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1

Metallic Nickel Nanoparticles May Exhibit Higher Carcinogenic Potential than Fine Particles in JB6 Cells  

PubMed Central

While numerous studies have described the pathogenic and carcinogenic effects of nickel compounds, little has been done on the biological effects of metallic nickel. Moreover, the carcinogenetic potential of metallic nickel nanoparticles is unknown. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) have been shown to play pivotal roles in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is considered to be one of the steps leading to the neoplastic state. The present study examines effects of metallic nickel fine and nanoparticles on tumor promoter or suppressor gene expressions as well as on cell transformation in JB6 cells. Our results demonstrate that metallic nickel nanoparticles caused higher activation of AP-1 and NF-?B, and a greater decrease of p53 transcription activity than fine particles. Western blot indicates that metallic nickel nanoparticles induced a higher level of protein expressions for R-Ras, c-myc, C-Jun, p65, and p50 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, both metallic nickel nano- and fine particles increased anchorage-independent colony formation in JB6 P+ cells in the soft agar assay. These results imply that metallic nickel fine and nanoparticles are both carcinogenetic in vitro in JB6 cells. Moreover, metallic nickel nanoparticles may exhibit higher carcinogenic potential, which suggests that precautionary measures should be taken in the use of nickel nanoparticles or its compounds in nanomedicine. PMID:24691273

Bowman, Linda; Zou, Baobo; Mao, Guochuan; Xu, Jin; Castranova, Vincent; Zhao, Jinshun; Ding, Min

2014-01-01

2

Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit Reduced Toxicity to Mammalian Cells and Retain Antimicrobial Activity  

EPA Science Inventory

The interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanomaterial stems from their antimicrobial properties. AgNPs are being added to clothing, paint, refrigerators, washing machines and a variety of other commercially available items. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies, howe...

3

A novel doxorubicin-mitomycin C co-encapsulated nanoparticle formulation exhibits anti-cancer synergy in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Anthracycline-containing treatment regimens are currently the most widely employed regimens for the management of breast cancer. These drug combinations are often designed based on non-cross resistance and minimal overlapping toxicity rather than drug synergism. Moreover, aggressive doses are normally used in chemotherapy to achieve a greater therapeutic benefit at the cost of more acute and long-term toxic effects. To increase chemotherapeutic efficacy while decreasing toxic effects, rational design of drug synergy-based regimens is needed. Our previous work showed a synergistic effect of doxorubicin (DOX) and mitomycin C (MMC) on murine breast cancer cells in vitro and improved efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity of DOX-loaded solid polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN) in animal models of breast cancer. Herein we have demonstrated true anticancer synergy of concurrently applied DOX and MMC, and have rationally designed PLN to effectively deliver this combination to multidrug resistant (MDR) MDA435/LCC6 human breast cancer cells. DOX-MMC co-loaded PLN were effective in killing MDR cells at 20-30-fold lower doses than the free drugs. This synergistic cell killing was correlated with enhanced induction of DNA double strand breaks that preceded apoptosis. Importantly, co-encapsulation of dual agents into a nanoparticle formulation was much more effective than concurrent application of single agent-containing PLN, demonstrating the requirement of simultaneous uptake of both drugs by the same cells to enhance the drug synergy. The rationally designed combination chemotherapeutic PLN can overcome multidrug resistance at a significantly lower dose than free drugs, exhibiting the potential to enhance chemotherapy and reduce the therapeutic limitations imposed by systemic toxicity. PMID:19221875

Shuhendler, Adam J; Cheung, Richard Y; Manias, Janet; Connor, Allegra; Rauth, Andrew M; Wu, Xiao Yu

2010-01-01

4

Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries  

PubMed Central

Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25045260

Jain, Pritesh P; Leber, Regina; Nagaraj, Chandran; Leitinger, Gerd; Lehofer, Bernhard; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth; Marsh, Leigh M

2014-01-01

5

SDF-1? in Glycan Nanoparticles Exhibits Full Activity and Reduces Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats  

PubMed Central

In order to establish a homing signal in the lung to recruit circulating stem cells for tissue repair, we formulated a nanoparticle, SDF-1? NP, by complexing SDF-1? with dextran sulfate and chitosan. The data show that SDF-1? was barely released from the nanoparticles over an extended period of time in vitro (3% in 7 days at 37°C); however, incorporated SDF-1? exhibited full chemotactic activity and receptor activation compared to its free form. The nanoparticles were not endocytosed after incubation with Jurkat cells. When aerosolized into the lungs of rats, SDF-1? NP displayed a greater retention time compared to free SDF-1? (64% vs. 2% remaining at 16 hr). In a rat model of monocrotaline-induced lung injury, SDF-1? NP, but not free form SDF-1?, was found to reduce pulmonary hypertension. These data suggest that the nanoparticle formulation protected SDF-1? from rapid clearance in the lung and sustained its biological function in vivo. PMID:24059347

Yin, Tao; Bader, Andrew R.; Hou, Tim K.; Maron, Bradley A.; Kao, Derrick D.; Qian, Ray; Kohane, Daniel S.; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Zhang, Ying-Yi

2013-01-01

6

Magnetofluorescent nanoparticles for bimodal detection of breast cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica-encapsulated iron oxide composite nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized in terms of morphological and physico-chemical properties. These nanoparticles exhibited both fluorescent and magnetic properties useful for labeling of breast cancer cells. The mechanism of uptake by tumor cells, the pathway of degradation and the potential toxicity of these magnetofluorescent nanoparticles were investigated, suggesting that they could be developed as an efficient and safe bimodal contrast agent for detection of breast cancer cells.

Ronchi, Silvia; Colombo, Miriam; Verderio, Paolo; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Corsi, Fabio; De Palma, Clara; Allevi, Raffaele; Clementi, Emilio; Prosperi, Davide

2010-10-01

7

Nanoparticle necklace network arrays exhibiting room temperature single-electron switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single nanoparticle is one of the most sensitive electronic devices for sensing chemicals in a gas or liquid. The conductivity of a single Au nanoparticle is significantly modulated by the binding of a molecule that alters charge by just one electron. However, the single-electron sensitivity requires cryogenic temperatures and interconnection is not easy. A patterned two-dimensional network of one-dimensional nanoparticle necklaces made up of 10 nm Au particles are fabricated and shown to exhibit similar single-electron effect at room temperature. Furthermore, the long range conductivity of over 10's of microns makes the structure easy to self-assemble onto conventional microelectronics circuitry. A device exhibiting single-electron effect is characterized by highly non-linear current-bias behavior where at bias, V > VT current rises rapidly and scales as (V/VT -- 1)zeta, where zeta ? 1 is the critical exponent and VT is the threshold voltage. Below VT, current does not flow. Thus, VT is the switching voltage and larger zeta signifies sharper switching characteristics. While arrays of one and two dimension are well known to exhibit appreciable VT at cryogenic temperatures, at ambient temperatures the blockade effect vanishes. The unique architecture of the necklace network results in a weak dependence of V T on temperature which leads to room temperature single-electron effect. The high sensitivity of the nanoparticle necklace network array at room temperature allows coupled live cells to electronically switch, or gate, the device through cellular metabolic activity. Additionally, the critical exponent, zeta, which is a measure of how current will rise during switching, can be significantly enhanced by cementing the necklaces with the dielectric material CdS, thereby greatly increasing the switching gain and sensitivity of the device. Given robust room temperature single-electron switching, enhanced zeta values, cellular coupling capability, and natural integrability with microelectronics circuitry, nanoparticle necklace network arrays have the potential to be implemented in a wide range of applications, such as, chemical sensors, biofuel cells, biomedical devices, and data storage devices.

Kane, Jennifer Lynn

2011-07-01

8

Lipid-Coated Cisplatin Nanoparticles Induce Neighboring Effect and Exhibit Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Encapsulation of cisplatin (CDDP) into nanoparticles (NPs) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency has been difficult due to the poor solubility of CDDP. However, this barrier has been overcome with a reverse microemulsion method appropriating CDDP’s poor solubility to our advantage promoting the synthesis of a pure cisplatin nanoparticle with a high drug loading capacity (approximately 80.8wt%). Actively targeted CDDP NPs exhibited significant accumulation in human A375M melanoma tumor cells in vivo. In addition, CDDP NPs achieved potent anti-tumor efficacy through the neighboring effect at a dose of 1 mg/kg when injected weekly via IV without inducing nephrotoxicity. The neighboring effect regards an observation made in vivo when the tumor cells that took up CDDP NPs released active drug following apoptosis. Via diffusion, surrounding cells that were previously unaffected showed intake of the released drug and their apoptosis soon followed. This observation was also made in vitro when A375M melanoma tumor cells incubated with CDDP NPs exhibited release of active drug and induced apoptosis on untreated neighboring cells. However, the neighboring effect was unique to rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Liver functional parameters and H&E staining of liver tissue in vivo failed to detect any difference between CDDP NP treated and control groups in terms of tissue health. By simultaneously promoting an increase in cytotoxicity and a lesser degree of side effects over free CDDP, CDDP NPs show great therapeutic potential with lower doses of drug while enhancing anti-cancer effectiveness. PMID:24083505

Guo, Shutao; Wang, Yuhua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Zhenghong; Lin, C. Michael; Zhang, Yuan; Huang, Leaf

2014-01-01

9

Thymoquinone Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticles Exhibit Enhanced Anti-proliferative, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemosensitization Potential  

PubMed Central

Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from the medicinal spice Nigella sativa (also called black cumin), has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this report we employed polymer-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness and bioavailability. TQ was encapsulated with 97.5% efficiency in biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and the stabilizer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-5000. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirmed particle diameter ranged between 150–200 nm. Electrophoretic gel shift mobility assay showed that TQ nanoparticles (NP) were more active than TQ in inhibiting NF-?B activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), markers of cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, respectively. TQ-NP was also more potent than TQ in suppressing proliferation of colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma cells. Esterase staining for plasma membrane integrity revealed that TQ-NP was more potent than TQ in sensitizing leukemic cells to TNF- and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Overall our results demonstrate that encapsulation of TQ into nanoparticles enhances its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and chemosensitizing effects. PMID:20105430

Ravindran, Jayaraj; Nair, Hareesh B; Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2010-01-01

10

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit current density is improved from 0.77 to 1.20 mA/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra show that the excitons in the polymer are obviously quenched, suggesting that the charge transfer between the P3HT:PCBM and CIGS occurred. The results reveal that the CIGS nanoparticles may exhibit the localized surface plasmon resonance effect just as metallic nanostructures.

Zhao, Yu; Li, Hui; Liu, Xu-Jun; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu, Ning

2014-06-01

11

Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles  

DOEpatents

A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

2014-09-02

12

Ion mediated targeting of cells with nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In eukaryotic cells, Ca^2+ ions are necessary for intracellular signaling, in activity of mitochondria and a variety of other cellular process that have been linked to cell apoptosis, proteins synthesis and cell-cycle regulation. Here we show that Ca^2+ ions, serving as the bio-compatible interface can be used to target Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SaC, baker's yeast), a model eukaryotic cell, with Au nanoparticles (10 nm). The Ca^2+ ions bind to the carboxylic acid groups in the citrate functionalized Au nanoparticles. This transforms the nanoparticles into micron long 1-D branched chain assemblies due to inter-particle dipole-dipole interaction and inter-particle bonding due to the divalent nature of the Ca^2+ ion. A similar transformation is observed with the use of divalent ions Mg^2+, Cd^2+ and Fe^2+. The 1-D assembly aids the interfacing of ion-nanoparticles on the cell by providing multiple contact points. Further monovalent ions such as Na^+ are also effective for the targeting of the cell with nanoparticles. However Na-Au nanoparticles are limited in their deposition as they exist in solution as single particles. The cells remain alive after the deposition process and their vitality is unaffected by the interfacing with ion-nanoparticles.

Maheshwari, Vivek; Fu, Jinlong

2010-03-01

13

Cytotoxicity of monodispersed chitosan nanoparticles against the Caco-2 cells  

SciTech Connect

Published toxicology data on chitosan nanoparticles (NP) often lack direct correlation to the in situ size and surface characteristics of the nanoparticles, and the repeated NP assaults as experienced in chronic use. The aim of this paper was to breach these gaps. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by spinning disc processing were characterised for size and zeta potential in HBSS and EMEM at pHs 6.0 and 7.4. Cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cells was evaluated by measuring the changes in intracellular mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, TEER and sodium fluorescein transport data and cell morphology. Cellular uptake of NP was observed under the confocal microscope. Contrary to established norms, the collective data suggest that the in vitro cytotoxicity of NP against the Caco-2 cells was less influenced by positive surface charges than by the particle size. Particle size was in turn determined by the pH of the medium in which the NP was dispersed, with the mean size ranging from 25 to 333 nm. At exposure concentration of 0.1%, NP of 25 ± 7 nm (zeta potential 5.3 ± 2.8 mV) was internalised by the Caco-2 cells, and the particles were observed to inflict extensive damage to the intracellular organelles. Concurrently, the transport of materials along the paracellular pathway was significantly facilitated. The Caco-2 cells were, however, capable of recovering from such assaults 5 days following NP removal, although a repeat NP exposure was observed to produce similar effects to the 1st exposure, with the cells exhibiting comparable resiliency to the 2nd assault. -- Highlights: ? Chitosan nanoparticles reduced mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. ? Cellular uptake of chitosan nanoparticles was observed. ? Chitosan nanoparticles inflicted extensive damage to the cell morphology. ? The transport of materials along the paracellular pathway was facilitated.

Loh, Jing Wen [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia)] [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Martin [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia)] [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia); Lim, Lee-Yong, E-mail: lee.lim@uwa.edu.au [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia) [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia); School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 (Australia)

2012-08-01

14

Induced T cell cytokine production is enhanced by engineered nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Engineered nanoparticles are widely used in commercial products, and yet due to the paucity of safety information, there are concerns surrounding potential adverse health effects, especially from inhaled nanoparticles and their putative contribution to allergic airway disease. The objective of this study was to investigate whether size or surface chemistry of engineered nanoparticles can influence the immune enhancing properties of these agents on antigen-specific T cell responses. Ovalbumin (OVA)-derived peptides were presented to T cells by either spleen-derived endogenous antigen presenting cells or a mouse dendritic cell (DC) line, DC2.4. In all models, interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 production by CD8+ or CD4+ T cells in response to peptide OVA257–264 or OVA323–339, respectively, was measured by flow cytometry. To address the study objective, silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were modified with alkyne-terminated surfaces and appended with polyethylene glycol chains via “click” chemistry. These modified SNPs were resistant to agglomerate in in vitro culture media, suggesting that their modulation of T cell responses is the result of true nanoscale-mediated effects. Under conditions of suboptimal T-cell activation, modified SNPs (up to 10 ?g/ml) enhanced the proportion of CD8+, but not CD4+, T cells producing IFN-? and IL-2. Various functional groups (–COOH, –NH2 and –OH) on modified SNPs enhanced IFN-? and IL-2 production to different levels, with –COOH SNPs being the most effective. Furthermore, 51 nm –COOH SNPs exhibited a greater enhancing effect on the CD8+ T cell response than other sized particles. Collectively, our results show that modified SNPs can enhance antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, suggesting that certain modified SNPs exhibit potential adjuvant-like properties. PMID:24256152

Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Quanxuan; Kaplan, Barbara L. F.; Baker, Gregory L.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

2014-01-01

15

In vitro effects of chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 in vitro and the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: Chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and morphology. After treatment with various concentrations of chitosan nanoparticles (25, 50, 75, 100 ?g/mL) at various time intervals, cell proliferation, ultrastructural changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle phase distribution and apoptotic peaks of MGC803 cells were analyzed by MTT assay, electron microscopy, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Chitosan nanoparticles exhibited a small particle size as 65 nm and a high surface charge as 52 mV. Chitosan nanoparticles markedly inhibited cell proliferation of MGC803 cells with an IC50 value of 5.3 ?g/mL 48 h after treatment. After treatment with chitosan nanoparticles, the typical necrotic cell morphology was observed by electron microscopy, a typical DNA degradation associated with necrosis was determined by DNA agarose electrophoresis. Flow cytometry showed the loss of MMP and occurrence of apoptosis in chitosan nanoparticles-treated cells. CONCLUSION: Chitosan nanoparticles effectively inhibit the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 in vitro through multiple mechanisms, and may be a beneficial agent against human carcinoma. PMID:16127742

Qi, Li-Feng; Xu, Zi-Rong; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xia; Han, Xin-Yan

2005-01-01

16

Nitric oxide-releasing silica nanoparticle inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth  

PubMed Central

Although the potent anti-tumor activity of nitric oxide (NO) supports its promise as an anti-neoplastic agent, effective and selective delivery and action on tumor and not normal cells remains a limiting factor. Nanoparticle-based delivery of NO has been considered as one approach to overcome these limitations. Therefore, we determined the utility of NO delivery using silica nanoparticles and evaluated their anti-tumor efficacy against human ovarian tumor and nontumor cells. The NO-releasing nanoparticles exhibited enhanced growth inhibition of ovarian tumor cells when compared to both control nanoparticles and a previously reported small molecule NO donor, PYRRO/NO. In addition, the NO-releasing nanoparticles showed greater inhibition of the anchorage-independent growth of tumor-derived and Ras-transformed ovarian cells. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that fluorescently-labeled NO-releasing nanoparticles entered the cytosol of the cell and localized to late endosomes and lysosomes. Furthermore, we observed a nanoparticle size dependency on efficacy against normal versus transformed ovarian cells. Our study provides the first application of nanoparticle-derived NO as an antitumor therapy and supports the merit for future studies examining nanoparticle formulation for in vivo applications. PMID:20205473

Stevens, Ellen V.; Wells, Alexis; Shin, Jae Ho; Liu, Jinsong; Der, Channing J.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

2013-01-01

17

Mammalian cell growth on gold nanoparticle-decorated substrates is influenced by the nanoparticle coating.  

PubMed

In this work, we study epithelial cell growth on substrates decorated with gold nanorods that are functionalized either with a positively charged cytotoxic surfactant or with a biocompatible polymer exhibiting one of two different end groups, resulting in a neutral or negative surface charge of the particle. Upon observation of cell growth for three days by live cell imaging using optical dark field microscopy, it was found that all particles supported cell adhesion while no directed cell migration and no significant particle internalization occurred. Concerning cell adhesion and spreading as compared to cell growth on bare substrates after 3 days of incubation, a reduction by 45% and 95%, respectively, for the surfactant particle coating was observed, whereas the amino-terminated polymer induced a reduction by 30% and 40%, respectively, which is absent for the carboxy-terminated polymer. Furthermore, interface-sensitive impedance spectroscopy (electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, ECIS) was employed in order to investigate the micromotility of cells added to substrates decorated with various amounts of surfactant-coated particles. A surface density of 65 particles/µm(2) (which corresponds to 0.5% of surface coverage with nanoparticles) diminishes micromotion by 25% as compared to bare substrates after 35 hours of incubation. We conclude that the surface coating of the gold nanorods, which were applied to the basolateral side of the cells, has a recognizable influence on the growth behavior and thus the coating should be carefully selected for biomedical applications of nanoparticles. PMID:25671143

Rosman, Christina; Pierrat, Sebastien; Tarantola, Marco; Schneider, David; Sunnick, Eva; Janshoff, Andreas; Sönnichsen, Carsten

2014-01-01

18

Mammalian cell growth on gold nanoparticle-decorated substrates is influenced by the nanoparticle coating  

PubMed Central

Summary In this work, we study epithelial cell growth on substrates decorated with gold nanorods that are functionalized either with a positively charged cytotoxic surfactant or with a biocompatible polymer exhibiting one of two different end groups, resulting in a neutral or negative surface charge of the particle. Upon observation of cell growth for three days by live cell imaging using optical dark field microscopy, it was found that all particles supported cell adhesion while no directed cell migration and no significant particle internalization occurred. Concerning cell adhesion and spreading as compared to cell growth on bare substrates after 3 days of incubation, a reduction by 45% and 95%, respectively, for the surfactant particle coating was observed, whereas the amino-terminated polymer induced a reduction by 30% and 40%, respectively, which is absent for the carboxy-terminated polymer. Furthermore, interface-sensitive impedance spectroscopy (electric cell–substrate impedance sensing, ECIS) was employed in order to investigate the micromotility of cells added to substrates decorated with various amounts of surfactant-coated particles. A surface density of 65 particles/µm2 (which corresponds to 0.5% of surface coverage with nanoparticles) diminishes micromotion by 25% as compared to bare substrates after 35 hours of incubation. We conclude that the surface coating of the gold nanorods, which were applied to the basolateral side of the cells, has a recognizable influence on the growth behavior and thus the coating should be carefully selected for biomedical applications of nanoparticles.

Rosman, Christina; Pierrat, Sebastien; Tarantola, Marco; Schneider, David; Sunnick, Eva; Janshoff, Andreas

2014-01-01

19

Gold nanoparticles for in vivo cell tracking.  

PubMed

Cell-based therapy offers a promising solution for the treatment of diseases and injuries that conventional medicines and therapies cannot cure effectively, and thus comprises an encouraging arena for future medical breakthroughs. The development of an accurate and quantitative noninvasive cell tracking technique is a highly challenging task that could help in evaluating the effectiveness of treatments. Moreover, cell tracking could provide essential knowledge regarding the fundamental trafficking patterns and poorly understood mechanisms underlying the success or failure of cell therapy. This article focuses on gold nanoparticles, which provide cells with 'visibility' in a variety of imaging modalities for stem cell therapy, immune cell therapy and cancer treatment. Current challenges and future prospects relating to the use of gold nanoparticles in such roles are discussed. PMID:25343353

Meir, Rinat; Motiei, Menachem; Popovtzer, Rachela

2014-09-01

20

Imaging nanoparticles in cells by nanomechanical holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials have potential medical applications, for example in the area of drug delivery, and their possible adverse effects and cytotoxicity are curently receiving attention. Inhalation of nanoparticles is of great concern, because nanoparticles can be easily aerosolized. Imaging techniques that can visualize local populations of nanoparticles at nanometre resolution within the structures of cells are therefore important. Here we show that cells obtained from mice exposed to single-walled carbon nanohorns can be probed using a scanning probe microscopy technique called scanning near field ultrasonic holography. The nanohorns were observed inside the cells, and this was further confirmed using micro Raman spectroscopy. Scanning near field ultrasonic holography is a useful technique for probing the interactions of engineered nanomaterials in biological systems, which will greatly benefit areas in drug delivery and nanotoxicology.

Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Venmar, Katherine T.; Lynch, Rachel M.; Voy, Brynn H.; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Thundat, Thomas

2008-08-01

21

Imaging nanoparticles in cells by nanomechanical holography  

SciTech Connect

Nanomaterials have potential medical applications, for example in the area of drug delivery, and their possible adverse effects and cytotoxicity are curently receiving attention1,2. Inhalation of nanoparticles is of great concern, because nanoparticles can be easily aerosolized. Imaging techniques that can visualize local populations of nanoparticles at nanometre resolution within the structures of cells are therefore important3. Here we show that cells obtained from mice exposed to single-walled carbon nanohorns can be probed using a scanning probe microscopy technique called scanning near field ultrasonic holography. The nanohorns were observed inside the cells, and this was further confirmed using micro Raman spectroscopy. Scanning near field ultrasonic holography is a useful technique for probing the interactions of engineered nanomaterials in biological systems, which will greatly benefit areas in drug delivery and nanotoxicology.

Tetard, Laurene [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Venmar, Katherine T [ORNL; Lynch, Rachel M [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Shekhawat, Gajendra [Northwestern University, Evanston; Dravid, Vinayak [Northwestern University, Evanston; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2008-06-01

22

Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin  

PubMed Central

Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

2014-01-01

23

Impact of diamond nanoparticles on neural cells.  

PubMed

Diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) are very attractive for biomedical applications, particularly for bioimaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of DNPs on neural cancer cells and thus to assess the possible application of DNPs for these cells imaging. For this purpose, the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was chosen. Cells were cultured in medium with different concentrations (15, 50, 100 and 150 ?g/ml) of DNPs. After 48 h of incubation, cell metabolic activity was evaluated by the XTT assay. For assessment of cellular metabolic activity, cells were also cultured on differently terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings in medium with 150 ?g/ml of DNPs. Cell adhesion and morphology were evaluated by brightfield microscopy. Diamond nanoparticle internalization was determined by confocal microscopy. The obtained results showed that low concentrations (15, 50 and 100 ?g/ml) of nanoparticles did not significantly affect the SH-SY5Y cell metabolic activity. However, a higher concentration (150 ?g/ml) of DNPs statistically significantly reduced SH-SY5Y cell metabolic activity. After 48 h incubation with 150 ?g/ml DNPs, cell metabolic activity was 23% lower than in medium without DNPs on standard tissue culture polystyrene. PMID:25449951

Vaitkuviene, Aida; Ratautaite, Vilma; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Sanen, Kathleen; Paesen, Rik; Ameloot, Marcel; Petrakova, Vladimira; McDonald, Matthew; Vahidpour, Farnoosh; Kaseta, Vytautas; Ramanauskaite, Giedre; Biziuleviciene, Gene; Nesladek, Milos; Ramanavicius, Arunas

2014-10-30

24

Endometriotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit Distinct Immune-Phenotype#  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a significant debilitating gynecological problem affecting women of reproductive age group and post-menopause. Recent reports prompt at the role of endometriotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ectopic MSCs) in pathogenesis of endometriosis. To investigate the plausible mechanisms leading to the pathogenic behavior of ectopic MSCs, we compared the immunomodulatory properties of eutopic and ectopic (healthy) MSCs. We analyzed MSC phenotypes, differential gene expression for an array of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and pro-inflammatory cytokine release along with markers of migration and angiogenesis among eutopic and ectopic MSCs. Further, alterations in immunosuppressive functions of eutopic and ectopic MSCs were examined by co-culturing them with mitogen-activated allogenic PBMCs. Transcripts of PRRs such as all Toll-like Receptors (TLR 1-10), except TLR8, collectins (CL-L1, CL-P1, CL-K1), NOD-1 and 2 receptors, secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, IFN?, VEGF, EGF, MCP-1 were significantly upregulated in ectopic MSCs. The anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF? showed significant downregulation, while IL-10 showed a significant increase in ectopic MSCs. Further, ectopic MSCs showed upregulated expression for markers of migration and angiogenesis such as MMP - 2, 3, 9 and VEGF respectively. We report here that proliferation of PBMCs was less inhibited upon co-culture with ectopic MSCs compared with eutopic MSCs. The findings suggest that ectopic MSCs with increased levels of TLRs, collectins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of migration and angiogenesis, exhibit a distinct immune-phenotype compared to eutopic MSCs. This distinct phenotype may be responsible for the reduced immunosuppressive property of ectopic MSCs and may be associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:25416515

K G, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Warty, Neeta; Madan, Taruna

2014-11-21

25

Lunar soil simulant and synthesized nanoparticles of magnetite exhibit diverse neurotoxic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar soli simulant can be deleterious to human physiology and the components of lunar soil may be internalized by lung epithelium and may overcome the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles of ferric oxide are one of the components of Lunar soil simulants. Neurotoxic potential of lunar soil simulant and synthesized nanoparticles of magnetite was analyzed. The size of particles, their effects on membrane potential, acidification of synaptic vesicles, uptake and ambient level of glutamate, which is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, were studied in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) using photon correlation spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, radiolabeled assay, respectively. No significant effect of Lunar soil simulant and synthesized nanoparticles of magnetite on acidification of synaptic vesicles were found in synaptosomes. Also, nanoparticles did not influence the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. Unspecific binding of L-[14C]glutamate to synaptosomes was not altered by nanoparticles of magnetite, whereas in the presence of Lunar soil simulant this parameter was changed. Thus, it was suggested that Lunar soil simulant might disturb glutamate homeostasis in the mammalian CNS.

Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy

26

Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

2008-06-17

27

Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H+/K+-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the ?- and ?-subunits of H+/K+-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

GU, MENGLI; ZHANG, YAN; ZHOU, XINXIN; MA, HAN; YAO, HANGPING; JI, FENG

2014-01-01

28

Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the ?- and ?-subunits of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

Gu, Mengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xinxin; Ma, Han; Yao, Hangping; Ji, Feng

2014-10-01

29

Uptake and cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles in human liver cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanoparticles, and the liver being the main detoxifying organ in the human body, there are limited studies which delineate the hepatotoxicity of nanoparticles. This paper reports on the biological interactions between liver cells and chitosan nanoparticles, which have been widely recognised as biocompatible. Using the MTT assay, human liver cells

Jing Wen Loh; George Yeoh; Martin Saunders; Lee-Yong Lim

2010-01-01

30

Cell-specific cytotoxicity of dextran-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicity of dextran-hybridized magnetite nanoparticles which were prepared by a novel polyol method was evaluated by incubation with four different kinds of cells, including rat liver cells BRL 3A, renal cells NRK, astrocyte and periphery blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The study was designed not only to evaluate their cytotoxicity but also to reflect the interaction between nanoparticles and related cells

Jing Ding; Ke Tao; Jiyu Li; Sheng Song; Kang Sun

2010-01-01

31

Improvement of the separation of tumour cells from peripheral blood cells using magnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulating tumour cells are a key challenge in tumour therapy. Numerous approaches are on the way to achieving the elimination of these potential sources of metastasis formation. Antibody-directed magnetic cell sorting is supposed to enrich tumour cells with high selectivity, but low efficiency. The short term application of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) coated magnetit/maghemit nanoparticles allows the discrimination of tumour cells from leukocytes. In the present work we show that the interaction of CMD nanoparticles is cell-type specific and time dependent. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the CML cell line K-562 are characterized by a rapid and high interaction rate, whereas leukocytes exhibit a decelerated behaviour. The addition of carboxymethyl dextran or glucose stimulated the magnetic labelling of leukocytes. The variation of the degree of substitution of dextran with carboxymethyl groups did not affect the labelling profile of leukocytes and MCF-7 cells. In order to verify the in vitro results, whole blood samples from 13 cancer patients were analysed ex vivo. Incubation of the purified leukocyte fraction with CMD nanoparticles in the presence of low amounts of plasma reduced the overall cell content in the positive fraction. In contrast, the absolute number of residual tumour cells in the positive fraction was 90% of the initial amount.

Schwalbe, M.; Pachmann, K.; Höffken, K.; Clement, J. H.

2006-09-01

32

Biocompatibility of cerium dioxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles with endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Cerium dioxide (CeO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles are of widespread use in modern life. This means that human beings are markedly exposed to them in their everyday life. Once passing biological barriers, these nanoparticles are expected to interact with endothelial cells, leading to systemic alterations with distinct influences on human health. In the present study we observed the metabolic impact of differently sized CeO2 (8 nm; 35 nm) and SiO2 nanoparticles (117 nm; 315 nm) on immortalized human microvascular (HMEC-1) and primary macrovascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), with particular focus on the CeO2 nanoparticles. The characterization of the CeO2 nanoparticles in cell culture media with varying serum content indicated a steric stabilization of nanoparticles due to interaction with proteins. After cellular uptake, the CeO2 nanoparticles were localized around the nucleus in a ring-shaped manner. The nanoparticles revealed concentration and time, but no size-dependent effects on the cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. HUVEC reacted more sensitively to CeO2 nanoparticle exposure than HMEC-1. This effect was also observed in relation to cytokine release after nanoparticle treatment. The CeO2 nanoparticles exhibited a specific impact on the release of diverse proteins. Namely, a slight trend towards pro-inflammatory effects, a slight pro-thrombotic impact, and an increase of reactive oxygen species after nanoparticle exposure were observed with increasing incubation time. For SiO2 nanoparticles, concentration- and time-dependent effects on the metabolic activity as well as pro-inflammatory reactions were detectable. In general, the effects of the investigated nanoparticles on endothelial cells were rather insignificant, since the alterations on the metabolic cell activity became visible at a nanoparticle concentration that is by far higher than those expected to occur in the in vivo situation (CeO2 nanoparticles: 100 µg/mL; SiO2 nanoparticles: 10 µg/mL). PMID:25383291

Strobel, Claudia; Förster, Martin

2014-01-01

33

Surface-Charge-Dependent Cell Localization and Cytotoxicity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown great potential as antioxidant and radioprotective agents for applications in cancer therapy. Recently, various polymer-coated nanoceria preparations have been developed to improve their aqueous solubility and allow for surface functionalization of these nanoparticles. However, the interaction of polymer-coated nanoceria with cells, their uptake mechanism and subcellular localization are poorly understood. Herein, we engineered polymer-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles with different surface charge (positive, negative and neutral) and studied their internalization and toxicity in normal and cancer cell lines. Results showed that nanoceria with a positive or neutral charge enters most of the cell lines studied, while nanoceria with a negative charge internalizes mostly in the cancer cell lines. Moreover, upon entry into the cells, nanoceria is localized to different cell compartments (e.g. cytoplasm and lysosomes) depending on the nanoparticle's surface charge. The internalization and subcellular localization of nanoceria plays a key role in the nanoparticles’ cytotoxicity profile, exhibiting significant toxicity when they localize in the lysosomes of the cancer cells. In contrast, minimal toxicity is observed when they localize into the cytoplasm or do not enter the cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the differential surface-charge-dependent localization of nanoceria in normal and cancer cells plays a critical role in the nanoparticles’ toxicity profile. PMID:20690607

Asati, Atul; Santra, Santimukul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Perez, J Manuel

2010-01-01

34

Synergistic Targeting of Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm and Nucleus of Cancer Cells using Rod-Shaped Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Design of carriers for effective delivery and targeting of drugs to cellular and sub-cellular compartments is an unmet need in medicine. Here, we report pure drug nanoparticles comprising camptothecin (CPT), trastuzumab (TTZ) and doxorubicin (DOX) to enable cell-specific interactions, subcellular accumulation and growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. CPT is formulated in the form of nanorods which are coated with TTZ. DOX is encapsulated in the TTZ corona around the CPT nanoparticle. Our results show that TTZ/DOX-coated CPT nanorods exhibit cell-specific internalization in BT-474 breast cancer cells, after which TTZ is recycled to the plasma membrane leaving CPT nanorods in the perinuclear region and delivering DOX into the nucleus of the cells. The effects of CPT-TTZ-DOX nanoparticles on growth inhibition are synergistic (combination index = 0.17±0.03) showing 10-10,000 fold lower inhibitory concentrations (IC50) compared to those of individual drugs. The design of antibody-targeted pure drug nanoparticles offers a promising design strategy to facilitate intracellular delivery and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs. PMID:24053162

Barua, Sutapa; Mitragotri, Samir

2014-01-01

35

Glucose transporter 1-positive endothelial cells in infantile hemangioma exhibit features of facultative stem cells.  

PubMed

Endothelial glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is a definitive and diagnostic marker for infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular tumor of infancy. To date, GLUT1-positive endothelial cells in IH have not been quantified nor directly isolated and studied. We isolated GLUT1-positive and GLUT1-negative endothelial cells from IH specimens and characterized their proliferation, differentiation, and response to propranolol, a first-line therapy for IH, and to rapamycin, an mTOR pathway inhibitor used to treat an increasingly wide array of proliferative disorders. Although freshly isolated GLUT1-positive cells, selected using anti-GLUT1 magnetic beads, expressed endothelial markers CD31, VE-Cadherin, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, they converted to a mesenchymal phenotype after 3 weeks in culture. In contrast, GLUT1-negative endothelial cells exhibited a stable endothelial phenotype in vitro. GLUT1-selected cells were clonogenic when plated as single cells and could be induced to redifferentiate into endothelial cells, or into pericytes/smooth muscle cells or into adipocytes, indicating a stem cell-like phenotype. These data demonstrate that, although they appear and function in the tumor as bona fide endothelial cells, the GLUT1-positive endothelial cells display properties of facultative stem cells. Pretreatment with rapamycin for 4 days significantly slowed proliferation of GLUT1-selected cells, whereas propranolol pretreatment had no effect. These results reveal for the first time the facultative nature of GLUT1-positive endothelial cells in IH. Stem Cells 2015;33:133-145. PMID:25187207

Huang, Lan; Nakayama, Hironao; Klagsbrun, Michael; Mulliken, John B; Bischoff, Joyce

2015-01-01

36

Nanoparticle labeling identifies slow cycling human endometrial stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Evidence suggests that the human endometrium contains stem or progenitor cells that are responsible for its remarkable regenerative capability. A common property of somatic stem cells is their quiescent state. It remains unclear whether slow-cycling cells exist in the human endometrium. We hypothesized that the human endometrium contains a subset of slow-cycling cells with somatic stem cell properties. Here, we established an in vitro stem cell assay to isolate human endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSC). Methods Single-cell stromal cultures were initially labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and a small population of fluorescent persistent cells (FPC) remained after culture of 21 days. Two populations of stromal cells, namely FPC and non-FPC were sorted. Results Quantitative analysis of functional assays demonstrated that the FPC had higher colony forming ability, underwent more rounds of self-renewal and had greater enrichment of phenotypically defined prospective eMSC markers: CD146+/CD140b+ and W5C5+ than the non-FPC. They also differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages and the expression of lineage specific markers was lower than that of non-FPC. The FPC exhibit low proliferation activities. A proliferation dynamics study revealed that more FPC had a prolonged G1 phase. Conclusions With this study we present an efficient method to label and isolate slow-proliferating cells obtained from human endometrial stromal cultures without genetic modifications. The FPC population could be easily maintained in vitro and are of interest for tissue-repair and engineering perspectives. In summary, nanoparticle labeling is a promising tool for the identification of putative somatic stem or progenitor cells when their surface markers are undefined. PMID:24996487

2014-01-01

37

[Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles inhibit the migration and adhesion of glioblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

In our previous study, [Gd@C82(OH)22]n, a fullerene-based nanoparticle, exhibited potent anti-tumor effects in mouse tumor-bearing models without detectable toxicity. The mechanism involved in the anti-tumor effect exerted by [Gd@C82(OH)22]n remains to be elucidated. This study found that glioblastoma cells treated with [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles showed a significant impairment in migration and adhesion by cell chemotaxis, scratch and adhesion assays in vitro. Furthermore, our data showed that the key proteins, CD40 and ICAM-1, were involved in the inhibition of adhesion in the [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle-treated glioblastoma cells. Thus, our study suggests that the [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle is a new potential anti-tumor effector and a therapeutic component for malignant glioblastoma infiltration. PMID:22966378

WANG, JING; GU, FENG; DING, TING; LIU, XIAOLI; XING, GENGMEI; ZHAO, YULIANG; ZHANG, NING; MA, YONGJIE

2010-01-01

38

Nanoparticles: molecular targets and cell signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence linking nanoparticles (NPs) with different cellular outcomes necessitate an urgent need for the better\\u000a understanding of cellular signalling pathways triggered by NPs. Oxidative stress has largely been reported to be implicated\\u000a in NP-induced toxicity. It could activate a wide variety of cellular events such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inflammation\\u000a and induction of antioxidant enzymes. These responses occur

Francelyne Marano; Salik Hussain; Fernando Rodrigues-Lima; Armelle Baeza-Squiban; Sonja Boland

2011-01-01

39

Gold nanoparticles enhanced electroporation for mammalian cell transfection.  

PubMed

Electroporation figured prominently as an effective nonviral gene delivery approach for its balance on the transfection efficiency and cell viability, no restrictions of probe or cell type, and operation simplicity. The commercial electroporation systems have been widely adopted in the past two decades while still carry drawbacks associated with the high applied electric voltage, unsatisfied delivery efficiency, and/or low cell viability. By adding highly conductive gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in electroporation solution, we demonstrated enhanced electroporation performance (i.e., better DNA delivery efficiency and higher cell viability) on mammalian cells from two different aspects: the free, naked AuNPs reduce the resistance of the electroporation solution so that the local pulse strength on cells was enhanced; targeting AuNPs (e.g., Tf-AuNPs) were brought to the cell membrane to work as virtual microelectrodes to porate cells with limited area from many different sites. The enhancement was confirmed with leukemia cells in both a commercial batch electroporation system and a home-made flow-through system using pWizGFP plasmid DNA probes. Such enhancement depends on the size, concentration, and the mixing ratio of free AuNPs/Tf-AuNPs. An equivalent mixture of free AuNPs and Tf-AuNPs exhibited the best enhancement with the transfection efficiency increased 2-3 folds at minimum sacrifice of cell viability. This new delivery concept, the combination of nanoparticles and electroporation technologies, may stimulate various in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications which rely on the efficient delivery of nucleic acids, anticancer drugs, or other therapeutic materials. PMID:24749393

Zu, Yingbo; Huang, Shuyan; Liao, Wei-Ching; Lu, Yang; Wang, Shengnian

2014-06-01

40

Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects  

SciTech Connect

Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100?nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18?GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Popov, Maksym [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Chavez, Ferman A. [Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States)

2014-02-03

41

Hybrid silver nanoparticle/conjugated polyelectrolyte nanocomposites exhibiting controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.

Wang, Xiaoyu; He, Fang; Zhu, Xi; Tang, Fu; Li, Lidong

2014-03-01

42

Liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles effectively target multiple myeloma cells and demonstrate enhanced efficacy in vivo.  

PubMed

Carfilzomib, a recently FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, has remarkable anti-myeloma (MM) activity. However, its effectiveness is limited by associated severe side-effects, short circulation half-life, and limited solubility. Here, we report the engineering of liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles to overcome these problems and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of carfilzomib by increasing tumoral drug accumulation while decreasing systemic toxicity. In our design, carfilzomib was loaded into the bilayer of liposomes to yield stable and reproducible liposomal nanoparticles. Liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by MM cells, demonstrated proteasome inhibition, induced apoptosis, and exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against MM cells. In vivo, liposomal carfilzomib demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition and dramatically reduced overall systemic toxicity compared to free carfilzomib. Finally, liposomal carfilzomib demonstrated enhanced synergy in combination with doxorubicin. Taken together, this study establishes the successful synthesis of liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles that demonstrates improved therapeutic index and the potential to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:25312543

Ashley, Jonathan D; Stefanick, Jared F; Schroeder, Valerie A; Suckow, Mark A; Alves, Nathan J; Suzuki, Rikio; Kikuchi, Shohei; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

2014-12-28

43

Preparation of novel (-)-gossypol nanoparticles and the effect on growth inhibition in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects and possible mechanism of (-)-gossypol nanoparticles, loaded with vv polyethylene glycol-maleimide (mPEG-Mal), in vitro. Emulsification-volatilization was used to prepare the loaded (-)-gossypol nanoparticles. The toxicity of blank nanoparticles on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells and human prostate RWPE-1 cells was measured. The antitumor effects of the nanoparticles on PC-3 cells were evaluated by an MTT assay, acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy in vitro, and the results were compared with those of free (-)-gossypol. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bak were measured using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The growth inhibition activity of the loaded (-)-gossypol nanoparticles was found to be dose- and time-dependent, and similar to the activity of free (-)-gossypol. The nanoparticles induced apoptotic morphological changes on the PC-3 cells, downregulating the mRNA expression level of Bcl-2 and upregulating the mRNA expression level of Bak. Blank nanoparticles exhibited no evident toxicity on PC-3 and RWPE-1 cells at a high dose. Therefore, the mPEG-Mal loaded (-)-gossypol nanoparticles demonstrated a favorable antitumor activity and no toxicity. The nanoparticles were able to induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells; thus, may be a potential antitumor nanodrug.

JIN, CAI-LING; CHEN, MEI-LING; WANG, YING; KANG, XIAO-CHUN; HAN, GUANG-YE; XU, SU-LING

2015-01-01

44

Silver polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanoparticles exhibit a capsular polysaccharide influenced bactericidal effect against Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highly adaptive nature of S. pneumoniae exemplifies the need for next generation antimicrobials designed to avoid high level resistance. Metal based nanomaterials fit this criterion. Our study examined the antimicrobial activity of gold nanospheres, silver coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone (AgPVP), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) against various serotypes of S. pneumoniae. Twenty nanometer spherical AgPVP demonstrated the highest level of killing among the tested materials. AgPVP (0.6 mg/mL) was able to kill pneumococcal serotypes 2, 3, 4, and 19F within 4 h of exposure. Detailed analysis of cultures during exposure to AgPVP showed that both the metal ions and the solid nanoparticles participate in the killing of the pneumococcus. The bactericidal effect of AgPVP was lessened in the absence of the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. Capsule negative strains, JD908 and RX1, were only susceptible to AgPVP at concentrations at least 33% higher than their respective capsule expressing counterparts. These findings suggest that mechanisms of killing used by nanomaterials are not serotype dependent and that the capsular polysaccharide participates in the inhibition. In the near future these mechanisms will be examined as targets for novel antimicrobials. PMID:25520713

Bibbs, Ronda K.; Harris, Rhonda D.; Peoples, Veolanda A.; Barnett, Cleon; Singh, Shree R.; Dennis, Vida A.; Coats, Mamie T.

2014-01-01

45

DNA-Assembled Nanoparticle Rings Exhibit Electric and Magnetic Resonances at Visible Frequencies.  

