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Sample records for nanoparticle technology addressing

  1. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  2. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  3. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  4. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  5. Nitric Oxide Nanoparticle Technology

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections account for the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Staphylococcus aureus is rapidly evolving resistance to contemporary topical as well as systemic antibiotics. Alternatives to current treatment options for skin and soft tissue infections are needed for more effective treatment now and in the future. Nitric oxide's proven roles in both wound repair and as an antimicrobial agent make it an excellent candidate for the treatment of skin infections. Recent attempts at novel nitric oxide therapies, in the form of nitric oxide donors, have shown limited potential in treating cutaneous infection. However, more recent developments in nitric oxide delivery, using nitric oxide nanoparticle technology, demonstrate substantial promise in the promotion of wound repair and eradication of skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:20725551

  6. Chemical Addressability of Ultraviolet-Inactivated Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs)

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Chris; Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Estrada, Mayra N.; Gonzalez, Maria J.; Manchester, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Background Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings Short wave (254 nm) UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0–2.5 J/cm2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:18830402

  7. Addressing Energy Poverty through Smarter Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a key detriment to labor productivity, economic growth, and social well-being. This article presents a qualitative review of literature on the potential role of intelligent communication technology, web-based standards, and smart grid technology to alleviate energy costs and improve access to clean distributed energy in developed…

  8. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  9. Digital Citizenship: Addressing Appropriate Technology Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed W.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the popular press has pointed to increasing evidence of misuse and abuse of emerging technologies in U.S. schools. Some examples include using Web sites to intimidate or threaten students, downloading music illegally from the Internet, plagiarizing information using the Internet, using cellular phones during class time, and playing games…

  10. Addressing Colloidal Stability for Unambiguous Electroanalysis of Single Nanoparticle Impacts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Donald A; Kondajji, Aditya M; Castañeda, Alma D; Dasari, Radhika; Crooks, Richard M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2016-07-01

    Herein the problem of colloidal instability on electrochemically detected nanoparticle (NP) collisions with a Hg ultramicroelectrode (UME) by electrocatalytic amplification is addressed. NP tracking analysis (NTA) shows that rapid aggregation occurs in solution after diluting citrate-stabilized Pt NPs with hydrazine/phosphate buffers of net ionic strength greater than 70 mM. Colloidal stability improves by lowering the ionic strength, indicating that aggregation processes were strongly affected by charge screening of the NP double layer interactions at high cation concentrations. For the system of lowest ionic strength, the overwhelming majority of observed electrocatalytic current signals represent single NP/electrode impacts, as confirmed by NTA kinetic monitoring. NP diffusion coefficients determined by NTA and NP impact electroanalysis are in excellent agreement for the stable colloids, which signifies that the sticking probability of Pt NPs interacting with Hg is unity and that the observed NP impact rate agrees with the expected steady-state diffusive flux expression for the spherical cap Hg UME. PMID:27306603

  11. Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles:. A Theranostic Platform Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Gregory M.; Winter, Patrick M.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Hughes, Michael S.; Hu, Grace; Pan, Dipanjan; Schmieder, Anne H.; Pham, Christine; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2013-09-01

    Nanomedicine clearly offers unique tools to address intractable medical problems in cancer and cardiovascular disease from entirely new perspectives. Among the theranostic options emerging in this new wave of biotechnology development, the perfluorocarbon nanoparticles have shown robust potential in vivo for diagnosing, characterizing, treating and following proliferating cancers, progressive atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and much more. These molecular imaging agents have been demonstrated for use with ultrasound, MRI, CT, and SPECT/CT. Moreover, the synergism of imaging for confirmation of therapeutic delivery, for dosimetry, and for noninvasively following early treatment responses is discussed. Image-guided drug delivery based on nanotechnology is emerging as a powerful clinical opportunity, and PFC nanoparticles are among the leading technologies reaching clinical testing today with this potential.

  12. Technology and Engineering are Both Addressed through Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John

    2006-01-01

    Technology education has had its directions as a school subject influenced by changes in society, the economy, politics, and homeland threats. The philosophy and curriculum content for technology education has had certain turning points due to these changes. During the twenty-first century, outside factors and internal research will continue to…

  13. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  14. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  15. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    PubMed

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  16. Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART) for Building Sustainable Moon Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Shaya, E. J.; Cheung, C. Y.; Floyd, S. R.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Exploration Initiative requires approaches and tools to support of near future human activities on the lunar surface. A sustainable infrastructure and tools to support such activities must be developed using currently available ElectroMechanical Systems (EMS). Architecture based on Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART), which we are already developing for small rovers, should be well suited to this task. ART structures are highly addressable arrays of robust nodes interconnected by highly reconfigurable struts that, along with tethers and surfaces are autonomously and reversibly deployable. The basic building unit in this architecture is a tetrahedron, the most efficient space-filling form, consisting of nodes interconnected with struts that can be reversibly and/or partially deployed or stowed to allow the tetrahedron to change its size and shape on command in real-time. Tetrahedral units are interlinked in one (linear), two (planar), or three (space-filling) dimensions to create conformable objects. As more tetrahedra are interconnected, the degrees of freedom are increased and motions evolve from simple to complex, from stepped to continuous. This design allows movement to change shape and/or location revolutionizing the architecture for space structures by epitomizing portable `form follows function' at every level. Although the 3D network of actuators and structural elements is composed of nodes that are addressable as are pixels in an LCD screen. The full functionality of such a system requires fully autonomous operation, and will ultimately be realized through a neural basis function (NBF) we are currently developing, which possesses the capability for actuator-level autonomic response and heuristic-level decision-making. Two EMS level ART-based concepts are designed for sustainable autonomous operation on the Moon. The Autonomous Lunar Investigator (ALI) would consist of one or more 12tetrahedral walkers capable of rapid locomotion with the

  17. Microelectronic Technology and the Hearing Impaired: The Future. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkildsen, Ron

    1985-01-01

    The potential of microelectronic technology for alleviating communication problems of hearing-impaired persons is discussed from a futuristic point of view. The need for computer literacy training is related to changing career opportunities. Computer literacy, artificial intelligence, and videodisc technology are described and related to training…

  18. Addressing Mathematics Literacy through Technology, Innovation, Design, and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litowitz, Len S.

    2009-01-01

    In an era when so much emphasis is being placed on the high-stakes standardized testing of fundamental subjects such as reading, writing, and math, it makes sense to demonstrate the role technology educators play in developing such fundamental knowledge and skills in youth. While the author believes that technology education contributes to the…

  19. Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Technologies Keynote Address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. Victor

    2004-01-01

    Slides for the Keynote Address present graphics to enhance the discussion of NASA's vision, the National Space Exploration Initiative, current Mars exploration, and aeronautics exploration. The presentation also focuses on development of an Air Transportation System and transformation from present systems.

  20. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity. PMID:25308613

  1. Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1995 Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milet, Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses plans for AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology), including membership growth and services; leadership development; organizational structure and the need for restructuring; and strategic alliances with other professional associations and educators. (LRW)

  2. Information technology in health care: addressing promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and electronic medical records systems are receiving much attention in health care though only a relatively small number of health care organizations and providers have embraced the technology. This article introduces important concepts and definitions and provides the risk manager with key elements to consider when incorporating HIT principles into a proactive risk management program. A checklist is offered to assist in the assessment of electronic records systems. PMID:20200873

  3. Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1996 Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents visions for AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology, including a continuing discussion of pedagogy, high quality research methodology, commitment to professional ethics and personal integrity, electronic developments, collaboration, leadership development, membership growth, and state and regional affiliations.…

  4. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  5. Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, D. Kent

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

  6. Hallmarks of mechanochemistry: from nanoparticles to technology.

    PubMed

    Baláž, Peter; Achimovičová, Marcela; Baláž, Matej; Billik, Peter; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Criado, José Manuel; Delogu, Francesco; Dutková, Erika; Gaffet, Eric; Gotor, Francisco José; Kumar, Rakesh; Mitov, Ivan; Rojac, Tadej; Senna, Mamoru; Streletskii, Andrey; Wieczorek-Ciurowa, Krystyna

    2013-09-21

    The aim of this review article on recent developments of mechanochemistry (nowadays established as a part of chemistry) is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances achieved in the field of atomistic processes, phase transformations, simple and multicomponent nanosystems and peculiarities of mechanochemical reactions. Industrial aspects with successful penetration into fields like materials engineering, heterogeneous catalysis and extractive metallurgy are also reviewed. The hallmarks of mechanochemistry include influencing reactivity of solids by the presence of solid-state defects, interphases and relaxation phenomena, enabling processes to take place under non-equilibrium conditions, creating a well-crystallized core of nanoparticles with disordered near-surface shell regions and performing simple dry time-convenient one-step syntheses. Underlying these hallmarks are technological consequences like preparing new nanomaterials with the desired properties or producing these materials in a reproducible way with high yield and under simple and easy operating conditions. The last but not least hallmark is enabling work under environmentally friendly and essentially waste-free conditions (822 references). PMID:23558752

  7. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles via green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqaar; Balu, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    The proposed work describes the comparison of various methods of green synthesis for preparation of Gold and Silver nanoparticles. Pure extracts of Lemon (Citrus limon) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were mixed with aqueous solution of auric tetrachloride and silver nitrate. The resultant solutions were treated with four common techniques to assist in the reduction namely photo catalytic, thermal, microwave assisted reduction and solvo - thermal reduction. UV - Visible Spectroscopy results and STM images of the final solutions confirmed the formation of stable metallic nanoparticles. A preliminary account of the green synthesis work is presented here.

  8. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  9. ALI (Autonomous Lunar Investigator): Revolutionary Approach to Exploring the Moon with Addressable Reconfigurable Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Floyd, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART) based structures: Mission Concepts based on Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART), originally studied for future ANTS (Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm) Space Architectures, are now being developed as rovers for nearer term use in lunar and planetary surface exploration. The architecture is based on the reconfigurable tetrahedron as a building block. Tetrahedra are combined to form space-filling networks, shaped for the required function. Basic structural components are highly modular, addressable arrays of robust nodes (tetrahedral apices) from which highly reconfigurable struts (tetrahedral edges), acting as supports or tethers, are efficiently reversibly deployed/stowed, transforming and reshaping the structures as required.

  10. Nanoparticle flotation collectors: mechanisms behind a new technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Songtao; Pelton, Robert; Raegen, Adam; Montgomery, Miles; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2011-09-01

    This is the first report describing a new technology where hydrophobic nanoparticles adsorb onto much larger, hydrophilic mineral particle surfaces to facilitate attachment to air bubbles in flotation. The adsorption of 46 nm cationic polystyrene nanoparticles onto 43 μm diameter glass beads, a mineral model, facilitates virtually complete removal of the beads by flotation. As little as 5% coverage of the bead surfaces with nanoparticles promotes high flotation efficiencies. The maximum force required to pull a glass bead from an air bubble interface into the aqueous phase was measured by micromechanics. The pull-off force was 1.9 μN for glass beads coated with nanoparticles, compared to 0.0086 μN for clean beads. The pull-off forces were modeled using Scheludko's classical expression. We propose that the bubble/bead contact area may not be dry (completely dewetted). Instead, for hydrophobic nanoparticles sitting on a hydrophilic surface, it is possible that only the nanoparticles penetrate the air/water interface to form a three-phase contact line. We present a new model for pull-off forces for such a wet contact patch between the bead and the air bubble. Contact angle measurements of both nanoparticle coated glass and smooth films from dissolved nanoparticles were performed to support the modeling. PMID:21790133

  11. New Strategies on the Development of Nanoparticle Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Kikuo

    2011-12-01

    Processing of nanoparticles and nanocomposites has great potential for use in the application of various industrial fields including environmental remediation and renewable energy conversion. It is very important to develop their synthesis methods in which nanoparticles having controlled characteristics including size distribution, morphology, and composition can be produced. To be industrially relevant, the process needs to be simple, low in cost, and have both continuous operation and high production rate. In this lecture, after briefly introducing of the gas-phase and liquid-phase synthesis methods for nanoparticles, the new strategies on the development of nanoparticle technology will be reviewed as shown in the following: Strategy 1: Determination of impurity and optimum size of nanoparticles. Determination of the optimum size and minimizing the impurities are key steps for the synthesis of best performance nanoparticles. Strategy 2: Selection and use of environmental-friendly materials. Consideration on the cheap materials having high performance is inevitable. Strategy 3: Consideration on nanoparticles health effect (nanorisk). Design of particles in submicron-sized having nanoparticles properties (e.g. nanostructured or nanocomposite) will be desirable. Detoxification operation becomes important. Strategy 4: Optimization of synthesis process, including nanoparticles nucleation, growth, transport, deposition, and sintering is important aspects for reactor design. In addition, the nanoparticles dispersion using beads mill with very small media would be essential for nanocomposite preparation process. Strategy 5: Micro-controlled composite particles. Micro-controlled composite particles for multi- purpose application is important, especially in medical application. Our recent researches will be introduced based on the above strategies.

  12. Microfluidic technologies for accelerating the clinical translation of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Pedro M.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Using nanoparticles for therapy and imaging holds tremendous promise for the treatment of major diseases such as cancer. However, their translation into the clinic has been slow because it remains difficult to produce nanoparticles that are consistent ‘batch-to-batch’, and in sufficient quantities for clinical research. Moreover, platforms for rapid screening of nanoparticles are still lacking. Recent microfluidic technologies can tackle some of these issues, and offer a way to accelerate the clinical translation of nanoparticles. In this Progress Article, we highlight the advances in microfluidic systems that can synthesize libraries of nanoparticles in a well-controlled, reproducible and high-throughput manner. We also discuss the use of microfluidics for rapidly evaluating nanoparticles in vitro under microenvironments that mimic the in vivo conditions. Furthermore, we highlight some systems that can manipulate small organisms, which could be used for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles or for drug screening. We conclude with a critical assessment of the near- and long-term impact of microfluidics in the field of nanomedicine. PMID:23042546

  13. Microfluidic technologies for accelerating the clinical translation of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Pedro M.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Using nanoparticles for therapy and imaging holds tremendous promise for the treatment of major diseases such as cancer. However, their translation into the clinic has been slow because it remains difficult to produce nanoparticles that are consistent 'batch-to-batch', and in sufficient quantities for clinical research. Moreover, platforms for rapid screening of nanoparticles are still lacking. Recent microfluidic technologies can tackle some of these issues, and offer a way to accelerate the clinical translation of nanoparticles. In this Progress Article, we highlight the advances in microfluidic systems that can synthesize libraries of nanoparticles in a well-controlled, reproducible and high-throughput manner. We also discuss the use of microfluidics for rapidly evaluating nanoparticles in vitro under microenvironments that mimic the in vivo conditions. Furthermore, we highlight some systems that can manipulate small organisms, which could be used for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles or for drug screening. We conclude with a critical assessment of the near- and long-term impact of microfluidics in the field of nanomedicine.

  14. Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies…

  15. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  16. Metal-Semiconductor Nanoparticle Hybrids Formed by Self-Organization: A Platform to Address Exciton-Plasmon Coupling.

