is suggested to be mediated by dynamic fields generated from YIG spin precession near YIG/NiFe interface, which interacts with NiFe spins near the simultaneous resonance of both spins, to generate a non-local SRE voltage within the NiFe layer.

  19. Hierachical Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles through epitaxial growth of γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on in situ formed Ni nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Herzberger, Jana; Natalio, Filipe; Köhler, Oskar; Branscheid, Robert; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Panthöfer, Martin; Kolb, Ute; Frey, Holger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water.One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water. Electronic supplementary

  20. Current-induced three-dimensional domain wall propagation in cylindrical NiFe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D. W.; Purnama, I.; Lim, G. J.; Gan, W. L.; Murapaka, C.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the magnetization configurations in single NiFe cylindrical nanowires grown by template-assisted electrodeposition. Angular anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements reveal that a three-dimensional helical domain wall is formed naturally upon relaxation from a saturated state. Micromagnetic simulations support the helical domain wall properties and its reversal process, which involves a splitting of the clockwise and anticlockwise vortices. When a pulsed current is applied to the nanowire, the helical domain wall propagation is observed with a minimum current density needed to overcome its intrinsic pinning.

  1. Ni, Fe Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Dhiman, Pooja Chand, Jagdish Verma, S. Sarveena, Singh, M.

    2014-04-24

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characterization of Ni-Fe co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by facile solution combustion method. The structural characterization by XRD confirmed the phase purity of the samples. Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscope revealed cubic type shape of grains. EDS analysis conformed the elemental composition. Higher value of DC electrical conductivity and less band gap for co-doped ZnO from UV-Vis studies confirmed the change in defect chemistry of ZnO Matrix.

  2. Effect of biquadratic coupling on current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinthan, D.; Sabareesan, P.; Daniel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of biquadratic coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the free layer magnetization switching dynamics governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The LLGS equation is numerically solved by using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure for an applied current density of 5 × 1012 Am-2. Presence of biquadratic coupling in the ferromagnetic layers reduces the magnetization switching time of the nanopillar device from 61 ps to 49 ps.

  3. The influence of an MgO nanolayer on the planar Hall effect in NiFe films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minghua; Zhao, Zhiduo; Ma, Lin; Lu, Xiangan; Teng, Jiao; Yu, Guanghua; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.; Zhou, Wenping

    2015-03-28

    The Planar Hall Effect (PHE) in NiFe films was studied using MgO as the buffer and capping layer to reduce the shunt effect. The thermal annealing was found to be effective in increasing the sensitivity. The sensitivity of the magnetic field reached as high as 865 V/AT in a MgO (3 nm)/NiFe (5 nm)/MgO(3 nm)/Ta(3 nm) structure after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h, which is close to the sensitivity of semiconductor Hall Effect (HE) sensors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the sample. The results show that the top crystallization of MgO and NiFe (111) texture were improved by proper annealing. The smooth and clear bottom MgO/NiFe and top NiFe/MgO interface is evident from our data. In addition, the shunt current of Ta was decreased. These combined factors facilitate the improvement of the sensitivity of the magnetic field.

  4. The huge influence of nanograins on the magnetic properties of iron-based Fe Cu Nb B nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremers, H.; Hupe, O.; Hofmeister, C. E.; Michele, O.; Hesse, J.

    2005-06-01

    In 1995 Skorvanek and O'Handley presented the first experimental evidence for a huge influence of nanograins on the magnetization of a nanostructured alloy. In this contribution experiments are described, performed on as-cast amorphous and nanostructured Fe79Cu1Nb7B13 alloys. In order to get nanostructured samples with different nanograin contents the samples were annealed at different properly chosen temperatures in vacuum. This led to the formation of nanograins embedded in a residual amorphous matrix. These nanograins consist of pure bcc Fe of about 5-6 nm in diameter. Their content can be enhanced without markedly changing their size when annealing at slightly higher temperatures. So an alloy series with the same nominal composition but different nanograin contents and residual amorphous matrices, i.e. a series of nanostructured alloys, was obtained. Our aim was to study the influence of increasing nanograin concentration on the magnetic properties of the coupled system amorphous matrix plus nanograins. We describe magnetization measurements over a wide temperature range, below and above the Curie temperature of the initial amorphous matrix. In a next step these measurements are evaluated in a molecular field approach assuming two different coupled ferromagnetic systems assigned to the amorphous matrix and the nanograins.