PubMed

Metallic nanostructures can be used to manipulate light on the subwavelength scale to create tailored optical material properties. Next to electric responses, artificial optical magnetism is of particular interest but difficult to achieve at visible wavelengths. DNA-self-assembly has proved to serve as a viable method to template plasmonic materials with nanometer precision and to produce large quantities of metallic objects with high yields. We present here the fabrication of self-assembled ring-shaped plasmonic metamolecules that are composed of four to eight single metal nanoparticles with full stoichiometric and geometric control. Scattering spectra of single rings as well as absorption spectra of solutions containing the metamolecules are used to examine the unique plasmonic features, which are compared to computational simulations. We demonstrate that the electric and magnetic plasmon resonance modes strongly correlate with the exact shape of the structures. In particular, our computations reveal the magnetic plasmons only for particle rings of broken symmetries, which is consistent with our experimental data. We stress the feasibility of DNA self-assembly as a method to create bulk plasmonic materials and metamolecules that may be applied as building blocks in plasmonic devices. PMID:25611357

Roller, Eva-Maria; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Fedoruk, Michael; Schreiber, Robert; Govorov, Alexander O; Liedl, Tim

2015-02-11

46

The side population of ovarian cancer cells defines a heterogeneous compartment exhibiting stem cell characteristics  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSC) are believed to be involved in tumor evasion of classical antitumor therapies and have thus become an attractive target for further improvement of anticancer strategies. However, the existence and identity of CSC are still a matter of controversy. In a systematic screen of 13 ovarian cancer cell lines we show that cells with stem cell properties are reliably detectable as a minor population, characterized by ABC transporter expression resulting in the side population (SP) phenotype. In different cell lines, either ABCG2 or ABCB1 was found to be responsible for this effect. Purified SP cells featured virtually all characteristics of bona fide CSC, including clonogenicity, asymmetric division and high tumorigenicity in vivo. Using in-depth phenotyping by multicolor flow cytometry, we found that among the investigated ovarian cancer cell lines the SP compartment exhibits tremendous heterogeneity and is composed of multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulations. Thus, our study confirms previous results showing that CSC are contained within the SP. However, the exact identity of the CSC is still disguised by the high complexity of the CSC-containing compartment. Further functional studies are needed to determine whether a single cellular subset can unambiguously be defined as CSC or whether multiple stem cell-like cells with different properties coexist. Moreover, the observed heterogeneity may reflect a high level of plasticity and likely influences tumor progression, escape from immune-surveillance and development of resistance to anticancer therapies and should therefore be considered in the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:25216521

Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G.; Reimer, Daniel; Schmidt, Stefan; Gastl, Guenther; Parson, Walther; Spoeck, Franziska; Hatina, Jiri

2014-01-01

47

Aluminum plasmonic nanoparticles enhanced dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We present an investigation on utilizing plasmonic aluminium (Al) nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the optical absorption of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Al NPs exhibit not only the light absorption enhancement in solar cells with localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect but also the chemical stability to iodide/triiodide electrolyte. Besides, the lower work function (~4.06 eV), compared with that of TiO? (~4.6 eV), may suppress the quenching processes, such as charge transfer to metal NPs, to reduce the loss. Thus, high concentration of Al NPs could be incorporated into the TiO? anodes, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is improved by nearly 13%. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterization also indicates that the plasmonic DSCs with Al NPs present better electrochemical performance than regular ones, which contributes to the improvement of PCE of the device. PMID:24922239

Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuxiang; Meng, Weisi; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

2014-03-10

48

Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives. PMID:24232694

Gajbhiye, Virendra; Escalante, Leah; Chen, Guojun; Laperle, Alex; Zheng, Qifeng; Steyer, Benjamin; Gong, Shaoqin; Saha, Krishanu

2014-01-01

49

Nanoparticle Imaging of Integrins on Tumor Cells1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nanoparticles 10 to 100 nm in size can deliver large payloads to molecular targets, but undergo slow diffusion and/or slow transport through delivery barriers. To examine the feasibility of nanoparticles targeting a marker expressed in tumor cells, we used the binding of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) nanoparticle targeting integrins on BT-20 tumor as a model system. The goals of this study were: 1) to use nanoparticles to image ?v?3 integrins expressed in BT-20 tumor cells by fluorescence-based imaging and magnetic resonance imaging, and, 2) to identify factors associated with the ability of nanoparticles to target tumor cell integrins. Three factors were identified: 1) tumor cell integrin expression (the ?v?3 integrin was expressed in BT-20 cells, but not in 9L cells); 2) nanoparticle pharmacokinetics (the cyclic RGD peptide cross-linked iron oxide had a blood half-life of 180 minutes and was able to escape from the vasculature over its long circulation time); and 3) tumor vascularization (the tumor had a dense capillary bed, with distances of <100 µm between capillaries). These results suggest that nanoparticles could be targeted to the cell surface markers expressed in tumor cells, at least in the case wherein the nanoparticles and the tumor model have characteristics similar to those of the BT-20 tumor employed here. PMID:16611415

Montet, Xavier; Montet-Abou, Karin; Reynolds, Fred; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

2006-01-01

50

Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored. PMID:24729700

Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-01-01

51

Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored. PMID:24729700

Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-01-01

52

Trypsinization-dependent cell labeling with fluorescent nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Trypsin is often used to detach adhered cell subculture from a substrate. However, the proteolytic activity of trypsin may harm cells by cleaving the cell membrane proteins. The present study shows that cellular uptake of fluorescent nanoparticles is remarkably increased within 24 h after trypsinization. These results highlight the trypsin-induced protein digestion, provoking leaky cell plasma membrane which leads to the strongly enhanced cellular uptake of the nanoparticles. To prevent this effect, one should expose cells to the nanoparticle (NP)-based fluorescent labels at least 48 h after trypsinization. PMID:25328505

2014-01-01

53

Plasmonic silver nanoparticles loaded titania nanotube arrays exhibiting enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of electrochemical anodization and photochemical reduction is employed to fabricate highly ordered silver loaded titania nanotubes (Ag/TNT) arrays. The Ag/TNT samples show an extended optical absorbance from UV to visible region owing to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag. The photoluminescence intensity of Ag/TNT is significantly lower than that of pure titania revealing a decrease in charge carrier recombination. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared samples are studied using linear sweep and transient photocurrent measurements. Compared with pure TNT, the Ag loaded samples show a higher photoelectrochemical activity. The results demonstrate an efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the consequent increase in lifetime of charge carriers by Ag/TNT. The photocatalytic results of methyl orange dye degradation show that the Ag/TNT-3-05 sample exhibits the maximum degradation efficiency of 98.85% with kinetic rate constant of 0.0236(5) min-1 for 180 min light illumination.

Nishanthi, S. T.; Iyyapushpam, S.; Sundarakannan, B.; Subramanian, E.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

2015-01-01

54

Highly fluorescent and bioresorbable polymeric nanoparticles with enhanced photostability for cell imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a facile and general strategy for enhancing the photostability of organic fluorophores for bioimaging applications. As a proof of concept, bright and robust fluorescence was observed in solid states of a well-defined synthetic polymer polycaprolactone consisting of di(thiophene-2-yl)-diketopyrrolopyrrole covalently linked in the middle of the polymer chain as a biocompatible and bioresorbable matrix. The nanoparticles prepared through a nanoprecipitation process of these polymers could be internalized by both tumor cells and stem cells with little cytotoxicity. Moreover, these highly fluorescent nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced photostability compared to commercial quantum dots or physical blends of dye/polymer complexes in cell imaging and long-term tracing.We report a facile and general strategy for enhancing the photostability of organic fluorophores for bioimaging applications. As a proof of concept, bright and robust fluorescence was observed in solid states of a well-defined synthetic polymer polycaprolactone consisting of di(thiophene-2-yl)-diketopyrrolopyrrole covalently linked in the middle of the polymer chain as a biocompatible and bioresorbable matrix. The nanoparticles prepared through a nanoprecipitation process of these polymers could be internalized by both tumor cells and stem cells with little cytotoxicity. Moreover, these highly fluorescent nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced photostability compared to commercial quantum dots or physical blends of dye/polymer complexes in cell imaging and long-term tracing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, absorbance spectra, confocal microscopy characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05576d

Huang, Shuo; Liu, Shiying; Wang, Kai; Yang, Cangjie; Luo, Yimin; Zhang, Yingdan; Cao, Bin; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Mingfeng

2014-12-01

55

Transport across the cell-membrane dictates nanoparticle fate and toxicity: a new paradigm in nanotoxicology.  

PubMed

The toxicity of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been fully ascertained, but the mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity remain still largely unclear. Here we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of MNPs is strictly reliant on the pathway of cellular internalization. In particular, if otherwise toxic gold, silver, and iron oxide NPs are forced through the cell membrane bypassing any form of active mechanism (e.g., endocytosis), no significant cytotoxic effect is registered. Pneumatically driven NPs across the cell membrane show a different distribution within the cytosol compared to NPs entering the cell by active endocytosis. Specifically, they exhibit free random Brownian motions within the cytosol and do not accumulate in lysosomes. Results suggest that intracellular accumulation of metallic nanoparticles into endo-lysosomal compartments is the leading cause of nanotoxicity, due to consequent nanoparticle degradation and in situ release of metal ions. PMID:25061814

Guarnieri, Daniela; Sabella, Stefania; Muscetti, Ornella; Belli, Valentina; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Fusco, Sabato; De Luca, Elisa; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Netti, Paolo A

2014-09-01

56

Biocompatibility of various ferrite nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using HeLa cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles for thermotherapy must be biocompatible and possess high thermal efficiency as heating elements. The biocompatibility of Fe 3O 4 (20-30 nm), ZnFe 2O 4 (15-30 nm) and NiFe 2O 4 (20-30 nm) nanoparticles was studied using a cytotoxicity colony formation assay and a cell viability assay. The Fe 3O 4 sample was found to be biocompatible on HeLa cells. While ZnFe 2O 4 and NiFe 2O 4 were non-toxic at low concentrations, HeLa cells exhibited cytotoxic effects when exposed to concentrations of 100 ?g/ml nanoparticles.

Tomitaka, Asahi; Hirukawa, Atsuo; Yamada, Tsutomu; Morishita, Shin; Takemura, Yasushi

2009-05-01

57

Invasive breast cancer cells exhibit increased mobility of the actin-binding protein CapG  

E-print Network

Invasive breast cancer cells exhibit increased mobility of the actin-binding protein CapG Malte fraction of the protein, which causes the increase in cell motility. Here, we exam- ined the dynamical and phagocytotic cell. Knockout of the protein causes membrane ruffling and phag- ocytosis defects in macrophages

Langowski, Jörg

58

Malaria ookinetes exhibit multiple markers for apoptosis-like programmed cell death in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A wide range of unicellular eukaryotes have now been shown to undergo a form of programmed cell death (PCD) that resembles apoptosis; exhibiting morphological and, in some cases, biochemical markers typical of metazoans. However, reports that sexual and asexual stages of malaria parasites exhibit these markers have been challenged. Here we use a rodent malaria model, Plasmodium berghei, to

Shashini C Arambage; Karen M Grant; Ian Pardo; Lisa Ranford-Cartwright; Hilary Hurd

2009-01-01

59

Transport across the cell-membrane dictates nanoparticle fate and toxicity: a new paradigm in nanotoxicology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toxicity of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been fully ascertained, but the mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity remain still largely unclear. Here we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of MNPs is strictly reliant on the pathway of cellular internalization. In particular, if otherwise toxic gold, silver, and iron oxide NPs are forced through the cell membrane bypassing any form of active mechanism (e.g., endocytosis), no significant cytotoxic effect is registered. Pneumatically driven NPs across the cell membrane show a different distribution within the cytosol compared to NPs entering the cell by active endocytosis. Specifically, they exhibit free random Brownian motions within the cytosol and do not accumulate in lysosomes. Results suggest that intracellular accumulation of metallic nanoparticles into endo-lysosomal compartments is the leading cause of nanotoxicity, due to consequent nanoparticle degradation and in situ release of metal ions.The toxicity of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been fully ascertained, but the mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity remain still largely unclear. Here we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of MNPs is strictly reliant on the pathway of cellular internalization. In particular, if otherwise toxic gold, silver, and iron oxide NPs are forced through the cell membrane bypassing any form of active mechanism (e.g., endocytosis), no significant cytotoxic effect is registered. Pneumatically driven NPs across the cell membrane show a different distribution within the cytosol compared to NPs entering the cell by active endocytosis. Specifically, they exhibit free random Brownian motions within the cytosol and do not accumulate in lysosomes. Results suggest that intracellular accumulation of metallic nanoparticles into endo-lysosomal compartments is the leading cause of nanotoxicity, due to consequent nanoparticle degradation and in situ release of metal ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02008a

Guarnieri, Daniela; Sabella, Stefania; Muscetti, Ornella; Belli, Valentina; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Fusco, Sabato; de Luca, Elisa; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Netti, Paolo A.

2014-08-01

60

Characterization and cell material interactions of PEGylated PNIPAAM nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the haemocompatibility of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-poly(ethylene glycol), PNIPAAM-PEG based nanoparticles and the influence of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG on the interactions of nanoparticles with cells. To achieve this purpose, thermosensitive PNIPAAM-PEG nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical dispersion polymerization method. Optimized nanosystems had particle sizes less than 200nm, low polydispersity and LCST of 40–41°C. The

Nany Gulati; Rachna Rastogi; Amit K. Dinda; Renu Saxena; Veena Koul

2010-01-01

61

Polylactic acid nanoparticles targeted to brain microvascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this work, blank polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles with unstained surface were prepared by the nano-deposition method.\\u000a On the basis of the preparation, the effect of surface modification on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) targeting\\u000a was examined byin vivo experiments and fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that PLA nanoparticles are less toxic than PACA nanoparticles\\u000a but their BMECs targeting is

Wang Huafang; Hu Yu; Sun Wangqiang; Xie Changsheng

2005-01-01

62

Doxorubicin-loaded mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Selective targeting of chemotherapeutic drugs toward the cancer cells overcomes the limitations involved in chemotherapy. Ideally, targeted delivery system holds great potential in cancer therapy due to specific release of drug in the cancer tissues. In this regard, DOX-loaded chitosan coated mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles (DOX-CMMN) were prepared and evaluated for its physicochemical and biological characteristics. Nanosized magnetic nanoparticles were observed with a high loading capacity for DOX. The drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a controlled and sustained release of drug without any burst release phenomenon. The DOX-DMMN showed a concentration-dependent cell proliferation inhibitory action against breast cancer cells. The blank nanoparticles showed excellent biocompatibility with cell viability >85% at the maximum tested concentration. Our results showed that chitosan coated magnetic system has high potential for breast cancer targeting under an alternating current magnetic field (ACMF). The present study showed that magnetic nanoparticles can be targeted to tumor cells under the presence of oscillating magnetic field. The combined effect of chemotherapy and thermotherapy can have a promising clinical potential for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25661382

Zou, Yan; Liu, Pin; Liu, Chuan-He; Zhi, Xu-Ting

2015-02-01

63

Detecting and Tracking Nonfluorescent Nanoparticles Probes in Live Cells  

SciTech Connect

Precisely imaging and tracking dynamic biological processes in live cells are crucial for both fundamental research in life sciences and biomedical applications. Nonfluorescent nanoparticles are emerging as important optical probes in live-cell imaging because of their excellent photostability, large optical cross sections, and low cytotoxicity. Here, we provide a review of recent development in optical imaging of nonfluorescent nanoparticle probes and their applications in dynamic tracking and biosensing in live cells. A brief discussion on cytotoxicity of nanoparticle probes is also provided.

Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

2012-01-17

64

Schwann cells exhibit excitotoxicity consistent with release of NMDA receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative effects of Schwann cells transplanted into the central nervous system have been observed previously. We report here that conditioned medium from Schwann cell cultures exhibit degenerative influences on hippocampal neurons. Aliquots of Schwann cell-conditioned medium compromised the morphologic integrity of the neurons, markedly elevated their intracellular calcium concentrations, and decreased their viability. The degenerative effects of Schwann cell medium on neuronal morphology and viability were blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-APV) and 5,7-dicholorokynurenic acid (DCKA). Glutamate was detected in Schwann cell-conditioned medium at a concentration on the order of 10(-5) M. D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAOx) also attenuated the neurotoxicity exhibited by Schwann cells. These data suggest that Schwann cells release biologically relevant concentrations of excitotoxins that include glutamate and D-serine. PMID:15672444

Wu, Sheng-Zhou; Jiang, Shujun; Sims, Terry J; Barger, Steven W

2005-03-01

65

Uptake and cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles in human liver cells  

SciTech Connect

Despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanoparticles, and the liver being the main detoxifying organ in the human body, there are limited studies which delineate the hepatotoxicity of nanoparticles. This paper reports on the biological interactions between liver cells and chitosan nanoparticles, which have been widely recognised as biocompatible. Using the MTT assay, human liver cells were shown to tolerate up to 4 h of exposure to 0.5% w/v of chitosan nanoparticles (18 {+-} 1 nm, 7.5 {+-} 1.0 mV in culture medium). At nanoparticle concentrations above 0.5% w/v, cell membrane integrity was compromised as evidenced by leakage of alanine transaminase into the extracellular milieu, and there was a dose-dependent increase in CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Uptake of chitosan nanoparticles into the cell nucleus was observed by confocal microscopic analysis after 4 h exposure with 1% w/v of chitosan nanoparticles. Electron micrographs further suggest necrotic or autophagic cell death, possibly caused by cell membrane damage and resultant enzyme leakage.

Loh, Jing Wen [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); Yeoh, George [School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); Centre for Medical Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, WA 6009 (Australia); Saunders, Martin [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); Lim, Lee-Yong, E-mail: limly@cyllene.uwa.edu.a [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia)

2010-12-01

66

Enhanced apoptotic effects of dihydroartemisinin-aggregated gelatin and hyaluronan nanoparticles on human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., has anticancer properties. Due to poor water solubility, poor oral activity, and a short plasma half-life, large doses of DHA have to be injected to achieve the necessary bioavailability. This study examined increasing DHA bioavailability by encapsulating DHA within gelatin (GEL) or hyaluronan (HA) nanoparticles via an electrostatic field system. Observations from transmission electron microscopy show that DHA in GEL and HA nanoparticles formed GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates that were approximately 30-40 nm in diameter. The entrapment efficiencies for DHA were approximately 13 and 35% for the GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates, respectively. The proliferation of A549 cells was inhibited by the GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates. Fluorescent annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining displayed low background staining with annexin V-FITC or PI on DHA-untreated cells. In contrast, annexin V-FITC and PI stains dramatically increased when the cells were incubated with GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates. These results suggest that DHA-aggregated GEL and HA nanoparticles exhibit higher anticancer proliferation activities than DHA alone in A549 cells most likely due to the greater aqueous dispersion after hydrophilic GEL or HA nanoparticles aggregation. These results demonstrate that DHA can aggregate with nanoparticles in an electrostatic field environment to form DHA nanosized aggregates. PMID:24039154

Sun, Qian; Teong, Benjamin; Chen, I-Fen; Chang, Shwu Jen; Gao, Jimin; Kuo, Shyh-Ming

2014-04-01

67

Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and cargo into cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles and bacteria can be used, independently, to deliver genes and proteins into mammalian cells for monitoring or altering gene expression and protein production. Here, we show the simultaneous use of nanoparticles and bacteria to deliver DNA-based model drug molecules in vivo and in vitro. In our approach, cargo (in this case, a fluorescent or a bioluminescent gene) is loaded onto the nanoparticles, which are carried on the bacteria surface. When incubated with cells, the cargo-carrying bacteria (`microbots') were internalized by the cells, and the genes released from the nanoparticles were expressed in the cells. Mice injected with microbots also successfully expressed the genes as seen by the luminescence in different organs. This new approach may be used to deliver different types of cargo into live animals and a variety of cells in culture without the need for complicated genetic manipulations.

Akin, Demir; Sturgis, Jennifer; Ragheb, Kathy; Sherman, Debby; Burkholder, Kristin; Robinson, J. Paul.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Mohammed, Sulma; Bashir, Rashid

2007-07-01

68

Endocytosis and exocytosis of nanoparticles in mammalian cells  

PubMed Central

Engineered nanoparticles that can be injected into the human body hold tremendous potential to detect and treat complex diseases. Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application. In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites. Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries. We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues. PMID:24872703

Oh, Nuri; Park, Ji-Ho

2014-01-01

69

Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252, 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared to stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic suga...

70

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of europium doped NaYF ? nanoparticles in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF4 (NaYF4:Eu(3+)) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future. PMID:25175221

Chen, Shizhu; Zhang, Cuimiao; Jia, Guang; Duan, Jianlei; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

2014-10-01

71

Platinum folate nanoparticles toxicity: cancer vs. normal cells.  

PubMed

Almost for two decades metallic nanoparticles are successfully used for cancer detection, imaging and treatment. Due to their high electron density they can be easily observed by electron microscopy and used in laser and radiofrequency therapy as energy releasing agents. However, the limitation for this practice is an inability to generate tumor-specific heating in a minimally invasive manner to the healthy tissue. To overcome this restraint we proposed to use folic acid coated metallic nanoparticles and determine whether they preferentially penetrate cancer cells. We developed technique for synthesizing platinum nanoparticles using folic acid as stabilizing agent which produced particles of relatively narrow size distribution, having d=2.3 ± 0.5 nm. High resolution TEM and zeta potential analysis indicated that the particles produced by this method had a high degree of crystalline order with no amorphous outer shell and a high degree of colloidal stability. The keratinocytes and mammary breast cells (cancer and normal) were incubated with platinum folate nanoparticles, and the results showed that the IC50 was significantly higher for the normal cells than the cancer cells in both cases, indicating that these nanoparticles preferentially target the cancer cells. TEM images of thin sections taken from the two types of cells indicated that the number of vacuoles and morphology changes after incubation with nanoparticles was also larger for the cancer cells in both types of tissue studied. No preferential toxicity was observed when folic acid receptors were saturated with free folic acid prior to exposure to nanoparticles. These results confirm our hypothesis regarding the preferential penetration of folic acid coated nanoparticles to cancer cells due to receptor mediated endocytosis. PMID:23318730

Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam H; Rigas, Basil

2013-03-01

72

Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 ?g/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 ?g/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 ?g/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

Yuan, Hengguang; Hu, Shanglian; Huang, Peng; Song, Hua; Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

2010-12-01

73

Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 ?g/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 ?g/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 ?g/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

Yuan, Hengguang; Hu, Shanglian; Huang, Peng; Song, Hua; Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

2011-12-01

74

Nanoparticle-labeled stem cells: a novel therapeutic vehicle  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology has been described as a general purpose technology. It has already generated a range of inventions and innovations. Development of nanotechnology will provide clinical medicine with a range of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities such as medical imaging, medical diagnosis, drug delivery, and cancer detection and management. Nanoparticles such as manganese, polystyrene, silica, titanium oxide, gold, silver, carbon, quantum dots, and iron oxide have received enormous attention in the creation of new types of analytical tools for biotechnology and life sciences. Labeling of stem cells with nanoparticles overcame the problems in homing and fixing stem cells to their desired site and guiding extension of stem cells to specific directions. Although the biologic effects of some nanoparticles have already been assessed, information on toxicity and possible mechanisms of various particle types remains inadequate. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the mechanisms of internalization and distribution of nanoparticles inside stem cells, as well as the influence of different types of nanoparticles on stem cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and cytotoxicity, and to assess the role of nanoparticles in tracking the fate of stem cells used in tissue regeneration. PMID:22291483

El-Sadik, Abir O; El-Ansary, Afaf; Sabry, Sherif M

2010-01-01

75

Development of biofuel cells based on gold nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on developing the synthesis of Au nanoparticle-decorated functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Au-NPs\\/f-MWCNTs) for monosaccharide (bio-fuel) oxidation reactions and practical application in air-biofuel cells. We developed a scalable and straightforward method to synthesize Au-NPs\\/f-MWCNTs which allow us to control the loading and size of the Au-NPs. The Au-NPs\\/f-MWCNTs exhibited better catalytic activities and stability than the Au sheet

Junichi Naruse; Le Quynh Hoa; Yasuhito Sugano; Tomohiko Ikeuchi; Hiroyuki Yoshikawa; Masato Saito; Eiichi Tamiya

2011-01-01

76

Quantification of Nanoparticle Dose and Vesicular Inheritance in Proliferating Cells  

PubMed Central

Assessing dose in nanoparticle–cell interactions is inherently difficult due to a complex multiplicity of possible mechanisms and metrics controlling particle uptake. The fundamental unit of nanoparticle dose is the number of particles internalized per cell; we show that this can be obtained for large cell populations that internalize fluorescent nanoparticles by endocytosis, through calibration of cytometry measurements to transmission electron microscopy data. Low-throughput, high-resolution electron imaging of quantum dots in U-2 OS cells is quantified and correlated with high-throughput, low-resolution optical imaging of the nanoparticle-loaded cells. From the correlated data, we obtain probability distribution functions of vesicles per cell and nanoparticles per vesicle. Sampling of these distributions and comparison to fluorescence intensity histograms from flow cytometry provide the calibration factor required to transform the cytometry metric to total particle dose per cell, the mean value of which is 2.4 million. Use of the probability distribution functions to analyze particle partitioning during cell division indicates that, while vesicle inheritance is near symmetric, highly variable vesicle loading leads to a highly asymmetric particle dose within the daughter cells. PMID:23773085

2013-01-01

77

Biogenic magnetic nanoparticles from Burkholderia sp. YN01 exhibiting intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and their applications.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain containing biogenic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) was isolated from the sediments of Songhua River in Harbin, China, and was identified as Burkholderia sp. YN01. Extracted BMNPs from YN01 were characterized as pure face-centered cubic Fe3O4 with an average size of 80 nm through transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hysteresis parameters of the BMNP samples such as Bc and Bcr and ratios Mrs/Ms were deduced as 35.6 mT, 43.2 mT, and 0.47, respectively, indicating that the BMNPs exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior. This is the first report concerning on biogenic Fe3O4 NPs produced in Burkholderia genus. Significantly, the BMNPs were proved to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity that could catalyze the oxidation of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. Kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic behavior is in accord with typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and follows ping-pong mechanism. The catalytic constants (K cat) were 6.5?×?10(4) s(-1) and 0.78?×?10(4) s(-1) with H2O2 and TMB as substrate, respectively, which was higher than that of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy experiments showed that the BMNPs could catalyze H2O2 to produce hydroxyl radicals. The origin of peroxidase-like activity is also associated with their ability to transfer electron between electrode and H2O2 according to an electrochemical study. As a novel peroxidase mimetic, the BMNPs were employed to offer a simple, sensitive, and selective colorimetric method for H2O2 and glucose determination, and the BMNPs could efficiently catalyze the degradation of phenol and Congo red dye. PMID:25030455

Pan, Yu; Li, Na; Mu, Jianshuai; Zhou, Runhong; Xu, Yan; Cui, Daizong; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Min

2015-01-01

78

Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function. Methods Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Clchannels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches. Results Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl? channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl? and HCO3 ? secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl? channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl? channels by the nanoparticles. Conclusion This is the first study to identify the activation of ion channels in airway cells after exposure to polystyrene-based nanomaterials. Thus, polystyrene nanoparticles cannot be considered as a simple neutral vehicle for drug delivery for the treatment of lung diseases, due to the fact that they may have the ability to affect epithelial cell function and physiological processes on their own. PMID:21760729

McCarthy, J; Gong, X; Nahirney, D; Duszyk, M; Radomski, MW

2011-01-01

79

Delivering Nanoparticles to Lungs While Avoiding Liver and Spleen through Adsorption on Red Blood Cells  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are one of the most widely investigated approaches for developing novel therapies for a variety of diseases. However, rapid clearance and poor targeting limit their clinical utility. Here, we describe an approach to harness the flexibility, circulation, and vascular mobility of red blood cells (RBCs) to simultaneously overcome these limitations (Cellular Hitchhiking). A non-covalent attachment of nanoparticles to RBCs simultaneously increases their level in blood over a 24 hour period and allows transient accumulation in the lungs, while, reducing their uptake by liver and spleen. RBC-adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited ~3-fold increase in blood persistence and ~7-fold higher accumulation in lungs. RBC-adsorbed nanoparticles improved lung/liver and lung/spleen nanoparticles accumulation by over 15-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Accumulation in lungs is attributed to mechanical transfer of particles from RBC surface to lung endothelium. Independent tracing both nanoparticles and RBCs in vivo confirmed that RBCs themselves do not accumulate in lungs. Attachment of anti-ICAM-1 antibody to the exposed surface of NPs that were attached to RBCs led to further increase in lung targeting and retention over 24 hours. Cellular hitchhiking onto RBCs provides a new platform for improving the blood pharmacokinetics and vascular delivery of nanoparticles while simultaneously avoiding uptake by liver and spleen, thus opening the door for new applications. PMID:24182189

Anselmo, Aaron C.; Gupta, Vivek; Zern, Blaine J.; Pan, Daniel; Zakrewsky, Michael; Muzykantov, Vladimir; Mitragotri, Samir

2014-01-01

80

Nanoparticle accumulation and transcytosis in brain endothelial cell layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier, which controls and limits access to the central nervous system (CNS). The selectivity of the BBB relies on specialized characteristics of the endothelial cells that line the microvasculature, including the expression of intercellular tight junctions, which limit paracellular permeability. Several reports suggest that nanoparticles have a unique capacity to cross the BBB. However, direct evidence of nanoparticle transcytosis is difficult to obtain, and we found that typical transport studies present several limitations when applied to nanoparticles. In order to investigate the capacity of nanoparticles to access and transport across the BBB, several different nanomaterials, including silica, titania and albumin- or transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles of different sizes, were exposed to a human in vitro BBB model of endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells. Extensive transmission electron microscopy imaging was applied in order to describe nanoparticle endocytosis and typical intracellular localisation, as well as to look for evidence of eventual transcytosis. Our results show that all of the nanoparticles were internalised, to different extents, by the BBB model and accumulated along the endo-lysosomal pathway. Rare events suggestive of nanoparticle transcytosis were also observed for several of the tested materials.The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier, which controls and limits access to the central nervous system (CNS). The selectivity of the BBB relies on specialized characteristics of the endothelial cells that line the microvasculature, including the expression of intercellular tight junctions, which limit paracellular permeability. Several reports suggest that nanoparticles have a unique capacity to cross the BBB. However, direct evidence of nanoparticle transcytosis is difficult to obtain, and we found that typical transport studies present several limitations when applied to nanoparticles. In order to investigate the capacity of nanoparticles to access and transport across the BBB, several different nanomaterials, including silica, titania and albumin- or transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles of different sizes, were exposed to a human in vitro BBB model of endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells. Extensive transmission electron microscopy imaging was applied in order to describe nanoparticle endocytosis and typical intracellular localisation, as well as to look for evidence of eventual transcytosis. Our results show that all of the nanoparticles were internalised, to different extents, by the BBB model and accumulated along the endo-lysosomal pathway. Rare events suggestive of nanoparticle transcytosis were also observed for several of the tested materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Nanoparticle characterization in relevant media by Dynamic Light Scattering and SDS-PAGE. Transport study for silica nanoparticles across the BBB layer. Additional Electron Microscopy images of cells treated with the different nanoparticles investigated and details of the filters of the transwell systems. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02905k

Ye, Dong; Raghnaill, Michelle Nic; Bramini, Mattia; Mahon, Eugene; Åberg, Christoffer; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.

2013-10-01

81

Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

2014-07-01

82

Nanoparticle facilitated extracellular electron transfer in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been the focus of substantial research interest due to their potential for long-term, renewable electrical power generation via the metabolism of a broad spectrum of organic substrates, although the low power densities have limited their applications to date. Here, we demonstrate the potential to improve the power extraction by exploiting biogenic inorganic nanoparticles to facilitate extracellular electron transfer in MFCs. Simultaneous short-circuit current recording and optical imaging on a nanotechnology-enabled platform showed substantial current increase from Shewanella PV-4 after the formation of cell/iron sulfide nanoparticle aggregates. Detailed characterization of the structure and composition of the cell/nanoparticle interface revealed crystalline iron sulfide nanoparticles in intimate contact with and uniformly coating the cell membrane. In addition, studies designed to address the fundamental mechanisms of charge transport in this hybrid system showed that charge transport only occurred in the presence of live Shewanella, and moreover demonstrated that the enhanced current output can be attributed to improved electron transfer at cell/electrode interface and through the cellular-networks. Our approach of interconnecting and electrically contacting bacterial cells through biogenic nanoparticles represents a unique and promising direction in MFC research and has the potential to not only advance our fundamental knowledge about electron transfer processes in these biological systems but also overcome a key limitation in MFCs by constructing an electrically connected, three-dimensional cell network from the bottom-up. PMID:25310721

Jiang, Xiaocheng; Hu, Jinsong; Lieber, Alexander M; Jackan, Charles S; Biffinger, Justin C; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Ringeisen, Bradley R; Lieber, Charles M

2014-11-12

83

Glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and their specific interaction with tumor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel targeted drug delivery system, glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (GCNPs), was developed for specific recognition and interaction with glucose transporters (Gluts) over-expressed by tumor cells. GC was synthesized by using succinic acid as a linker between glucosamine and chitosan (CS), and successful synthesis was confirmed by NMR and elemental analysis. GCNPs were prepared by ionic crosslinking method, and characterized in terms of morphology, size, and zeta potential. The optimally prepared nanoparticles showed spherical shapes with an average particle size of (187.9 ± 3.8) nm and a zeta potential of (- 15.43 ± 0.31) mV. The GCNPs showed negligible cytotoxicity to mouse embryo fibroblast and 4T1 cells. Doxorubicin (DOX) could be efficiently entrapped into GCNPs, with a loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of 20.11% and 64.81%, respectively. DOX-loaded nanoparticles exhibited sustained-release behavior in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4). In vitro cellular uptake studies showed that the GCNPs had better endocytosis ability than CSNPs, and the antitumor activity of DOX/GCNPs was 4-5 times effectiveness in 4T1 cell killing than that of DOX/CSNPs. All the results demonstrate that nanoparticles decorated with glucose have specific interactions with cancer cells via the recognition between glucose and Gluts. Therefore, Gluts-targeted GCNPs may be promising delivery agents in cancer therapies.

Li, Jing; Ma, Fang-Kui; Dang, Qi-Feng; Liang, Xing-Guo; Chen, Xi-Guang

2014-12-01

84

In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Mammalian Germline Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Gametogenesis is a complex biological process that is particularly sensitive to environmental insults such as chemicals. Many chemicals have a negative impact on the germline, either by directly affecting the germ cells, or indirectly through their action on the somatic nursing cells. Ultimately, these effects can inhibit fertility, and they may have negative consequences for the development of the offspring. Recently, nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanowires, fullerene derivatives (buckyballs), and quantum dots have received enormous national attention in the creation of new types of analytical tools for biotechnology and the life sciences. Despite the wide application of nanomaterials, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. Thus, there are limited studies available on toxicity of nanoparticles for risk assessment of nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of a mouse spermatogonial stem cell line as a model to assess nanotoxicity in the male germline in vitro. The effects of different types of nanoparticles on these cells were evaluated by light microscopy, and by cell proliferation and standard cytotoxicity assays. Our results demonstrate a concentration-dependent toxicity for all types of particles tested, whereas the corresponding soluble salts had no significant effect. Silver nanoparticles were the most toxic while molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticles were the least toxic. Our results suggest that this cell line provides a valuable model with which to assess the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in the germ line in vitro. PMID:16014736

Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Hussain, Saber; Schlager, John J.; Hofmann, Marie-Claude

2010-01-01

85

Circulating tumor cells exhibit a biologically aggressive cancer phenotype accompanied by selective resistance to chemotherapy.  

PubMed

With prostate cancer (PCa), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) portend a poor clinical prognosis. Their unknown biology precludes rational therapeutic design. We demonstrate that CTC and DTC cell lines, established from mice bearing human PCa orthotopic implants, exhibit increased cellular invasion in vitro, increased metastasis in mice, and express increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition biomarkers. Further, they are selectively resistant to growth inhibition by mitoxantrone-like agents. These findings demonstrate that CTC formation is accompanied by phenotypic progression without obligate reversion. Their increased metastatic potential, selective therapeutic resistance, and differential expression of potential therapeutic targets provide a rational basis to test further interventions. PMID:25016063

Pavese, Janet M; Bergan, Raymond C

2014-10-01

86

Preparation of Iron Oxide-Entrapped Chitosan Nanoparticles for Stem Cell Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intended to prepare iron oxide nanoparticle-entrapped chitosan (CS) nanoparticles for stem cell labeling. The nanoparticles were synthesized by polymerizing iron oxide nanoparticle-associated methacrylic acid monomer in the presence of CS. TEM revealed that the well-defined iron oxide nanoparticles were successfully encapsulated inside the CS nanoparticles. The effect of CS at different [NH2]\\/[COOH] molar ratios on particle size, surface

Saowaluk Chaleawlert-umpon; Varissaporn Mayen; Krissanapong Manotham; Nuttaporn Pimpha

2010-01-01

87

Clonally expanded human airway smooth muscle cells exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchyme-derived airway cell populations including airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts play key roles in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and remodeling. Phenotypic and functional characterisation of these cell populations are confounded by their heterogeneity in vitro. It is unclear which mechanisms underlie the creation of these different sub-populations. The study objectives were to investigate whether ASM cells are capable of clonal expansion and if so (i) what proportion possess this capability and (ii) do clonal populations exhibit variation in terms of morphology, phenotype, proliferation rates and pro-relaxant or pro-contractile signaling pathways. Methods Early passage human ASM cells were subjected to single-cell cloning and their doubling time was recorded. Immunocytochemistry was performed to assess localization and levels of markers previously reported to be specifically associated with smooth muscle or fibroblasts. Finally functional assays were used to reveal differences between clonal populations specifically assessing mitogen-induced proliferation and pro-relaxant and pro-contractile signaling pathways. Results Our studies provide evidence that a high proportion (58%) of single cells present within early passage human ASM cell cultures have the potential to create expanded cell populations. Despite being clonally-originated, morphological heterogeneity was still evident within these clonal populations as assessed by the range in expression of markers associated with smooth muscle cells. Functional diversity was observed between clonal populations with 10 ?M isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP responses ranging from 1.4 - 5.4 fold cf basal and bradykinin-induced inositol phosphate from 1.8 - 5.2 fold cf basal. Conclusion In summary we show for the first time that primary human ASM cells are capable of clonal expansion and that the resulting clonal populations themselves exhibit phenotypic plasticity. PMID:24886333

2014-01-01

88

Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives.Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ESI containing 1H NMR spectra and additional fibroblast characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04794f

Gajbhiye, Virendra; Escalante, Leah; Chen, Guojun; Laperle, Alex; Zheng, Qifeng; Steyer, Benjamin; Gong, Shaoqin; Saha, Krishanu

2013-12-01

89

Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA damage. These results are important guidelines to the design and interpretation of experiments involving nanowire-based transfection and electrical characterization of living cells. PMID:23813871

Persson, Henrik; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Samuelson, Lars; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Oredsson, Stina; Prinz, Christelle N

2013-01-01

90

Chitosan cross-linked docetaxel loaded EGF receptor targeted nanoparticles for lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Lung cancer, associated with the up-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to the development of EGFR targeted anticancer therapeutics. The biopolymeric nanoparticles form an outstanding system for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. The present work evaluated the in vitro effects of chitosan cross-linked ?-poly(glutamic acid) (?-PGA) nanoparticles (Nps) loaded with docetaxel (DTXL) and decorated with Cetuximab (CET), targeted to EGFR over-expressing non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) cells (A549). CET-DTXL-?-PGA Nps was prepared by ionic gelation and CET conjugation via EDC/NHS chemistry. EGFR specificity of targeted Nps was confirmed by the higher uptake rates of EGFR +ve A549 cells compared to that of EGFR -ve cells (NIH3T3). The cytotoxicity of Nps quantified using cell based (MTT/LDH) and flowcytometry (Cell-cycle analysis, Annexin V/PI and JC-1) assays showed superior antiproliferative activity of CET-DTXL-?-PGA Nps over DTXL-?-PGA Nps. The A549 cells treated with CET-DTXL-?-PGA NPs underwent a G2/M phase cell cycle arrest followed by reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 cells, inducing apoptosis and necrosis resulting in enhanced cancer cell death. CET-DTXL-?-PGA Nps exhibited enhanced cellular internalization and therapeutic activity, by actively targeting EGFR on NSCLC cells and hence could be an effective alternative to non-specific, conventional chemotherapy by increasing its efficiency by many folds. PMID:24950310

Maya, S; Sarmento, Bruno; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Menon, Deepthy; Seabra, Vitor; Jayakumar, R

2014-08-01

91

Crocin Exhibits Antitumor Effects on Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Crocin is a carotenoid of the saffron extract that exhibits antitumor activity against many human tumors. However, the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vivo have not been evaluated. This study aimed to examine the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo and investigate the underlying mechanisms. HL-60 cells were treated by crocin, and cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle profiles were examined by MTT assay, AO/EB staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, HL-60 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated by crocin, the tumor weight and size were calculated, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in xenografts was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that crocin (0.625–5?mg/mL) inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In addition, crocin (6.25, 25?mg/kg) inhibited the tumor weight and size of HL-60 xenografts in nude mice, inhibited Bcl-2 expression, and increased Bax expression in xenografts. In summary, crocin inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of HL-60 cells, which may be mediated by the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PMID:23573146

Sun, Yan; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Yan-Xia; Wang, Ling-Zhen; Sun, Li-Rong; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Xiu-Fang

2013-01-01

92

Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines.  

PubMed

Cancer is an inflammatory disease of tissue that is largely influenced by the interactions between multiple cell types, secreted factors, and signal transduction pathways. While single-cell sequencing continues to refine our understanding of the clonotypic heterogeneity within tumors, the complex interplay between genetic variations and non-genetic factors ultimately affects therapeutic outcome. Much has been learned through bulk studies of secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment, but the secretory behavior of single cells has been largely uncharacterized. Here we directly profiled the secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines from thousands of single colorectal tumor and stromal cells, using an array of subnanoliter wells and a technique called microengraving to characterize both the rates of secretion of several factors at once and the numbers of cells secreting each chemokine. The ELR+ CXC chemokines are highly redundant, pro-angiogenic cytokines that signal via the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, influencing tumor growth and progression. We find that human primary colorectal tumor and stromal cells exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in the combinations and magnitudes of secretions for these chemokines. In cell lines, we observe similar variance: phenotypes observed in bulk can be largely absent among the majority of single cells, and discordances exist between secretory states measured and gene expression for these chemokines among single cells. Together, these measures suggest secretory states among tumor cells are complex and can evolve dynamically. Most importantly, this study reveals new insight into the intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity of human primary tumors. PMID:23995780

Adalsteinsson, Viktor A; Tahirova, Narmin; Tallapragada, Naren; Yao, Xiaosai; Campion, Liam; Angelini, Alessandro; Douce, Thomas B; Huang, Cindy; Bowman, Brittany; Williamson, Christina A; Kwon, Douglas S; Wittrup, K Dane; Love, J Christopher

2013-10-01

93

Crocin Exhibits Antitumor Effects on Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.  

PubMed

Crocin is a carotenoid of the saffron extract that exhibits antitumor activity against many human tumors. However, the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vivo have not been evaluated. This study aimed to examine the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo and investigate the underlying mechanisms. HL-60 cells were treated by crocin, and cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle profiles were examined by MTT assay, AO/EB staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, HL-60 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated by crocin, the tumor weight and size were calculated, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in xenografts was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that crocin (0.625-5?mg/mL) inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In addition, crocin (6.25, 25?mg/kg) inhibited the tumor weight and size of HL-60 xenografts in nude mice, inhibited Bcl-2 expression, and increased Bax expression in xenografts. In summary, crocin inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of HL-60 cells, which may be mediated by the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PMID:23573146

Sun, Yan; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Yan-Xia; Wang, Ling-Zhen; Sun, Li-Rong; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Xiu-Fang

2013-01-01

94

Rapid coating of surfaces with functionalized nanoparticles for regulation of cell behavior.  

PubMed

A robust monolayer of nanoparticles is formed via dip-coating of cell culture plates. These surfaces provide cell type-specific modulation of growth behavior without the uptake of nanoparticles. PMID:24677290

Tang, Rui; Moyano, Daniel F; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Yan, Bo; Jeoung, Eunhee; Tonga, Gülen Yesilbag; Duncan, Bradley; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Jiang, Ziwen; Kim, Chaekyu; Rotello, Vincent M

2014-05-28

95

Basis of differential cytotoxicity exhibited by rhodamine 123 for certain carcinoma cell types  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously demonstrated the inhibitory effect of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) on mitochondrial bioenergetic function and established mitochondrial F/sub 1/-F/sub 0/ ATPase as the primary target site for Rh123 toxicity. Further, they found that the amount of Rh123 taken up by isolated rat liver mitochondria is a linear function of mitochondrial membrane potential. Here they investigated the possibility that the differential cytotoxicity exhibited by Rh123 for certain carcinoma cell types might be a function of an increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Membrane potential in mitochondria isolated from cultured cells was measured by equilibrium distribution of /sup 86/Rb. Mitochondria from CX-1, a Rh123-sensitive carcinoma cell type, had a higher membrane potential (163 +/- 7mV) than did mitochondria from CV-1, a Rh123-insensitive, normal epithelial cell type (104 +/- 9mV). In addition polarographic determination of respiratory activity of mitochondria isolated from these cells showed that CX-1 mitochondria were more sensitive than CV-1 mitochondria to inhibition by Rh123. Finally, there was no evidence of differential sensitivity of F/sub 1/-F/sub 0/ ATPase activity to Rh123 in CX-1 vs. CV-1 mitochondria. These data strongly suggest that inherent differences in mitochondrial membrane potential contribute to the differential cytotoxicity exhibited by Rh123 for certain carcinoma cell types.

Modica-Napolitano, J.S.; Aprille, J.R.

1986-05-01

96

Three-dimensional hydrogel constructs for exposing cells to nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In evaluating nanoparticle risks to human health, there is often a disconnect between results obtained from in vitro toxicology studies and those from in vivo activity, prompting the need for improved methods to rapidly assess the hazards of engineered nanomaterials. In vitro studies of nanoparticle toxicology often rely on high doses and short exposure periods due to the difficulty of maintaining monolayer cell cultures over extended time periods as well as the difficulty of maintaining nanoparticle dispersions within the culture environment. In this work, tissue-engineered constructs are investigated as a platform for providing doses of nanoparticles over different exposure periods to cells within a three-dimensional environment that can be tuned to mimic in vivo conditions. Uptake of quantum dots (QDs) by model neural cells was first investigated in a high-dose exposure scenario, resulting in a strong concentration-dependent uptake of carboxyl-functionalised QDs. Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel scaffolds with varying mesh sizes were then investigated for their ability to support cell survival and proliferation. Cells were co-encapsulated with carboxyl-functionalised poly(ethylene glycol)-coated QDs at a lower dose than is typical for monolayer cultures. Although the QDs leach from the hydrogel within 24 h, they are also incorporated by cells within the scaffold, enabling the use of these constructs in future studies of cell behaviour and function. PMID:23611448

Mansfield, Elisabeth; Oreskovic, Tammy L; Rentz, Nikki S; Jeerage, Kavita M

2014-06-01

97

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-derived cells exhibit multilineage differentiation potential similar to mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic process that becomes latent in most normal adult tissues. Recently, we have shown that induction of EMT endows breast epithelial cells with stem cell traits. In this report, we have further characterized the EMT-derived cells and shown that these cells are similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with the capacity to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. For this purpose, we induced EMT by ectopic expression of Twist, Snail, or transforming growth factor-beta in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. We found that the EMT-derived cells and MSCs share many properties including the antigenic profile typical of MSCs, that is, CD44(+), CD24(-), and CD45(-). Conversely, MSCs express EMT-associated genes, such as Twist, Snail, and mesenchyme forkhead 1 (FOXC2). Interestingly, CD140b (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta), a marker for naive MSCs, is exclusively expressed in EMT-derived cells and not in their epithelial counterparts. Moreover, functional analyses revealed that EMT-derived cells but not the control cells can differentiate into alizarin red S-positive mature osteoblasts, oil red O-positive adipocytes and alcian blue-positive chondrocytes similar to MSCs. We also observed that EMT-derived cells but not the control cells invade and migrate towards MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells similar to MSCs. In vivo wound homing assays in nude mice revealed that the EMT-derived cells home to wound sites similar to MSCs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the EMT-derived cells are similar to MSCs in gene expression, multilineage differentiation, and ability to migrate towards tumor cells and wound sites. PMID:20572012

Battula, Venkata Lokesh; Evans, Kurt William; Hollier, Brett George; Shi, Yuexi; Marini, Frank C; Ayyanan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Rui-Yu; Brisken, Cathrin; Guerra, Rudy; Andreeff, Michael; Mani, Sendurai A

2010-08-01

98

Cationic Nanoparticles Induce Nanoscale Disruption in Living Cell Plasma Membranes Jiumei Chen,,  

E-print Network

nanoparticles that yield millimolar charge concentra- tions are acutely cytotoxic and lead to cell lysis.1Cationic Nanoparticles Induce Nanoscale Disruption in Living Cell Plasma Membranes Jiumei Chen recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found

Tew, Gregory N.