    PubMed

    Strelow, Christian; Theuerholz, T Sverre; Schmidtke, Christian; Richter, Marten; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Kloust, Hauke; Ye, Ziliang; Weller, Horst; Heinz, Tony F; Knorr, Andreas; Lange, Holger

    2016-08-10

    Hybrid nanosystems composed of excitonic and plasmonic constituents can have different properties than the sum of of the two constituents, due to the exciton-plasmon interaction. Here, we report on a flexible model system based on colloidal nanoparticles that can form hybrid combinations by self-organization. The system allows us to tune the interparticle distance and to combine nanoparticles of different sizes and thus enables a systematic investigation of the exciton-plasmon coupling by a combination of optical spectroscopy and quantum-optical theory. We experimentally observe a strong influence of the energy difference between exciton and plasmon, as well as an interplay of nanoparticle size and distance on the coupling. We develop a full quantum theory for the luminescence dynamics and discuss the experimental results in terms of the Purcell effect. As the theory describes excitation as well as coherent and incoherent emission, we also consider possible quantum optical effects. We find a good agreement of the observed and the calculated luminescence dynamics induced by the Purcell effect. This also suggests that the self-organized hybrid system can be used as platform to address quantum optical effects. PMID:27355971

  17. Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefinery of Non-Food Source Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Pruski, Marek; Trewyn, Brian; Lee, Young-Jin; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

    2013-01-22

    The goal of this proposed work is to develop and optimize the synthesis of mesoporous nanoparticle materials that are able to selectively sequester fatty acids from hexane extracts from algae, and to catalyze their transformation, as well as waste oils, into biodiesel. The project involves studies of the interactions between the functionalized MSN surface and the sequestering molecules. We investigate the mechanisms of selective extraction of fatty acids and conversion of triglycerides and fatty acids into biodiesel by the produced nanoparticles. This knowledge is used to further improve the properties of the mesoporous nanoparticle materials for both tasks. Furthermore, we investigate the strategies for scaling the synthesis of the catalytic nanomaterials up from the current pilot plant scale to industrial level, such that the biodiesel obtained with this technology can successfully compete with food crop-based biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

  18. Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefining of Non-Food Source Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Pruski, Marek; Trewyn, Brian G.; Lee, Young-Jin; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

    2013-01-22

    The goal of this proposed work is to develop and optimize the synthesis of mesoporous nanoparticle materials that are able to selectively sequester fatty acids from hexane extracts from algae, and to catalyze their transformation, as well as waste oils, into biodiesel. The project involves studies of the interactions between the functionalized MSN surface and the sequestering molecules. We investigate the mechanisms of selective extraction of fatty acids and conversion of triglycerides and fatty acids into biodiesel by the produced nanoparticles. This knowledge is used to further improve the properties of the mesoporous nanoparticle materials for both tasks. Furthermore, we investigate the strategies for scaling the synthesis of the catalytic nanomaterials up from the current pilot plant scale to industrial level, such that the biodiesel obtained with this technology can successfully compete with food crop-based biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

  19. Use of Technology to Address Substance Use in the Context of HIV: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Swendeman, Dallas; Holloway, Ian W; Reback, Cathy J; Kao, Uyen

    2015-12-01

    Substance users are at elevated risk for HIV. HIV researchers, particularly at the intersection of HIV and substance use, have requested new methods to better understand and address this important area. New technologies, such as social media and mobile applications, are increasingly being used as research tools in studies on HIV and substance use. These technologies have the potential to build on existing recruitment methods, provide new and improved intervention methods, and introduce novel ways of monitoring and predicting new HIV cases. However, little work has been done to review and broadly explore the types of studies being conducted on the use of technologies to address HIV and substance use. This systematic literature review identified studies on this topic between 2005 and 2015. We identified 33 studies on this topic after excluding studies that did not fit inclusion criteria. Studies were either observational (n = 24) or interventional (n = 9), with the majority being pilot studies exploring the feasibility of using these new technologies to study HIV and substance use. We discuss the implications of this work along with limitations and recommendations for future research on this topic. PMID:26475670

  20. Vertically integrated sensor array technology for unattended sensor networks (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Raymond; Thurston, John; Breedlove, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    The increasing need for unattended sensor networks drives individual sensor development, signal processing for network management, and communication technology. The application space is becoming more complex, with requirements for sensor networks in force protection; surveillance of large expanses of rugged terrain; and monitoring complex urban areas. Individual sensors exhibit excellent performance and include a wide variety of sensing modes, such as acoustic, electro-optical imaging, seismic, and radio frequency devices. These sensors continue to shrink with packaging, while applications continue to demand more of the sensor technology. Although single imaging arrays, which are available in spectral bands from the visible through the infrared, can be integrated into packages size as small as a cubic inch, the information from a single sensor is not sufficient to meet requirements for day/night, all-weather operation. This has driven the need for integration of multiple sensors into the compact packages intended for an individual sensor. A major step toward addressing the need for more effective sensor technology for unattended sensor networks is being taken through development of Vertically Integrated Sensor Array (VISA) technology. This technology, currently being developed for imaging sensors, builds multiple layers of signal processing at each pixel in the sensor array. Processing power is dramatically increased, allowing the integration of multiple sensors in small compact packages. This paper reviews the VISA approach to imaging sensors and describes applications for unattended sensors.

  1. Information Technology for Training and Education (ITTE): Conference Keynote Addresses (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, February 4-8, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia).

    This volume presents the text of nine keynote addresses and an abstract of one other address presented at ITTE'91, an international forum and conference on Information Technology for Training and Education (ITTE). Each address is preceded by biographical information on the speaker and followed by a brief critique by a professional in information…

  2. [The increase in receptor-mediated endocytosis of drugs in the composition of nanoparticles with the address fragment].

    PubMed

    Kostryukova, L V; Sanzhakov, M A; Ignatov, D V; Prozorovskyi, V N; Druzhilovskaya, O S; Kasatkina, E S; Medvedeva, N V; Ipatova, O M

    2016-03-01

    It is known that disorders in the cell functioning of the organs/tissues is accompanied by increased expression of certain receptors. A modern approach to improve the specificity of the drug accumulation in the affected area is to construct the delivery nanosystems with the address fragments. Active tagged transport may help to reduce the dose of the drug, minimizing the impact on healthy cells and organs (reduced adverse events). This approach is particularly important in oncology because of the high toxicity of the drugs used. In this work we have obtained and characterized the pharmaceutical composition of doxorubicin and chlorine e6 into colloidal nanoparticles with synthesized previously targeted conjugates based on folic acid and biotin. On the cell culture Hep G2 it was shown an increase in the internalization of drugs when they were introduced in the incubation medium in the form of drug compositions with transport nanosystems and targeted fragments. PMID:27420624

  3. SERS-active nanoparticle aggregate technology for tags and seals

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Leif O; Montoya, Velma M; Havrilla, George J; Doorn, Stephen K

    2010-06-03

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to create a modern tagging and sealing technology for international safeguards application. Our passive tagging methods are based on SANAs (SERS-Active Nanoparticle Aggregates; SERS: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering). These SANAs offer robust spectral barcoding capability in an inexpensive tag/seal, with the possibility of rapid in-field verification that requires no human input. At INMM 2009, we introduced SANAs, and showed approaches to integrating our technology with tags under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Here, we will focus on recent LANL development work, as well as adding additional dimensionality to the barcoding technique. The field of international safeguards employs a broad array of tags, seals, and tamper-indicating devices to assist with identification, tracking, and verification of components and materials. These devices each have unique strengths suited to specific applications, and span a range of technologies from passive metal cup seals and adhesive seals to active, remotely monitored fiber optic seals. Regardless of the technology employed, essential characteristics center around security, environmental and temporal stability, ease of use, and the ability to provide confidence to all parties. Here, we present a new inexpensive tagging technology that will deliver these attributes, while forming the basis of either a new seal, or as a secure layer added to many existing devices. Our approach uses the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) response from SANAs (SERS-Active Nanoparticle Aggregates, Figure 1) to provide a unique identifier or signature for tagging applications. SANAs are formed from gold or silver nanoparticles in the 40-80 nm size range. A chemical dye is installed on the nanoparticle surface, and the nanoparticles are then aggregated into ensembles of {approx}100 to 500 nm diameter, prior to being coated with silica. The silica shell protects the finished SANA from

  4. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  5. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  6. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  7. Enterprise project management is key to success: addressing the people, process and technology dimensions of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Becker, JoAnn; Rhodes, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The world of healthcare professionals is in a constant state of transition, requiring different processes for the organization, and for completing projects and programs. Projects that manage transition are complex undertakings prone to cost and time overruns. An enterprise project management model is proposed to address the people, process and technology dimensions. It includes the five-step PMI project process, vocabulary, processes, soft skills, stakeholder expectation management, portfolio management and talent diversity. Differences in project deliverables and organizational results are discussed, along with a technique to analyze gaps from the current to the new state, which then defines the projects and programs for an organizational initiative. The role and responsibilities of an executive decision team are defined. Learning the model is needed by all members of the organization, regardless of their role or level, for successfully adapting to future changes. Finally, a case is made for healthcare organizations to implement these competencies if they are to be well-performing organizations in this continuous world of change. PMID:19195295

  8. Silver nanoparticle ink technology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Krishna; Roppolo, Ignazio; Chiappone, Annalisa; Bocchini, Sergio; Perrone, Denis; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today. This is a compact review on synthesis routes, main properties, and practical applications. PMID:26811673

  9. Silver nanoparticle ink technology: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Krishna; Roppolo, Ignazio; Chiappone, Annalisa; Bocchini, Sergio; Perrone, Denis; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today. This is a compact review on synthesis routes, main properties, and practical applications. PMID:26811673

  10. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  11. Technology Strategies to Address Grade-Level Outcomes: National Standards 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baert, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The need to prepare students to thrive in the digital world and the benefit of using instructional technology have both been widely recognized in education. As new technology becomes available, its use by both students and teachers must be carefully evaluated. Technology can help enhance learning and facilitate the teaching process, if and when it…

  12. Addressing sustainable contributions to GEO/GEOSS from Science and Technology Communities: the EGIDA Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The European Project EGIDA (Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS) co-funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework programme, has started in September 2010. It aims to prepare a sustainable process of contribution to GEO/GEOSS promoting coordination of activities carried out by: the GEO Science & Technology (S&T) Committee; S&T national and European initiatives; and other S&T Communities. This will be done by supporting broader implementation and effectiveness of the GEOSS S&T Roadmap and the GEOSS mission through coherent and interoperable networking of National and European projects, and International initiatives. The definition of a general methodology for a sustainable contribution to GEO/GEOSS through the implementation of a System-of-System (re-) engineering process is one of the objectives of the EGIDA Project in order to consolidate the results of the actions carried out in support of the GEO Science and Technology Committee (STC) Road Map. The EGIDA Methodology is based on several sources including GEO activities and documents, activities of the EGIDA project in support of the GEO STC Road Map, lessons learned from the initiatives and projects already contributing, in different ways, to the building of advanced infrastructures as direct or indirect part to GEO/GEOSS. The design of the EGIDA Methodology included several steps: a) an operational definition of the EGIDA Methodology, b) the identification of the target audience for the EGIDA Methodology, c) the identification of typical scenarios for the application of the EGIDA Methodology. Basing on these design activities the EGIDA Methodology is defined as a set of two activities running in parallel: Networking Activities - to identify and address the relevant S&T community(-ies) and actors (Community Engagement) - and Technical Activities: - to guide the infrastructure development and align it with the GEO/GEOSS interoperability principles

  13. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts. PMID:25010083

  14. Assessing Second Phase High School Learners' Attitudes towards Technology in Addressing the Technological Skills Shortage in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, H.; Gumbo, M. T.; Tholo, J. A. T.; Sedupane, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues the case that the decline in the numbers of school leavers entering science, technology, engineering and mathematics study courses worldwide and in South Africa in particular, is linked to negative attitudes towards Technology. The issue is regarded as critical since a negative trend in new entrants into the technology sector…

  15. Has Research on Collaborative Learning Technologies Addressed Massiveness? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hernández-Leo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding to what extent innovative educational technologies can be used to support massive courses. Collaboration is one of the main desired elements in massive learning actions involving large communities of participants. Accumulated research in collaborative learning technologies has proposed and evaluated…

  16. Addressing the English Language Arts Technology Standard in a Secondary Reading Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkley, Donna J.; Schmidt, Denise A.; Allen, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts to integrate technology into a reading methodology course for secondary English majors. Discusses the use of e-mail, multimedia, distance education for videoconferences, online discussion technology, subject-specific software, desktop publishing, a database management system, a concept mapping program, and the use of the World…

  17. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  18. Nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in life science and environmental technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Hai Nguyen, Hoang; Quynh Luu, Manh; Hieu Nguyen, Minh

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis, functionalization, and application of gold and silver nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4, combination of 4-ATP-coated silver nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesis methods such as chemical reduction, seeding, coprecipitation,and inverse microemulsion will be outlined. Silica- and amino-coated nanoparticles are suitable for several applications in biomedicine and the environment. The applications of the prepared nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer cells, basal cell carcinoma, antibacterial test, arsenic removal from water, Herpes DNA separation, CD4+ cell separation and isolation of DNA of Hepatitis virus type B (HBV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed. Finally, some promising perspectives will be pointed out. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  19. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

    2007-05-01

    This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

  20. Technical Assistance Sampler on: Using Technology To Address Barriers to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    Under the auspices of the School Mental Health Project in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), the Center for Mental Health in Schools approaches mental health and psychosocial concerns from the broad perspective of addressing barriers to learning and promoting healthy development. To accommodate the…

  1. Applying Inkjet Technology to Dispense Colloidal Nanoparticle Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, Annie; Mohar, Harjyot; Hernandez, Victor; Estrada, Arturo; Munoz, Leonel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura; Jimenez, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The inkjet technology is widely employed to reliably deliver nanomaterials onto a substrate medium for further characterization and processing. To explore the feasibility of inkjet deposition for colloids, a novel drop-on-demand fluid dispenser is constructed to eject various types of liquids to produce atomized droplets. To make structured nanomaterials on a substrate using inkjet techniques, it is essential to determine the dynamical properties of the droplets as they are being formed. These would include the ejection speed, acceleration, terminal velocity and flight trajectories. For measuring these dynamic parameters, we successfully dispensed propylene glycol solution in different mixing ratios. This forms a reference fluid for establishing a baseline for our investigations. Our experimental data suggest that rapidly ejected droplets can be accurately modeled using Newton's equations and Stokes' law. In this conference, we describe our experiments consisting of an innovative inkjet dispensing apparatus in synchronization with a high-resolution camera imaging system. Furthermore, we plan to discuss our research efforts in dispensing microdroplets for relevant materials, such as chemical colloidal suspensions containing nanoparticles and polymer based fluids. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  2. Nanoparticle-based Technologies for Retinal Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Adijanto, Jeffrey; Naash, Muna I

