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1

SERS spectroscopy of kaempferol and galangin under the interaction of human serum albumin with adsorbed silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy were employed to probe the interaction of the flavonol drugs, kaempferol and galangin, with human serum albumin (HSA). SERS spectra of both flavonol derivatives were obtained from a colloidal silver surface in physiological condition, based on the high performance of the enhanced substrate, the most enhanced modes of kaempferol and galangin were those with certain motions perpendicular to the metal surface. The SERS spectra were allowed to predict similar orientation geometry for both of the drugs on the colloidal surface with minor difference. In addition, both flavonols-HSA complexes were prepared in different concentration ratios and the orientated differences between kaempferol and galangin were investigated by SERS.

Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xueyuan; Wang, Yingping; Zhao, Bing; Zhao, Daqing; Zhao, Yu

2

Metal-Insulating-Semi-Incorporation of Silicon Nanoparticles into  

E-print Network

Metal-Insulating-Semi- Conductor Incorporation of Silicon Nanoparticles into Silicon Based Solar material layers create an electrical field. 繚 Middle insulating layer (I) absorbs light and produces charge nanoparticles as insulating layer with aluminum contact on N+ type silicon doped wafer. 繚 Diode-like behavior

3

Insulin-incorporated chitosan nanoparticles based on polyelectrolyte complex formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared by polyelectrolyte complex formation using low-molecular weight water soluble\\u000a chitosan (LMWSC). Insulin-incorporated nanoparticles showed spherical shapes with a particle size of approximately 200 nm.\\u000a The average particle size, drug content and loading efficiency increased with increasing insulin feed. The zeta potential\\u000a decreased with increasing insulin feed, indicating that the electrostatic interaction increased with increasing insulin feed.

Joung-Pyo Nam; Changyong Choi; Mi-Kyeong Jang; Young-Il Jeong; Jae-Woon Nah; Sung-Hyun Kim

2010-01-01

4

Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple approach for forming anti-reflective film stacks on plastic substrates employing aqueous colloidal dispersions of metal oxide nanoparticles. Results demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate a polymeric thin film of continuously tunable refractive index over a wide range by loading the film with varying concentrations of metal oxide nanoparticles. Specifically, the refractive index for the

Kevin C Krogman; Thad Druffel; Mahendra K Sunkara

2005-01-01

5

Inorganic-organic materials incorporating alumoxane nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically functionalized alumina nanoparticles (carboxylate-alumoxanes) are used as the inorganic component of a new class of inorganic-organic material. Lysine- or para-hydroxybenzoic acid-derivatized alumoxanes are prepared from the reaction of boehmite, [Al(O)(OH)]n, with the appropriate carboxylic acid. The peripheral hydroxides and amines of these alumoxanes react directly with DER 332 epoxide to form a hybrid material, or in the presence of a resin and hardener system, to form a composite material. Solid state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the alumoxanes are chemically bound to the resin matrix. The properties and cure times of the alumoxane materials are distinct from both the pure resins and from a physical blend of the resins with traditional fillers. A significant increase in thermal stability and tensile strength is observed for the resin systems. In order to produce molecular coupling layers, epoxides cross-linked with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) grown on the native oxide of aluminum thin films on silicon substrates have been investigated. Specifically, SAMs have been formed by the attachment of different carboxylic acids. In order to investigate the cross-linking reaction between carboxylate monolayers and an epoxide, grown monolayers were reacted with a mono-epoxy resin. In addition to these surface materials, aluminum oxide surfaces supporting carboxylate monolayers were reacted in pairs with DER 332 to form a structural adhesive. These materials have been characterized variously by SEM, AFM, XPS, EDX, and contact angle measurements. The particle size dependence on pH of a series of alumoxanes was investigated. For each of the alumoxanes, PCS particle size measurements were obtained as a function of pH. In all cases, particle size control was afforded by variations in pH. Finally, crystal structures of several model compounds were determined by X-ray crystallography, and shown to form either sheets of dimers or tetrameric units. Through a review of structures found in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database, compounds of the type X-CH(OH)CH 2NH-Y were investigated. The results of this study lead to a generalized approach for predicting the packing motifs of racemic mixtures in polar space groups.

Vogelson, Cullen Taylor

6

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 然 inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 然 (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 然. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 然 (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 然 (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

7

Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 然 inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 然 (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 然. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 然 (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 然 (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P; Moley, Kelle H; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A; Hood, Joshua L

2014-01-01

8

A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have revealed that a diet rich in plant-derived foods has a protective effect on human health. Identifying bioactive dietary constituents is an active area of scientific investigation that may lead to new drug discovery. Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic activities. In this article, the distribution of kaempferol in the plant kingdom and its pharmacological properties are reviewed. The pharmacokinetics (e.g. oral bioavailability, metabolism, plasma levels) and safety of kaempferol are also analyzed. This information may help understand the health benefits of kaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as a possible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases. PMID:21428901

Calder鏮-Monta隳, J M; Burgos-Mor鏮, E; P廨ez-Guerrero, C; L鏕ez-L嫙aro, M

2011-04-01

9

Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymer  

PubMed Central

Background Although cisplatin is extensively used in the clinical field, its intrinsic toxicity limits its clinical use. We investigated nanoparticle formations of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (PAA-MMA) incorporating cisplatin and their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared through the ion-complex formation between acrylic acid and cisplatin. The anticancer activity of cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles was assessed with CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of less than 200 nm with spherical shapes. Drug content was increased according to the increase of the feeding amount of cisplatin and acrylic acid content in the copolymer. The higher acrylic acid content in the copolymer induced increase of particle size and decrease of zeta potential. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect against CT26 tumor cells in vitro. However, cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed improved antitumor activity against an animal tumor xenograft model. Conclusion We suggest that PAA-MMA nanoparticles incorporating cisplatin are promising carriers for an antitumor drug-delivery system. PMID:23966778

Lee, Kyung Dong; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Da Hye; Lim, Gyun-Taek; Choi, Ki-Choon

2013-01-01

10

Preparation of caffeic Acid phenethyl ester-incorporated nanoparticles and their biological activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to fabricate caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)-incorporated nanoparticles using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone) (CE) copolymer and to study their antitumor activity against pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells. CAPE-incorporated nanoparticles showed spherical shapes having small diameters less than 300 nm and CAPE was continuously released from CE nanoparticles over 4 days. CAPE-incorporated polymeric micelles properly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of CT26 cells as well as CAPE itself. Furthermore, they showed similar anti-invasive and antimigrative effect against CT26 cells at in vitro compared with CAPE itself, indicating that CAPE-incorporated nanoparticles have at least equivalent anticarcinogenic activity against CT26 cells compared with CAPE itself. At pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 cells using nude mouse, CAPE-incorporated nanoparticles have superior antimetastatic efficacy against, that is, control treatment with pulmonary metastasis model showed significant increase of lung weight because of the metastasis of tumor cells, whereas CAPE or CAPE-incorporated nanoparticles properly inhibited metastasis of tumor cells. We suggest CAPE-incorporated nanoparticles as a promising candidate for antimetastatic chemotherapeutic agent. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:144-154, 2015. PMID:25417897

Lee, Hyo-Young; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Kyung Dong; Choi, Seon-Hee; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Da Hye; Choi, Ki-Choon

2015-01-01

11

Kaempferol, a mutagenic flavonol from Helichrysum simillimum.  

PubMed

Helichrysum simillimum is native to South Africa. It is used for the treatment of coughs, colds, fever, infections, headache, and menstrual pain. Extracts of this species showed mutagenic effects in the Salmonella/microsome assay. The aim of this study was to isolate and determine the mutagenic constituents of H. simillimum. Bioassay-guided fractionation of 90% aqueous methanol extracts, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, led to the isolation of the flavonol kaempferol. PMID:19244292

Elgorashi, Ee; van Heerden, Fr; van Staden, J

2008-11-01

12

Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image.  

PubMed

Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)-curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSA-CCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSA-CCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSA-CCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by ?-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes. PMID:25558927

Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

2015-01-30

13

Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSACCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSACCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSACCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by ?-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes.

Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

2015-01-01

14

Magneto-optical Kerr effects of yttrium-iron garnet thin films incorporating gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report an experimental study on magneto-optical (MO) Kerr effects of yttrium-iron garnet (YIG) thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles. The polar MO Kerr spectra in the wavelength between 400 and 800 nm show that, by incorporating the Au nanoparticles, Kerr rotation angles become negative values in the region, where the localized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance of the Au nanoparticles is located. The anomalous Kerr rotation indicates a possible coupling between the MO Kerr effect of YIG and the SPP. A mechanism for the coupling is discussed. PMID:16712274

Tomita, Satoshi; Kato, Takeshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Iwata, Satoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji

2006-04-28

15

Tuning of optical properties of PMMA by incorporating silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocomposite films of Poly (methylmethacrylate) filled with different concentration of silver nanoparticles were prepared by ex-situ method. Firstly, silver nanoparticles were obtained by reducing the aqueous solution of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride then Ag/PMMA films were prepared by mixing colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles with solution of polymer. From absorption and specular reflection spectra, the optical band gap and refractive index (n) have been calculated. The decrease in optical bandgap and increase in refractive index has been indicative of the modifications in optical band structure of the PMMA matrix.

Alisha, Rozra, Jyoti; Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Sharma, Pawan

2012-06-01

16

Comparison of post-detonation combustion in explosives incorporating aluminum nanoparticles: Influence of the passivation layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum nanoparticles and explosive formulations that incorporate them have been a subject of ongoing interest due to the potential of aluminum particles to dramatically increase energy content relative to conventional organic explosives. We have used time-resolved atomic and molecular emission spectroscopy to monitor the combustion of aluminum nanoparticles within the overall chemical dynamics of post-detonation fireballs. We have studied the energy release dynamics of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) charges incorporating three types of aluminum nanoparticles: commercial oxide-passivated nanoparticles, oleic acid-capped aluminum nanoparticles (AlOA), and nanoparticles in which the oxide shell of the particle has been functionalized with an acrylic monomer and copolymerized into a fluorinated acrylic matrix (AlFA). The results indicate that the commercial nanoparticles and the AlFA nanoparticles are oxidized at a similar rate, while the AlOA nanoparticles combust more quickly. This is most likely due to the fact that the commercial nano-Al and the AlFA particles are both oxide-passivated, while the AlOA particles are protected by an organic shell that is more easily compromised than an oxide layer. The peak fireball temperatures for RDX charges containing 20 wt. % of commercial nano-Al, AlFA, or AlOA were 3900 K, 3400 K, and 4500 K, respectively.

Lewis, W. K.; Rumchik, C. G.; Smith, M. J.; Fernando, K. A. S.; Crouse, C. A.; Spowart, J. E.; Guliants, E. A.; Bunker, C. E.

2013-01-01

17

Kaempferol Downregulates Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor and ErbB3 Signaling in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Novel dietary agents for colon cancer prevention and therapy are desired. Kaempferol, a flavonol, has been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of kaempferol. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of kaempferol on growth factor-induced proliferation and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Methods: To assess the effects of kaempferol and/or growth factors [insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and heregulin (HRG)-?], cells were cultured with or without 60 ?mol/L kaempferol and/or 10 nmol/L IGF-I or 20 ?g/L HRG-?. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and apoptosis were determined by a cell viability assay, a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, and Annexin-V staining, respectively. Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and an in vitro kinase assay were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of various signaling molecules involved in the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and ErbB3 signaling pathways. Results: IGF-I and HRG-? stimulated HT-29 cell growth but did not abrogate kaempferol-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Kaempferol reduced IGF-II secretion, HRG expression and phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2. Kaempferol reduced IGF-I- and HRG-?-induced phosphorylation of the IGF-IR and ErbB3, their association with p85, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. Additionally, kaempferol inhibited IGF-I- and HRG-?-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK-1/2. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that kaempferol downregulates activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK-1/2 pathways by inhibiting IGF-IR and ErbB3 signaling in HT-29 cells. We suggest that kaempferol could be a useful chemopreventive agent against colon cancer. PMID:25337585

Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Park, Jung Han Yoon

2014-01-01

18

Silver nanoparticles incorporated onto ordered mesoporous silica from Tollen's reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble metal nanostructures supported on mesoporous silica are bridge between traditional silica adsorbents and modern catalysts. In this work the Ag/SBA-15 mesoporous materials were synthesized and characterized. Various forms of nanosilver supported on ordered mesoporous template have been successfully obtained via proposed procedures. In all synthesized materials, Tollen's reagent (diammine silver complex [Ag(NH3)2]+) was used as a silver source. Silver nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of ammoniacal silver complex by formaldehyde in the solution of stabilizer. After reduction, Ag nanoparticles could be deposited on SBA-15, or added during traditional synthesis of SBA-15 giving silver or silver chloride nanoparticles in the combination with porous silica. Silver nanostructures as nanoparticles or nanowires were also embedded onto the SBA-15 by incipient wetness impregnation of silver ions. Absorbed silver ions were next reduced under hydrogen at high temperature. There are many advantages of utilized ammoniacal silver complex as a silver source. Proposed method is capable to synthesis of various metal nanostructures with controlled composition and morphology. The silver ammonia complex is composed of two ions surrounding and protecting the central silver ion, so it is possible to obtain very small nanoparticles using simple approach without any functionalization of external and internal surface of SBA-15. This approach allows obtaining greatly small silver nanoparticles on SBA-15 (4 nm) or nanowires depending on the metal loading amount. Moreover, the colloidal silver solution prepared from Tollen's reagent, in the presence of triblock copolymer, remains stable for a long time. Reduction of Tollen's reagent to silver colloidal solution seems to be efficient, fast and interesting approach for the preparation of supported silver nanostructures Obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS).

Zienkiewicz-Strza?ka, M.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Kozak, M.; Pikus, S.

2013-02-01

19

Chemical Dynamics in Energetic Materials Incorporating Aluminum Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum nanoparticles are widely considered attractive as fuels due to the high heat of reaction associated with their oxidation, and the potential for fast reaction due to their small size. However, the reaction dynamics can also be strongly influenced by the passivation layer that coats the reactive metal surface. Typically, this takes the form of a naturally-occurring oxide shell on

William K. Lewis; Barbara A. Harruff; K. A. Shiral Fernando; Marcus J. Smith; Elena A. Guliants; Christopher E. Bunker

2010-01-01

20

Plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles incorporated inside an optical fibre matrix.  

PubMed

Metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into the core of standard telecommunication grade optical fibres. This creates a simple, yet robust, platform which can be used to investigate the properties of nanoparticles, for sensing, spectroscopy, and optical switching applications. The optical response of gold nanoparticles embedded in the optical fibre matrix was evaluated as a function of temperature and the use of the structure as an inline fibre-optic temperature sensor is described. A redshift in the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance related peak, as well as broadening of the plasmon resonance, was observed upon increasing the temperature of the nanoparticle containing fibre. The shift and broadening of the plasmon resonance were attributed to the temperature dependence of dielectric constants of metallic nanoparticles and the silica matrix and to plasmon-phonon interactions. PMID:21727496

Dhawan, Anuj; Muth, John F

2006-05-28

21

Development and characterization of solid oral dosage form incorporating candesartan nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Sparingly water-soluble drugs such as candesartan cilexetil offer challenges in developing a drug product with adequate bioavailability. The objective of the present study was to develop a tablet dosage form of candesartan cilexetil incorporating drug nanoparticles to increase its saturation solubility and dissolution rate for enhancing bioavailability while reducing variability in systemic exposure. The bioavailability of candesartan cilexetil is dissolution limited following oral administration. To enhance bioavailability and overcome variability in systemic exposure, a nanoparticle formulation of candesartan cilexetil was developed. Candesartan cilexetil nanoparticles were prepared using a wet bead milling technique. The milled nanosuspension was converted into solid intermediate using a spray drying process. The nanosuspensions were characterized for particle size before and after spray drying. The spray dried nanoparticles were blended with excipients for tableting. The saturation solubility and dissolution characteristics of the nanoparticle formulation were investigated and compared with commercial candesartan cilexetil formulation. The drug nanoparticles were evaluated for solid-state transitions before and after milling. This study demonstrated that tablet formulation incorporating drug nanoparticles showed significantly faster rate of drug dissolution in a discriminating dissolution medium as compared to commercially available tablet formulation. Systemic exposure studies in rats indicated a significant increase in the rate and extent of drug absorption. PMID:19235553

Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Pillai, Raviraj; Venkateshwarlu, Vobalaboina; Harisudhan, T

2009-01-01

22

Copper nanoparticle incorporated plasmonic organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By embedding copper nanoparticles into poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layers, the power conversion efficiency of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cell using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was increased from 3.58% to 3.96%, and that of the device based on poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

Liu, Zhihai; Lee, Seung Yong; Lee, Eun-Cheol

2014-12-01

23

Optofluidics incorporating actively controlled micro- and nano-particles  

PubMed Central

The advent of optofluidic systems incorporating suspended particles has resulted in the emergence of novel applications. Such systems operate based on the fact that suspended particles can be manipulated using well-appointed active forces, and their motions, locations and local concentrations can be controlled. These forces can be exerted on both individual and clusters of particles. Having the capability to manipulate suspended particles gives users the ability for tuning the physical and, to some extent, the chemical properties of the suspension media, which addresses the needs of various advanced optofluidic systems. Additionally, the incorporation of particles results in the realization of novel optofluidic solutions used for creating optical components and sensing platforms. In this review, we present different types of active forces that are used for particle manipulations and the resulting optofluidic systems incorporating them. These systems include optical components, optofluidic detection and analysis platforms, plasmonics and Raman systems, thermal and energy related systems, and platforms specifically incorporating biological particles. We conclude the review with a discussion of future perspectives, which are expected to further advance this rapidly growing field. PMID:23864925

Kayani, Aminuddin A.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ward, Stephanie A.; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

2012-01-01

24

UV protection of reduced graphene oxide films by TiO2 nanoparticle incorporation.  

PubMed

A simple strategy for preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/TiO2 hybrid thin films was developed by UV-assisted incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) onto RGO films. The UV-assisted incorporation of TiO2 NPs onto RGO films makes the hybrid films stable against prolonged exposure to UV light without the decrease of their conductivity and transparency. PMID:23532399

Kim, Young-Kwan; Min, Dal-Hee

2013-05-01

25

E-beam crosslinked, biocompatible functional hydrogels incorporating polyaniline nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PANI aqueous nanocolloids in their acid-doped, inherently conductive form were synthesised by means of suitable water soluble polymers used as stabilisers. In particular, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or chitosan (CT) was used to stabilise PANI nanoparticles, thus preventing PANI precipitation during synthesis and upon storage. Subsequently, e-beam irradiation of the PANI dispersions has been performed with a 12 MeV Linac accelerator. PVA-PANI nanocolloid has been transformed into a PVA-PANI hydrogel nanocomposite by radiation induced crosslinking of PVA. CT-PANI nanoparticles dispersion, in turn, was added to PVA to obtain wall-to-wall gels, as chitosan mainly undergoes chain scission under the chosen irradiation conditions. While the obtainment of uniform PANI particle size distribution was preliminarily ascertained with laser light scattering and TEM microscopy, the typical porous structure of PVA-based freeze dried hydrogels was observed with SEM microscopy for the hydrogel nanocomposites. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the characteristic, pH-dependent and reversible optical absorption properties of PANI are conferred to the otherwise optically transparent PVA hydrogels. Selected formulations have been also subjected to MTT assays to prove the absence of cytotoxicity.

Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M.-A.; Niconov, A.; Chmielewska, D.; Spadaro, G.

2012-09-01

26

Incorporation of zirconia into coatings formed by DC plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminium in nanoparticle suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been carried out to investigate the incorporation of zirconia into alumina-based coatings formed on aluminium using DC plasma electrolytic oxidation in phosphate and silicate electrolytes containing zirconia nanoparticles in suspension. The nanoparticles were incorporated mainly near the coating surface and within cavities inside the coatings. Additionally, a silicon-rich, surface deposit appeared to entrain the nanoparticles of the silicate electrolyte. Zirconia was also present in cellular microstructures of the main alumina-rich coating layers, suggesting melting at >1710 蚓 and subsequent solidification. The coatings frequently contained tetragonal zirconia in addition to monoclinic zirconia, with the presence of zirconia also affecting the proportions of ?- and ?-alumina in favour of the former phase.

Matykina, E.; Arrabal, R.; Monfort, F.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G. E.

2008-12-01

27

Thioctic acid derivatives as building blocks to incorporate DNA oligonucleotides onto gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates are being used as diagnostic tools and gene silencing experiments. Thiol-chemistry is mostly used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with oligonucleotides and to incorporate DNA or RNA molecules onto gold surfaces. However, the stability of such nucleic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugates in certain conditions may be a limitation due to premature break of the thiol-gold bonds followed by aggregation processes. Here, we describe a straightforward synthesis of oligonucleotides carrying thioctic acid moiety based on the use of several thioctic acid-L-threoninol derivatives containing different spacers, including triglycine, short polyethyleneglycol, or aliphatic spacers. The novel thioctic-oligonucleotides were used for the functionalization of gold nanoparticles and the surface coverage and stability of the resulting thioctic-oligonucleotide gold nanoparticles were assessed. In all cases gold nanoparticles functionalized with thioctic-oligonucleotides had higher loadings and higher stability in the presence of thiols than gold nanoparticles prepared with commercially available thiol-oligonucleotides. Furthermore, the thioctic derivative carrying the triglycine linker is sensitive to cathepsin B present in endosomes. In this way this derivative may be interesting for the cellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides as these results provides the basis for a potential endosomal escape. PMID:25045890

P廨ez-Rentero, S鏮ia; Grijalvo, Santiago; Pe雝elas, Guillem; F趍rega, Carme; Eritja, Ramon

2014-01-01

28

Nanocomposite Materials - Ferroelectric Nanoparticles Incorporated into Porous Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to develop a technique of introducing selected ferroelectric materials (TGS, NaNO2, NaNO3, KNO3, ADP and KDP) into porous glasses with various average pore dimensions. The major efforts have been focused on the investigations of the influence of the pore size on physical properties and phase transition of nanocrystals embedded into porous matrix with different methods. The ferroelectrics have been introduced into porous glasses from the melt and a water solution. The results of electrical (dielectric, pyroelectric) and thermal (dilatometric and calorimetric) measurements have shown that the observed sequences of phase transitions in ferroelectric materials embedded into the porous glasses are similar to that in bulk crystals. The relationship between phase transition and melt temperatures versus average values of pore dimensions has been determined. The experimentally observed shift of phase transition temperatures is the superposition of the size effect and pressure effect created by the difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferroelectrics nanoparticles and glass matrix.

Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Poprawski, R.; Ci?man, A.; Sieradzki, A.

29

Percutaneous permeation of betamethasone 17-valerate incorporated in lipid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids are therapeutic agents widely used in the pharmacological treatment of skin diseases such as eczema or psoriasis. Unfortunately, their use is restricted by the side effects that frequently occur at the systemic level. The goal of the research described here was to develop and characterize a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) system containing corticosteroids for prolonged and localized delivery of the active drugs into the skin. In vitro measurements of Betamethasone 17-valerate (BMV) permeation through human epidermis were conducted using static Franz diffusion cells. The reservoir formation of the drug in the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin was also investigated. Monostearin SLN showed remarkable controlled release properties and a significant epidermis drug reservoir. On the other hand, beeswax SLN could not reduce the drug permeation through the skin, nor increase the drug content in the upper layers of the skin. The diffusion of corticosteroids into the skin appeared to be dependent on the lipid composition of the monostearin SLN. Topical SLN products show great potential for treating dermatological conditions by targeting corticosteroids to epidermal/upper dermal disease sites while minimizing systemic drug absorption. PMID:20839362

Zhang, Jin; Smith, Eric

2011-03-01

30

The improvement of characteristics of biodegradable films made from kefiran-whey protein by nanoparticle incorporation.  

PubMed

Biodegradable kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI) nanocomposites were produced using montmorillonite (MMT) and nano-TiO2 as nanoparticles in the percentage of 1, 3, and 5% (w/w) by a casting and solvent-evaporation method. Physical, mechanical, and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were determined as a function of nanoparticle concentration. The results revealed that the effect of these nanoparticles was different according to their nature and percentage. The films incorporated with 5% (w/w) MMT showed the highest tensile strength, Young's modulus, puncture strength, and the lowest WVP compared with the control and TiO2 added films. In contrast to MMT, addition of TiO2 nanoparticles due to the plasticizing effect led to a significant change in color and transparency of nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations demonstrated the films' properties in relation to their microstructures. The surface topography results also showed a considerable increase in roughness parameters by incorporating the nanoparticles in kefiran-WPI matrix. PMID:24815408

Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

2014-08-30

31

Cytotoxic Effect of Paclitaxel Incorporated in Nanoparticles Based on Lactic and Glycolic Acid Copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclitaxel dosage form on nanoparticles of 200300nm based on lactic and glycolic acid copolymer was obtained by the co-precipitation\\u000a method. The possibility of controlled release of paclitaxel at pH 7.4 for 24h was studied in vitro. Studies on Jurkat\\/WT human T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells showed that incorporation of paclitaxel in the nanoparticles led\\u000a to a 4-fold increase of its cytotoxicity (6.8??10?6M)

V. Bojat; D. S. Baranov; E. A. Oganesyan; Y. M. Hamdy; V. Yu. Balabanyan; R. N. Alyautdin

2011-01-01

32

Synthesis and characterization of Eu(III)-incorporated silica nanoparticles for application to UV-LED.  

PubMed

A tetrakis(dibenzylmethanido) Eu(III) complex as a ultraviolet (UV) excited phosphor was synthesized, and incorporated with mesoporous silica as core-shell (CS), outer-shell (OS) and intermediate-shell (IS) architectures, using a combination of the self-organization process and the St鐽er method. Exciting the Eu(III) complex at UV light produced a strong sensitized red-emission from Eu(III) by energy transfer from the ligand. Phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs) were fabricated by casting the powdered complex and the incorporated silica nanoparticles onto a 365-nm InGaN chip, and their optical properties and thermal stability were investigated in terms of the chromaticity index and the intensity decay, respectively. The CS silica nanoparticle casted UV-LED exhibited the best perfomence with strong intensity and excellent thermal stability. PMID:24703666

Jeong, Yong-Kwang; Sohn, Youngku; Kang, Jun-Gill

2014-06-01

33

Sorption, Solubility, Bond Strength and Hardness of Denture Soft Lining Incorporated with Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The colonization of denture soft lining material by oral fungi can result in infections and stomatitis of oral tissues. In this study, 0 ppm to 200 ppm of silver nanoparticles was incorporated as an antimicrobial agent into composites to reduce the microbial colonization of lining materials. The effect of silver nanoparticle incorporation into a soft lining material on the sorption, solubility, hardness (on the Shore A scale) and tensile bond strength of the composites was investigated. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc tests or the chi-square Pearson test at the p < 0.05 level. An increase in the nanosilver concentration resulted in a decrease in hardness, an increase in sorption and solubility, a decrease in bond strength and a change in the failure type of the samples. The best combination of bond strength, sorption, solubility and hardness with antifungal efficacy was achieved for silver nanoparticle concentrations ranging from 20 ppm to 40 ppm. These composites did not show properties worse than those of the material without silver nanoparticles and exhibited enhanced in vitro antifungal efficiency. PMID:23271371

Chladek, Grzegorz; Kasperski, Jacek; Barszczewska-Rybarek, Izabela; ?mudzki, Jaros?aw

2013-01-01

34

5-aminolevulinic acid-incorporated nanoparticles of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan copolymer for photodynamic therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to make 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-incorporated nanoparticles using methoxy polyethylene glycol/chitosan (PEG-Chito) copolymer for application in photodynamic therapy for colon cancer cells. Methods 5-ALA-incorporated (PEG-Chito-5-ALA) nanoparticles were prepared by ion complex formation between 5-ALA and chitosan. Protoporphyrin IX accumulation in the tumor cells and phototoxicity induced by PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles were assessed using CT26 cells in vitro. Results PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles have spherical shapes with sizes diameters 200 nm. More specifically, microscopic observation revealed a core-shell structure of PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles. 1H NMR spectra showed that 5-ALA was incorporated in the core of the nanoparticles. In the absence of light irradiation, all components such as 5-ALA, empty nanoparticles, and PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles did not affect the viability of cells. However, 5-ALA or PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles induced tumor cell death under light irradiation, and the viability of tumor cells was dose-dependently decreased according to the increase in irradiation time. In particular, PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles induced increased phototoxicity and higher protoporphyrin IX accumulation into the tumor cells than did 5-ALA alone. Furthermore, PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles accelerated apoptosis/necrosis of tumor cells, compared to 5-ALA alone. Conclusion PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles showed superior delivery capacity of 5-ALA and phototoxicity against tumor cells. These results show that PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles are promising candidates for photodynamic therapy of colon cancer cells. PMID:23589688

Chung, Chung-Wook; Chung, Kyu-Don; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

35

Kaempferol, a potential cytostatic and cure for inflammatory disorders.  

PubMed

Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g., tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g., Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Its anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated in various disease models, including those for encephalomyelitis, diabetes, asthma, and carcinogenesis. Moreover, kaempferol act as a scavenger of free radicals and superoxide radicals as well as preserve the activity of various anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The anticancer effect of this flavonoid is mediated through different modes of action, including anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction, cell-cycle arrest, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis activities. In addition, kaempferol was found to exhibit its anticancer activity through the modulation of multiple molecular targets including p53 and STAT3, through the activation of caspases, and through the generation of ROS. The anti-tumor effects of kaempferol have also been investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The combination of kaempferol and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs produces a greater therapeutic effect than the latter, as well as reduces the toxicity of the latter. In this review, we summarize the anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of kaempferol with a focus on its molecular targets and the possible use of this flavonoid for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:25147152

Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Nandakumar, Natarajan; Palaniswami, Rajendran; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Nishigaki, Ikuo

2014-10-30

36

Characterization of films of weak polyelectrolytes incorporated with poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone)-stabilized gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The incorporation process of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) into self-assembled films was obtained using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique where two weak polyelectrolytes, i.e., poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as polycation and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as polyanion, were sequentially adsorbed. To evaluate this process, the films of PAH and PAA were immersed in gold solutions containing different sizes of Au NPs (6 nm and 10 nm) stabilized with poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (PVP) before and after treatment with a 0.1 mol L(-1) solution of hydrochloric acid. The systems were analyzed using a multi-method approach involving UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the self-assembled polyelectrolyte films that were not treated by acid showed greater incorporation and better distribution of Au NPs. PMID:23421173

Popiolski, T M; Dal'Acqua, N; Faria, A C R; Amorim, C L G; Barbosa-Silva, R; Pereira, M B; Baumvol, I J R; Giovanela, M; Crespo, J S; Machado, G

2012-10-01

37

Preparation and Characterization of Selenium Incorporated Guar Gum Nanoparticle and Its Interaction with H9c2 Cells  

PubMed Central

This study deals with the preparation and characterization of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticle (SGG), and its effect on H9c2 cardiomyoblast. Herein, nanoprecipitation techniques had been employed for the preparation of SGG nanoparticle. The prepared nanoparticle had been subjected to various types of analytical techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle size analysis to confirm the characteristics of nanoparticle as well as for selenium incorporation. Physical characterization of nanoparticle showed that the size of nanoparticles increase upto ?69173 nm upon selenium incorporation from ?41132 nm. Then the prepared nanoparticles were evaluated for its effect on H9c2 cells. In this regard, the effect of nanoparticle on various vital parameters of H9c2 cells was studied. Parameters like cell viability, uptake of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticle by the cells, effect of SGG on DNA integrity, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, alteration in transmembrane potential of mitochondria and cytoskeletal integrity had been investigated. Viability results showed that up to 25 nM of SGG was safe (10.31%) but beyond that it induces cytotoxicity. Cellular uptake of selenium showed that cell permeability for SGG is significantly high compared to normal selenium (7.2 nM of selenium for 25 nM SGG compared with 5.2 nM selenium for 25 nM sodium selenite). There was no apoptosis with SGG and also it protects DNA from hydroxyl radical induced breakage. Likewise no adverse effect on mitochondria and cytoskeleton was observed for 25 nM of SGG. Overall results reveal that SGG is highly suitable for biomedical research application. PMID:24098647

Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Reshma, Premachandran Latha; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

2013-01-01

38

Preparation and characterization of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticle and its interaction with H9c2 cells.  

PubMed

This study deals with the preparation and characterization of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticle (SGG), and its effect on H9c2 cardiomyoblast. Herein, nanoprecipitation techniques had been employed for the preparation of SGG nanoparticle. The prepared nanoparticle had been subjected to various types of analytical techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle size analysis to confirm the characteristics of nanoparticle as well as for selenium incorporation. Physical characterization of nanoparticle showed that the size of nanoparticles increase upto ?69-173 nm upon selenium incorporation from ?41-132 nm. Then the prepared nanoparticles were evaluated for its effect on H9c2 cells. In this regard, the effect of nanoparticle on various vital parameters of H9c2 cells was studied. Parameters like cell viability, uptake of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticle by the cells, effect of SGG on DNA integrity, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, alteration in transmembrane potential of mitochondria and cytoskeletal integrity had been investigated. Viability results showed that up to 25 nM of SGG was safe (10.31%) but beyond that it induces cytotoxicity. Cellular uptake of selenium showed that cell permeability for SGG is significantly high compared to normal selenium (7.2 nM of selenium for 25 nM SGG compared with 5.2 nM selenium for 25 nM sodium selenite). There was no apoptosis with SGG and also it protects DNA from hydroxyl radical induced breakage. Likewise no adverse effect on mitochondria and cytoskeleton was observed for 25 nM of SGG. Overall results reveal that SGG is highly suitable for biomedical research application. PMID:24098647

Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Reshma, Premachandran Latha; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

2013-01-01

39

Recent Updates of DNA Incorporated in Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticles for Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors  

PubMed Central

Innovations in the field of electrochemical sensors and biosensors are of much importance nowadays. These devices are designed with probes and micro electrodes. The miniaturized designs of these sensors allow analyses of materials without damaging the samples. Some of these sensors are also useful for real time analysis within the host system, so these sensors are considered to be more advantageous than other types of sensors. The active sensing materials used in these types of sensors can be any material that acts as a catalyst for the oxidation or reduction of particular analyte or set of analytes. Among various kinds of sensing materials, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles have received considerable attraction in recent years. DNA is one of the classes of natural polymers, which can interact with CNTs and nanoparticles to form new types of composite materials. These composite materials have also been used as sensing materials for sensor applications. They have advantages in characteristics such as extraordinary low weight and multifunctional properties. In this article, advantages of DNA incorporated in CNT and nanoparticle hybrids for electrochemical sensors and biosensors are presented in detail, along with some key results noted from the literature.

Yogeswaran, Umasankar; Thiagarajan, Soundappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

2008-01-01

40

Fluorine incorporation into SnO2 nanoparticles by co-milling with polyvinylidene fluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine was incorporated into SnO2 nanoparticles from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) by co-milling. The incorporation process was triggered by an oxidative partial decomposition of PVdF due to the abstraction of oxygen atoms, and began soon after milling with a simultaneous decrease in the crystallite size of SnO2 from 56 nm to 19 nm, and increase in the lattice strain by a factor 7. Appearance of D and G Raman peaks indicated that the decomposition of PVdF was accompanied by the formation of nanometric carbon species. Decomposing processes of PVdF were accompanied by the continuous change in the states of F, with a decrease of C-F in PVdF and increase in Sn-F. This indicates the gradual incorporation of F into SnO2, by replacing a part of oxygen in the oxide with fluorine. These serial mechanochemical reaction processes were discussed on the basis of X-ray diffractometry, FT-IR, Raman and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, F1s, Sn3d and C1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectra, as well as magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy of 19F and 119Sn. The present findings serve as an initial stage of incorporating fluorine into SnO2 via a solvent-free solid-state process, toward the rational fabrication of fluorine doped SnO2 powders.

Senna, Mamoru; Turianicov, Erika; epel嫜, Vladim甏; Bruns, Michael; Scholz, Gudrun; Lebedkin, Sergei; Kbel, Christian; Wang, Di; Ka?uchov, M嫫ia; Kaus, Maximilian; Hahn, Horst

2014-04-01

41

Impact of magnetite nanoparticle incorporation on optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite LbL assemblies.  

PubMed

Optical and electrical properties of polyelectrolyte/iron oxide nanocomposite planar films on silicon substrates were investigated for different amount of iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated in the films. The nanocomposite assemblies prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly technique were characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass-spectrometry. Absorption spectra of the films reveal a shift of the optical absorption edge to higher energy when the number of deposited layers decreases. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements were applied to study the electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures prepared by thermal evaporation of gold electrodes on nanocomposite films. The capacitance-voltage measurements show that the dielectric constant of the film increases with the number of deposited layers and the fixed charge and the trapped charge densities have a negative sign. PMID:20602000

Yashchenok, Alexey M; Gorin, Dmitry A; Badylevich, Mikhail; Serdobintsev, Alexey A; Bedard, Matthieu; Fedorenko, Yanina G; Khomutov, Gennady B; Grigoriev, Dmitri O; M鐬wald, Helmuth

2010-09-21

42

Enhanced recovery and dissolution of griseofulvin nanoparticles from surfactant-free nanocomposite microparticles incorporating wet-milled swellable dispersants.  

PubMed

Nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) incorporating drug nanoparticles and wet-milled swellable dispersant particles were investigated as a surfactant-free drug delivery vehicle with the goal of enhancing the nanoparticle recovery and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Superdisintegrants were used as inexpensive, model, swellable dispersant particles by incorporating them into NCMP structure with or without wet-stirred media milling along with the drug. Suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) along with various dispersants produced by wet-milling were coated onto Pharmatose to prepare NCMPs in a fluidized bed process. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS, superdisintegrant) and Mannitol were used as additional dispersants to prepare surfactant-free NCMPs. Nanoparticle recovery during redispersion and dissolution of the various GF-laden NCMPs were examined. Suspensions prepared by co-milling GF/HPC/CCS or milling GF/HPC/SDS were stable after 30 h of storage. After drying, due to its extensive swelling capacity, incorporation of wet-milled CCS in the NCMPs caused effective breakage of the NCMP structure and bursting of nanoparticle clusters, ultimately leading to fast recovery of the GF nanoparticles. Optimized wet co-milling and incorporation of CCS in NCMP structure led to superior dispersant performance over incorporation of unmilled CCS or physically mixed unmilled CCS with NCMPs. The enhanced redispersion correlated well with the fast GF dissolution from the NCMPs containing either CCS particles or SDS. Overall, swellable dispersant (CCS) particles, preferably in multimodal size distribution, enable a surfactant-free formulation for fast recovery/dissolution of the GF nanoparticles. PMID:23981202

Bhakay, Anagha; Azad, Mohammad; Vizzotti, Emanuel; Dave, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit

2014-11-01

43

Beneficial properties of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles against ischemia/reperfusion in cardiomyoblasts (H9c2).  

PubMed

Nanotechnology for the treatment and diagnosis has been emerging recently as a potential area of research and development. In the present study, selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles have been prepared by nanoprecipitation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and particle size analysis. The nanoparticles were screened for antioxidant potential (metal chelation, total reducing power and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity) and were evaluated against the cell line based cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model with special emphasis on oxidative stress and mitochondrial parameters. The cell based cardiac ischemia model was employed using H9c2 cell lines. Investigations revealed that there was a significant alteration (P ? 0.05) in the innate antioxidant status (glutathione?, glutathione peroxidase?, thioredoxin reductase?, superoxide dismutase?, catalase?, lipid peroxidation?, protein carbonyl?, xanthine oxidase? and caspase 3 activity?), mitochondrial functions (reactive oxygen species generation, membrane potential, and pore opening) and calcium homeostasis (calcium ATPase and intracellular calcium overload) during both ischemia and reperfusion. For comparative evaluation, selenium, guar gum and selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles were evaluated for their protective properties against ischemia/reperfusion. The study reveals that selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles were better at protecting the cells from ischemia/reperfusion compared to selenium and guar gum nanoparticles. The potent antioxidant capability shown by the sample in in vitro assays may be the biochemical basis of its better biological activity. Further, the nanodimensions of the particle may be the additional factor responsible for its better effect. PMID:25307064

Soumya, R S; Vineetha, V P; Salin Raj, P; Raghu, K G

2014-11-01

44

Cyclodextrins-Kaempferol Inclusion Complexes: Spectroscopic and Reactivity Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slightly water-soluble flavonoid kaempferol (KAE) and its inclusion complexes with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) or heptakis-2,6-O-dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD) were investigated. The stoichiometric ratios and association constants describing the extent of the formation of the complexes\\u000a have been determined. Binding constants, estimated from fluorescence studies at different temperatures, were analyzed so as\\u000a to gain information about the mechanisms involved in the

Carolina Jullian; Victor Brossard; Iv嫕 Gonzalez; Muriel Alfaro; Claudio Olea-Azar

2011-01-01

45

Enhancement of Transdermal Penetration and Bioavailability of Poorly Soluble Acyclovir Using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Incorporated in Gel Cream  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work was to increase the amount of acyclovir in the basal epidermis, site of herpes virus simplex infection, using the solid lipid nanoparticles loaded gel cream as carriers. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenisation method and incorporated in a semisolid submicron gel cream. Acyclovir distribution into rat skin after topical application of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded gel cream was determined by fabricated Franz diffusion cell. The results showed that, the quantity of the acyclovir in the basal epidermis with the solid lipid nanoparticles loaded submicron gel cream was two folds times more than marketed acyclovir gel cream. This type of carrier can improve acyclovir loaded therapy since it increases drug retention in the basal epidermis. PMID:24019560

Gide, P. S.; Gidwani, S. K.; Kothule, K. U.

2013-01-01

46

Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.  

PubMed

Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ?-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24211705

Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

2014-01-28

47

Tumoricidal effects of etoposide incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles after intraperitoneal administration in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice.  

PubMed

The tumoricidal effects of etoposide incorporated into lipid nanoparticles after single-dose administration were investigated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites bearing mice. Etoposide and its nanoparticle formulations were administered intraperitoneally, and the cell cycle perturbation, cytogenetic damage, cell death (apoptosis), tumor regression, and animal survival were investigated as parameters of response with time. The tumor burden of mice treated with etoposide and its nanoparticle formulations decreased significantly (P < .001) compared with the initial up to 4 to 6 days, followed by an increase at later time intervals. Of the 3 different formulations, the survival time of mice was higher when treated with etoposide-loaded tripalmitin (ETP) nanoparticles, followed by etoposide-loaded glycerol monostearate (EGMS) (27.3%) and etoposide-loaded glycerol distearate (EGDS) (27.3%) compared with free etoposide. Cell cycle analysis revealed the hypodiploid peak (sub G0/G1 cell population) as well as G2 arrest in mice treated with etoposide and its nanoparticle formulations. The frequency of dead cells treated with the nanoparticle formulations remained high even after 8 days of treatment compared with free etoposide. The mice treated with nanoparticle formulations exhibited hypodiploid peaks and reduced S phase even 8 days after treatment, whereas the free etoposide-treated mice showed decrease in apoptosis after 3 days of treatment. The apoptotic frequency in cells 17 days after treatment was in the order of ETP > EGMS > EGDS > etoposide. The experimental results indicated that among the 3 nanoparticle formulations studied, the ETP nanoparticles showed greater and prolonged apoptotic induction properties, resulting in the higher increase in survival time of tumor bearing mice. PMID:16796375

Reddy, Lakkireddy Harivardhan; Adhikari, Jawahar Singh; Dwarakanath, Bilikere Srinirasa Rao; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Murthy, Rayasa Ramachandra

2006-01-01

48

The delivery of thrombi-specific nanoparticles incorporating oligonucleotides into injured cerebrovascular endothelium.  