  5. Copper-nickel superalloys as inert alloy anodes for aluminum electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Qiu, Zhuxian; Wang, Zhaowen; Gao, Bingliang

    2003-11-01

    The superalloys Cu-Ni-Al, Cu-Ni-Fe, and Cu-Ni-Cr were studied as anodes for aluminum electrolysis. The alloys were tested for corrosion in acidic electrolyte molten salt and for oxidation in both air and oxygen. The results showed that the Cu-Ni-Al anodes possess excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion, and the oxidation rates of Cu-Ni-Fe and Cu-Ni-Al anodes were slower than those of pure copper or nickel. During electrolysis, the cell voltage of the Cu-Ni-Al anode was affected most by the concentration of alumina in cryolite molten salt. The Cu-Ni-Fe anode exhibited corrosion resistance in electrolyte molten salt. Comparatively, the Cu-Ni-Cr anode showed poor resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The testing found that further study is warranted on the use of Cu-Ni-Al and Cu-Ni-Fe as inert alloy anodes.

  6. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  7. Studies of Gilbert magnetization damping in NiFe/organometallic trihalide perovskite bilayers investigated by broadband ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groesbeck, Matthew; Sun, Dali; McLaughlin, Ryan; Zhang, Chuang; Liu, Haoliang; Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    Organo-metallic trihalide perovskites (OTP) have recently been suggested as promising candidates for spintronics applications, motivated by the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling, and recent studies of spin dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3. To help elucidate the spin transport properties in these materials, we have studied the Gilbert magnetization damping parameter in NiFe ferromagnetic films related to spin-pumping into adjacent OTP layers under ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) excitation conditions, using a broadband FMR detection system. We found an increase of the damping parameter associated with spin-pumping into the OTP. The obtained thickness-dependent results are compared to those of NiFe/Cu and NiFe/Pt bilayer structures, where spin transport characteristics are well-known. Research sponsored by the DOE, Office of Science, Grant DE-SC0014579.

  8. Self-assembled NiFe2O4/carbon nanotubes sponge for enhanced glucose biosensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchun; Zhao, Minggang; Chen, Jing; Fan, Sisi; Liang, Jingjing; Ding, Longjiang; Chen, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, self-assembled NiFe2O4/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. The device synergized the advantageous features of both the 3D porous nanostructure and the catalytic properties of CNTs with GOx and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The porous network construction of the NiFe2O4/CNTs sheets offered enlarged specific surface for GOx immobilization and opened channels for facilitating the electrons transport and reactants diffusion. With the help of the abnormal-valence elements Ni and Fe, double catalysis has happened and the enhanced glucose biosensing performance has been achieved. The fabricated glucose biosensor exhibited two large linear ranges (0-3.0 and 3.2-12.4 mM) and distinct sensitivities (84.1 and 24.6 μA mM-1 cm-2).

  9. Microstructure performance and formation mechanism of laser alloying rare earth oxides modified nanocrystalline layer on TA7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingyu; Gao, Xun; Li, Jianquan

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscale particles (NP) were observed in a Ni60-Ag-Si3N4-Y2O3 laser alloying (LA) layer on a TA7 titanium alloy, NP usually locate on the grain boundaries, which are able to block the motion of dislocation in a certain extent. Such layer mainly consisted of γ-Ni, TiN, γ-(Fe, Ni), TiAg and lots of amorphous phases. The wear resistance of such layer with laser scanning speed 3 mm/s was better than that of a LA layer with 6 mm/s, which was mainly ascribed to an uniform microstructure and less defect of layer. The high laser scanning speed made the existing time of laser molten pool be shorter than before, favoring the formation of a fine microstructure. However, the defects, such as pores were produced in LA layer (higher scanning speed), decreasing the wear resistance.

  10. Performance of a prototype power transformer constructed by nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the feasibility and performance of Fe81.2Co4Si0.5B9.5P4Cu0.8 alloy (with trade name NANOMET®) for electrical power applications, a prototype transformer was constructed. After surface treatment, as-quenched ribbons with a constant width of 50 mm and a thickness of ˜30 μm were wound into a toroidal shape. Nanocrystallization of toroidal core was performed by immersing it in a salt at 673 K for 180 s. The transformer constructed in the present work exhibit low core loss similar to the transformer constructed by a commercial Fe-based amorphous alloy. In spite of issues related to the annealing/nano-crystallization of the core, the feasibility for commercialization of NANOMET in power transformer applications can be confirmed. We believe the potential of NANOMET as core material for next generation of power transformer seems to be huge.