    2015-01-01

    For patients with hereditary retinal diseases, retinal gene therapy offers significant promise for the prevention of retinal degeneration. While adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based systems remain the most popular gene delivery method due to their high efficiency and successful clinical results, other delivery systems, such as non-viral nanoparticles (NPs) are being developed as additional therapeutic options. NP technologies come in several categories (e.g., polymer, liposomes, peptide compacted DNA), several of which have been tested in mouse models of retinal disease. Here, we discuss the key biochemical features of the different NPs that influence how they are internalized into cells, escape from endosomes, and are delivered into the nucleus. We review the primary mechanism of NP uptake by retinal cells and highlight various NPs that have been successfully used for in vivo gene delivery to the retina and RPE. Finally, we consider the various strategies that can be implemented in the plasmid DNA to generate persistent, high levels of gene expression. PMID:25592325

  3. Addressing the crush of sampling. [technology programs for space information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

    1980-01-01

    An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

  4. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  5. Closing Pandora's Box: Copyright Technological Issues Addressed by EC Espirit II Project, CITED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nancarrow, Peter; Boisson, Jean-Francois

    1993-01-01

    Describes how the European Community's CITED Project provides the information industry with a solution to the problem of copyright applied to digital technology. The use of technical means to control copying and an assessment of the legal and commercial situation in the information industry are discussed. (EAM)

  6. Breaking the Geek Myth: Addressing Young Women's Misperceptions about Technology Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siek, Katie A.; Connelly, Kay; Stephano, Amanda; Menzel, Suzanne; Bauer, Jacki; Plale, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Some women have various misconceptions about technology careers. Some of them think that one has to be a geek in order to become a computer scientist. When the Women in Computing Group at Indiana University (WIC@IU) was looking for ideas on how to increase the number of women in computing majors at IU, the authors realized that women were turning…

  7. Nanoparticle characterization: State of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jung; Holback, Hillary; Liu, Karen C.; Abouelmagd, Sara A.; Park, Joonyoung; Yeo, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have received enormous attention as a promising tool to enhance target-specific drug delivery and diagnosis. Various in vitro and in vivo techniques are used to characterize a new system and predict its clinical efficacy. These techniques enable efficient comparison across nanoparticles and facilitate a product optimization process. On the other hand, we recognize their limitations as a prediction tool, which owe to inadequate applications and overly simplified test conditions. This article provides a critical review of in vitro and in vivo techniques currently used for evaluation of nanoparticles and introduces emerging techniques and models that may be used complementarily. PMID:23461379

  8. Addressing Ethics and Technology in Business: Preparing Today's Students for the Ethical Challenges Presented by Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    The ethical development of information systems is but one of those sensitive scenarios associated with computer technology that has a tremendous impact on individuals and social life. The significance of these issues of concern cannot be overstated. However, since computer ethics is meant to be everybody's responsibility, the result can often be…

  9. Virtual Reality and Interactive Digital Game Technology: New Tools to Address Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    “Skip” Rizzo, Albert; Lange, Belinda; Suma, Evan A; Bolas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The convergence of the exponential advances in virtual reality (VR)-enabling technologies with a growing body of clinical research and experience has fueled the evolution of the discipline of clinical VR. This article begins with a brief overview of methods for producing and delivering VR environments that can be accessed by users for a range of clinical health conditions. Interactive digital games and new forms of natural movement-based interface devices are also discussed in the context of the emerging area of exergaming, along with some of the early results from studies of energy expenditure during the use of these systems. While these results suggest that playing currently available active exergames uses significantly more energy than sedentary activities and is equivalent to a brisk walk, these activities do not reach the level of intensity that would match playing the actual sport, nor do they deliver the recommended daily amount of exercise for children. However, these results provide some support for the use of digital exergames using the current state of technology as a complement to, rather than a replacement, for regular exercise. This may change in the future as new advances in novel full-body interaction systems for providing vigorous interaction with digital games are expected to drive the creation of engaging, low-cost interactive game-based applications designed to increase exercise participation in persons at risk for obesity. PMID:21527091

  10. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  11. nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  12. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  13. Shape control technology during electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu-yu; Cui, Cong-ying; Cheng, Ying-wen; Ma, Hou-yi; Liu, Duo

    2013-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were prepared by adding gold precursor (HAuCl4) to an electrolyzed aqueous solution of poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and KNO3, which indicates the good reducing capacity of the PVP-containing solution after being treated by electrolysis. Using a catholyte and an anolyte as the reducing agents for HAuCl4, respectively, most gold nanoparticles were spherical particles in the former case but plate-like particles in the latter case. The change in the pH value of electrolytes caused by the electrolysis of water would be the origin of the differences in shape and morphology of gold nanoparticles. A hypothesis of the H+ or OH- catalyzed PVP degradation mechanism was proposed to interpret why the pH value played a key role in determining the shape or morphology of gold nanoparticles. These experiments open up a new method for effectively controlling the shape and morphology of metal nanoparticles by using electrochemical methods.

  14. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  15. Address to the international workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation, technologies and measures

    SciTech Connect

    Kant, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Netherlands has a long history in combatting natural forces for it`s mere survival and even creation. Around half of the country was not Yet existent around 2000 years ago: it was still below sea level that time. Building dikes and the discovery of eolic energy applied in windmills, allowing to pump water from one side of the dike to the other, are technologies that gradually shaped the country into its current form, a process that continues to materialize till the present day. Water has not always been an enemy of the country. In the Hundred Year War with Spain, during which the country was occupied territory for most of the time, the water was used to drive the Spanish armies from the country. As large parts are well below sea level breaking the dikes resulted in flooding the country which made the armoury of the Spanish army useless. In this way they had to give up the siege of several major Dutch cities that time. These events marked the gradual liberation of the Dutch territory. Consequently, in the discussion on adaption and prevention of the greenhouse effect the Netherlands has a clear stand. The greenhouse effect will occur anyway, even if countries deploy all possible counter measures at once. So their aim is to prevent the occurrence of the greenhouse effect to the highest extent possible, and to protect the most vulnerable areas meanwhile, especially the coastal zones. In order to reach these goals the Dutch government has established a Joint Implementation Experimental Programme in accordance with the provisions made by the Conference of Parties in Berlin (1995).

  16. Preparing Special Educators in Eastern North Carolina To Use Assistive Technology: A Multimedia Approach to Addressing Training Needs Unique to Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Melissa; And Others

    This paper describes a project addressing the assistive technology training needs of teachers of children with disabilities in rural eastern North Carolina, through development of a multimedia software tutorial service. The project utilized both a special education/assistive technology professional and an instructional technology professional to…

  17. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Stuart; Sonnenberg, Avery; Schutt, Carolyn; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Yeh, Yasan; Ortac, Inanc; Manouchehri, Sareh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik; Heller, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of complex biological fluids on the surface and structure of nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding field of study. One of the challenges holding back this research is the difficulty of recovering therapeutic nanoparticles from biological samples due to their small size, low density, and stealth surface coatings. Here, the first demonstration of the recovery and analysis of drug delivery nanoparticles from undiluted human plasma samples through the use of a new electrokinetic platform technology is presented. The particles are recovered from plasma through a dielectrophoresis separation force that is created by innate differences in the dielectric properties between the unaltered nanoparticles and the surrounding plasma. It is shown that this can be applied to a wide range of drug delivery nanoparticles of different morphologies and materials, including low-density nanoliposomes. These recovered particles can then be analyzed using different methods including scanning electron microscopy to monitor surface and structural changes that result from plasma exposure. This new recovery technique can be broadly applied to the recovery of nanoparticles from high conductance fluids in a wide range of applications. PMID:26274918

  18. Utilization of nanoparticle technology in rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Dolati, Sanam; Sadreddini, Sanam; Rostamzadeh, Davoud; Ahmadi, Majid; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the common and severe autoimmune diseases related to joints. This chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease, leads to functional limitation and reduced quality of life, since as there is bone and cartilage destruction, joint swelling and pain. Current advances and new treatment approaches have considerably postponed disease progression and improved the quality of life for many patients. In spite of major advances in therapeutic options, restrictions on the routes of administration and the necessity for frequent and long-term dosing often result in systemic adverse effects and patient non-compliance. Unlike usual drugs, nanoparticle systems are planned to deliver therapeutic agents especially to inflamed synovium, so avoiding systemic and unpleasant effects. The present review discusses about some of the most successful drugs in RA therapy and their side effects and also focuses on key design parameters of RA-targeted nanotechnology-based strategies for improving RA therapies. PMID:27133037

  19. Virus-based nanoparticles as platform technologies for modern vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Karin L; Twyman, Richard M; Fiering, Steven; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    Nanoscale engineering is revolutionizing the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. Viruses have played a key role in this field because they can function as prefabricated nanoscaffolds with unique properties that are easy to modify. Viruses are immunogenic via multiple pathways, and antigens displayed naturally or by engineering on the surface can be used to create vaccines against the cognate virus, other pathogens, specific molecules or cellular targets such as tumors. This review focuses on the development of virus-based nanoparticle systems as vaccines indicated for the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, cancer, and addiction. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:554-578. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1383 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26782096

  20. Real-Time Imaging of Gene Delivery and Expression with DNA Nanoparticle Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenchao; Ziady, Assem G.

    The construction of safe, efficient, and modifiable synthetic DNA nanoparticles is an emerging technology that has achieved important milestones of success in the past 5 years. Advances in chemical conjugation, purification, and controlled synthesis have allowed researchers to produce uniform and stable particles, whose physical characteristics can be well characterized and monitored. As a result of these improvements, DNA nanoparticles have now been cleared for clinical testing, and show good potential for human gene therapy. A very important recent development in the study of DNA nanoparticles is the use of small-animal imaging. Real-time imaging has become a valuable technique for tracking particle biodistribution and gene transfer efficacy. In this chapter, we discuss how bioluminescent, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used separately or in concert to study particle delivery, localization, and magnitude of gene expression in vivo.

  1. Antenna of silver nanoparticles mounted on a flexible polymer substrate constructed using inkjet print technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Jiri; Munster, Lukas; Olejnik, Robert; Vlcek, Karel; Slobodian, Petr; Krcmar, Petr; Urbanek, Pavel; Kuritka, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the construction of an antenna that operates at frequencies of 1.07, 1.5, and 2.49 GHz and that is fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate using inkjet printing technology. In particular, this article is focused on the preparation and characterization of an antenna starting from the ink formulation for printing a homogeneous, electrically conductive layer using silver nanoparticles. The diameter of the prepared silver nanoparticles ranges from 50 to 200 nm. The inkjet printing technology on flexible polymer substrates offers a wide range of applications where there are high demands for flexibility. In combination with the polymer substrate, inkjet printing enables the production of more complex shapes and curves for antennas that are widely applicable not only in wearable electronic devices but also in plastic cases for portable communication devices.

  2. Development of a multilayered polymeric DNA biosensor using radio frequency technology with gold and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei; Yang, Chii-Rong; Tsai, Zuo-Min

    2012-01-15

    This study utilized the radio frequency (RF) technology to develop a multilayered polymeric DNA sensor with the help of gold and magnetic nanoparticles. The flexible polymeric materials, poly (p-xylylene) (Parylene) and polyethylene naphtholate (PEN), were used as substrates to replace the conventional rigid substrates such as glass and silicon wafers. The multilayered polymeric RF biosensor, including the two polymer layers and two copper transmission structure layers, was developed to reduce the total sensor size and further enhance the sensitivity of the biochip in the RF DNA detection. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was used on the surface of the proposed biochip to form a thiolate-modified sensing surface for DNA hybridization. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used to immobilize on the surface of the biosensor to enhance overall detection sensitivity. In addition to gold nanoparticles, the magnetic nanoparticles has been demonstrated the applicability for RF DNA detection. The performance of the proposed biosensor was evaluated by the shift of the center frequency of the RF biosensor because the electromagnetic characteristic of the biosensors can be altered by the immobilized multilayer nanoparticles on the biosensor. The experimental results show that the detection limit of the DNA concentration can reach as low as 10 pM, and the largest shift of the center frequency with triple-layer AuNPs and MNPs can approach 0.9 and 0.7 GHz, respectively. Such the achievement implies that the developed biosensor can offer an alternative inexpensive, disposable, and highly sensitive option for application in biomedicine diagnostic systems because the price and size of each biochip can be effectively reduced by using fully polymeric materials and multilayer-detecting structures. PMID:22093770

  3. Silver nanoparticles ink synthesis for conductive patterns fabrication using inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Dang, Mau; Dung Dang, Thi My; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present silver nanoparticles ink synthesis targeting conductive patterns for micro fabricated devices by inkjet printing technology. The well dispersed nanoparticles ink was composed of silver colloid with an average particle diameter less than 10 nm. These nanoparticles were protected by a capping layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) even at silver concentration of 20 wt%. Stable aqueous inks were formulated by using a combination of solvent and co-solvents and under vigorous stirring. Various factors affecting the adhesion between the ink and the substrate were investigated, such as solvent and co-solvent content. The ink containing 20 wt% silver has a viscosity of about 9.5 cP and a surface tension of 32 to 36 mN m-1 at room temperature, meeting inkjet printer requirements. The ink stored under ambient conditions was stable against aggregation for more than one month. Silver nanoparticles patterns have been successfully printed on various substrates. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  4. Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nune, Satish K; Gunda, Padmaja; Thallapally, Praveen K; Lin, Ying-Ying; Forrest, M Laird; Berkland, Cory J

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic nanoparticles are emerging as versatile tools in biomedical applications, particularly in the area of biomedical imaging. Nanoparticles 1 – 100 nm in diameter have dimensions comparable to biological functional units. Diverse surface chemistries, unique magnetic properties, tunable absorption and emission properties, and recent advances in the synthesis and engineering of various nanoparticles suggest their potential as probes for early detection of diseases such as cancer. Surface functionalization has expanded further the potential of nanoparticles as probes for molecular imaging. Objective To summarize emerging research of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with increased selectivity and reduced nonspecific uptake with increased spatial resolution containing stabilizers conjugated with targeting ligands. Methods This review summarizes recent technological advances in the synthesis of various nanoparticle probes, and surveys methods to improve the targeting of nanoparticles for their application in biomedical imaging. Conclusion Structural design of nanomaterials for biomedical imaging continues to expand and diversify. Synthetic methods have aimed to control the size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles to control distribution, half-life and elimination. Although molecular imaging applications using nanoparticles are advancing into clinical applications, challenges such as storage stability and long-term toxicology should continue to be addressed. PMID:19743894

  5. SERS-active nanoparticles as a barcoding technology for tags and seals

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Leif O; Doorn, Stephen K; Merkle, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present our work to modernize tagging and sealing technologies for international safeguards applications. Our work combines technologies developed at both Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), to offer a passive tag and seal system that can be applied and verified in field, with minimal training for on-site personnel, along with a low per-seal cost. Here, we focus primarily on LANL technology: the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as an inexpensive verification tool. Our nanoparticles offer unique SERS responses, which we can then use to incorporate robust barcoding into tag materials. We describe this technology in more detail, offer preliminary results, and outline integration with SNL developments.