99

Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

2015-01-01

100

Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

Carpenter, Cody Westcott

101

Antimicrobial efficacy and ocular cell toxicity from silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver in various forms has long been recognized for antimicrobial properties, both in biomedical devices and in eyes. However, soluble drugs used on the ocular surface are rapidly cleared through tear ducts and eventually ingested, resulting in decreased efficacy of the drug on its target tissue and potential concern for systemic side effects. Silver nanoparticles were studied as a source of anti-microbial silver for possible controlled-release contact lens controlled delivery formulations. Silver ion release over a period of several weeks from nanoparticle sources of various sizes and doses in vitro was evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. Mammalian cell viability and cytokine expression in response to silver nanoparticle exposure is evaluated using corneal epithelial cells and eye-associated macrophages cultured in vitro in serum-free media. Minimal microcidal and cell toxic effects were observed for several silver nanoparticle suspensions and aqueous extraction times for bulk total silver concentrations commensurate with comparative silver ion (e.g., Ag(+) ((aq))) toxicity. This indicates that (1) silver particles themselves are not microcidal under conditions tested, and (2) insufficient silver ion is generated from these particles at these loadings to produce observable biological effects in these in vitro assays. If dosing allows substantially increased silver particle loading in the lens, the bactericidal efficacy of silver nanoparticles in vitro is one possible approach to limiting bacterial colonization problems associated with extended-wear contact lenses. PMID:19865601

Santoro, Colleen M; Duchsherer, Nicole L; Grainger, David W

2007-05-01

102

Amino-functionalized nanoparticles as inhibitors of mTOR and inducers of cell cycle arrest in leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in anticancer drug resistance, type 2 diabetes, and aging. Here, we show that surface functionalization of polystyrene nanoparticles with amino groups (PS-NH2), but not with carboxyl groups (PS-COOH), induces G2 cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation in three leukemia cell lines. Besides, PS-NH2 inhibit angiogenesis and proliferation of leukemia cells xenografted onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane. At the molecular level, PS-NH2 inhibit, whereas PS-COOH activate mTOR signaling in leukemia cells. Consistently, PS-NH2 block activation of the mTOR downstream targets, Akt and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1, and induce overexpression of the cell-cycle regulator p21(Cip1/Waf1) and degradation of cyclin B1. After addition, both types of particles rapidly induce autophagy in leukemia cells. Yet, only in PS-NH2-treated cells, acidic vesicular organelles show elevated pH and impaired processing of procathepsin B. Moreover, solely in PS-NH2-treated cells, autophagy is followed by permeabilization of acidic vesicular organelles and induction of apoptosis. By contrast, primary macrophages, which do not exhibit activated mTOR signaling, proved relatively resistant to PS-NH2-induced toxicity. These data indicate that functionalized nanoparticles can be used to control activation of mTOR signaling pathways, and to influence proliferation and viability of malignant cells. PMID:24331713

Loos, Cornelia; Syrovets, Tatiana; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

2014-02-01

103

A chloride conductance exhibiting bicarbonate conductivity in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.  

PubMed

The anion conductance in primary cultures of rat inner medullary collecting duct cells was studied using perforated-patch whole-cell clamp technique. Depolarizations above 0 mv induced an outward anionic current with a time-dependent activation (Iovt) exhibiting a similar conductivity to Cl- and HCO3-. Iovt showed half-maximal activation around 32 mV with a slope factor of 23 mV, and showed a voltage-dependent activation time course that was well fitted by a sum of two exponential functions. Iovt was potentiated when external pH or external Ca2+ was increased and was blocked by external DIDS, DPC and furosemide. These characteristics of Iovt resemble that of the ClC-K1 channels mediated currents; however, anion substitution studies showed that Iovt exhibits a Br->Cl->I->NO3- conductivity sequence, different from that observed in the ClC-K1 channels-mediated conductance. We suggest that, in inner medullary collecting duct cells, ClC-K channels of an unidentified type give rise to this Cl- and HCO3- conductance. This is the first study of a channel-mediated HCO3- current in kidney tubular cells. PMID:24595846

Bolívar, Juan J; Lara-Figueroa, César O; Martínez-Mayorquin, Ramón H; Monroy-Romero, Florencio; Arenas, Gabina

2014-01-01

104

Nanocomposite of tin sulfide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide in high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A nanocomposite of SnS2 nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide (SnS2@RGO) had been successfully synthesized as a substitute conventional Pt counter electrode (CE) in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) system. The SnS2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed onto graphene sheets, which formed a nanosized composite system. The effectiveness of this nanocomposite exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic properties upon reducing the triiodide, owning to synergistic effects of SnS2 nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheet and improved conductivity. Consequently, the DSSC equipped with SnS2@RGO nanocomposite CE achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12%, which was higher than those of SnS2 nanoparticles (5.58%) or graphene sheet alone (3.73%) as CEs and also comparable to the value (6.79%) obtained with pure Pt CE as a reference. PMID:25230916

Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Guang; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Chen, Xiaoshuang

2015-01-14

105

Human Endometrial Side Population Cells Exhibit Genotypic, Phenotypic and Functional Features of Somatic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

During reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes around 480 cycles of growth, breakdown and regeneration should pregnancy not be achieved. This outstanding regenerative capacity is the basis for women's cycling and its dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of pathological disorders. Therefore, the human endometrial tissue must rely on a remarkable endometrial somatic stem cells (SSC) population. Here we explore the hypothesis that human endometrial side population (SP) cells correspond to somatic stem cells. We isolated, identified and characterized the SP corresponding to the stromal and epithelial compartments using endometrial SP genes signature, immunophenotyping and characteristic telomerase pattern. We analyzed the clonogenic activity of SP cells under hypoxic conditions and the differentiation capacity in vitro to adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Finally, we demonstrated the functional capability of endometrial SP to develop human endometrium after subcutaneous injection in NOD-SCID mice. Briefly, SP cells of human endometrium from epithelial and stromal compartments display genotypic, phenotypic and functional features of SSC. PMID:20585575

Cervelló, Irene; Gil-Sanchis, Claudia; Mas, Aymara; Delgado-Rosas, Francisco; Martínez-Conejero, José Antonio; Galán, Amparo; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Martínez, Sebastian; Navarro, Ismael; Ferro, Jaime; Horcajadas, José Antonio; Esteban, Francisco José; O'Connor, José Enrique; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

2010-01-01

106

Particle-Cell Contact Enhances Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally accepted that antibacterial properties of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are dictated by their dissolved fraction. However, dissolution-based concept alone does not fully explain the toxic potency of nanoparticulate silver compared to silver ions. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we demonstrated that the direct contact between bacterial cell and AgNPs' surface enhanced the toxicity of nanosilver. More specifically, cell-NP contact increased the cellular uptake of particle-associated Ag ions – the single and ultimate cause of toxicity. To prove that, we evaluated the toxicity of three different AgNPs (uncoated, PVP-coated and protein-coated) to six bacterial strains: Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and P. aeruginosa and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. While the toxicity of AgNO3 to these bacteria varied only slightly (the 4-h EC50 ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mg Ag/l), the 4-h EC50 values of protein-coated AgNPs for various bacterial strains differed remarkably, from 0.35 to 46 mg Ag/l. By systematically comparing the intracellular and extracellular free Ag+ liberated from AgNPs, we demonstrated that not only extracellular dissolution in the bacterial test environment but also additional dissolution taking place at the particle-cell interface played an essential role in antibacterial action of AgNPs. The role of the NP-cell contact in dictating the antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs was additionally proven by the following observations: (i) separation of bacterial cells from AgNPs by particle-impermeable membrane (cut-off 20 kDa, ?4 nm) significantly reduced the toxicity of AgNPs and (ii) P. aeruginosa cells which tended to attach onto AgNPs, exhibited the highest sensitivity to all forms of nanoparticulate Ag. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide new insights into the mode of antibacterial action of nanosilver and explain some discrepancies in this field, showing that “Ag-ion” and “particle-specific” mechanisms are not controversial but, rather, are two faces of the same coin. PMID:23737965

Bondarenko, Olesja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Kahru, Anne

2013-01-01

107

The effect of Ag nanoparticles on PC3 cells ultraweak bioluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraweak intrinsic bioluminescence of cancer cell is a noninvasive method of assessing bioenergetic status of the investigated cells. This weak emission generated by PC3 cell line was measured during various stages of growth with or without the presence of Ag nanoparticles. The comparison between nanoparticles concentration, bioluminescence and cell survival showed that even though Ag nanoparticles doesn't significantly affect cell survival at used concentration it affects cell metabolism, possibly making them more susceptible to other form of therapies.

Hossu, Marius; Zou, Xiaoju; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

2011-03-01

108

Mechanisms of nanoparticle-mediated photomechanical cell damage  

PubMed Central

Laser-assisted killing of gold nanoparticle targeted macrophages was investigated. Using pressure transient detection, flash photography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, we studied the mechanism of single cell damage by vapor bubble formation around gold nanospheres induced by nanosecond laser pulses. The influence of the number of irradiating laser pulses and of particle size and concentration on the threshold for acute cell damage was determined. While the single pulse damage threshold is independent of the particle size, the threshold decreases with increasing particle size when using trains of pulses. The dependence of the cell damage threshold on the nanoparticle concentration during incubation reveals that particle accumulation and distribution inside the cell plays a key role in tissue imaging or cell damaging. PMID:22435092

Peeters, Sara; Kitz, Michael; Preisser, Stefan; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Rothen?Rutishauser, Barbara; Thalmann, George N.; Brandenberger, Christina; Bailey, Arthur; Frenz, Martin

2012-01-01

109

Mechanisms of nanoparticle-mediated photomechanical cell damage.  

PubMed

Laser-assisted killing of gold nanoparticle targeted macrophages was investigated. Using pressure transient detection, flash photography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, we studied the mechanism of single cell damage by vapor bubble formation around gold nanospheres induced by nanosecond laser pulses. The influence of the number of irradiating laser pulses and of particle size and concentration on the threshold for acute cell damage was determined. While the single pulse damage threshold is independent of the particle size, the threshold decreases with increasing particle size when using trains of pulses. The dependence of the cell damage threshold on the nanoparticle concentration during incubation reveals that particle accumulation and distribution inside the cell plays a key role in tissue imaging or cell damaging. PMID:22435092

Peeters, Sara; Kitz, Michael; Preisser, Stefan; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Thalmann, George N; Brandenberger, Christina; Bailey, Arthur; Frenz, Martin

2012-03-01

110

Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells  

PubMed Central

In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy. PMID:22679374

Wang, Ye; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Su, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Li, Jian-Xiu; Yin, Meng; Yang, Feng; Hu, Yi-Ping

2012-01-01

111

Protamine sulfate-nanodiamond hybrid nanoparticles as a vector for MiR-203 restoration in esophageal carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an innovative approach for miRNA-203 delivery in esophageal cancer cells using protamine sulphate (PS)-nanodiamond (ND) nanoparticles. The efficient delivery of miR-203 significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of cancer cells through targeting Ran and ?Np63, exhibiting a great potential for PS@ND nanoparticles in miRNA-based cancer therapy.We report an innovative approach for miRNA-203 delivery in esophageal cancer cells using protamine sulphate (PS)-nanodiamond (ND) nanoparticles. The efficient delivery of miR-203 significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of cancer cells through targeting Ran and ?Np63, exhibiting a great potential for PS@ND nanoparticles in miRNA-based cancer therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (1) Experimental section; (2) Results: serum stability of miR-203/PS@NDs and miR-203 release curve (Fig. S1). Cytotoxicity assay of PS@NDs to Ec-109 cells (Fig. S2); confocal image and FACS analysis of intracellular uptake of cy3-labeled miR-203 (Fig. S3 and S4); real-time PCR analysis of miR-203 restoration (Fig. S5); Ran and ?Np63 expression (Fig. S6); the sizes and zeta potentials of miRNA/PS@NDs (Table S1); the sequences of the microRNA mimics and primers (Table S2, S3 and S4). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04056a

Cao, Minjun; Deng, Xiongwei; Su, Shishuai; Zhang, Fang; Xiao, Xiangqian; Hu, Qin; Fu, Yongwei; Yang, Burton B.; Wu, Yan; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

2013-11-01

112

Nanoparticle effects on rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayer barrier properties  

PubMed Central

Inhaled nanoparticles have been reported to contribute to deleterious effects on human health. In this study, we investigated the effects of ultrafine ambient particulate suspensions (UAPS), polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP; positively and negatively charged; 20, 100, 120 nm), quantum dots (QD; positively and negatively charged; 30 nm) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on alveolar epithelial cell barrier properties. Transmonolayer resistance (Rt) and equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) of primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers were measured in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of apical nanoparticles. In some experiments, apical-to-basolateral fluxes of radiolabeled mannitol or inulin were determined with or without apical UAPS exposure and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was analyzed after UAPS or SWCNT exposure. Results revealed that exposure to UAPS decreased Rt and Ieq significantly over 24 hours, although neither mannitol nor inulin fluxes changed. Positively charged QD decreased Rt significantly (with subsequent recovery), while negatively charged QD did not. Rt decreased significantly after SWCNT exposure (with subsequent recovery). On the other hand, PNP exposure had no effects on Rt or Ieq. No significant increases in LDH release were observed after UAPS or SWCNT exposure. These data indicate that disruption of alveolar epithelial barrier properties due to apical nanoparticle exposure likely involves alteration of cellular transport pathways and is dependent on specific nanoparticle composition, shape and/or surface charge. PMID:17555923

Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Phuleria, Harish C.; Demaio, Lucas; Liang, Chi H.; Peng, Ching-An; Sioutas, Constantinos; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

2007-01-01

113

Biogenic-Production of SnO2 Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxic Effect Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line (HepG2).  

PubMed

In this paper, we have established for the first time, the terrific efficiency of aqueous extract of agricultural waste dried peel of sugar apple (Annona squamosa) in the rapid synthesis of stable SnO2 nanoparticles. In topical years, the deployment of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel technology for the synthesis of various nanoparticles. In this paper, we have studied the potential of SnO2 nanoparticles assembly using agricultural waste source for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as SnO2 nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and TEM analysis. The motivation of this study was to examine cytotoxicity study of SnO2 nanoparticles against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). SnO2 nanoparticles inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 148 ?g/mL. The treated cells showed an altered morphology with increasing concentrations of SnO2 nanoparticles. Our result shows that the SnO2 nanoparticles exhibit moderate cytotoxicity towards the hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) at tested concentrations. PMID:25410804

Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kumar, Subramanian Hari Subbish; Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Suthindhiran, Krishnamurthy

2015-02-01

114

Nanobarcoding: a novel method of single nanoparticle detection in cells and tissues for nanomedical biodistribution studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of whether nanoparticles accumulate in target or non-target tissues is critical in assessing a nanoparticle formulation for nanomedical purposes. There is an overwhelming need for a sensitive and efficient imaging-based method that can (1) detect small numbers of (even single) nanoparticles, (2) associate nanoparticle uptake with cell type, and (3) allow for rapid detection in large tissue samples. We propose a novel method for nanoparticle detection that utilizes an oligonucleotide "nanobarcode" conjugated to the nanoparticle surface, which amplifies the optical signal from a single nanoparticle via in situ PCR. Herein, we describe the design process of the nanobarcoding method.

Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F.

2011-10-01

115

Facile synthesis of Cu2CoSnS4 nanoparticles exhibiting red-edge-effect: Application in hybrid photonic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2CoSnS4 (CCTS) quaternary semiconducting nanoparticles with size distribution from 20 nm to 60 nm were synthesized by one-pot low temperature time and surfactant dependent hydrothermal route. Nanoparticles were characterized structurally and optically. Excitation dependent fluorescence exhibited a dynamic stoke shift referring to the Red-Edge-Effect with peak shifting by a greater magnitude (>100 nm) towards red side, in all the samples. Hybrid devices, fabricated from CCTS nanoparticle inorganic counterparts benefitting from the conjugation of organic P3HT polymer matrix, were demonstrated for photodetection under infra-red and A.M 1.5 solar light illuminations. Faster rise and decay constants of 37 ms and 166 ms, with one order photocurrent amplification from 1.6 × 10-6 A in the dark to 6.55 × 10-5 A, upon the 18.50 mW cm-2 IR lamp illumination, make CCTS a potential candidate for photodetector and photovoltaic applications.

Murali, Banavoth; Krupanidhi, S. B.

2013-10-01

116

Transgenic Mice Expressing Dominant Negative Bright Exhibit Defects in B1 B Cells  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor Bright up-regulates immunoglobulin heavy chain production from select variable region promoters and requires Bright dimerization, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) and the Btk substrate, TFII-I for this activity. Defects in Btk cause X-linked immunodeficiency disease in mice and man. Btk-deficient mice exhibit decreased serum IgM production, B cell developmental blocks, absence of peritoneal B1 cells, and subnormal immune responses against antigens, including phosphorylcholine, which confer protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transgenic mice expressing dominant negative (DN) Bright share similarities with Btk-deficient mice, including decreased serum IgM, poor anti-phosphorylcholine responses, and slightly reduced numbers of mature B cells. Although DN Bright mice developed B1 B cells, these were functionally deficient in immunoglobulin secretion. These data suggest a mechanistic explanation for the abnormal responses to phosphorylcholine observed in Btk-deficient mice, and indicate that Bright functions in a subset of Btk-dependent pathways in vivo, particularly those responses dominated by B1 B cells. PMID:18981111

Nixon, Jamee C.; Ferrell, Scott; Miner, Cathrine; Oldham, Athenia L.; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Webb, Carol F.

2009-01-01

117

Transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative bright exhibit defects in B1 B cells.  

PubMed

The transcription factor Bright up-regulates Ig H chain production from select V region promoters and requires Bright dimerization, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and the Btk substrate, TFII-I, for this activity. Defects in Btk cause X-linked immunodeficiency disease in mice and humans. Btk-deficient mice exhibit decreased serum IgM production, B cell developmental blocks, absence of peritoneal B1 cells, and subnormal immune responses against Ags, including phosphorylcholine, which confer protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative Bright share similarities with Btk-deficient mice, including decreased serum IgM, poor anti-phosphorylcholine responses, and slightly reduced numbers of mature B cells. Although dominant-negative Bright mice developed B1 B cells, these were functionally deficient in Ig secretion. These data suggest a mechanistic explanation for the abnormal responses to phosphorylcholine observed in Btk-deficient mice, and indicate that Bright functions in a subset of Btk-dependent pathways in vivo, particularly those responses dominated by B1 B cells. PMID:18981111

Nixon, Jamee C; Ferrell, Scott; Miner, Cathrine; Oldham, Athenia L; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Webb, Carol F

2008-11-15

118

RECQL5 and BLM exhibit divergent functions in cells defective for the Fanconi anemia pathway.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) patients exhibit bone marrow failure, developmental defects and cancer. The FA pathway maintains chromosomal stability in concert with replication fork maintenance and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathways including RAD51-mediated homologous recombination (HR). RAD51 is a recombinase that maintains replication forks and repairs DSBs, but also rearranges chromosomes. Two RecQ helicases, RECQL5 and Bloom syndrome mutated (BLM) suppress HR through nonredundant mechanisms. Here we test the impact deletion of RECQL5 and BLM has on mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells deleted for FANCB, a member of the FA core complex. We show that RECQL5, but not BLM, conferred resistance to mitomycin C (MMC, an interstrand crosslinker) and camptothecin (CPT, a type 1 topoisomerase inhibitor) in FANCB-defective cells. RECQL5 suppressed, while BLM caused, breaks and radials in FANCB-deleted cells exposed to CPT or MMC, respectively. RECQL5 protected the nascent replication strand from MRE11-mediated degradation and restarted stressed replication forks in a manner additive to FANCB. By contrast BLM restarted, but did not protect, replication forks in a manner epistatic to FANCB. RECQL5 also lowered RAD51 levels in FANCB-deleted cells at stressed replication sites implicating a rearrangement avoidance mechanism. Thus, RECQL5 and BLM impact FANCB-defective cells differently in response to replication stress with relevance to chemotherapeutic regimes. PMID:25520194

Kim, Tae Moon; Son, Mi Young; Dodds, Sherry; Hu, Lingchuan; Luo, Guangbin; Hasty, Paul

2015-01-30

119

Hepatitis B virus X protein mutants exhibit distinct biological activities in hepatoma Huh7 cells  

SciTech Connect

The role of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the biological impact of hepatitis B virus x gene (HBx) mutation on hepatoma cells, plasmids expressing the full-length HBx or HBx deletion mutants were constructed. The biological activities in these transfectants were analyzed by a series of assays. Results showed that HBx3'-20 and HBx3'-40 amino acid deletion mutants exhibited an increase in cellular proliferation, focus formation, tumorigenicity, and invasive growth and metastasis through promotion of the cell cycle from G0/G1 to the S phase, when compared with the full-length HBx. In contrast, HBx3'-30 amino acid deletion mutant repressed cell proliferation by blocking in G1 phase. The expression of P53, p21{sup WAF1}, p14{sup ARF}, and MDM2 proteins was regulated by expression of HBx mutants. In conclusions, HBx variants showed different effects and functions on cell proliferation and invasion by regulation of the cell cycle progression and its associated proteins expression.

Liu Xiaohong; Zhang Shuhui; Lin Jing; Zhang Shunmin [Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 174 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feitelson, Mark A. [Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Gao Hengjun [National Engineering Center for Biochip at Shanghai, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhu Minghua [Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 174 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: mhzhu2000@hotmail.com

2008-09-05

120

Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 ?g ml-1 and 85 ?g ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased ?-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity.Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 ?g ml-1 and 85 ?g ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased ?-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05843g

Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

2015-01-01

121

Silver nanoparticles inhibit VEGF induced cell proliferation and migration in bovine retinal endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature is of physiological and pathological importance. We have investigated the anti-angiogenic potential of silver nanoparticles, produced by Bacillus licheniformis. Bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) were treated with the different concentrations of silver nanoparticles for 24 h in the presence and absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), where 500 nM (IC50) of silver nanoparticle concentration, was able to block the proliferation and migration of BRECs. The cells showed a clear enhancement in caspase-3 activity and formation of DNA ladders, evidence of induction of apoptosis. Here we report for the first time that silver nanoparticles inhibit cell survival via PI3K/Akt dependent pathway in Bovine retinal endothelial cells. PMID:19481908

Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Banumathi, Elayappan; Ram Kumar Pandian, SureshBabu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Eom, Soo Hyun; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-10-01

122

Titanium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles protect cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

To develop new nanoparticle materials possessing anti-oxidative capacity with improved physical characteristics, we have studied titanium-doped cerium oxide (CeTiO2) nanoparticles. CeTiO2 nanoparticles had a mode diameter of 15-20 nm. These nanoparticles demonstrated catalase activity, and did not promote the activation of hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Using surface plasmon resonance enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that these nanoparticles accumulate within the vacuolar compartment of cells. Importantly, CeTiO2 nanoparticles decrease hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptosis of cells as judged by the reduced cleavage of a caspase 3-sensitive label. CeTiO2 nanoparticles may contribute to deflecting tissue damage in a broad spectrum of oxidant-mediated diseases, such as macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24791147

Clark, Andrea; Zhu, Aiping; Petty, Howard R.

2014-01-01

123

Single-cell imaging detection of nanobarcoded nanoparticle biodistributions in tissues for nanomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nanomedicine, biodistribution studies are critical to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nanoparticles. Currently, extensive biodistribution studies are hampered by the limitations of bulk tissue and single-cell imaging techniques. To ameliorate these limitations, we have developed a novel method for single nanoparticle detection that incorporates a conjugated oligonucleotide as a "nanobarcode" for detection via in situ PCR. This strategy magnifies the detection signal from single nanoparticles, facilitating rapid evaluation of nanoparticle uptake by cell type over larger areas. The nanobarcoding method can enable precise analysis of nanoparticle biodistributions and expedite translation of these nanoparticles to the clinic.

Eustaquio, Trisha; Cooper, Christy L.; Leary, James F.

2011-03-01

124

Glial cells, but not neurons, exhibit a controllable response to a localized inflammatory microenvironment in vitro.  

PubMed

The ability to design long-lasting intracortical implants hinges on understanding the factors leading to the loss of neuronal density and the formation of the glial scar. In this study, we modify a common in vitro mixed cortical culture model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to examine the responses of microglia, astrocytes, and neurons to microwire segments. We also use dip-coated polyethylene glycol (PEG), which we have previously shown can modulate impedance changes to neural microelectrodes, to control the cellular responses. We find that microglia, as expected, exhibit an elevated response to LPS-coated microwire for distances of up to 150 ?m, and that this elevated response can be mitigated by co-depositing PEG with LPS. Astrocytes exhibit a more complex, distance-dependent response, whereas neurons do not appear to be affected by the type or magnitude of glial response within this in vitro model. The discrepancy between our in vitro responses and typically observed in vivo responses suggest the importance of using a systems approach to understand the responses of the various brain cell types in a chronic in vivo setting, as well as the necessity of studying the roles of cell types not native to the brain. Our results further indicate that the loss of neuronal density observed in vivo is not a necessary consequence of elevated glial activation. PMID:25452724

Sommakia, Salah; Rickus, Jenna L; Otto, Kevin J

2014-01-01

125

Quantitative Photoacoustic Imaging of Nanoparticles in Cells and Tissues  

PubMed Central

Quantitative visualization of nanoparticles in cells and tissues, while preserving the spatial information, is very challenging. A photoacoustic imaging technique to depict the presence and quantity of nanoparticles is presented. This technique is based on the dependence of the photoacoustic signal with both the nanoparticle quantity and the laser fluence. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging is a robust technique that doesn’t require knowledge of the local fluence, but a relative change in the fluence. This eliminates the need for sophisticated methods or models to determine the energy distribution of light in turbid media. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging was first applied to nanoparticle-loaded cells and quantitation was validated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging was then extended to xenograft tumor tissue sections, and excellent agreement with traditional histopathological analysis was demonstrated. Our results suggest that quantitative photoacoustic imaging may be used in many applications including the determination of the efficiency and effectiveness of molecular targeting strategies for cell studies and animal models, the quantitative assessment of photoacoustic contrast agent biodistribution, and the validation of in vivo photoacoustic imaging. PMID:23312348

Cook, Jason R.; Frey, Wolfgang; Emelianov, Stanislav

2013-01-01

126

Two-photon excited fluorescence of silica nanoparticles loaded with a fluorene-based monomer and its cross-conjugated polymer: their application to cell imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the two-photon activity of nanoparticles obtained from a fluorene monomer (M1) and its cross-conjugated polymer (P1) is reported. Aqueous suspensions of M1 and P1 nanoparticles prepared through the reprecipitation method exhibited maximum two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections of 84 and 9860 GM (1 GM = 10-50 cm4 s) at 740 nm, respectively, and a fluorescence quantum yield of ~1. Such a two-photon activity was practically equal with respect to that for molecular solutions of M1 and P1. These materials were then successfully encapsulated into silica nanoparticles to provide bio-compatibly. A lung cancer cell line (A549) and a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells) were incubated with our fluorescent silica nanoparticles to carry out two-photon imaging. By means of these studies we demonstrate that optimized nonlinear optical polymers loaded in silica nanoparticles can be used as efficient probes with low cytotoxicity and good photostability for two-photon fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, studies concerning polymer-doped silica nanoparticles exhibiting large two-photon activity have not been reported in the literature.In this work the two-photon activity of nanoparticles obtained from a fluorene monomer (M1) and its cross-conjugated polymer (P1) is reported. Aqueous suspensions of M1 and P1 nanoparticles prepared through the reprecipitation method exhibited maximum two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections of 84 and 9860 GM (1 GM = 10-50 cm4 s) at 740 nm, respectively, and a fluorescence quantum yield of ~1. Such a two-photon activity was practically equal with respect to that for molecular solutions of M1 and P1. These materials were then successfully encapsulated into silica nanoparticles to provide bio-compatibly. A lung cancer cell line (A549) and a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells) were incubated with our fluorescent silica nanoparticles to carry out two-photon imaging. By means of these studies we demonstrate that optimized nonlinear optical polymers loaded in silica nanoparticles can be used as efficient probes with low cytotoxicity and good photostability for two-photon fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, studies concerning polymer-doped silica nanoparticles exhibiting large two-photon activity have not been reported in the literature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31925j

Aparicio-Ixta, Laura; Ramos-Ortiz, Gabriel; Pichardo-Molina, Juan L.; Maldonado, José Luis; Rodríguez, Mario; Tellez-Lopez, Víctor M.; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Zolotukhin, Mikhail G.; Fomine, Serguei; Meneses-Nava, Marco. A.; Barbosa-García, Oracio

2012-11-01

127

Influence of surface-modified maghemite nanoparticles on in vitro survival of human stem cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Surface-modified maghemite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were obtained by using a conventional precipitation method and coated with D-mannose and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide). Both the initial and the modified particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering with regard to morphology, particle size and polydispersity. In vitro survival of human stem cells was then investigated by using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, which showed that D-mannose- and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-coated ?-Fe2O3 particles exhibit much lower level of cytotoxicity than the non-coated ?-Fe2O3. PMID:25383284

Babi?, Michal; Lukash, Lyubov L; Ruban, Tetiana A; Kolomiets, Yurii N; Shpylova, Svitlana P; Grypych, Oksana A

2014-01-01

128

Synthesis of nanoparticles of P3HT and PCBM for optimizing morphology in polymeric solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) with opposite charges of a donor polymer, poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and an acceptor molecule, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were synthesized using simple mini-emulsion technique. The NPs were examined by dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to confirm the formation of the NPs. The NPs were assembled into thin films by spin-coating of a blend of the NPs dispersion. The built-up of a five layered film was monitored by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our preliminary study demonstrated that a solar cell made from an annealed NP film can exhibit photovoltaic response.

Satapathi, Soumitra; Gill, Hardeep Singh; Li, Lian; Samuelson, Lynne; Kumar, Jayant; Mosurkal, Ravi

2014-12-01

129

Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 ?g ml(-1) and 85 ?g ml(-1), respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ?0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased ?-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity. PMID:25521936

Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

2015-01-22

130

Sensitization of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) inhibit ovarian tumor growth and metastasis in mice by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Since EMT is known to confer drug resistance to cancer cells, we wanted to investigate whether anti-EMT property of AuNP could be utilized to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Herein, we report that AuNPs prevent cisplatin-induced acquired chemoresistance and stemness in ovarian cancer cells and sensitize them to cisplatin. AuNPs inhibit cisplatin induced EMT, decrease the side population cells and key stem cell markers such as ALDH1, CD44, CD133, Sox2, MDR1 and ABCG2 in ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, AuNPs prevent cisplatin-induced activation of Akt and NF-?B signaling axis in ovarian cancer cells that are critical for EMT, stem cell maintenance and drug resistance. In vivo, AuNPs sensitize orthotopically implanted ovarian tumor to a low dose of cisplatin and significantly inhibit tumor growth via facilitated delivery of both AuNP and cisplatin. These findings suggest that by depleting stem cell pools and inhibiting key molecular pathways gold nanoparticles sensitize ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and may be used in combination to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in ovarian cancer. PMID:25071019

Saha, Sounik; Robertson, David J.; McMeekin, Scott; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

2014-01-01

131

Effect of carbon nanoparticles on renal epithelial cell structure, barrier function, and protein expression  

PubMed Central

To assess effects of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) exposure on renal epithelial cells, fullerenes (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were incubated with a confluent renal epithelial line for 48 h. At low concentrations, CNP-treated cells exhibited significant decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) but no changes in hormone-stimulated ion transport or CNP-induced toxicity or stress responses as measured by lactate dehydrogenase or cytokine release. The changes in TEER, manifested as an inverse relationship with CNP concentration, were mirrored by an inverse correlation between dose and changes in protein expression. Lower, more physiologically relevant, concentrations of CNP have the most profound effects on barrier cell function and protein expression. These results indicate an impact of CNPs on renal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than have been previously studied and suggest caution with regard to increasing CNP levels entering the food chain due to increasing environmental pollution. PMID:21067278

BLAZER-YOST, BONNIE L.; BANGA, AMIRAJ; AMOS, ADAM; CHERNOFF, ELLEN; LAI, XIANYIN; LI, CHENG; MITRA, SOMENATH; WITZMANN, FRANK A.

2011-01-01

132

Therapeutic cell engineering using surface-conjugated synthetic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

A major limitation of cell therapies is the rapid decline in viability and function of transplanted cells. Here we describe a strategy to enhance cell therapy via the conjugation of adjuvant drug-loaded nanoparticles to the surfaces of therapeutic cells. Using this method to provide sustained pseudo-autocrine stimulation to donor cells, we elicited dramatic enhancements in tumor elimination in a model of adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer and increased the in vivo repopulation rate of hematopoietic stem cell grafts, using very low doses of adjuvant drugs that were ineffective when given systemically. This approach is a facile and generalizable strategy to augment cytoreagents while minimizing systemic side effects of adjuvant drugs. In addition, these results suggest therapeutic cells are promising vectors for actively targeted drug delivery. PMID:20711198

Stephan, Matthias T.; Moon, James J.; Um, Soong Ho; Bershteyn, Anna; Irvine, Darrell J.

2010-01-01

133

Synergistic Effect of Functionalized Nickel Nanoparticles and Quercetin on Inhibition of the SMMC-7721 Cells Proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of functionalized nickel (Ni) nanoparticles capped with positively charged tetraheptylammonium on cellular uptake of drug quercetin into hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SMMC-7721) has been explored in this study via microscopy and electrochemical characterization as well as MTT assay. Meanwhile, the influence of Ni nanoparticles and/or quercetin on cell proliferation has been further evaluated by the real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) study. Our observations indicate that Ni nanoparticles could efficiently improve the permeability of cancer cell membrane, and remarkably enhance the accumulation of quercetin in SMMC-7721 cells, suggesting that Ni nanoparticles and quercetin would facilitate the synergistic effect on inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells.

Guo, Dadong; Wu, Chunhui; Li, Jingyuan; Guo, Airong; Li, Qingning; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Baoan; Wang, Xuemei

2009-12-01

134

Intracellular Uptake and Trafficking of Difluoroboron Dibenzoylmethane-Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles in HeLa Cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, nanoparticles based on difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-poly(lactic acid) (BF2dbmPLA) are prepared. Polylactic acid or polylactide is a commonly used degradable polymer, while the boron dye possesses a large extinction coefficient, high emission quantum yield, 2-photon absorption, and sensitivity to the surrounding environment. BF2dbmPLA exhibits molecular weight-dependent emission properties, and can be formulated as stable nanoparticles, suggesting that its unique optical properties may be useful in multiple contexts for probing intracellular environments. Here we show that BF2dbmPLA nanoparticles are internalized into cultured HeLa cells by endocytosis, and that within the cellular milieu they retain their fluorescence properties. BF2dbmPLA nanoparticles are photostable, resisting laser-induced photobleaching under conditions that destroy the fluorescence of a common photostable probe, LysoTracker™ blue. Their endocytosis is also lipid raft-dependent, as evidenced by their significant co-localization with cholera toxin B subunit in membrane compartments after uptake, and their sensitivity of uptake to methyl-?-cyclodextrin. Additionally, BF2dbmPLA nanoparticle endocytosis utilizes microtubules and actin filaments. Internalized BF2dbmPLA nanoparticles do not accumulate in acidic late endosomes and lysosomes, but within a perinuclear non-lysosomal compartment. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using novel BF2dbmPLA nanoparticles exhibiting diverse emission properties for in situ, live cell imaging, and suggest that their endogenous uptake occurs through a lipid-raft dependent endocytosis mechanism. PMID:20420413

Contreras, Janette; Xie, Jiansong; Chen, Yin Jie; Pei, Hua; Zhang, Guoqing; Fraser, Cassandra L.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

2010-01-01

135

Electrical and optical interconnection for mechanically stacked multi-junction solar cells mediated by metal nanoparticle arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interconnection approach for mechanical stacking of solar cells is described. In this approach, block copolymer-templated fabrication of metal nanoparticle arrays and van der Waals bonding were integrated to design interfaces which permit both high interfacial conductivities and minimal transmission losses upon interconnections of solar cells. A series of electrical and optical characterizations verified that the approach potentially provides resistances of as low as 3.7 ?-cm2 with transmission losses of less than 2%. The demonstrative two-junction solar cell exhibited promising open-circuit voltage and fill factor, suggesting the possibility of achieving high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells based on this unique strategy.

Mizuno, Hidenori; Makita, Kikuo; Matsubara, Koji

2012-11-01

136

Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles protect cells from oxidant-mediated apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Catalytic nanoparticles represent a potential clinical approach to replace or correct aberrant enzymatic activities in patients. Several diseases, including many blinding eye diseases, are promoted by excessive oxidant stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles represent two potentially therapeutic nanoparticles that de-toxify ROS. In the present study we directly compare these two classes of catalytic nanoparticles. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles were found to be 16±2.4 nm and 1.9±0.2 nm in diameter, respectively. Using surface plasmon enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Furthermore, cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles demonstrated superoxide dismutase catalytic activity, but did not promote hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Importantly, both cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles reduce oxidant-mediated apoptosis in target cells as judged by the activation of caspase 3. The ability to diminish apoptosis may contribute to maintaining healthy tissues. PMID:22039334

Clark, Andrea; Zhu, Aiping; Sun, Kai; Petty, Howard R.

2011-01-01

137

Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia iPS cells exhibit defective MPL-mediated signaling  

PubMed Central

Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is caused by the loss of thrombopoietin receptor–mediated (MPL-mediated) signaling, which causes severe pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure with onset of thrombocytopenia and anemia prior to leukopenia. Because Mpl–/– mice do not exhibit the human disease phenotype, we used an in vitro disease tracing system with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a CAMT patient (CAMT iPSCs) and normal iPSCs to investigate the role of MPL signaling in hematopoiesis. We found that MPL signaling is essential for maintenance of the CD34+ multipotent hematopoietic progenitor (MPP) population and development of the CD41+GPA+ megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) population, and its role in the fate decision leading differentiation toward megakaryopoiesis or erythropoiesis differs considerably between normal and CAMT cells. Surprisingly, complimentary transduction of MPL into normal or CAMT iPSCs using a retroviral vector showed that MPL overexpression promoted erythropoiesis in normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), but impaired erythropoiesis and increased aberrant megakaryocyte production in CAMT iPSC–derived CD34+ HPCs, reflecting a difference in the expression of the transcription factor FLI1. These results demonstrate that impaired transcriptional regulation of the MPL signaling that normally governs megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis underlies CAMT. PMID:23908116

Hirata, Shinji; Takayama, Naoya; Jono-Ohnishi, Ryoko; Endo, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Sou; Dohda, Takeaki; Nishi, Masanori; Hamazaki, Yuhei; Ishii, Ei-ichi; Kaneko, Shin; Otsu, Makoto; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kunishima, Shinji; Eto, Koji

2013-01-01

138

Damnacanthal, a noni component, exhibits antitumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone compound, is isolated from the roots of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), which has been used for traditional therapy in several chronic diseases including cancer. Although noni has been consumed for a long time in Asian and Polynesian countries, the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts several benefits are starting to emerge. In this report, we examined systematic approaches on the cancer-suppressing capability of damnacanthal in colorectal tumorigenesis. Damnacanthal exhibits cell growth arrest as well as caspase activity induction in colorectal cancer cells. We also examined several potential target proteins and found that the proapoptotic protein nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is highly induced. Subsequently, we have found that damnacanthal also enhances transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?), which controls NAG-1 transcriptional activity. Blocking of C/EBP? by shRNA results in the reduction of NAG-1 expression as well as caspase activity in the presence of damnacanthal. Taken together, these results indicate that damnacanthal increases antitumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells and that C/EBP? plays a role in damnacanthal-induced NAG-1 expression. PMID:21852088

Nualsanit, Thararat; Rojanapanthu, Pleumchitt; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Lee, Seong-Ho; Lawson, Darunee; Baek, Seung Joon

2012-08-01

139

Mice with reduced levels of p53 protein exhibit the testicular giant-cell degenerative syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice which carry hybrid p53 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) transgenes were found to express CAT enzymatic activity predominantly in the testes. Endogenous levels of p53 mRNA and protein were lower than in the nontransgenic control mice. The various p53 promoter-CAT transgenic mice exhibited in their testes multinucleated giant cells, a degenerative syndrome resulting presumably from the inability of the tetraploid primary spermatocytes to complete meiotic division. The giant-cell degenerative syndrome was also observed in some genetic strains of homozygous p53 null mice. In view of the hypothesis that p53 plays a role in DNA repair mechanisms, it is tempting to speculate that the physiological function of p53 that is specifically expressed in the meiotic pachytene phase of spermatogenesis is to allow adequate time for the DNA reshuffling and repair events which occur at this phase to be properly completed. Primary spermatocytes which have reduced p53 levels are probably impaired with respect to DNA repair, thus leading to the development of genetically defective giant cells that do not mature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8415656

Rotter, V; Schwartz, D; Almon, E; Goldfinger, N; Kapon, A; Meshorer, A; Donehower, L A; Levine, A J

1993-01-01

140

Abstract Nanoparticles are rapidly emerging as promising vehicles for next-generation therapeutic delivery. These highly mobile nanomaterials exhibit  

E-print Network

makes them highly intriguing for cell-uptake-mediated drug delivery. Combined with innate]. In a recent example, gold nano- particles were heterogeneously functionalized with antisense oligonucleotides

Espinosa, Horacio D.

141

Graphene nanosheets inserted by silver nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional Ag nanoparticle/GNs (Ag/GNs) hybrids as highly efficient counter electrode (CE) materials for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described, highlighting the Ag nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers inserting into GNs to lift the interspacing layer between individual GNs. It is demonstrated that, when the hybrids are used as CE materials for DSSCs, compared to their pure GNs, Ag/GNs hybrids without agglomerates have a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties such as high current density, narrow peak-to-peak separation (Epp) and low charge transfer resistance (RCT). The enhancement of electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrode conductivity, an extended interlayer distance and the reduction of the restacking of graphene sheets due to the insertion of metallic Ag nanoparticles into GNs. The DSSC with this hybrid CE exhibited an energy conversion efficiency (?) of 7.72% with an open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit photocurrent density (JSC), and fill factor (FF) of 732 mV, 14.67 mA cm-2, and 71.8%, respectively.Three-dimensional Ag nanoparticle/GNs (Ag/GNs) hybrids as highly efficient counter electrode (CE) materials for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described, highlighting the Ag nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers inserting into GNs to lift the interspacing layer between individual GNs. It is demonstrated that, when the hybrids are used as CE materials for DSSCs, compared to their pure GNs, Ag/GNs hybrids without agglomerates have a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties such as high current density, narrow peak-to-peak separation (Epp) and low charge transfer resistance (RCT). The enhancement of electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrode conductivity, an extended interlayer distance and the reduction of the restacking of graphene sheets due to the insertion of metallic Ag nanoparticles into GNs. The DSSC with this hybrid CE exhibited an energy conversion efficiency (?) of 7.72% with an open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit photocurrent density (JSC), and fill factor (FF) of 732 mV, 14.67 mA cm-2, and 71.8%, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06340b

Chang, Quanhong; Wang, Zhenping; Wang, Jinzhong; Yan, Yuan; Ma, Zhoujing; Zhu, Jianxiao; Shi, Wangzhou; Chen, Qi; Yu, Qingjiang; Huang, Lei

2014-04-01

142

Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit an altered phenotype of regulatory T cells  

PubMed Central

Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in immune homeostasis in vivo. Tregs have a critical role in preventing the development of autoimmune diseases and defects in Treg function are implicated in various autoimmune disorders. Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher prevalence of autoimmune disorders than the general population. We hypothesized that war veterans with PTSD would exhibit a decreased number and/or altered phenotype of Tregs. Methods We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with PTSD (N?=?21) (mean age?=?45.9) and age-matched healthy controls (N?=?23) (mean age?=?45.7) to determine the proportion of Tregs and their phenotype according to the expression of CD127 and HLA-DR markers which describe the differentiation stages of Tregs. In addition, we analyzed the expression of membrane ectoenzyme CD39 on Tregs of the study groups, an important component of the suppressive machinery of Tregs. Results We found no differences in the proportion of Tregs between PTSD patients and controls, but PTSD patients had a higher percentage of CD127-HLA-DR- Tregs and a lower percentage of CD127loHLA-DR+ Tregs compared to controls. There was no difference in expression of CD39 on Tregs of the study groups. Conclusions Although the proportions of Tregs in PTSD patients were unchanged, we found that they exhibit a different phenotype of Tregs that might be less suppressive. Impaired differentiation and function of Tregs is likely involved in disruption of immune homeostasis in PTSD.

2014-01-01

143

Effects of Internalized Gold Nanoparticles with Respect to Cytotoxicity and Invasion Activity in Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of gold nanoparticles on lung cancer cells is not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and cell invasion activity of lung cancer cells after treatment with gold nanoparticles and showed that small gold nanoparticles can be endocytosed by lung cancer cells and that they facilitate cell invasion. The growth of A549 cells was inhibited after treatment with 5-nm gold nanoparticles, but cell invasion increased. Endocytosed gold nanoparticles (size, 10 nm) notably promoted the invasion activity of 95D cells. All these effects of gold nanoparticles were not seen after treatment with larger particles (20 and 40 nm). The enhanced invasion activity may be associated with the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this study, we obtained evidence for the effect of gold nanoparticles on lung cancer cell invasion activity in vitro. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, key modulators of cell invasion, were found to be regulated by gold nanoparticles. These data also demonstrate that the responses of the A549 and 95D cells to gold nanoparticles have a remarkable relationship with their unique size-dependent physiochemical properties. Therefore, this study provides a new perspective for cell biology research in nanomedicine. PMID:24901215

Guo, Zhirui; Liu, Ying; Shen, Yujie; Zhou, Ping; Lu, Xiang

2014-01-01

144

PLGA-based gene delivering nanoparticle enhance suppression effect of miRNA in HePG2 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biggest challenge in the field of gene therapy is how to effectively deliver target genes to special cells. This study aimed to develop a new type of poly( D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles for gene delivery, which are capable of overcoming the disadvantages of polyethylenimine (PEI)- or cationic liposome-based gene carrier, such as the cytotoxicity induced by excess positive charge, as well as the aggregation on the cell surface. The PLGA-based nanoparticles presented in this study were synthesized by emulsion evaporation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The size of PLGA/PEI nanoparticles in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was about 60 nm at the optimal charge ratio. Without observable aggregation, the nanoparticles showed a better monodispersity. The PLGA-based nanoparticles were used as vector carrier for miRNA transfection in HepG2 cells. It exhibited a higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells compared to the PEI/DNA complex. The N/P ratio (ratio of the polymer nitrogen to the DNA phosphate) 6 of the PLGA/PEI/DNA nanocomplex displays the best property among various N/P proportions, yielding similar transfection efficiency when compared to Lipofectamine/DNA lipoplexes. Moreover, nanocomplex shows better serum compatibility than commercial liposome. PLGA nanocomplexes obviously accumulate in tumor cells after transfection, which indicate that the complexes contribute to cellular uptake of pDNA and pronouncedly enhance the treatment effect of miR-26a by inducing cell cycle arrest. Therefore, these results demonstrate that PLGA/PEI nanoparticles are promising non-viral vectors for gene delivery.