PubMed

In acute vascular events, the endothelium derived tissue factor (TF) is the trigger of the coagulation cascade. In this study, EGFP-EGF1 protein-conjugated PEG-PLGA nanoparticle was employed as a TF targeting vehicle, the NF-?B decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs) was incorporated into it and the resulting EGF1-EGFP-NP-ODNs were evaluated as a vector for therapy of cortex infarction. At 2h after transfection of TF expressed rat brain capillary endothelial cell, EGF1-EGFP-NP-ODNs was more efficiently internalized and located in the cytoplasm than NP-ODNs. At 4h and 6h after administration, ODNs were present in the nuclei and obviously inhibited the TF expression. At 6h after i.v. administration invivo, most EGF1-EGFP-NP were accumulated in the embolism vessels, distributed in the damaged endothelial cells and lowered the TF expression. At 24h after i.v. administration, MR imaging of cortex infarcts were predominantly dwindled. PMID:23465828

Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Deng, Jun; Chen, Chen; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Zhang, Bo; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo; Wang, Xuxia; Lei, Hao; Hu, Yu

2013-05-01

49

HemoglobinAlbumin Cluster Incorporating a Pt Nanoparticle: Artificial O2 Carrier with Antioxidant Activities  

PubMed Central

A covalent coreshell structured protein cluster composed of hemoglobin (Hb) at the center and human serum albumins (HSA) at the periphery, Hb-HSAm, is an artificial O2 carrier that can function as a red blood cell substitute. Here we described the preparation of a novel Hb-HSA3 cluster with antioxidant activities and its O2 complex stable in aqueous H2O2 solution. We used an approach of incorporating a Pt nanoparticle (PtNP) into the exterior HSA unit of the cluster. A citrate reduced PtNP (1.8 nm diameter) was bound tightly within the cleft of free HSA with a binding constant (K) of 1.1107 M?1, generating a stable HSA-PtNP complex. This platinated protein showed high catalytic activities for dismutations of superoxide radical anions (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), i.e., superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Also, Hb-HSA3 captured PtNP into the external albumin unit (K?=?1.1107 M?1), yielding an Hb-HSA3(PtNP) cluster. The association of PtNP caused no alteration of the protein surface net charge and O2 binding affinity. The peripheral HSA-PtNP shell prevents oxidation of the core Hb, which enables the formation of an extremely stable O2 complex, even in H2O2 solution. PMID:25310133

Hosaka, Hitomi; Haruki, Risa; Yamada, Kana; B飆tcher, Christoph; Komatsu, Teruyuki

2014-01-01

50

Triamcinolone acetonide nanoparticles incorporated in thermoreversible gels for age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the US affecting millions yearly. It is characterized by intraocular neovascularization, inflammation and retinal damage which can be ameliorated through intraocular injections of glucocorticoids. However, the complications that arise from repetitive injections as well as the difficulty posed by targeting the posterior segment of the eye make this interesting territory for the development of novel drug delivery systems (DDS). In the present study, we described the development of a DDS composed of triamcinolone acetonide-encapsulated PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles (NP) incorporated into PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermoreversible gel and its use against VEGF expression characteristic of AMD. We found that the NP with mean size of 208??1.0?nm showed uniform size distribution and exhibited sustained release of the drug. We also demonstrated that the polymer can be injected as a solution and transition to a gel phase based on the biological temperature of the eye. Additionally, the proposed DDS was non-cytotoxic to ARPE-19 cells and significantly reduced VEGF expression by 43.5??3.9% as compared to a 1.53??11.1% reduction with triamcinolone. These results suggest the proposed DDS will contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for AMD. PMID:25259682

Hirani, Anjali; Grover, Aditya; Lee, Yong W; Pathak, Yashwant; Sutariya, Vijaykumar

2014-09-26

51

Designer nanoparticles: Incorporating size, shape, and triggered release into nanoscale drug carriers  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Although significant progress has been made in delivering therapeutic agents through micro and nanocarriers, precise control over in vivo biodistribution and disease-responsive drug release has been difficult to achieve. This is critical for the success of next generation drug delivery devices, since newer drugs, designed to interfere with cellular functions, must be efficiently and specifically delivered to diseased cells. The major constraint in achieving this has been our limited repertoire of particle synthesis methods, especially at the nanoscale. Recent developments in generating shape-specific nanocarriers and the potential to combine stimuli-responsive release with nanoscale delivery devices show great promise in overcoming these limitations. Areas covered in this review Here we discuss how recent advancements in fabrication technology allow synthesis of highly monodisperse, stimuli-responsive, drug-carrying nanoparticles of precise geometries. We also review how particle properties, specifically shape and stimuli responsiveness, affect biodistribution, cellular uptake, and drug release. What the reader will gain The reader is introduced to recent developments in intelligent drug nanocarriers and new nanofabrication approaches that can be combined with disease-responsive biomaterials. This will provide insight into the importance of controlling particle geometry and incorporating stimuli responsive materials into drug delivery. PMID:20331355

Caldorera-Moore, Mary; Guimard, Nathalie; Shi, Li; Roy, Krishnendu

2009-01-01

52

Novel insights into the inhibitory mechanism of kaempferol on xanthine oxidase.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme in purine catabolism, is widely distributed in human tissues. It can catalyze xanthine to generate uric acid and cause hyperuricemia and gout. Inhibition kinetics assay showed that kaempferol inhibited XO activity reversibly in a competitive manner. Strong fluorescence quenching and conformational changes of XO were found due to the formation of a kaempferol-XO complex, which was driven mainly by hydrophobic forces. The molecular docking further revealed that kaempferol inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of XO to interact with some amino acid residues. The main inhibition mechanism of kaempferol on XO activity may be due to the insertion of kaempferol into the active site of XO occupying the catalytic center of the enzyme to avoid the entrance of the substrate and inducing conformational changes of XO. In addition, luteolin exhibited a stronger synergistic effect with kaempferol than did morin at the lower concentration. PMID:25539132

Wang, Yajie; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Gong, Deming

2015-01-21

53

On the incorporation of Rhodamine B and 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein dyes in silica: Synthesis of fluorescent nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the incorporation of 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes in silica nanoparticles by using the St鐽er's method with some modifications. Based on infrared and electronic spectroscopies, these dyes were successfully incorporated resulting in fluorescent nanomaterials of an average size of 80 nm. A composite fluorescent nanomaterial containing both dyes was also synthesized and showed the occurrence of F顤ster resonant energy transfer process (FRET) with the average distance between the donor (DCF) and acceptor (RhB) of 3.6 nm. Furthermore, these fluorescent nanoparticles were modified with folic acid producing nanomaterials whose Zeta potential values were in the range of -2 to -13 mV. These values are consistent with the low dispersivity observed by TEM micrographs. Altogether, these suitable properties can lead to the development of nanomaterials for cancer bioimaging and drug release.

Gomes, Elis C. C.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.; Di鏬enes, Izaura C. N.; de Sousa, Eduardo H. S.; Longhinotti, Elisane

2014-05-01

54

A review of the dietary flavonoid, kaempferol on human health and cancer chemoprevention  

PubMed Central

Kaempferol is a polyphenol antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Many studies have described the beneficial effects of dietary kaempferol in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, especially cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between kaempferol intake and cancer. Kaempferol may help by augmenting the bodys antioxidant defense against free radicals, which promote the development of cancer. At the molecular level, kaempferol has been reported to modulate a number of key elements in cellular signal transduction pathways linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Significantly, kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth and angiognesis and induces cancer cell apoptosis, but on the other hand, kaempferol appears to preserve normal cell viability, in some cases exerting a protective effect. The aim of this review is to synthesize information concerning the extraction of kaempferol, as well as to provide insights into the molecular basis of its potential chemo-preventative activities, with an emphasis on its ability to control intracellular signaling cascades that regulate the aforementioned processes. Chemoprevention using nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of kaempferol is also discussed. PMID:23497863

Chen, Allen Y.; Chen, Yi Charlie

2013-01-01

55

Lapatinib-incorporated lipoprotein-like nanoparticles: preparation and a proposed breast cancer-targeting mechanism  

PubMed Central

Aim: Lapatinib is a dual inhibitor of EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and used to treat advanced breast cancer. To overcome its poor water solubility, we constructed lapatinib-incorporated lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (LTNPs), and evaluated the particle characteristics and possible anti-breast cancer mechanisms. Methods: LTNPs (lapatinib bound to albumin as a core, and egg yolk lecithin forming a lipid corona) were prepared. The particle characteristics were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The uptake and subcellular localization of LTNPs, as well as the effects of LTNPs on cell cycle were examined in BT-474 human breast cancer cells in vitro. Mice bearing BT-474 subcutaneous xenograft were intravenously injected with coumarin-6 loaded LTNPs (30 mg/kg) to study the targeting mechanisms in vivo. Results: The LTNPs particles were generally spherical but flexible under TEM and AFM, and approximately 62.1 nm in size with a zeta potential of 22.80 mV. In BT-474 cells, uptake of LTNPs was mediated by endosomes through energy-dependent endocytosis involving clathrin-dependent pinocytosis and macropinocytosis, and they could effectively escape from endosomes to the cytoplasm. Treatment of BT-474 cells with LTNPs (20 ?g/mL) induced a significant cell arrest at G0/G1 phase compared with the same concentration of lapatinib suspension. In mice bearing BT-474 xenograft, intravenously injected LTNPs was found to target and accumulate in tumors, and colocalized with HER2 and SPRAC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine). Conclusion: LTNPs can be taken up into breast cancer cells through specific pathways in vitro, and targeted to breast cancer xenograft in vivo via enhanced permeability and retention effect and SPARC. PMID:24902791

Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuang; Ruan, Shao-bo; Zhang, Qian-yu; He, Qin; Gao, Hui-le

2014-01-01

56

Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporated with samarium-doped magnesium tellurite glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are incorporated in samarium doped tellurite glass of a composition (89-x)TeO2-10MgO-1Sm2O3-xAgCl, where 0.0?x?0.6 mol%, by a melt quenching technique. It is found that all the glasses are amorphous in nature, and the existence of Ag NPs with an average size of 16.94 nm is confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Meanwhile, their physical properties such as glass density, molar volume and ionic packing density are computed utilizing the normal method. The density and ionic packing density are observed to decrease with increasing Ag NPs, but increase when the Ag NPs are beyond 0.2 mol%. On the other hand, the molar volume behaves exactly opposite to the increase in Ag NPs content. It decreases when the Ag NPs content value is more than 0.2 mol%. The optical energy band gap and Urbach energy are evaluated from the absorption spectra in the range of 200-900 nm at room temperature. It is also observed that the direct and indirect optical energy band gaps reduce with Ag NPs content, but enhance when the Ag NPs are beyond 0.2 mol%. Meanwhile, the Urbach energy is found to increase as the Ag NPs content is increased but decreases when Ag NPs is 0.2 mol%. The refractive index is deduced from indirect optical energy band gap. Meanwhile, molar refraction and electronic polarizability have been calculated from the Lorentz-Lorentz relation. Refractive index and electronic polarizability are also observed to raise with Ag NPs content, but drop off when Ag NPs content is more than 0.2 mol%. In this paper, all properties are discussed with respect to the Ag NPs concentration.

Yusoff, N. M.; Sahar, M. R.

2015-01-01

57

Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel Incorporated in PLGA Nanoparticles on Hypoxic Human Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this work was to prepare paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and determine cytotoxicity of released paclitaxel\\u000a for two hypoxic human tumor cell lines: breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and carcinoma cervicis (HeLa).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsPoly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing paclitaxel were prepared by o\\/w emulsification-solvent evaporation\\u000a method. Physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was evaluated by transmission\\u000a electronic microscopy and

Cheng Jin; Ling Bai; Hong Wu; Wenjie Song; Guozhen Guo; Kefeng Dou

2009-01-01

58

Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (060 ?mol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24549175

Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

2014-01-01

59

Kaempferol inhibits gastric cancer tumor growth: An in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

Kaempferol, which is one of the general flavonoids, has recently been reported to suppress proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines. In the present study, the effect and mechanism of kaempferol on gastric cancer (GC) was examined. The results showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the proliferation of MKN28 and SGC7901 cell lines. However, no significant inhibition in the GSE-1 normal gastric epithelial cell line in our experimental dose was detected. Additionally, significant apoptosis and G2/Mphase cell cycle arrest were identified following the treatment of kaempferol. More importantly, we observed that kaempferol inhibited the growth of the tumor xenografts although no marked effects on liver, spleen or body weight were induced. The expression levels of G2/M cell cycle?regulating factors, cyclinB1, Cdk1 and Cdc25C, were significantly reduced. In addition, kaempferol treatment markedly decreased the level of Bcl-2 concomitant with an increase in Bax expression, resulting in the upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and-9, which promoted PARP cleavage. Kaempferol-treated cells also led to a decrease in p-Akt, p-ERK and COX-2 expression levels. The present study therefore provided evidence that kaempferol may be a therapeutic agent for GC. PMID:25500692

Song, Haibin; Bao, Junjie; Wei, Yuzhe; Chen, Yang; Mao, Xiaoguang; Li, Jianguo; Yang, Zhiwei; Xue, Yingwei

2015-02-01

60

An investigation into the improvement of adhesive strength of polyimides by incorporation of elastomeric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Copoly(styrene-butyl acrylate-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (St-BA-EGDMA) nanoparticles were prepared using miniemulsion polymerization technique. Then the dispersed nanoparticles in DMAc were added to in situ condensation polymerization media of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and oxydianiline (ODA) and consequently, homogenous polyamic acid solution containing the nanoparticles was obtained. Novel polymer-polymer nanocomposites were prepared by casting of PMDA-ODA polyamic acid solution with various content of the above elastomeric nanoparticle (ENP) on a glass plate followed by thermal imidization. All samples were characterized after preparation by FT-IR spectroscopy, transition electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). To investigate the adhesion strength of polyimides filled with (St-BA-EGDMA) nanoparticles, lap shear strength (LSS) test was examined on different metallic surfaces. Effect of nanoparticles content on the adhesion properties of this polymer was considerable for aluminum surface. Lap-shear strength and adhesive energy of the bonded samples were found to initially increase with the increase in ENP wt%, but decrease after a critical value. It was shown that by increasing the nanoparticles amount up to 25 wt%, the adhesion strength of polyimides increased due to the good wetability of surfaces. After that and by increasing the nanoparticles amount, the adhesion strength decreased according to the diminished strength between polyimide chains. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the fractured surfaces were taken to determine the failure mode. They showed that by increasing the nanoparticle content in the polyimide matrix, failure mode was converted from adhesion failure to cohesion one. PMID:19467666

Khoee, Sepideh; Mahdavian, Ali Reza; Bairamy, Warahram; Ashjari, Mohsen

2009-08-15

61

Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of apolipoprotein E deficient mice  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies show that osteopontin (OPN) and its receptor cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) are two pro-inflammatory cytokines contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on atherogenesis and the mechanisms involved. The experiments were performed in aorta and plasma from C57BL/6J control and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice treated or not with kaempferol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 4 weeks. Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and increased the maximal relaxation value concomitantly with decrease in the half-maximum effective concentration, plasma OPN level, aortic OPN expression, and aortic CD44 expression in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. In addition, treatment with kaempferol also significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production in mice aorta. The present results suggest that kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. -- Graphical abstract: Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OPN-CD44 pathway plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine lesion area, OPN and CD44 changes after kaempferol treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased aortic OPN and CD44 expressions in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis.

Xiao, Hong-Bo, E-mail: xhbzhb@yahoo.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)] [College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Lu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Zhi-Liang [Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)] [Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zhang, Heng-Bo [Furong District Red Cross Hospital, Changsha 410126 (China)] [Furong District Red Cross Hospital, Changsha 410126 (China)

2011-12-15

62

Multilayered nanocoatings incorporating superparamagnetic nanoparticles for tracking of pancreatic islet transplants with magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

A novel strategy for delivering functionalised superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to the outer surface of pancreatic islet grafts, using chemically modified polymeric nanolayers, has been developed for tracking of engrafted pancreatic islets by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23846395

Wang, Yang; Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; Zhi, Zheng-liang; So, Po-Wah; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Pickup, John C

2013-08-21

63

Enhancement of the magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles upon incorporation of samarium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion implantation of a rare-earth element is shown to dramatically enhance the magnetic properties of Fe nanostructures. Low energy 7 keV Sm+ ion implantation was used to modify the properties of superparamagnetic Fe nanoparticles on the surface of a SiO2 film on Si. The Fe nanoparticles were prepared through low energy ion implantation followed by electron-beam annealing. Ion beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed that Sm implantation resulted in the formation of a Sm x Fe1 - x O y layer on top of the Fe nanoparticles and sputtering of Fe in the Fe nanoparticles. There is an enhancement of the saturation magnetization when there is a Sm x Fe1 - x O y layer on top of the Fe nanoparticles. This enhancement is most noticeable for an implanted Sm concentration of 3 1015 cm-2 and there is also an enhancement of the susceptibility and hence the permeability by a factor greater than 14. An anomalously large moment per implanted atom is found and which is above the values expected for Fe or any known Sm x Fe1 - x O y compound. High Sm fluences result in complete ablation of the Fe nanoparticles and the magnetic order disappears.

Leveneur, J.; Kremer, F.; Kennedy, J.; Ridgway, M. C.; Williams, G. V. M.; Metson, J. B.

2014-04-01

64

Large sensitivity enhancement in semiconducting organic field effect transistor sensors through incorporation of ultra-fine platinum nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report remarkable improvement in sensitivity of pentacene-based field effect transistor devices towards trace nitro-aromatic explosive vapors through the incorporation of high density, sub-2 nm platinum nanoparticles (NPs) within these structures. Exploiting the unique electronic properties of these NPs, we have demonstrated a detection limit of 56.6 parts per billion of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor while control samples without any embedded NPs showed no observable sensitivity to DNT vapor. We attribute this remarkable enhancement in sensitivity to the ability of these NPs to function as discrete nodes, participating in the charge transfer with adsorbed nitro-aromatic molecules.

Zheng, Haisheng; Ramalingam, Balavinayagam; Korampally, Venumadhav; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

2013-11-01

65

Enhanced brain targeting by synthesis of 3?,5?-dioctanoyl-5-fluoro-2?-deoxyuridine and incorporation into solid lipid nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To overcome the limited access of the drug 5-fluoro-2?-deoxyuridine (FUdR) to the brain, 3?,5?-dioctanoyl-5-fluoro-2?-deoxyuridine (DO-FUdR) was synthesized and incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles (DO-FUdR-SLN). DO-FUdR-SLN were prepared by a thin-layer ultrasonication technique and a central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the formulation. The median particle size of DO-FUdR-SLN was 76nm with drug loading of 29.02% and entrapment efficiency

Jian-Xin Wang; Xun Sun; Zhi-Rong Zhang

2002-01-01

66

Large sensitivity enhancement in semiconducting organic field effect transistor sensors through incorporation of ultra-fine platinum nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We report remarkable improvement in sensitivity of pentacene-based field effect transistor devices towards trace nitro-aromatic explosive vapors through the incorporation of high density, sub-2?nm platinum nanoparticles (NPs) within these structures. Exploiting the unique electronic properties of these NPs, we have demonstrated a detection limit of 56.6 parts per billion of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor while control samples without any embedded NPs showed no observable sensitivity to DNT vapor. We attribute this remarkable enhancement in sensitivity to the ability of these NPs to function as discrete nodes, participating in the charge transfer with adsorbed nitro-aromatic molecules.

Zheng, Haisheng; Ramalingam, Balavinayagam; Korampally, Venumadhav; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra, E-mail: gangopadhyays@missouri.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65201 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65201 (United States)

2013-11-04

67

Interfacial Activity Assisted Surface Functionalization: A Novel Approach to Incorporate Maleimide Functional Groups and cRGD Peptide on Polymeric Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles formulated using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) copolymer have emerged as promising carriers for targeted delivery of a wide variety of payloads. However, an important drawback with PLGA nanoparticles is the limited types of functional groups available on the surface for conjugation to targeting ligands. In the current report, we demonstrate that the Interfacial Activity Assisted Surface Functionalization (IAASF) technique can be used to incorporate reactive functional groups such as maleimide onto the surface of PLGA nanoparticles. The surface maleimide groups were used to conjugate cRGD peptide to nanoparticles. The cRGD peptide targets ?v?3 integrins overexpressed on tumor vasculature and some tumor cells, and was used as model targeting ligand in this study. Incorporation of biologically active cRGD peptide on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by in vitro cell uptake studies and in vivo tumor accumulation studies. Functionalization of nanoparticles with cRGD peptide increased the cellular uptake of nanoparticles 23-fold, and this enhancement in uptake was substantially reduced by the presence of excess cRGD molecules. In a syngeneic mouse 4T1 tumor model, cRGD functionalization resulted in increased accumulation and retention of nanoparticles in the tumor tissue (nearly 2-fold greater area under the curve), confirming the in vivo activity of cRGD functionalized nanoparticles. In conclusion, the IAASF technique enabled the incorporation of reactive maleimide groups on PLGA nanoparticles, which in turn permitted efficient conjugation of biologically active cRGD peptide to the surface of PLGA nanoparticles. PMID:20527782

Toti, Udaya S.; Guru, Bharath Raja; Grill, Alex E.; Panyam, Jayanth

2010-01-01

68

Incorporation of copper nanoparticles into paper for point-of-use water purification.  

PubMed

As a cost-effective alternative to silver nanoparticles, we have investigated the use of copper nanoparticles in paper filters for point-of-use water purification. This work reports an environmentally benign method for the direct in situ preparation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in paper by reducing sorbed copper ions with ascorbic acid. Copper nanoparticles were quickly formed in less than 10min and were well distributed on the paper fiber surfaces. Paper sheets were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of the CuNP sheets was assessed for by passing Escherichia coli bacteria suspensions through the papers. The effluent was analyzed for viable bacteria and copper release. The CuNP papers with higher copper content showed a high bacteria reduction of log 8.8 for E. coli. The paper sheets containing copper nanoparticles were effective in inactivating the test bacteria as they passed through the paper. The copper levels released in the effluent water were below the recommended limit for copper in drinking water (1ppm). PMID:25014431

Dankovich, Theresa A; Smith, James A

2014-10-15

69

An Approach for Enhancement of Saturation Magnetization in Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Incorporation of Terbium Cation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a reverse micelle process. The optimum processing conditions required to fabricate nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite using a reverse micelle technique, especially the effect of water-to-surfactant molar ratios including w = 8, 10, 12, and 14, pH values in the range of 8 to 11, and annealing temperatures in the range of 400蚓 to 800蚓, were evaluated. x-Ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating-sample magnetometry, and superconducting quantum interference device analysis were employed to evaluate the structural and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD analysis confirms that the nanoparticles have a single-phase cubic spinel structure. The average particle size increases with increasing pH value and annealing temperature. Magnetization study reveals that the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles exhibit a superparamagnetic trend. The zero-field-cooled magnetization curves of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles indicated that, with an increase in pH value, the blocking temperature increases. Based on the obtained optimum parameters, terbium-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with composition CoFe2- x Tb x O4 ( x = 0.1 to 0.5) were prepared by a reverse micelle process. XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation demonstrated that single-phase spinel ferrites with narrow size distribution were obtained. M飉sbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the site preference of terbium cation. The results confirm that terbium cations were distributed at tetrahedral and octahedral sites, but with a preference for the former. It was observed that, with an increase in terbium content, the saturation magnetization increases.

Sodaee, Tahmineh; Ghasemi, Ali; Paimozd, Ebrahim; Paesano, Andrea; Morisako, Akimitsu

2013-09-01

70

Stabilization and cellular delivery of chitosan-polyphosphate nanoparticles by incorporation of iron.  