  6. Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Medřík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbořil, Radek; Slunský, Jan; Černík, Miroslav; Stavělová, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

  7. Improved delivery of poorly soluble compounds using nanoparticle technology: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2016-06-01

    Although a large number of new drug molecules with varied therapeutic potentials have been discovered in the recent decade, yet most of them are still in developmental process. This can be attributed to the limited aqueous solubility which governs the bioavailability of such drug molecules. Hence, there is a requisite for a technology-based product (formulation) in order to overcome such issues without compromising on the therapeutic response. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight to the formulation of drug nanoparticles for enhancing solubility and dissolution velocity with concomitant enhancement in bioavailability. In the recent decade, nanonization has evolved from a concept to reality owing to its versatile applications, especially in the development of drugs having poor solubility. In this review, a relatively simple and scalable approach for the manufacture of drug nanoparticles and latest characterization techniques utilized to evaluate the drug nanoparticles are discussed. The drug nanoparticulate approach described herein provides a general applicability of the platform technology in designing a formulation for drugs associated with poor aqueous solubility. PMID:26891912

  8. Next-generation thermo-plasmonic technologies and plasmonic nanoparticles in optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sio, Luciano; Placido, Tiziana; Comparelli, Roberto; Lucia Curri, M.; Striccoli, Marinella; Tabiryan, Nelson; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Controlling light interactions with matter on the nanometer scale provides for compelling opportunities for modern technology and stretches our understanding and exploitation of applied physics, electronics, and fabrication science. The smallest size to which light can be confined using standard optical elements such as lenses and mirrors is limited by diffraction. Plasmonic nanostructures have the extraordinary capability to control light beyond the diffraction limit through an unique phenomenon called the localized plasmon resonance. This remarkable capability enables unique prospects for the design, fabrication and characterization of highly integrated photonic signal-processing systems, nanoresolution optical imaging techniques and nanoscale electronic circuits. This paper summarizes the basic principles and the main achievements in the practical utilization of plasmonic effects in nanoparticles. Specifically, the paper aims at highlighting the major contributions of nanoparticles to nanoscale temperature monitoring, modern "drug free" medicine and the application of nanomaterials to a new generation of opto-electronics integrated circuits.

  9. A Study on Reactive Spray Deposition Technology Processing Parameters in the Context of Pt Nanoparticle Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Justin M.; Maric, Radenka

    2015-12-01

    Catalytic materials are complex systems in which achieving the desired properties (i.e., activity, selectivity and stability) depends on exploiting the many degrees of freedom in surface and bulk composition, geometry, and defects. Flame aerosol synthesis is a process for producing nanoparticles with ample processing parameter space to tune the desired properties. Flame dynamics inside the reactor are determined by the input process variables such as solubility of precursor in the fuel; solvent boiling point; reactant flow rate and concentration; flow rates of air, fuel and the carrier gas; and the burner geometry. In this study, the processing parameters for reactive spray deposition technology, a flame-based synthesis method, are systematically evaluated to understand the residence times, reactant mixing, and temperature profiles of flames used in the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles. This provides a framework for further study and modeling. The flame temperature and length are also studied as a function of O2 and fuel flow rates.

  10. A review of critical factors for assessing the dermal absorption of metal oxide nanoparticles from sunscreens applied to humans, and a research strategy to address current deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; McCall, Maxine J; Bowman, Diana M; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens provide broad-spectrum ultraviolet protection to skin. All studies to assess dermal penetration of nanoparticles have unanimously concluded that the overwhelming majority of nanoparticles remain on the outer surface of the skin. However, possibly due to many different experimental protocols in use, conclusions over the potential penetration to viable skin are mixed. Here, we review several factors that may influence experimental results for dermal penetration including the species studied (human, or animal model), size and coating of the metal oxide nanoparticles, composition of the sunscreen formulation, site of sunscreen application, dose and number of applications, duration of the study, types of biological samples analysed, methods for analysing samples, exposure to UV and skin flexing. Based on this information, we suggest an appropriate research agenda involving international collaboration that maximises the potential for dermal absorption of nanoparticles, and their detection, under normal conditions of sunscreen use by humans. If results from this research agenda indicate no absorption is observed, then concerns over adverse health effects from the dermal absorption of nanoparticles in sunscreens may be allayed. PMID:26140917

  11. Socio-Technical Systems Analysis and Manufacturing Technology: Addressing "Big Brother" and Computers in Blue-Collar Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James C.

    For more than 80 years, jobs in the United States have been designed by people for others. For most of these years, the experts in job design have placed the production technology above the job holder in importance. Since the 1950s, many jobs have been redesigned around new, computer-based technology. Often, the net effect has been to make those…

  12. Conjugates of Actinide Chelator-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Used Fuel Separation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Rao, Linfeng

    2011-10-30

    The actinide separation method using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with actinide specific chelators utilizes the separation capability of ligand and the ease of magnetic separation. This separation method eliminated the need of large quantity organic solutions used in the liquid-liquid extraction process. The MNPs could also be recycled for repeated separation, thus this separation method greatly reduces the generation of secondary waste compared to traditional liquid extraction technology. The high diffusivity of MNPs and the large surface area also facilitate high efficiency of actinide sorption by the ligands. This method could help in solving the nuclear waste remediation problem.

  13. Optimizing magnetic nanoparticles for drinking water technology: The case of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Simeonidis, K; Kaprara, E; Samaras, T; Angelakeris, M; Pliatsikas, N; Vourlias, G; Mitrakas, M; Andritsos, N

    2015-12-01

    The potential of magnetite nanoparticles to be applied in drinking water treatment for the removal of hexavalent chromium is discussed. In this study, a method for their preparation which combines the use of low-cost iron sources (FeSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3) and a continuous flow mode, was developed. The produced magnetite nanoparticles with a size of around 20 nm, appeared relatively stable to passivation providing a removal capacity of 1.8 μg Cr(VI)/mg for a residual concentration of 50 μg/L when tested in natural water at pH7. Such efficiency is explained by the reducing ability of magnetite which turns Cr(VI) to an insoluble Cr(OH)3 form. The successful operation of a small-scale system consisting of a contact reactor and a magnetic separator demonstrates a way for the practical introduction and recovery of magnetite nanoparticles in water treatment technology. PMID:25891685

  14. Applications and development of BitClean technology including selective nanoparticle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; Brinkley, David; White, Roy; LeClaire, Jeff; Archuletta, Michael; Bozak, Ron; Yi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The technology to selectively remove nanoparticles from a photomask surface by adhering it to an AFM tip (BitClean) first introduced with the Merlin® nanomachining mask repair platform has been successfully integrated in numerous mask house production centers across the globe over the last two years. One outstanding request for development from customers has been to develop the capability to not only selectively remove nanoparticles from a target surface, but to also redeposit in another target region. This paper reviews the preliminary work done to develop this capability with particular emphasis on its potential applications in creating realistic nanoparticle inspection sites for KLA systems at critical pattern print locations as well as the accumulation of trace amounts of contaminates for better compositional and print-impact analysis. There is also a feasibility study of new ultra-high aspect ratio (AR > 1.5) NanoBits for future BitClean process applications. The potential for these capabilities to be adapted for new applications will be examined for future work as well as a detailed parametric process analysis with the goal of showing how to make significant improvements in BitClean PRE.

  15. Vault Nanoparticles Packaged with Enzymes as an Efficient Pollutant Biodegradation Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Abad, Danny; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Mahendra, Shaily

    2015-11-24

    Vault nanoparticles packaged with enzymes were synthesized as agents for efficiently degrading environmental contaminants. Enzymatic biodegradation is an attractive technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated environments because enzyme-catalyzed reactions are not constrained by nutrient requirements for microbial growth and often have higher biodegradation rates. However, the limited stability of extracellular enzymes remains a major challenge for practical applications. Encapsulation is a recognized method to enhance enzymatic stability, but it can increase substrate diffusion resistance, lower catalytic rates, and increase the apparent half-saturation constants. Here, we report an effective approach for boosting enzymatic stability by single-step packaging into vault nanoparticles. With hollow core structures, assembled vault nanoparticles can simultaneously contain multiple enzymes. Manganese peroxidase (MnP), which is widely used in biodegradation of organic contaminants, was chosen as a model enzyme in the present study. MnP was incorporated into vaults via fusion to a packaging domain called INT, which strongly interacts with vaults' interior surface. MnP fused to INT and vaults packaged with the MnP-INT fusion protein maintained peroxidase activity. Furthermore, MnP-INT packaged in vaults displayed stability significantly higher than that of free MnP-INT, with slightly increased Km value. Additionally, vault-packaged MnP-INT exhibited 3 times higher phenol biodegradation in 24 h than did unpackaged MnP-INT. These results indicate that the packaging of MnP enzymes in vault nanoparticles extends their stability without compromising catalytic activity. This research will serve as the foundation for the development of efficient and sustainable vault-based bioremediation approaches for removing multiple contaminants from drinking water and groundwater. PMID:26493711

  16. Compositional analysis of iron-platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Chandan

    FePt nanoparticles are candidates for the future magnetic recording technology because of their good chemical stability and high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. One of the fundamental problems that limit the application of these nanoparticles is the particle-to-particle compositional and size variations. This dissertation addresses the following: (a) The mechanism of formation of FePt nanoparticles by two synthesis methods, the iron pentacarbonyl method and the superhydride method (b) determines how the sequence of the nucleation and growth processes contribute to the size and compositional variability and (c) provides a method to engineer the nucleation and growth sequence to produce nanoparticle dispersions with high degree of compositional and size uniformity.

  17. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  18. Technology and Sexuality--What's the Connection? Addressing Youth Sexualities in Efforts to Increase Girls' Participation in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To date, girls and women are significantly underrepresented in computer science and technology. Concerns about this underrepresentation have sparked a wealth of educational efforts to promote girls' participation in computing, but these programs have demonstrated limited impact on reversing current trends. This paper argues that this is, in part,…

  19. A case study in innovative outreach--combining training, research, and technology transfer to address real-world problems.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D P

    1998-01-01

    Outreach, training, technology transfer, and research are often treated as programmatically distinct activities. The interdisciplinary and applied aspects of the Superfund Basic Research Program offer an opportunity to explore different models. A case study is presented that describes a collaborative outreach effort that combines all of the above. It involves the University of California's Davis and Berkeley program projects, the University of California Systemwide Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, the U.S. Navy's civilian workforce at the former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California (MINSY), a Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Education Demonstration Grant program, and the Private Industry Council of Napa and Sonoma counties in California. The effort applied a Superfund-developed technology to a combined waste, radium and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, stemming from a problematic removal action at an installation/restoration site at MINSY. The effort demonstrates that opportunities for similar collaborations are possible at DoD installations. PMID:9703494

  20. AlGaInN laser diode bar and array technology for high-power and individual addressable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Boćkowski, M.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisniewski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Kucharski, R.; Targowski, G.

    2016-04-01

    The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well, giving rise to new and novel applications for medical, industrial, display and scientific purposes. Ridge waveguide laser diode structures are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with high optical powers of >100mW with high reliability. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars of nitride lasers to be fabricated. We demonstrate the operation of monolithic AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters giving optical powers up to 4W cw at ~395nm with a common contact configuration. These bars are suitable for optical pumps and novel extended cavity systems. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space and/or fibre optic system integration within a very small form-factor.

  1. A novel technology using transscleral ultrasound to deliver protein loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Wang, Lili; Dong, Yixuan; Pan, Xin; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) for sustained drug delivery in transscleral ultrasound. Fluorescein isothiocynate labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA, MW 66.45 kDa) was chosen as a model macromolecular protein drug and SFNs were used as nano-carrier systems suitable for ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded nanoparticles (FITC-BSA-SFNs) were first prepared and characterized. In vitro transscleral study under ultrasound exposure (1MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 5 min continuous wave) using isolated sclera of rabbit was performed. The posterior eye segment of rabbit was examined for adverse effect by slit-lamp and histology. It was found that FITC-BSA-SFNs possessed sustained release, bioadhesive, and co-permeation characteristics. The ultrasound application significantly improved the penetration efficiency of FITC-BSA-SFNs as compared with passive delivery, meanwhile caused no damages to the ocular tissue and particles themselves. The distribution profile of SFNs revealed rapid and lasting adhesion on the outer scleral tissues, followed by migration into the interior up to one week after treatment. This research suggested a novel non-invasive transscleral administration of macromolecular protein drugs using SFN carriers combining with ultrasound technology. PMID:24833007

  2. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  3. The Health Sciences and Technology Academy: An Educational Pipeline to Address Health Care Disparities in West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    McKendall, Sherron Benson; Kasten, Kasandra; Hanks, Sara; Chester, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges’ Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program’s success. In this perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program’s success, specifically for African American students, including graduates’ high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA’s community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources. PMID:24280836

  4. Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nanocomposites with potential application in biomedicine and in communication technologies: Nanoparticle aggregation, interaction, and effective magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allia, P.; Barrera, G.; Tiberto, P.; Nardi, T.; Leterrier, Y.; Sangermano, M.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles with a size of 5-6 nm with potential impact on biomedicine and information/communication technologies were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 and subsequently coated with a silica shell exploiting a water-in-oil synthetic procedure. The as-produced powders (comprised of either Fe3O4 or Fe3O4@silica nanoparticles) were mixed with a photocurable resin obtaining two magnetic nanocomposites with the same nominal amount of magnetic material. The static magnetic properties of the two nanopowders and the corresponding nanocomposites were measured in the 10 K-300 K temperature range. Magnetic measurements are shown here to be able to give unambiguous information on single-particle properties such as particle size and magnetic anisotropy as well as on nanoparticle aggregation and interparticle interaction. A comparison between the size distribution functions obtained from magnetic measurements and from TEM images shows that figures estimated from properly analyzed magnetic measurements are very close to the actual values. In addition, the present analysis allows us to determine the value of the effective magnetic anisotropy and to estimate the anisotropy contribution from the surface. The Field-cooled/zero field cooled curves reveal a high degree of particle aggregation in the Fe3O4 nanopowder, which is partially reduced by silica coating and strongly decreased by dissolution in the host polymer. In all considered materials, the nanoparticles are magnetically interacting, the interaction strength being a function of nanoparticle environment and being the lowest in the nanocomposite containing bare, well-separate Fe3O4 particles. All samples behave as interacting superparamagnetic materials instead of ideal superparamagnets and follow the corresponding scaling law.

  5. MAEA Interactive Science Programs: An Innovative Approach to Address the Under-representation of Minorities and Women in Science, Math, and Technological Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloman, E. L.; Baynes, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    Minority Aviation Education Association Inc. (MAEA) was founded in 1992 by Darryl Lee Baynes to address the under-representation of minorities and women in all science, math, and technological fields. The organization is committed to exposing minorities and women to science, math, and technology in grades K-12. The first objective of MAEA is to educate teachers on how to integrate hands-on experiments in their class and include inquiry based learning in their science curriculum. A second objective is to educate students, teachers, and the community regarding the history of minorities in the fields of science, math, and technology, in order to provide role models in these fields. The last objective is to demonstrate the relevance of science in everyday life, with the intention of stimulating future career interest in the fields of science, math, and technology. MAEA currently offers more than 70 hands on inquiry-based programs that are aligned with the 2061 Bench Marks and National Science Standards. The programs are divided into four main categories: auditorium/classroom, enrichment and outreach, after school, and professional development. For the last 14 years, MAEA has served communities and schools across the country with remarkable success and therefore offers an alternative model for K-12 science education. This alternative is significant to the scientific community because it links the under-served population to an active academic and professional pipeline.