Feng Liang, Gao; Zhu, Yan Liang; Sun, Bo; Hu, Fei Hu; Tian, Tian; Li, Shu Chun; Xiao, Zhong Dang

2011-07-01

145

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Enhance the Delivery of the HIV Protease Inhibitor, Atazanavir, by a Human Brain Endothelial Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit low brain permeability. As a result, unchallenged HIV viral replication can lead to HIV-encephalitis\\u000a and antiretroviral drug resistance. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a lipid nanoparticle system for\\u000a enhanced brain delivery of the potent and frequently used HIV PI, atazanavir, using a well characterized human brain microvessel\\u000a endothelial cell line (hCMEC\\/D3)

Niladri Chattopadhyay; Jason Zastre; Ho-Lun Wong; Xiao Yu Wu; Reina Bendayan

2008-01-01

146

New mechanisms for non-porative ultrasound stimulation of cargo delivery to cell cytosol with targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell membrane constitutes a major barrier for non-endocytotic intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules from drug delivery vehicles. Existing approaches to breaching the cell membrane include cavitational ultrasound (with microbubbles), electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. We report the use of diagnostic ultrasound for intracellular delivery of therapeutic bulky cargo with the use of molecularly targeted liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, we used a lipid with a surrogate polar head group, nanogold-DPPE, incorporated into the nanoparticle lipid monolayer. Melanoma cells were incubated with nanogold particles and this was followed by insonication with continuous wave ultrasound (2.25 MHz, 5 min, 0.6 MPa). Cells not exposed to ultrasound showed gold particles partitioned only in the outer bilayer of the cell membrane with no evidence of the intracellular transit of nanogold. However, the cells exposed to ultrasound exhibited numerous nanogold-DPPE components inside the cell that appeared polarized inside intracellular vesicles demonstrating cellular uptake and trafficking. Further, ultrasound-exposed cells manifested no incorporation of calcein or the release of lactate dehydrogenase. These observations are consistent with a mechanism that suggests that ultrasound is capable of stimulating the intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules via non-porative mechanisms. Therefore, non-cavitational adjunctive ultrasound offers a novel paradigm in intracellular cargo delivery from PFC nanoparticles.

Soman, N. R.; Marsh, J. N.; Lanza, G. M.; Wickline, S. A.

2008-05-01

147

Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the influence of resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanostructures, such as arrays of silver and aluminum nanoparticles in the forward scattering configuration, on the optical absorption in a thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell. It is demonstrated that nonresonant coupling of the incident sunlight with aluminum nanoparticles results in higher optical absorption in the photoactive region than resonant coupling with silver nanoparticle arrays. In addition, aluminum nanoparticles are shown to maintain a net positive enhancement of the optical absorption in amorphous silicon, as compared to a negative effect by silver nanoparticles, when the nanoparticles are oxidized. PMID:20463389

Akimov, Yu A; Koh, W S

2010-06-11

148

Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

Winans, Joshua David

149

Mesenchymal stem cell spheroids exhibit enhanced in-vitro and in-vivo osteoregenerative potential.  

PubMed

BackgroundMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a favored cell source for regenerative medicine because of their multilinage potential. However, the conventional monolayer technique used to culture MSCs, inadequately overcomes their low differentiation capacity. Culture of MSCs in multicellular spheroids, more accurately mimics the in-vivo microenvironment; thus, resolving this problem. In this study, we assessed whether the osteoregeneartive potential of MSC spheroids is greater than that of monolayer MSCs.ResultsMSC spheroids were generated from rat MSCs (rMSCs) using low-binding plates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical analysis indicated that osteogenic properties were accelerated in MSC spheroids compared with monolayer rMSCs when treated with an osteoblast-inducer reagent for 7 days. Moreover, increased calcium deposition was visualized in MSC spheroids using Alizarin red staining. In a rat calvarial defect model, micro-computed tomography and histological assays showed that MSC spheroid-engrafted defects experienced enhanced bone regeneration.ConclusionsOur in-vitro and in-vivo results reveal that MSCs in the spheroid culture exhibit enhanced osteoregenerative efficiency compared with monolayer MSCs. PMID:25479895

Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Ohno, Jun; Sato, Ayako; Kido, Hirofumi; Fukushima, Tadao

2014-12-01

150

Amorphous silica nanoparticles enhance cross-presentation in murine dendritic cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica nanoparticles enhanced cross-presentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica nanoparticles induced endosomal release of exogenous antigens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica nanoparticle-induced cross-presentation was mediated by scavenger receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface-modification may enable the manufacture of safer silica nanoparticles. -- Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs) exhibit unique physicochemical properties and innovative functions, and they are increasingly being used in a wide variety of fields. Ensuring the safety of NMs is now an urgent task. Recently, we reported that amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSPs), one of the most widely used NMs, enhance antigen-specific cellular immune responses and may therefore aggravate immune diseases. Thus, to ensure the design of safer nSPs, investigations into the effect of nSPs on antigen presentation in dendritic cells, which are central orchestrators of the adaptive immune response, are now needed. Here, we show that nSPs with diameters of 70 and 100 nm enhanced exogenous antigen entry into the cytosol from endosomes and induced cross-presentation, whereas submicron-sized silica particles (>100 nm) did not. Furthermore, we show that surface modification of nSPs suppressed cross-presentation. Although further studies are required to investigate whether surface-modified nSPs suppress immune-modulating effects in vivo, the current results indicate that appropriate regulation of the characteristics of nSPs, such as size and surface properties, will be critical for the design of safer nSPs.

Hirai, Toshiro [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takahashi, Hideki; Ichihashi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Tochigi, Saeko [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States)] [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan) [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nabeshi, Hiromi [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ytsutsumi@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-10-26

151

Biomedical Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles: Delivering Genes and Remote Control of Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for biomedical applications was first proposed in the 1920s as a way to measure the rehological properties of the cell's cytoplasm. Since that time, magnetic micro- and nanoparticle synthesis, coating and bio-functionalization have advanced significantly, as have the applications for these particles. Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles are now used in a variety of biomedical techniques such as targeted drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement, gene transfection, immno-assay and cell sorting. More recently, magnetic micro- and nanoparticles have been used to investigate and manipulate cellular processes both in vitro and in vivo. This talk will focus on magnetic nanoparticle targeting to and actuation of cell surface receptors to control cell signaling cascades to control cell behavior. This technology has applications in disease therapy, cell engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of magnetic nanoparticles and oscillating magnet arrays for enhanced gene delivery will also be discussed.

Dobson, Jon

2013-03-01

152

Iron oxide nanoparticles as drug delivery agents in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oleic acid (OA)-Pluronic-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). FT-IR confirmed the bonding of oleic acid and Pluronic (surfactant) to the nanoparticles. AFM measurements on these nanoparticles indicated a root mean square (RMS) roughness, a measure of nanoparticle size of (50 +/- 20) nm. The efficiency of these functionalized nanoparticles was investigated by loading with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in aqueous solution. AFM measurements were used to characterize modified iron oxide nanoparticles and pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 cells, including size distribution, stability and cellular uptake. Nanoparticles were added to MIA PaCa-2 cells and assayed for their cytotoxic effects after 24 and 48 hours. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of oleic acid (OA)-Pluronic-coated iron oxide nanoparticles as a non-toxic drug delivery agent for pancreatic cancer.

Perry, Christopher; Randriamahefa, Alexandrine; Lokko, Carl; Evans, Whitney; Watkins, Julian; Carrell, Holly; King, Natalie; Patel, Darayas

2007-02-01

153

Influence of surface charge on the potential toxicity of PLGA nanoparticles towards Calu-3 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the described hazards related to inhalation of manufactured nanoparticles, we investigated the lung toxicity of biodegradable poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles displaying various surface properties on human bronchial Calu-3 cells. Methods Positively and negatively charged as well as neutral nanoparticles were tailored by coating their surface with chitosan, Poloxamer, or poly (vinyl alcohol), respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, and surface chemical composition, confirming modifications provided by hydrophilic polymers. Results Although nanoparticle internalization by lung cells was clearly demonstrated, the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was very limited, with an absence of inflammatory response, regardless of the surface properties of the PLGA nanoparticles. Conclusion These in vitro results highlight the safety of biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles in the bronchial epithelium and provide initial data on their potential effects and the risks associated with their use as nanomedicines. PMID:22114491

Mura, Simona; Hillaireau, Herve; Nicolas, Julien; Le Droumaguet, Benjamin; Gueutin, Claire; Zanna, Sandrine; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias

2011-01-01

154

Gold Nanoparticle Enhancement for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEM fuel cell is one of the most promising future alternative energy sources. However, its relatively low power output has prevented it from many practical applications. Marvrikakis et al have predicted that gold nanoparticles that are platelet shaped andhave direct contact to the substrate to be the perfect catalysts. In our experiment, hydrophobic, thiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles were synthesized through two-phase method developed by Brust et al. When particle solution is spread at the air water interface, EXAFS spectroscopy indicate that some of the gold atoms are removed, as the water displaces the hydrophobic thiol chains from the particle surface, resulting in platelet shaped particles. Furthermore, after these nanoparticles are spread on the surface of water in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough where surface pressure can be applied to compress them, they form LB film consisting of one or more monolayers. This LB film can then be deposited onto a solid surface, such as the Nafion membrane where the particle surface can make direct contact with electrodes and take effect. We also find that there is an optimal surface pressure for forming gold nanoparticles monolayer to achieve the highest enhancement of output power.

Pan, Cheng; Qin, Sisi; Rafailovich, Miriam

2013-03-01

155

Endothelial Cells Obtained from Patients Affected by Chronic Venous Disease Exhibit a Pro-Inflammatory Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background The inflammatory properties of vein endothelium in relation to chronic venous disease (CVD) have been poorly investigated. Therefore, new insights on the characteristics of large vein endothelium would increase our knowledge of large vessel physiopathology. Methodology/Principal Findings Surgical specimens of veins were obtained from the tertiary venous network (R3) and/or saphenous vein (SF) of patients affected by CVD and from control individuals. Highly purified venous endothelial cell (VEC) cultures obtained from CVD patients were characterized for morphological, phenotypic and functional properties compared to control VEC. An increase of CD31/PECAM-1, CD146 and ICAM-1 surface levels was documented at flow cytometry in pathological VEC with respect to normal controls. Of note, the strongest expression of these pro-inflammatory markers was observed in VEC obtained from patients with more advanced disease. Similarly, spontaneous cell proliferation and resistance to starvation was higher in pathological than in normal VEC, while the migratory response of VEC showed an opposite trend, being significantly lower in VEC obtained from pathological specimens. In addition, in keeping with a higher baseline transcriptional activity of NF-kB, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines osteoprotegerin (OPG) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was higher in pathological VEC cultures with respect to control VEC. Interestingly, there was a systemic correlation to these in vitro data, as demonstrated by higher serum OPG and VEGF levels in CVD patients with respect to normal healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, these data indicate that large vein endothelial cells obtained from CVD patients exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which might significantly contribute to systemic inflammation in CVD patients. PMID:22737245

Tisato, Veronica; Zauli, Giorgio; Voltan, Rebecca; Gianesini, Sergio; di Iasio, Maria Grazia; Volpi, Ilaria; Fiorentini, Guido; Zamboni, Paolo; Secchiero, Paola

2012-01-01

156

NKp46+ CD3+ cells: a novel nonconventional T cell subset in cattle exhibiting both NK cell and T cell features.  

PubMed

The NKp46 receptor demonstrates a high degree of lineage specificity, being expressed almost exclusively in NK cells. Previous studies have demonstrated NKp46 expression by T cells, but NKp46+ CD3+ cells are rare and almost universally associated with NKp46 acquisition by T cells following stimulation. In this study we demonstrate the existence of a population of NKp46+ CD3+ cells resident in normal bovine PBMCs that includes cells of both the ?? TCR+ and ?? TCR+ lineages and is present at a frequency of 0.1-1.7%. NKp46+ CD3+ cells express transcripts for a broad repertoire of both NKRs and TCRs and also the CD3?, DAP10, and Fc?R1? but not DAP12 adaptor proteins. In vitro functional analysis of NKp46+ CD3+ cells confirm that NKp46, CD16, and CD3 signaling pathways are all functionally competent and capable of mediating/redirecting cytolysis. However, only CD3 cross-ligation elicits IFN-? release. NKp46+ CD3+ cells exhibit cytotoxic activity against autologous Theileria parva-infected cells in vitro, and during in vivo challenge with this parasite an expansion of NKp46+ CD3+ cells was observed in some animals, indicating the cells have the potential to act as an anti-pathogen effector population. The results in this study identify and describe a novel nonconventional NKp46+ CD3+ T cell subset that is phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional NK and T cells. The ability to exploit both NKRs and TCRs suggests these cells may fill a functional niche at the interface of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:24639352

Connelley, Timothy K; Longhi, Cassandra; Burrells, Alison; Degnan, Kathryn; Hope, Jayne; Allan, Alasdair J; Hammond, John A; Storset, Anne K; Morrison, W Ivan

2014-04-15

157

Eco-friendly fabrication of 4% efficient organic solar cells from surfactant-free P3HT:ICBA nanoparticle dispersions.  

PubMed

Photo-active layers from non-stabilized P3HT:ICBA nanoparticles enable the fabrication of inverted organic solar cells from eco-friendly, alcoholic dispersions. Exhibiting power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ?4%, the devices are competitive to state-of-the-art P3HT:ICBA solar cells from chlorinated solvents. Upon thermal annealing, the short circuit current density and consequently the PCE of the inverted solar cells improve radically due to a more intimate contact of the nanoparticles and hence an enhanced charge carrier extraction. PMID:25186115

Gärtner, Stefan; Christmann, Marco; Sankaran, Sivaramakrishnan; Röhm, Holger; Prinz, Eva-Marie; Penth, Felix; Pütz, Andreas; Türeli, Akif Emre; Penth, Bernd; Baumstümmler, Bernd; Colsmann, Alexander

2014-10-01

158

In vitro cytotoxicity of monodispersed hematite nanoparticles on Hek 293 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple hydrothermal method was developed to prepare monodispersed and well-crystallized hematite nanoparticles with a diameter distribution of about 180nm. In-vitro cytotoxicity of such nanoparticles was carried out using Hek 293 cell culture system with different dosages. Assessment of cell viability reveals that hematite nanoparticles reduce cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner within a rather wide dosage range.

Haijuan Yan; Benshu Zhang

2011-01-01

159

Selective cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles on glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles on various human cancer and normal cells. We found that\\u000a the ZnO nanoparticles exerted a cytotoxic effect on the human glioma cell lines A172, U87, LNZ308, LN18, and LN229, whereas\\u000a no cytotoxic effect was observed on normal human astrocytes. Similarly, the ZnO nanoparticles induced cell death in breast\\u000a and

Stella Ostrovsky; Gila Kazimirsky; Aharon Gedanken; Chaya Brodie

2009-01-01

160

Genotoxic responses to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and fullerene in gpt delta transgenic MEF cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and fullerene (C60) are two attractive manufactured nanoparticles with great promise in industrial and medical applications. However, little is known about the genotoxic response of TiO2 nanoparticles and C60 in mammalian cells. In the present study, we determined the mutation fractions induced by either TiO2 nanoparticles or C60 in gpt delta transgenic mouse primary embryo

An Xu; Yunfei Chai; Takehiko Nohmi; Tom K Hei

2009-01-01

161

Regulatory T cells from active non-segmental vitiligo exhibit lower suppressive ability on CD8+CLA+T cells.  

PubMed

Background: Recent studies have shown that vitiligo is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. Skin-homing cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) have been suggested to be responsible for the destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo. An aberration in the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been reported in vitiligo patients. However, whether the weakened suppressive ability of the Tregs contributes to hyper-activated skin homing CD8(+)CLA(+)T cells remains to be determined. Objectives: To investigate the inhibition of circulating Tregs on the proliferation of autologous CD8(+)CLA(+)T cells in non-segmental vitiligo patients. Methods: CD8(+)CLA(+)T cells and Tregs were obtained from the peripheral blood of 13 non-segmental vitiligo patients and 7 controls. The proliferative responses of CD8(+)CLA(+)T cells were assessed in the absence or presence of autologous Tregs, and the levels of Transforming Growth Factor ?1(TGF-?1) and IL-10 in culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The proliferative responses of circulating CD8(+)CLA(+)T cells in the presence of Tregs were significantly higher in the active vitiligo than in the stable vitiligo and control groups. Tregs from active vitiligo patients exhibited a lower inhibitory effect on proliferation of CD8(+)CLA(+)T cells. The levels of TGF-?1 produced by Tregs were significantly lower in active vitiligo than other groups and anti-TGF-?1 antibodies could abrogate the suppressive function of Tregs. Conclusions: The functional activity of Tregs is compromised in active vitiligo patients. TGF-?1 plays an important role in the autoimmune mechanism of the disease. PMID:25335433

Lin, Mao; Zhang, Bao-Xiang; Shen, Nan; Dong, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Ci; Qi, Xiao-Yi; Zhu, Jie; Li, Yu-Zhong; Man, Mao-Qiang; Tu, Cai-Xia

2014-10-22

162

Biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles for in vivo stem cell tracking.  

PubMed

Efficient application of stem cells to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases requires safe cell tracking to follow stem cell fate over time in the host environment after transplantation. In this work, for the first time, fluorescent and biocompatible methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based nanoparticles (fluoNPs) were synthesized through a free-radical co-polymerization process with a fluorescent macromonomer obtained by linking Rhodamine B and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. We demonstrate that the fluoNPs produced by polymerization of MMA-Rhodamine complexes (1) were efficient for the labeling and tracking of multipotent human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs); (2) did not alter the main biological features of hAFCs (such as viability, cell growth and metabolic activity); (3) enabled us to determine the longitudinal bio-distribution of hAFCs in different brain areas after graft in the brain ventricles of healthy mice by a direct fluorescence-based technique. The reliability of our approach was furthermore confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging analyses, carried out by incubating hAFCs with both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and fluoNPs. Our data suggest that these finely tunable and biocompatible fluoNPs can be exploited for the longitudinal tracking of stem cells. PMID:23690139

Cova, Lidia; Bigini, Paolo; Diana, Valentina; Sitia, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Pesce, Ruggiero Maria; Khalaf, Rushd; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Ubezio, Paolo; Lupi, Monica; Tortarolo, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Giardino, Daniela; Silani, Vincenzo; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Moscatelli, Davide

2013-06-21

163

Ciliary micropillar fluidic chip capture exosomes for drug resistant cells’ response to nanoparticle therapy test.  

E-print Network

??In this dissertation, an exosome capturing ciliary micropillar array microfluidics is introduced and applied to evaluate the response of resistant cancer cells under nanoparticle encapsulated… (more)

Wang, Zongxing

2013-01-01

164

Nanoparticle assisted photothermal deformation of individual neuronal organelles and cells.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the localized surface plasmon of metallic nanoparticles has been shown to be an effective mechanism to induce photothermal damage in biological tissues. However, few studies have focused on single cell or subcellular ablation. Our results show that, upon incubation, gold nanostars are internalized by neurons of acute mouse cerebellar brain slices, clustering inside or close to the nucleus. By stimulating the nanostars' surface plasmon using a femtosecond laser, we show deformation of single nuclei and single cells. Given its precision and extremely localized effect, this is a promising technique for photothermal therapy in areas sensitive to collateral thermal damage such as the nervous system. PMID:25426326

Romero, V H; Kereselidze, Z; Egido, W; Michaelides, E A; Santamaria, F; Peralta, X G

2014-11-01

165

Commercial Nanoparticles for Stem Cell Labeling and Tracking  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapy provides promising solutions for diseases and injuries that conventional medicines and therapies cannot effectively treat. To achieve its full therapeutic potentials, the homing process, survival, differentiation, and engraftment of stem cells post transplantation must be clearly understood. To address this need, non-invasive imaging technologies based on nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to track transplanted stem cells. Here we summarize existing commercial NPs which can act as contrast agents of three commonly used imaging modalities, including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging, for stem cell labeling and tracking. Specifically, we go through their technologies, industry distributors, applications and existing concerns in stem cell research. Finally, we provide an industry perspective on the potential challenges and future for the development of new NP products. PMID:23946821

Wang, Yaqi; Xu, Chenjie; Ow, Hooisweng

2013-01-01

166

Cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea exhibit carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward renal adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Four cardenolide glycosides, glucodigifucoside (2), 3'-O-acetylglucoevatromonoside (9), digitoxigenin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-3-O-acetyl-?-D-digitoxopyranoside (11), and purpureaglycoside A (12), isolated from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human renal adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN. These compounds exhibited significantly lower IC50 values against ACHN than that against normal human renal proximal tubule-derived cell line HK-2. In particular, 2 exhibited the most potent and carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity, with a sixfold lower IC50 value against ACHN than that against HK-2. Measurement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor levels revealed that upregulation of p21/Cip1 expression was involved in the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity of 2. Further, compound 2 also exhibited the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PMID:25345317

Fujino, Tomofumi; Kuroda, Minpei; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kubo, Satoshi; Tamura, Chikako; Sakamoto, Nami; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Makio

2014-10-27

167

Augmented and selective delivery of liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to melanoma cells with ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has demonstrated the ability of liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic agents to cells selectively by binding to specific cellular epitopes, and confirmed the ability to simultaneously image these targeted nanoparticles with ultrasound. In this study, enhanced delivery of targeted PFC nanoparticles to cells expressing the integrin avb3 using clinical levels of ultrasound energy were studied. Nanoparticles complexed with ligands targeted to avb3 were incubated with cells (C32 melanoma) that expressed avb3 in culture. Control nanoparticles were produced that carried no ligand targeted to avb3. A custom specimen holder permitted simultaneous microscopic visualization of cell interactions during exposure to calibrated levels of ultrasound energy. After nanoparticle binding to cells and application of ultrasound, a roughly 2-fold increase in PFC content of the cells was observed. For control (nonbinding) nanoparticles, ultrasound exposure also increased PFC deposition, but the overall level was substantially less. Videodensitometric data show that nanoparticles were not destroyed by ultrasound exposure. Moreover, the alignment of nanoparticles relative to incident acoustic field demonstrate conclusively that acoustic radiation forces influence the nanoparticles and implicate these forces as participates in the enhanced delivery.

Hughes, Michael S.; Crowder, Kathryn C.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

2005-04-01

168

Mast cells contribute to altered vascular reactivity and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cerium oxide nanoparticle instillation  

PubMed Central

Cerium oxide (CeO2) represents an important nanomaterial with wide ranging applications. However, little is known regarding how CeO2 exposure may influence pulmonary or systemic inflammation. Furthermore, how mast cells would influence inflammatory responses to a nanoparticle exposure is unknown. We thus compared pulmonary and cardiovascular responses between C57BL/6 and B6.Cg-KitW-sh mast cell deficient mice following CeO2 nanoparticle instillation. C57BL/6 mice instilled with CeO2 exhibited mild pulmonary inflammation. However, B6.Cg-KitW-sh mice did not display a similar degree of inflammation following CeO2 instillation. Moreover, C57BL/6 mice instilled with CeO2 exhibited altered aortic vascular responses to adenosine and an increase in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury which was absent in B6.Cg-KitW-sh mice. In vitro CeO2 exposure resulted in increased production of PGD2, TNF-?, IL-6 and osteopontin by cultured mast cells. These findings demonstrate that CeO2 nanoparticles activate mast cells contributing to pulmonary inflammation, impairment of vascular relaxation and exacerbation of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:21043986

WINGARD, CHRISTOPHER J.; WALTERS, DIANNE M.; CATHEY, BROOK L.; HILDERBRAND, SUSANA C.; KATWA, PRANITA; LIN, SIJIE; KE, PU CHUN; PODILA, RAMAKRISHNA; RAO, APPARAO; LUST, ROBERT M.; BROWN, JARED M.

2011-01-01

169

IsomiR expression profiles in human lymphoblastoid cell lines exhibit population and gender dependencies  

PubMed Central

For many years it was believed that each mature microRNA (miRNA) existed as a single entity with fixed endpoints and a ‘static’ and unchangeable primary sequence. However, recent evidence suggests that mature miRNAs are more ‘dynamic’ and that each miRNA precursor arm gives rise to multiple isoforms, the isomiRs. Here we report on our identification of numerous and abundant isomiRs in the lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of 452 men and women from five different population groups. Unexpectedly, we find that these isomiRs exhibit an expression profile that is population-dependent and gender-dependent. This is important as it indicates that the LCLs of each gender/population combination have their own unique collection of mature miRNA transcripts. Moreover, each identified isomiR has its own characteristic abundance that remains consistent across biological replicates indicating that these are not degradation products. The primary sequences of identified isomiRs differ from the known miRBase miRNA either at their 5´-endpoint (leads to a different ‘seed’ sequence and suggests a different targetome), their 3´-endpoint, or both simultaneously. Our analysis of Argonaute PAR-CLIP data from LCLs supports the association of many of these newly identified isomiRs with the Argonaute silencing complex and thus their functional roles through participation in the RNA interference pathway. PMID:25229428

Loher, Phillipe; Londin, Eric R.; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2014-01-01

170

Nup50 is required for cell differentiation and exhibits transcription-dependent dynamics  

PubMed Central

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) plays a critical role in gene expression by mediating import of transcription regulators into the nucleus and export of RNA transcripts to the cytoplasm. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to mediating transport, a subset of nucleoporins (Nups) engage in transcriptional activation and elongation at genomic loci that are not associated with NPCs. The underlying mechanism and regulation of Nup mobility on and off nuclear pores remain unclear. Here we show that Nup50 is a mobile Nup with a pronounced presence both at the NPC and in the nucleoplasm that can move between these different localizations. Strikingly, the dynamic behavior of Nup50 in both locations is dependent on active transcription by RNA polymerase II and requires the N-terminal half of the protein, which contains importin ?– and Nup153-binding domains. However, Nup50 dynamics are independent of importin ?, Nup153, and Nup98, even though the latter two proteins also exhibit transcription-dependent mobility. Of interest, depletion of Nup50 from C2C12 myoblasts does not affect cell proliferation but inhibits differentiation into myotubes. Taken together, our results suggest a transport-independent role for Nup50 in chromatin biology that occurs away from the NPC. PMID:24943837

Buchwalter, Abigail L.; Liang, Yun; Hetzer, Martin W.

2014-01-01

171

Graphene nanosheets inserted by silver nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers for dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional Ag nanoparticle/GNs (Ag/GNs) hybrids as highly efficient counter electrode (CE) materials for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described, highlighting the Ag nanoparticles as zero-dimensional nanospacers inserting into GNs to lift the interspacing layer between individual GNs. It is demonstrated that, when the hybrids are used as CE materials for DSSCs, compared to their pure GNs, Ag/GNs hybrids without agglomerates have a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties such as high current density, narrow peak-to-peak separation (Epp) and low charge transfer resistance (RCT). The enhancement of electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrode conductivity, an extended interlayer distance and the reduction of the restacking of graphene sheets due to the insertion of metallic Ag nanoparticles into GNs. The DSSC with this hybrid CE exhibited an energy conversion efficiency (?) of 7.72% with an open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit photocurrent density (JSC), and fill factor (FF) of 732 mV, 14.67 mA cm(-2), and 71.8%, respectively. PMID:24710127

Chang, Quanhong; Wang, Zhenping; Wang, Jinzhong; Yan, Yuan; Ma, Zhoujing; Zhu, Jianxiao; Shi, Wangzhou; Chen, Qi; Yu, Qingjiang; Huang, Lei

2014-05-21

172

Cell interaction studies of PLA-MePEG nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Poly(D,L-lactic acid)-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-MePEG) copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide in the presence of MePEG of different molecular weights and stannous octoate as the catalyst. The chemical composition of the diblock-copolymer PLA-MePEG was confirmed by 1H-NMR and the molecular weight and distribution were assessed by gel permeation chromatography. Nanoparticles containing Nile red as a fluorescent dye were prepared using poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA), blends of PLA and PLA-MePEG or PLA-MePEG alone. Incubation of nanoparticles with human blood monocytes was performed in serum or in PBS and the cell-associated fluorescence was analyzed by flow cytometry. In serum, a protective effect was obtained and the interaction of particles with mononuclear leukocytes decreased to 40%. PMID:12615412

Nguyen, Cung An; Allémann, Eric; Schwach, Grégoire; Doelker, Eric; Gurny, Robert

2003-03-18

173

Human memory CD8+ T-cells exhibit an intrinsic metabolic advantage as reflected by increased mitochondrial functionality  

E-print Network

Human memory CD8+ T-cells exhibit an intrinsic metabolic advantage as reflected by increased and memory CD8+ T-cells affect both quality and quantity of cognate antigen response. Cellular immune function and metabolic pathways are closely linked. The metabolic repertoire of naïve and memory T

Amrhein, Valentin

174

Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells  

SciTech Connect

The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate mitochondrial cell death signaling in dopaminergic neuron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKC{delta} cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce loss of TH{sup +} neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study emphasizes neurotoxic risks of Mn nanoparticles to nigral dopaminergic system.

Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Anantharam, Vellareddy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kanthasamy, Anumantha G., E-mail: akanthas@iastate.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2011-11-15

175

Comparative cytotoxicity studies of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in murine glioma cells.  

PubMed

Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) have recently emerged as a new class of magnetic nanomaterials with a great potential for an increasing number of biomedical applications. To address the current deficient knowledge of cellular responses due to CEIN exposures, we focused on the investigation of internalization profile and resulting cytotoxic effects of CEINs (0.0001-100 ?g/ml) in murine glioma cells (GL261) in vitro. The studied CEIN samples were characterized (TEM, FT-IR, Zeta potential, Boehm titration) and examined as raw and purified nanomaterials with various surface chemistry composition. Of the four type CEINs (the mean diameter 47-56 nm) studied here, the as-synthesized raw nanoparticles (Fe@C/Fe) exhibited high cytotoxic effects on the plasma cell membrane (LDH, Calcein AM/PI) and mitochondria (MTT, JC-1) causing some pro-apoptotic evens (Annexin V/PI) in glioma cells. The effects of the purified (Fe@C) and surface-modified (Fe@C-COOH and Fe@C-(CH2)2COOH) CEINs were found in quite similar patterns; however, most of these cytotoxic events were slightly diminished compared to those induced by Fe@C/Fe. The study showed that the surface-functionalized CEINs affected the cell cycle progression in both S and G2/M phases to a greater extent compared to that of the rest of nanoparticles studied to data. Taken all together, the present results highlight the importance of the rational design of CEINs as their physicochemical features such as morphology, hydrodynamic size, impurity profiles, and especially surface characteristics are critical determinants of different cytotoxic responses. PMID:24632386

Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Cywinska, Monika A; Kosmider, Anita; Poplawska, Magdalena; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Fijalek, Zbigniew; Ostrowska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

176

Enhanced penetration into 3D cell culture using two and three layered gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nano-scale particles sized 10-400 nm administered systemically preferentially extravasate from tumor vasculature due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Therapeutic success remains elusive, however, because of inhomogeneous particle distribution within tumor tissue. Insufficient tumor vascularization limits particle transport and also results in avascular hypoxic regions with non-proliferating cells, which can regenerate tissue after nanoparticle-delivered cytotoxicity or thermal ablation. Nanoparticle surface modifications provide for increasing tumor targeting and uptake while decreasing immunogenicity and toxicity. Herein, we created novel two layer gold-nanoshell particles coated with alkanethiol and phosphatidylcholine, and three layer nanoshells additionally coated with high-density-lipoprotein. We hypothesize that these particles have enhanced penetration into 3-dimensional cell cultures modeling avascular tissue when compared to standard poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated nanoshells. Particle uptake and distribution in liver, lung, and pancreatic tumor cell cultures were evaluated using silver-enhancement staining and hyperspectral imaging with dark field microscopy. Two layer nanoshells exhibited significantly higher uptake compared to PEGylated nanoshells. This multilayer formulation may help overcome transport barriers presented by tumor vasculature, and could be further investigated in vivo as a platform for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:24124360

England, Christopher G; Priest, Thomas; Zhang, Guandong; Sun, Xinghua; Patel, Dhruvinkumar N; McNally, Lacey R; van Berkel, Victor; Gobin, André M; Frieboes, Hermann B

2013-01-01

177

Enhanced penetration into 3D cell culture using two and three layered gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Nano-scale particles sized 10–400 nm administered systemically preferentially extravasate from tumor vasculature due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Therapeutic success remains elusive, however, because of inhomogeneous particle distribution within tumor tissue. Insufficient tumor vascularization limits particle transport and also results in avascular hypoxic regions with non-proliferating cells, which can regenerate tissue after nanoparticle-delivered cytotoxicity or thermal ablation. Nanoparticle surface modifications provide for increasing tumor targeting and uptake while decreasing immunogenicity and toxicity. Herein, we created novel two layer gold-nanoshell particles coated with alkanethiol and phosphatidylcholine, and three layer nanoshells additionally coated with high-density-lipoprotein. We hypothesize that these particles have enhanced penetration into 3-dimensional cell cultures modeling avascular tissue when compared to standard poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated nanoshells. Particle uptake and distribution in liver, lung, and pancreatic tumor cell cultures were evaluated using silver-enhancement staining and hyperspectral imaging with dark field microscopy. Two layer nanoshells exhibited significantly higher uptake compared to PEGylated nanoshells. This multilayer formulation may help overcome transport barriers presented by tumor vasculature, and could be further investigated in vivo as a platform for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:24124360

England, Christopher G; Priest, Thomas; Zhang, Guandong; Sun, Xinghua; Patel, Dhruvinkumar N; McNally, Lacey R; van Berkel, Victor; Gobin, André M; Frieboes, Hermann B

2013-01-01

178

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the genotoxicity of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide nanoparticles of va...

179

Photothermal release of small molecules from gold nanoparticles in live cells.  

PubMed

The ability of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) to generate heat efficiently by absorbing visible and near-infrared (NIR) light holds great promise as a means to trigger chemical and biochemical events near the NPs. Previous demonstrations show that pulsed laser irradiation can selectively elicit the release of a fluorescent dye covalently anchored to the NP surface through a heat-labile linker without measurably changing the temperature of the surroundings. This article reports that the authors demonstrate the biological efficacy of this approach to photodelivery by showing that the decorated Au NPs are rapidly internalized by cells, are stable under physiological conditions, are nontoxic, and exhibit nonlethal photorelease following exposure to pulsed laser radiation. These observations, further supported by the versatility of our delivery motif, reaffirm the potential for further development of nonlethal photothermal therapeutics and their future relevance to such fields as gene therapy and stem-cell differentiation. PMID:22100758

Zandberg, Wesley F; Bakhtiari, Amir Bahman Samsam; Erno, Zach; Hsiao, Dennis; Gates, Byron D; Claydon, Thomas; Branda, Neil R

2012-08-01

180

Engineering of Targeted Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Using Internalizing Aptamers Isolated by Cell-Uptake Selection  

PubMed Central

One of the major challenges in the development of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer therapy is to discover targeting ligands that allow for differential binding and uptake by the target cancer cells. Using prostate cancer (PCa) as a model disease, we developed a cell-uptake selection strategy to isolate PCa-specific internalizing 2'-Omethyl RNA aptamers (Apts) for NP incorporation. Twelve cycles of selection and counter-selection were done to obtain a panel of internalizing Apts, which can distinguish PCa cells from non-prostate and normal prostate cells. After Apt characterization, size minimization, and conjugation of the Apts with fluorescently-labeled polymeric NPs, the NP-Apt bioconjugates exhibit PCa specificity and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to non-targeted NPs lacking the internalizing Apts. Furthermore, when docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of PCa, was encapsulated within the NP-Apt, a significant improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved in targeted PCa cells. Rather than isolating high-affinity Apts as reported in previous selection processes, our selection strategy was designed to enrich cancer-cell specific internalizing Apts. A similar cell-uptake selection strategy may be used to develop specific internalizing ligands for a myriad of other diseases and can potentially facilitate delivering various molecules, including drugs and siRNAs, into cells. PMID:22214176

Xiao, Zeyu; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Alexis, Frank; Lupták, Andrej; Teply, Benjamin A.; Chan, Juliana M.; Shi, Jinjun; Digga, Elise; Cheng, Judy; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

2012-01-01

181

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Silver Nanoparticle Induced Stress on Optically-Trapped Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

We report here results of a single-cell Raman spectroscopy study of stress effects induced by silver nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). A high-sensitivity, high-resolution Raman Tweezers set-up has been used to monitor nanoparticle-induced biochemical changes in optically-trapped single cells. Our micro-Raman spectroscopic study reveals that hMSCs treated with silver nanoparticles undergo oxidative stress at doping levels in excess of 2 µg/ml, with results of a statistical analysis of Raman spectra suggesting that the induced stress becomes more dominant at nanoparticle concentration levels above 3 µg/ml. PMID:22514708

Bankapur, Aseefhali; Krishnamurthy, R. Sagar; Zachariah, Elsa; Santhosh, Chidangil; Chougule, Basavaraj; Praveen, Bhavishna; Valiathan, Manna; Mathur, Deepak

2012-01-01

182

Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on nasopharyngeal cancer cells viability and respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a therapeutic drugs based on nanoparticles requires a better understanding of the mechanism of selective cyto-toxic effects of nanopaticles over cancer cells. Scanning electrochemical microscopy provides opportunity to measure the real time chemical process at cell proximity in the presence of nanoparticle. Herein, the respiration process in nasopharyngeal cancer cells is investigated with the help of scanning electrochemical microscopy. The cell viability has been tested with MTT assay. The results show that ZnO nanoparticles have time and dose dependent effect in nasopharyngeal cancer cells and the cell respiration rate decreases with time.

Prasanth, R.; Gopinath, D.

2013-03-01

183

Multidentate zwitterionic chitosan oligosaccharide modified gold nanoparticles: stability, biocompatibility and cell interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface engineering of nanoparticles plays an essential role in their colloidal stability, biocompatibility and interaction with biosystems. In this study, a novel multidentate zwitterionic biopolymer derivative is obtained from conjugating dithiolane lipoic acid and zwitterionic acryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine to the chitosan oligosaccharide backbone. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by this polymer exhibit remarkable colloidal stabilities under extreme conditions including high salt conditions, wide pH range and serum or plasma containing media. The AuNPs also show strong resistance to competition from dithiothreitol (as high as 1.5 M). Moreover, the modified AuNPs demonstrate low cytotoxicity investigated by both MTT and LDH assays, and good hemocompatibility evaluated by hemolysis of human red blood cells. In addition, the intracellular fate of AuNPs was investigated by ICP-MS and TEM. It showed that the AuNPs are uptaken by cells in a concentration dependent manner, and they can escape from endosomes/lysosomes to cytosol and tend to accumulate around the nucleus after 24 h incubation but few of them are excreted out of the cells. Gold nanorods are also stabilized by this ligand, which demonstrates robust dispersion stability and excellent hemocompatibility. This kind of multidentate zwitterionic chitosan derivative could be widely used for stabilizing other inorganic nanoparticles, which will greatly improve their performance in a variety of bio-related applications.Surface engineering of nanoparticles plays an essential role in their colloidal stability, biocompatibility and interaction with biosystems. In this study, a novel multidentate zwitterionic biopolymer derivative is obtained from conjugating dithiolane lipoic acid and zwitterionic acryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine to the chitosan oligosaccharide backbone. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by this polymer exhibit remarkable colloidal stabilities under extreme conditions including high salt conditions, wide pH range and serum or plasma containing media. The AuNPs also show strong resistance to competition from dithiothreitol (as high as 1.5 M). Moreover, the modified AuNPs demonstrate low cytotoxicity investigated by both MTT and LDH assays, and good hemocompatibility evaluated by hemolysis of human red blood cells. In addition, the intracellular fate of AuNPs was investigated by ICP-MS and TEM. It showed that the AuNPs are uptaken by cells in a concentration dependent manner, and they can escape from endosomes/lysosomes to cytosol and tend to accumulate around the nucleus after 24 h incubation but few of them are excreted out of the cells. Gold nanorods are also stabilized by this ligand, which demonstrates robust dispersion stability and excellent hemocompatibility. This kind of multidentate zwitterionic chitosan derivative could be widely used for stabilizing other inorganic nanoparticles, which will greatly improve their performance in a variety of bio-related applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More experimental details for the synthesis of AuNPs and AuNRs. Fig. S1, 1H NMR spectrum of LA-CSO-PC and Fig. S2, FT-IR spectrum of AuNP-LA-CSO-PC. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00284e

Liu, Xiangsheng; Huang, Haoyuan; Liu, Gongyan; Zhou, Wenbo; Chen, Yangjun; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

2013-04-01

184

Detection of Fluorescent Nanoparticle Interactions with Primary Immune Cell Subpopulations by Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Engineered nanoparticles are endowed with very promising properties for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This work describes a fast and reliable method of analysis by flow cytometry to study nanoparticle interaction with immune cells. Primary immune cells can be easily purified from human or mouse tissues by antibody-mediated magnetic isolation. In the first instance, the different cell populations running in a flow cytometer can be distinguished by the forward-scattered light (FSC), which is proportional to cell size, and the side-scattered light (SSC), related to cell internal complexity. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled antibodies against specific cell surface receptors permit the identification of several subpopulations within the same sample. Often, all these features vary when cells are boosted by external stimuli that change their physiological and morphological state. Here, 50 nm FITC-SiO2 nanoparticles are used as a model to identify the internalization of nanostructured materials in human blood immune cells. The cell fluorescence and side-scattered light increase after incubation with nanoparticles allowed us to define time and concentration dependence of nanoparticle-cell interaction. Moreover, such protocol can be extended to investigate Rhodamine-SiO2 nanoparticle interaction with primary microglia, the central nervous system resident immune cells, isolated from mutant mice that specifically express the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Finally, flow cytometry data related to nanoparticle internalization into the cells have been confirmed by confocal microscopy. PMID:24747480

Gamucci, Olimpia; Bertero, Alice; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Bardi, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

185

Scaffold-independent Patterning of Cells using Magnetic Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial patterning of cells in vitro relies on direct contact of cells on to solid surfaces. Scaffold independent patterning of cells has never been achieved so far. Patterning of cells has wide applications including stem cell biology, tissue architecture and regenerative medicine besides fundamental biology. Magnetized cells in a suspension can be manipulated using an externally applied magnetic field enabling directed patterning. We magnetized mammalian cells by internalization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A magnetic field is then used to arrange cells in a desired pattern on a substrate or in suspension. The control strategy is derived from the self-assembly of magnetic colloids in a liquid considering magnetostatic interactions. The range of achievable structural features promise novel experimental methods investigating the influence of tissue shape and size on cell population dynamics wherein Fickian diffusion of autocrine growth signals are known to play a significant role. By eliminating the need for a scaffold, intercellular adhesion mechanics and the effects of temporally regulated signals can be investigated. The findings can be applied to novel tissue engineering methods.

Ghosh, Suvojit; Biswas, Moanaro; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Puri, Ishwar

2013-03-01

186

Nanoparticles blast cancerous cells with killer drugs | KurzweilAI http://www.kurzweilai.net/nanoparticles-blast-cancerous-cells-with-killer-drugs[5/2/2011 12:14:51 PM  

E-print Network

to reduce side-effects of cancer drugs | April 6, 2011 Share / Email Print Comments (1) Log in to ReplyNanoparticles blast cancerous cells with killer drugs | KurzweilAI http://www.kurzweilai.net/nanoparticles-blast-cancerous-cells-with-killer-drugs[5/2/2011 12:14:51 PM] You are here: Home News Nanoparticles blast cancerous cells with killer drugs

Brinker, C. Jeffrey

187

Antiproliferative effect of ASC-J9 delivered by PLGA nanoparticles against estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Among polymeric nanoparticles designed for cancer therapy, PLGA nanoparticles have become one of the most popular polymeric devices for chemotherapeutic-based nanoformulations against several kinds of malignant diseases. Promising properties, including long-circulation time, enhanced tumor localization, interference with "multidrug" resistance effects, and environmental biodegradability, often result in an improvement of the drug bioavailability and effectiveness. In the present work, we have synthesized 1,7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (ASC-J9) and developed uniform ASC-J9-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of about 120 nm, which have been prepared by a single-emulsion process. Structural and morphological features of the nanoformulation were analyzed, followed by an accurate evaluation of the in vitro drug release kinetics, which exhibited Fickian law diffusion over 10 days. The intracellular degradation of ASC-J9-bearing nanoparticles within estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells was correlated to a time- and dose-dependent activity of the released drug. A cellular growth inhibition associated with a specific cell cycle G2/M blocking effect caused by ASC-J9 release inside the cytosol allowed us to put forward a hypothesis on the action mechanism of this nanosystem, which led to the final cell apoptosis. Our study was accomplished using Annexin V-based cell death analysis, MTT assessment of proliferation, radical scavenging activity, and intracellular ROS evaluation. Moreover, the intracellular localization of nanoformulated ASC-J9 was confirmed by a Raman optical imaging experiment designed ad hoc. PLGA nanoparticles and ASC-J9 proved also to be safe for a healthy embryo fibroblast cell line (3T3-L1), suggesting a possible clinical translation of this potential nanochemotherapeutic to expand the inherently poor bioavailability of hydrophobic ASC-J9 that could be proposed for the treatment of malignant breast cancer. PMID:24945469

Verderio, Paolo; Pandolfi, Laura; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Marinozzi, Maria Rosaria; Vanna, Renzo; Gramatica, Furio; Corsi, Fabio; Colombo, Miriam; Morasso, Carlo; Prosperi, Davide

2014-08-01

188

Adult Cardiac Progenitor Cell Aggregates Exhibit Survival Benefit Both In Vitro and In Vivo  

E-print Network

Background: A major hurdle in the use of exogenous stems cells for therapeutic regeneration of injured myocardium remains the poor survival of implanted cells. To date, the delivery of stem cells into myocardium has largely ...

Bauer, Michael

189

Copper nanoparticle incorporated plasmonic organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By embedding copper nanoparticles into poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layers, the power conversion efficiency of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cell using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was increased from 3.58% to 3.96%, and that of the device based on poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

Liu, Zhihai; Lee, Seung Yong; Lee, Eun-Cheol

2014-12-01

190

Variable Nanoparticle-Cell Adhesion Strength Regulates Cellular Uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In receptor-mediated endocytosis, cells exercise biochemical control over the mechanics of adhesion to engulf foreign particles, featuring a variable adhesion strength. Here we present a thermodynamic model with which we elucidate that the variable adhesion strength critically governs the cellular uptake, yielding an uptake phase diagram in the space of ligand density and particle size. We identify from the diagram an endocytosed phase with markedly high uptake, encompassed by a lower and an upper phase boundary that are set, respectively, by the enthalpic and entropic limits of the adhesion strength. The phase diagram may provide useful guidance to the rational design of nanoparticle-based therapeutic and diagnostic agents.