PubMed

Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles are typically obtained by complexation with tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions, or more recently using triphosphate group-containing drugs such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is an active molecule we aim to deliver in order to restore its depletion in macrophages, when associated with their death leading to plaque rupture in atherosclerotic lesions. Despite high interest in CS nanoparticles for drug delivery, due to the biodegradability of CS and to the ease of the preparation process, these systems tend to readily disintegrate when diluted in physiological media. Some stabilization strategies have been proposed so far but they typically involve the addition of a coating agent or chemical cross-linkers. In this study, we propose the complexation of CS with iron ions prior to nanoparticle formation as a strategy to improve the carrier stability. This can be achieved thanks to the ability of iron to strongly bind both chitosan and phosphate groups. Nanoparticles were obtained from either TPP or ATP and chitosan-iron (CS-Fe) complexes containing 3 to 12% w/w iron. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the binding affinity of TPP and ATP to CS-Fe increased with the iron content of CS-Fe complexes. The stability of these nanoparticles in physiological conditions was evaluated by turbidity and by fluorescence fluctuation in real time upon dilution by electrolytes, and revealed an important stabilization effect of CS-Fe compared to CS, increasing with the iron content. Furthermore, in vitro studies on two macrophage cell lines (J774A.1 and THP-1) revealed that ATP uptake is improved consistently with the iron content of CS-Fe/ATP nanoparticles, and correlated to their lower dissociation in biological medium, allowing interesting perspectives for the intracellular delivery of ATP. PMID:25192940

Giacalone, Giovanna; Hillaireau, Herv; Capiau, Pauline; Chacun, H幨鋝e; Reynaud, Franceline; Fattal, Elias

2014-11-28

71

CuO nanoparticles incorporated in hierarchical MFI zeolite as highly active electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.  

PubMed

A hierarchical MFI zeolite, with typical micro/meso bimodal pore structures, was prepared by desilication method. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were incorporated into the hierarchical MFI zeolite by impregnation method. CuO/hierarchical zeolite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption. It is shown that the CuO nanoparticles are mostly dispersed in the mesopores with remaining of the crystallinity and morphology of the host zeolite. CuO nanoparticles located in hierarchical zeolite exhibit the excellent electrocatalytic performances to oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The electrocatalytic activity enhances with increasing the loading content of CuO from 5% to 15%. The composites were fabricated for nonenzyme glucose sensing. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor shows a wide linear range from 510(-7) to 1.8410(-2)M with a low detection limit of 3.710(-7)M. The sensor also exhibits good repeatability, long-term stability as well as high selectivity against interfering species. PMID:25499226

Dong, Junping; Tian, Taolei; Ren, Linxiao; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Cheng, Xiaowei

2015-01-01

72

???3-targeted Copper Nanoparticles Incorporating an Sn 2 Lipase-Labile Fumagillin Prodrug for Photoacoustic Neovascular Imaging and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography enables multiscale, multicontrast and high-resolution imaging of biological structures. In particular, contrast-enhanced PA imaging offers high-sensitivity noninvasive imaging of neovessel sprout formation and nascent tubules, which are important biomarkers of malignant tumors and progressive atherosclerotic disease. While gold nanoparticles or nanorods have been used as PA contrast agents, we utilized high-density copper oleate small molecules encapsulated within a phospholipid surfactant (CuNPs) to generate a soft nanoparticle with PA contrast comparable to that from gold. Within the NIR window, the copper nanoparticles provided a 4-fold higher signal than that of blood. ???3-integrin targeting of CuNPs in a MatrigelTM angiogenesis mouse model demonstrated prominent (p<0.05) PA contrast enhancement of the neovasculature compared with mice given nontargeted or competitively inhibited CuNPs. Furthermore, incorporation of a Sn 2 lipase-labile fumagillin prodrug into the CuNP outer lipid membrane produced marked antiangiogenesis in the same model when targeted to the ???3-integrin, providing proof of concept in vivo for the first targeted PA - drug delivery agent. PMID:25553103

Zhang, Ruiying; Pan, Dipanjan; Cai, Xin; Yang, Xiaoxia; Senpan, Angana; Allen, John S.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wang, Lihong V.

2015-01-01

73

Mercury mobilization in a flooded soil by incorporation into metallic copper and metal sulfide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Mercury is a highly toxic priority pollutant that can be released from wetlands as a result of biogeochemical redox processes. To investigate the temperature-dependent release of colloidal and dissolved Hg induced by flooding of a contaminated riparian soil, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments at 5, 14, and 23 蚓. Our results demonstrate substantial colloidal Hg mobilization concomitant with Cu prior to the main period of sulfate reduction. For Cu, we previously showed that this mobilization was due to biomineralization of metallic Cu nanoparticles associated with suspended bacteria. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Hg LIII-edge showed that colloidal Hg corresponded to Hg substituting for Cu in the metallic Cu nanoparticles. Over the course of microbial sulfate reduction, colloidal Hg concentrations decreased but continued to dominate total Hg in the pore water for up to 5 weeks of flooding at all temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested that Hg became associated with Cu-rich mixed metal sulfide nanoparticles. The formation of Hg-containing metallic Cu and metal sulfide nanoparticles in contaminated riparian soils may influence the availability of Hg for methylation or volatilization processes and has substantial potential to drive Hg release into adjacent water bodies. PMID:23819689

Hofacker, Anke F; Voegelin, Andreas; Kaegi, Ralf; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2013-07-16

74

Altered chemical and biological activities of all- trans retinoic acid incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticle powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal aim of this study was to investigate whether the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) powder formulation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can favorably alter the chemical stability and biological activities of ATRA. SLN powder formulation of ATRA was obtained by freeze-drying of SLN dispersions. The chemical stability of ATRA was determined by HPLC analysis. The anticancer efficacy of ATRA

Soo-Jeong Lim; Mi-Kyung Lee; Chong-Kook Kim

2004-01-01

75

Cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticles on HT29 colorectal cancer cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) carrying cholesteryl butyrate (chol-but), doxorubicin and paclitaxel had previously been developed, and the antiproliferative effect of SLN formulations versus conventional drug formulations was here evaluated on HT-29 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were interpolated from growth curves obtained by trypan blue exclusion assay. In vitro cytotoxicity of SLN carrying chol-but (IC5072h 0.30.03 mM vs

L. Serpe; M. G. Catalano; R. Cavalli; E. Ugazio; O. Bosco; R. Canaparo; E. Muntoni; R. Frairia; M. R. Gasco; M. Eandi; G. P. Zara

2004-01-01

76

Tailoring acidity of HZSM-5 nanoparticles for methyl bromide dehydrobromination by Al and Mg incorporation  

PubMed Central

Three kinds of HZSM-5 nanoparticles with different acidity were tailored by impregnating MgO or varying Si/Al ratios. Both the textural and acidic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR or Py-FTIR). It was found that the intensity of Lewis acid sites with weak strength was enhanced by impregnating MgO or reducing Al concentration, and such an enhancement could be explained by the formation of Mg(OH)+ or charge unbalance of the MgO framework on the surface of HZSM-5 support. The effect of HZSM-5 nanoparticles' acidity on methyl bromide dehydrobromination as catalyst was evaluated. As the results, MgHZ-360 catalyst with the highest concentration of Lewis acid sites showed excellent stability, which maintained methyl bromide conversion of up 97% in a period of 400?h on stream. Coke characterization by BET measurements and TGA/DTA and GC/MS analysis revealed that polymethylated naphthalenes species were formed outside the channels of the catalyst with higher acid intensity and higher Br鷢sted acid concentration during the initial period of reaction, while graphitic carbon formed in the channels of catalyst with lower acid intensity and higher Lewis acid concentration during the stable stage. PMID:25328502

2014-01-01

77

Kaempferol from Semen cuscutae attenuates the immune function of dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the critical leukocytes in regulating immune responses. Accordingly, DCs are the major target in the development of immunomodulators. In this study, we examined the effect of Semen cuscutae (SC), an important traditional Chinese medicine, on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. We found that the n-butanol and methanol extracts of SC significantly suppressed LPS-stimulated DC activation. Several flavonoids were verified in the extracts using HPLC, and then kaempferol was identified as the major flavonoid in the methanol fraction of SC. Kaempferol was able to reduce cytokines and chemokines produced by LPS-stimulated DCs, and this reduction was not due to its cytotoxicity on DCs. In addition, DC maturation was impaired by kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol abrogated the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to promote Ag-specific T cell activation, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we show for the first time that SC exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and that the active ingredient kaempferol attenuates DC function, which suggests that kaempferol has potential in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:21621872

Lin, Ming-Kuem; Yu, Yen-Ling; Chen, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Wen-Te; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Yang, Meng-Ja; Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Liu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Dz-Chi; Chu, Ching-Liang

2011-10-01

78

Kaempferol inhibits VEGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis through a novel ERK-NF?B-cMyc-p21 pathway  

PubMed Central

Kaempferol has been reported to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, we tend to expand our understanding on how kaempferol regulates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in ovarian cancer cells. We timed VEGF secretion, and studied in-vitro angiogenesis by kaempferol treatment. Gene expression was examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western Blotting, or luciferase assay, and pathways were examined by manipulating genetic components with plasmid or siRNA transfection. It was found that kaempferol time-dependently inhibited VEGF secretion, and suppressed in-vitro angiogenesis. Kaempferol down-regulated ERK phosphorelation as well as NF?B and cMyc expression, but promoted p21 expression. Examination of relationship between these genes suggested a novel ERK-NF?B-cMyc-p21-VEGF pathway, which accounts for kaempferols angioprevention effects in ovarian cancer cells. This data supplements our comprehension of the mechanisms behind kaempferols biological influence in ovarian cancer cells, and better characterized kaempferol toward chemoprevention. PMID:21927533

Luo, Haitao; Rankin, Gary O.; Juliano, Noelle; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Chen, Yi Charlie

2011-01-01

79

Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths. PMID:23418988

2013-01-01

80

Study of incorporation of silver nanoparticles onto PE-g-PAAc nonwoven fabric by ?-irradiation for water treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene nonwoven (PE) fabric was grafted with acrylic acid (PE-g-PAAc) by the ?-ray pre-irradiation process. The effect of dose and acrylic acid concentration on the grafting degree was investigated. The dose of about 20-30 kGy, acrylic acid concentration of 20-30%, and the reaction time of about 2 h at 90 蚓 were selected as suitable parameters for grafting. The PE-g-PAAc fabric was then impregnated in colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) solution for incorporating AgNPs. The resultant PE-g-PAAc/AgNPs fabric containing 10,000 ppm AgNPs exhibits high antimicrobial activity (?>99%) against Escherichia coli in water. The release of silver into water filtrate determined by ICP-MS was less than 0.1 mg/L. The PE-g-PAAc/AgNPs fabric can be potentially applied for water and/or air treatment as an antimicrobial membrane filter.

Phu, Dang Van; Quoc, Le Anh; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

2013-07-01

81

Kaempferol targets RSK2 and MSK1 to suppress UV radiation-induced skin cancer.  

PubMed

Solar UV (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the United States. The MAPK cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAPK cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was upregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SUV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples, and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition, and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate SUV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of SUV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in SUV-induced phosphorylation of CREB, c-Fos, and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1. PMID:24994661

Yao, Ke; Chen, Hanyong; Liu, Kangdong; Langfald, Alyssa; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Haitao; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

2014-09-01

82

Hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles: controlled incorporation of gold nanoparticles into virus-like particles and application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capsid is the protein coat surrounding a virus' genome that ensures its protection and transport. The capsid of murine polyomavirus (muPy) consists of one major (VP1) and two minor (VP2/3) proteins, from which just VP1 is sufficient to form the capsid when expressed recombinantly (1). From a material engineering point of view, viral capsids are of interest because they present a paradigm for complex self-assembly on the nanometer scale. Understanding and controlling these assembly dynamics will allow the construction of nanoscale structures using a self-assembly process. The first step in this direction was the discovery that capsids of several viruses can be reversibly disassembled into their building blocks and reassembled using the same building blocks by simply changing the buffer conditions (2, 3). Such capsids already find applications as targeted in vivo delivery vectors for genes, proteins or small molecular drugs (4, 5), as optical probes for biomedical imaging and sensing purposes with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity and can potentially be used as templates for nanoelectronics (6, 7). Here we show the controlled incorporation of inorganic gold nanoparticles into the capsid shell of muPy. This incorporation is mediated by covalent sulfide bonds between the capsid proteins cysteine residues and the molecular gold. The number of incorporated gold particles can be controlled during the assembly process and the capsids retain their ability to transduce cells. These particles provide new tools for tracking of viral particles in cells, and simultaneously allow the delivery of genes packages in the hollow capsid.

Niebert, Marcus; Riches, James; Howes, Mark; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G.; Middelberg, Anton P. J.; Rintoul, Llew; Fredericks, Peter M.

2007-01-01

83

A comparative study of two different approaches for the incorporation of silver nanoparticles into layer-by-layer films  

PubMed Central

In this work, a comparative study about the incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into thin films is presented using two alternative methods, the in situ synthesis process and the layer-by-layer embedding deposition technique. The influence of several parameters such as color of the films, thickness evolution, thermal post-treatment, or distribution of the AgNPs along the coatings has been studied. Thermal post-treatment was used to induce the formation of hydrogel-like AgNPs-loaded thin films. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrographs, atomic force microscopy images, and UV-vis spectra reveal significant differences in the size and distribution of the AgNPs into the films as well as the maximal absorbance and wavelength position of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption bands before and after thermal post-treatment. This work contributes for a better understanding of these two approaches for the incorporation of AgNPs into thin films using wet chemistry. PMID:24982607

2014-01-01

84

Long-lasting in vivo and in vitro antibacterial ability of nanostructured titania coating incorporated with silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Although titanium (Ti) implants are widely used clinically, implant-associated bacterial infection is still one of the most serious complications in orthopedic surgery. Long-term antibacterial properties and the ability to inhibit biofilm formation are highly desirable to prevent implant associated infection. In this study, a controllable amount of silver (Ag) nanoparticles was incorporated into titanium oxide; or titanium, nanotubes (TiO? -NTs). The reliable release and long-term antibacterial function of Ag, in vivo and in vitro, and influence normal bone-implant integration from the Ag released from Ag-incorporated NTs in vivo have been studied to make them useable in clinical practice. In the current study, TiO? -NTs loaded with Ag (NT-Ag) exhibited strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC43300) in vitro for 30 days, and the ability to penetrate the protein layer well. In addition, X-ray examination and 2-[(18)F]-fiuoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography indicates that NT-Ag show extremely long antibacterial activity in vivo in a rat model. Furthermore, histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that satisfactory bio-integration can be expected. Our results indicate that NT-Ag has both simultaneous antimicrobial and excellent bio-integration properties, make it a promising therapeutic material for orthopedic application. PMID:24178451

Cheng, Hao; Li, Yong; Huo, Kaifu; Gao, Biao; Xiong, Wei

2014-10-01

85

Blockade of Airway Inflammation by Kaempferol via Disturbing Tyk-STAT Signaling in Airway Epithelial Cells and in Asthmatic Mice  

PubMed Central

Asthma is characterized by bronchial inflammation causing increased airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia. The interaction between airway epithelium and inflammatory mediators plays a key role in the asthmatic pathogenesis. The in vitro study elucidated inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a flavonoid found in apples and many berries, on inflammation in human airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Nontoxic kaempferol at ?20??M suppressed the LPS-induced IL-8 production through the TLR4 activation, inhibiting eotaxin-1 induction. The in vivo study explored the demoting effects of kaempferol on asthmatic inflammation in BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 production and CXCR2 expression were upregulated in OVA-challenged mice, which was attenuated by oral administration of ?10?mg/kg kaempferol. Kaempferol allayed the airway tissue levels of eotaxin-1 and eotaxin receptor CCR3 enhanced by OVA challenge. This study further explored the blockade of Tyk-STAT signaling by kaempferol in both LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells and OVA-challenged mice. LPS activated Tyk2 responsible for eotaxin-1 induction, while kaempferol dose-dependently inhibited LPS- or IL-8-inflamed Tyk2 activation. Similar inhibition of Tyk2 activation by kaempferol was observed in OVA-induced mice. Additionally, LPS stimulated the activation of STAT1/3 signaling concomitant with downregulated expression of Tyk-inhibiting SOCS3. In contrast, kaempferol encumbered STAT1/3 signaling with restoration of SOCS3 expression. Consistently, oral administration of kaempferol blocked STAT3 transactivation elevated by OVA challenge. These results demonstrate that kaempferol alleviated airway inflammation through modulating Tyk2-STAT1/3 signaling responsive to IL-8 in endotoxin-exposed airway epithelium and in asthmatic mice. Therefore, kaempferol may be a therapeutic agent targeting asthmatic diseases. PMID:23737822

Gong, Ju-Hyun; Shin, Daekeun; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kim, Jung-Lye; Kang, Young-Hee

2013-01-01

86

Involvement of Heme Oxygenase1 in Kaempferol-Induced Anti-Allergic Actions in RBL-2H3 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaempferol is one of the most commonly found dietary flavonoids. The exposure to kaempferol is known to inhibit degranulation\\u000a from mast cells, but the inhibitory mechanism of degranulation has not been clarified yet. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the involvement of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the anti-allergic action of kaempferol against degranulation in rat basophilic\\u000a leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Our results

Etsuko Hirose; Miyoko Matsushima; Kenzo Takagi; Yui Ota; Keiko Ishigami; Tatsuya Hirayama; Yuta Hayashi; Toshinobu Nakamura; Naozumi Hashimoto; Kazuyoshi Imaizumi; Kenji Baba; Yoshinori Hasegawa; Tsutomu Kawabe

2009-01-01

87

Protective and detrimental effects of kaempferol in rat H4IIE cells: Implication of oxidative stress and apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Flavonoids are ubiquitous substances in fruits and vegetables. Among them, the flavonol kaempferol contributes up to 30% of total dietary flavonoid intake. Flavonoids are assumed to exert beneficial effects on human health, e.g., anticancer properties. For this reason, they are used in food supplements at high doses. The aim of this project was to determine the effects of kaempferol on oxidative stress and apoptosis in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells over a broad concentration range. Kaempferol is rapidly taken up and glucuronidated by H4IIE cells. The results demonstrate that kaempferol protects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cellular damage at concentrations which lead to cell death and DNA strand breaks in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated oxidative stress. Preincubation with 50 {mu}M kaempferol exerts protection against the loss of cell viability induced by 500 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (2 h) while the same concentration of kaempferol reduces cell viability by 50% in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (24 h). Preincubation with 50 {mu}M kaempferol ameliorates the strong DNA damage induced by 500 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} while 50 {mu}M kaempferol leads to a significant increase of DNA breakage in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Preincubation with 50 {mu}M kaempferol reduces H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated caspase-3 activity by 40% (4 h) while the same concentration of kaempferol leads to the formation of a DNA ladder in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (24 h). It is concluded that the intake of high dose kaempferol in food supplements may not be advisable because in our cellular model protective kaempferol concentrations can also induce DNA damage and apoptosis by themselves.

Niering, Petra [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany); Michels, Gudrun [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany); Waetjen, Wim [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail: wim.waetjen@uni-duesseldorf.de; Ohler, Sandra [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany); Steffan, Baerbel [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Biotechnology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Chovolou, Yvonni [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kampkoetter, Andreas [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany); Proksch, Peter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Biotechnology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kahl, Regine [Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, PO Box 101007, 40001 Duesseldorf (Germany)

2005-12-01

88

Luminescence enhancement in nanocomposite consisting of polyvinyl alcohol incorporated gold nanoparticles and Nile blue 690 perchlorate.  

PubMed

We have experimentally demonstrated that the emission of visible light from the polymer matrix doped with luminescent dye and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can be enhanced with the use of surface plasmon coupling. GNPs can enhance the luminescence intensity of nearby luminescent dye because of the interactions between the dipole moments of the dye and the surface plasmon field of the GNPs. The electric charge on the GNPs and the distance between GNPs and luminescent dye molecules have a significant effect on the luminescence intensity, and this enhancement depends strongly upon the excitation wavelength of the pumping laser source. In particular, by matching the plasmon frequency of GNPs to the frequency of the laser light source we have observed a strong luminescence enhancement of the nanocomposite consisting of GNPs coupled with luminescent dye Nile blue 690 perchlorate. This ability of controlling luminescence can be beneficially used in developing contrast agents for highly sensitive and specific optical sensing and imaging. This opens new possibilities for plasmonic applications in the solar energy field. PMID:25402873

Chubinidze, Ketevan; Partsvania, Besarion; Sulaberidze, Tamaz; Khuskivadze, Aleksandre; Davitashvili, Elene; Koshoridze, Nana

2014-11-01

89

Monodisperse magnetic core/shell microspheres with Pd nanoparticles-incorporated-carbon shells.  

PubMed

This work reports a hard self-template method to synthesize core/shell like Fe3O4@C microparticles, in which the Pd nanocrystals can be alternatively incorporated into the carbon shells. The Fe3O4@polyaniline core/shell microspheres were first synthesized as the precursor by in situ polymerization of aniline onto the surface of the Fe3O4 microspheres. In a subsequent carbonization of the precursor under a vacuum oven, the Fe3O4 core was preserved and the polyaniline shell transferred into carbon shells enveloping the magnetic sphere, forming magnetic Fe3O4@C microspheres. The Pd ions could be impregnated into the polyaniline shell, and thus the obtained composites were transformed into Fe3O4@C/Pd microspheres under the same vacuum heating progress. The as-obtained system demonstrates superparamagnetic characteristics, which would benefit its potential application in nanocatalysts. This strategy provides an efficient approach for tailoring core/shell materials with desired functionalities and structures by adjusting the precursors and structure-directing agents. PMID:24323164

Fang, Qunling; Cheng, Qing; Xu, Huajian; Xuan, Shouhu

2014-02-14

90

Incorporation of (57)Fe-isotopically enriched in apoferritin: formation and characterization of isotopically enriched Fe nanoparticles for metabolic studies.  