  6. High-Throughput Screening Platform for Engineered Nanoparticle-Mediated Genotoxicity Using CometChip Technology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of intentional and unintentional engineered nanoparticle (ENP) exposure has dramatically increased due to the use of nanoenabled products. Indeed, ENPs have been incorporated in many useful products and have enhanced our way of life. However, there are many unanswered questions about the consequences of nanoparticle exposures, in particular, with regard to their potential to damage the genome and thus potentially promote cancer. In this study, we present a high-throughput screening assay based upon the recently developed CometChip technology, which enables evaluation of single-stranded DNA breaks, abasic sites, and alkali-sensitive sites in cells exposed to ENPs. The strategic microfabricated, 96-well design and automated processing improves efficiency, reduces processing time, and suppresses user bias in comparison to the standard comet assay. We evaluated the versatility of this assay by screening five industrially relevant ENP exposures (SiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ag, and CeO2) on both suspension human lymphoblastoid (TK6) and adherent Chinese hamster ovary (H9T3) cell lines. MTT and CyQuant NF assays were employed to assess cellular viability and proliferation after ENP exposure. Exposure to ENPs at a dose range of 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL induced dose-dependent increases in DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity profiles of ZnO > Ag > Fe2O3 > CeO2 > SiO2 in TK6 cells at 4 h and Ag > Fe2O3 > ZnO > CeO2 > SiO2 in H9T3 cells at 24 h were observed. The presented CometChip platform enabled efficient and reliable measurement of ENP-mediated DNA damage, therefore demonstrating the efficacy of this powerful tool in nanogenotoxicity studies. PMID:24617523

  7. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  8. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  9. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  10. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  11. pH-Triggered reversible morphological inversion of orthogonally-addressable poly(3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid)-block-poly(acrylamidoethylamine) micelles and their shell crosslinked nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jiong; Zhang, Shiyi; Shrestha, Ritu; Seetho, Kellie; Donley, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    Functionally-responsive amphiphilic core-shell nanoscopic objects, capable of either complete or partial inversion processes, were produced by the supramolecular assembly of pH-responsive block copolymers, without or with covalent crosslinking of the shell layer, respectively. A new type of well-defined, dual-functionalized boronic acid- and amino-based diblock copolymer poly(3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid)30-block-poly(acrylamidoethylamine)25 (PAPBA30-b-PAEA25) was synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and then assembled into cationic micelles in aqueous solution at pH 5.5. The micelles were further cross-linked throughout the shell domain comprised of poly(acrylamidoethylamine) by reaction with a bis-activated ester of 4,15-dioxo-8,11-dioxa-5,14-diazaoctadecane-1,18-dioic acid, upon increase of the pH to 7, to different cross-linking densities (2%, 5% and 10%), forming well-defined shell cross-linked nanoparticles (SCKs) with hydrodynamic diameters of ca. 50 nm. These smart micelles and SCKs presented switchable cationic, zwitterionic and anionic properties, and existed as stable nanoparticles with high positive surface charge at low pH (pH = 2, zeta potential ~ +40 mV) and strong negative surface charge at high pH (pH = 12, zeta potential ~ −35 mV). 1H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and zeta potential, were used to characterize the chemical compositions, particle sizes, morphologies and surface charges. Precipitation occurred near the isoelectric points (IEP) of the polymer/particle solutions, and the IEP values could be tuned by changing the shell cross-linking density. The block copolymer micelles were capable of full reversible morphological inversion as a function of pH, by orthogonal protonation of the PAEA and hydroxide association with the PAPBA units, whereas the

  12. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  14. Polypropylene/glass fiber hierarchical composites incorporating inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles for advanced technological applications.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Naffakh, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Novel isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/glass fiber (GF) laminates reinforced with inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles as environmentally friendly fillers have been successfully fabricated by simple melt-blending and fiber impregnation in a hot-press without the addition of any compatibilizer. The influence of IF-WS2 concentration on the morphology, viscosity. and thermal and mechanical behavior of the hierarchical composites has been investigated. Results revealed an unprecedented 62 °C increase in the degradation temperature of iPP/GF upon addition of only 4.0 wt % IF-WS2. The coexistence of both micro- and nanoscale fillers resulted in synergistic effects on enhancing the stiffness, strength, crystallinity, thermal stability, glass transition (Tg) and heat distortion temperature (HDT) of the matrix. The approach used in this work is an efficient, versatile, scalable and economic strategy to improve the mechanical and thermal behavior of GF-reinforced thermoplastics with a view to extend their use in advanced technological applications. This new type of composite materials shows great potential to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. PMID:24015820

  15. Silver nanoparticles: a possibility for malarial and filarial vector control technology.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-11-01

    Green synthesis technology is one of the rapid, reliable and best routes for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). There are bioactive compounds with enormous potential in Azadirachta indica (Neem). The extraordinary mosquitoes warrant nanotechnology to integrate with novel molecules. This will be sustainable technology for future. Here, we synthesized AgNPs using aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Az. indica (Neem). We tested AgNPs as larvicides, pupicides and adulticides against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations varying many hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape and with varied sizes (10.47-nm leaf and 19.22-nm bark). The larvae, pupae and adults of filariasis vector C. quinquefasciatus were found to be more susceptible to our AgNPs than the malaria vector An. stephensi. The first and the second instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus show a mortality rate of 100% after 30 min of exposure. The results against the pupa of C. quinquefasciatus were recorded as LC₅₀ 4 ppm, LC₉₀ 11 ppm and LC₉₉ 13 ppm after 3 h of exposure. In the case of adult mosquitoes, LC₅₀ 1.06 μL/cm(2), LC₉₀ 2.13 μL/cm(2) and LC₉₉ 2.4 μL/cm(2) were obtained after 4 h of exposure. These results suggest that our AgNPs are environment-friendly for controlling malarial and filarial vectors. PMID:25132567

  16. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  17. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25701281

  18. Industrial Arts and a Humane Technology for the Future. Representative Addresses and Proceedings of the American Industrial Arts Association's Annual Conference (36th, Seattle, Washington, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    The document contains 75 representative addresses from the American Industrial Arts Association's 36th annual conference. The number of addresses by each group are: three general sessions addresses; six by the American Council of Elementary School Industrial Arts; one by the American Council of Industrial Arts Supervisors; fifteen by the American…

  19. Precision Nanoparticles

    ScienceCinema

    John Hemminger

    2010-01-08

    A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

  20. Precision Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    John Hemminger

    2009-07-21

    A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

  1. Application of rapid milling technology for fabrication of SiC nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Woong; Shim, Jae-Shik; Kwak, Min-Gi; Hong, Sung-Jei; Cho, Hyun-Min

    2013-09-01

    SiC nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by a high energy ball milling method, so that can be used in the printed electronics to make SiC thin film patterns. Here we utilized the waste of Si sludge for making the SiC nanoparticles. In order to achieve uniform thin film from the nanoparticle ink, fine sized SiC nanoparticles less than 100 nm has to be uniformly dispersed. In this study, we employed the ultra apex milling (UAM) system for particle comminution and dispersion. We investigated the effects of milling parameters, e.g., size of ZrO2 bead and milling time. The size of the SiC particles reached about 103 nm after 4 hours of UAM, when the ZrO2 beads of 50 microm were used. Then SiC ink was formulated with organic solvents and a dispersing agent. A specially designed pattern was printed by an ink-jet printer for evaluating the feasibility of the SiC nanoparticle inks. PMID:24205600

  2. University contributions to the HPV vaccine and implications for access to vaccines in developing countries: addressing materials and know-how in university technology transfer policy.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara E; Guillen, Ethan; Price, Matt

    2009-01-01

    , materials and knowledge, vaccines have the potential to be evaluated efficiently and cost-effectively via a pathway parallel to establishing bioequivalence for generic small molecule drugs. A new paradigm is needed that addresses the additional barriers that exist, outside of simply patent protection, to the generic production of vaccines and other biologics. One possible framework, which builds upon previous work on prize funds and patent pools, is discussed here: a Patents, Materials, and Know-how Pool (PMK Pool), based on the patent pool model such as those outlined in the Essential Medical Inventions Licensing Agency and proposals recently put forth by the governments of Barbados and Bolivia. University approaches to licensing vaccines and other biologics need to ensure access not only to patents, knowledge, and materials covered by intellectual property, but must also address the problem of access to materials and know-how that are often proprietary trade secrets. Universities should actively participate in the creation of this and other novel mechanisms, and in the meantime use currently available technology transfer mechanisms to ensure low-cost access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:19697749

  3. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  4. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market. PMID:25984273

  5. Stories From the Field: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Address the Health Needs of Underserved Populations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Background As their availability grew exponentially in the last 20 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health has been widely espoused, with many emphasizing their potential to decrease health inequities. Nonetheless, there is scarce availability of information regarding ICT as tools to further equity in health, specifically in Latin American and Caribbean settings. Objective Our aim was to identify initiatives that used ICT to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and Caribbean. Among these projects, explore the rationale behind the selection of ICT as a key component, probe perceptions regarding contributions to health equity, and describe the challenges faced during implementation. Methods We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. Interviews were completed via Skype or face-to-face meetings using a semistructured interview guide. Following participant consent, interviews were audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were developed. All transcriptions were coded using ATLASti7 software. The text was analyzed for patterns, shared themes, and diverging opinions. Emerging findings were reviewed by all interviewers and shared with participants for feedback. Results We interviewed representatives from eight organizations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries that prominently employed ICT in health communication, advocacy, or surveillance projects. ICT expanded project's geographic coverage, increased their reach into marginalized or hard-to-reach groups, and allowed real-time data collection. Perceptions of contributions to health equity resided mainly in the provision of health information and linkage to health services to members of groups experiencing greater morbidity because of poverty, remote place of residence, lack of relevant public programs, and/or stigma and discrimination, and in more timely responses by authorities to the health needs of these groups as a result of the

  6. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  7. Fundamentals and Technology of Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Through the Fabrication and Manipulation of Plasmonic Gold Metal Nanoparticle Dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Kristen Delane

    2011-12-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was originally discovered in the 1970s with the observation that organic molecules adsorbed onto a metal surface exhibit greatly enhanced Raman scattered light intensities when illuminated with a laser source. Enhancements of approximately 10 6 over regular Raman scattering have been commonly observed and proposed applications of SERS-active sensors exist over a wide range of fields, including chemical analysis, healthcare, food safety and national security, spurring an intense scientific interest in the area. More recently, observations of single- molecule SERS have demonstrated enhancement factors greater than 10 13 at random 'hot spots', but so far, these enhancement factors are poorly understood due to lack of reproducibility and lack of methodical characterization of such spots. Theoretical calculations have shown that the dominant field enhancements are specifically localized in the crevices between metal nanoparticles and are strongly dependent on particle morphology, excitation wavelength and, perhaps above all, particle-particle coupling. The focus of this thesis is to address experimentally theoretical predictions by fabricating SERS configurations and to make definitive measurements of the SERS magnitude at interparticle hot spots. In this work, metal nanoparticles have been directed to form ordered arrays exclusively of metal nanoparticle dimers with control over orientation, size and interparticle spacing. In order to achieve unprecedented control of the material and geometric variables, elastomeric substrates were used to change particle-particle distance while holding all other physical parameters constant. This fundamental new approach to hot spot creation has opened doors to a new family of SERS substrates, where the turning on/off of a hot spot is as easy as flipping a switch. Most recently, I have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach with long nanorods that show an outstanding theoretical SERS

  8. Education and training in optics fabrication: establishing unique partnerships to address workforce training needs for optics and other high technology manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Kiernan, K. J., LLNL

    1998-03-11

    Over the past several years much concern has been voiced about the lack of trained technologists to support high-technology industry and manufacturing in the United States. Attracting and training both new members and upgrading and retraining current members of this area of the workforce has many challenges to address before adequate numbers of well trained individuals will be available to fill the growing demand and help secure our nation`s economic industrial edge. Among the concerns are the lack of effective training programs, available funding, career image, and vehicles to educate the public on the availability of positions and excellent rate of compensation. These concems which effect many areas of industrial manufacturing have been highlighted by government organizations, such as the Department of Labor statistics, and professional journals and publications. In the specific area of optical fabrication, journals such as ``Laser Focus: and Photon& Spectra`` have dedicated articles and editorials discussing the lack of optical fabrication training resources in the United States. Examples of other vocational areas lacking skilled workers, such as precision machinists, are reflected in articles in other publications such as ``Manufacturing Engineering``. The rising concern by both industry and educational institutions has given rise to examining new and innovative approaches to cooperatively solving these problems. In 1994, the American Association of Community Colleges in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Labor, published a study on creative partnerships between community colleges, business, industry and governmental organizations. The premise developed by the research editor was that while partnerships between colleges and private and public sectors have been developed with great benefit for many years, the challenges facing all parties concerned with workforce development going into a new century will require a new magnitude of creativity. Discussions

  9. Formulation and characterization of hydrophilic drug diclofenac sodium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles based on phospholipid complexes technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfei; Chen, Li; Jiang, Sunmin; Zhu, Shuning; Qian, Yong; Wang, Fengzhen; Li, Rui; Xu, Qunwei

    2014-03-01

    To successfully prepare the diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), phospholipid complexes (PCs) technology was applied here to improve the liposolubility of DS. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with phospholipid complexes (PCs) were prepared by the modified emulsion/solvent evaporation method. DS could be solubilized effectively in the organic solvents with the existence of phospholipid and apparent partition coefficient of DS in PCs increased significantly. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that DS in PCs was either molecularly dispersed or in an amorphous form. However, no significant difference was observed between the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of physical mixture and that of PCs. Particles with small sizes, narrow polydispersity indexes and high entrapment efficiencies could be obtained with the addition of PCs. Furthermore, according to the transmission electron microscopy, a core-shell structure was likely to be formed. The presence of PCs caused the change of zeta potential and retarded the drug release of SLNs, which indicated that phospholipid formed multilayers around the solid lipid core of SLNs. Both FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry analysis also illustrated that some weak interactions between DS and lipid materials might take place during the preparation of SLNs. In conclusion, the model hydrophilic drug-DS can be formulated into the SLNs with the help of PCs. PMID:24236407

  10. Challenges of Implementing New Technologies for Sustainable Energy. Opening address at the Sixth Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, London, 13-16 September 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Koch, Hans

    To meet the commitments made in Kyoto, energy-related CO 2 emissions would have to fall to almost 30% below the level projected for a "Business-As-Usual" scenario. Meeting this goal will require a large-scale shift toward climate-friendly technologies such as fuel cells, which have a large long-term potential for both stationary generation and transportation. The deployment of a technology is the last major stage in the process of technological shift. Climate-friendly technologies are not being deployed at a sufficient rate or in sufficient amount to allow IEA countries to meet their targets. Hence, if technology is to play an important roll in reducing emissions within the Kyoto time frame (2008-2012) and beyond, immediate and sustained action to accelerate technology deployment will be required. Obstacles in the way of the deployment of technologies that are ready or near-ready for normal use have come to be referred to as market barriers. The simplest yet most significant form of market barrier to a new technology is the out-of-pocket cost to the user relative to the cost of technologies currently in use. Some market barriers also involve market failure, where the market fails to take account of all the costs and benefits involved, such as omitting external environmental costs, and therefore retard the deployment of more environmentally sustainable technologies. Other barriers include poor information dissemination, excessive and costly regulations, slow capital turnover rates, and inadequate financing. Efforts by governments to alleviate market barriers play an important role to complement private-sector activities, and there are many policies and measures each government could take. In addition, international technology collaboration can help promote the best use of available R&D resources and can contribute to more effective deployment of the result of research and development by sharing costs, pooling information and avoiding duplication of efforts.