Yuan, Hongyan; Li, Ju; Bao, Gang; Zhang, Sulin

2010-09-01

191

Comparison of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second generation photosensitizer mTHPC was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the palliative treatment of advanced head and neck cancer in October 2001. It is known that mTHPC possesses a significant phototoxicity against a variety of human cancer cells in vitro but also exhibits dark toxicity and can cause adverse effects (especially skin photosensitization). Due to its poor water solubility, the administration of hydrophobic photosensitizer still presents several difficulties. To overcome the administration problems, the use of nanoparticles as drug carrier systems is much investigated. Nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively studied as delivery systems into tumours due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The goal of this study was the comparison of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles concerning cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). The nanoparticles delivered the photosensitizer to the colon carcinoma cells and enabled drug release without losing its activity. The cytotoxicity assays showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability after illumination. However, first and foremost mTHPC lost its dark toxic effects using the PLGA nanoparticles as a drug carrier system. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug carrier system for the hydrophobic photosensitizer mTHPC.

Löw, Karin; Knobloch, Thomas; Wagner, Sylvia; Wiehe, Arno; Engel, Andrea; Langer, Klaus; von Briesen, Hagen

2011-06-01

192

Casein-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for High MRI Contrast Enhancement and Efficient Cell Targeting  

PubMed Central

Surface properties, as well as inherent physicochemical properties, of the engineered nanomaterials play important roles in their interactions with the biological systems, which eventually affect their efficiency in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here we report a new class MRI contrast agent based on milk casein protein coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CNIOs) with a core size of 15 nm and hydrodynamic diameter ~30 nm. These CNIOs exhibited excellent water-solubility, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. Importantly, CNIOs exhibited prominent T2 enhancing capability with a transverse relaxivity r2 of 273 mM?1s?1 at 3 Tesla. The transverse relaxivity is ~2.5-fold higher than that of iron oxide nanoparticles with the same core but an amphiphilic polymer coating. CNIOs showed pH-responsive properties, formed loose and soluble aggregates near the pI (pH~4.0). The aggregates could be dissociated reversibly when the solution pH was adjusted away from the pI. The transverse relaxation property and MRI contrast enhancing effect of CNIOs remained unchanged in the pH range of 2.0 to 8.0. Further functionalization of CNIOs can be achieved via surface modification of the protein coating. Bio-affinitive ligands, such as a single chain fragment from the antibody of epidermal growth factor receptor (ScFvEGFR), could be readily conjugated onto the protein coating, enabling specific targeting to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells over-expressing EGFR. T2-weighted MRI of mice intravenously administered with CNIOs demonstrated strong contrast enhancement in the liver and spleen. These favorable properties suggest CNIOs as a class of biomarker targeted magnetic nanoparticles for MRI contrast enhancement and related biomedical applications. PMID:23633522

Huang, Jing; Wang, Liya; Lin, Run; Wang, Andrew Y.; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Qian, Weiping; Mao, Hui

2013-01-01

193

Casein-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for high MRI contrast enhancement and efficient cell targeting.  

PubMed

Surface properties, as well as inherent physicochemical properties, of the engineered nanomaterials play important roles in their interactions with the biological systems, which eventually affect their efficiency in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here we report a new class of MRI contrast agent based on milk casein protein-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CNIOs) with a core size of 15 nm and hydrodynamic diameter ~30 nm. These CNIOs exhibited excellent water-solubility, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. Importantly, CNIOs exhibited prominent T2 enhancing capability with a transverse relaxivity r2 of 273 mM(-1) s(-1) at 3 tesla. The transverse relaxivity is ~2.5-fold higher than that of iron oxide nanoparticles with the same core but an amphiphilic polymer coating. CNIOs showed pH-responsive properties, formed loose and soluble aggregates near the pI (pH ~4.0). The aggregates could be dissociated reversibly when the solution pH was adjusted away from the pI. The transverse relaxation property and MRI contrast enhancing effect of CNIOs remained unchanged in the pH range of 2.0-8.0. Further functionalization of CNIOs can be achieved via surface modification of the protein coating. Bioaffinitive ligands, such as a single chain fragment from the antibody of epidermal growth factor receptor (ScFvEGFR), could be readily conjugated onto the protein coating, enabling specific targeting to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells overexpressing EGFR. T2-weighted MRI of mice intravenously administered with CNIOs demonstrated strong contrast enhancement in the liver and spleen. These favorable properties suggest CNIOs as a class of biomarker targeted magnetic nanoparticles for MRI contrast enhancement and related biomedical applications. PMID:23633522

Huang, Jing; Wang, Liya; Lin, Run; Wang, Andrew Y; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Qian, Weiping; Mao, Hui

2013-06-12

194

Cell death pathway induced by resveratrol-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles in a human ovarian cell line  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (RES-BSANP) exhibit chemotherapeutic properties, which trigger apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the caspase-independent cell death pathway induced by RES-BSANP in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells and to analyze its mechanism. Morphological changes were observed by apoptotic body/cell nucleus DNA staining using inverted and fluorescence microscopy. The cell death pathway was determined by phosphatidylserine translocation. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the activation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), cytochrome c (Cyto c) and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax). Apoptotic body and nuclear condensation and fragmentation were observed simultaneously following treatment with RES-BSANP. RES-BSANP induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. The translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm occurred earlier than that of Cyto c. In addition, Bax binding to the mitochondria was required for the release of AIF and Cyto c from the mitochondria. The AIF apoptosis pathway may present an alternative caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway in human ovarian cell death induced by RES-BSANP. Elucidation of this pathway may be critical for the treatment of cancer using high doses of RES-BSANP.

GUO, LIYUAN; PENG, YAN; LI, YULIAN; YAO, JINGPING; ZHANG, GUANGMEI; CHEN, JIE; WANG, JING; SUI, LIHUA

2015-01-01

195

Direct Observation of Nanoparticle-Cancer Cell Nucleus Interactions  

PubMed Central

We report the direct visualization of interactions between drug-loaded nanoparticles and the cancer cell nucleus. Nanoconstructs composed of nucleolin-specific aptamers and gold nanostars were actively transported to the nucleus and induced major changes to the nuclear phenotype via nuclear envelope invaginations near the site of the construct. The number of local deformations could be increased by ultra-fast, light-triggered release of the aptamers from the surface of the gold nanostars. Cancer cells with more nuclear envelope folding showed increased caspase 3 and 7 activity (apoptosis) as well as decreased cell viability. This newly revealed correlation between drug-induced changes in nuclear phenotype and increased therapeutic efficacy could provide new insight for nuclear-targeted cancer therapy. PMID:22424173

Dam, Duncan Hieu M.; Lee, Jung Heon; Sisco, Patrick N.; Co, Dick T.; Zhang, Ming; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Odom, Teri W.

2012-01-01

196

Mechanodelivery of nanoparticles to the cytoplasm of living cells.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology has opened up the opportunity to probe, sense, and manipulate the chemical environment of biological systems with an unprecedented level of spatiotemporal control. A major obstacle to the full realization of these novel technologies is the lack of a general, robust, and simple method for the delivery of arbitrary nanostructures to the cytoplasm of intact live cells. Here, we identify a new delivery modality, based on mechanical disruption of the plasma membrane, which efficiently mediates the delivery of nanoparticles to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. We use two distinct execution modes, two adherent cell lines, and three sizes of semiconducting nanocrystals, or quantum dots, to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. As the underlying mechanism is purely physical, we anticipate that such "mechanodelivery" can be generalized to other modes of execution as well as to the cytoplasmic introduction of a structurally diverse array of functional nanomaterials. PMID:24664211

Emerson, Nyssa T; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U; Yang, Haw

2014-05-01

197

Laser nanothermolysis of human leukemia cells using functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In the present work, we present the use of gold nanorods as plasmonic nanoparticles for selective photothermal therapy of human acute (HL-60) and chronicle (K-562) leukemia cells using a near-infrared laser. We improved a published methodology of gold nanorods conjugation to generate high yields of narrow band gold nanorods with an optical absorption centered at 760 nm. The manufactured nanorods were pegylated and conjugated with monoclonal antibody to become non-toxic as biocompatible nanothermolysis agent. Gold nanorods are synthesized and conjugated to CD33 monoclonal antibody. After pegylation, or conjugation with CD33 antibody, gold nanorods were non-toxic to acute and chronic leukemia cells. Our modified gold nanorods CD33 conjugates shown high level of accumulation for both leukemia cell lines, and successful used for nanothermolysis of human leukemia cells in vitro. Each sample was illuminated with 1 or 3 laser shots as for low and for high laser fluence. The radiation was provided by a Quanta Systems q-switched titanium sapphire laser, and the system was designed for maximum sample coverage using non-focused illumination. HL-60 and K-562 cells were treated for 45 min with gold nanorods CD33 conjugated, or with pegylated gold nanorods. The effect of pulsed-laser nanothermolysis for acute and chronic leukemia cells were investigated with cell counting for number of living cells, percentage of cell death and functional parameters such as damage of cell membrane and metabolic activity. Gold nanorods CD33 conjugates significantly increase cell damage for low fluence laser and completely destroyed cancer cells after 3 pulses for low fluence (acute leukemia) and for high fluence laser as for HL-60 (acute) and for K-562 (chronicle) leukemia cells. PMID:22720194

Liopo, Anton V; Conjusteau, André; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael; Oraevsky, Alexander A

2012-01-01

198

Laser nanothermolysis of human leukemia cells using functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

In the present work, we present the use of gold nanorods as plasmonic nanoparticles for selective photothermal therapy of human acute (HL-60) and chronicle (K-562) leukemia cells using a near-infrared laser. We improved a published methodology of gold nanorods conjugation to generate high yields of narrow band gold nanorods with an optical absorption centered at 760 nm. The manufactured nanorods were pegylated and conjugated with monoclonal antibody to become non-toxic as biocompatible nanothermolysis agent. Gold nanorods are synthesized and conjugated to CD33 monoclonal antibody. After pegylation, or conjugation with CD33 antibody, gold nanorods were non-toxic to acute and chronic leukemia cells. Our modified gold nanorods CD33 conjugates shown high level of accumulation for both leukemia cell lines, and successful used for nanothermolysis of human leukemia cells in vitro. Each sample was illuminated with 1 or 3 laser shots as for low and for high laser fluence. The radiation was provided by a Quanta Systems q-switched titanium sapphire laser, and the system was designed for maximum sample coverage using non-focused illumination. HL-60 and K-562 cells were treated for 45 min with gold nanorods CD33 conjugated, or with pegylated gold nanorods. The effect of pulsed-laser nanothermolysis for acute and chronic leukemia cells were investigated with cell counting for number of living cells, percentage of cell death and functional parameters such as damage of cell membrane and metabolic activity. Gold nanorods CD33 conjugates significantly increase cell damage for low fluence laser and completely destroyed cancer cells after 3 pulses for low fluence (acute leukemia) and for high fluence laser as for HL-60 (acute) and for K-562 (chronicle) leukemia cells. PMID:22720194

Liopo, Anton V.; Conjusteau, André; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

2012-01-01

199

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells.  

PubMed

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200?±?50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200?±?50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

2014-01-01

200

Modulating Gold Nanoparticle in vivo Delivery for Photothermal Therapy Applications Using a T Cell Delivery System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports new gold nanoparticle-based methods to treat chemotherapy-resistant and metastatic tumors that frequently evade conventional cancer therapies. Gold nanoparticles represent an innovative generation of diagnostic and treatment agents due to the ease with which they can be tuned to scatter or absorb a chosen wavelength of light. One area of intensive investigation in recent years is gold nanoparticle photothermal therapy (PTT), in which gold nanoparticles are used to heat and destroy cancer. This work demonstrates the utility of gold nanoparticle PTT against two categories of cancer that are currently a clinical challenge: trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer and metastatic cancer. In addition, this thesis presents a new method of gold nanoparticle delivery using T cells that increases gold nanoparticle tumor accumulation efficiency, a current challenge in the field of PTT. I ablated trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer in vitro for the first time using anti-HER2 labeled silica-gold nanoshells, demonstrating the potential utility of PTT against chemotherapy-resistant cancers. I next established for the first time the use of T cells as gold nanoparticle vehicles in vivo. When incubated with gold nanoparticles in culture, T cells can internalize up to 15000 nanoparticles per cell with no detrimental effects to T cell viability or function (e.g. migration and cytokine secretion). These AuNP-T cells can be systemically administered to tumor-bearing mice and deliver gold nanoparticles four times more efficiently than by injecting free nanoparticles. In addition, the biodistribution of AuNP-T cells correlates with the normal biodistribution of T cell carrier, suggesting the gold nanoparticle biodistribution can be modulated through the choice of nanoparticle vehicle. Finally, I apply gold nanoparticle PTT as an adjuvant treatment for T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapy (Hyperthermia-Enhanced Immunotherapy or HIT) of distant tumors in a melanoma mouse model. The results presented in this thesis expand the potential of gold nanoparticle PTT from only chemotherapy-sensitive or localized cancers to chemotherapy-resistant non-localized cancers that currently defy conventional therapies.

Kennedy, Laura Carpin

201

Infrared light-absorbing gold/gold sulfide nanoparticles induce cell death in esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles and near infrared-absorbing light are each innocuous to tissue but when combined can destroy malignant tissue while leaving healthy tissue unharmed. This study investigated the feasibility of photothermal ablation therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma using chitosan-coated gold/gold sulfide (CS-GGS) nanoparticles. A rat esophagoduodenal anastomosis model was used for the in vivo ablation study, and three human esophageal cell lines were used to study the response of cancer cells and benign cells to near infrared light after treatment with CS-GGS. The results indicate that both cancerous tissue and cancer cells took up more gold nanoparticles and were completely ablated after exposure to near infrared light. The benign tissue and noncancerous cells showed less uptake of these nanoparticles, and remained viable after exposure to near infrared light. CS-GGS nanoparticles could provide an optimal endoluminal therapeutic option for near infrared light ablation of esophageal cancer. PMID:23818775

Li, Yan; Gobin, Andre M; Dryden, Gerald W; Kang, Xinqin; Xiao, Deyi; Li, Su Ping; Zhang, Guandong; Martin, Robert CG

2013-01-01

202

Hydrazinocurcumin Encapsuled nanoparticles "re-educate" tumor-associated macrophages and exhibit anti-tumor effects on breast cancer following STAT3 suppression.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential cellular components within tumor microenvironment (TME). TAMs are educated by TME to transform to M2 polarized population, showing a M2-like phenotype, IL-10(high), IL-12(low), TGF-?(high). STAT3 signaling triggers crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs, and is crucial for the regulation of malignant progression. In our study, legumain-targeting liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating HC were employed to suppress STAT3 activity and "re-educate" TAMs, and to investigate the effects of suppression of tumor progression in vivo. The results showed that TAMs treated by HC encapsuled NPs could switch to M1-like phenotype, IL-10(low), IL-12(high), TGF-?(low), and the "re-educated" macrophages (M1-like macrophages) considerably demonstrated opposite effect of M2-like macrophages, especially the induction of 4T1 cells migration and invasion in vitro, and suppression of tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. These data indicated that inhibition of STAT3 activity of TAMs by HC-NPs was able to reverse their phenotype and could regulate their crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs in order to suppress tumor progression. PMID:23825527

Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Wenxia; Cai, Xiaozhong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dang, Weiqi; Tang, Hao; Cao, Hong; Wang, Lin; Chen, Tingmei

2013-01-01

203

Hydrazinocurcumin Encapsuled Nanoparticles “Re-Educate” Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Exhibit Anti-Tumor Effects on Breast Cancer Following STAT3 Suppression  

PubMed Central

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential cellular components within tumor microenvironment (TME). TAMs are educated by TME to transform to M2 polarized population, showing a M2-like phenotype, IL-10high, IL-12low, TGF-?high. STAT3 signaling triggers crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs, and is crucial for the regulation of malignant progression. In our study, legumain-targeting liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating HC were employed to suppress STAT3 activity and “re-educate” TAMs, and to investigate the effects of suppression of tumor progression in vivo. The results showed that TAMs treated by HC encapsuled NPs could switch to M1-like phenotype, IL-10low, IL-12high, TGF-?low, and the “re-educated” macrophages (M1-like macrophages) considerably demonstrated opposite effect of M2-like macrophages, especially the induction of 4T1 cells migration and invasion in vitro, and suppression of tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. These data indicated that inhibition of STAT3 activity of TAMs by HC-NPs was able to reverse their phenotype and could regulate their crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs in order to suppress tumor progression. PMID:23825527

Tian, Wenxia; Cai, Xiaozhong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dang, Weiqi; Tang, Hao; Cao, Hong; Wang, Lin

2013-01-01

204

Targeting polymeric fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver multi-functional nanoparticles as a light-transforming hyperthermia reagent for cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates a simple route for synthesizing multi-functional fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles. The fluorescent nanodiamond is formed by the surface passivation of poly(ethylene glycol) bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated. Urchin-like gold/silver nanoparticles can be obtained via one-pot synthesis, and combined with each other via further thiolation of nanodiamond. The morphology of the nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles thus formed was identified herein by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and clarified using diffraction patterns. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly revealed the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles. The fluorescence of the materials with high photo stability was examined by high power laser irradiation and long-term storage at room temperature. To develop the bio-recognition of fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles, pre-modified transferrin was conjugated with the gold/silver nanoparticles, and the specificity and activity were confirmed in vitro using human hepatoma cell line (J5). The cellular uptake analysis that was conducted using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry exhibited that twice as many transferrin-modified nanoparticles as bare nanoparticles were engulfed, revealing the targeting and ease of internalization of the human hepatoma cell. Additionally, the in situ monitoring of photothermal therapeutic behavior reveals that the nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles conjugated with transferrin was more therapeutic than the bare nanodiamond-gold/silver materials, even when exposed to a less energetic laser source. Ultimately, this multi-functional material has great potential for application in simple synthesis. It is non-cytotoxic, supports long-term tracing and can be used in highly efficient photothermal therapy against cancer cells.This work demonstrates a simple route for synthesizing multi-functional fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles. The fluorescent nanodiamond is formed by the surface passivation of poly(ethylene glycol) bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated. Urchin-like gold/silver nanoparticles can be obtained via one-pot synthesis, and combined with each other via further thiolation of nanodiamond. The morphology of the nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles thus formed was identified herein by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and clarified using diffraction patterns. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly revealed the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles. The fluorescence of the materials with high photo stability was examined by high power laser irradiation and long-term storage at room temperature. To develop the bio-recognition of fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles, pre-modified transferrin was conjugated with the gold/silver nanoparticles, and the specificity and activity were confirmed in vitro using human hepatoma cell line (J5). The cellular uptake analysis that was conducted using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry exhibited that twice as many transferrin-modified nanoparticles as bare nanoparticles were engulfed, revealing the targeting and ease of internalization of the human hepatoma cell. Additionally, the in situ monitoring of photothermal therapeutic behavior reveals that the nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles conjugated with transferrin was more therapeutic than the bare nanodiamond-gold/silver materials, even when exposed to a less energetic laser source. Ultimately, this multi-functional material has great potential for application in simple synthesis. It is non-cytotoxic, supports long-term tracing and can be used in highly efficient photothermal therapy against cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The TEM images of ND and FND-Au/Ag. The photo-stability of FND which is exposures at 561 nm laser for 3 h and stores at room temperature for 1 month. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34091k

Cheng, Liang-Chien; Chen, Hao Ming; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Chan, Yung-Chieh; Liu, Ru-Shi; Sung, James C.; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Her, Li-Jane; Tsai, Din Ping

2013-04-01

205

Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells.  

PubMed

When developing new nanoparticles for bio-applications, it is important to fully characterize the nanoparticle's behavior in biological systems. The most common techniques employed for mapping nanoparticles inside cells include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). These techniques entail passing an electron beam through a thin specimen. STEM or TEM imaging is often used for the detection of nanoparticles inside cellular organelles. However, lengthy sample preparation is required (i.e., fixation, dehydration, drying, resin embedding, and cutting). In the present work, a new matrix (FTO glass) for biological samples was used and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to generate images comparable to those obtained by TEM. Using FE-SEM, nanoparticle images were acquired inside endo/lysosomes without disruption of the cellular shape. Furthermore, the initial steps of nanoparticle incorporation into the cells were captured. In addition, the conductive FTO glass endowed the sample with high stability under the required accelerating voltage. Owing to these features of the sample, further analyses could be performed (material contrast and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)), which confirmed the presence of nanoparticles inside the cells. The results showed that FE-SEM can enable detailed characterization of nanoparticles in endosomes without the need for contrast staining or metal coating of the sample. Images showing the intracellular distribution of nanoparticles together with cellular morphology can give important information on the biocompatibility and demonstrate the potential of nanoparticle utilization in medicine. PMID:25173605

Havrdova, M; Polakova, K; Skopalik, J; Vujtek, M; Mokdad, A; Homolkova, M; Tucek, J; Nebesarova, J; Zboril, R

2014-12-01

206

Bacterial exopolysaccharide based magnetic nanoparticles: a versatile nanotool for cancer cell imaging, targeted drug delivery and synergistic effect of drug and hyperthermia mediated cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are highly heterogeneous polymers produced by fungi and bacteria that have garnered considerable attention and have remarkable potential in various fields, including biomedical research. The necessity of biocompatible materials to coat and stabilize nanoparticles is highly recommended for successful application of the same in biomedical regime. In our study we have coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with two bacterial EPS-mauran (MR) and gellan gum (GG). The biocompatibility of EPS coated MNPs was enhanced and we have made it multifunctional by attaching targeting moiety, folate and with encapsulation of a potent anticancerous drug, 5FU. We have conjugated an imaging moiety along with nanocomposite to study the effective uptake of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the dye labeled folate targeted nanoparticles could effectively enter into cancer cells and the fate of nanoparticles was tracked with Lysotracker. The biocompatibility of EPS coated MNPs and synergistic effect of magnetic hyperthermia and drug for enhanced antiproliferation of cancer cells was also evaluated. More than 80% of cancer cells was killed within a period of 60 min when magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) was applied along with drug loaded EPS coated MNPs, thus signifying the combined effect of drug loaded MNPs and MHT. Our results suggests that MR and GG coated MNPs exhibited excellent biocompatibility with low cell cytotoxicity, high therapeutic potential, and superparamagnetic behavior that can be employed as prospective candidates for bacterial EPS based targeted drug delivery, cancer cell imaging and for MHT for killing cancer cells within short period of time. PMID:24749386

Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Aswathy, Ravindran Girija; Sreejith, Raveendran; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Iwai, Seiki; Suzuki, Masashi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Hasumura, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthikumar, Dasappan Nair

2014-06-01

207

Nanoparticle interactions with live cells: Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of nanoparticle size effects  

PubMed Central

Summary Engineered nanomaterials are known to enter human cells, often via active endocytosis. Mechanistic details of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) with cells are still not well enough understood. NP size is a key parameter that controls the endocytic mechanism and affects the cellular uptake yield. Therefore, we have systematically analyzed the cellular uptake of fluorescent NPs in the size range of 3.3–100 nm (diameter) by live cells. By using spinning disk confocal microscopy in combination with quantitative image analysis, we studied the time courses of NP association with the cell membrane and subsequent internalization. NPs with diameters of less than 10 nm were observed to accumulate at the plasma membrane before being internalized by the cells. In contrast, larger NPs (100 nm) were directly internalized without prior accumulation at the plasma membrane, regardless of their surface charges. We attribute this distinct size dependence to the requirement of a sufficiently strong local interaction of the NPs with the endocytic machinery in order to trigger the subsequent internalization.

Shang, Li; Nienhaus, Karin; Jiang, Xiue; Yang, Linxiao; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker; Simmet, Thomas

2014-01-01

208

Different cell responses induced by exposure to maghemite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanotechnology have permitted the development of a wide repertoire of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with extensive promise for biomedical applications. Despite this remarkable potential, many questions still arise concerning the biocompatible nature of NPs when in contact with biological systems. Herein, we have investigated how controlled changes in the physicochemical properties of iron oxide NPs at their surface (i.e., surface charge and hydrodynamic size) affect, first, their interaction with cell media components and, subsequently, cell responses to NP exposure. For that purpose, we have prepared iron oxide NPs with three different coatings (i.e., dimercaptosuccinic acid - DMSA, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane - APS and dextran) and explored the response of two different cell types, murine L929 fibroblasts and human Saos-2 osteoblasts, to their exposure. Interestingly, different cell responses were found depending on the NP concentration, surface charge and cell type. In this sense, neutral NPs, as those coated with dextran, induced negligible cell damage, as their cellular internalization was significantly reduced. In contrast, surface-charged NPs (i.e., those coated with DMSA and APS) caused significant cellular changes in viability, morphology and cell cycle under certain culture conditions, as a result of a more active cellular internalization. These results also revealed a particular cellular ability to detect and remember the original physicochemical properties of the NPs, despite the formation of a protein corona when incubated in culture media. Overall, conclusions from these studies are of crucial interest for future biomedical applications of iron oxide NPs. PMID:23963338

Luengo, Yurena; Nardecchia, Stefania; Morales, María Puerto; Serrano, M Concepción

2013-12-01

209

Augmented cellular uptake of nanoparticles using tea catechins: effect of surface modification on nanoparticle-cell interaction.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles may serve as carriers in targeted therapeutics; interaction of the nanoparticles with a biological system may determine their targeting effects and therapeutic efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of tea catechins, has been conjugated with nanoparticles and tested as an anticancer agent. We investigated whether EGCG may enhance nanoparticle uptake by tumor cells. Cellular uptake of a dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was determined by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry or a potassium thiocyanate colorimetric method. We demonstrated that EGCG greatly enhanced interaction and/or internalization of MNPs (with or without polyethylene glycol) by glioma cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. The enhancing effects are both time- and concentration-dependent. Such effects may be induced by a simple mix of MNPs with EGCG at a concentration as low as 1-3 ?M, which increased MNP uptake 2- to 7-fold. In addition, application of magnetic force further potentiated MNP uptake, suggesting a synergetic effect of EGCG and magnetic force. Because the effects of EGCG were preserved at 4 °C, but not when EGCG was removed from the culture medium prior to addition of MNPs, a direct interaction of EGCG and MNPs was implicated. Use of an MNP-EGCG composite produced by adsorption of EGCG and magnetic separation also led to an enhanced uptake. The results reveal a novel interaction of a food component and nanocarrier system, which may be potentially amenable to magnetofection, cell labeling/tracing, and targeted therapeutics. PMID:25069428

Lu, Yi-Ching; Luo, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chun-Wan; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

2014-09-01

210

One-pot synthesis of CdS nanoparticles exhibiting quantum size effect prepared within a sol-gel derived ureasilicate matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel single-pot synthesis process based on sol-gel for the production of a highly transparent hybrid matrix containing CdS nanoparticles (NPs). The reaction between cadmium and sulphide ions in the presence of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) that originates the formation of quantum confined CdS NPs occurs simultaneously with the condensation and polymerization of the gel precursors that evolves to a macromolecular hybrid organic-inorganic network. The obtained xerogel matrix is based on the reaction of organically modified alkoxysilane (3-isocyanatepropyltriethoxysilane) and a di-amine functionalized oligopolyoxyethylene (Jeffamine ED-600). The final material is characterized as highly transparent, homogeneous and flexible xerogel incorporating stabilized and high crystalline CdS NPs that exhibit size-dependent optical properties due to quantum confinement of photogenerated e-h pairs as observed from UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy and HRTEM microscopy measurements. The developed approach has obvious advantages comparatively to the alternative and more complex routes of production of composite materials with embedded semiconductor NPs because of the simplified one-pot preparative procedure used. The developed sol-gel process allows the control of the optical characteristics of the obtained CdS NPs embedded within the network by adjusting the molar ratio between cadmium ion and MPTMS and between cadmium and sulphide ions.

Gonçalves, Luis F. F. F.; Kanodarwala, Fehmida K.; Stride, John A.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Gomes, Maria J. M.

2013-12-01

211

Cord blood natural killer cells exhibit impaired lytic immunological synapse formation that is reversed with IL-2 exvivo expansion.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell therapy for acute myeloid leukemia has shown promise in clinical trials after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Cord blood (CB) is another potentially rich source of NK cells for adoptive immune therapy after stem cell transplantation. Tightly regulated receptor signaling between NK cells and susceptible tumor cells is essential for NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. However, despite expressing normal surface activating and inhibitory NK receptors, CB-derived NK cells have poor cytolytic activity. In this study, we investigate the cellular mechanism and demonstrate that unmanipulated CB-NK cells exhibit an impaired ability to form F-actin immunologic synapses with target leukemia cells compared with peripheral blood-derived NK cells. In addition, there was reduced recruitment of the activating receptor CD2, integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1, and the cytolytic molecule perforin to the CB-NK synapse site. Exvivo interleukin (IL)-2 expansion of CB-NK cells enhanced lytic synapse formation including CD2 and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 polarization and activity. Furthermore, the acquired antileukemic function of IL-2-expanded CB-NK cells was validated using a nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient IL-2 receptor common ?-chain null mouse model. We believe our results provide important mechanistic insights for the potential use of IL-2-expanded CB-derived NK cells for adoptive immune therapy in leukemia. PMID:20664358

Xing, Dongxia; Ramsay, Alan G; Gribben, John G; Decker, William K; Burks, Jared K; Munsell, Mark; Li, Sufang; Robinson, Simon N; Yang, Hong; Steiner, David; Shah, Nina; McMannis, John D; Champlin, Richard E; Hosing, Chitra; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Bollard, Catherine M

2010-09-01

212

Anticancer studies of the synthesized gold nanoparticles against MCF 7 breast cancer cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been previously stated that gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using various green extracts of plants. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized under scanning electron microscopy and EDX to identify the size of the nanoparticles. It was found that the nanoparticles were around 30 nm in size, which is a commendable nano dimension achieved through a plant mediated synthesis. The nanoparticles were further studied for their various applications. In the current study, we have made attempts to exploit the anticancer ability of the gold nano particles. The nanoparticles were studied against MCF 7 breast cancer cell lines. The results obtained from the studies of anticancer activity showed that gold nanoparticles gave an equivalent good results, in par with the standard drugs against cancer. The AuNP's proved to be efficient even from the minimum concentrations of 2 ?g/ml, and as the concentration increased the anticancer efficacy as well increased.

Kamala Priya, M. R.; Iyer, Priya R.

2014-09-01

213

Toxicological mode of action of ZnO nanoparticles: Impact on immune cells.  

PubMed

The use of nanoscale materials is growing exponentially as concerns rise about the human hazards to it. It is assumed that living beings are coevolved with nanoparticles ever since the origin of life on earth and therefore, they must have developed the defense and toxicity mitigating mechanisms for nanoparticles. Although having peculiar properties these new materials also present new health risks upon interacting with biological systems. Zinc oxide is the most widely used nanoparticles among various nanomaterials. Recently, these nanoparticles have been shown to specifically kill cancerous cells; therefore, it is believed that these nanoparticles may be used as an alternative anti-tumor agent. However, it is also known that these nanoparticles pose several deleterious effects to living beings. It is therefore critical to understand the nature and origin of the toxicity imposed by these nanomaterials. Keeping these points in mind the present review provides updated information on various aspects of toxicities induced by these engineered nanoparticles. PMID:25193324

Roy, Ruchi; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

2015-02-01

214

High expression of leptin receptor leads to temozolomide resistance with exhibiting stem/progenitor cell features in gliobalastoma  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant disease with notable resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we found that leptin receptor (ObR)-positive glioblastoma cells were resistant to temozolomide (TMZ), and TMZ-resistant cells exhibited high expression of ObR. ObR can serve as a marker to enrich glioblastoma cells with some stem/progenitor cell traits, which explained the reason for TMZ resistance of ObR+ cells. STAT3-mediated SOX2/OCT4 signaling axis maintained the stem/progenitor cell properties of ObR+ cells, which indirectly regulated glioblastoma TMZ resistance. These findings gain insight into the molecular link between obesity and glioblastoma, and better understanding of this drug-resistant population may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions for glioblastoma. PMID:24131927

Han, Guosheng; Wang, Laixing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Yue, Zhijian; Zhao, Rui; Li, Yanan; Zhou, Xiaoping; Hu, Xiaowu; Liu, Jianmin

2013-01-01

215

CD58 and CD59 molecules exhibit potentializing effects in T cell adhesion and activation.  

PubMed

We have generated stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants expressing either CD58 or CD59 or both molecules to compare their respective parts played in T cell adhesion and activation. Using a rosetting assay, we have shown the following: 1) The CD59 molecule was directly responsible for adhesive interaction between human T cells and CD59+ CHO transfectants. CD59-mediated adhesion induced 12 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM, n = 25) of rosettes. 2) The CD58 molecule expressed on CD58+ CHO transfectants induced 29 +/- 6% (mean +/- SEM, n = 8) of rosettes. 3) Double transfected CD58+CD59+ CHO cells formed up to 80% of rosettes, largely exceeding the sum of rosettes formed by single transfectants, thus disclosing at least an additive and possibly a synergic action of both molecules in mediating adhesion to T cells. Culturing purified human T cells in the presence of fixed CHO transfectants and submitogenic doses of PHA + rIL-1 alpha showed that: 1) CD59+ CHO transfectants induced sevenfold T cell proliferation enhancement, demonstrating the direct involvement of the CD59 molecule in T cell activation; 2) CD58+ CHO transfectants induced 20-fold T cell proliferation increase; and 3) the enhancement induced by CD58+CD59+ CHO cells was more than 40-fold. These results suggest that CD58 and CD59 molecules present on the surface of accessory cells might exert synergic function in T cell adhesive interactions and in the stimulation of T cell activation. PMID:1370512

Deckert, M; Kubar, J; Bernard, A

1992-02-01

216

Cytotoxicity of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles on cancer cells of epithelial origin  

PubMed Central

In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles against human colon cancer HT29, breast cancer MCF7, and liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. The morphology, homogeneity, and elemental composition of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The exposure of cancer cells to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (15.6–1,000 ?g/mL; 72 hours) has resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The quantification of caspase-3 and -9 activities and DNA fragmentation to assess the cell death pathway of the treated cells showed that both were stimulated when exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles. Light microscopy examination of the cells exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles demonstrated significant changes in cellular morphology. The HepG2 cells were most prone to apoptosis among the three cells lines examined, as the result of treatment with NiZn nanoparticles. In conclusion, NiZn ferrite nanoparticles are suggested to have potential cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:23885175

Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Ahmad, Sahrim HJ; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Eid, Eltayeb EM; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saeed, Mohd; Ilowefah, Muna; Fakurazi, Sharida; Isa, Norhaszalina Mohd; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El

2013-01-01

217

Silver nanoparticles induce p53-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells.  

PubMed

Deregulated apoptosis has been associated with many lung diseases. Although many studies have reported the apoptotic effects exhibited by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in various circumstances, the apoptosis mechanism of Ag-NPs is unclear. We investigated oxidative stress and apoptosis in human normal bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells to elucidate the role of p53 in apoptosis by Ag-NPs. First, dispersion and stability of Ag-NPs improved using bronchial epithelial cell growth medium with 5% fetal bovine serum. Then, we observed oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells exposed to Ag-NPs. Second, we carried out a cell death assay to measure DNA fragmentation as a biomarker of apoptosis. BEAS-2B cells were treated with p53-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) or p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-?) to investigate whether p53 is involved in apoptosis by Ag-NPs. As a result, Ag-NPs significantly enhanced DNA fragmentation dose-dependently and treatment with p53 siRNA or pifithrin-? prevented DNA fragmentation. We also found that apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were regulated by Ag-NPs, which was detected by mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that Ag-NPs induced p53-mediated apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. Our findings may contribute to understanding the potential roles of Ag-NPs in pulmonary disease. PMID:24849675

Kim, Ha Ryong; Shin, Da Young; Park, Yong Joo; Park, Chang We; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

2014-06-01

218

CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanoparticle/nanorod composite electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates with the application of polysulfide redox reactions and a CuS counter electrode to fabricate CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). In the present study, ZnO nanoparticles were deposited in the interstices of the ZnO nanorods. The performance of the QDSCs was improved by the ZnO nanoparticle/ nanorod composite structure because the ZnO nanorods exhibit high electron transport, and while the ZnO nanoparticles have a large surface area for QD deposition. The ZnO nanoparticle/nanorod composite films represent a promising achievement for enhancing the conversion efficiency of QDSCs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Raj, C. Justin; Kim, Hee-Je

2014-11-01

219

Targeting polymeric fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver multi-functional nanoparticles as a light-transforming hyperthermia reagent for cancer cells.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates a simple route for synthesizing multi-functional fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles. The fluorescent nanodiamond is formed by the surface passivation of poly(ethylene glycol) bis(3-aminopropyl) terminated. Urchin-like gold/silver nanoparticles can be obtained via one-pot synthesis, and combined with each other via further thiolation of nanodiamond. The morphology of the nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles thus formed was identified herein by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and clarified using diffraction patterns. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly revealed the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles. The fluorescence of the materials with high photo stability was examined by high power laser irradiation and long-term storage at room temperature. To develop the bio-recognition of fluorescent nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles, pre-modified transferrin was conjugated with the gold/silver nanoparticles, and the specificity and activity were confirmed in vitro using human hepatoma cell line (J5). The cellular uptake analysis that was conducted using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry exhibited that twice as many transferrin-modified nanoparticles as bare nanoparticles were engulfed, revealing the targeting and ease of internalization of the human hepatoma cell. Additionally, the in situ monitoring of photothermal therapeutic behavior reveals that the nanodiamond-gold/silver nanoparticles conjugated with transferrin was more therapeutic than the bare nanodiamond-gold/silver materials, even when exposed to a less energetic laser source. Ultimately, this multi-functional material has great potential for application in simple synthesis. It is non-cytotoxic, supports long-term tracing and can be used in highly efficient photothermal therapy against cancer cells. PMID:23536050

Cheng, Liang-Chien; Chen, Hao Ming; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Chan, Yung-Chieh; Liu, Ru-Shi; Sung, James C; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Her, Li-Jane; Tsai, Din Ping

2013-05-01

220

Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

2014-01-01

221

Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles composed of galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (Gal-CSO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared for hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific uptake, and the characteristics of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were evaluated. CSO/ATP nanoparticles were prepared as a control. The average diameter and zeta potential of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were 51.03 ± 3.26 nm and 30.50 ± 1.25 mV, respectively, suggesting suitable properties for a drug delivery system. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were examined by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated with HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that the cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on HepG2 cells was low. In the meantime, it was also found that the Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles could be uptaken by HepG2 cells, due to expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on their surfaces. The presented results indicate that the Gal-CSO nanoparticles might be very attractive to be used as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma cell targeting, thus warranting further in vivo or clinical investigations. PMID:23899789

Zhu, Xiu Liang; Du, Yong Zhong; Yu, Ri Sheng; Liu, Ping; Shi, Dan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ying; Huang, Fang Fang

2013-01-01

222

Enhancing light trapping properties of thin film solar cells by plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The preparation of thin film silicon solar cells containing Ag nanoparticles is reported in this article. Ag nanoparticles were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by the evaporation and condensation method. a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on these substrates by cluster type plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We discuss the double textured surface effect with respect to both the surface morphology of the substrate and the plasmonic effect of the Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles of various sizes from 10 to 100 nm were deposited. The haze values of the Ag embedded samples increased with increasing particle size whereas the optical transmittance decreased at the same conditions. The solar cell with the 30 nm size Ag nanoparticles showed a short circuit current density of 12.97 mA/cm2, which is 0.53 mA/cm2 higher than that of the reference solar cell without Ag nanoparticles, and the highest quantum efficiency for wavelengths from 550 to 800 nm. When 30 nm size nanoparticles were employed, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was increased from 6.195% to 6.696%. This study reports the application of the scattering effect of Ag nanoparticles for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells. PMID:24266153

Jung, Junhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Cho, Jaehyun; Ahn, Shihyun; Park, Hyeongsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Choi, Mansoo; Yi, Junsin

2013-12-01

223

Acetaminophen Exhibits Weak Antiestrogenic Activity in Human Endometrial Adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acet- aminophen would alter an estrogen-regulated process in human cells that express endogenous estrogen receptor and (ER and ER). Specifically, the extent to which acetaminophen altered the expression of estrogen-inducible alkaline phosphatase in endome- trial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells and directly interacted with ER and ER was determined. Ishikawa cells

Janet Dowdy; Stacey Brower; Michael R. Miller

2003-01-01

224

Recognition and transmembrane delivery of bioconjugated Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles with living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we describe the synthesis of peptide- and/or protein-functionalized Fe2O3 core-Au shell (Fe2O3@Au) nanoparticles for imaging and targeting of living cells. When functionalized with the transmembrane peptide RRRRRRRR (R8), the Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles (R8-Fe2O3@Au) are able to serve as cellular trafficking agents with excellent biocompatibility. The internalization mechanism and delivery efficiency of the R8-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles have been characterized with dark-field microscopy and fluorescence confocal scanning laser microcopy. Experimental result suggests that the R8-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles are internalized initially by binding with the membrane-associated proteoglycans on cell surfaces, especially heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), following an energy-dependent endocytosis process to enter into living cells. After conjugation with the epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (anti-EGFR), these nanoparticles can also be used for the recognition of cell membrane antigens to specifically label tumor cells.Here, we describe the synthesis of peptide- and/or protein-functionalized Fe2O3 core-Au shell (Fe2O3@Au) nanoparticles for imaging and targeting of living cells. When functionalized with the transmembrane peptide RRRRRRRR (R8), the Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles (R8-Fe2O3@Au) are able to serve as cellular trafficking agents with excellent biocompatibility. The internalization mechanism and delivery efficiency of the R8-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles have been characterized with dark-field microscopy and fluorescence confocal scanning laser microcopy. Experimental result suggests that the R8-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles are internalized initially by binding with the membrane-associated proteoglycans on cell surfaces, especially heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), following an energy-dependent endocytosis process to enter into living cells. After conjugation with the epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (anti-EGFR), these nanoparticles can also be used for the recognition of cell membrane antigens to specifically label tumor cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of Fe2O3 nanoparticles, stability of peptide conjugated Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles; Inhibition of cellular proliferation by nanoparticles and biotin-R8, ICP-MS analysis of HeLa cells incubated with R8-Fe2O3@Au, F-R8-Fe2O3@Au, or F-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles as a function of incubation time and anti-EGFR blocking study. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00152b

Sun, Linlin; Wang, Jine; Wang, Zhenxin

2010-02-01

225

The manipulation of natural killer cells to target tumor sites using magnetic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The present work demonstrates that Cy5.5 conjugated Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles could allow us to control movement of human natural killer cells (NK-92MI) by an external magnetic field. Required concentration of the nanoparticles for the cell manipulation is as low as ~20 ?g Fe/mL. However, the relative ratio of the nanoparticles loaded NK-92MI cells infiltrated into the target tumor site is enhanced by 17-fold by applying magnetic field and their killing activity is still maintained as same as the NK-92MI cells without the nanoparticles. This approach allows us to open alternative clinical treatment with reduced toxicity of the nanoparticles and enhanced infiltration of immunology to the target site. PMID:22575830

Jang, Eue-Soon; Shin, June-Ho; Ren, Gang; Park, Mi-Jin; Cheng, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Joseph C.; Sunwoo, John B.; Cheng, Zhen

2013-01-01

226

Interaction of multi-functional silver nanoparticles with living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in household products and in medicine due to their antibacterial and to wound healing properties. In recent years, there is also an effort for their use in biomedical imaging and photothermal therapy. The primary reason behind the effort for their utility in biomedicine and therapy is their unique plasmonic properties and easy surface chemistry for a variety of functionalizations. In this study, AgNPs modified with glucose, lactose, oligonucleotides and combinations of these ligands are investigated for their cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in living non-cancer (L929) and cancer (A549) cells. It is found that the chemical nature of the ligand strongly influences the toxicity and cellular uptake into the model cells. While the lactose-and glucose-modified AgNPs enter the L929 cells at about the same rate, a significant increase in the rate of lactose-modified AgNPs into the A549 cells is observed. The binding of oligonucleotides along with the carbohydrate on the AgNP surfaces influences the differential uptake rate pattern into the cells. The cytotoxicity study with the modified AgNPs reveals that only naked AgNPs influence the viability of the A549 cells. The findings of this study may provide the key to developing effective applications in medicine such as cancer therapy.

Sur, Ilknur; Cam, Dilek; Kahraman, Mehmet; Baysal, Asli; Culha, Mustafa

2010-04-01

227

In vitro release behavior and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin-loaded gold nanoparticles in cancerous cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doxorubicin (DOX), a common cancer chemotherapeutics, was conjugated to folate-modified thiolated-polyethylene glycol-functionalized\\u000a gold nanoparticles. The in vitro, controlled release behavior of DOX-loaded gold nanoparticles was observed using porous dialysis\\u000a membranes (cut-off = 2 kDa). DOX-loaded gold nanoparticles had higher cytotoxicity for folate-receptor-positive cells (KB\\u000a cells) compared to folate-receptor-negative cells (A549 cells) which were 48 and 62% viable for 10 ?M doxorubicin, respectively.\\u000a This indicates the

B. Asadishad; M. Vossoughi; I. Alamzadeh

2010-01-01

228

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

2014-01-01

229

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-09-01

230

A hypothalamic neuronal cell line persistently infected with scrapie prions exhibits apoptosis.  

PubMed

Neuronal death and vacuolation are characteristics of the CNS degeneration found in prion diseases. Relatively few cultured cell lines have been identified that can be persistently infected with scrapie prions, and none of these cells show cytopathologic changes reminiscent of prion neuropathology. The differentiated neuronal cell line GT1, established from gonadotropin hormone releasing-hormone neurons immortalized by genetically targeted tumorigenesis in transgenic mice (P. L. Mellon, JJ. Windle, P. C. Goldsmith, C. A. Padula, J. L. Roberts, and R. I. Weiner, Neuron 5:1-10, 1990), was examined for its ability to support prion formation. We found that GT1 cells could be persistently infected with mouse RML prions and that conditioned medium from infected cells could transfer prions to uninfected cells. In many but not all experiments, a subpopulation of cells showed reduced viability, morphological signs of neurodegeneration and vacuolation, and features of apoptosis. Subclones of GT1 cells that were stably transfected with the trk4 gene encoding the high-affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (GT1-trk) could also be persistently infected. NGF increased the viability of the scrapie-infected GT1-trk cells and reduced the morphological and biochemical signs of vacuolation and apoptosis. GT1 cells represent a novel system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prion infectivity and subsequent neurodegenerative changes. PMID:9343242

Schätzl, H M; Laszlo, L; Holtzman, D M; Tatzelt, J; DeArmond, S J; Weiner, R I; Mobley, W C; Prusiner, S B

1997-11-01

231

Fixed endothelial cells exhibit physiologically relevant nanomechanics of the cortical actin web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been unknown whether cells retain their mechanical properties after fixation. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the stiffness properties of the cell cortex (the 50-100 nm thick zone below the plasma membrane) before and after fixation. Atomic force microscopy was used to acquire force indentation curves from which the nanomechanical cell properties were derived. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of actin destabilizing agent cytochalasin D, which results in a gradual softening of the cell cortex. Then cells were studied ‘alive’ or ‘fixed’. We show that the cortical stiffness of fixed endothelial cells still reports functional properties of the actin web qualitatively comparable to those of living cells. Myosin motor protein activity, tested by blebbistatin inhibition, can only be detected, in terms of cortical mechanics, in living but not in fixed cells. We conclude that fixation interferes with motor proteins while maintaining a functional cortical actin web. Thus, fixation of cells opens up the prospect of differentially studying the actions of cellular myosin and actin.