PubMed

The use of (57)Fe-isotopically enriched ferritin for the accurate measurement of Fe?:?ferritin ratios is proposed for metabolic studies. Thus, the synthesis of (57)Fe-isotopically enriched ferritin from horse apo-ferritin and isotopically enriched (NH4)2(57)Fe(II)(SO4)2 (Mohr's salt) is conducted. Size exclusion chromatography on-line with UV-VIS absorption (at 380 nm) is used in order to monitor the loading process of apo-ferritin. These studies revealed that the Fe-incorporation process involves also the formation of protein aggregates (oligomers) showing higher molecular mass than ferritin. A final optimized protocol involving incubation of the synthesized standard with guanidine hydrochloride (pH 3.5) has provided the best conditions for maintaining a stable protein structure without aggregates. Such (57)Fe-isotopically enriched ferritin was characterized and contained an average of 2200 atoms of Fe per mole of ferritin. The evaluation of the Fe-core after saturation with (57)Fe by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has revealed the formation of (57)Fe nanoparticles with a similar diameter to that of the commercial Fe-containing ferritin, confirming the process of Fe uptake, oxidation and mineralization within the protein cavity. The synthesized (57)Fe-ferritin shows great potential as a nanometabolic tracer to study the kinetics of Fe release in the cases of iron metabolic disorders. PMID:25170527

Konz, T; Montes-Bay鏮, M; Sanz-Medel, A

2014-11-01

91

One-step synthesis of size-tunable Ag nanoparticles incorporated in electrospun PVA/cyclodextrin nanofibers.  

PubMed

One-step synthesis of size-tunable silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) incorporated into electrospun nanofibers was achieved. Initially, in situ reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) to Ag-NP was carried out in aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Here, PVA was used as reducing agent and stabilizing polymer as well as electrospinning polymeric matrix for the fabrication of PVA/Ag-NP nanofibers. Afterwards, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was used as an additional reducing and stabilizing agent in order to control size and uniform dispersion of Ag-NP. The size of Ag-NP was ?8 nm and some Ag-NP aggregates were observed for PVA/Ag-NP nanofibers, conversely, the size of Ag-NP decreased from ?8 nm down to ?2 nm within the fiber matrix without aggregation were attained for PVA/HP?CD nanofibers. The PVA/Ag-NP and PVA/HP?CD/Ag-NP nanofibers exhibited surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Moreover, antibacterial properties of PVA/Ag-NP and PVA/HP?CD/Ag-NP nanofibrous mats were tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. PMID:24274573

Celebioglu, Asli; Aytac, Zeynep; Umu, Ozgun C O; Dana, Aykutlu; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

2014-01-01

92

Kaempferol enhances cisplatin's effect on ovarian cancer cells through promoting apoptosis caused by down regulation of cMyc  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is one of the most significant malignancies in the western world. Studies showed that Ovarian cancers tend to grow resistance to cisplatin treatment. Therefore, new approaches are needed in ovarian cancer treatment. Kaempferol is a dietary flavonoid that is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and epidemiology studies have revealed a protective effect of kaempferol against ovarian

Haitao Luo; Matthew K Daddysman; Gary O Rankin; Bing-Hua Jiang; Yi C Chen

2010-01-01

93

Evolution of structural and physical properties upon annealing of sputter-deposited Zr0.84Y0.16-O2 films incorporating copper and palladium nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Me-incorporated Zr0.84Y0.16 oxide thin films (Me: Cu or Pd) were synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering. The film structural evolution due to metal content increase was shown: Me-doped nanocrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ); Me-doped amorphous oxide; metal nanoparticles embedded in the amorphous oxide matrix. Annealing for 2 h at 300蚓 in air promoted copper oxide formation and the segregation of very fine

D. I. Zakharov; D. Horwat; J. L. Endrino; F. Capon; J. F. Pierson

2009-01-01

94

ZnO nanoparticle incorporated nanostructured metallic titanium for increased mesenchymal stem cell response and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Recent trends in titanium implants are towards the development of nanoscale topographies that mimic the nanoscale properties of bone tissue. Although the nanosurface promotes the integration of osteoblast cells, infection related problems can also occur, leading to implant failure. Therefore it is imperative to reduce bacterial adhesion on an implant surface, either with or without the use of drugs/antibacterial agents. Herein, we have investigated two different aspects of Ti surfaces in inhibiting bacterial adhesion and concurrently promoting mammalian cell adhesion. These include (i) the type of nanoscale topography (Titania nanotube (TNT) and Titania nanoleaf (TNL)) and (ii) the presence of an antibacterial agent like zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOnp) on Ti nanosurfaces. To address this, periodically arranged TNT (80-120nm) and non-periodically arranged TNL surfaces were generated by the anodization and hydrothermal techniques respectively, and incorporated with ZnOnp of different concentrations (375?M, 750?M, 1.125mM and 1.5mM). Interestingly, TNL surfaces decreased the adherence of staphylococcus aureus while increasing the adhesion and viability of human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line and human mesenchymal stem cells, even in the absence of ZnOnp. In contrast, TNT surfaces exhibited an increased bacterial and mammalian cell adhesion. The influence of ZnOnp on these surfaces in altering the bacterial and cell adhesion was found to be concentration dependent, with an optimal range of 375-750?M. Above 750?M, although bacterial adhesion was reduced, cellular viability was considerably affected. Thus our study helps us to infer that nanoscale topography by itself or its combination with an optimal concentration of antibacterial ZnOnp would provide a differential cell behavior and thereby a desirable biological response, facilitating the long term success of an implant. PMID:24561517

Elizabeth, Elmy; Baranwal, Gaurav; Krishnan, Amit G; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Manitha

2014-03-21

95

CdS nanoparticles incorporated onion-like mesoporous silica films: Ageing-induced large stokes shifted intense PL emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdS nanoparticles (NPs) were generated in onion-like ordered mesoporous SiO2 films through a modified sol-gel process using P123 as a structure directing agent. Initially Cd2+ doped (12 equivalent mol% with respect to the SiO2) mesoporous SiO2 films were prepared on glass substrate. These films after heat-treatment at 350 蚓 in air yielded transparent mesoporous SiO2 films having hexagonally ordered onion-like pore channels embedded with uniformly dispersed CdO NPs. The generated CdO NPs were transformed into CdS NPs after exposing the films in H2S gas at 200 蚓 for 2 h. The as-prepared CdS NPs incorporated mesoporous SiO2 films (transparent and bright yellow in color) showed a band-edge emission at 485 nm and a weak surface defect related emission at 530 nm. During ageing of the films in ambient condition the band-edge emission gradually weakened with time and almost disappeared after about 15 days with concomitant increase of defect related strong surface state emission band near 615 nm. This transformation was related to the decay of initially formed well crystalline CdS to relatively smaller and weakly crystalline CdS NPs with surface defects due to gradual oxidation of surface sulfide. At this condition the embedded CdS NPs show large Stokes shifted (180 nm) intense broad emission which could be useful for luminescent solar concentrators. The detailed process was monitored by UV-Visible, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, XPS, XRD and TEM studies. The evolution of photoluminescence (PL) and life times of CdS/SiO2 films were monitored with respect to the ageing time.

Mishra, Manish Kr; Mandal, Abhijit; Saha, Jony; De, Goutam

2013-10-01

96

Improved performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylene sulfonate)/n-Si hybrid solar cell by incorporating silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an enhancement in the efficiency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/n-Si hybrid solar cell by incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with PEDOT:PSS. AgNPs were prepared by reducing silver nitrate in green-tea solution, which showed characteristic absorption peak due to the surface plasmonic resonance effect. AgNPs incorporated PEDOT:PSS/n-Si hybrid device shows power conversion efficiency (?) of 10.21%, which is comparatively higher to the performance of pristine device without AgNPs. Here, we noticed that incorporation of AgNPs decreases sheet resistance and enlarged surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS film for the efficient collection of charges, rather than plasmonic effect.

Khatri, Ishwor; Liu, Qiming; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

2014-11-01

97

Critical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of bassic acid incorporated in oil-in-water microemulsions and poly-D,L-lactide nanoparticles against experimental leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Bassic acid, an unsaturated triterpene acid isolated from Mimusops elangii, was tested for its antileishmanial properties both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of bassic acid being encouraging, its activity in vivo was evaluated in hamster models of visceral leishmaniasis, both in free form, as well as incorporated in two different delivery systems, viz microemulsions and polylactide nanoparticles. The delivery systems were prepared by published protocols. The percentage intercalation of bassic acid in nanoparticles and microemulsion was found to be about 50 and 100, respectively, when determined at its absorption maxima (lambda(max)) 285 nm (epsilon(m) = 2.3 x 10(2) M(-1) cm(-1)). At an equivalent dose of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight, when injected subcutaneously for a total of six doses in 15 days, bassic acid was found to reduce spleen parasite loads by 45, 62 and 78% in free, microemulsion-incorporated and nanoparticle-incorporated forms, respectively. A comparison of specific biochemical tests related to normal liver and kidney functions revealed that the nanoparticulate form was successful in significantly reducing the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of the free drug, but the microemulsion delivery system was less effective and toxic to liver and kidney to some extent. Confocal microscopic images of Leishmania donovani promastigotes treated with bassic acid revealed that the drug induced necrotic cell death due to non-specific membrane damage. Because of its high efficacy as well as non-hepatotoxicity and non-nephrotoxicity, the nanoparticulate form of bassic acid may be considered for clinical application in humans rather than the microemulsion incorporated form. PMID:16777677

Lala, Sanchaita; Gupta, Syamasri; Sahu, Niranjan P; Mandal, Debayan; Mondal, Nirup B; Moulik, Satya P; Basu, Mukul K

2006-05-01

98

Clusters of ?-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into multi-walled carbon nanotubes: a lithium-ion battery cathode with enhanced lithium storage properties.  

PubMed

We report the preparation of a novel nanocomposite architecture of ?-LiFeO2-MWCNT based on clusters of ?-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The composite represents a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The preparation of the nanocomposite is achieved by combining a molten salt precipitation process and a radio frequency oxygen plasma for the first time. We demonstrate that clusters of ?-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into MWCNTs are capable of delivering a stable and high reversible capacity of 147 mA h g(-1) at 1 C after 100 cycles with the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of ~95%. The rate capability of the composite is significantly improved and its reversible capacity is measured to be 101 mA h g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 C. Both rate capability and cycling stability are not simply a result of introduction of functionalized MWCNTs but most likely originate from the unique composite structure of clusters of ?-LiFeO2 nanoparticles integrated into a network of MWCNTs. The excellent electrochemical performance of this new nanocomposite opens up new opportunities in the development of high-performance electrode materials for energy storage application using the radio frequency oxygen plasma technique. PMID:24173443

Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dai, Xiujuan J; Ramireddy, Thrinathreddy; Chen, Ying

2013-12-14

99

Evolution of structural and physical properties upon annealing of sputter-deposited Zr0.84Y0.16-O2 films incorporating copper and palladium nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Me-incorporated Zr0.84Y0.16 oxide thin films (Me: Cu or Pd) were synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering. The film structural evolution due to metal content increase was shown: Me-doped nanocrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ); Me-doped amorphous oxide; metal nanoparticles embedded in the amorphous oxide matrix. Annealing for 2 h at 300蚓 in air promoted copper oxide formation and the segregation of very fine Pd particles. XANES analysis at the Cu-K edge showed that Cu is bonded to oxygen and Zr(Y) in Cu-doped amorphous oxide; this state was not affected by the thermal treatment. XANES and resistivity analyses indicated that the Cu nanoparticles likely have oxidized surfaces while the Pd-containing films showed only minor chemical changes after annealing.

Zakharov, D. I.; Horwat, D.; Endrino, J. L.; Capon, F.; Pierson, J. F.

2009-09-01

100

Kaempferol-human serum albumin interaction: Characterization of the induced chirality upon binding by experimental circular dichroism and TDDFT calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental induced circular dichroism (ICD) and absorption spectra of the achiral flavonoid kaempferol upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA) were correlated to electronic CD and UV-vis spectra theoretically predicted by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The neutral and four anionic species of kaempferol in various conformations were considered in the calculations. The appearance of the experimental ICD signal was rationalized in terms of kaempferol binding to HSA in a distorted, chiral, rigid conformation. The comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra allowed for the identification of the kaempferol species that binds to HSA, namely the anion generated by deprotonation of the hydroxyl group in position 7. This approach constitutes a convenient method for evidencing the binding species and for determining its conformation in the binding pocket of the protein. Its main advantage over the UV-vis absorption method lays in the fact that only the bound ligand species gives an ICD signal.

Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana; Hillebrand, Mihaela

2012-10-01

101

Induction of caspase cascade pathway by kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside in LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer has become a leading cause of mortality in humans. Previous studies have shown the potential anticancer properties of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside in breast cancer cell lines. In the present study, the anticancer potential of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside was investigated in LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines. The inhibition of cell proliferation was investigated using MTT assays, whereas its ability to induce the caspase-cascade pathway was investigated by western blotting. The results showed that kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside inhibits the proliferation of LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner by upregulating the expression of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase proteins. Although further studies are required, the results of the present study indicate the potential application of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside in cancer treatment. PMID:25469259

HALIMAH, ELI; DIANTINI, AJENG; DESTIANI, DIKA P.; PRADIPTA, IVAN S.; SASTRAMIHARDJA, HERRI S.; LESTARI, KERI; SUBARNAS, ANAS; ABDULAH, RIZKY; KOYAMA, HIROSHI

2015-01-01

102

The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; {yields} Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1{alpha} by impairing the MAPK pathway. {yields} Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1{alpha} subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1{alpha} as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 5.16 {mu}M). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1{alpha} protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC{sub 50} = 4.75 {mu}M). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 {mu}{Mu} kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 {mu}M) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece) [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece); Simos, George, E-mail: simos@med.uth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece) [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece)

2010-07-16

103

Effects of magnetic nanoparticle-incorporated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields on injured rat spinal cord.  

PubMed

Transplanting mesenchymal stem cells into injured lesions is currently under study as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury. In this study, the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on injured rat spinal cord were investigated in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-incorporated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). A histological analysis revealed significant differences in MNP-incorporated cell distribution near the injured site under the PEMF in comparison with that in the control group. We confirmed that MNP-incorporated cells were widely distributed in the lesions under PEMF. The results suggest that MNP-incorporated hBM-MSCs were guided by the PEMF near the injured site, and that PEMF exposure for 8 H per day over 4 weeks promoted behavioral recovery in spinal cord injured rats. The results show that rats with MNP-incorporated hBM-MSCs under a PEMF were more effective on the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan behavioral test and suggest that the PEMF enhanced the action of transplanted cells for recovery of the injured lesion. PMID:24033637

Cho, Hyunjin; Choi, Yun-Kyong; Lee, Dong Heon; Park, Hee Jung; Seo, Young-Kwon; Jung, Hyun; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, Sung-Min; Park, Jung-Keug

2013-01-01

104

Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective isolation and determination of kaempferol and protoapigenone in Macrothelypteris torresiana.  

PubMed

Novel uniform-sized magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were synthesized for selective recognition of active antitumor ingredients of kaempferol (KMF) and protoapigenone (PA) in Macrothelypteris torresiana (M. torresiana) by surface molecular imprinting technique in this study. Super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticles (?-MPS-SiO2@Fe3O4) were used as seeds, KMF as template molecule, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, and N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (BisAM) as cross-linker. The prepared MMIPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The recognition capacity of MMIPs was 2.436 times of non-imprinted polymers. The adsorption results based on kinetics and isotherm analysis were in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model (R (2)=0.9980) and the Langmuir adsorption model (R (2)=0.9944). The value of E (6.742 kJ/mol) calculated from the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model suggested that the physical adsorption via hydrogen-bonding might be predominant. The Scatchard plot showed a single line (R (2)=0.9172) and demonstrated the homogeneous recognition sites on MMIPs for KMF. The magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) based on MMIPs as sorbent was established for fast and selective enrichment of KMF and its structural analogue PA from the crude extract of M. torresiana and then KMF and PA were detected by HPLC-UV. The established method showed good performance and satisfactory results for real sample analysis. It also showed the feasibility of MMIPs for selective recognition of active structural analogues from complex herbal extracts. PMID:25480580

Cai, Pei-Shan; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Ruan, Jin-Lan

2014-12-01

105

Organic acids and protein compounds causing the photoluminescence properties of natural rubber membranes and the quenching phenomena from Au nanoparticle incorporation.  

PubMed

Natural rubber membranes were fabricated using latex from Hevea brasiliensis trees (clone RRIM 600) by casting, and controlling the time and temperature of thermal treatment. Three temperatures were used: 65, 80 and 120 蚓 and the corresponding annealing times of 6, 8, 10 and 12 h. The centrifugation of the latex produces the constituent phases: solid rubber (F1), serum or protein components (F2) and bottom fraction (F3). The photoluminescence properties could be correlated with organic acid components of latex. Natural rubber membranes were used as the active substrate (reducing agent) for the incorporation of colloidal Au nanoparticles synthesized by in situ reduction at different times. The intensity of photoluminescence bands assigned to the natural rubber decreases with the increase in amount of nanoparticles present on the membrane surface. It can be assumed that Au nanoparticles may be formed by reduction of the Au cation reacting with functional groups that are directly related to photoluminescence properties. However, the quenching of fluorescence may be attributed to the formation of a large amount of metal nanostructures on the natural rubber surface. PMID:24760547

Cabrera, Fl嫛io C; Agostini, Deuber L S; Dos Santos, Renivaldo J; Guimar綣s, Francisco E G; Guerrero, Ariel R; Aroca, Ricardo F; Job, Aldo E

2014-12-01

106

Improving the Power Conversion Efficiency of Ultrathin Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating Plasmonic Effects of Spheroidal Metallic Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Improving the Power Conversion Efficiency of Ultrathin Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating be exploited to achieve efficient harvesting of solar energy. Notably, the incorporation of plasmonic effects can allow the light harvesting capability of a solar cell to be maintained even as the thickness

Park, Namkyoo

107

Development of Nanoparticles Incorporating a Novel Liposomal Membrane Destabilization Peptide for Efficient Release of Cargos into Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

In anti-cancer therapy mediated by a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (DDS), overall efficacy depends on the release efficiency of cargos from the nanoparticles in the cancer cells as well as the specificity of delivery to tumor tissue. However, conventional liposome-based DDS have no mechanism for specifically releasing the encapsulated cargos inside the cancer cells. To overcome this barrier, we developed nanoparticles containing a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide (LMDP) that can destabilize membranes by cleavage with intramembranous proteases on/in cancer cells. Calcein encapsulated in liposomes modified with LMDP (LMDP-lipo) was effectively released in the presence of a membrane fraction containing an LMDP-cleavable protease. The release was inhibited by a protease inhibitor, suggesting that LMDP-lipo could effectively release its cargo into cells in response to a cancer-specific protease. Moreover, when LMDP-lipo contained fusogenic lipids, the release of cargo was accelerated, suggesting that the fusion of LMDP-lipo with cellular membranes was the initial step in the intracellular delivery. Time-lapse microscopic observations showed that the release of cargo from LMDP-lipo occurred immediately after association of LMDP-lipo with target cells. Consequently, LMDP-lipo could be a useful nanoparticle capable of effective release of cargos specifically into targeted cancer cells. PMID:25343714

Ohgita, Takashi; Kogure, Kentaro

2014-01-01

108

The anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on early atherosclerosis in high cholesterol fed rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerosis has been widely accepted as an inflammatory disease of vascular, adhesion molecules play an important role in the early progression of it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on the inflammatory molecules such as E-selectin (E-sel), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesionmolecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in high cholesterol induced atherosclerosis rabbit models. Methods Thirty male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were randomly divided into five groups, control group, model group, fenofibrate (12mg/kg) group and kaempferol groups (150 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The rabbits were fed with a normal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Levels of blood lipids, serum tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) were detected at the end of the sixth and tenth week. Malonaldehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum were also determined. Lesion areas of the aorta were measured with morphometry analysis after ten weeks. Gene expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas was determined by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Immunohistochemical staining was employed to measure protein expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1. Results Model rabbits fed with ten weeks of high-cholesterol diet developed significant progression of atherosclerosis. Compared with the control, levels of blood lipids, TNF-?, IL-1? and MDA increased markedly in serum of model rabbits, while SOD levels decreased. Gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in atherosclerotic aortas increased remarkably in model group. However, comparing to the model rabbits, levels of TNF-?, IL-1? and MDA decreased significantly and serum SOD activity increased, gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas decreased significantly with the treatment of kaempferol. Conclusion Kaempferol shows anti-atherosclerotic effect by modulating the gene and protein expression of inflammatory molecules. PMID:23895132

2013-01-01

109

In vitro cellular accumulation of gadolinium incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles designed for neutron-capture therapy of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of gadolinium loaded as gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs), which were designed for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy (Gd-NCT) for cancer, was evaluated in vitro in cultured cells. Using L929 fibroblast cells, the Gd accumulation for 12 h at 37蚓 was investigated at Gd concentrations lower than 40 ppm. The accumulation leveled above 20 ppm and reached 18.02.7

Futoshi Shikata; Hiroyuki Tokumitsu; Hideki Ichikawa; Yoshinobu Fukumori

2002-01-01

110

Kaempferol glycosides from Lobularia maritima and their potential role in plant interactions.  

PubMed

Six kaempferol glycosides, four of them characterized for the first time, were isolated from the leaf extract of Lobularia maritima. The structural elucidation was performed by a combined approach using Electrospray-Ionization Triple-Quadrupole Mass-Spectrometric (ESI/TQ/MS) techniques, and 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments (1H, 13C, DEPT, DQ-COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC, and HSQC-TOCSY). The isolated kaempferol derivatives have different disaccharide substituents at C(3) and four of them have a rhamnose unit at C(7). To evaluate their potential allelopathic role within the herbaceous plant community, the compounds, as well as the aglycone obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis, have been tested in vitro on three coexisting plant species, Dactylis hispanica, Petrorhagia velutina, and Phleum subulatum. The results obtained allow us to hypothesize that the type of the sugar modulates the biological response. The bioassay data, analyzed by a multivariate approach, and grouping the compounds on the basis of the number of sugar units and the nature of carbohydrates present in the disaccharide moiety, indicate a structure-activity relationship. PMID:19235162

Fiorentino, Antonio; Ricci, Andreina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Golino, Annunziata; Izzo, Angelina; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Piccolella, Simona; Esposito, Assunta

2009-02-01

111

Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase by kaempferol and related naturally occurring flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated that the naturally occurring isoflavone compounds genistein and daidzein inhibit the hydrolysis of anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the low micromolar concentration range. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this property is shared by flavonoids. Experimental approach: The hydrolysis of anandamide in homogenates and intact cells was measured using the substrate labelled in the ethanolamine part of the molecule. Key results: Twenty compounds were tested. Among the commonly occurring flavonoids, kaempferol was the most potent, inhibiting FAAH in a competitive manner with a Ki value of 5??M. Among flavonoids with a more restricted distribution in nature, the two most active toward FAAH were 7-hydroxyflavone (IC50 value of 0.51??M depending on the solvent used) and 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (IC50 value 2.2??M). All three compounds reduced the FAAH-dependent uptake of anandamide and its metabolism by intact RBL2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells. Conclusions and implications: Inhibition of FAAH is an additional in vitro biochemical property of flavonoids. Kaempferol, 7-hydroxyflavone and 3,7-dihydroxyflavone may be useful as templates for the synthesis of novel compounds, which target several systems that are involved in the control of inflammation and cancer. PMID:18552875

Thors, L; Belghiti, M; Fowler, C J

2008-01-01

112

In-situ electrochemically deposited polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30?nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I3?/I? redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs. PMID:24930387

Lim, Su Pei; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Lim, Yee Seng; Huang, Nay Ming; Lim, Hong Ngee

2014-01-01

113

In-situ electrochemically deposited polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30 nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I3-/I- redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs.