  11. The New Digital [St]age: Barriers to the Adoption and Adaptation of New Technologies to Deliver Extension Programming and How to Address Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seger, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of social media and the need for statewide program cohesiveness, The Ohio State University Extension has the opportunity to position itself as a catalyst for technology adoption and adaptation nationwide. Unfortunately, many barriers exist to the successful use and implementation of technology, including an organizational structure…

  12. What English Language Teachers from the Peoples' Republic of China Find Surprising about Information Technology: Thoughts on How to Address the Need for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in China are placing increasing emphasis on the integration of new technologies in the English language curriculum. At the same time, a debate has begun concerning the effectiveness of Information Technology (IT) usage in transforming language pedagogy in the Chinese context. In response to points made in the discussions…

  13. Nitric oxide nanoparticle technology: a novel antimicrobial agent in the context of current treatment of skin and soft tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Englander, Laura; Friedman, Adam

    2010-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections account for the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Staphylococcus aureus is rapidly evolving resistance to contemporary topical as well as systemic antibiotics. Alternatives to current treatment options for skin and soft tissue infections are needed for more effective treatment now and in the future. Nitric oxide's proven roles in both wound repair and as an antimicrobial agent make it an excellent candidate for the treatment of skin infections. Recent attempts at novel nitric oxide therapies, in the form of nitric oxide donors, have shown limited potential in treating cutaneous infection. However, more recent developments in nitric oxide delivery, using nitric oxide nanoparticle technology, demonstrate substantial promise in the promotion of wound repair and eradication of skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:20725551

  14. Nanoparticle Ag-enhanced textured-powder Bi-2212/Ag wire technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellams, J. N.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Vandergrifft, J.

    2015-12-01

    A new approach to the preparation of cores for Bi-2212/Ag wire is being developed. Nanoparticle Ag is homogeneously dispersed in Bi-2212 fine powder, and the mixture is uniaxially compressed to form highly textured, cold-sintered core rods. The rods can be assembled in a silver matrix, drawn to form multifilament wire, and restacked and drawn to form multifilament wire. Preliminary studies using tablet geometry demonstrate that a nonmelt heat treatment produces densification, grain growth, intergrowth among grains, and macroscopic current transport. The status of the development is reported.

  15. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and

  16. Fifteen Years Later: Has Positive Programming Become the Expected Technology for Addressing Problem Behavior? A Commentary on Homer et. al. (1990)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Martha E.

    2005-01-01

    The author found it very satisfying to reread "Toward a technology of 'nonaversive' behavioral support," written in 1990 by Rob Horner and seven of his colleagues. Their predictions of the critical themes for advancing positive behavior support (PBS) ring true. Fifteen years have passed since the publication of this article, and much has happened…

  17. Industrial Arts and Technology, Past, Present, and Future; Addresses and Proceedings of the American Industrial Arts Association's Annual Convention (29th, Philadelphia, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    Manuscripts of 158 individual conference presentations are included. Speeches in each general session were centered on one of the following major topics--(1) Philosophical Bases of Industrial Arts--Four Poles, (2) Industrial Arts and the National Image, (3) The Cultural and Educational Heritage of Our Technological Society, (4) How and Where Can…

  18. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  19. Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Technological Improvement of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dal Pizzol, Carine; O'Reilly, Andre; Winter, Evelyn; Sonaglio, Diva; de Campos, Angela Machado; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal particles consisting of a matrix composed of solid (at room and body temperatures) lipids dispersed in aqueous emulsifier solution. During manufacture, their physicochemical properties may be affected by several formulation parameters, such as type and concentration of lipid, proportion of emulsifiers and amount of solvent. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of these variables on the preparation of SLN. A D-optimal Response Surface Methodology design was used to establish a mathematical model for the optimization of SLN. A total of 30 SLN formulations were prepared using the ultrasound method, and then characterized on the basis of their physicochemical properties, including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and Zeta Potential (s). Particle sizes ranged between 107 and 240 nm. All SLN formulations showed negative sigma and PI values below 0.28. Prediction of the optimal conditions was performed using the desirability function targeting the reduction of all responses. The optimized SLN formulation showed similar theoretical and experimental values, confirming the sturdiness and predictive ability of the mathematical model for SLN optimization. PMID:27433573

  20. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  1. The DOE Vadose Zone Science and Technology Roadmap: A National Program to Address Characeterization, Monitoring and Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Fate and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kowall, Stephen Jacob

    2001-02-01

    The vadose zone comprises the region lying between the earth’s surface and the top of the regional seasonal aquifer. Until recently contamination in the vadose zone was believed to remain relatively immobile. Thus, little attention was paid to understanding the nature of the vadose zone or the potential pathways for contaminants to migrate through it to the water table or other accessible environments. However, recent discoveries of contaminants migrating considerable distances through the vadose zone at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have changed many assumptions both about the nature and function of the vadose zone and the importance we place on understanding this region. As a result of several vadose zone surprises, DOE Environmental Management (EM) tasked the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to lead the development of a vadose zone science and technology roadmap. The roadmap is focused on identifying research spanning the next 25 years necessary to be able to better predict the fate and transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. This in turn will provide the basis for reducing scientific uncertainty in environmental remediation and, especially, vadose zone related long-term stewardship decisions across the DOE complex. Vadose zone issues are now recognized as a national problem affecting other federal agencies as well as state and municipal sites with similar problems. Over the next few decades, dramatic and fundamental advances in computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineered systems will transform our understanding of many aspects of the scientific and technical challenges we face today. The roadmap will serve to develop a common perspective on possible future science and technology needs in an effort to help make better R&D investment decisions.

  2. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  3. Flame spray pyrolysis: An enabling technology for nanoparticles design and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Mädler, Lutz

    2010-08-01

    Combustion of appropriate precursor sprays in a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process is a highly promising and versatile technique for the rapid and scalable synthesis of nanostuctural materials with engineered functionalities. The technique was initially derived from the fundamentals of the well-established vapour-fed flame aerosols reactors that was widely practised for the manufacturing of simple commodity powders such as pigmentary titania, fumed silica, alumina, and even optical fibers. In the last 10 years however, FSP knowledge and technology was developed substantially and a wide range of new and complex products have been synthesised, attracting major industries in a diverse field of applications. Key innovations in FSP reactor engineering and precursor chemistry have enabled flexible designs of nanostructured loosely-agglomerated powders and particulate films of pure or mixed oxides and even pure metals and alloys. Unique material morphologies such as core-shell structures and nanorods are possible using this essentially one step and continuous FSP process. Finally, research challenges are discussed and an outlook on the next generation of engineered combustion-made materials is given. PMID:20820719

  4. Flame spray pyrolysis: An enabling technology for nanoparticles design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Mädler, Lutz

    2010-08-01

    Combustion of appropriate precursor sprays in a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process is a highly promising and versatile technique for the rapid and scalable synthesis of nanostuctural materials with engineered functionalities. The technique was initially derived from the fundamentals of the well-established vapour-fed flame aerosols reactors that was widely practised for the manufacturing of simple commodity powders such as pigmentary titania, fumed silica, alumina, and even optical fibers. In the last 10 years however, FSP knowledge and technology was developed substantially and a wide range of new and complex products have been synthesised, attracting major industries in a diverse field of applications. Key innovations in FSP reactor engineering and precursor chemistry have enabled flexible designs of nanostructured loosely-agglomerated powders and particulate films of pure or mixed oxides and even pure metals and alloys. Unique material morphologies such as core-shell structures and nanorods are possible using this essentially one step and continuous FSP process. Finally, research challenges are discussed and an outlook on the next generation of engineered combustion-made materials is given.

  5. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for mucosal delivery of RNAi therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) gene silencing by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offers a potent and highly specific therapeutic strategy; however, enabling technologies that overcome extracellular and intracellular barriers are required. Polycation-based nanoparticles (termed polyplexes) composed of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA. PMID:25409611

  6. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  7. Comparison of some morphological and absorption properties of the nanoparticles Au/TiO2 embedded films prepared by different technologies on the substrates for application in the plasmonic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Khac An; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Huong Nguyen, Thi Mai; Nguyen, Duy Thien

    2015-03-01

    The nanoparticle Au/TiO2 embedded system plays a very important role in the plasmonic solar cell. The features of the nanoparticle embedded system will determine light enhancement, light absorption, scattering and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), aiming to enhance the efficiency of the plasmatic solar cell. The characterizations of nanoparticles Au/TiO2 embedded system consist of many parameters: the sizes of nanoparticles (Au, TiO2), the weight ratio of Au to TiO2, the thickness of the single layer or multilayer of Au/TiO2, the arrangements of Au and TiO2 nanoparticles in integrated-matrix system, the light absorption, scattering and LSPR capacities of the Au/TiO2 system. These parameters, however, depend on the technological conditions, the structure of plasmonic solar cell as well as the used substrate materials. This paper presents some technological developments for nanoparticles Au/TiO2 embedded systems by different methods, including the preparation of the mixer Au/TiO2 solutions and fabrication of the nanoparticle Au/TiO2 systems with different Au percentages on several substrates (glass/ITO and AAO(Al)/Si…), and measured results of the morphological, structural and optical properties using FESEM, EDX, UV-vis spectroscopy. The comparisons of experiment results between different technology conditions and substrates (glass/ITO, AAO(Al)/Si…) are also shown and discussed with the aim of choosing the suitable technological process and technological conditions for application in the plasmonic solar cell.

  8. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  9. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  12. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  13. Detection of food-borne pathogens by nanoparticle technology coupled to a low-cost cell reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiseux, Isabelle; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Gallant, Pascal; Bourqui, Pascal; Cao, Honghe; Vernon, Marci; Johnson, Roger; Chen, Shu; Mermut, Ozzy

    2010-02-01

    The detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic microorganisms at low cost are of great interest to the agro-food industry. We have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detection of food-borne pathogens based on use of nanoparticles alongside a low cost fluorescence cell reader for the bioassay. The nanoparticles are coupled with antibodies that allow specific recognition of the targeted Listeria in either a liquid or food matrix. The bioconjugated nanoparticles (FNP) contain thousands of dye molecules enabling significant amplification of the fluorescent signal emitted from each bacterium. The developed fluorescence Cell Reader is an LED-based reader coupled with suitable optics and a camera that acquires high resolution images. The dedicated algorithm allowed the counting of each individual nanoparticles-fluorescent bacterial cells thus enabling highly sensitive reading. The system allows, within 1 hour, the recovery and counting of 104 to 108 cfu/mL of Listeria in pure culture. However, neither the Cell Reader nor the algorithm can differentiate between the FNPs specifically-bound to the target and the residual unbound FNPs limiting sensitivity of the system. Since FNPs are too small to be washed in the bioassay, a dual tagging approach was implemented to allow online optical separation of the fluorescent background caused by free FNPs.

  14. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  15. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  16. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  17. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  18. Nanoparticle-Based Modulation of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ronnie H; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-06-01

    The immune system is an incredibly complex biological network that plays a significant role in almost all disease pathogenesis. With an increased understanding of how this vital system operates, there has been a great emphasis on leveraging, manipulating, and/or supplementing endogenous immunity to better prevent or treat different disease states. More recently, the advent of nanotechnology has ushered in a plethora of new nanoparticle-based platforms that can be used to improve existing immunomodulation modalities. As the ability to engineer at the nanoscale becomes increasingly sophisticated, nanoparticles can be finely tuned to effect the desired immune responses, leading to exciting new avenues for addressing pressing issues in public health. In this review, we give an overview of the different areas in which nanoparticle technology has been applied toward modulating the immune system and highlight the recent advances within each. PMID:27146556

  19. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirviö, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-07-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  20. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  1. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  2. Low-temperature solution synthesis of chemically functional ferromagnetic FePtAu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kinge, Sachin; Gang, Tian; Naber, Wouter J M; Boschker, Hans; Rijnders, Guus; Reinhoudt, David N; van der Wiel, Wilfred G

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of great scientific and technological interest. The application of ferromagnetic nanoparticles for high-density data storage has great potential, but energy efficient synthesis of uniform, isolated, and patternable nanoparticles that remain ferromagnetic at room temperature is not trivial. Here, we present a low-temperature solution synthesis method for FePtAu nanoparticles that addresses all those issues and therefore can be regarded as an important step toward applications. We show that the onset of the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (L1(0)) phase is obtained for thermal annealing temperatures as low as 150 degrees C. Large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (10(7) erg/cm(3)) and a high long-range order parameter have been obtained. Our low-temperature solution annealing leaves the organic ligands intact, so that the possibility for postanneal monolayer formation and chemically assisted patterning on a surface is maintained. PMID:19691342

  3. Photoswitchable fluorescent nanoparticles and their emerging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanlin; Zhang, Kaiquan; Wang, Jie; Tian, Zhiyuan; Li, Alexander D. Q.

    2015-11-01

    Although fluorescence offers ultrasensitivity, real-world applications of fluorescence techniques encounter many practical problems. As a noninvasive means to investigate biomolecular mechanisms, pathways, and regulations in living cells, the intrinsic heterogeneity and inherent complexity of biological samples always generates optical interferences such as autofluorescence. Therefore, innovative fluorescence technologies are needed to enhance measurement reliability while not compromising sensitivity. In this review, we present current strategies that use photoswitchable nanoparticles to address these real-world challenges. The unique feature in these photoswitchable nanoparticles is that fundamental molecular photoswitches are playing the critical role of fluorescence modulation rather than traditional methods like modulating the light source. As a result, new innovative technologies that have recently emerged include super-resolution imaging, frequency-domain imaging, antiphase dual-color correlation, etc. Some of these methods improve imaging resolution down to the nanometer level, while others boost the detection sensitivity by orders of magnitude and confirm the nanoparticle probes unambiguously. These enhancements, which are not possible with non-photoswitching molecular probes, are the central topics of this review.

  4. Theoretical Approaches to Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, Krzysztof

    Nanoparticles can be viewed as wave resonators. Involved waves are, for example, carrier waves, plasmon waves, polariton waves, etc. A few examples of successful theoretical treatments that follow this approach are given. In one, an effective medium theory of a nanoparticle composite is presented. In another, plasmon polaritonic solutions allow to extend concepts of radio technology, such as an antenna and a coaxial transmission line, to the visible frequency range.