Bodo Grimm, Kai; Oberleithner, Hans; Fels, Johannes

2014-05-01

232

CD4+NKG2D+ T Cells Exhibit Enhanced Migratory and Encephalitogenic Properties in Neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Migration of encephalitogenic CD4+ T lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We here demonstrate that expression of the co-stimulatory receptor NKG2D defines a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells with elevated levels of markers for migration, activation, and cytolytic capacity especially when derived from MS patients. Furthermore, CD4+NKG2D+ cells produce high levels of proinflammatory IFN-? and IL-17 upon stimulation. NKG2D promotes the capacity of CD4+NKG2D+ cells to migrate across endothelial cells in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. CD4+NKG2D+ T cells are enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, and a significant number of CD4+ T cells in MS lesions coexpress NKG2D. We further elucidated the role of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells in the mouse system. NKG2D blockade restricted central nervous system migration of T lymphocytes in vivo, leading to a significant decrease in the clinical and pathologic severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. Blockade of NKG2D reduced killing of cultivated mouse oligodendrocytes by activated CD4+ T cells. Taken together, we identify CD4+NKG2D+ cells as a subpopulation of T helper cells with enhanced migratory, encephalitogenic and cytotoxic properties involved in inflammatory CNS lesion development. PMID:24282598

Ruck, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Gross, Catharina C.; Breuer, Johanna; Albrecht, Stefanie; Korr, Sabrina; Göbel, Kerstin; Pankratz, Susann; Henschel, Christian M.; Schwab, Nicholas; Staszewski, Ori; Prinz, Marco; Kuhlmann, Tanja

2013-01-01

233

Mammal-derived respiratory lipocalin allergens do not exhibit dendritic cell-activating capacity.  

PubMed

Most mammal-derived respiratory allergens belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. Determinants of their allergenic capacity are still unknown. Innate immune cells, in particular dendritic cells, have been shown to be involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. As recognition by dendritic cells is one of the few plausible mechanisms for the allergenicity of proteins, we wanted to investigate their role in the allergenicity of lipocalin allergens. Therefore, we first incubated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with immunologically functional recombinant allergens mouse Mus m 1, dog Can f 1 and 2, cow Bos d 2, horse Equ c 1 and natural Bos d 2. Then, the surface marker expression and cytokine production of dendritic cells and their capacity to promote T cell proliferation and Th2 immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells were examined in vitro. We found that near to endotoxin-free lipocalin allergens had no effect on the activation, allostimulatory capacity or cytokine production of dendritic cells. The dendritic cells could not induce immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide activated the dendritic cells efficiently. However, lipocalin allergens were not able to modify the lipopolysaccharide-induced responses. We conclude that an important group of mammal-derived respiratory allergens, lipocalins, appear not to be able to activate dendritic cells, a major component involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. It is conceivable that this incapacity of lipocalin allergens to arouse innate immunity may be associated with their poor capacity to induce a strong T cell response, verified in several studies. PMID:23298316

Parviainen, S; Kinnunen, T; Rytkönen-Nissinen, M; Nieminen, A; Liukko, A; Virtanen, T

2013-03-01

234

The Influences of Cell Type and ZnO Nanoparticle Size on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology represents a new and enabling platform that promises to provide a range of innovative technologies for biological applications. ZnO nanoparticles of controlled size were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity toward different human immune cells evaluated. A differential cytotoxic response between human immune cell subsets was observed, with lymphocytes being the most resistant and monocytes being the most susceptible to ZnO nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Significant differences were also observed between previously activated memory lymphocytes and naive lymphocytes, indicating a relationship between cell-cycle potential and nanoparticle susceptibility. Mechanisms of toxicity involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with monocytes displaying the highest levels, and the degree of cytotoxicity dependent on the extent of nanoparticle interactions with cellular membranes. An inverse relationship between nanoparticle size and cytotoxicity, as well as nanoparticle size and reactive oxygen species production was observed. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles induce the production of the proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-12, at concentrations below those causing appreciable cell death. Collectively, these results underscore the need for careful evaluation of ZnO nanoparticle effects across a spectrum of relevant cell types when considering their use for potential new nanotechnology-based biological applications.

Hanley, Cory; Thurber, Aaron; Hanna, Charles; Punnoose, Alex; Zhang, Jianhui; Wingett, Denise G.

2009-12-01

235

In vitro toxicity of silica nanoparticles in human lung cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

The cytotoxicity of 15-nm and 46-nm silica nanoparticles was investigated by using crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil 5) as a positive control in cultured human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells. Exposure to 15-nm or 46-nm SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for 48 h at dosage levels between 10 and 100 {mu}g/ml decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Both SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were more cytotoxic than Min-U-Sil 5; however, the cytotoxicities of 15-nm and 46-nm silica nanoparticles were not significantly different. The 15-nm SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were used to determine time-dependent cytotoxicity and oxidative stress responses. Cell viability decreased significantly as a function of both nanoparticle dosage (10-100 {mu}g/ml) and exposure time (24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including total reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed. Exposure to SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles increased ROS levels and reduced glutathione levels. The increased production of malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase release from the cells indicated lipid peroxidation and membrane damage. In summary, exposure to SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles results in a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cultural human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells that is closely correlated to increased oxidative stress.

Lin Weisheng [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Huang Yuewern [Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Research Center, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Zhou Xiaodong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ma Yinfa [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)]. E-mail: yinfa@umr.edu

2006-12-15

236

Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle uptake at the cellular level is critical to nanomedicine procedures. In particular, it is required for a realistic evaluation of their effects. Unfortunately, quantitative measurements of nanoparticle uptake still pose a formidable technical challenge. We present here a method to tackle this problem and analyze the number of metal nanoparticles present in different types of cells. The method relies on high-lateral-resolution (better than 30 nm) transmission x-ray microimages with both absorption contrast and phase contrast -- including two-dimensional (2D) projection images and three-dimensional (3D) tomographic reconstructions that directly show the nanoparticles. Results Practical tests were successfully conducted on bare and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanoparticles obtained by x-ray irradiation. Using two different cell lines, EMT and HeLa, we obtained the number of nanoparticle clusters uptaken by each cell and the cluster size. Furthermore, the analysis revealed interesting differences between 2D and 3D cultured cells as well as between 2D and 3D data for the same 3D specimen. Conclusions We demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of our method, proving that it is accurate enough to measure the nanoparticle uptake differences between cells as well as the sizes of the formed nanoparticle clusters. The differences between 2D and 3D cultures and 2D and 3D images stress the importance of the 3D analysis which is made possible by our approach. PMID:21477355

2011-01-01

237

Progesterone-inducible cytokeratin 5 positive cells in luminal breast cancer exhibit progenitor properties  

PubMed Central

Progestins play a deleterious role in the onset of breast cancer, yet their influence on existing breast cancer and tumor progression is not well understood. In luminal estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast cancer, progestins induce a fraction of cells to express cytokeratin 5 (CK5), a marker of basal epithelial and progenitor cells in the normal breast. CK5+ cells lose expression of ER and PR and are relatively quiescent, increasing their resistance to endocrine and chemotherapy compared to intratumoral CK5?ER+PR+ cells. Characterization of live CK5+ cells has been hampered by a lack of means for their direct isolation. Here we describe optical (GFP) and bioluminescent (luciferase) reporter models to quantitate and isolate CK5+ cells in luminal breast cancer cell lines utilizing the human KRT5 gene promoter and a viral vector approach. Using this system, we confirmed that the induction of GFP+/CK5+ cells is specific to progestins, is dependent on PR, can be blocked by antiprogestins, and does not occur with other steroid hormones. Progestin-induced, FACS isolated CK5+ cells had lower ER and PR mRNA, were slower cycling, and were relatively more invasive and sphere-forming than their CK5? counterparts in vitro. Repeated progestin treatment and selection of GFP+ cells enriched for a persistent population of CK5+ cells, suggesting that this transition can be semi-permanent. These data support that in PR+ breast cancers, progestins induce a subpopulation of CK5+ER?PR? cells with enhanced progenitor properties and has implications for treatment resistance and recurrence in luminal breast cancer. PMID:23184698

Axlund, Sunshine Daddario; Yoo, Byong Hoon; Rosen, Rachel B.; Schaack, Jerome; Kabos, Peter; LaBarbera, Daniel V.; Sartorius, Carol A.

2012-01-01

238

Ishikawa cells exhibit differential gene expression profiles in response to oestradiol or 4-hydroxytamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the oestrogen agonist\\/antagonist action of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT; 1!10K6 M) and 17b-oestradiol (E2 ;1 !10 K8 M) were assessed on the oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive epithelial cell line (Ishikawa) with respect to cell proliferation, and to gene and protein expression. qRT-PCR and western blotting confirmed that Ishikawa cells expressed both ER isoforms and that there was no change in

Suzanne M Johnson; Manijeh Maleki-Dizaji; Jerry A Styles; Ian N H White

239

Bright single-chain conjugated polymer dots embedded nanoparticles for long-term cell tracing and imaging.  

PubMed

Single-chain conjugated polymer (CP) dots embedded nanoparticles (NPs) bearing cell penetration peptide (TAT) as surface ligands are synthesized for long term cancer cell tracing applications. The CPNPs are fabricated by matrix-encapsulation method and the embedded CPs can be modulated into spherical dots with different size upon alteration of feed concentrations. Single-chain CP dots are formed upon decreasing feed concentration to 0.2 mg/mL, where CPNPs exhibit highest fluorescence quantum yield of 32%. Maleimide is introduced as the new NP surface functional group, which favors easy conjugation with cell penetration peptide via click chemistry to preserve its biofunctions. The obtained CPNPs show high brightness and good biocompatibility, which allow cell tracing for over 9 generations, superior to commercial cell tracker Qtracker 585. PMID:24339178

Feng, Guangxue; Li, Kai; Liu, Jie; Ding, Dan; Liu, Bin

2014-03-26

240

DNA damage response to different surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have recently received much attention for their possible applications in biotechnology and life sciences. Ag NPs are of interest to defense and engineering programs for new material applications as well as for commercial purposes as an antimicrobial. However, little is known about the genotoxicity of Ag NPs following exposure to mammalian cells. This study was undertaken to examine the DNA damage response to polysaccharide surface functionalized (coated) and non-functionalized (uncoated) Ag NPs in two types of mammalian cells; mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Both types of Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and DNA damage repair proteins Rad51 and phosphorylated-H2AX expression. Furthermore both of them induced cell death as measured by the annexin V protein expression and MTT assay. Our observations also suggested that the different surface chemistry of Ag NPs induce different DNA damage response: coated Ag NPs exhibited more severe damage than uncoated Ag NPs. The results suggest that polysaccharide coated particles are more individually distributed while agglomeration of the uncoated particles limits the surface area availability and access to membrane bound organelles.

Ahamed, Maqusood; Karns, Michael; Goodson, Michael; Rowe, John [Department of Biology, Centre for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton-45469, OH (United States); Hussain, Saber M.; Schlager, John J. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/HEPB, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base-45433, OH (United States); Hong Yiling [Department of Biology, Centre for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton-45469, OH (United States)], E-mail: Yiling.Hong@notes.udayton.edu

2008-12-15

241

Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a targeted drug delivery system has been developed based on hyaluronic acid (HA) modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). HA-MSNs possess a specific affinity to CD44 over-expressed on the surface of a specific cancer cell line, HCT-116 (human colon cancer cells). The cellular uptake performance of fluorescently labelled MSNs with and without HA modification has been evaluated by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Compared to bare MSNs, HA-MSNs exhibit a higher cellular uptake via HA receptor mediated endocytosis. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), has been loaded into MSNs and HA-MSNs as drug delivery vehicles. Dox loaded HA-MSNs show greater cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cells than free Dox and Dox-MSNs due to the enhanced cell internalization behavior of HA-MSNs. It is expected that HA-MSNs have a great potential in targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to CD44 over-expressing tumors.

Yu, Meihua; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Thorn, Peter; Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yu, Chengzhong

2012-12-01

242

Fabrication, performance and atmospheric stability of inverted ZnO nanoparticle/polymer solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs, ~5 nm) were first synthesized by a simple wet chemical method. A mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) was used as the photoactive layer, and an inverted solar cell with a structure of ITO/ZnO NPs/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag was fabricated. Its performance and stability in the ambient atmosphere were investigated in detail. The results showed that the fabricated solar cell under 100 mW/cm2 AM1.5 illumination exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.28 %. In addition, illumination intensity had significant effect on open circuit voltage ( V oc), short circuit current ( J sc), fill factor (FF), and PCE of the fabricated solar cell. The dark storability (darkness, room temperature, and 50-60 % relative humidity) was shown to exceed 4,416 h without notable loss in PCE. The fabricated solar cell with excellent long-term stability was achieved in an ambient atmosphere; also, the stable mechanism of the solar cell in the ambient atmosphere was illuminated.

Yuan, Zhaolin

2015-01-01

243

Influence of nanoparticle shape on charge transport and recombination in polymer/nanocrystal solar cells.  

PubMed

A key consideration for the efficient operation of hybrid solar cells based upon conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals is charge transport in the nanocrystal phase. Here we report the results of a study into the charge transport kinetics of polymer/nanocrystal solar cells based on blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with either CdSe nano-dots or CdSe nano-tetrapods. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal significant differences in the charge transport kinetics of nano-dot and nano-tetrapod hybrid cells, with the charge collection of the P3HT/CdSe nano-dot device severely limited by charge trapping. In comparison the nano-tetrapod cell exhibits significantly reduced charge trapping compared to the nano-dot cell accounting for the improved fill-factor and overall device efficiency. Transient photovoltage measurements have also been employed that demonstrate slower recombination rates in the P3HT/CdSe tetrapod device compared to the P3HT/CdSe dot device. These observations directly identify nanoparticle shape as a critical factor influencing the charge transport and hence recombination in this benchmark hybrid system, confirming the hypothesis that the use of tetrapods improves device performance through an improvement in electron transport in the nanocrystal phase. PMID:24781139

Li, Zhe; Wang, Weiyuan; Greenham, Neil C; McNeill, Christopher R

2014-12-21

244

Ligand modified nanoparticles increases cell uptake, alters endocytosis and elevates glioma distribution and internalization  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles (NPs) were widely used in drugs/probes delivery for improved disease diagnosis and/or treatment. Targeted delivery to cancer cells is a highly attractive application of NPs. However, few studies have been performed on the targeting mechanisms of these ligand-modified delivery systems. Additional studies are needed to understand the transport of nanoparticles in the cancer site, the interactions between nanoparticles and cancer cells, the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles within the cancer cells and the subcellular destiny and potential toxicity. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) peptide can specifically bind IL-13R?2, a receptor that is highly expressed on glioma cells but is expressed at low levels on other normal cells. It was shown that the nanoparticels modification with the IL-13 peptide could improve glioma treatment by selectively increasing cellular uptake, facilitating cell internalization, altering the uptake pathway and increasing glioma localization. PMID:23982586

Gao, Huile; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Shuang; Cao, Shijie; Shen, Shun; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

2013-01-01

245

Loading Erythrocytes with Maghemite Nanoparticles via Osmotic Pressure Induced Cell Membrane Pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles within red blood cells is one strategy for extending the lifetime of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents in the bloodstream. Human red blood cells were incubated for 12 hours with iron oxide (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with a broad range of particle and aggregate sizes (ranging from 10 to 600 nm) at different osmolarities ranging from 100 to 290 mOsm before being returned to an osmolarity of 300 mOsm. Concentrations of nanoparticles trapped within the cells were measured using transmission electron microscopy and iron-mapping by electron energy loss spectroscopy. An osmolarity of 200 mOsm was found to be the optimal condition for loading of the cells with nanoparticles. At this osmolarity, it was shown that the concentration of particles within the cells relative to the average concentration in the suspension is maximized. At 200 mOsm, the maximum size aggregate of particles that entered the cells was approximately 120 nm.

Ibrahim, Mounir; Wee, Leonard; Saunders, Martin; Woodward, Robert C.; Pierre, Timothy G. St

2010-12-01

246

The Interstitial Interface within the Renal Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche Exhibits an Unique Microheterogeneous Composition  

PubMed Central

Repair of parenchyma by stem/progenitor cells is seen as a possible alternative to cure acute and chronic renal failure in future. To learn about this therapeutic purpose, the formation of nephrons during organ growth is under focus of present research. This process is triggered by numerous morphogenetic interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Recent data demonstrate that an astonishingly wide interstitial interface separates both types of stem/progenitor cells probably controlling coordinated cell-to-cell communication. Since conventional fixation by glutaraldehyde (GA) does not declare in transmission electron microscopy the spatial separation, improved contrasting procedures were applied. As a consequence, the embryonic cortex of neonatal rabbit kidneys was fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To obtain a comparable view to the renal stem/progenitor cell niche, the specimens had to be orientated along the cortico-medullary axis of lining collecting ducts. Analysis of tissue samples fixed with GA, in combination with cupromeronic blue, demonstrates demasked extracellular matrix. Numerous braces of proteoglycans cover, as well, the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells as projections of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells crossing the interstitial interface. Fixation with GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid illustrates strands of extracellular matrix that originate from the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells and line through the interstitial interface. Thus, for the first time, improved contrasting techniques make it possible to analyze in detail a microheterogeneous composition of the interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. PMID:23812083

Minuth, Will W.; Denk, Lucia

2013-01-01

247

Development and characterization of multifunctional nanoparticles for drug delivery to cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lipid and polymeric nanoparticles, although proven to be effective drug delivery systems compared to free drugs, have shown considerable limitations pertaining to their uptake and release at tumor sites. Spatial and temporal control over the delivery of anticancer drugs has always been challenge to drug delivery scientists. Here, we have developed and characterized multifunctional nanoparticles (liposomes and polymersomes) which are targeted specifically to cancer cells, and release their contents with tumor specific internal triggers. To enable these nanoparticles to be tracked in blood circulation, we have imparted them with echogenic characteristic. Echogenicity of nanoparticles is evaluated using ultrasound scattering and imaging experiments. Nanoparticles demonstrated effective release with internal triggers such as elevated levels of MMP-9 enzyme found in the extracellular matrix of tumor cells, decreased pH of lysosome, and differential concentration of reducing agents in cytosol of cancer cells. We have also successfully demonstrated the sensitivity of these particles towards ultrasound to further enhance the release with internal triggers. To ensure the selective uptake by folate receptor- overexpressing cancer cells, we decorated these nanoparticles with folic acid on their surface. Fluorescence microscopic images showed significantly higher uptake of folate-targeted nanoparticles by MCF-7 (breast cancer) and PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer) cells compared to particles without any targeting ligand on their surface. To demonstrate the effectiveness of these nanoparticles to carry the drugs inside and kill cancer cells, we encapsulated doxorubicin and/or gemcitabine employing the pH gradient method. Drug loaded nanoparticles showed significantly higher killing of the cancer cells compared to their non-targeted counterparts and free drugs. With further development, these nanoparticles certainly have potential to be used as a multifunctional nanocarriers for image guided, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

Nahire, Rahul Rajaram

248

The Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Keratinocyte Cell (KC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC-13)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on cell keratinocyte and SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) cells. We found that the concentration of particles required to adversely affect the cells was many times higher for keratinocyte than SCC cells. Confocal microscope shows that the particles in keratinocyte culture are sequestered in membranes between the cell colonies. The particles penetrated into the cells in the case of the SCC cells. TEM images revealed very few particles in the keratinocyte, many more particles were observed sequestered in vacuole of the SCC cells. These results indicate that the keratinocyte layer behaves very different from the fibroblast layers which are much more sensate to TiO2 nanoparticle damage and may suggest a protection mechanism of the dermal tissue. The effect of UV exposure in the presence of DNA was also investigated. We found that adsorbed proteins, as well as grafted polymer provided a measure of protection against free radical formation. The effects of low level UV exposure when the particles are near in-vitro cell culture will be presented.

Lin, Chienhsiu; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Lee, Wilson; Rafailovich, Miriam

2009-03-01

249

Nanoparticle labeling of mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo imaging and tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells can differentiate into multiple cell types, and thus have the potential to be used for tissue repair and regeneration. However, the participation of stem cells in wound repair and neovascularization is not well understood. As a result, there is a need to monitor and track stem cells in vivo in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the wound healing response. Noninvasive, long-term imaging is ideal in order to track stem cells within a single animal model. Thus, we are interested in developing an imaging approach to track gold nanoparticle loaded mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vivo after delivery via a hydrogel. This study assessed the effect on cell function of loading MSCs with gold nanoparticles. We examined the loading of MSCs with gold nanoparticles of various sizes and surface coatings using darkfield microscopy. We also examined the effect of nanoparticle loading on cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation. The feasibility of imaging nanoparticle loaded MSCs was examined by assessing cell viability and MSC tubulogenesis following laser irradiation. Our results demonstrate that loading MSCs with gold nanoparticles does not compromise cell function. These findings lend to the possibility of imaging MSCs in vivo with optical imaging.

Ricles, Laura M.; Nam, Seung Yun; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav; Suggs, Laura J.

2011-03-01

250

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong ``positive'' contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M.; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-11-01

251

Colon cancer cells treated with 5?fluorouracil exhibit changes in polylactosamine?type N?glycans.  

PubMed

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the major chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma, which were found to have N-glycans containing polylactosamine on the cancer cell surface. Alterations in the expression and structure of polylactosamine glycans are associated with cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. However, little is known with regard to the correlation between the levels of polylactosamine expressed in colon cancer cells and the anticancer effect of 5-FU. In the present study, SW620 cells were treated with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50; determined by MTT-assay) of 5-FU. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis indicated that 5-FU administration resulted in apoptosis in SW620 cells. An increased percentage of cells in S phase was also observed among the SW620 cells treated with 5-FU. Under the same experimental conditions, a decrease in the 5-FU?induced inhibition of polylactosamine glycans was recorded. However, an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase was also observed. Furthermore, pretreatment of the SW620 cells with 5-FU inhibited the expression of ?1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-8 (?3Gn-T8) and cluster of differentiation (CD)147 in a time-dependent manner. Overall, changes in glycosylation were associated with the anticancer effect of 5-FU in the colon cancer cells. In conclusion, polylactosamine may be a useful target for the identification of substances with anticancer activity. PMID:24604396

Gao, Liping; Shen, Li; Yu, Meiyun; Ni, Jianlong; Dong, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Yinghui; Wu, Shiliang

2014-05-01

252

Effect of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide nanoparticles on hepatic cells of mouse: Low cytotoxicity, but efflux of the nanoparticles by ATP-binding cassette transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the effects of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide (PLA–PEG) nanoparticles on hepatic cells of mouse. Blank PLA–PEG nanoparticles have been successfully prepared and MTT assay suggested that the nanoparticles with HepG2 cell co-culture model did not cause significant changes in membrane integrity in controlled concentration range (0.001–0.1mg\\/ml). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that large dose of PLA–PEG

Yangde Zhang; Zhiyuan Hu; Maoying Ye; Yifeng Pan; Jiji Chen; Yulin Luo; Yanqiong Zhang; Lianxiang He; Jiwei Wang

2007-01-01

253

Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate\\/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1\\/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and

Viara Ivanova; Petia Petrova; Jordan Hristov

2011-01-01

254

Antiangiogenic cancer drug sunitinib exhibits unexpected proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential step for cancer progression, but antiangiogenic therapies have shown limited success. Therefore, a better understanding of the effects of antiangiogenic treatments on endothelial cells is necessary. In this study, we evaluate the changes in cell surface vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) expression on endothelial cells in culture treated with the antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug sunitinib, using quantitative flow cytometry. We find that proangiogenic VEGFR2 cell surface receptor numbers are increased with sunitinib treatment. This proangiogenic effect might account for the limited effects of sunitinib as a cancer therapy. We also find that this increase is inhibited by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. The complex dynamics of cell surface VEGFRs may be important for successful treatment of cancer with antiangiogenic therapeutics. PMID:25228815

Norton, Kerri-Ann; Han, Zheyi; Popel, Aleksander S; Pandey, Niranjan B

2014-01-01

255

Benign, 3D encapsulation of sensitive mammalian cells in porous silica gels formed by LysSil nanoparticle assembly  

E-print Network

­Sil nanoparticle assembly Mark A. Snyder, Döne Demirgöz, Efrosini Kokkoli *, Michael Tsapatsis * Department 2008 Keywords: Silica gels Nanoparticles Mammalian cell encapsulation Laser scanning confocal nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of the basic amino acid L-Lysine for encapsulation of living mammalian cells

Kokkoli, Efie

256

Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

Polf, Jerimy C.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Gillin, Michael

2011-05-01

257

Cells from long-lived mutant mice exhibit enhanced repair of UV lesions  

PubMed Central

Fibroblasts isolated from long-lived hypopituitary dwarf mice are resistant to many cell stresses, including UV light and MMS, which induce cell death by producing DNA damage. Here we report that cells from Snell dwarf mice recover more rapidly than controls from the inhibition of RNA synthesis induced by UV damage. Recovery of mRNA synthesis in particular is more rapid in dwarf cells, suggesting enhanced repair of the actively transcribing genes in dwarf-derived cells. At early timepoints, there was no difference in the repair of CPD or 6-4PP in the whole genome, nor was there any significant difference in the repair of UV lesions in specific genes. However, at later time points we found that more lesions had been removed from the genome of dwarf-derived cells. We have also found that cells from dwarf mice express higher levels of the nucleotide excision repair proteins XPC and CSA, suggesting a causal link to enhanced DNA repair. Overall, these data suggest a mechanism for the UV resistance of Snell dwarf-derived fibroblasts that could contribute to the delay of aging and neoplasia in these mice. PMID:18375871

Salmon, Adam B.; Ljungman, Mats; Miller, Richard A.

2009-01-01

258

Biofunctionalized nanoparticles with pH-responsive and cell penetrating blocks for gene delivery.  

PubMed

Bridging the gap between nanoparticulate delivery systems and translational gene therapy is a long sought after requirement in nanomedicine-based applications. However, recent developments regarding nanoparticle functionalization have brought forward the ability to synthesize materials with biofunctional moieties that mimic the evolved features of viral particles. Herein we report the versatile conjugation of both cell penetrating arginine and pH-responsive histidine moieties into the chitosan polymeric backbone, to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the native material. Amino acid coupling was confirmed by 2D TOCSY NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized chitosan-histidine-arginine (CH-H-R) polymer complexed plasmid DNA biopharmaceuticals, and spontaneously assembled into stable 105 nm nanoparticles with spherical morphology and positive surface charge. The functionalized delivery systems were efficiently internalized into the intracellular compartment, and exhibited remarkably higher transfection efficiency than unmodified chitosan without causing any cytotoxic effect. Additional findings regarding intracellular trafficking events reveal their preferential escape from degradative lysosomal pathways and nuclear localization. Overall, this assembly of nanocarriers with bioinspired moieties provides the foundations for the design of efficient and customizable materials for cancer gene therapy. PMID:23759860

Gaspar, V M; Marques, J G; Sousa, F; Louro, R O; Queiroz, J A; Correia, I J

2013-07-12

259

Piceatannol exhibits selective toxicity to multiple myeloma cells and influences the Wnt/ beta-catenin pathway.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling promotes development and progression of various malignant neoplasms. Recent studies observed that the Wnt pathway is constitutively active in myeloma cells and promotes an exaggerated proliferation. Thus, the Wnt signaling pathway might be an attractive therapeutic target for multiple myeloma. In this study, we identified piceatannol as an inhibitor of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and as a potent inducer of apoptosis in myeloma cells. Interestingly, healthy cells remained mainly unaffected. These results reveal a significant selective induction of apoptosis by piceatannol and suggest a significant in vivo effect against multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470348

Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Schmeel, Leonard Christopher; Kim, Young; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

2014-12-01

260

Assessment of the cytotoxicity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on selected mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of nanotechnology raises both enthusiasm and anxiety among researchers, which is related to the safety use of the manufactured materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on the viability of selected mammalian cells in vitro. The aluminium oxide nanoparticles were characterised using SEM and BET analyses. Based on

E. Radziun; J. Dudkiewicz Wilczy?ska; I. Ksi??ek; K. Nowak; E. L. Anuszewska; A. Kunicki; A. Olszyna; T. Z?bkowski

261

Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells by  

E-print Network

PEMFC Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to prepare Pt nanoparticles on gas diffusion electrode by varying the Ar pressure in the dsposition chamber. X-ray diffraction analysis and electrocatalytic activity of Pt

262

Different cell responses induced by exposure to maghemite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in nanotechnology have permitted the development of a wide repertoire of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with extensive promise for biomedical applications. Despite this remarkable potential, many questions still arise concerning the biocompatible nature of NPs when in contact with biological systems. Herein, we have investigated how controlled changes in the physicochemical properties of iron oxide NPs at their surface (i.e., surface charge and hydrodynamic size) affect, first, their interaction with cell media components and, subsequently, cell responses to NP exposure. For that purpose, we have prepared iron oxide NPs with three different coatings (i.e., dimercaptosuccinic acid - DMSA, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane - APS and dextran) and explored the response of two different cell types, murine L929 fibroblasts and human Saos-2 osteoblasts, to their exposure. Interestingly, different cell responses were found depending on the NP concentration, surface charge and cell type. In this sense, neutral NPs, as those coated with dextran, induced negligible cell damage, as their cellular internalization was significantly reduced. In contrast, surface-charged NPs (i.e., those coated with DMSA and APS) caused significant cellular changes in viability, morphology and cell cycle under certain culture conditions, as a result of a more active cellular internalization. These results also revealed a particular cellular ability to detect and remember the original physicochemical properties of the NPs, despite the formation of a protein corona when incubated in culture media. Overall, conclusions from these studies are of crucial interest for future biomedical applications of iron oxide NPs.Recent advances in nanotechnology have permitted the development of a wide repertoire of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with extensive promise for biomedical applications. Despite this remarkable potential, many questions still arise concerning the biocompatible nature of NPs when in contact with biological systems. Herein, we have investigated how controlled changes in the physicochemical properties of iron oxide NPs at their surface (i.e., surface charge and hydrodynamic size) affect, first, their interaction with cell media components and, subsequently, cell responses to NP exposure. For that purpose, we have prepared iron oxide NPs with three different coatings (i.e., dimercaptosuccinic acid - DMSA, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane - APS and dextran) and explored the response of two different cell types, murine L929 fibroblasts and human Saos-2 osteoblasts, to their exposure. Interestingly, different cell responses were found depending on the NP concentration, surface charge and cell type. In this sense, neutral NPs, as those coated with dextran, induced negligible cell damage, as their cellular internalization was significantly reduced. In contrast, surface-charged NPs (i.e., those coated with DMSA and APS) caused significant cellular changes in viability, morphology and cell cycle under certain culture conditions, as a result of a more active cellular internalization. These results also revealed a particular cellular ability to detect and remember the original physicochemical properties of the NPs, despite the formation of a protein corona when incubated in culture media. Overall, conclusions from these studies are of crucial interest for future biomedical applications of iron oxide NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional details about NP characterization and viability controls of Saos-2 osteoblasts. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02148c

Luengo, Yurena; Nardecchia, Stefania; Morales, María Puerto; Serrano, M. Concepción

2013-11-01

263

Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel Incorporated in PLGA Nanoparticles on Hypoxic Human Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this work was to prepare paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and determine cytotoxicity of released paclitaxel\\u000a for two hypoxic human tumor cell lines: breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and carcinoma cervicis (HeLa).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing paclitaxel were prepared by o\\/w emulsification-solvent evaporation\\u000a method. Physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was evaluated by transmission\\u000a electronic microscopy and

Cheng Jin; Ling Bai; Hong Wu; Wenjie Song; Guozhen Guo; Kefeng Dou

2009-01-01

264

CTAB capped silver nanoparticles for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the light harvesting efficiency of Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), we have explored the surface plasmon property of metal nanoparticles in this paper. Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) capped silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical method and studied for spectroscopic and structural investigations. FTIR confirms the capping of CTAB on silver nanoparticles occurs via their head group. Williamson Hall plot revealed the presence of tensile strain. Finally, these particles have been incorporated in DSSC to study the plasmonic effect of nanoparticles on performance of DSSC.

Tanvi, Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, Subodh

2014-04-01

265

Amorphous silica nanoparticles alter microtubule dynamics and cell migration.  

PubMed

Abstract Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) have been studied for their toxic and genotoxic potential. Although contradictory data have been reported and the possible modes of action are not fully elucidated, aneugenic events have been reported, indicating the microtubule (MT) network as a potential target. To investigate this, we examined the effects of 59?nm (10?µg/ml) and 174?nm (7.5?µg/ml) SiO2-NPs on MTs in mitotic and interphase A549 human lung carcinoma cells. No gross morphological changes of the mitotic spindle or induction of multipolar spindles were observed upon SiO2-NPs treatment. The influence of SiO2-NPs on the interphase MTs network dynamics was investigated by in situ depolymerisation/repolymerisation experiments. Results showed a clear increase in MT dynamics after SiO2-NP treatment. Consistent with this, reduced levels of MT acetylation were observed. In addition, live cell microscopy demonstrated that SiO2-NP treatment reduced A549 cell motility. The SiO2-NP doses and conditions (serum-free) used in this study did not induce significant cell toxicity or MN frequencies. Therefore, the effects on MT dynamics, MT acetylation and migration observed, are direct effects of the SiO2-NPs and not a consequence of NP overload or toxic or genotoxic effects. PMID:25325157

Gonzalez, Laetitia; De Santis Puzzonia, Marco; Ricci, Raffaele; Aureli, Federica; Guarguaglini, Giulia; Cubadda, Francesco; Leyns, Luc; Cundari, Enrico; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

2014-10-17

266

Genotoxic and cell-transforming effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The in vitro genotoxic and the soft-agar anchorage independent cell transformation ability of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its microparticulated form has been evaluated in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and in mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cells. Nano-TiO2 of two different sizes (21 and 50nm) were used in this study. The comet assay, with and without the use of FPG enzyme, the micronucleus assay and the soft-agar colony assay were used. For both the comet assay and the frequency of micronuclei a statistically significant induction of DNA damage, was observed at the highest dose tested (1000µg/mL). No oxidative DNA damage induction was observed when the comet assay was complemented with the use of FPG enzyme. Furthermore, long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 has also proved to induce cell-transformation promoting cell-anchorage independent growth in soft-agar. Results were similar for the two nano-TiO2 sizes. Negative results were obtained when the microparticulated form of TiO2 was tested, indicating the existence of important differences between the microparticulated and nanoparticulated forms. As a conclusion it should be indicated that the observed genotoxic/tranforming effects were only detected at the higher dose tested (1000µg/mL) what play down the real risk of environmental exposures to this nanomaterial. PMID:25460650

Demir, E?ref; Akça, Hakan; Turna, Fatma; Aksakal, Sezgin; Burgucu, Durmu?; Kaya, Bülent; Tokgün, Onur; Vales, Gerard; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

2015-01-01

267

The Fate of ZnO Nanoparticles Administered to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

A particular challenge for nanotoxicology is the evaluation of the biological fate and toxicity of nanomaterials that dissolve in aqueous fluids. Zinc oxide nanomaterials are of particular concern because dissolution leads to release of the toxic divalent zinc ion. Although dissolved zinc ions have been implicated in ZnO cytotoxicity, direct identification of the chemical form of zinc taken up by cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles, and its intracellular fate, has not yet been achieved. We combined high resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy and high elemental sensitivity X-ray microprobe analyses to determine the fate of ZnO and less soluble iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles following exposure to cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. We complemented two-dimensional X-ray imaging methods with atomic force microscopy of cell surfaces to distinguish between nanoparticles that were transported inside the cells from those that adhered to the cell exterior. The data suggest cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles is a mechanism of zinc accumulation in cells. Following uptake, ZnO nanoparticles dissolved completely generating intracellular Zn2+ complexed by molecular ligands. These results corroborate a model for ZnO nanoparticle toxicity that is based on nanoparticle uptake followed by intracellular dissolution. PMID:22646753

Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine C.; Xia, Tian; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E.

2014-01-01

268

Micropatterned mammalian cells exhibit phenotype-specific left-right asymmetry  

E-print Network

potentially be used as an effective in vitro tool to study the initiation of LR asymmetry in cell populations). Genetic diseases and prenatal exposure to teratogens can cause birth de- fects in laterality (5, 6). Using

Linhardt, Robert J.

269

Dunaliella salina exhibits an antileukemic immunity in a mouse model of WEHI-3 leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Dunaliella salina has been shown to have antioxidant property and induce apoptotic cell death of human cancer cells in vitro. However, there is no information available on D. salina showing an antileukemia effect or immunomodulatory activity in vivo. This study applied D. salina to syngeneic leukemia-implanted mice (BALB/c and WEHI-3) to investigate its immunological and antileukemia properties. Oral administration of D. salina (184.5, 369, and 922.5 mg/kg) inhibited spleen metastasis and prolonged the survival in BALB/c mice that had received an intravenous injection of WEHI-3 cells. The results revealed that D. salina had reduced spleen enlargement in murine leukemia. It had also increased the population and proliferation of T-cells (CD3) and B-cells (CD19) following Con A/LPS treatment on flow cytometry and MTT assay, respectively. Furthermore, D. salina increased the phagocytosis of macrophages and enhanced the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells on flow cytometry and LDH assay. Moreover, D. salina enhanced the levels of interferon-? and interleukin 2 (IL-2) but reduced the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in leukemic mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the application of D. salina had beneficial effects on WEHI-3 leukemic mice by prolonging survival via modulating the immune responses. PMID:25380534

Chuang, Wen-Chen; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lu, Fung-Jou

2014-11-26

270

In vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle: Oxidative damages on Hep G2 cells.  

PubMed

During the past years many studies have been done highlighting the great need for a more thorough understanding of cell-iron oxide nanoparticle interactions. To improve our knowledge in this field, there is a great need for standardized protocols that would allow to comparing the cytotoxic potential of any Fe2O3-NP type with previously studied particles. Several approaches are reported that several parameters which are of great importance for Fe2O3 nanoparticle induced toxicity. Nanoparticles because of their very small size can pass through the cell membrane and can make oxidative damage in all parts of the cells such as mitochondria, membrane, DNA due to high surface area. This study focuses on acute cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species and DNA damaging effects of mentioned nanoparticles. Results showed increase of the oxidative damage leads cells to the apoptosis, therefore reduced cell viability. It is interesting that all of the results are concentration and time dependent. PMID:25497787

Sadeghi, Leila; Tanwir, Farzeen; Yousefi Babadi, Vahid

2015-02-01

271

Release of Magnetic Nanoparticles from Cell-Encapsulating Biodegradable Nanobiomaterials  

PubMed Central

The future of tissue engineering requires development of intelligent biomaterials using nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have several applications in biology and medicine; one example is Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, MNPs have been encapsulated within cell-encapsulating hydrogels to create novel nanobiomaterials (i.e., M-gels), which can be manipulated and assembled in magnetic fields. The M-gels can be used as building blocks for bottom-up tissue engineering to create 3D tissue constructs. For tissue engineering applications of M-gels, it is essential to study the release of encapsulated MNPs from the hydrogel polymer network and the effect of MNPs on hydrogel properties, including mechanical characteristics, porosity, swelling behavior, and cellular response (e.g., viability, growth). Therefore, we evaluated the release of MNPs from photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate hydrogels as the polymer network undergoes biodegradation using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. MNP release correlated linearly with hydrogel biodegradation rate with correlation factors (Pearson product moment correlation coefficient) of 0.96 ± 0.03 and 0.99 ± 0.01 for MNP concentrations of 1% and 5%, respectively. We also evaluated the effect of MNPs on hydrogel mechanical properties, porosity, and swelling behavior, as well as cell viability and growth in MNP-encapsulating hydrogels. Fibroblasts encapsulated with MNPs in hydrogels remained viable (>80% at t = 144 h) and formed microtissue constructs in culture (t = 144 h). These results indicated that MNP-encapsulating hydrogels show promise as intelligent nanobiomaterials, with great potential to impact broad areas of bioengineering, including tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22680777

Xu, Feng; Inci, Fatih; Mullick, Omer; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Sung, Yuree; Kavaz, Doga; Li, Baoqiang; Denkbas, Emir Baki; Demirci, Utkan

2013-01-01

272

MRI of Breast Tumor Initiating Cells Using the Extra Domain-B of Fibronectin Targeting Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The identification of breast tumor initiating cells (BTICs) is important for the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancers. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the extra domain-B of fibronectin (EDB-FN) could be used as a new biomarker for BTICs and whether EDB-FN targeting superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) could be used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for BTIC imaging in vitro and in vivo. BTICs (NDY-1) exhibited high EDB-FN expression, whereas non-BTICs (MCF-7, BT-474, SUM-225, MDA-MB-231) did not exhibit EDB-FN expression. Furthermore, Cy3.3-labeled EDB-FN specific peptides (APTEDB) showed preferential binding to the targeted NDY-1 cells. To construct an EDB-FN targeted imaging probe, APTEDB was covalently attached to a thermally cross-linked SPION (TCL-SPION) to yield APTEDB-TCL-SPION. In the in vitro MRI of cell phantoms, selective binding of APTEDB-TCL-SPION to NDY-1 cells was evident, but little binding was observed in MCF-7 cells. After the intravenous injection of APTEDB-TCL-SPION into the NDY-1 mouse tumor xenograft model, a significant decrease in the signal within the tumor was observed in the T2*-weighted images; however, there was only a marginal change in the signal of non-targeting SPIONs such as APTscramble-TCL-SPION or TCL-SPION. Taken together, we report for the first time that EDB-FN was abundantly expressed in BTICs and may therefore be useful as a new biomarker for identifying BTICs. Our study also suggests that APTEDB-TCL-SPION could be used as an MRI contrast agent for BTIC imaging. PMID:24955145

Sun, Yujin; Kim, Hoe Suk; Park, Jinho; Li, Mulan; Tian, Lianji; Choi, YoonSeok; Choi, Byung Ihn; Jon, Sangyong; Moon, Woo Kyung

2014-01-01

273

MRI of breast tumor initiating cells using the extra domain-B of fibronectin targeting nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The identification of breast tumor initiating cells (BTICs) is important for the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancers. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the extra domain-B of fibronectin (EDB-FN) could be used as a new biomarker for BTICs and whether EDB-FN targeting superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) could be used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for BTIC imaging in vitro and in vivo. BTICs (NDY-1) exhibited high EDB-FN expression, whereas non-BTICs (MCF-7, BT-474, SUM-225, MDA-MB-231) did not exhibit EDB-FN expression. Furthermore, Cy3.3-labeled EDB-FN specific peptides (APTEDB) showed preferential binding to the targeted NDY-1 cells. To construct an EDB-FN targeted imaging probe, APTEDB was covalently attached to a thermally cross-linked SPION (TCL-SPION) to yield APTEDB-TCL-SPION. In the in vitro MRI of cell phantoms, selective binding of APTEDB-TCL-SPION to NDY-1 cells was evident, but little binding was observed in MCF-7 cells. After the intravenous injection of APTEDB-TCL-SPION into the NDY-1 mouse tumor xenograft model, a significant decrease in the signal within the tumor was observed in the T2*-weighted images; however, there was only a marginal change in the signal of non-targeting SPIONs such as APTscramble-TCL-SPION or TCL-SPION. Taken together, we report for the first time that EDB-FN was abundantly expressed in BTICs and may therefore be useful as a new biomarker for identifying BTICs. Our study also suggests that APTEDB-TCL-SPION could be used as an MRI contrast agent for BTIC imaging. PMID:24955145

Sun, Yujin; Kim, Hoe Suk; Park, Jinho; Li, Mulan; Tian, Lianji; Choi, YoonSeok; Choi, Byung Ihn; Jon, Sangyong; Moon, Woo Kyung

2014-01-01

274

Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan. Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter) were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (?20 µg·mL?1 Ag-NP; ?1.5 µg·mL?1 Ag+ ions) but not with low-concentration treatments (?10 µg·mL?1 Ag-NP; ?1.0 µg·mL?1 Ag+ ions). Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of specific biomarkers, including adiponectin (adipocytes) and osteocalcin (osteoblasts). Conclusion: Aside from the well-studied antibacterial effect of silver, little is known about the influence of nano-silver on cell differentiation processes. Our results demonstrate that ionic or nanoparticulate silver attenuates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs even at non-toxic concentrations. Therefore, more studies are needed to investigate the effects of silver species on cells at low concentrations during long-term treatment.

Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Köller, Manfred

2014-01-01

275

Metre-long cell-laden microfibres exhibit tissue morphologies and functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial reconstruction of fibre-shaped cellular constructs could greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro. Here we show that, by using a microfluidic device with double-coaxial laminar flow, metre-long core-shell hydrogel microfibres encapsulating ECM proteins and differentiated cells or somatic stem cells can be fabricated, and that the microfibres reconstitute intrinsic morphologies and functions of living tissues. We also show that these functional fibres can be assembled, by weaving and reeling, into macroscopic cellular structures with various spatial patterns. Moreover, fibres encapsulating primary pancreatic islet cells and transplanted through a microcatheter into the subrenal capsular space of diabetic mice normalized blood glucose concentrations for about two weeks. These microfibres may find use as templates for the reconstruction of fibre-shaped functional tissues that mimic muscle fibres, blood vessels or nerve networks in vivo.