Lim, Su Pei; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Lim, Yee Seng; Huang, Nay Ming; Lim, Hong Ngee

2014-06-01

114

In-situ electrochemically deposited polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30 nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I?(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs. PMID:24930387

Lim, Su Pei; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Lim, Yee Seng; Huang, Nay Ming; Lim, Hong Ngee

2014-01-01

115

Colorimetric Assay for Determination of Lead (II) Based on Its Incorporation into Gold Nanoparticles during Their Synthesis  

PubMed Central

In this report, we present a new method for visual detection of Pb2+. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized in one step at room temperature, using gallic acid (GA) as reducer and stabilizer. Pb2+ is added during the gold nanoparticle formation. Analysis of Pb2+ is conducted by a dual strategy, namely, colorimetry and spectrometry. During Au-NPs synthesis, addition of Pb2+ would lead to formation of Pb-GA complex, which can induce the aggregation of newly-formed small unstable gold nanoclusters. Consequently, colorimetric detection of trace Pb2+ can be realized. As the Pb2+ concentration increases, the color turns from red-wine to purple, and finally blue. This method offers a sensitive linear correlation between the shift of the absorption band (??) and logarithm of Pb2+ concentration ranging from 5.0 10?8 to 1.0 10?6 M with a linear fit coefficient of 0.998, and a high selectivity for Pb2+ detection with a low detection limit down to 2.5 10?8 M. PMID:22163517

Ding, Nan; Cao, Qian; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Lixi; He, Yujian; Xiang, Kaixiang; Wang, Guangwei

2010-01-01

116

Inhibitory effects of kaempferol on the invasion of human breast carcinoma cells by downregulating the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been regarded as major critical molecules assisting tumor cells during metastasis, for excessive ECM (ECM) degradation, and cancer cell invasion. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo assays were employed to examine the inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a natural polyphenol of flavonoid family, on tumor metastasis. Data showed that kaempferol could inhibit adhesion, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, kaempferol led to the reduced activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were detected by gelatin zymography, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis, respectively. Further elucidation of the mechanism revealed that kaempferol treatment inhibited the activation of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, kaempferol repressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-9 expression and activity through suppressing the translocation of protein kinase C? (PKC?) and MAPK signaling pathway. Our results also indicated that kaempferol could block the lung metastasis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells as well as the expression of MMP-9 in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that kaempferol could inhibit cancer cell invasion through blocking the PKC?/MAPK/AP-1 cascade and subsequent MMP-9 expression and its activity. Therefore, kaempferol might act as a therapeutic potential candidate for cancer metastasis. PMID:25453494

Li, Chenglin; Zhao, Yuanwei; Yang, Dan; Yu, Yanyan; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Ziming; Zhang, Bei; Yin, Xiaoxing

2015-02-01

117

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit current density is improved from 0.77 to 1.20 mA/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra show that the excitons in the polymer are obviously quenched, suggesting that the charge transfer between the P3HT:PCBM and CIGS occurred. The results reveal that the CIGS nanoparticles may exhibit the localized surface plasmon resonance effect just as metallic nanostructures.

Zhao, Yu; Li, Hui; Liu, Xu-Jun; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu, Ning

2014-06-01

118

In vitro biocompatibility and antibacterial efficacy of a degradable poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer incorporated with silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-nps) are currently used as a natural biocide to prevent undesired bacterial growth in clothing, cosmetics and medical products. The objective of the study was to impart antibacterial properties through the incorporation of Ag-nps at increasing concentrations to electrospun degradable 50:50 poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds containing Ag-nps was evaluated with human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK); cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using Live/Dead and alamarBlue viability assays following 7 and 14days of cell culture on the scaffolds. Significant decreases in cell viability and proliferation were noted for the 1.0mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1) after 7 and 14days on Ag-nps scaffolds. After 14days, scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent layer of HEK on the surface of the 0.0 and 0.1mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1). Both 0.5 and 1.0mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1) were capable of inhibiting both Gram positive and negative bacterial strains. Uniaxial tensile tests revealed a significant (p<0.001) decrease in the modulus of elasticity following Ag-nps incorporation compared to control. These findings suggest that a scaffold containing between 0.5 and 1.0mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1) is both biocompatible and antibacterial, and is suitable for skin tissue engineering graft scaffolds. PMID:24150238

Samberg, Meghan E; Mente, Peter; He, Ting; King, Martin W; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

2014-07-01

119

Incorporation of photosenzitizer hypericin into synthetic lipid-based nano-particles for drug delivery and large unilamellar vesicles with different content of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are attractive natural occurring vehicles for drug delivery and targeting to cancer tissues. The capacity of both types of the lipoproteins to bind hydrophobic drugs and their functionality as drug carriers have been examined in several studies and it has been also shown that mixing of anticancer drugs with LDL or HDL before administration led to an increase of cytotoxic effects of the drugs in the comparison when the drugs were administered alone. However, a difficult isolation of the lipoproteins in large quantity from a biological organism as well as a variability of the composition and size of these molecules makes practical application of LDL and HDL as drug delivery systems quite complicated. Synthetic LDL and HDL and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) are potentially suitable candidates to substitute the native lipoproteins for targeted and effective drug delivery. In this work, we have studied process of an association of potent photosensitizer hypericin (Hyp) with synthetic lipid-based nano-particles (sLNP) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) containing various amount of cholesterol. Cholesterol is one of the main components of both LDL and HDL particles and its presence in biological membranes is known to be a determining factor for membrane properties. It was found that the behavior of Hyp incorporation into sLNP particles with diameter ca ~ 90 nm is qualitatively very similar to that of Hyp incorporation into LDL (diameter ca. 22 nm) and these particles are able to enter U-87 MG cells by endocytosis. The presence of cholesterol in LUV influences the capacity of these vesicles to incorporate Hyp into their structure.

Joniova, Jaroslava; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Nadova, Zuzana; Sureau, Franck; Miskovsky, Pavol

2014-08-01

120

Kaempferol and quercetin, components of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells.  

PubMed

EGb 761, extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been proven to induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells. Since EGb 761 is a composition of various components, it is important to identify which components are responsible for its anticancer effects to reduce the total dosage and to avoid toxicity. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the effective compounds of EGb 761 that induce apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells and to identify whether caspase-3 was involved in apoptosis of oral cancer cells by EGb 761 components. The results of cell proliferation assays on oral cavity cancer cells showed that kaempferol and quercetin significantly inhibited cellular proliferation at a concentration of 40 microM. Flow cytometry showed that the antiproliferative effects of each component were due to increased apoptosis. Kaempferol and quercetin induced apoptosis in various oral cancer cell lines (SCC-1483, SCC-25 and SCC-QLL1) and showed cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Caspase-3 activity assay revealed that induction of apoptosis by kaempferol and quercetin was caspase-3-dependent. In conclusion, the results suggest that kaempferol and quercetin, two components of EGb 761, effectively induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of oral cavity cancer cells and can be considered as possible anti-oral cavity cancer agents. PMID:19585476

Kang, Ju Wan; Kim, Jeong Hong; Song, Keejae; Kim, Si Hong; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Kim, Kyung-Su

2010-01-01

121

Kaempferol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity through FUBP and HNRP proteins.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are associated with multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-enterovirus activity. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) required for viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation translation initiation requires the interaction of IRES specific trans-acting host factors with viral IRES element. By evaluation of 12 flavonoids against EV71 infection, we found that (a) 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol, quercetin, hesperetin and hesperidin exhibited more than 80% of cell survival and inhibition of EV71 infection; however, no anti-oxidative effects were noted from these flavonoids; (b) among them, only 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol and hesperetin showed 40% of viral IRES activity; (c) kaempferol interfered with EV71 virus replication and pseudotyped virus production; and (d) FUBP1, FUBP3, HNRPD, HNRH1 and HNRPF proteins are associated with EV71 5'-UTR as shown using RNA affinity pull-down assay coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis. We firstly found that kaempferol may change the composition of these IRES associated trans-acting factors, and affect IRES function and EV71 virus replication. These studies help not only to understand the IRES function but also the mechanism by which drug induced cellular proteins are acting against EV71 infection. PMID:25212137

Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lan, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chih-Ho; Hung, Chien-Hui; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Chang, Hebron C; Wan, Lei; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Lin, Ying-Ju

2011-09-15

122

Simultaneous determination of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin accumulated human breast cancer cells, by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin are the most important constituents in ginkgo flavonoids. A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to simultaneously determine quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin absorped by human breast cancer cells. Cells were treated with ginkgo flavonols and then lysed with Triton-X 100. The flavonols in the samples were measured by RP-HPLC with a C18 column after a simple extraction with a mixture of ether and acetone. The mobile phase contained phosphate buffer (pH 2.0; 10 mM) tetrahydrofuran, methanol and isopropanol (65:15:10:20, v/v/v/v). The ultraviolet detector was operated at 380 nm. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 1.0 microM (r > 0.999) for each flavonol. The mean extraction efficiency was about 70%. The recovery of the assay was between 98.9 and 100.6%. The limit of detection was 0.01 microM for quercetin and kaempferol and 0.05 microM for isorhamnetin. The limit of quantitation was 0.1 microM (R.S.D.<10%) for each flavonol. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10% (R.S.D.). The validated method was applied to quantify quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in human breast cancer Bcap37 and Bcap37/MDR1 cells. PMID:15905060

Wang, Yi; Cao, Jiang; Weng, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Su

2005-09-01

123

Improved biological characteristics of poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun membrane by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Significant effort has been devoted to fabricating various biomaterials to satisfy specific clinical requirements. In this study, we developed a new type of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane by electrospinning a suspension consisting of poly( l-lactic acid), multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and hydroxyapatite (PLLA/MWNTs/HA). MWNTs/HA nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the membranes, and the degradation characteristics were far improved. Cytologic research revealed that the PLLA/MWNTs/HA membrane enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) by 30% and inhibited the adhesion and proliferation of gingival epithelial cells by 30% also, compared with the control group. After PDLCs were seeded into the PLLA/MWNTs/HA membrane, cell/membrane composites were implanted into the leg muscle pouches of immunodeficient mice. Histologic examinations showed that PDLCs attached on the membranes functioned well in vivo. This new type of membrane shows excellent dual biological functions and satisfied the requirement of the GTR technique successfully in spite of a monolayer structure. Compared with other GTR membranes on sale or in research, the membrane can simplify the manufacturing process, reduce the fabrication cost, and avoid possible mistakes in clinical application. Moreover, it does not need to be taken out after surgery. PLLA/MWNTs/HA membranes have shown great potential for GTR and tissue engineering. PMID:18020395

Mei, Fang; Zhong, Jinsheng; Yang, Xiaoping; Ouyang, Xiangying; Zhang, Shen; Hu, Xiaoyang; Ma, Qi; Lu, Jigui; Ryu, Seungkon; Deng, Xuliang

2007-12-01

124

Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R2 range, 0.94-0.965, 0.934-0.972, and 0.874-0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

2013-06-01

125

Effect of kaempferol on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced colorectal carcinoma in rats.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer, a common cause of cancer related deaths in both sexes in western population is often due to persistent oxidative stress leading to DNA damage. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals and inhibit neoplastic process. Kaempferol, a flavonol widely distributed in tea, broccoli, grape fruit, brussels sprouts and apple, is claimed to have chemopreventive action in colon cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced colorectal cancer in male Wistar rats and to compare its efficacy with irinotecan. Experimental colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine in rats mimic human colon cancer and therefore is an ideal model for chemoprevention studies. The rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 received 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once a week for four weeks. Group 3 received irinotecan (100 mg/kg body weight) intravenously once a week for four weeks with 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine. Groups 4 to 6 were given a daily oral dose of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight of kaempferol with 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine. The total study period was 16 weeks. Kaempferol supplementation lowered 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced erythrocyte lysate and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and rejuvenated anti oxidant enzymes catalase, super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The recovery of enzyme status was maximum at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight and was comparable to irinotecan. Our study reveals that kaempferol could be safely used as a chemopreventive agent in colorectal cancer. PMID:21172346

Nirmala, Parthasarathy; Ramanathan, Manickam

2011-03-01

126

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500蚓. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

2014-10-01

127

Kaempferol Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression by Down-Regulating ERK1/2 and the Activator Protein-1 Signaling Pathways in Oral Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Kaempferol has been proposed as a potential drug for cancer chemoprevention and treatment because it is a natural polyphenol contained in plant-based foods. Recent studies have demonstrated that kaempferol protects against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on this finding, we investigated the mechanisms by which kaempferol produces the anti-metastatic effect in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we provided molecular evidence associated with the anti-metastatic effect of kaempferol by demonstrating a substantial suppression of SCC4 cell migration and invasion. This effect was associated with reduced expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein levels. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation indicated that kaempferol inhibited MMP-2 transcription by suppressing c-Jun activity. Kaempferol also produced an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Conclusions These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-metastatic effect of kaempferol, and are valuable in the prevention of oral cancer metastasis. PMID:24278338

Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Yang, Wei-En; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

2013-01-01

128

Controlled, defect-guided, metal-nanoparticle incorporation onto MoS2 via chemical and microwave routes: electrical, thermal, and structural properties.  

PubMed

Ultrathin (0.3-3 nm) metal dichalcogenides exhibit confinement of carriers, evolution of band-structure and photophysical properties with thickness, high on/off rectification (in MoS2, WS2, and so forth) and high thermal absorption. Here, we leverage the stable sulfur/nobel-metal binding to incorporate highly capacitive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) onto MoS2 to raise the effective gate-voltage by an order of magnitude. Functionalization is achieved via both diffusion limited aggregation and instantaneous reaction arresting (using microwaves) with selective deposition on crystallographic edges (with 60 displacement). The electrical, thermal, and Raman studies show a highly capacitive interaction between Au NP and MoS2 flakes (CAu-MoS2 = 2.17 ?F/cm(2)), a low Schottky barrier (14.52 meV), a reduced carrier-transport thermal-barrier (253 to 44.18 meV after Au NP functionalization), and increased thermal conductivity (from 15 to 23 W/mK post NP deposition). The process could be employed to attach electrodes to heterostructures of graphene and MoS2, where a gold film could be grown to act as an electron-tunneling gate-electrode connected to MoS2. PMID:23927716

Sreeprasad, T S; Nguyen, Phong; Kim, Namhoon; Berry, Vikas

2013-09-11

129

Curcumin and kaempferol prevent lysozyme fibril formation by modulating aggregation kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

Interaction of small molecule inhibitors with protein aggregates has been studied extensively, but how these inhibitors modulate aggregation kinetic parameters is little understood. In this work, we investigated the ability of two potential aggregation inhibiting drugs, curcumin and kaempferol, to control the kinetic parameters of aggregation reaction. Using thioflavin T fluorescence and static light scattering, the kinetic parameters such as amplitude, elongation rate constant and lag time of guanidine hydrochloride-induced aggregation reactions of hen egg white lysozyme were studied. We observed a contrasting effect of inhibitors on the kinetic parameters when aggregation reactions were measured by these two probes. The interactions of these inhibitors with hen egg white lysozyme were investigated using fluorescence quench titration method and molecular dynamics simulations coupled with binding free energy calculations. We conclude that both the inhibitors prolong nucleation of amyloid aggregation through binding to region of the protein which is known to form the core of the protein fibril, but once the nucleus is formed the rate of elongation is not affected by the inhibitors. This work would provide insight into the mechanism of aggregation inhibition by these potential drug molecules. PMID:24468532

Borana, Mohanish S; Mishra, Pushpa; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Hosur, Ramakrishna V; Ahmad, Basir

2014-03-01

130

The small polyphenolic molecule kaempferol increases cellular energy expenditure and thyroid hormone activation.  

PubMed

Disturbances in energy homeostasis can result in obesity and other metabolic diseases. Here we report a metabolic pathway present in normal human skeletal muscle myoblasts that is activated by the small polyphenolic molecule kaempferol (KPF). Treatment with KPF leads to an approximately 30% increase in skeletal myocyte oxygen consumption. The mechanism involves a several-fold increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation and protein kinase A activation, and the effect of KPF can be mimicked via treatment with dibutyryl cAMP. Microarray and real-time PCR studies identified a set of metabolically relevant genes influenced by KPF including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, mitochondrial transcription factor 1, citrate synthase, and uncoupling protein-3, although KPF itself is not a direct mitochondrial uncoupler. The cAMP-responsive gene for type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), an intracellular enzyme that activates thyroid hormone (T3) for the nucleus, is approximately threefold upregulated by KPF; furthermore, the activity half-life for D2 is dramatically and selectively increased as well. The net effect is an approximately 10-fold stimulation of D2 activity as measured in cell sonicates, with a concurrent increase of approximately 2.6-fold in the rate of T3 production, which persists even 24 h after KPF has been removed from the system. The effects of KPF on D2 are independent of sirtuin activation and only weakly reproduced by other small polyphenolic molecules such as quercetin and fisetin. These data document a novel mechanism by which a xenobiotic-activated pathway can regulate metabolically important genes as well as thyroid hormone activation and thus may influence metabolic control in humans. PMID:17327447

da-Silva, Wagner S; Harney, John W; Kim, Brian W; Li, Jing; Bianco, Suzy D C; Crescenzi, Alessandra; Christoffolete, Marcelo A; Huang, Stephen A; Bianco, Antonio C

2007-03-01

131

Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured bulk materials are regarded as a means of enhancing the performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices. Powder metallurgy has the distinct advantage over conventional synthesis that it can start directly from nanosized particles. However, further processing, for example extrusion, usually requires elevated temperatures, which lead to grain growth. We have found that introduction of semiconductor nanoparticles of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a well-known solid lubricant, suppresses grain growth in bismuth telluride-based alloys, thus improving the extrusion process. Scanning electron microscope images show that adding MoS2 particles at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 wt% to p-type (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3, under otherwise identical extrusion conditions, reduces average grain size by a factor of four. Scherer's formula applied to x-ray diffraction data indicates that average crystallite sizes (17 nm) of powders are not significantly different from those of alloys extruded with MoS2 (18 nm), which is in stark contrast with those for conventional alloy (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3 extruded under the same conditions (80 nm). Harman measurements of TE properties reveal a decrease of the thermal conductivity accompanied by reduction of the room-temperature figure of merit ( ZT) from 0.9 to 0.7, because of a lower power factor. Above 370 K, however, the performance of alloys containing MoS2 surpasses that of (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3, with reduction of the thermal conductivity which is more significant at temperatures above the cross point of the ZT values.

Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Vasilevskiy, Dimitri; Masut, Remo A.; Turenne, Sylvain

2014-06-01

132

A general chelate-assisted co-assembly to metallic nanoparticles-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.  

PubMed

The organization of different nano objects with tunable sizes, morphologies, and functions into integrated nanostructures is critical to the development of novel nanosystems that display high performances in sensing, catalysis, and so on. Herein, using acetylacetone as a chelating agent, phenolic resol as a carbon source, metal nitrates as metal sources, and amphiphilic copolymers as a template, we demonstrate a chelate-assisted multicomponent coassembly method to synthesize ordered mesoporous carbon with uniform metal-containing nanoparticles. The obtained nanocomposites have a 2-D hexagonally arranged pore structure, uniform pore size (~4.0 nm), high surface area (~500 m(2)/g), moderate pore volume (~0.30 cm(3)/g), uniform and highly dispersed Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles, and constant Fe(2)O(3) contents around 10 wt %. By adjusting acetylacetone amount, the size of Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles is readily tunable from 8.3 to 22.1 nm. More importantly, it is found that the metal-containing nanoparticles are partially embedded in the carbon framework with the remaining part exposed in the mesopore channels. This unique semiexposure structure not only provides an excellent confinement effect and exposed surface for catalysis but also helps to tightly trap the nanoparticles and prevent aggregating during catalysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis results show that as the size of iron nanoparticles decreases, the mesoporous Fe-carbon nanocomposites exhibit significantly improved catalytic performances with C(5+) selectivity up to 68%, much better than any reported promoter-free Fe-based catalysts due to the unique semiexposure morphology of metal-containing nanoparticles confined in the mesoporous carbon matrix. PMID:23020275

Sun, Zhenkun; Sun, Bo; Qiao, Minghua; Wei, Jing; Yue, Qin; Wang, Chun; Deng, Yonghui; Kaliaguine, Serge; Zhao, Dongyuan

2012-10-24

133

Amplified electrochemical detection of DNA through the aggregation of Au nanoparticles on electrodes and the incorporation of methylene blue into the DNA-crosslinked structure.  