  5. Quantification of intracellular payload release from polymersome nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Edoardo; Bailey, Joanne L.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Stumpf, Patrick S.; Johnston, Alexander H.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Woo, Yin L.; Cheong, Ying C.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Newman, Tracey A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymersome nanoparticles (PMs) are attractive candidates for spatio-temporal controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. Although many studies have addressed cellular uptake of solid nanoparticles, there is very little data available on intracellular release of molecules encapsulated in membranous carriers, such as polymersomes. Here, we addressed this by developing a quantitative assay based on the hydrophilic dye, fluorescein. Fluorescein was encapsulated stably in PMs of mean diameter 85 nm, with minimal leakage after sustained dialysis. No fluorescence was detectable from fluorescein PMs, indicating quenching. Following incubation of L929 cells with fluorescein PMs, there was a gradual increase in intracellular fluorescence, indicating PM disruption and cytosolic release of fluorescein. By combining absorbance measurements with flow cytometry, we quantified the real-time intracellular release of a fluorescein at a single-cell resolution. We found that 173 ± 38 polymersomes released their payload per cell, with significant heterogeneity in uptake, despite controlled synchronisation of cell cycle. This novel method for quantification of the release of compounds from nanoparticles provides fundamental information on cellular uptake of nanoparticle-encapsulated compounds. It also illustrates the stochastic nature of population distribution in homogeneous cell populations, a factor that must be taken into account in clinical use of this technology. PMID:27404770

  6. Integrating Technology in Program Development for Children and Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K., Ed.; Black, Sharon, Ed.

    This monograph presents research-based solutions to the integration of technology in programs serving students with emotional and/or behavior disorders. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction: Technology, the Great Equalizer" (Lynn K. Wilder) which considers challenges and solutions to the technology challenge; (2) "Project PEGS! Interactive CDs for…

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyaniline to stabilize immobilized trypsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, J. C.; D. Mercês, A. A.; Cabrera, M.; Shigeyosi, W. T.; de Souza, S. D.; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Cardoso, C. A.; Neri, D. F. M.; C. Silva, M. P.; Carvalho, L. B.

    2016-12-01

    It is reported the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles via the chemical co-precipitation of Fe 3+ ions and their preparation by coating them with polyaniline. The electronic micrograph analysis showed that the mean diameter for the nanoparticles is ˜15 nm. FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to understand the chemical, crystallographic and 57Fe hyperfine structures for the two samples. The nanoparticles, which exhibited magnetic behavior with relatively high spontaneous magnetization at room temperature, were identified as being mainly formed by maghemite ( γFe2O3). The coated magnetic nanoparticles (sample labeled "mPANI") presented a real ability to bind biological molecules such as trypsin, forming the magnetic enzyme derivative (sample "mPANIG-Trypsin"). The amount of protein and specific activity of the immobilized trypsin were found to be 13±5 μg of protein/mg of mPANI (49.3 % of immobilized protein) and 24.1±0.7 U/mg of immobilized protein, respectively. After 48 days of storage at 4 ∘C, the activity of the immobilized trypsin was found to be 89 % of its initial activity. This simple, fast and low-cost procedure was revealed to be a promising way to prepare mPANI nanoparticles if technological applications addressed to covalently link biomolecules are envisaged. This route yields chemically stable derivatives, which can be easily recovered from the reaction mixture with a magnetic field and recyclable reused.

  8. Nanosecond Dynamics in Pt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, F. D.; Moore, J. M.; Rehr, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of supported catalysts is of fundamental and technological importance. However, due to the complex nature of their structure and dynamics at operando temperatures, their nanoscale behavior remains poorly understood. We have shown that DFT/MD calculations provide fundamental insight into the few ps dynamic structure of the nanoparticles, but such methods can be very computationally intensive.[2,3] In order to examine relaxation dynamics in the ns regime here we present finite temperature MD simulations based on a modified Sutton-Chen (SC) model potential, supplemented with Lennard-Jones potentials for the interaction with the support. We find that bulk SC parameters tend to produce nanoparticles with less fluxional dynamics than those in ab initio simulations. To address this issue, we have determined modified SC parameters that capture the DFT dynamics. Nanosecond simulations reveal regimes controlled by internal particle melting and activation of surface mobility. The approach is illustrated for nano-catalysts of Pt/ γ-alumina and compared with ab initio DFT/MD results. Supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-03ER15476 (F.D.V and J.J.R) and by NSF grant PHY-1262811, REU Site: University of Washington Physics (J.M.M.), with computer support from DOE - NERSC.

  9. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  10. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  11. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  12. Imaging through plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Sobhani, Ali; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Cui, Yao; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Samaniego, Adam; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J.

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with plasmon resonances have been studied extensively, typically by measuring the transmission of light, as a function of wavelength, through a nanoparticle suspension. One question that has not yet been addressed, however, is how an image is transmitted through such a suspension of absorber-scatterers, in other words, how the various spatial frequencies are attenuated as they pass through the nanoparticle host medium. Here, we examine how the optical properties of a suspension of plasmonic nanoparticles affect the transmitted image. We use two distinct ways to assess transmitted image quality: the structural similarity index (SSIM), a perceptual distortion metric based on the human visual system, and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which assesses the resolvable spatial frequencies. We show that perceived image quality, as well as spatial resolution, are both dependent on the scattering and absorption cross-sections of the constituent nanoparticles. Surprisingly, we observe a nonlinear dependence of image quality on optical density by varying optical path length and nanoparticle concentration. This work is a first step toward understanding the requirements for visualizing and resolving objects through media consisting of subwavelength absorber-scatterer structures, an approach that should also prove useful in the assessment of metamaterial or metasurface-based optical imaging systems.

  13. Imaging through plasmonic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Sobhani, Ali; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Cui, Yao; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Samaniego, Adam; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J.

    2016-01-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with plasmon resonances have been studied extensively, typically by measuring the transmission of light, as a function of wavelength, through a nanoparticle suspension. One question that has not yet been addressed, however, is how an image is transmitted through such a suspension of absorber-scatterers, in other words, how the various spatial frequencies are attenuated as they pass through the nanoparticle host medium. Here, we examine how the optical properties of a suspension of plasmonic nanoparticles affect the transmitted image. We use two distinct ways to assess transmitted image quality: the structural similarity index (SSIM), a perceptual distortion metric based on the human visual system, and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which assesses the resolvable spatial frequencies. We show that perceived image quality, as well as spatial resolution, are both dependent on the scattering and absorption cross-sections of the constituent nanoparticles. Surprisingly, we observe a nonlinear dependence of image quality on optical density by varying optical path length and nanoparticle concentration. This work is a first step toward understanding the requirements for visualizing and resolving objects through media consisting of subwavelength absorber-scatterer structures, an approach that should also prove useful in the assessment of metamaterial or metasurface-based optical imaging systems. PMID:27140618

  14. Imaging through plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Sobhani, Ali; DeSantis, Christopher J; Cui, Yao; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Samaniego, Adam; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J

    2016-05-17

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with plasmon resonances have been studied extensively, typically by measuring the transmission of light, as a function of wavelength, through a nanoparticle suspension. One question that has not yet been addressed, however, is how an image is transmitted through such a suspension of absorber-scatterers, in other words, how the various spatial frequencies are attenuated as they pass through the nanoparticle host medium. Here, we examine how the optical properties of a suspension of plasmonic nanoparticles affect the transmitted image. We use two distinct ways to assess transmitted image quality: the structural similarity index (SSIM), a perceptual distortion metric based on the human visual system, and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which assesses the resolvable spatial frequencies. We show that perceived image quality, as well as spatial resolution, are both dependent on the scattering and absorption cross-sections of the constituent nanoparticles. Surprisingly, we observe a nonlinear dependence of image quality on optical density by varying optical path length and nanoparticle concentration. This work is a first step toward understanding the requirements for visualizing and resolving objects through media consisting of subwavelength absorber-scatterer structures, an approach that should also prove useful in the assessment of metamaterial or metasurface-based optical imaging systems. PMID:27140618

  15. Synthetic pathways to make nanoparticles fluorescent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Viktoriya; Epple, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    In biosciences, it is often necessary to follow the pathway of nanoparticles within cells or tissues. The nanoparticles can be used as labeled sensors which may, e.g., address functionalities within a cell, carry other specific agents like drugs or be magnetic for tumor thermotherapy. In the context of nanotoxicology, the fate of a given nanoparticle is of interest. As many methods in cell biology are based on fluorescence detection, there is a strong demand to make nanoparticles fluorescent. Different ways to introduce fluorescence are reviewed and exemplified with typical kinds of nanoparticles, i.e. polymers, silica and calcium phosphate.

  16. Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on Effective Self-Assembly Technology for Preparation of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/Au Nanoparticles Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuhang; Xie, Hangqing; Shao, Xiaobao; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Yuhong; Zhao, Wenbo; Xia, Xinyi

    2016-03-01

    Novel nanomaterials and nanotechnology for use in bioassay applications represent a rapidly advancing field. This study developed a novel method to fabricate the glucose biosensor with good gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) fixed efficiency based on effective self-assembly technology for preparation of multilayers composed of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and AuNPs. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor based on (AuNPs/PAH)n/AuNPs/glucose oxide (GOD) with different multilayers were systematically investigated. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, electrochemical properties of the biosensor with three times self-assembly processes ((AuNPs/PAH)3/AuNPs/GOD) is best. The GOD biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current-time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 162 mM, and a low detection limit of 0.029 mM. The GOD biosensor modified with (AuNPs/PAH)n layers will have essential significance and practical application in future owing to the simple method of fabrication and good performance. PMID:27455628

  17. Silver nanoparticles as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Franci, Gianluigi; Falanga, Annarita; Galdiero, Stefania; Palomba, Luciana; Rai, Mahendra; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials. PMID:25993417

  18. Industrial Arts: Preparation for Life in a Technological World." Addresses and Proceedings of the 41st National and 8th International Annual Conference of the American Industrial Arts Association, (San Antonio, Texas, February 26-March 2, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    Included in this document are the addresses and proceedings of the 41st National and 8th International Annual Conference of the American Industrial Arts Association. The proceedings are organized by the following subject groups: curriculum, drafting, electricity/electronics, elementary school industrial arts, energy/power, evaluation, futurology,…

  19. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  20. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. PMID:20659510

  1. Nanoparticles and cars - analysis of potential sources

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the present study analyzed the literature with regard to nanoparticles and cars. It can be stated that, to date, only a limited amount of research has been conducted in this area and more studies are needed to 1) address kind and sources of nanoparticles within automobiles and to 2) analyse whether there are health effects caused by these nanoparticles. PMID:22726351

  2. Inorganic Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Kudgus, Rachel A.; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an evolving field with enormous potential for biomedical applications. The growing interest to use inorganic nanoparticles in medicine is due to the unique size and shape-dependent optoelectronic properties. Herein, we will focus on gold, silver and platinum nanoparticles, discussing recent developments for therapeutic applications with regard to cancer in terms of nanoparticles being used as a delivery vehicle as well as therapeutic agents. We will also discuss some of the key challenges to be addressed in future studies. PMID:21104301

  3. [Toxicity of nanoparticles on reproduction].

    PubMed

    Greco, F; Courbière, B; Rose, J; Orsière, T; Sari-Minodier, I; Bottero, J-Y; Auffan, M; Perrin, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are sized between 1 and 100nm. Their size allows new nanoscale properties of particular interest for industrial and scientific purpose. Over the past twenty years, nanotechnology conquered many areas of use (electronic, cosmetic, textile…). While, human is exposed to an increasing number of nanoparticles sources, health impacts and, particularly on reproductive function, remains poorly evaluated. Indeed, traceability of nanoparticles use is lacking and nanotoxicology follows different rules than classical toxicology. This review focuses on the impact of NPs on health and particularly on fertility and addresses potential risks of chronic exposure to NPs on human fertility. PMID:25533638

  4. Silver Nanoparticles: An Influential Element in Plant Nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Mostafa K; Salehi, H

    2016-07-01

    Profound interest and progress has been made since the invention of nanotechnology in 1959. However, its application in plant tissue culture and biotechnology has not been fully acknowledged in parallel with other facets of this technology. In this manuscript, the AgNPs effects on plant tissue culture and biotechnology encompass their antimicrobial effects and their mechanisms of action addressed to some extends. Moreover, their effects on seedling growth also reviewed. Most of the presented papers in the field of plant science have focused on antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles but its interesting inhibitory effects of plant senescence phytohormone ethylene, most likely can open a new window for future research. PMID:27146282

  5. Antimicrobial precious-metal nanoparticles and their use in novel materials.

    PubMed

    Senior, Katharina; Müller, Stefanie; Schacht, Veronika J; Bunge, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Nanotechnology offers powerful new approaches to controlling unwanted microorganisms and other potential biohazards. Engineered nanoparticles with antifungal, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties are now being developed for a variety of applications, including manufacture and maintenance of sterile surfaces, prevention and control of biological contamination, food and water safety, and treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. The great potential of antimicrobial precious-metal nanoparticles is reflected by the high number of recent publications and patent applications, which is summarized, at least in part, in this paper. This review should provide an overview and offer guidance to the scientific community interested in nano(bio)technology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology, and may also be of interest to a broader scientific audience. Furthermore, this review covers specific topics in research and development addressing the effects of nanoparticles on microorganisms as well as novel nanotechnology-based approaches for controlling potentially pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:23013409

  6. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    While nanoparticles occur naturally in the environment and have been intentionally used for centuries, the production and use of engineered nanoparticles has seen a recent spike, which makes environmental release almost certain. Therefore, recent efforts to characterize the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles have focused on the environmental implications, including exploration of toxicity to organisms from wide-ranging parts of the ecosystem food webs. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of toxicity of engineered nanoparticles to representatives of various trophic levels, including bacteria, plants, and multicellular aquatic/terrestrial organisms, to highlight important challenges within the field of econanotoxicity, challenges that analytical chemists are expertly poised to address. PMID:23427995

  7. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  8. Addressing Public Concerns about GMOs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction of genetic engineering technology to agriculture has raised concerns in the public sector regarding the safety of applying this technology to the food supply. Concerns focus on two major issues: human/animal health and environmental risks. Such concerns have arisen in part because...

  9. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  10. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  11. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  12. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  13. Synchronous Energy Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The synchronous technology requirements for large space power systems are summarized. A variety of technology areas including photovoltaics, thermal management, and energy storage, and power management are addressed.

  14. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Tong-Gang; Liu, Jian-Hua; Kong, Juan; He, Jia-Xin; Guo, Lin

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports that Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified by AOT(sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) were prepared using microemulsion method in the system of water and propanol/AOT/toluene. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Nd2O3 nanoparticles take the shape of sphere with 18 nm and 31 nm with different preparation. The organic sol of Nd2O3 nanoparticles is very stable at room temperature. X-ray diffraction results show that the product has hexagonal phase structure. Two ultraviolet emission band at 344 nm and 361 nm corresponding to the transition of 4D3/2 → 4 I9/2 and 2P3 /2 →4 I11/2 or 4D3/2 → 4 I13/2 were observed.

  15. Studies on the biodistribution of dextrin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.; Santos, A. C.; Prata, M. I. M.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Martins, J. A.; Gama, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    The characterization of biodistribution is a central requirement in the development of biomedical applications based on the use of nanoparticles, in particular for controlled drug delivery. The blood circulation time, organ biodistribution and rate of excretion must be well characterized in the process of product development. In this work, the biodistribution of recently developed self-assembled dextrin nanoparticles is addressed. Functionalization of the dextrin nanoparticles with a DOTA-monoamide-type metal chelator, via click chemistry, is described. The metal chelator functionalized nanoparticles were labelled with a γ-emitting 153Sm3 + radioisotope and the blood clearance rate and organ biodistribution of the nanoparticles were obtained. The effect of PEG surface coating on the blood clearance rate and organ biodistribution of the nanoparticles was also studied.