Onoe, Hiroaki; Okitsu, Teru; Itou, Akane; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Gojo, Riho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Miura, Shigenori; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Matsunaga, Yukiko T.; Shimoyama, Yuto; Takeuchi, Shoji

2013-06-01

276

Chronically HIV-1 Infected Patients Exhibit Low Frequencies of CD25+ Regulatory T Cells  

PubMed Central

The characterization of regulatory T cells (Treg) during HIV infection has become of particular interest considering their potential role in the pathogenesis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Different reports on Tregs in HIV-infected patients vary greatly, depending on the state of disease progression, anatomical compartment, and the phenotypic markers used to define this cell subpopulation. To determine the frequency of Tregs we included paired samples from peripheral blood and rectal biopsies from controls and chronic HIV patients with or without detectable viral load. Tregs were determined by flow cytometry using three different protocols: CD4+Foxp3+; CD4+Foxp3+CD127Low/-, and CD4+CD25+CD127Low/-. In addition, and with the purpose to compare the different protocols we also characterized Tregs in peripheral blood of HIV negative individuals with influenza like symptoms. Here, we report that Treg characterization in HIV-infected patients as CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+Foxp3+CD127Low/- cells was similar, indicating that both protocols represent a suitable method to determine the frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). In contrast, in HIV but not in flu-like patients, detection of Tregs as CD4+CD25+CD127Low/- cells resulted in a significantly lower percentage of these cells. In both, HIV patients and controls the frequency of Treg was significantly higher in GALT compared to PBMC. The frequency of Tregs in PBMC and GALT using CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+Foxp3+CD127Low/- was higher in HIV patients than in controls. Similarly, the frequency of Treg using any protocol was higher in flu-like patients compared to controls. The results suggest that relying on the expression of CD25 could be unsuitable to characterize Tregs in PBMC and GALT samples from a chronic infection such as HIV. PMID:22582105

Rios, Cesar Mauricio Rueda; Velilla, Paula Andrea; Rugeles, Maria Teresa

2012-01-01

277

Paracrine signalling events in embryonic stem cell renewal mediated by affinity targeted nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Paracrine signalling events in embryonic stem cell renewal mediated by affinity targeted: Embryonic stem cell Biodegradable nanoparticles Paracrine delivery Renewal a b s t r a c t Stem cell growth and pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) was encapsulated in biodegradable

Fahmy, Tarek

278

Lead sulfide nanoparticles increase cell wall chitin content and induce apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Although there have been numerous studies on bacterial toxicity, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles toward fungi remains poorly understood. We investigated the toxicity of various sizes of lead sulfide particles against the important model fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The smallest particle exerted the highest toxicity, inhibiting cell growth and decreasing cell viability, likely reflecting reduced sedimentation and persistent cell wall attack. In response to cell wall stress, S. cerevisiae showed an increase in the cell wall chitin content and the overexpression of FKS2 and PRM5, two genes of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Cell wall stress increased the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis. The contribution of dissolved lead ions to the overall toxicity was negligible. These findings provide the first demonstration of the physiological protective response of a fungus toward nanoparticles, thereby contributing useful information to the assessment of the environmental impact of metal nanoparticles. PMID:24704549

Sun, Meiqing; Yu, Qilin; Hu, Mengyuan; Hao, Zhenwei; Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingchun

2014-05-30

279

Dynamic investigation of interaction of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with epithelial cells for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanoparticles have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine since they can be used in medicine for diagnosis and/or therapeutic treatment of diseases. Among many therapeutic applications of iron-based nanoparticles, drug delivery and photothermal therapy are of particular interest. At cellular level their uptake has been studied and the mechanism by which nanoparticles enter into the cell has important implication not only for their fate but also for their impact on the biological systems. We present here a dynamic investigation of interaction of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles coated with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and labeled with tetra-methylrhodamine-5/6-isothiocyanate with lung epithelial cells. Our data show that after macropinocytosis-mediated internalization, nanoparticles in form of vesicles approach the nucleus and converge in the more acidic compartments of the cells in a microtubule-dependent manner. During progression the nanoparticles aggregate. Finally, we have demonstrated that a converging laser radiation on the cells, causes the increase in the local temperature and thus damages the cells, suggesting that these nanoparticles may be applied for photothermal therapy studies. PMID:23980503

Panariti, Alice; Lettiero, Barbara; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Collini, Maddalena; Sironi, Laura; Chanana, Munish; Morjan, Ion; Wang, Dayan; Chirico, Giuseppe; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Bucci, Cecilia; Rivolta, Ilaria

2013-09-01

280

3-O-Acetyloleanolic acid exhibits anti-angiogenic effects and induces apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  

PubMed

3-O-Acetyloleanolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from cowpea seeds, inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. HUVECs. The induced apoptosis was characterized by detection of cell surface annexin V and sub-G1 populations. The number of cells immunostained with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate increased after treatment with 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid. The sub-G1 cell populations were also increased in treated HUVECs. 3-O-Acetyloleanolic acid induced activation of caspase 3, a critical mediator of apoptosis signaling. It also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in an in vivo Matrigel plug assay. 3-O-Acetyloleanolic acid thus exhibits anti-angiogenic effects and induces apoptosis in HUVECs and the results suggest that it has a potential use for suppression of the tumor growth stimulated by angiogenesis. PMID:23801119

Cui, En-Ji; Hwang-Bo, Jeon; Park, Jong-Hwa; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Gil; Chung, In Sik

2013-11-01

281

Structural responses of cells to intracellular magnetic force induced by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we study the effects of intracellular force on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We generated intracellular force on endothelial cells under different magnetic fields using the cell uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Cell responses to intracellular force were observed using fluorescent microscopy. Our results indicated that nanoparticles were taken up by the cell by endocytosis and were deposited in lysosomes. Nanoparticles and lysosomes inside the cell could be relocated by the application of a magnetic force. The intracellular magnetic force could also be used to accelerate cell migration by adjusting the magnetic fields and giving the cell free culture space. No cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was found in our experiments. By comparing intracellular relocalization with migration of the whole cell, we obtained a better understanding of the self-defence mechanisms of cells based on their mechanical properties. Based on the promising mechanical properties and low cytotoxicity of our magnetic nanoparticles, their potential applications in cytomechanics and cell patterning are discussed. PMID:24336693

Shen, Han; Tong, Sheng; Bao, Gang; Wang, Biao

2014-01-01

282

SiC nanoparticles cyto- and genotoxicity to Hep-G2 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While emerging nanotechnologies have seen significant development in recent years, knowledge on exposure levels as well as data on toxicity of nanoparticles are still quite limited. Indeed, there is a general agreement that development of nanotechnologies may lead to considerable dissemination of nanoparticles in the environment. Nevertheless, questions relative to toxicity versus innocuousness of such materials still remain. Our present study has thus been carried out with the purpose of assessing some aspects of toxicological capacities of three kinds of nano-sized particles: TiO2 and SiC nanoparticles, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). In order to address the question of their potential toxicity toward living cells, we chose several cellular models. Assuming inhalation as the most probable exposure scenario, we used A549 alveolar epithelial cells as a model for mammalian primary target organ (lung). Furthermore, we considered that nanoparticles that would deposit into the pulmonary system may be translocated to the circulatory system. Thus, we decided to study the effect of nanoparticles on potentially secondary target organs: liver (WIF-B9, Can-10, HepG2) and kidneys (NRK-52E, LLC-PK1). Herein, we will focus our attention on results obtained on the HepG2 cell line exposed to SiC nanoparticles. Scarce literature exists on SiC nanotoxicology. According to the authors that have already carried out studies on this particular nanoparticle, it would seem that SiC nanoparticles do not induce cytotoxicity. That is one of the reasons of the potential use of these nanoparticles as biological labels [1]. We thus were interested in acquiring more data on biological effects induced by SiC nanoparticles. Furthermore, one of the particular aspects of the present study lies in the fact that we tried to specify the influence of physico-chemical characteristics of nanoparticles on toxicological endpoints (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity).

Barillet, Sabrina; Jugan, Mary-Line; Simon-Deckers, Angélique; Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Mayne-l'Hermite, Martine; Reynaud, Cécile; Carrière, Marie

2009-05-01

283

Silica nanoparticles for cell imaging and intracellular sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in the use of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications. In particular, nanobiophotonic approaches using fluorescence offers the potential of high sensitivity and selectivity in applications such as cell imaging and intracellular sensing. In this review, we focus primarily on the use of fluorescent silica NPs for these applications and, in so doing, aim to enhance and complement the key recent review articles on these topics. We summarize the main synthetic approaches, namely the Stöber and microemulsion processes, and, in this context, we deal with issues in relation to both covalent and physical incorporation of different types of dyes in the particles. The important issue of NP functionalization for conjugation to biomolecules is discussed and strategies published in the recent literature are highlighted and evaluated. We cite recent examples of the use of fluorescent silica NPs for cell imaging in the areas of cancer, stem cell and infectious disease research, and we review the current literature on the use of silica NPs for intracellular sensing of oxygen, pH and ionic species. We include a short final section which seeks to identify the main challenges and obstacles in relation to the potential widespread use of these particles for in vivo diagnostics and therapeutics.

Korzeniowska, B.; Nooney, R.; Wencel, D.; McDonagh, C.

2013-11-01

284

Evidence that chlormadinone acetate exhibits antiandrogenic activity in androgen-dependent cell line.  

PubMed

Chlormadinone acetate (CMA), like other 17-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives, is thought to be a potential antiandrogen on the basis of its effect on spontaneous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs. This work was undertaken to find out whether CMA presents antiandrogen activity in human androgen-dependent cell line. For this purpose, we used PALM cells, the PC-3 cell line stably transfected with human androgen receptor and a luciferase gene under transcriptional control of MMTV. Potential antiandrogenic activity was compared with that of cyproterone acetate (CPA), a standard steroidal antiandrogen. Both compounds were tested in competitive binding assays at 37 degrees C in the presence of 1 nM of [3H] R1881, a synthetic and non-metabolizable androgen. Their impact on AR transcriptional activity was evaluated by the measure of luciferase activity in the presence of R1881 with increasing concentrations of CMA or CPA (10(-8)-10(-6) M). In whole cell binding assays, competitive studies revealed that the Ki for CMA was 3.3 +/- 1.5 x 10(-8) M (versus 7.2 +/- 1.3 x 10(-8) M for CPA). Inhibition of AR transcriptional activity was 40 +/- 5% for CMA (3 x 10(-7) M) versus 59 +/- 6% for CPA at the same concentration. Moreover, CMA caused a slower import of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AR to the nuclei of COS-7 cells than R1881. These data show that CMA exerted a competitive binding for AR and significantly decreased the AR transcriptional activity. In conclusion, this synthetic progestin presents simultaneous antiandrogenic activity that could be helpful as a new therapeutic option in women with luteal defect along with clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. PMID:12573824

Térouanne, Béatrice; Paris, Françoise; Servant, Nadège; Georget, Virginie; Sultan, Charles

2002-12-30

285

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell extracts of Anabaena doliolum and screening of its antibacterial and antitumor activity.  

PubMed

In the present work, we describe a simple, cheap, and unexplored method for "green" synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell extracts of the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. An attempt was also made to test the antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the synthesized nanoparticles. Analytical techniques, namely UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and TEMselected area electron diffraction, were used to elucidate the formation and characterization of silver-cyanobacterial nanoparticles (Ag-CNPs). Results showed that the original color of the cell extract changed from reddish blue to dark brown after addition of silver nitrate solution (1 mM) within 1 h, suggesting the synthesis of Ag-CNPs. That the formation Ag-CNPs indeed occurred was also evident from the spectroscopic analysis of the reaction mixture, wherein a prominent peak at 420 nm was noted. TEM images revealed well-dispersed, spherical Ag- CNPs with a particle size in the range of 10-50 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum suggested a crystalline nature of the Ag-CNPs. FTIR analysis indicated the utilization of a hydroxyl (-OH) group in the formation of Ag-CNPs. Ag-CNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against three multidrug-resistant bacteria. Additionally, Ag-CNPs strongly affected the survival of Dalton's lymphoma and human carcinoma colo205 cells at a very low concentration. The Ag-CNPs-induced loss of survival of both cell types may be due to the induction of reactive oxygen species generation and DNA fragmentation, resulting in apoptosis. Properties exhibited by the Ag-CNP suggest that it may be used as a potential antibacterial and antitumor agent. PMID:24986675

Singh, Garvita; Babele, Piyoosh K; Shahi, Shailesh K; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Tyagi, Madhu B; Kumar, Ashok

2014-10-01

286

One-step bulk synthesis of stable, near unit-cell sized oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle blends using KO2.  

PubMed

Presented here is a novel one-step synthesis of oxide or hydroxide nanoparticles using, for the first time, potassium superoxide (KO2). This work demonstrates that the reaction of KO2 with different salt solutions produces grams of stable, near unit-cell sized nanoparticles. This new synthetic technique is applied to representative elements from across the periodic table to rapidly produce nanometer sized oxides or hydroxides of Mg, Al, Y, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Ce. This technique is also used to produce blends of nanoparticles, demonstrating the ability to prepare complex materials such as nanoparticulate blends of a lithium cathode material (LiCoO2), the multiferroic compound (BiMnO(3+?)), and the superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-?). PMID:24724979

Sutto, Thomas E

2014-05-01

287

Evaluating Cytotoxicity of Hyaluronate Targeted Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Etoposide on SK-OV-3 Cells  

PubMed Central

The epithelial ovarian carcinoma is one of the most fatal gynecological cancers. Etoposide is used in treating platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Sodium hyaluronate is a substance that binds to the CD44 receptors overexpressed in SK-OV-3 cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The aim of the present work was to study the cytotoxicity effect of hyaluronate targeted solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells. The cytotoxicity of the targeted and nontargeted SLNs of etoposide was compared to free drug on the SK-OV-3 cells by MTT assay method. The cellular uptake of the targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles containing sodium fluorescein was also studied. The difference of cell vitality between nontargeted nanoparticles and also targeted nanoparticles with free drug was significant. Targeted nanoparticles also caused more toxicity than nontargeted nanoparticles (P < 0.05). After 4 hours of incubating, the fluorescence was remarkably higher in the cells treated by targeted SLNs rather than nontargeted ones, and there was no observable fluorescence in cells incubated with pure sodium fluorescein. Hyaluronate targeted SLNs containing etoposide increased the cytotoxicity of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells which may be a worthwhile potential method for reducing the prescribed dose and systemic side effects of this drug in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24868467

Varshosaz, Jaleh; Sadeghi Aliabadi, Hojatollah

2014-01-01

288

Novel cytotoxic exhibition mode of antimicrobial peptide anoplin in MEL cells, the cell line of murine Friend leukemia virus-induced leukemic cells.  

PubMed

Anoplin is a recently discovered antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the venom sac of the spider wasp Anoplius samariensis, and it is one of the shortest ?-helical AMP found naturally to date consisting of only ten amino acids. Previous results showed that anoplin exhibits potent antimicrobial activity but little hemolytic activity. In this study, we synthesized anoplin, studied its cytotoxicity in Friend virus-induced leukemia cells [murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells], and proposed its possible mechanism. Our results showed that anoplin could inhibit the proliferation of MEL cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner via disrupting the integrity of cell membrane, which indicated that anoplin exerts its cytotoxicity efficacy. In addition, the cell cycle distribution of MEL cells was arrested in the G?/G? phase significantly. However, anoplin could not induce obvious apoptosis in MEL cells, as well as anoplin could not induce visible changes on morphology and quantity in the bone marrow cells isolated from normal mice. All of these results indicate that anoplin, as generally believed, is a selective AMP, a value characteristic in the design of safe therapeutic agents. The cytotoxicity of anoplin on MEL cells was mainly attributable to the plasma membrane perturbation and also to the intracellular events such as the arrest of cell cycle. Although this is an initial study that explored the activity of anoplin in vitro rather than in vivo, with the increasing resistance of conventional chemotherapy, there is no doubt that anoplin has desirable feature to be developed as a novel and selective anticancer agent. PMID:23873700

Zhu, Li-Na; Fu, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Fu; Chen, Wei; Jin, Yuan-Ting; Zhao, Fu-Kun

2013-09-01

289

Engineering of Targeted Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Using Internalizing Aptamers Isolated by Cell-Uptake Selection  

E-print Network

One of the major challenges in the development of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer therapy is to discover targeting ligands that allow for differential binding and uptake by the target cancer cells. Using prostate ...

Xiao, Zeyu

290

High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching  

E-print Network

Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

Hsu, W. Chuck

2012-01-01

291

A cell-based model exhibiting branching and anastomosis during tumor-induced angiogenesis.  

PubMed

This work describes the first cell-based model of tumor-induced angiogenesis. At the extracellular level, the model describes diffusion, uptake, and decay of tumor-secreted pro-angiogenic factor. At the cellular level, the model uses the cellular Potts model based on system-energy reduction to describe endothelial cell migration, growth, division, cellular adhesion, and the evolving structure of the stroma. Numerical simulations show: 1), different tumor-secreted pro-angiogenic factor gradient profiles dramatically affect capillary sprout morphology; 2), average sprout extension speeds depend on the proximity of the proliferating region to the sprout tip, and the coordination of cellular functions; and 3), inhomogeneities in the extravascular tissue lead to sprout branching and anastomosis, phenomena that emerge without any prescribed rules. This model provides a quantitative framework to test hypotheses on the biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms that control tumor-induced angiogenesis. PMID:17277180

Bauer, Amy L; Jackson, Trachette L; Jiang, Yi

2007-05-01

292

The transport pathways of polymer nanoparticles in MDCK epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Epithelial cell membranes as the typical biological barrier constitute the prime obstacle for the transport of therapeutic agents including nanomedicines. The previous studies on the interaction between nanomedicines and cells are mostly emphasized on cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking, but seldom on epithelial cells, although more and more oral nanomedicines are available now. In an attempt to clarify the transport pathways of nanomedicines in epithelial cells, the different molecular mechanisms among endocytosis, exocytosis and transcytosis processes were carefully studied and compared here using a kind of polymer nanoparticles (PNs) and MDCK epithelial cells as models. As the result, their similarity and difference were demonstrated. The similarities among all the three processes included the mediation of lipid rafts, the involvement of some protein kinases such as protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and the existence of multiple pathways. However, the difference among these processes was very significant, including different pathways, and especially the disparate effects of lipid rafts and protein kinases for different processes. The endocytosis involved both lipid raft and clathrin mechanisms but no macropinocytosis, via the invagination of membrane but no pore formation, the exocytosis contained ER/Golgi and Golgi/PM pathways, and transcytosis included AEE/CE/BSE and Golgi/BSE pathways. The roles of lipid rafts on endocytosis were positive but that on exocytosis and transcytosis was negative. The impacts of PTK and PKC on endocytosis were positive, while the influences of PTK, PKC and P13K on AEE/CE/BSE, as well as PTK and P13K on Golgi/BSE transcytosis pathways were negative. Moreover, the discrepancy between inward and outward transport of PNs elucidated an interesting fact that the endocytosis was rather easy and outward transport including exocytosis and transcytosis was rather difficult. Finally, it was indicated by comparison with previous reports that the molecular mechanisms between PNs and macromolecules such as proteins were also dissimilar. PMID:23478037

He, Bing; Jia, Zengrong; Du, Wenwen; Yu, Chao; Fan, Yuchen; Dai, Wenbing; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

2013-06-01

293

Viola tricolor induces apoptosis in cancer cells and exhibits antiangiogenic activity on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.  

PubMed

In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0-800??g/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:25243166

Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani Hesari, Taghi; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Ghorbani, Ahmad

2014-01-01

294

VMP1-deficient Chlamydomonas exhibits severely aberrant cell morphology and disrupted cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

Background The versatile Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 (VMP1) has been previously investigated in six species. It has been shown to be essential in macroautophagy, where it takes part in autophagy initiation. In addition, VMP1 has been implicated in organellar biogenesis; endo-, exo- and phagocytosis, and protein secretion; apoptosis; and cell adhesion. These roles underly its proven involvement in pancreatitis, diabetes and cancer in humans. Results In this study we analyzed a VMP1 homologue from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. CrVMP1 knockdown lines showed severe phenotypes, mainly affecting cell division as well as the morphology of cells and organelles. We also provide several pieces of evidence for its involvement in macroautophagy. Conclusion Our study adds a novel role to VMP1's repertoire, namely the regulation of cytokinesis. Though the directness of the observed effects and the mechanisms underlying them remain to be defined, the protein's involvement in macroautophagy in Chlamydomonas, as found by us, suggests that CrVMP1 shares molecular characteristics with its animal and protist counterparts. PMID:24885763

2014-01-01

295

In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

Park, Margriet V.D.Z. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: Margriet.Park@rivm.nl; Annema, Wijtske [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna [Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan [Centre for Molecular Bioscience, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A. [Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Wim H. de [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2009-10-01

296

Cytotoxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is influenced by cell density and culture format  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parameter that has often been overlooked in cytotoxicity assays is the density and confluency of mammalian cell monolayers\\u000a utilized for toxicology screening. Hence, this study investigated how different cell seeding densities influenced their response\\u000a to cytotoxic challenge with ZnO nanoparticles. Utilizing the same volume (1 ml per well) and concentration range (5–40 ?g\\/ml)\\u000a of ZnO nanoparticles, contradictory results were observed with

Boon Chin Heng; Xinxin Zhao; Sijing Xiong; Kee Woei Ng; Freddy Yin-Chiang Boey; Joachim Say-Chye Loo

2011-01-01

297

Defining the Subcellular Interface of Nanoparticles by Live-Cell Imaging  

PubMed Central

Understanding of nanoparticle-bio-interactions within living cells requires knowledge about the dynamic behavior of nanomaterials during their cellular uptake, intracellular traffic and mutual reactions with cell organelles. Here, we introduce a protocol of combined kinetic imaging techniques that enables investigation of exemplary fluorochrome-labelled nanoparticles concerning their intracellular fate. By time-lapse confocal microscopy we observe fast, dynamin-dependent uptake of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles via the cell membrane within seconds. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments reveal fast and complete exchange of the investigated nanoparticles at mitochondria, cytoplasmic vesicles or the nuclear envelope. Nuclear translocation is observed within minutes by free diffusion and active transport. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) indicate diffusion coefficients of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles in the nucleus and the cytoplasm that are consistent with particle motion in living cells based on diffusion. Determination of the apparent hydrodynamic radii by FCS and RICS shows that nanoparticles exert their cytoplasmic and nuclear effects mainly as mobile, monodisperse entities. Thus, a complete toolkit of fluorescence fluctuation microscopy is presented for the investigation of nanomaterial biophysics in subcellular microenvironments that contributes to develop a framework of intracellular nanoparticle delivery routes. PMID:23637951

Hemmerich, Peter H.; von Mikecz, Anna H.

2013-01-01

298

Defining the subcellular interface of nanoparticles by live-cell imaging.  

PubMed

Understanding of nanoparticle-bio-interactions within living cells requires knowledge about the dynamic behavior of nanomaterials during their cellular uptake, intracellular traffic and mutual reactions with cell organelles. Here, we introduce a protocol of combined kinetic imaging techniques that enables investigation of exemplary fluorochrome-labelled nanoparticles concerning their intracellular fate. By time-lapse confocal microscopy we observe fast, dynamin-dependent uptake of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles via the cell membrane within seconds. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments reveal fast and complete exchange of the investigated nanoparticles at mitochondria, cytoplasmic vesicles or the nuclear envelope. Nuclear translocation is observed within minutes by free diffusion and active transport. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) indicate diffusion coefficients of polystyrene and silica nanoparticles in the nucleus and the cytoplasm that are consistent with particle motion in living cells based on diffusion. Determination of the apparent hydrodynamic radii by FCS and RICS shows that nanoparticles exert their cytoplasmic and nuclear effects mainly as mobile, monodisperse entities. Thus, a complete toolkit of fluorescence fluctuation microscopy is presented for the investigation of nanomaterial biophysics in subcellular microenvironments that contributes to develop a framework of intracellular nanoparticle delivery routes. PMID:23637951

Hemmerich, Peter H; von Mikecz, Anna H

2013-01-01

299

Cetuximab conjugated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for targeting EGFR overexpressing cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nanoparticle mediated delivery of antineoplastic agents, functionalized with monoclonal antibodies has achieved extraordinary potential in cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to develop a drug delivery system comprising O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) nanoparticles, surface-conjugated with Cetuximab (Cet) for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTXL) to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) over-expressing cancer cells. Nanoparticles around 180±35nm and negatively charged were prepared through simple ionic gelation technique. The alamar blue assay indicated that these targeted nanoparticles displayed a superior anticancer activity compared to non-targeted nanoparticles. The nanoformulation triggered enhanced cell death (confirmed by flow cytometry) due to its higher cellular uptake. The selective uptake of Cet-PTXL-O-CMC nanoparticles by EGFR +VE cancer cells (A549, A431 and SKBR3) compared to EGFR -VE MIAPaCa-2 cells confirms the active targeting and delivery of PTXL via the targeted nanomedicine. Cet-PTXL-O-CMC nanoparticles can be used a promising candidate for the targeted therapy of EGFR over expressing cancers. PMID:23499109

Maya, S; Kumar, Lekshmi G; Sarmento, Bruno; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

2013-04-01

300

Factors affecting T cell responses induced by fully synthetic glyco-gold-nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized and characterized nearly monodisperse and highly pure gold nanoparticles (2 and 5 nm) coated with non-immunoactive mono- and disaccharides, modelled after the capsular polysaccharide of serogroup A of the Neisseria meningitidis bacterium. We have used them to test their ability to induce immune cell responses as a consequence of their multivalency. The results indicate that they are indeed immunoactive and that immunoactivity is strongly dependent on size, and larger, 5 nm nanoparticles perform far better than smaller, 2 nm ones. Immune response (activation of macrophages) initiates with the whole nanoparticle recognition by the surface of antigen-presenting cells, independent of the saccharide oligomerization (or charge) on the nanoparticle surface. The induction of T cell proliferation and the increase of IL-2 levels, a consequence of the expression of MHC II involved in antigen presentation, require the presence of a disaccharide on the nanoparticle, not just a monosaccharide. A possible explanation is that, at this stage, the saccharides are detached from the gold surface. These results may provide leads for designing new saccharide-based, nanoparticle-conjugate vaccines.We have synthesized and characterized nearly monodisperse and highly pure gold nanoparticles (2 and 5 nm) coated with non-immunoactive mono- and disaccharides, modelled after the capsular polysaccharide of serogroup A of the Neisseria meningitidis bacterium. We have used them to test their ability to induce immune cell responses as a consequence of their multivalency. The results indicate that they are indeed immunoactive and that immunoactivity is strongly dependent on size, and larger, 5 nm nanoparticles perform far better than smaller, 2 nm ones. Immune response (activation of macrophages) initiates with the whole nanoparticle recognition by the surface of antigen-presenting cells, independent of the saccharide oligomerization (or charge) on the nanoparticle surface. The induction of T cell proliferation and the increase of IL-2 levels, a consequence of the expression of MHC II involved in antigen presentation, require the presence of a disaccharide on the nanoparticle, not just a monosaccharide. A possible explanation is that, at this stage, the saccharides are detached from the gold surface. These results may provide leads for designing new saccharide-based, nanoparticle-conjugate vaccines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S10 mentioned in the text related to the syntheses of nanosystems, nanoparticle characterization, and biological tests. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32338a

Fallarini, Silvia; Paoletti, Tiziana; Battaglini, Carolina Orsi; Ronchi, Paolo; Lay, Luigi; Bonomi, Renato; Jha, Satadru; Mancin, Fabrizio; Scrimin, Paolo; Lombardi, Grazia

2012-12-01

301

Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using normal, glia and breast cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal the biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate cytotoxicity tests were performed as a function of concentration from low (0.1 µg ml-1) to higher concentration (100 µg ml-1) using various human glia, human breast cancer and normal cell lines. Cytotoxicity tests for human glia (D54MG, G9T, SF126, U87, U251, U373), human breast cancer (MB157, SKBR3, T47D) and normal (H184B5F5/M10, WI-38, SVGp12) cell lines exhibited almost nontoxicity and reveal biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the concentration range of 0.1-10 µg ml-1, while accountable cytotoxicity can be seen at 100 µg ml-1. The results of our studies suggest that Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate are biocompatible and promising for bio-applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia.

Ankamwar, B.; Lai, T. C.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.; Hsiao, M.; Chen, C. H.; Hwu, Y. K.

2010-02-01

302

Toxicity and antibacterial assessment of chitosancoated silver nanoparticles on human pathogens and macrophage cells  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogenic bacteria are able to develop various strategies to counteract the bactericidal action of antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to synthesize chitosan-stabilized AgNPs (CS-AgNPs) and test for their cytotoxic, genotoxic, macrophage cell uptake, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activities. Methods AgNPs were synthesized using chitosan as both a stabilizing and a reducing agent. Antibacterial activity was determined by colony-forming unit assay and scanning electron microscopy. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activity were determined by DNA fragmentation, comet, and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays. Cellular uptake and intracellular antibacterial activity were tested on macrophages. Results CS-AgNPs exhibited potent antibacterial activity against different human pathogens and also impeded bacterial biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that CS-AgNPs kill bacteria by disrupting the cell membrane. CS-AgNPs showed no significant cytotoxic or DNA damage effect on macrophages at the bactericidal dose. Propidium iodide staining indicated active endocytosis of CS-AgNPs resulting in reduced intracellular bacterial survival in macrophages. Conclusion The present study concludes that at a specific dose, chitosan-based AgNPs kill bacteria without harming the host cells, thus representing a potential template for the design of antibacterial agents to decrease bacterial colonization and to overcome the problem of drug resistance. PMID:22619529

Jena, Prajna; Mohanty, Soumitra; Mallick, Rojee; Jacob, Biju; Sonawane, Avinash

2012-01-01

303

Porous Pd nanoparticles with high photothermal conversion efficiency for efficient ablation of cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nanoparticle (NP) mediated photothermal effect shows great potential as a noninvasive method for cancer therapy treatment, but the development of photothermal agents with high photothermal conversion efficiency, small size and good biocompatibility is still a big challenge. Herein, we report Pd NPs with a porous structure exhibiting enhanced near infrared (NIR) absorption as compared to Pd nanocubes with a similar size (almost two-fold enhancement with a molar extinction coefficient of 6.3 × 10(7) M(-1) cm(-1)), and the porous Pd NPs display monotonically rising absorbance from NIR to UV-Vis region. When dispersed in water and illuminated with an 808 nm laser, the porous Pd NPs give a photothermal conversion efficiency as high as 93.4%, which is comparable to the efficiency of Au nanorods we synthesized (98.6%). As the porous Pd NPs show broadband NIR absorption (650-1200 nm), this allows us to choose multiple laser wavelengths for photothermal therapy. In vitro photothermal heating of HeLa cells in the presence of porous Pd NPs leads to 100% cell death under 808 nm laser irradiation (8 W cm(-2), 4 min). For photothermal heating using 730 nm laser, 70% of HeLa cells were killed after 4 min irradiation at a relative low power density of 6 W cm(-2). These results demonstrated that the porous Pd nanostructure is an attractive photothermal agent for cancer therapy. PMID:24622916

Xiao, Jia-Wen; Fan, Shi-Xuan; Wang, Feng; Sun, Ling-Dong; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Chun-Hua

2014-04-21

304

Nanoparticles, [Gd@C82(OH)22]n, induces dendritic cell maturation and activates Th1 immune responses  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells play a pivotal role in host immune defense, such as elimination of foreign pathogen and inhibition of tumorigenesis. In this paper, we report that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n could induce phenotypic maturation of dendritic cells by stimulating DC production of cytokines including IL-12p70, upregulating DC costimulatory (CD80, CD83, and CD86) and MHC (HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR) molecules, and switching DCs from a CCL5-responsive to a CCL19-responsive phenotype. We found that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n can induce dendritic cells to become functionally mature as illustrated by their capacity to activate allogeneic T cells. Mice immunized with ovalbumin in the presence of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n exhibit enhanced ovalbumin-specific Th1-polarized immune response as evidenced by the predominantly increased production of IFN?, IL-1?, and IL-2. The [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle is a potent activator of dendritic cells and Th1 immune responses. These new findings also provide a rational understanding of the potent anticancer activities of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles reported previously. PMID:20121217

Yang, De; Zhao, Yuliang; Guo, Hua; Li, Yana; Tewary, Poonam; Xing, Gengmei; Hou, Wei; Oppenheim, Joost J.; Zhang, Ning

2010-01-01

305

A Micro-Raman Study of Live, Single Red Blood Cells (RBCs) Treated with AgNO3 Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known to exhibit broad antimicrobial activity. However, such activity continues to raise concerns in the context of the interaction of such NPs with biomolecules. In a physiological environment NPs interact with individual biological cells either by penetrating through the cell membrane or by adhering to the membrane. We have explored the interaction of Ag NPs with single optically-trapped, live erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) using Raman Tweezers spectroscopy. Our experiments reveal that Ag NPs induce modifications within an RBC that appear to be irreversible. In particular we are able to identify that the heme conformation in an RBC transforms from the usual R-state (oxy-state) to the T-state (deoxy-state). We rationalize our observations by proposing a model for the nanoparticle cytotoxicity pathway when the NP size is larger than the membrane pore size. We propose that the interaction of Ag NPs with the cell surface induces damage brought about by alteration of intracellular pH caused by the blockage of the cell membrane transport. PMID:25057913

Bankapur, Aseefhali; Barkur, Surekha; Chidangil, Santhosh; Mathur, Deepak

2014-01-01

306

Biocompatibility of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with osteoblast cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Bone disorders (including osteoporosis, loosening of a prosthesis, and bone infections) are of great concern to the medical community and are difficult to cure. Therapies are available to treat such diseases, but all have drawbacks and are not specifically targeted to the site of disease. Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical community, including for orthopedic applications. The aim of the present study was to coat chitosan onto iron oxide nanoparticles and to determine its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Methods: Nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, zeta potential, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Uptake of nanoparticles by osteoblasts was studied by transmission electron microscopy and Prussian blue staining. Viability and proliferation of osteoblasts were measured in the presence of uncoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles or those coated with chitosan. Lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein synthesis, and extracellular calcium deposition was studied in the presence of the nanoparticles. Results: Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles enhanced osteoblast proliferation, decreased cell membrane damage, and promoted cell differentiation, as indicated by an increase in alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposition. Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed good compatibility with osteoblasts. Conclusion: Further research is necessary to optimize magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of bone disease. PMID:23118539

Shi, Si-Feng; Jia, Jing-Fu; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Chen, De-Sheng; Guo, Yong-Yuan; Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Xian-Long

2012-01-01

307

Melittin peptides exhibit different activity on different cells and model membranes.  

PubMed

Melittin (MLT) is a lytic peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. To understand the role of proline and the thiol group of cysteine in the cytolytic activity of MLT, native MLT and cysteine-containing analogs were prepared using solid phase peptide synthesis. The antimicrobial and cytolytic activities of the monomeric and dimeric MLT peptides against different cells and model membranes were investigated. The results indicated that the proline residue was necessary for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity and its absence significantly reduced lysis of model membranes and hemolysis. Although lytic activity against model membranes decreased for the MLT dimer, hemolytic activity was increased. The native peptide and the MLT-P14C monomer were mainly unstructured in buffer while the dimer adopted a helical conformation. In the presence of neutral and negatively charged vesicles, the helical content of the three peptides was significantly increased. The lytic activity, therefore, is not correlated to the secondary structure of the peptides and, more particularly, on the propensity to adopt helical conformation. PMID:25200682

Jamasbi, Elaheh; Batinovic, Steven; Sharples, Robyn A; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Robins-Browne, Roy Michael; Wade, John D; Separovic, Frances; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

2014-12-01

308

Surface plasma resonant effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we prepared different shapes of gold nanoparticles by seed-mediated growth method and applied them on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to study the surface plasma resonant (SPR) effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. The analyses of field emission scanning electron microscopy show that the average diameter of the spherical gold nanoparticles is 45 nm, the average length and width of the short gold nanorods were 55 and 22 nm, respectively, and the average length and width of the long gold nanorods were 55 and 14 nm, respectively. The aspect ratio of the short and long gold nanorods was about 2.5 and 4, respectively. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra show that the absorption wavelength is about 540 nm for spherical gold nanoparticles, and the absorption of the gold nanorods reveals two peaks. One is about 510 to 520 nm, and the other is about 670 and 710 nm for the short and long gold nanorods, respectively. The best conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short and long gold nanorods added in is 6.77%, 7.08%, and 7.29%, respectively, and is higher than that of the cells without gold nanoparticles, which is 6.21%. This result indicates that the effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes can increase the conductivity and reduce the recombination of charges in the photoelectrodes, resulting in the increase of conversion efficiency for DSSCs. In addition, the long gold nanorods have stronger SPR effect than the spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods at long wavelength. This may be the reason for the higher conversion efficiency of DSSCs with long gold nanorods than those of the cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods.

Meen, Teen-Hang; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Chao, Shi-Mian; Lin, Yu-Chien; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Chang, Tang-Yun; Ji, Liang-Wen; Water, Walter; Chen, Wen-Ray; Tang, I.-Tseng; Huang, Chien-Jung

2013-10-01

309

Surface plasma resonant effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, we prepared different shapes of gold nanoparticles by seed-mediated growth method and applied them on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to study the surface plasma resonant (SPR) effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. The analyses of field emission scanning electron microscopy show that the average diameter of the spherical gold nanoparticles is 45 nm, the average length and width of the short gold nanorods were 55 and 22 nm, respectively, and the average length and width of the long gold nanorods were 55 and 14 nm, respectively. The aspect ratio of the short and long gold nanorods was about 2.5 and 4, respectively. The results of ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra show that the absorption wavelength is about 540 nm for spherical gold nanoparticles, and the absorption of the gold nanorods reveals two peaks. One is about 510 to 520 nm, and the other is about 670 and 710 nm for the short and long gold nanorods, respectively. The best conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short and long gold nanorods added in is 6.77%, 7.08%, and 7.29%, respectively, and is higher than that of the cells without gold nanoparticles, which is 6.21%. This result indicates that the effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes can increase the conductivity and reduce the recombination of charges in the photoelectrodes, resulting in the increase of conversion efficiency for DSSCs. In addition, the long gold nanorods have stronger SPR effect than the spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods at long wavelength. This may be the reason for the higher conversion efficiency of DSSCs with long gold nanorods than those of the cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods. PMID:24172147

2013-01-01

310

High resolution SEM imaging of gold nanoparticles in cells and tissues.  

PubMed

The growing demand of gold nanoparticles in medical applications increases the need for simple and efficient characterization methods of the interaction between the nanoparticles and biological systems. Due to its nanometre resolution, modern scanning electron microscopy (SEM) offers straightforward visualization of metallic nanoparticles down to a few nanometre size, almost without any special preparation step. However, visualization of biological materials in SEM requires complicated preparation procedure, which is typically finished by metal coating needed to decrease charging artefacts and quick radiation damage of biomaterials in the course of SEM imaging. The finest conductive metal coating available is usually composed of a few nanometre size clusters, which are almost identical to the metal nanoparticles employed in medical applications. Therefore, SEM monitoring of metal nanoparticles within cells and tissues is incompatible with the conventional preparation methods. In this work, we show that charging artefacts related to non-conductive biological specimen can be successfully eliminated by placing the uncoated biological sample on a conductive substrate. By growing the cells on glass pre-coated with a chromium layer, we were able to observe the uptake of 10 nm gold nanoparticles inside uncoated and unstained macrophages and keratinocytes cells. Imaging in back scattered electrons allowed observation of gold nanoparticles located inside the cells, while imaging in secondary electron gave information on gold nanoparticles located on the surface of the cells. By mounting a skin cross-section on an improved conductive holder, consisting of a silicon substrate coated with copper, we were able to observe penetration of gold nanoparticles of only 5 nm size through the skin barrier in an uncoated skin tissue. The described method offers a convenient modification in preparation procedure for biological samples to be analyzed in SEM. The method provides high conductivity without application of surface coating and requires less time and a reduced use of toxic chemicals. PMID:25228335

Goldstein, A; Soroka, Y; Fruši?-Zlotkin, M; Popov, I; Kohen, R

2014-12-01

311

Nanoparticles containing allotropes of carbon have genotoxic effects on glioblastoma multiforme cells  

PubMed Central

The carbon-based nanomaterial family consists of nanoparticles containing allotropes of carbon, which may have a number of interactions with biological systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles comprised of pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide, graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond in a U87 cell line. The scope of the work consisted of structural analysis of the nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy, evaluation of cell morphology, and assessment of cell viability by Trypan blue assay and level of DNA fragmentation of U87 cells after 24 hours of incubation with 50 ?g/mL carbon nanoparticles. DNA fragmentation was studied using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Incubation with nanoparticles containing the allotropes of carbon did not alter the morphology of the U87 cancer cells. However, incubation with pristine graphene and reduced graphene oxide led to a significant decrease in cell viability, whereas incubation with graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond led to a smaller decrease in cell viability. The results of a comet assay demonstrated that pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond caused DNA damage and were therefore genotoxic in U87 cells, whereas graphene oxide was not. PMID:24876774

Hinzmann, Mateusz; Jaworski, S?awomir; Kutwin, Marta; Jagie??o, Joanna; Kozi?ski, Rafa?; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Grodzik, Marta; Lipi?ska, Ludwika; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, Andrè

2014-01-01

312

Analysis of the Influence of Cell Heterogeneity on Nanoparticle Dose Response  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effect of variability in the interaction of individual cells with nanoparticles on the overall response of the cell population to a nanoagent is a fundamental challenge in bionanotechnology. Here, we show that the technique of time-resolved, high-throughput microscopy can be used in this endeavor. Mass measurement with single-cell resolution provides statistically robust assessments of cell heterogeneity, while the addition of a temporal element allows assessment of separate processes leading to deconvolution of the effects of particle supply and biological response. We provide a specific demonstration of the approach, in vitro, through time-resolved measurement of fibroblast cell (HFF-1) death caused by exposure to cationic nanoparticles. The results show that heterogeneity in cell area is the major source of variability with area-dependent nanoparticle capture rates determining the time of cell death and hence the form of the exposure–response characteristic. Moreover, due to the particulate nature of the nanoparticle suspension, there is a reduction in the particle concentration over the course of the experiment, eventually causing saturation in the level of measured biological outcome. A generalized mathematical description of the system is proposed, based on a simple model of particle depletion from a finite supply reservoir. This captures the essential aspects of the nanoparticle–cell interaction dynamics and accurately predicts the population exposure–response curves from individual cell heterogeneity distributions. PMID:24923782

2014-01-01

313

Cell Penetrating Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides (SAMPs) Exhibiting Potent and Selective Killing of Mycobacterium by Targeting Its DNA.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are powerful defence tools to tackle pathogenic microbes. However, limited natural production and high synthetic costs in addition to poor selectivity limit large-scale use of AMPs in clinical settings. Here, we present a series of synthetic AMPs (SAMPs) that exhibit highly selective and potent killing of Mycobacterium (minimum inhibitory concentration <20??g?mL(-1) ) over E.?coli or mammalian cells. These SAMPs are active against rapidly multiplying as well as growth saturated Mycobacterium cultures. These SAMPs are not membrane-lytic in nature, and are readily internalized by Mycobacterium and mammalian cells; whereas in E.?coli, the lipopolysaccharide layer inhibits their cellular uptake, and hence, their antibacterial action. Upon internalization, these SAMPs interact with the unprotected genomic DNA of mycobacteria, and impede DNA-dependent processes, leading to bacterial cell death. PMID:25608020

Sharma, Aashish; Pohane, Amol Arunrao; Bansal, Sandhya; Bajaj, Avinash; Jain, Vikas; Srivastava, Aasheesh

2015-02-23

314

Comparative Cytotoxic Evaluation of Free and Sodium Alginate Nanoparticle-Encapsulated ICD-85 on Primary Lamb Kidney Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Current anti-cancer drug therapy results in systemic side effects due to non-specific uptake by normal healthy noncancerous tissues. To alleviate this difficulty, many attempts have been devoted to the development of new delivery systems such as polymeric Nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we prepared ICD-85 NPs based on sodium alginate and analyzed the cytotoxic activity of ICD-85 NPs relative to free ICD-85 on primary lamb kidney cells. Methods ICD-85 loaded sodium alginate nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and were characterized by the particle size, size distribution and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and membrane integrity was evaluated by measuring Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The morphological alterations of untreated and treated cells were assessed by light inverted microscope. Results MTT assay showed that ICD-85 NPs could significantly decrease the in vitro cytotoxicity on primary lamb kidney cells compared to the free ICD-85. The IC10 value at 72 hours was increased from 9±2.7 ?g/ml for free ICD-85 to 52±4.3 ?g/ml for ICD-85 NPs. LDH assay demonstrated that free ICD-85 had dose-dependent cytotoxicity on primary lamb kidney cells while ICD-85 NPs exhibited significantly decreased cytotoxicity at equivalent concentrations. Moreover, morphological analysis showed no significant difference between control and treated cells with ICD-85 NPs. Conclusion Based on the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that encapsulation of ICD-85 with sodium alginate nanoparticles can reduce its necrotic effect on primary lamb kidney cells. PMID:25250126

Zare Mirakabadi, Abbas; Moradhaseli, Saeed

2013-01-01

315

Gold nanoparticles as physiological markers of urine internalization into urothelial cells in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Urothelial bladder is the reservoir of urine and the urothelium minimizes the exchange of urine constituents with this tissue. Our aim was to test 1.9 nm biocompatible gold nanoparticles as a novel marker of internalization into the urothelial cells under physiological conditions in vivo. Methods We compared normal and neoplastic mice urothelium. Neoplastic lesions were induced by 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water for 10 weeks. Nanoparticles, intravenously injected into normal and BBN-treated mice, were filtered through the kidneys and became constituents of the urine within 90 minutes after injection. Results Gold nanoparticles were densely accumulated in the urine, while their internalization into urothelial cells depended on the cell differentiation stage. In the terminally differentiated superficial urothelial cells of normal animals, nanoparticles were occasionally found in the endosomes, but not in the fusiform vesicles. Regions of exfoliated cells were occasionally found in the normal urothelium. Superficial urothelial cells located next to exfoliated regions contained gold nanoparticles in the endosomes and in the cytosol beneath the apical plasma membrane. The urothelium of BBN-treated animals developed fat hyperplasia with moderate dysplasia. The superficial cells of BBN-treated animals were partially differentiated as demonstrated by the lack of fusiform vesicles. These cells contained the gold nanoparticles distributed in the endosomes and throughout their cytosol. Conclusion Gold nanoparticles are a valuable marker to study urine internalization into urothelial cells in vivo. Moreover, they can be used as a sensitive marker of differentiation and functionality of urothelial cells. PMID:24143099

Hudoklin, Samo; Zupan?i?, Daša; Makovec, Darko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Romih, Rok

2013-01-01

316

Chitosan\\/pshRNA plasmid nanoparticles targeting MDR1 gene reverse paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to investigate the effect of chitosan\\/pshRNA plasmid nanoparticles targeting MDR1 genes on the resistance of A2780\\/TS\\u000a cells to paclitaxel, chitosan\\/pshRNA plasmid nanoparticles were synthesized by means of a complex coacervation technique and\\u000a transfected into A2780\\/TS cells. The cells transfected with MDR1-targeted chitosan\\/pshRNA plasmid nanoparticles were experimental\\u000a cells and the cells transfected with chitosan\\/pGPU6\\/GFP\\/Neo no-load plasmid nanoparticles served as

Yan Yang; Zehua Wang; Minfang Li; Shi Lu

2009-01-01

317

Crystallizing nanoparticles derived from vascular smooth muscle cells contain the calcification inhibitor osteoprotegerin.  