PubMed

The amplified electrochemical sensing of DNA is accomplished by the analyte-induced aggregation of nucleic acid-functionalized Au nanoparticles, deposition of the aggregates on a thiolated monolayer-functionalized electrode, and the voltammetric analysis of the redox-active methylene blue intercalated in the nucleic acid duplexes associated with the aggregates. PMID:18080539

Li, Di; Yan, Yiming; Wieckowska, Agnieszka; Willner, Itamar

2007-09-14

134

Solidphase extraction and gas chromatographymass spectrometry determination of kaempferol and quercetin in human urine after consumption of Ginkgo biloba tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the quantification of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol in human urine using a solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Deuterated internal standards of the analytes were spiked into the samples prior to extraction. The limit of detection of the method was ca. 10 pg on column and precision of the method for quantification

D. G. Watson; E. J. Oliveira

1999-01-01

135

Incorporation of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the simultaneous injection of trace amounts of 75Se-seleno- methionine and 35S-methionine into the wing vein of the hen, the extent and mode of incorporation of both amino acids into the egg white proteins was studied. The results obtained appear to indicate that the selenomethionine is incorporated in a manner indistinguishable from that of methionine. All of the 75Se associated

ARMANDO OCHOA-SOLANO; CARLOS GITLER

136

In vitro release and in vitroin vivo correlation for silybin meglumine incorporated into hollow-type mesoporous silica nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to develop a sustained drug-release model for water-soluble drugs using silica nanoparticles. Methods Hollow-type mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) were prepared using Na2CO3 solution as the dissolution medium for the first time. The water-soluble compound, silybin meglumine, was used as the model drug. The WagnerNelson method was used to calculate the in vivo absorption fraction. Results The results of transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption revealed that the empty HMSNs had uniformly distributed particles of size 50100 nm, a spherical appearance, a large specific surface area (385.89 1.12 m2/g), and ultralow mean pore size (2.74 nm). The highly porous structure allowed a large drug-loading rate (58.91% 0.39%). In 0.08 M Na2CO3 solution, silybin meglumine-loaded HMSNs could achieve highly efficacious and long-term sustained release for 72 hours in vitro. The results of in vitroin vivo correlation revealed that HMSNs in 0.08 M Na2CO3 solution had a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.9931, while those of artificial gastric juice and artificial intestinal juice were only 0.9287 and 0.7689, respectively. Conclusion The findings of in vitroin vivo correlation indicate that HMSNs together with Na2CO3 solution could achieve an excellent linear relationship between in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption for 72 hours, leading to a promising model for sustained release of water-soluble drugs. PMID:22393284

Cao, Xia; Deng, Wen-Wen; Fu, Min; Wang, Liang; Tong, Shan-Shan; Wei, Ya-Wei; Xu, Ying; Su, Wei-Yan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-Nan

2012-01-01

137

Incorporating pTGF-?1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles with fibronectin into 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds: efficient, sustained gene delivery to stem cells for chondrogenic differentiation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prepare a 3-dimensional nanoparticle gene delivery system (3D-NGDS) based on collagen/chitosan scaffolds, in which plasmid transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1)/calcium phosphate nanoparticles mixed with fibronectin (FN) were used to transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterise the microstructure of 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds. An analysis performed to quantify the TGF-b1 concentrations in MSC cultures revealed that the MSCs transfected with the 3D-NGDS showed remarkably high levels of TGF-b1 over long periods, retaining a concentration of TGF-b1 of approximately 10 ng/mL within two weeks, with the highest level (12.6 ng/mL) being observed on the 6th day. An immunohistochemistry analysis for collagen type II revealed that much higher production of collagen II from the 9th to 15th day was observed in the 3D-NGDS-transfected MSCs than that in MSCs transfected by the Lipofectamine 2000 method. The glycosaminoglycan content of the 3D-NGDS was comparable to those treated with TGF-?1 as well as TGF-?1 plus dexamethasone, and was significantly higher than those treated with free plasmid and Lipofectamine 2000. A remarkable type I collagen expression inhibition of the 3D-NGDS at day 21 was observed via ELISA. These results suggested that transfection with the 3D-NGDS could successfully induce MSC chondrogenic differentiation in vitro without dexamethasone. In summary, the 3D-NGDS could be developed into a promising alternative method to transfer exogenous nucleic acid to MSCs in clinical trials. PMID:22314694

Cao, Xia; Deng, Wenwen; Wei, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Su, Weiyan; Wei, Yawei; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

2012-01-01

138

trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)2 and [Ru(NO)(Hedta)] incorporated in PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of nitric oxide to B16-F10 cells: cytotoxicity and phototoxicity.  

PubMed

The immobilization and characterization of trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)2 (cyclam=1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), and [Ru(NO)(Hedta)] (Hedta=ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) entrapped in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) using the double emulsification process is described. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering revealed that the particles are spherical in shape, have a size distribution between 220 and 840 nm of diameter, and have a tendency to aggregate confirmed by a zeta potential between -3.2 and +3.5 mV. Using this method the loading efficiency was 26% for trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)2 and 32% for [Ru(NO)(Hedta)]. The release of the complexes from the NPs shows that cyclam-NP and Hedta-NP exhibited a two-phase exponential association release pattern, which was characterized by an initial complex burst during the first 24 h, followed by a slower release phase complex profile, due to a few pores observed in surface of nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the nitrosyl complexes in solution and incorporated in PLGA nanoparticles on melanoma cancer cells (cell line B16-F10) was investigated. The lower cytotoxicity of trans-[RuCl(cyclam)(NO)]2+ (12.42.6%) and [Ru(NO)(Hedta)] (4.02.7%) in solution compared to that of trans-[Ru(NO)(NH3)4py]3+ (46.16.4%) is consistent with the rate constant release of NO of these complexes (k-NO=6.210(-4) s(-1), 2.010(-3) s(-1), and 6.010(-2) s(-1), respectively); the cytotoxicities are also inhibited in the presence of the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO. The phototoxicity of these complexes is due to NO release, which lead to 53.86.2% of cell death in the presence of trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)2 and 22.35.1% in the presence of [Ru(NO)(Hedta)]. The PLGA nanoparticles loaded with trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)2 and [Ru(NO)(Hedta)] exerted in vitro a reduced activity against melanoma cells when compared to the activity of complex in solution (nonentrapped in nanoparticles). Blank PLGA nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxicity. In the presence of light and of ruthenium nitrosyl complexes or cyclam-NP and Hedta-NP, B16-F10 cells displayed a considerable damage of the surface with rupture of the plasma membrane. This behavior is an indicative of the efficiency of the DDS to deliver the NO from the entrapped complex when photoinduced. PMID:23865934

Gomes, Anderson J; Espreafico, Enilza M; Tfouni, Elia

2013-10-01

139

Synthesis, Characterization, DNA Interaction, and Antitumor Activities of La (III) Complex with Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Kaempferol and Diethylenetriamine  

PubMed Central

A novel La (III) complex, [LaL(H2O)3]NO33H2O, with Schiff base ligand L derived from kaempferol and diethylenetriamine, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and molar conductance measurements. The fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, and viscosity measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that the ligand L and La (III) complex could bind to CT-DNA presumably via intercalative mode and the La (III) complex showed a stronger ability to bind and cleave DNA than the ligand L alone. The binding constants (Kb) were evaluated from fluorescence data and the values ranged from 0.454 to 0.659 105 L mol?1 and 1.71 to 17.3 105 L mol?1 for the ligand L and La (III) complex, respectively, in the temperature range of 298310?K. It was also found that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-DNA by ligand L and La (III) complex was a static quenching process. In comparison to free ligand L, La (III) complex exhibited enhanced cytotoxic activities against tested tumor cell lines HL-60 and HepG-2, which may correlate with the enhanced DNA binding and cleaving abilities of the La (III) complex. PMID:25371657

Wang, Qin; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Yang, Xin-Bin

2014-01-01

140

Separation of quercetin, sexangularetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin for simultaneous HPLC determination of flavonoid aglycones in inflorescences, leaves and fruits of three Sorbus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four flavonol aglycones (quercetin, QU; sexangularetin, SX; kaempferol, KA; isorhamnetin, IS) in hydrolyzed extracts from different plant parts of Sorbus aucuparia L., Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz. and Sorbus intermedia (Ehrh.) Pers. Separation of the four compounds was accomplished on a C18 Lichrosphere 100 column

Monika Olszewska

2008-01-01

141

A facile one-pot self-assembly approach to incorporate SnOx nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbon with soft templating for fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique SnOx (x = 1,2)/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites (denoted as SnOx/OMC) are firstly synthesized through a one-pot synthesis together with the soft template self-assembly approach. The obtained SnOx/OMC nanocomposites with various SnOx contents exhibit uniform pore sizes between 3.9 and 4.2 nm, high specific surface areas between 497 and 595 m2 g-1, and high pore volumes between 0.39 and 0.48 cm3 g-1. With loading of Pt, Pt-SnOx/OMC with relatively low SnOx content exhibits superior electrocatalytic performance, long-term durability, and resistance to CO poisoning for methanol oxidation, as compared to Pt/OMC, PtRu/C and Pt-SnOx/C, which may be attributed not only to the synergetic effect of embedded SnOx, but also to the highly ordered mesostructure with high specific surface areas and large pore volumes affording plenty of surface area for support of Pt nanoparticles. This work supplies an efficient way to synthesize novel ordered mesoporous carbon self-supported metallic oxide as catalyst support and its further potential application to reduce the cost of catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

Huang, Yingqiang; Zhai, Zhicheng; Luo, Zhigang; Liu, Yingju; Liang, Zhurong; Fang, Yueping

2014-04-01

142

A facile one-pot self-assembly approach to incorporate SnOx nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbon with soft templating for fuel cells.  

PubMed

Unique SnO(x) (x = 1,2)/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites (denoted as SnO(x)/OMC) are firstly synthesized through a 'one-pot' synthesis together with the soft template self-assembly approach. The obtained SnO(x)/OMC nanocomposites with various SnO(x) contents exhibit uniform pore sizes between 3.9 and 4.2 nm, high specific surface areas between 497 and 595 m(2) g(-1), and high pore volumes between 0.39 and 0.48 cm(3) g(-1). With loading of Pt, Pt-SnO(x)/OMC with relatively low SnO(x) content exhibits superior electrocatalytic performance, long-term durability, and resistance to CO poisoning for methanol oxidation, as compared to Pt/OMC, PtRu/C and Pt-SnO(x)/C, which may be attributed not only to the synergetic effect of embedded SnO(x), but also to the highly ordered mesostructure with high specific surface areas and large pore volumes affording plenty of surface area for support of Pt nanoparticles. This work supplies an efficient way to synthesize novel ordered mesoporous carbon self-supported metallic oxide as catalyst support and its further potential application to reduce the cost of catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. PMID:24598127

Huang, Yingqiang; Zhai, Zhicheng; Luo, Zhigang; Liu, Yingju; Liang, Zhurong; Fang, Yueping

2014-04-01

143

Vascularization and bone regeneration in a critical sized defect using 2-N,6-O-sulfated chitosan nanoparticles incorporating BMP-2.  

PubMed

An ideal bone tissue engineering graft should have both excellent pro-osteogenesis and pro-angiogenesis to rapidly realize the bone regeneration in vivo. To meet this goal, 2-N,6-O-sulfated chitosan (26SCS) based nanoparticle (S-NP) was successfully developed and showed a dose-dependent enhancement on angiogenesis in vitro. For the repair of a critical sized defect in rabbit radius, we developed BMP-2 loaded S-NP (BMP-2/S-NP) with protein loading efficiency of 1.4 0.2% and fabricated a gelatin sponge (G) based implant loaded with BMP-2/S-NP (BMP-2/S-NP/G). This implant exerted a delivery of BMP-2 with an initial burst release of 15.3 4.1% in first 24 h and a gradual release for 21 days to 77.8 3.6%. The in vitro ALP assay revealed that the activity of released BMP-2 from BMP-2/S-NP/G was maintained after 3-d and 7-d delivery and further enhanced after 14-d delivery compared with the original BMP-2. Furthermore, the in vivo effects of BMP-2/S-NP/G on the bone regeneration and vessel formation in the critical sized defect (18 mm) of rabbit radius were investigated by synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SR?CT) imaging, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (?CT) imaging, histological analysis, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical measurement. Based on the results, both peripheral vessel and new vessel formation were significantly increased by the BMP-2/S-NP/G treatment, along with the bridged defects at as early as 2 weeks, the healed defects at 8 weeks and the reunion of bone marrow cavity at 12 weeks. The results indicated that both controlled release of active BMP-2 and favorable vascularization at the defect site contributed by BMP-2/S-NP/G played a crucial role in accelerating and promoting bone augmentation. This study suggests that BMP-2/S-NP/G demonstrates promise for vascularization and bone regeneration in clinical case of large defect. PMID:24140042

Cao, Lingyan; Wang, Jing; Hou, Juan; Xing, Wanli; Liu, Changsheng

2014-01-01

144

Kaempferol attenuates the glutamate-induced oxidative stress in mouse-derived hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells.  

PubMed

It is thought that the neuronal cell loss caused by oxidative stress is the primary mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Glutamate is an endogenous neurotransmitter, but at high concentrations it can act as a neurotoxicant by increasing the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the development of factors that can attenuate glutamate-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells is a good strategy by which new drugs could be discovered that may treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the neuroprotective effects of kaempferol (KF) isolated from the stems of butterbur (Petasites japonicus) were examined in glutamate-treated hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22). The administration of KF (25 ?M) resulted in a significant increase in cell viability (105.18 7.48%) compared with the control (100.00 3.05%), while glutamate (5 mM) reduced cell viability by 39.94 1.61%. The glutamate-induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx (1.93 0.08-fold) was significantly reduced by 0.89 0.02-fold following the administration of 25 ?M KF. Additionally, when HT22 cells were stressed with excessive glutamate, there was a 3.70 0.01-fold increase in intracellular ROS generation, even though this was effectively attenuated by KF (25 ?M, 0.72 0.01-fold). The protective effects of KF in HT22 cells were later confirmed using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and a FITC-annexin V/propidium iodide double staining procedure. These findings also revealed that the neuroprotective effects of KF are a result of the regulation of the expression levels of proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bid, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This is the first report to investigate the neuroprotective influence of KF in glutamate-treated HT22 cells. These data demonstrate that KF may be a useful candidate for pharmacological therapies that can prevent and treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24770605

Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Geum-Soog; Jun, Mira; Song, Kyung-Sik

2014-07-25

145

Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on procarcinogen-bioactivating human CYP1 enzymes: Identification of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin as potent inhibitors of CYP1B1  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts and some of its individual constituents on the catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. G. biloba extract of known abundance of terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation catalyzed by human recombinant CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2, and human liver microsomes, with apparent K {sub i} values of 2 {+-} 0.3, 5 {+-} 0.5, 16 {+-} 1.4, and 39 {+-} 1.2 {mu}g/ml (mean {+-} SE), respectively. In each case, the mode of inhibition was of the mixed type. Bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamentin 3-O-rutinoside were not responsible for the inhibition of CYP1 enzymes by G. biloba extract, as determined by experiments with these individual chemicals at the levels present in the extract. In contrast, the aglycones of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamentin inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. Among the three flavonol aglycones, isorhamentin was the most potent in inhibiting CYP1B1 (apparent K {sub i} = 3 {+-} 0.1 nM), whereas quercetin was the least potent in inhibiting CYP1A2 (apparent K {sub i} 418 {+-} 50 nM). The mode of inhibition was competitive, noncompetitive, or mixed, depending on the enzyme and the flavonol. G. biloba extract also reduced benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, and the effect was greater with CYP1B1 than with CYP1A1 as the catalyst. Overall, our novel findings indicate that G. biloba extract and the flavonol aglycones isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin preferentially inhibit the in vitro catalytic activity of human CYP1B1.

Chang, Thomas K.H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)]. E-mail: tchang@interchange.ubc.ca; Chen Jie [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Yeung, Eugene Y.H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

2006-05-15

146

Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

Corr獪, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Helo疄a Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andr嶧 Venturini Pola

2015-01-01

147

Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside is an endogenous flavonol inhibitor of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis shoots  

PubMed Central

Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Flavonoids have been implicated in the inhibition of PAT. However, the active flavonoid derivative(s) involved in this process invivo has not yet been identified. Here, we provide evidence that a specific flavonol bis-glycoside is correlated with shorter plant stature and reduced PAT. Specific flavonoid-biosynthetic or flavonoid-glycosylating steps were genetically blocked in Arabidopsis thaliana. The differential flavonol patterns established were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and related to altered plant stature. PAT was monitored in stem segments using a radioactive [3H]-indole-3-acetic acid tracer. The flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase mutant ugt78d2 exhibited a dwarf stature in addition to its altered flavonol glycoside pattern. This was accompanied by reduced PAT in ugt78d2 shoots. The ugt78d2-dependent growth defects were flavonoid dependent, as they were rescued by genetic blocking of flavonoid biosynthesis. Phenotypic and metabolic analyses of a series of mutants defective at various steps of flavonoid formation narrowed down the potentially active moiety to kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Moreover, the level of this compound was negatively correlated with basipetal auxin transport. These results indicate that kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside acts as an endogenous PAT inhibitor in Arabidopsis shoots. PMID:24251900

Yin, Ruohe; Han, Kerstin; Heller, Werner; Albert, Andreas; Dobrev, Petre I; Za璥alov, Eva; Sch輎fner, Anton R

2014-01-01

148

Simultaneous determination of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in phytopharmaceuticals of Hippophae rhamnoides L. by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

A novel method based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by flavonols of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in sulfuric acid medium. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. Good separation was achieved with isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and aqueous 1.0% acetic acid (37:63, v/v) within 25 min. Under optimized conditions, the linear working range covers 3 orders of magnitude with relative standard deviations below 4.5% for 11 replicate injected flavonol samples, and detection limits (S/N= 3) were 1.6 x 10(-8), 3.5 x 10(-9), and 6.5 x 10(-9) g mL(-1) for quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of three active flavonols in phytopharmaceuticals of Hippophae rhamnoides L. After a simple extraction procedure, the repeatability and recovery were satisfactory. PMID:16116994

Zhang, Qunlin; Cui, Hua

2005-07-01

149

POLYMER SURFACTANT INCORPORATED CERAMIC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sol-gel technique utilizing hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) polymer as a steric stabilizer, has been used to synthesize nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) powder. Various analytical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the as-synthesized and calcined nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder. The high temperature metastable tetragonal

S. Shukla; S. Seal; R. Vij; S. Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01

150

Characterization of a Glucosyltransferase Enzyme Involved in the Formation of Kaempferol and Quercetin Sophorosides in Crocus sativus1[C][W  

PubMed Central

UGT707B1 is a new glucosyltransferase isolated from saffron (Crocus sativus) that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of stigma and tepal cells. UGT707B1 transcripts were detected in the stigma tissue of all the Crocus species analyzed, but expression analysis of UGT707B1 in tepals revealed its absence in certain species. The analysis of the glucosylated flavonoids present in Crocus tepals reveals the presence of two major flavonoid compounds in saffron: kaempferol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-?-d-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-?-d-glucopyranoside, both of which were absent from the tepals of those Crocus species that did not express UGT707B1. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants constitutively expressing UGT707B1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter have been constructed and their phenotype analyzed. The transgenic lines displayed a number of changes that resembled those described previously in lines where flavonoid levels had been altered. The plants showed hyponastic leaves, a reduced number of trichomes, thicker stems, and flowering delay. Levels of flavonoids measured in extracts of the transgenic plants showed changes in the composition of flavonols when compared with wild-type plants. The major differences were observed in the extracts from stems and flowers, with an increase in 3-sophoroside flavonol glucosides. Furthermore, a new compound not detected in ecotype Columbia wild-type plants was detected in all the tissues and identified as kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside. These data reveal the involvement of UGT707B1 in the biosynthesis of flavonol-3-O-sophorosides and how significant changes in flavonoid homeostasis can be caused by the overproduction of a flavonoid-conjugating enzyme. PMID:22649274

Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; G鏔ez, Maria Dolores; G鏔ez-G鏔ez, Lourdes

2012-01-01

151

Antiplasmodial properties of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside isolated from the leaves of Schima wallichii against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Previous intervention studies have shown that the most effective agents used in the treatment of malaria were isolated from natural sources. Plants consumed by non-human primates serve as potential drug sources for human disease management due to the similarities in anatomy, physiology and disease characteristics. The present study investigated the antiplasmodial properties of the primate-consumed plant, Schima wallichii (S. wallichii) Korth. (family Theaceae), which has already been reported to have several biological activities. The ethanol extract of S. wallichii was fractionated based on polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The antiplasmodial activity was tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) at 100 ?g/ml for 72 h. The major compound of the most active ethyl acetate fraction was subsequently isolated using column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance. The characterized compound was also tested against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum in culture to evaluate its antiplasmodial activity. The ethanol extract of S. wallichii at 100 ?g/ml exhibited a significant parasite shrinkage after 24 h of treatment. The ethyl acetate fraction at 100 ?g/ml was the most active fraction against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Based on the structural characterization, the major compound isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction was kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, which showed promising antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum with an IC50 of 106 ?M after 24 h of treatment. The present study has provided a basis for the further investigation of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside as an active compound for potential antimalarial therapeutics. PMID:24944812

BARLIANA, MELISA I.; SURADJI, EKA W.; ABDULAH, RIZKY; DIANTINI, AJENG; HATABU, TOSHIMITSU; NAKAJIMA-SHIMADA, JUNKO; SUBARNAS, ANAS; KOYAMA, HIROSHI

2014-01-01

152

Brain uptake of thiamine-coated nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a novel nanoparticle (NP) comprised of emulsifying wax and Brij 78 was shown to have significant brain uptake using the in-situ rat brain perfusion technique. To further these studies and to specifically target brain, we have incorporated thiamine as a surface ligand on the nanoparticles. Solid nanoparticles were prepared from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled and a thiamine

Paul R Lockman; Moses O Oyewumi; Joanna M Koziara; Karen E Roder; Russell J Mumper; David D Allen

2003-01-01

153

Effects of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its Flavonol Constituents, Kaempferol and Quercetin, on Serum Uric Acid Levels, Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Aactivity inOxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Increased serum uric acid is known to be a major risk related to the development of several oxidative stress diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parsley, quercetin and kaempferol on serum uric acid levels, liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration) in normal and oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten equal groups; including 5 normal groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol) and 5 hyperuricemic groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol). Parsley (5 g/Kg), quercetin (5 mg/Kg), kaempferol (5 mg/Kg) and allopurinol (5 mg/Kg) were administrated to the corresponding groups by oral gavage once a day for 2 weeks. The results showed that parsley and its flavonol did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. All treatments significantly inhibited liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Parsley, kaempferol and quercetin treatment led also to a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol was much higher than that of parsley and its flavonol constituents, it could not significantly change oxidative stress biomarkers. These features of parsley and its flavonols make them as a possible alternative for allopurinol, or at least in combination therapy to minimize the side effects of allopurinol to treat hyperuricemia and oxidative stress diseases. PMID:24250417

Haidari, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Seid Ali; Mohammad Shahi, Majid; Mahboob, Soltan-Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

2011-01-01

154

Magnetic, fluorescent, and thermo-responsive Fe(3)O(4)/rare earth incorporated poly(St-NIPAM) core-shell colloidal nanoparticles in multimodal optical/magnetic resonance imaging probes.  