  16. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2015-11-20

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  17. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  18. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  19. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  20. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  1. Gold Nanoparticles for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ya; Jiang, Ziwen; Saha, Krishnendu; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Sung Tae; Landis, Ryan F; Rotello, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles provide an attractive and applicable scaffold for delivery of nucleic acids. In this review, we focus on the use of covalent and noncovalent gold nanoparticle conjugates for applications in gene delivery and RNA-interference technologies. We also discuss challenges in nucleic acid delivery, including endosomal entrapment/escape and active delivery/presentation of nucleic acids in the cell. PMID:24599278

  2. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  3. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  4. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  6. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  7. Multidimensional analysis of nanoparticles with highly disperse properties using multiwavelength analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Löhr, Konrad; Karabudak, Engin; Reis, Wieland; Mikhael, Jules; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wohlleben, Wendel; Cölfen, Helmut

    2014-09-23

    The worldwide trend in nanoparticle technology toward increasing complexity must be directly linked to more advanced characterization methods of size, shape and related properties, applicable to many different particle systems in science and technology. Available techniques for nanoparticle characterization are predominantly focused on size characterization. However, simultaneous size and shape characterization is still an unresolved major challenge. We demonstrate that analytical ultracentrifugation with a multiwavelength detector is a powerful technique to address multidimensional nanoparticle analysis. Using a high performance optical setup and data acquisition software, information on size, shape anisotropy and optical properties were accessible in one single experiment with unmatched accuracy and resolution. A dynamic rotor speed gradient allowed us to investigate broad distributions on a short time scale and differentiate between gold nanorod species including the precise evaluation of aggregate formation. We report how to distinguish between different species of single-wall carbon nanotubes in just one experiment using the wavelength-dependent sedimentation coefficient distribution without the necessity of time-consuming purification methods. Furthermore, CdTe nanoparticles of different size and optical properties were investigated in a single experiment providing important information on structure-property relations. Thus, multidimensional information on size, density, shape and optical properties of nanoparticulate systems becomes accessible by means of analytical ultracentrifugation equipped with multiwavelength detection. PMID:25130765

  8. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  9. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  10. Commercial Nanoparticles for Stem Cell Labeling and Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaqi; Xu, Chenjie; Ow, Hooisweng

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy provides promising solutions for diseases and injuries that conventional medicines and therapies cannot effectively treat. To achieve its full therapeutic potentials, the homing process, survival, differentiation, and engraftment of stem cells post transplantation must be clearly understood. To address this need, non-invasive imaging technologies based on nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to track transplanted stem cells. Here we summarize existing commercial NPs which can act as contrast agents of three commonly used imaging modalities, including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging, for stem cell labeling and tracking. Specifically, we go through their technologies, industry distributors, applications and existing concerns in stem cell research. Finally, we provide an industry perspective on the potential challenges and future for the development of new NP products. PMID:23946821

  11. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  12. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  14. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  15. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  16. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  17. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  18. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  19. Information Technology for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Cathrine E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Eight papers address technological, behavioral, and philosophical aspects of the application of information technology to training. Topics include instructional technology centers, intelligent training systems, distance learning, automated task analysis, training system selection, the importance of instructional methods, formative evaluation and…

  20. Strategies for the automatic interpretation of handwritten addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovner, Richard M.; Gillies, Andrew M.; Ganzberger, Margaret J.; Hepp, Daniel J.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the technologies and strategies underlying a state-of-the-art system for automatic handwritten address interpretation. The system is capable of interpreting both street addresses and post office box addresses. The input to the system is a grayscale image of a handwritten address and the goal is to determine the ZIP+4 code corresponding to the destination address on the mail piece. Processing is accomplished through an integrated series of steps involving preprocessing, numeral field recognition (ZIP codes, street numbers, post office box numbers), national postal database retrieval, word and phrase recognition, database record matching, and a decision strategy. In a formal test, this system encoded 38.7 percent of the mail pieces, with an encode error rate of 8.4 percent. Adjusting system parameters designed to tradeoff encode rate for error rate produces an encode rate of 33.8 percent with a 3.9 percent encode error rate.

  1. The study of single nanoparticle and molecule physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnsack, Tiffany Eva

    We intend to use cross-linked, polymeric nanoparticles as a device to store information when they are deformed (1) or in their native undeformed (0) state. To do this, information about the interaction between the nanoparticles and different surfaces must be determined. The substrates tested include a high energy mica surface and a low energy silanized silicon wafer. The nanoparticles collapse on the mica substrate, but remain robust and structured on the silanized wafer, yet an extreme amount of crosslinking is required for the nanoparticles to retain their original spherical shape regardless of the substrate surface energy. The nanoparticle behavior was also observed at elevated temperatures to reveal that the height of the extremely cross-linked nanoparticles slowly decreases. The temperature where a rapid size change occurs was well below the bulk glass transition temperature, suggesting unique phenomena at the nanoscale. The formation of ordered nanoparticle arrays is another essential aspect of molecular technology and can be produced by using single-wall carbon nanotubes as a template. Single wall carbon nanotubes serve as nucleation sites to focus nanoparticles toward them through strong van der Waals forces that are enhanced from geometrical effects. This interaction drives the nanoparticles to collect onto the nanotubes, which creates an alignment of nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes. In final studies the nanoparticles were robustly attached to the surface through polymer film embedment. Embedding the nanoparticles into a cross-linked thin polymer film locks the nanoparticles in place to prevent disruption of the nanoparticles during deformation.

  2. Authentic Literacy Assessment: NASA Technology Addressing Adult Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaden, David B. Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of issues in adult literacy; an assessment of workplace literacy; and components, concepts, and steps of the NASA Adult Literacy Evaluator project. The Adult Literacy Evaluator project applies NASA's technical experience to the problem of adult literacy and workplace literacy by finding ways to use interactive…

  3. DNA templated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph M.

    Recent discoveries in nanoscience are predicted to potentially revolutionize future technologies in an extensive number of fields. These developments are contingent upon discovering new and often unconventional methods to synthesize and control nanoscale components. Nature provides several examples of working nanotechnology such as the use of programmed self assembly to build and deconstruct complex molecular systems. We have adopted a method to control the one dimensional assembly of magnetic nanoparticles using DNA as a scaffold molecule. With this method we have demonstrated the ability to organize 5 nm particles into chains that stretch up to ˜20 mum in length. One advantage of using DNA compared is the ability of the molecule to interact with other biomolecules. After assembling particles onto DNA we have been able to cleave the molecule into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Using ligase enzymes we have re-connected these fragments, coated with either gold or iron oxide, to form long one-dimensional arrangements of the two different types of nanoparticles on a single molecular guide. We have also created a sensitive magnetic field sensor by incorporating magnetic nanoparticle coated DNA strands with microfabricated electrodes. The IV characteristics of the aligned nanoparticles are dependant on the magnitude of an externally applied magnetic field. This transport phenomenon known as tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) shows room temperature resistance of our devices over 80% for cobalt ferrite coated DNA when a field of 20 kOe is applied. In comparison, studies using two dimensional nanoparticle films of irox oxides xii only exhibit a 35% MR effect. Confinement into one dimension using the DNA guide produces a TMR mechanism which produces significant increases in magnetoresistance. This property can be utilized for applications in magnetic field sensing, data storage, and logic elements.

  4. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed. PMID:26906002

  5. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  6. Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

  7. Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles

    ScienceCinema

    Rozhkova, Elena

    2013-04-19

    Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

  8. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  9. Plastics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  10. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  11. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  12. Future prospects of antibacterial metal nanoparticles as enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Raman, Thiagarajan; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles are being widely used as antibacterial agents with metal nanoparticles emerging as the most efficient antibacterial agents. There have been many studies which have reported the mechanism of antibacterial activity of nanoparticles on bacteria. In this review we aim to emphasize on all the possible mechanisms which are involved in the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles and also to understand their mode of action and role as bacterial enzyme inhibitor by comparing their antibacterial mechanism to that of antibiotics with enzyme inhibition as a major mechanism. With the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, nanoparticles offer a better alternative to our conventional arsenal of antibiotics. Once the biological safety of these nanoparticles is addressed, these nanoparticles can be of great medical importance in our fight against bacterial infections. PMID:27524096

  13. Engineering Gd-loaded nanoparticles to enhance MRI sensitivity via T1 shortening

    PubMed Central

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Yu, Xin; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of obtaining high-resolution anatomical images of the body. Major drawbacks of MRI are the low contrast agent sensitivity and inability to distinguish healthy tissue from diseased tissue, making early detection challenging. To address this technological hurdle, paramagnetic contrast agents have been developed to increase the longitudinal relaxivity (R1), leading to an increased signal-to-noise ratio. This review focuses on methods and principles that enabled the design and engineering of nanoparticles to deliver contrast agents with enhanced ionic relaxivities. Different engineering strategies and nanoparticle platforms will be compared in terms of their manufacturability, biocompatibility properties, and their overall potential to make an impact in clinical MR imaging. PMID:24158750

  14. Toxicity and cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles: what we have learned so far?

    PubMed Central

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M.

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous scientific and technological interest due to their ease of synthesis, chemical stability, and unique optical properties. Proof-of-concept studies demonstrate their biomedical applications in chemical sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery, and cancer treatment. Knowledge about their potential toxicity and health impact is essential before these nanomaterials can be used in real clinical settings. Furthermore, the underlying interactions of these nanomaterials with physiological fluids is a key feature of understanding their biological impact, and these interactions can perhaps be exploited to mitigate unwanted toxic effects. In this Perspective we discuss recent results that address the toxicity of gold nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and we provide some experimental recommendations for future research at the interface of nanotechnology and biological systems. PMID:21170131

  15. Redispersible drug nanoparticles prepared without dispersant by electro-spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hwanki; Lee, Jonghwi

    2012-06-01

    The redispersibility of drug nanoparticles is critical in the formulation development of oral solid dosage forms from drug nanosuspensions. To address this issue, various drying techniques such as, spray drying, fluidized bed drying, etc. have been developed based on freeze drying. In this work, redispersible dried powders were successfully prepared from drug nanosuspensions without the use of dispersant by applying an electrical potential to the nozzle during the spray drying process. The applied voltage, not the concentration of the nanosuspension, was critical in determining the redispersibility. Despite the high electric field, the particle morphology and crystallinity were not dependent on the applied voltage, which suggests that the drug crystals were not damaged. This novel technique could broaden the applicability of spray drying technology and allow for novel formulations of drug nanoparticles. PMID:22010908

  16. 15 CFR 280.321 - Notification of changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of changes of address. 280.321 Section 280.321 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND...

  17. 15 CFR 280.321 - Notification of changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of changes of address. 280.321 Section 280.321 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND...

  18. 15 CFR 280.321 - Notification of changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of changes of address. 280.321 Section 280.321 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND...

  19. 15 CFR 280.321 - Notification of changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of changes of address. 280.321 Section 280.321 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND...

  20. 15 CFR 280.321 - Notification of changes of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of changes of address. 280.321 Section 280.321 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND...

  1. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  2. Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Wounds.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe; Vidal, Alejandra; Concha, Miguel; Morales, Javier; Orellana, Sandra; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of skin wounds represents an important research area due to the important physiological and aesthetic role of this tissue. During the last years, nanoparticles have emerged as important platforms to treat skin wounds. Silver, gold, and copper nanoparticles, as well as titanium and zinc oxide nanoparticles, have shown potential therapeutic effects on wound healing. Due to their specific characteristics, nanoparticles such as nanocapsules, polymersomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanocomplexes are ideal vehicles to improve the effect of drugs (antibiotics, growth factors, etc.) aimed at wound healing. On the other hand, if active excipients are added during the formulation, such as hyaluronate or chitosan, the nanomedicine could significantly improve its potential. In addition, the inclusion of nanoparticles in different pharmaceutical materials may enhance the beneficial effects of the formulations, and allow achieving a better dose control. This paper aims at reviewing significant findings in the area of nanoparticles and wound treatment. Among the reviewed topics, we underline formulations comprising inorganic, polymeric, surfactant self-assembled, and lipid nanosystems. Among the drugs included in the nanoformulations, the paper refers to antibiotics, natural extracts, proteins, and growth factors, among others. Finally, the paper also addresses nanoparticles embedded in secondary vehicles (fibers, dressings, hydrogels, etc.) that could improve their application and/or upgrade the release profile of the active. PMID:26323420

  3. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-07-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  4. Recent advances in benefits and hazards of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Radad, Khaled; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Moldzio, Rudolf; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Over recent decades, engineered nanoparticles are increasingly produced as the result of the rapid development in nanotechnology. They are currently used in a wide range of industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, materials, and information and communication technologies. As the result, an increasing concern has been raised over the potential impacts of engineered nanoparticles to human health. In the light of this, it is the purpose of the present review to discuss: (1) novel properties of engineered nanoparticles particularly in biomedical sciences, (2) most recently reported adverse effects of manufactured nanoparticles on human health and (3) different aspects of toxicological risk assessment of these nanoparticles. PMID:22964156

  5. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values. PMID:24619487

  6. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Shiraz M; Giustini, Andrew J; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P Jack

    2011-02-23

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values. PMID:24619487

  7. Development of novel magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values.

  8. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Nonoxide Nanoparticles in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Kumfer, B. M.; Sun, Z.; Chao, B. H.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-phase combustion synthesis is a promising process for creating nanoparticles for the growing nanostructure materials industry. The challenges that must be addressed are controlling particle size, preventing hard agglomerates, maintaining purity, and, if nonoxides are synthesized, protecting the particles from oxidation and/or hydrolysis during post-processing. Sodium-halide Flame Encapsulation (SFE) is a unique methodology for producing nonoxide nanoparticles that addresses these challenges. This flame synthesis process incorporates sodium and metal-halide chemistry, resulting in nanoparticles that are encapsulated in salt during the early stages of their growth in the flame. Salt encapsulation has been shown to allow control of particle size and morphology, while serving as an effective protective coating for preserving the purity of the core particles. Metals and compounds that have been produced using this technology include Al, W, Ti, TiB2, AlN, and composites of W-Ti and Al-AlN. Oxygen content in SFE synthesized nano- AlN has been measured by neutron activation analysis to be as low as 0.54wt.%, as compared to over 5wt.% for unprotected AlN of comparable size. The overall objective of this work is to study the SFE process and nano-encapsulation so that they can be used to produce novel and superior materials. SFE experiments in microgravity allow the study of flame and particle dynamics without the influence of buoyancy forces. Spherical sodium-halide flames are produced in microgravity by ejecting the halide from a spherical porous burner into a quiescent atmosphere of sodium vapor and argon. Experiments are performed in the 2.2 sec Drop Tower at the NASA-Glenn Research Center. Numerical models of the flame and particle dynamics were developed and are compared with the experimental results.

  9. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  10. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids.

    PubMed

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J P; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-21

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state). PMID:26928324