PubMed

Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, was initially found to modulate bone mass by blocking osteoclast maturation and function. Rodent models have also revealed a role for OPG as an inhibitor of vascular calcification. However, the precise mode of how OPG blocks mineralization is unclear. In this study, OPG was found in an in vitro assay to significantly inhibit calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by high calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) treatment (p=0.0063), although this effect was blunted at high OPG concentrations. By confocal microscopy, OPG was detected in VSMC in the Golgi, the same localization seen in osteoblasts, which express OPG in bone. Treatment of VSMC by minerals (Ca, P, or both) induced OPG mRNA expression as assessed by real-time quantitative PCR, and VSMC derived from atherosclerotic plaque material also exhibited higher OPG expression as compared to control cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, OPG was detected by Western blotting in matrix vesicles (MV), nanoparticles that are released by VSMC with the capacity to nucleate mineral. In atherosclerotic arteries, OPG colocalized immunohistochemically with annexin VI, a calcium-dependent membrane and phospholipid binding protein found in MV. Thus, the calcification inhibitor OPG is contained in crystallizing MV and has a biphasic effect on VSMC: physiologic concentrations inhibit calcification, whereas high concentrations commonly seen in patients with vascular disease have no effect. Like other calcification inhibitors, OPG may be specifically loaded into these nanoparticles to be deposited at remote sites, where it acts to inhibit calcification. PMID:21371424

Schoppet, Michael; Kavurma, Mary M; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Shanahan, Catherine M

2011-04-01

318

Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of nanoparticles from photocopiers in three human cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Photocopiers emit nanoparticles with complex chemical composition. Short-term exposures to modest nanoparticle concentrations triggered upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy human volunteers in a recent study. To further understand the toxicological properties of copier-emitted nanoparticles, we studied in-vitro their ability to induce cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, DNA damage, and apoptosis in relevant human cell lines. Methods Three cell types were used: THP-1, primary human nasal- and small airway epithelial cells. Following collection in a large volume photocopy center, nanoparticles were extracted, dispersed and characterized in the cell culture medium. Cells were doped at 30, 100 and 300 ?g/mL administered doses for up to 24 hrs. Estimated dose delivered to cells, was ~10% and 22% of the administered dose at 6 and 24 hrs, respectively. Gene expression analysis of key biomarkers was performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in THP-1 cells at 5 ?g nanoparticles/mL for 6-hr exposure for confirmation purposes. Results Multiple cytokines, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IFN?, MCP-1, TNF-? and VEGF, were significantly elevated in THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis confirmed up-regulation of the TNF-? gene in THP-1 cells, consistent with cytokine findings. In both primary epithelial cells, cytokines IL-8, VEGF, EGF, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6 and GM-CSF were significantly elevated. Apoptosis was induced in all cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the significant up-regulation of key apoptosis-regulating genes P53 and Casp8 in THP-1 cells. No significant DNA damage was found at any concentration with the comet assay. Up-regulation of key DNA damage and repair genes, Ku70 and Rad51, were also observed in THP-1 cells, albeit not statistically significant. Significant up-regulation of the key gene HO1 for oxidative stress, implicates oxidative stress induced by nanoparticles. Conclusions Copier-emitted nanoparticles induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and modest cytotoxicity but no DNA damage in all three-human cell lines. Taken together with gene expression data in THP-1 cells, we conclude that these nanoparticles are directly responsible for inflammation observed in human volunteers. Further toxicological evaluations of these nanoparticles, including across different toner formulations, are warranted. PMID:23968360

2013-01-01

319

Highly specific and ultrasensitive graphene-enhanced electrochemical detection of low-abundance tumor cells using silica nanoparticles coated with antibody-conjugated quantum dots.  

PubMed

A dual signal amplification immunosensing strategy that offers high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of low-abundance tumor cells was designed. High sensitivity was achieved by using graphene to modify the immunosensor surface to accelerate electron transfer and quantum dot (QD)-coated silica nanoparticles as tracing tags. High specificity was further obtained by the simultaneous measurement of two disease-specific biomarkers on the cell surface using different QD-coated silica nanoparticle tracers. The immunosensor was constructed by covalently immobilized capture antibodies on a chitosan/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide film-modified glass carbon electrode. Cells were captured with a sandwich-type immunoreaction and the different QD-coated silica nanoparticle tracers were captured on the surface of the cells. Each biorecognition event yields a distinct voltammetric peak, which position and size reflects the corresponding identity and amount of the respective antigen. This strategy was vividly demonstrated by the simultaneous immunoassay of EpCAM and GPC3 antigens on the surface of the human liver cancer cell line Hep3B using anti-EpCAM-CdTe- and anti-GPC3-ZnSe-coated silica nanoparticle tracers. The two tracers gave comparable sensitivity, and the immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and specificity with excellent stability, reproducibility, and accuracy, indicating its wide range of potential applications in clinical and molecular diagnostics. PMID:23402311

Wu, Yafeng; Xue, Peng; Kang, Yuejun; Hui, Kam M

2013-03-19

320

Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness. PMID:24435106

Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

2014-02-21

321

Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

2014-01-01

322

Poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-based diblock copolymer micelles exhibit versatile hydrophobic drug loading, drug-dependent release, and internalization by multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(styrene) (PSMA-b-PS) and poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PSMA-b-PBA) were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations. Polymers were well-controlled with respect to molecular weight evolution and polydispersity indices (PDI < 1.2). Additionally, RAFT allowed for control of diblock compositions (i.e., ratio of hydrophilic PSMA blocks to hydrophobic PS/PBA blocks) and overall molecular weight, which resulted in reproducible self-assembly of diblocks into micelle nanoparticles with diameters of 20-100 nm. Parthenolide (PTL), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, was loaded and released from the micelles. The highest loading and prolonged release of PTL was observed from predominantly hydrophobic PSMA-b-PS micelles (e.g., PSMA100-b-PS258), which exhibited the most ordered hydrophobic environment for more favorable core-drug interactions. PSMA100-b-PS258 micelles were further loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), as well as two hydrophobic fluorescent probes, nile red and IR-780. While PTL released quantitatively within 24 h, DOX, IR-780, and nile red showed release over 1 week, suggesting stronger drug-core interactions and/or hindrance due to less favorable drug-solvent interactions. Finally, uptake and intracellular localization of PSMA100-b-PS258 micelles by multidrug resistant (MDR) ovarian cancer cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, in vitro analyses showed DOX-loaded PSMA-b-PS micelles exhibited greater cytotoxicity to NCI/ADR RES cells than equivalent free DOX doses (75% reduction in cell viability by DOX-loaded micelles compared to 40% reduction in viability by free DOX at 10 ?M DOX), likely due to avoidance of MDR mechanisms that limit free hydrophobic drug accumulation. The ability of micelles to achieve intracellular delivery via avoidance of MDR mechanisms, along with the versatility of chemical constituents and drug loading and release rates, offer many advantages for a variety of drug delivery applications. PMID:24955779

Baranello, Michael P; Bauer, Louisa; Benoit, Danielle S W

2014-07-14

323

Highly efficient cellular labeling of mesoporous nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells: implication for stem cell tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking the distribution of stem cells is crucial to their therapeutic use. However, the usage of current vectors in cellular labeling is restricted by their low internalizing efficiency. Here, we reported a cellular labeling approach with a novel vector composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and 3T3-L1 cells, and

Dong-Ming Huang; Yann Hung; Bor-Sheng Ko; Szu-Chun Hsu; Wei-Hsuan Chen; Chung-Liang Chien; Chih-Pin Tsai; Chieh-Ti Kuo; Ju-Chiun Kang; Chung-Shi Yang; Chung-Yuan Mou; Yao-Chang Chen

2005-01-01

324

Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr32922d

Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

2013-08-01

325

Multifactorial determinants that govern nanoparticle uptake by human endothelial cells under flow  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelium is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in diverse pathological processes, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. By virtue of their intravascular topography, endothelial cells are exposed to dynamically changing mechanical forces that are generated by blood flow. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of negatively charged 2.7 nm and 4.7 nm CdTe quantum dots and 50 nm silica particles with cultured endothelial cells under regulated shear stress (SS) conditions. Cultured cells within the engineered microfluidic channels were exposed to nanoparticles under static condition or under low, medium, and high SS rates (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 Pa, respectively). Vascular inflammation and associated endothelial damage were simulated by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) or by compromising the cell membrane with the use of low Triton X-100 concentration. Our results demonstrate that SS is critical for nanoparticle uptake by endothelial cells. Maximal uptake was registered at the SS rate of 0.05 Pa. By contrast, endothelial exposure to mild detergents or TNF-? treatment had no significant effect on nanoparticle uptake. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated the increased formation of actin-based cytoskeletal structures, including stress fibers and membrane ruffles, which have been associated with nanoparticle endocytosis. In conclusion, the combinatorial effects of SS rates, vascular endothelial conditions, and nanoparticle physical and chemical properties must be taken into account for the successful design of nanoparticle–drug conjugates intended for parenteral delivery. PMID:22745555

Samuel, Stephen Paul; Jain, Namrata; O’Dowd, Frank; Paul, Toby; Kashanin, Dmitry; Gerard, Valerie A; Gun’ko, Yurii K; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Volkov, Yuri

2012-01-01

326

Synthesis, characterization, cell imaging and anti-tumor activity of multifunctional nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most anticancer complexes are unable to differentiate between diseased and healthy cells, systemic toxicity and undesired side effects can result. In the current study, a PEG and RGD peptides functionalized fluorescent dye Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) doped magnetic silica nanoparticle (MnFe3O4@SiO2-PEG-RGD), carrying a anticancer superparamagnetic Mn(II) complex, was synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic methods. The multifunctional nanoparticles (MnFe3O4@SiO2-PEG-RGD) can image HepG-2 cells and differentiate between HepG-2 and WRL-68 cells based on T1 MR imaging technology. The in vitro fluorescence image and inhibition assay on the proliferation of HeLa cells indicate that MnFe3O4@SiO2-PEG-RGD nanoparticles can effectively reach the tumor site, be internalized by endocytosis and then retain in cancer cells due to the retention effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that a PEG and RGD peptides functionalized silica nanoparticle was a good carrier for the anticancer complexes, and the anticancer complexes loaded multifunctional nanoparticles could be developed as special agents in monitoring therapy of cancer.

Chen, Qiu-Yun; Tao, Gen-Ping; Liu, Ying-Qi; Yang, Xia

2012-10-01

327

The influence of surface functionalization on the enhanced internalization of magnetic nanoparticles in cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internalization and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles surface functionalized with four differently charged carbohydrates have been tested in the human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa). Neutral, positive, and negative iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by coating with dextran, aminodextran, heparin, and dimercaptosuccinic acid, resulting in colloidal suspensions stable at pH 7 with similar aggregate size. No intracellular uptake was detected in cells incubated with neutral charged nanoparticles, while negative particles showed different behaviour depending on the nature of the coating. Thus, dimercaptosuccinic-coated nanoparticles showed low cellular uptake with non-toxic effects, while heparin-coated particles showed cellular uptake only at high nanoparticle concentrations and induced abnormal mitotic spindle configurations. Finally, cationic magnetic nanoparticles show excellent properties for possible in vivo biomedical applications such as cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cancer treatment by hyperthermia: (i) they enter into cells with high effectiveness, and are localized in endosomes; (ii) they can be easily detected inside cells by optical microscopy, (iii) they are retained for relatively long periods of time, and (iv) they do not induce any cytotoxicity.

Villanueva, Angeles; Cañete, Magdalena; Roca, Alejandro G; Calero, Macarena; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Serna, Carlos J; del Puerto Morales, María; Miranda, Rodolfo

2009-03-01

328

The Photodynamic Effect of Different Size ZnO Nanoparticles on Cancer Cell Proliferation In Vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials have widely been used in the field of biological and biomedicine, such as tissue imaging, diagnosis and cancer therapy. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity and photodynamic effect of different-sized ZnO nanoparticles to target cells. Our observations demonstrated that ZnO nanoparticles exerted dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity for cancer cells like hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. Meanwhile, it was observed that UV irradiation could enhance the suppression ability of ZnO nanoparticles on cancer cells proliferation, and these effects were in the size-dependent manner. Furthermore, when ZnO nanoparticles combined with daunorubicin, the related cytotoxicity of anticancer agents on cancer cells was evidently enhanced, suggesting that ZnO nanoparticles could play an important role in drug delivery. This may offer the possibility of the great potential and promising applications of the ZnO nanoparticles in clinical and biomedical areas like photodynamic cancer therapy and others.

Li, Jingyuan; Guo, Dadong; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Huangping; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Baoan

2010-06-01

329

TREX2 exonuclease defective cells exhibit double-strand breaks and chromosomal fragments but not Robertsonian translocations.  

PubMed

TREX2 is a 3'-->5' exonuclease that binds to DNA and removes 3' mismatched nucleotides. By an in vitro structure function analysis, we found a single amino acid change (H188A) completely ablates exonuclease activity and impairs DNA binding by about 60% while another change (R167A) impairs DNA binding by about 85% without impacting exonuclease activity. For a biological analysis, we generated trex2null cells by deleting the entire Trex2 coding sequences in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We found Trex2 deletion caused high levels of Robertsonian translocations (RbTs) showing Trex2 is important for chromosomal maintenance. Here we evaluate the exonuclease and DNA binding domains by expressing in trex2(null) cells coding sequences for wild type human TREX2 (Trex2hTX2) or human TREX2 with the H188A change (Trex2H188A) or the R167A change (Trex2R167A). These cDNAs are positioned adjacent to the mouse Trex2 promoter by Cre-mediated knock-in. By observing metaphase spreads, we found Trex2H188A cells exhibited high levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal fragments. Therefore, TREX2 may suppress spontaneous DSBs or exonuclease defective TREX2 may induce them in a dominate-negative manner. We also found Trex2hTX2, hTrex2H188A and hTrex2R167A cells did not exhibit RbTs. Thus, neither the exonuclease nor DNA binding domains suppress RbTs suggesting TREX2 possesses additional biochemical activities. PMID:19094998

Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Hu, Lingchuan; Hasty, Paul

2009-03-01

330

TREX2 Exonuclease Defective Cells Exhibit Double-Strand Breaks and Chromosomal Fragments but Not Robertsonian Translocations  

PubMed Central

TREX2 is a 3??5? exonuclease that binds to DNA and removes 3? mismatched nucleotides. By an in vitro structure function analysis, we found a single amino acid change (H188A) completely ablates exonuclease activity and impairs DNA binding by about 60% while another change (R167A) impairs DNA binding by about 85% without impacting exonuclease activity. For a biological analysis, we generated trex2null cells by deleting the entire Trex2 coding sequences in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We found Trex2 deletion caused high levels of Robertsonian translocations (RbTs) showing Trex2 is important for chromosomal maintenance. Here we evaluate the exonuclease and DNA binding domains by expressing in trex2null cells coding sequences for wild type human TREX2 (Trex2hTX2) or human TREX2 with the H188A change (Trex2H188A) or the R167A change (Trex2R167A). These cDNAs are positioned adjacent to the mouse Trex2 promoter by Cre-mediated knock-in. By observing metaphase spreads, we found Trex2H188A cells exhibited high levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal fragments. Therefore, TREX2 may suppress spontaneous DSBs or exonuclease defective TREX2 may induce them in a dominate-negative manner. We also found Trex2hTX2, hTrex2H188A and hTrex2R167A cells did not exhibit RbTs. Thus, neither the exonuclease nor DNA binding domains suppress RbTs suggesting TREX2 possesses additional biochemical activities. PMID:19094998

Dumitrache, Lavinia C.; Hu, Lingchuan; Hasty, Paul

2009-01-01

331

Targeting and activation of antigen-specific B-cells by calcium phosphate nanoparticles loaded with protein antigen.  

PubMed

Cross-linking of the B-cell receptors of an antigen-specific B-cell is the initial signal for B-cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells. Since multivalent particulate structures are efficient activators of antigen-specific B-cells, we developed biodegradable calcium phosphate nanoparticles displaying protein antigens on their surface and explored the efficacy of the B-cell activation after exposure to these nanoparticles. The calcium phosphate nanoparticles were functionalized with the model antigen Hen Egg Lysozyme (HEL) to take advantage of a HEL-specific B-cell receptor transgenic mouse model. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles were preferentially bound and internalized by HEL-specific B-cells. Co-cultivation of HEL-specific B-cells with the functionalized nanoparticles also increased surface expression of B-cell activation markers. Functionalized nanoparticles were able to effectively cross-link B-cell receptors at the surface of antigen-matched B-cells and were 100-fold more efficient in the activation of B-cells than soluble HEL. Thus, calcium phosphate nanoparticles coated with protein antigens are promising vaccine candidates for induction humoral immunity. PMID:24776487

Temchura, Vladimir V; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Uberla, Klaus; Epple, Matthias

2014-07-01

332

Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium. Objectives: Investigate ZnO NP–induced injury to alveolar epithelium by exposing primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECMs) to ZnO NPs. Methods: RAECMs were exposed apically to ZnO NPs or, in some experiments, to culture fluid containing ZnCl2 or free Zn released from ZnO NPs. Transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) and equivalent short-circuit current (IEQ) were assessed as functions of concentration and time. Morphologic changes, lactate dehydrogenase release, cell membrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial activity were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Apical exposure to 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs decreased RT and IEQ of RAECMs by 100% over 24 hours, whereas exposure to 11 ?g/ml ZnO NPs had little effect. Changes in RT and IEQ caused by 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs were irreversible. ZnO NP effects on RT yielded half-maximal concentrations of approximately 20 ?g/ml. Apical exposure for 24 hours to 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs induced decreases in mitochondrial activity and increases in lactate dehydrogenase release, permeability to fluorescein sulfonic acid, increased intracellular ROS, and translocation of ZnO NPs from apical to basolateral fluid (most likely across injured cells and/or damaged paracellular pathways). Conclusions: ZnO NPs cause severe injury to RAECMs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, mediated, at least in part, by free Zn released from ZnO NPs, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased intracellular ROS. PMID:20639441

Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

2010-01-01

333

Fluorescence Modified Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for High-Efficient Cellular Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Labeling of cells with nanoparticles for living detection is of interest to various biomedical applications. In this study, novel fluorescent/magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used in high-efficient cellular imaging. The nanoparticles coated with the modified chitosan possessed a magnetic oxide core and a covalently attached fluorescent dye. We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency in labeling cancer cells (SMMC-7721) with the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited a high affinity to cells, which was demonstrated by flow cytometry and magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that cell-labeling efficiency of the nanoparticles was dependent on the incubation time and nanoparticles’ concentration. The minimum detected number of labeled cells was around 104 by using a clinical 1.5-T MRI imager. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy instruments were used to monitor the localization patterns of the magnetic nanoparticles in cells. These new magneto-fluorescent nanoagents have demonstrated the potential for future medical use.

Ge, Yuqing; Zhang, Yu; He, Shiying; Nie, Fang; Teng, Gaojun; Gu, Ning

2009-04-01

334

In vivo synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Halococcus salifodinae BK18 and their anti-proliferative properties against HeLa cell line.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles synthesis by bacteria and yeasts has been widely reported, however, synthesis using halophilic archaea is still in a nascent stage. This study aimed at the intracellular synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by the haloarchaeon Halococcus salifodinae BK18 when grown in the presence of sodium selenite. Crystallographic characterization of SeNPs by X-ray diffraction, Selected area electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy exhibited rod shaped nanoparticles with hexagonal crystal lattice, a crystallite domain size of 28 nm and an aspect ratio (length:diameter) of 13:1. Energy disruptive analysis of X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of selenium in the nano-preparation. The nitrate reductase enzyme assay and the inhibitor studies indicated the involvement of NADH-dependent nitrate reductase in SeNPs synthesis and metal tolerance. The SeNPs exhibited good anti-proliferative properties against HeLa cell lines while being non-cytotoxic to normal cell line model HaCat, suggesting the use of these SeNPs as cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This is the first study on selenium nanoparticles synthesis by haloarchaea. PMID:25219897

Srivastava, Pallavee; Braganca, Judith M; Kowshik, Meenal

2014-01-01

335

Detection of circulating tumor cells using targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and magnetic enrichment.  

PubMed

While more than 90% of cancer deaths are due to metastases, our ability to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is limited by low numbers of these cells in the blood and factors confounding specificity of detection. We propose a magnetic enrichment and detection technique for detecting CTCs with high specificity. We targeted both magnetic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles to cancer cells. Only cells that are dual-labeled with both kinds of nanoparticles demonstrate an increasing SERS signal over time due to magnetic trapping. PMID:24858132

Shi, Wei; Paproski, Robert J; Moore, Ronald; Zemp, Roger

2014-05-01

336

In vitro cytotoxicity screening of water-dispersible metal oxide nanoparticles in human cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present in vitro cytotoxicity of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and manganese oxide (MnO) using live\\/dead cell assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay, and reactive oxygen species detection\\u000a with variation of the concentration of nanoparticles (5–500 ?g\\/ml), incubation time (18–96 h), and different human cell lines\\u000a (lung adenocarcinoma, breast cancer cells, and glioblastoma cells). The surface of nanoparticles is modified with polyethyleneglycol-derivatized

Jong Young Choi; Su Hee Lee; Hyon Bin Na; Kwangjin An; Taeghwan Hyeon; Tae Seok Seo

2010-01-01

337

Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated. Infection of Sf9 insect cells by rBV-VP40 led to assembly and budding of filamentous particles from the cell surface as shown by electron microscopy. Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by coinfection of Sf9 cells with rBV-VP40 and rBV-GP, and incorporation of Ebola GP into VLPs was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Recombinant baculovirus infection of insect cells yielded high levels of VLPs, which were shown to stimulate cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells similar to VLPs produced in mammalian cells. The immunogenicity of Ebola VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by immunization of mice. Analysis of antibody responses showed that most of the GP-specific antibodies were of the IgG2a subtype, while no significant level of IgG1 subtype antibodies specific for GP was induced, indicating the induction of a Th1-biased immune response. Furthermore, sera from Ebola VLP immunized mice were able to block infection by Ebola GP pseudotyped HIV virus in a single round infection assay, indicating that a neutralizing antibody against the Ebola GP protein was induced. These results show that production of Ebola VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses represents a promising approach for vaccine development against Ebola virus infection.

Ye Ling [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lin Jianguo [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Sun Yuliang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Bennouna, Soumaya [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lo, Michael [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wu Qingyang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Bu Zhigao [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Pulendran, Bali [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Compans, Richard W. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: compans@microbio.emory.edu; Yang Chinglai [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

2006-08-01

338

One-pot synthesis of sustained-released doxorubicin silica nanoparticles for aptamer targeted delivery to tumor cells.  

PubMed

Site-specific delivery of drugs can significantly reduce drug toxicity and increase the therapeutic effect. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis of doxorubicin-doped silica nanoparticles (Dox/SiNPs) by using sodium fluoride (NaF) catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate in a water-in-oil microemulsion. Through further surface chemical modification, carboxyl-terminated Dox/SiNPs (COOH-Dox/SiNPs) exhibiting high drug entrapment efficiency, strong fluorescence and long sustained release are obtained. Cell toxicity tests demonstrate that the COOH-Dox/SiNPs kill tumor cells effectively, while pure COOH-SiNPs are nontoxic. An aptamer is further conjugated to the nanoparticles for delivering loaded Dox to target cells. It is demonstrated that Dox/SiNPs modified with the aptamer sgc8c (sgc8c-Dox/SiNPs) could deliver loaded doxorubicin to CCRF-CEM cells with high specificity and excellent efficiency. Furthermore, ex vivo imaging studies show that the COOH-Dox/SiNPs are able to accumulate highly in the tumor areas, thanks to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. Our data suggest that the sgc8c-Dox/SiNPs may be a useful new tumor therapy system. PMID:21623439

He, Xiaoxiao; Hai, Luo; Su, Jing; Wang, Kemin; Wu, Xu

2011-07-01

339

Multifunctional superparamagnetic fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles: design and application for cell imaging.  

PubMed

Highly biocompatible sub-50-nm monodisperse superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles with luminescent silica shells were synthesized by a w/o-microemulsion technique. And then these nanoparticles were coated with the covalently bonded biocompatible polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and modified with the biological cancer targeting ligand folic acid (FA). After characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we confirmed that Fe3O4@SiO2 (FITC)-PEG-FA nanocomposites (SMNPs-FA) could be efficiently taken up by HeLa cancer cells and KB cells which are of over-expression of folate receptors. The multifunctional nanomaterials exhibited superparamagnetic, monodisperse, highly biocompatible, intensively fluorescent and capable of recognizing and binding cells that overexpress folate receptors, which would be useful for targeting cell imaging and provide an excellent platform for further development of an efficient cancer therapy. PMID:24738334

Zhao, Xueling; Zhao, Hongli; Yuan, Huihui; Lan, Minbo

2014-02-01

340

A Bovine Lymphosarcoma Cell Line Infected with Theileria annulata Exhibits an Irreversible Reconfiguration of Host Cell Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Theileria annulata, an intracellular parasite of bovine lymphoid cells, induces substantial phenotypic alterations to its host cell including continuous proliferation, cytoskeletal changes and resistance to apoptosis. While parasite induced modulation of host cell signal transduction pathways and NF?B activation are established, there remains considerable speculation on the complexities of the parasite directed control mechanisms that govern these radical changes to the host cell. Our objectives in this study were to provide a comprehensive analysis of the global changes to host cell gene expression with emphasis on those that result from direct intervention by the parasite. By using comparative microarray analysis of an uninfected bovine cell line and its Theileria infected counterpart, in conjunction with use of the specific parasitacidal agent, buparvaquone, we have identified a large number of host cell gene expression changes that result from parasite infection. Our results indicate that the viable parasite can irreversibly modify the transformed phenotype of a bovine cell line. Fifty percent of genes with altered expression failed to show a reversible response to parasite death, a possible contributing factor to initiation of host cell apoptosis. The genes that did show an early predicted response to loss of parasite viability highlighted a sub-group of genes that are likely to be under direct control by parasite infection. Network and pathway analysis demonstrated that this sub-group is significantly enriched for genes involved in regulation of chromatin modification and gene expression. The results provide evidence that the Theileria parasite has the regulatory capacity to generate widespread change to host cell gene expression in a complex and largely irreversible manner. PMID:23840536

Durrani, Zeeshan; Pillai, Sreerekha S.; Baird, Margaret; Shiels, Brian R.

2013-01-01

341

Analytically monitored digestion of silver nanoparticles and their toxicity on human intestinal cells.  

PubMed

Orally ingested nanoparticles may overcome the gastrointestinal barrier, reach the circulatory system, be distributed in the organism and cause adverse health effects. However, ingested nanoparticles have to pass through different physicochemical environments, which may alter their properties before they reach the intestinal cells. In this study, silver nanoparticles are characterised physicochemically during the course of artificial digestion to simulate the biochemical processes occurring during digestion. Their cytotoxicity on intestinal cells was investigated using the Caco-2 cell model. Using field-flow fractionation combined with dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, the authors found that particles only partially aggregate as a result of the digestive process. Cell viabilities were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue® assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-staining and real-time impedance. These measurements reveal small differences between digested and undigested particles (1-100 µg/ml or 1-69 particles/cell). The findings suggest that silver nanoparticles may indeed overcome the gastrointestinal juices in their particulate form without forming large quantities of aggregates. Consequently, the authors presume that the particles can reach the intestinal epithelial cells after ingestion with only a slight reduction in their cytotoxic potential. The study indicates that it is important to determine the impact of body fluids on the nanoparticles of interest to provide a reliable interpretation of their nano-specific cytotoxicity testing in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23763544

Böhmert, Linda; Girod, Matthias; Hansen, Ulf; Maul, Ronald; Knappe, Patrick; Niemann, Birgit; Weidner, Steffen M; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso

2014-09-01

342

3D Graphene Oxide-encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles to Detect Neural Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of stem cell differentiation and pluripotency is an important step for the practical use of stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine. Hence, a new non-destructive detection tool capable of in situ monitoring of stem cell differentiation is highly needed. In this study, we report a 3D graphene oxide-encapsulated gold nanoparticle that is very effective for the detection of the differentiation potential of neural stem cells (NSCs) based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A new material, 3D GO-encapsulated gold nanoparticle, is developed to induce the double enhancement effect of graphene oxide and gold nanoparticle on SERS signals which is only effective for undifferentiated NSCs. The Raman peaks achieved from undifferentiated NSCs on the graphene oxide (GO)-encapsulated gold nanoparticles were 3.5 times higher than peaks obtained from normal metal structures and were clearly distinguishable from those of differentiated cells. The number of C=C bonds and the raman instensity at 1656cm?1 was found to show a positive correlation, which matches the differentiation state of the NSCs. Moreover, the substrate composed of 3D GO-encapsulated gold nanoparticles was also effective at distinguishing the differentiation state of single NSC by using electrochemical and electrical techniques. Hence, the proposed technique can be used as a powerful non-destructive in situ monitoring tool for the identification of the differentiation potential of various kinds of stem cells (mesenchymal, hematopoietic, and neural stem cells). PMID:23937915

Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Ki-Bum; Choi, Jeong-Woo

2013-01-01

343

Adverse Effects of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Human Dermal Fibroblasts and How to Protect Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effects of exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. We found that these particles can impair cell functions, with the latter being more potent at producing damage. We showed that the exposure to nanoparticles decreases cell area, cell proliferation, mobility, and ability to contract collagen. Individual particles are shown to penetrate easily

Zhi Pan; Wilson Lee; Lenny Slutsky; Sowmya Sandaresh; Nicole Elstein; Richard Clark; Nadine Pernodet; Miriam Rafailovich

2009-01-01

344

Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

Creixell, Mar; Herrera, Adriana P.; Ayala, Vanessa; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Pérez-Torres, Marianela; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

2010-08-01

345

Self-assembled Targeting of Cancer Cells by Iron(III)-doped, Silica Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Iron(III)-doped silica nanoshells are shown to possess an in vitro cell-receptor mediated targeting functionality for endocytosis. Compared to plain silica nanoparticles, iron enriched ones are shown to be target-specific, a property that makes them potentially better vehicles for applications, such as drug delivery and tumor imaging, by making them more selective and thereby reducing the nanoparticle dose. Iron(III) in the nanoshells can interact with endogenous transferrin, a serum protein found in mammalian cell culture media, which subsequently promotes transport of the nanoshells into cells by the transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. The enhanced uptake of the iron(III)-doped nanoshells relative to undoped silica nanoshells by a transferrin receptor-mediated pathway was established using fluorescence and confocal microscopy in an epithelial breast cancer cell line. This process was also confirmed using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) measurements that show competitive blocking of nanoparticle uptake by added holo-transferrin. PMID:25364507

Mitchell, K K Pohaku; Sandoval, S; Cortes-Mateos, M J; Alfaro, J G; Kummel, A C; Trogler, W C

2014-12-01

346

Targeted delivery of EV peptide to tumor cell cytoplasm using lipid coated calcium carbonate nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Intracellular-acting peptide drugs are effective for inhibiting cytoplasmic protein targets, yet face challenges with penetrating the cancer cell membrane. We have developed a lipid nanoparticle formulation that utilizes a pH-sensitive calcium carbonate complexation mechanism to enable the targeted delivery of the intracellular-acting therapeutic peptide EEEEpYFELV (EV) into lung cancer cells. Lipid-calcium-carbonate (LCC) nanoparticles were conjugated with anisamide, a targeting ligand for the sigma receptor which is expressed on lung cancer cells. LCC EV nanoparticle treatment provoked severe apoptotic effects in H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells in vitro. LCC NPs also mediated the specific delivery of Alexa-488-EV peptide to tumor tissue in vivo, provoking a high tumor growth retardation effect with minimal uptake by external organs and no toxic effects. PMID:22796364

Kim, Sang Kyoon; Foote, Michael B; Huang, Leaf

2013-07-01

347

Visualization of Carbon Nanoparticles Within Cells and Implications for Toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanostructures (CNS), such as C60, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) exhibit extraordinary properties and are one of the most commercially relevant class of NS. CNS have already found uses in high-performance sports equipment (nanotubes) and face cream (C60), whilst potential applications include optical and electronic materials and superconductors. Following the huge growth in these nanotechnology-related industries, significant concerns have arisen about their potential toxicity and impact on the environment. A lack in understanding of the interaction of such small structures with cellular material has resulted in concerns over their impact on human health. The potential toxicity of CNS and safety to human health requires an understanding of their interaction with cells and this in turn relies on the measurement of the pathways by which they enter the cell, their spatial distribution within and whether the CNS are transformed by the action of the cell; visualization of intracellular CNS is therefore imperative. However visualizing unlabelled CNS within cells is demanding because it is difficult to distinguish CNS from carbon-rich organelles given their similarity in composition and dimensions. In particular, the challenge lies in translating analytical imaging tools developed for inorganic systems to organic systems. This chapter describes how the state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, such as low-loss energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) can be employed to differentiate between unlabelled C60, SWNTs and the cell. Further, we demonstrate how these techniques can be used to trace the uptake of CNS into the cell and to assess their localized effects on cell structure.

Porter, Alexandra; Gass, Mhairi

348

Human diploid MRC-5 cells exhibit several critical properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

MRC-5 is the most common human diploid cell line used in production of viral vaccines; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a type of adult multipotent stem cells. Both cell types share the same fibroblast-like morphology and maintain a normal diploid karyotype over long in vitro expansion. However, other than these similarities, very little is known about MRC-5 in terms of biological properties possessed by MSCs. In this study, we compared MRC-5 with human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs), which serves as a representative of human MSCs, in expression of cell surface markers, abilities to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and promotion of Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg), and IDO1 expression in response to inflammatory cytokines, all of which are critical properties of MSCs. It was revealed that MRC-5 was almost identical to hUC-MSCs in expression of both positive and negative surface markers of MSCs. Similar to hUC-MSCs, MRC-5 was also able to differentiate into osteocytes and chondrocytes, effectively inhibit mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation and promote Tregs, and express IDO1 in response to inflammatory cytokines IFN-? and TNF-?. In addition, both MRC-5 and hUC-MSCs were non-tumorigenic with an extremely low telomerase activity. Moreover, both cells demonstrated a similar sensitivity to infection by EV71 and rubella viruses, which served as model viruses, in a virus infectivity assay. Therefore, this study suggests that MRC-5 is very likely a previously undefined MSC cell line, thus suggesting the feasibility of developing MSCs of at least umbilical cord origin as new cell substrates to be used in production of viral vaccines. PMID:25086263

Zhang, Kehua; Na, Tao; Wang, Lin; Gao, Qiang; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Yuan, Bao-Zhu

2014-11-28

349

Metabolic profiling reveals disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in mouse fibroblast cells induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

As titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles are widely used commercially, their potential biosafety and metabolic mechanism needs to be fully explained. In this study, the cytotoxicity of homogeneous and weakly aggregated (< 100?nm) TiO(2) nanoparticles was investigated by analyzing the changes in metabolite profiles both in mouse fibroblast (L929) cells and their corresponding culture media using gas chromatograph with a time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS)-based metabolomic strategy. With multivariate statistics analysis, satisfactory separations were observed in principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models. Based on the variable importance in the OPLS-DA models, a series of differential metabolites were identified by comparison between TiO(2) nanoparticle-treated L929 cells or their corresponding culture media and the control groups. It was found that the major biochemical metabolism (carbohydrate metabolism) was suppressed in TiO(2) nanoparticle-treated L929 cells and their corresponding culture media. These results might account for the serious damage to energy metabolism in mitochondria and the increased cellular oxidation stress in TiO(2) nanoparticle-induced L929 cells. These results also suggest that the metabolomic strategy had a great potential in evaluating the cytotoxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles and thus was very helpful in understanding its underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:22996321

Jin, Chengyu; Liu, Yumin; Sun, Limin; Chen, Tianlu; Zhang, Yinan; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cristau, Melanie; Wang, Kaisheng; Jia, Wei

2013-12-01

350

TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk material stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells?  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials are increasingly produced and used throughout recent years. Consequently the probability of exposure to nanoparticles has risen. Because of their small 1–100 nm size, the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials may differ from standard bulk materials and may pose a threat to human health. Only little is known about the effects of nanoparticles on the human immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk material in the in vitro model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cytokine-induced neopterin formation and tryptophan breakdown was monitored. Both biochemical processes are closely related to the course of diseases like infections, atherogenesis and neurodegeneration. OCTi60 (25 nm diameter) TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk material increased neopterin production in unstimulated PBMC and stimulated cells significantly, the effects were stronger for OCTi60 compared to bulk material, while P25 TiO2 (25 nm diameter) nanoparticles had only little influence. No effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on tryptophan breakdown was detected in unstimulated cells, whereas in stimulated cells, IDO activity and IFN-? production were suppressed but only at the highest concentrations tested. Because neopterin was stimulated and tryptophan breakdown was suppressed in parallel, data suggests that the total effect of particles would be strongly pro-inflammatory. PMID:24361406

Becker, Kathrin; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Geisler, Simon; Carriere, Marie; Gostner, Johanna M.; Schennach, Harald; Herlin, Nathalie; Fuchs, Dietmar

2014-01-01

351

Autoreactive Effector/Memory CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Infiltrating Grafted and Endogenous Islets in Diabetic NOD Mice Exhibit Similar T Cell Receptor Usage  

PubMed Central

Islet transplantation provides a “cure” for type 1 diabetes but is limited in part by recurrent autoimmunity mediated by ? cell-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Insight into the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of effector T cells driving recurrent autoimmunity would aid the development of immunotherapies to prevent islet graft rejection. Accordingly, we used a multi-parameter flow cytometry strategy to assess the TCR variable ? (V?) chain repertoires of T cell subsets involved in autoimmune-mediated rejection of islet grafts in diabetic NOD mouse recipients. Naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells exhibited a diverse TCR repertoire, which was similar in all tissues examined in NOD recipients including the pancreas and islet grafts. On the other hand, the effector/memory CD8+ T cell repertoire in the islet graft was dominated by one to four TCR V? chains, and specific TCR V? chain usage varied from recipient to recipient. Similarly, islet graft- infiltrating effector/memory CD4+ T cells expressed a limited number of prevalent TCR V? chains, although generally TCR repertoire diversity was increased compared to effector/memory CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, the majority of NOD recipients showed an increase in TCR V?12-bearing effector/memory CD4+ T cells in the islet graft, most of which were proliferating, indicating clonal expansion. Importantly, TCR V? usage by effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrating the islet graft exhibited greater similarity to the repertoire found in the pancreas as opposed to the draining renal lymph node, pancreatic lymph node, or spleen. Together these results demonstrate that effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells mediating autoimmune rejection of islet grafts are characterized by restricted TCR V? chain usage, and are similar to T cells that drive destruction of the endogenous islets. PMID:23251685

Vincent, Benjamin G.; Johnson, Mark C.; Spidale, Nicholas; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland

2012-01-01

352

Polymeric nanoparticle-mediated silencing of CD44 receptor in CD34(+) acute myeloid leukemia cells.  

PubMed

The adhesion receptor CD44 plays an important role in the survival and retention of leukemic stem/progenitor cells (LSPC) within the bone marrow (BM) niche, as well as in the high relapse rates of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Down-regulating CD44 could be clinically relevant not only for suppression of the deregulated function of LSPC but also in LSPC response to chemotherapeutic agents. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a promising approach for AML treatment, and we recently reported effective siRNA delivery into difficult-to-transfect AML cell lines using lipid-substituted polyethylenimine/siRNA complexes (polymeric nanoparticles). In this study, we investigated polymeric nanoparticle-mediated silencing of CD44 in CD34(+) LSPC cell models (leukemic KG-1 and KG-1a cell lines) as well as primary AML cells. Polymeric nanoparticle-mediated silencing decreased surface CD44 levels in KG-1, KG-1a and primary AML cells by up to 27%, 30% and 20% at day 3, respectively. Moreover, CD44 silencing resulted in induction of apoptosis in KG-1 cells, reduced adhesion of KG-1 and KG-1a cells to hyaluronic acid-coated cell culture plates and BM-MSC, and decreased adhesion of primary AML cells to BM-MSC. Our results suggest that polymeric nanoparticle-mediated silencing of CD44 might be a useful technique for inhibiting LSPC interactions with their microenvironment, thereby prohibiting leukemia progression or sensitizing LSPC to chemotherapy. PMID:25262448

Gul-Uluda?, Hilal; Valencia-Serna, Juliana; Kucharski, Cezary; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Larratt, Loree; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Uluda?, Hasan

2014-11-01

353

Uptake and inflammatory effects of nanoparticles in a human vascular endothelial cell line.  

PubMed

The mechanisms governing the correlation between exposure to nanoparticles and the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease remain unknown. Nanoparticles appear to cross the pulmonary epithelial barrier into the bloodstream, raising the possibility of direct contact with the vascular endothelium. Because endothelial inflammation is critical for the development of cardiovascular pathology, we hypothesized that direct exposure of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs*) to nanoparticles induces an inflammatory response and that this response depends on the composition of the particles. To test this hypothesis, we incubated HAECs for 1 to 8 hours with different concentrations (0.001-50 microg/mL) of iron oxide (Fe2O3), yttrium oxide (Y2O3), cerium oxide (CeO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we subsequently measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of three markers of inflammation: intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). The particles were well characterized in terms of size, surface area, composition, and crystal structure. To determine the interactions of nanoparticles with HAECs, we used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the concentration of internalized particles. Our data indicate that the delivery of nanoparticles to the HAEC surface and their uptake within the cells correlate directly with the concentration of particles in the cell culture medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the Fe2O3, Y2O3, and ZnO nanoparticles are internalized by HAECs and are often found within intracellular vesicles (the CeO2 particles were not imaged). Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not provoke an inflammatory response in HAECs at any of the concentrations tested, CeO2 particles elicited no response at low concentrations and a weak response above 10 microg/mL, and Y2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles elicited a pronounced inflammatory response above a threshold concentration of 10 microg/mL. We used fluorescent markers to identify the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells; the results showed that Y2O3 and ZnO particles at the highest concentrations may lead to the production of ROS. At the highest concentration, ZnO nanoparticles caused significant loss of cell adherence. These results demonstrate that inflammation in HAECs after acute exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles depends on the concentration and composition of the particles. PMID:19552347

Kennedy, Ian M; Wilson, Dennis; Barakat, Abdul I

2009-01-01

354

A comprehensive review of the application of chalcogenide nanoparticles in polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review the use of solution-processed chalcogenide quantum dots (CdS, CdSe, PbS, etc.) in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells is explored. Such devices are known as potential candidates for low-cost and efficient solar energy conversion, and compose the so-called third generation solar cells. The incorporation of oxides and metal nanoparticles has also been successfully achieved in this new class of photovoltaic devices; however, we choose to explore here chalcogenide quantum dots in light of their particularly attractive optical and electronic properties. We address herein a comprehensive review of the historical background and state-of-the-art comprising the incorporation of such nanoparticles in polymer matrices. Later strategies for surface chemistry manipulation, in situ synthesis of nanoparticles, use of continuous 3D nanoparticles network (aerogels) and ternary systems are also reviewed.

Freitas, Jilian N.; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

2014-05-01

355

Effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on inflammation in vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Because vascular endothelial cell inflammation is critical in the development of cardiovascular pathology, we hypothesized that direct exposure of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to ultrafine particles induces an inflammatory response. To test the hypothesis, we incubated HAECs for 4 h with different concentrations (0.001–50 ?g/ml) of CeO2 nanoparticles and subsequently measured mRNA levels of the three inflammatory markers intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ceria nanoparticles caused very little inflammatory response in HAECs, even at the highest dose. This material is apparently rather benign in comparison with Y2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles that we have studied previously. These results suggest that inflammation in HAECs following acute exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles depends strongly on particle composition. PMID:19558244

Gojova, Andrea; Lee, Jun-Tae; Jung, Heejung S.; Guo, Bing; Barakat, Abdul I.; Kennedy, Ian M.

2010-01-01

356

Coupled optical and electrical analysis for thin-film solar cells with embedded dielectric nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined optical and electrical simulations were performed for thin-film (silicon) solar cell structures with dielectric (silicon-dioxide) nanoparticles embedded in the active region for efficiency enhancement. The efficiency enhancement due to optimally sized nanoparticles is found to be 22% and 15% in the constant coverage area and constant pitch configurations, respectively; further, the enhancement qualitatively follows the trends expected from optical-only simulations. This, however, assumes a good quality dielectric-semiconductor interface, whereas heavy recombination at this interface is seen to degrade the efficiency significantly—setting an upper limit on the surface recombination velocity up to which embedding nanoparticles is beneficial.

Mopurisetty, Sundara Murthy; Bajaj, Mohit; Sathaye, Ninad D.; Ganguly, Swaroop

2015-01-01

357

Carbon supported Ag nanoparticles as high performance cathode catalyst for H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cell  

PubMed Central

A solution phase-based nanocapsule method was successfully developed to synthesize non-platinum metal catalyst—carbon supported Ag nanoparticles (Ag/C). XRD patterns and TEM image show Ag nanoparticles with a small average size (5.4 nm) and narrow size distribution (2–9 nm) are uniformly dispersed on the carbon black Vulcan XC-72 support. The intrinsic activity and pathway of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the Ag/C and commercial Pt/C were investigated using rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) tests at room temperature. The results confirmed that the 4-electron pathway of ORR proceeds on small Ag nanoparticles, and showed comparable ORR activities on the self-prepared Ag/C and a commercial Pt/C. A single H2-O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with the Ag/C cathode catalyst exhibited an open circuit potential of 0.98 V and a peak power density of 190 mW/cm2 at 80°C. PMID:24790944

Xin, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhichao; Qi, Ji; Li, Wenzhen

2013-01-01

358

Study the cytotoxicity of different kinds of water-soluble nanoparticles in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Preparation of three kinds of water-soluble QDs: CdTe, CdTe@SiO{sub 2}, Mn:ZnSe. ? Evaluated the cytotoxicity qualitatively and quantitatively. ? Fluorescent staining. ? Detected the total intracellular cadmium in cells. -- Abstract: Quantum nanoparticles have been applied extensively in biological and medical fields, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles becomes the key point we should concern. In this paper, the cytotoxicity of three kinds of water-soluble nanoparticles: CdTe, CdTe@SiO{sub 2} and Mn:ZnSe was studied. We evaluated the nanoparticles toxicity qualitatively by observing the morphological changes of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells at different incubation times and colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were carried out to detect the cell viability quantitatively. The results showed that CdTe nanoparticles with high concentrations caused cells to die largely while CdTe@SiO{sub 2} and Mn:ZnSe nanoparticles had no obvious effect. For further study, we studied the relation between the cell viability and the total cadmium concentration in cells and found that the viability of cells treated with CdTe@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was higher than that treated with CdTe nanoparticles. We also discovered that the death rate of cells co-incubated with CdTe nanoparticles was proportional to the total intracellular cadmium concentrations.

Niu, Lu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Yang; Li, Xiaojie [Department of Pathophysiology, Prostate Diseases Prevention and Treatment Research Centre, Norman Bethune Medical School, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Pathophysiology, Prostate Diseases Prevention and Treatment Research Centre, Norman Bethune Medical School, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Gao, Xue [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2012-11-15

359

Axonal alignment and enhanced neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells on graphene-nanoparticle hybrid structures.  

PubMed

Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) cultured on graphene-nanoparticle hybrid structures show a unique behavior wherein the axons from the differentiating hNSCs show enhanced growth and alignment. We show that the axonal alignment is primarily due to the presence of graphene and the underlying nanoparticle monolayer causes enhanced neuronal differentiation of the hNSCs, thus having great implications of these hybrid-nanostructures for neuro-regenerative medicine. PMID:23824715

Solanki, Aniruddh; Chueng, Sy-Tsong Dean; Yin, Perry T; Kappera, Rajesh; Chhowalla, Manish; Lee, Ki-Bum

2013-10-11

360

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

2014-10-01