PubMed

Multifunctional colloidal nanoparticles which exhibit fluorescence, superparamagnetism, and thermosensitivity are produced by two step seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and sodium undecylenate (NaUA) modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. In the first step, St and NIPAM polymerize the NaUA on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles to form Fe(3)O(4)/poly(St-NIPAM) nanoparticles which act as seeds for the polymerization of Eu(AA)(3)Phen with the remaining St and NIPAM in the second step to form an outer fluorescent layer. The core-shell composite nanoparticles show reversible dimensional changes in response to external temperature stimuli. Fluorescence spectra acquired from the composites exhibit characteristic emission peaks of Eu(3+) at 594 and 619 nm and vivid red luminescence can be observed by 2-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM). In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay demonstrate good cytocompatibility and the composites also possess paramagnetic properties with a maximum saturation magnetization of 6.45 emu/g and high transverse relaxivity rates (r(2)) of 411.78 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show significant liver and spleen contrast with relative signal intensity reduction of about 86% 10 min after intravenous injection of the composites. These intriguing properties suggest that these nanocarriers have large clinical potential as multimodal optical/MRI probes. PMID:23274069

Zhu, Haie; Tao, Juan; Wang, Wenhao; Zhou, Yingjie; Li, Penghui; Li, Zheng; Yan, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Xu, Zushun; Xu, Haibo; Chu, Paul K

2013-03-01

155

Liquid Metal/Metal Oxide Frameworks with Incorporated Ga2O3 for Photocatalysis.  

PubMed

Solvothermally synthesized Ga2O3 nanoparticles are incorporated into liquid metal/metal oxide (LM/MO) frameworks in order to form enhanced photocatalytic systems. The LM/MO frameworks, both with and without incorporated Ga2O3 nanoparticles, show photocatalytic activity due to a plasmonic effect where performance is related to the loading of Ga2O3 nanoparticles. Optimum photocatalytic efficiency is obtained with 1 wt % incorporation of Ga2O3 nanoparticles. This can be attributed to the sub-bandgap states of LM/MO frameworks, contributing to pseudo-ohmic contacts which reduce the free carrier injection barrier to Ga2O3. PMID:25543876

Zhang, Wei; Naidu, Boddu S; Ou, Jian Zhen; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Chrimes, Adam F; Carey, Benjamin J; Wang, Yichao; Tang, Shi-Yang; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhargava, Suresh K; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

2015-01-28

156

Nanoparticles for Imaging: Top or Flop?  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are frequently suggested as diagnostic agents. However, except for iron oxide nanoparticles, diagnostic nanoparticles have been barely incorporated into clinical use so far. This is predominantly due to difficulties in achieving acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and reproducible particle uniformity as well as to concerns about toxicity, biodegradation, and elimination. Reasonable indications for the clinical utilization of nanoparticles should consider their biologic behavior. For example, many nanoparticles are taken up by macrophages and accumulate in macrophage-rich tissues. Thus, they can be used to provide contrast in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and inflammatory lesions (eg, atherosclerotic plaques). Furthermore, cells can be efficiently labeled with nanoparticles, enabling the localization of implanted (stem) cells and tissue-engineered grafts as well as in vivo migration studies of cells. The potential of using nanoparticles for molecular imaging is compromised because their pharmacokinetic properties are difficult to control. Ideal targets for nanoparticles are localized on the endothelial luminal surface, whereas targeted nanoparticle delivery to extravascular structures is often limited and difficult to separate from an underlying enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The majority of clinically used nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are based on the EPR effect, and, for their more personalized use, imaging markers can be incorporated to monitor biodistribution, target site accumulation, drug release, and treatment efficacy. In conclusion, although nanoparticles are not always the right choice for molecular imaging (because smaller or larger molecules might provide more specific information), there are other diagnostic and theranostic applications for which nanoparticles hold substantial clinical potential. PMID:25247562

Kiessling, Fabian; Mertens, Marianne E.; Grimm, Jan; Lammers, Twan

2014-01-01

157

Functionalizable Amine-based Polymer Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Surface functionalization of nanoparticles and host-guest properties of nanoassemblies are two critical features in the utilization of nanostructures in a variety of applications in materials, chemical, and biological nanotechnology. However, simultaneously incorporating these two features in one nanoparticle design is a rather challenging task. We have developed a simple and versatile nanoparticle platform that addresses this challenge. We have designed and characterized a polymer nanoparticle that provides the ability to encapsulate hydrophobic guest molecules and surface functionalization with a wide range of functional groups. In addition, we have also demonstrated a new and simple approach to tune the size of the nanoparticles.

Wang, Hui; Zhuang, Jiaming; Thayumanavan, S.

2014-01-01

158

Evaluation of antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity of two flavonoids from Rhamnus alaternus L. (Rhamnaceae): kaempferol 3-O-?-isorhamninoside and rhamnocitrin 3-O-?-isorhamninoside.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of kaempferol 3-O-?-isorhamninoside (K3O-ir) and rhamnocitrin 3-O-?-isorhamninoside (R3O-ir), isolated from the leaves of Rhamnus alaternus L., was determined by the ability of each compound to inhibit NBT photoreduction and to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+)(.). Genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities were assessed using the SOS chromotest. At a concentration of 150 ?g/assay the two compounds showed the most potent inhibitory activity against superoxide anion by respectively 80.4% and 85.6%. K3O-ir was a very potent radical scavenger with an IC(50) value of 18.75 ?g/ml. Moreover, these two compounds exhibit an inhibitory activity against genotoxicity induced by nitrofurantoine and aflatoxine B1 using the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. In this study, we have also evaluated correlation between antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of K3O-ir and R3O-ir. The highest correlation was showed with R3O-ir (r=0.999). PMID:21338653

Bhouri, Wissem; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevi鋦e; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira, Leila Chekir

2011-05-01

159

Modeling biological activities of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Products are increasingly incorporating nanomaterials, but we have a poor understanding of their adverse effects. To assess risk, regulatory authorities need more experimental testing of nanoparticles. Computational models play a complementary role in allowing rapid prediction of potential toxicities of new and modified nanomaterials. We generated quantitative, predictive models of cellular uptake and apoptosis induced by nanoparticles for several cell types. We illustrate the potential of computational methods to make a contribution to nanosafety. PMID:23039907

Epa, V Chandana; Burden, Frank R; Tassa, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Shaw, Stanley; Winkler, David A

2012-11-14

160

Fabrication of latex rubber reinforced with micellar nanoparticle as an interface modifier  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reinforced latex rubbers were fabricated by incorporating small amount of nanoparticles as interface modifier. The rubbers were fabricated in a compression mold at 130蚓. The incorporated nanoparticles were prepared from wheat protein (gliadin) and ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA). These nanoparticles were...

161

Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

2009-01-01

162

Separation of quercetin, sexangularetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin for simultaneous HPLC determination of flavonoid aglycones in inflorescences, leaves and fruits of three Sorbus species.  

PubMed

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four flavonol aglycones (quercetin, QU; sexangularetin, SX; kaempferol, KA; isorhamnetin, IS) in hydrolyzed extracts from different plant parts of Sorbus aucuparia L., Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz. and Sorbus intermedia (Ehrh.) Pers. Separation of the four compounds was accomplished on a C18 Lichrosphere 100 column (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6mm, i.d.) with a methanol gradient elution and recorded at 370 nm. The high resolution of critical bands - SX, KA and IS - was achieved with retention of the last peak (IS) in 19.5 min. The equilibration of the standard mixture by addition of HCl to an acid concentration equal that of hydrolyzed extracts injected was found to be necessary when minimizing calibration error. The correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.9991) over the test range. The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 2.8% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the average recoveries were between 95.5 and 102.5%. High sensitivity was demonstrated with detection limits between 0.050 and 0.085 microg/ml. The level of total aglycones was found to be in the range of 687-1,515 mg/100g of dry weight in the inflorescences, 424-1,078 mg/100g in the leaves and 20-60 mg/100g in the fruits depending on the Sorbus species. PMID:18635332

Olszewska, Monika

2008-11-01

163

Brain uptake of thiamine-coated nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel nanoparticle (NP) comprised of emulsifying wax and Brij 78 was shown to have significant brain uptake using the in-situ rat brain perfusion technique. To further these studies and to specifically target brain, we have incorporated thiamine as a surface ligand on the nanoparticles. Solid nanoparticles were prepared from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled and a thiamine ligand (thiamine linked to distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine via a polyethylene glycol spacer) was coated on the surface of the nanoparticles. Initial experiments focused on assessing uptake of [3H]nanoparticles with and without thiamine surface ligands. Biodistribution nanoparticle studies were also carried out in BALB/c mice. The results showed: (1) the effectiveness of using microemulsions as precursors to engineer nanoparticles, (2) kinetic modeling for brain uptake of nanoparticles with and without the thiamine surface ligands, and (3) initial data suggesting mechanisms for nanoparticle brain entry. Comparison of NP brain uptake demonstrated that the thiamine-coated nanoparticle associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) thiamine transporter and had an increased K(in) between 45 and 120 s (thiamine coated NP 9.8 +/- 1.1 x 10(-3) ml/s/g versus uncoated NPs; 7.0 +/- 0.3 x 10(-3) ml/s/g). It was concluded that the thiamine ligand facilitated binding and/or association with blood-brain barrier thiamine transporters, which may be a viable mechanism for nanoparticle mediated brain drug delivery. PMID:14644577

Lockman, Paul R; Oyewumi, Moses O; Koziara, Joanna M; Roder, Karen E; Mumper, Russell J; Allen, David D

2003-12-12

164

Effect of nanoparticle scattering on thermoelectric power factor Mona Zebarjadi,1,a  

E-print Network

in bulk materials. The advantage of incorporating nanoparticles inside thermoelectric materialsEffect of nanoparticle scattering on thermoelectric power factor Mona Zebarjadi,1,a Keivan 4 Department of Materials, University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA 5

165

Nanoparticle PEGylation for imaging and therapy  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are an essential component in the emerging field of nanomedical imaging and therapy. When deployed in vivo, these materials are typically protected from the immune system by polyethylene glycol (PEG). A wide variety of strategies to coat and characterize nanoparticles with PEG has established important trends on PEG size, shape, density, loading level, molecular weight, charge and purification. Strategies to incorporate targeting ligands are also prevalent. This article presents a background to investigators new to stealth nanoparticles, and suggests some key considerations needed prior to designing a nanoparticle PEGylation protocol and characterizing the performance features of the product. PMID:21718180

Jokerst, Jesse V; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Zare, Richard N; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

2011-01-01

166

Colouring crystals with inorganic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A simple, one-pot method is presented whereby gold nanoparticles coated with a zwitterionic diblock copolymer are incorporated within single crystals of calcite. This may provide a versatile alternative to dyeing crystal with organic molecules and could be extended to create a series of new nanocomposite crystals with novel properties. PMID:24202647

Kulak, Alexander N; Yang, Pengcheng; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Armes, Steven P; Meldrum, Fiona C

2014-01-01

167

GENDER EQUALITY Incorporated  

E-print Network

, gender roles, gender construction Gender mythsGENDER EQUALITY Incorporated 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION April 26-30, 2010 - Toronto. #12;simplifying IT 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION GOAL This 5 day course is designed

Barthelat, Francois

168

CORPORATIONS APAC Tennessee Incorporated  

E-print Network

Incorporated Butler Snow O'Mara Stevens and Cannada PLLC C K Designs LLC C Spire Wireless CB Richard Ellis Investments of Ruston LLC JVIL Rogers Properties Jack Robeson Rentals Jackson Lewis LLP Jamie McMahan Studio

Dasgupta, Dipankar

169

Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle technology is being incorporated into many areas of molecular science and biomedicine. Because nanoparticles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including the circulatory system and cells, they have been and continue to be exploited for basic biomedical research as well as clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, nanoparticles hold great promise for enabling gene therapy to reach its full potential by facilitating targeted delivery of DNA into tissues and cells. Substantial progress has been made in binding DNA to nanoparticles and controlling the behavior of these complexes. In this article, we review research on binding DNAs to nanoparticles as well as our latest study on non-viral gene delivery using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:21747701

Kami, Daisuke; Takeda, Shogo; Itakura, Yoko; Gojo, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Masashi

2011-01-01

170

Modulation of flavonoid metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana through overexpression of the MYB75 transcription factor: role of kaempferol-3,7-dirhamnoside in resistance to the specialist insect herbivore Pieris brassicae.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins and flavonols are secondary metabolites that can function in plant defence against herbivores. In Arabidopsis thaliana, anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis are regulated by MYB transcription factors. Overexpression of MYB75 (oxMYB75) in Arabidopsis results in increasing anthocyanin and flavonol levels which enhances plant resistance to generalist caterpillars. However, how these metabolites affect specialist herbivores has remained unknown. Performance of a specialist aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) was unaffected after feeding on oxMYB75 plants, whereas a specialist caterpillar (Pieris brassicae) gained significantly higher body mass when feeding on this plant. An increase in anthocyanin and total flavonol glycoside levels correlated negatively with the body mass of caterpillars fed on oxMYB75 plants. However, a significant reduction of kaempferol-3,7-dirhamnoside (KRR) corresponded to an increased susceptibility of oxMYB75 plants to caterpillar feeding. Pieris brassicae caterpillars also grew less on an artificial diet containing KRR or on oxMYB75 plants that were exogenously treated with KRR, supporting KRR's function in direct defence against this specialist caterpillar. The results show that enhancing the activity of the anthocyanin pathway in oxMYB75 plants results in re-channelling of quercetin/kaempferol metabolites which has a negative effect on the accumulation of KRR, a novel defensive metabolite against a specialist caterpillar. PMID:24619996

Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Reichelt, Michael; van Doorn, Arjen; Schuurink, Robert C; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

2014-05-01

171

214 triclosan-induced cell cycle related and apoptotic related genes were reversed by kaempferol in in vitro breast cancer and xenograted mouse models.  

PubMed

Triclosan (Tri) is one of many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are scattered with environment agents, such as toothpastes, deodorants, and cleaning supplies. As a phytoestrogen, kaempferol (Kae) is one of bioflavonoids, which has been found in a variety of vegetables including broccoli, tea, and tomatoes. Although Kae may have anti-cancer activity, its exact mechanism is under investigation, and might be the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation or angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the anti-proliferative effects of Kae in Tri-induced cell growth in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A proper concentration and co-treatment effect of Tri and Kae were determined by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay to measure cell viability in vitro. MCF-7 cells were cultured with a negative control (0.1% DMSO), E2 (110(-9)M), Tri (10(-5)-10(-8)M) and Kae (50, 70, and 90mM). In this study, treatment with Tri (10(-6)M) increased the cell viability of MCF-7 cells, while Kae (50mM) significantly reduced the cell viability compared to the negative control (P<0.05). In addition, Kae significantly reversed Tri-induced MCF-7 cell growth at 50mM compared with a higher concentration (100mM; P<0.05). To confirm that Kae inhibited Tri-induced cell growth, we examined the transcriptional levels of cell growth and apoptosis-related markers, i.e. cyclin D, p21, cyclin E, p27 and bcl-2, and bax genes, using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The expression levels of cyclin D, cyclin E, and bax/bcl-2 ratio were increased, while those of p21 and p27 mRNAs were decreased by Tri in MCF-7 cells. In addition, Kae treatment significantly reversed Tri-induced gene expressions in an opposite manner. In parallel with its mRNA level, the protein level of cyclin E, p-ERK and p-MEK1/2 were induced by Tri while it was reversed by Kae as shown by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of p21 and bax genes were altered by Tri and reversed by Kae treatment in this study. As an in vivo model, a xenografted mouse model was generated following injection with MCF-7 breast cancer cells in 6 weeks. In parallel with in vitro results, tumour volumes following treatment with E2 and Tri were continually increased compared to a vehicle (corn oil). It was of interest that treatment of the mice with combination of E2 plus Kae or Tri plus Kae showed less tumour formation rather than that of singly treated mice with E2 or Tri. Taken together, these results indicate that Kae may inhibit the growth of MCF-7 cells via regulating of cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes. In addition, EDC-induced progression of breast cancer may be suppressed by a phytoestrogen, i.e. Kae, in a specific manner. PMID:25472262

Kim, S-H; Choi, K-C

2014-12-01

172

Size control of magnetic carbon nanoparticles for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles with controlled diameters were readily fabricated by the pyrolysis of polypyrrole nanoparticles. The carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles showed narrow size distribution, large micropore volume, and high surface area. Magnetic phases were introduced into the carbon nanoparticles during the pyrolysis without sophisticated process, which resulted in useful magnetic properties for selective nanoparticle separation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometer, N(2) adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting interference device were employed for characterizing the carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles. Hydrophobic guest molecules were incorporated into the carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles by surface adsorption, pore filling, and surface covalent coupling. The carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles exhibited embedding capability using pyrene as a typical hydrophobic fluorescent molecule. In addition, ibuprofen was incorporated into the carbon nanoparticles, and drug-loaded carbon nanoparticles sustained release property. In addition, the carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles revealed low toxicity at concentrations below 100 microg mL(-1) via cell viability test and were uptaken inside the cells. These results suggest a new platform for the drug delivery using carbonized polypyrrole nanoparticles. PMID:19878989

Oh, W-K; Yoon, H; Jang, J

2010-02-01

173

DNA templated magnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discoveries in nanoscience are predicted to potentially revolutionize future technologies in an extensive number of fields. These developments are contingent upon discovering new and often unconventional methods to synthesize and control nanoscale components. Nature provides several examples of working nanotechnology such as the use of programmed self assembly to build and deconstruct complex molecular systems. We have adopted a method to control the one dimensional assembly of magnetic nanoparticles using DNA as a scaffold molecule. With this method we have demonstrated the ability to organize 5 nm particles into chains that stretch up to 20 mum in length. One advantage of using DNA compared is the ability of the molecule to interact with other biomolecules. After assembling particles onto DNA we have been able to cleave the molecule into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Using ligase enzymes we have re-connected these fragments, coated with either gold or iron oxide, to form long one-dimensional arrangements of the two different types of nanoparticles on a single molecular guide. We have also created a sensitive magnetic field sensor by incorporating magnetic nanoparticle coated DNA strands with microfabricated electrodes. The IV characteristics of the aligned nanoparticles are dependant on the magnitude of an externally applied magnetic field. This transport phenomenon known as tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) shows room temperature resistance of our devices over 80% for cobalt ferrite coated DNA when a field of 20 kOe is applied. In comparison, studies using two dimensional nanoparticle films of irox oxides xii only exhibit a 35% MR effect. Confinement into one dimension using the DNA guide produces a TMR mechanism which produces significant increases in magnetoresistance. This property can be utilized for applications in magnetic field sensing, data storage, and logic elements.

Kinsella, Joseph M.

174

Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical Wilfried Blanc*, Valrie Mauroy, Bernard  

E-print Network

Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical fibres Wilfried Blanc*, Val矇rie Mauroy, Bernard on the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in-situ in fiber preforms. By adding of nanometric erbium-doped dielectric nanoparticles within the core of silica fibers. We present

Boyer, Edmond

175

Mechanistic study of the adjuvant effect of biodegradable nanoparticles in mucosal vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

For oral vaccination, incorporation of antigens into nanoparticles has been shown to protect the antigen from degradation, but may also increase its uptake through the intestinal epithelium via M-cells. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which oral administration of antigen-loaded nanoparticles induces an immune response and to analyze the effect of the nanoparticle composition on

Bram Sltter; Laurence Plapied; Virgine Fievez; Maria Alonso Sande; Anne des Rieux; Yves-Jacques Schneider; Elly Van Riet; Wim Jiskoot; V廨onique Pr嶧t

2009-01-01

176

Silicalites and Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

The synthesis of silicalites and Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSN), which covalently incorporate original water-soluble photosensitizers for PDT applications is described. PDT was performed on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. All the nanoparticles showed significant cell death after irradiation, which was not correlated with (1)O(2) quantum yield of the nanoparticles. Other parameters are involved and in particular the surface and shape of the nanoparticles which influence the pathway of endocytosis. Functionalization with mannose was necessary to obtain the best results with PDT due to an active endocytosis of mannose-functionalized nanoparticles. The quantity of mannose on the surface should be carefully adjusted as a too high amount of mannose impairs the phototoxicity of the nanoparticles. Fluorescein was also encapsulated in MCM-41 type MSN in order to localize the nanoparticles in the organelles of the cells by confocal microscopy. The MSN were localized in lysosomes after active endocytosis by mannose receptors. PMID:20934496

Hocine, Ouahiba; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Brevet, David; Maynadier, Marie; Fontanel, Simon; Raehm, Laurence; Richeter, S嶵astien; Loock, Bernard; Couleaud, Pierre; Frochot, C幨ine; Charnay, Clarence; Derrien, Ga螔le; Sma髼i, Monique; Sahmoune, Amar; Mor鋨e, Alain; Maillard, Philippe; Garcia, Marcel; Durand, Jean-Olivier

2010-12-15

177

Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal), despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. Methods In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm) were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Results 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. Conclusions There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells. PMID:23088559

2012-01-01

178

Precision Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

John Hemminger

2009-07-21

179

Single-cell imaging detection of nanobarcoded nanoparticle biodistributions in tissues for nanomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nanomedicine, biodistribution studies are critical to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nanoparticles. Currently, extensive biodistribution studies are hampered by the limitations of bulk tissue and single-cell imaging techniques. To ameliorate these limitations, we have developed a novel method for single nanoparticle detection that incorporates a conjugated oligonucleotide as a "nanobarcode" for detection via in situ PCR. This strategy magnifies the detection signal from single nanoparticles, facilitating rapid evaluation of nanoparticle uptake by cell type over larger areas. The nanobarcoding method can enable precise analysis of nanoparticle biodistributions and expedite translation of these nanoparticles to the clinic.

Eustaquio, Trisha; Cooper, Christy L.; Leary, James F.

2011-03-01

180

Nanoparticle-Loaded Multifunctional Block Copolymer Micelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the incorporation of pre-synthesized hydrophobic inorganic nanoparticles within the cores of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymer micelles formed through solvent-evaporation-induced interfacial instabilities of emulsion droplets. Using iron oxide, gold, and cadmium selenide nanoparticles coated with native alkane ligands, highly uniform encapsulation is obtained for cylindrical micelles, while spherical micelles can be enriched to 90 % of loaded micelles through simple magnetic or centrifugal purification steps. Multiple different types of nanoparticles can easily be incorporated into each micelle, yielding multi-functional micelles. The ability to encapsulate both spherical and rod-like particles of different core chemistries and sizes ranging from 1 to 20 nm, without the necessity of coating particles with specially designed ligands, makes this a versatile route to prepare hybrid micelle structures.

Bae, Jinhye; Lawrence, Jimmy; Miesch, Caroline; Ribbe, Alexander; Li, Weikun; Emrick, Todd; Zhu, Jintao; Hayward, Ryan

2012-02-01

181

A Redox-Active Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymer: Preparation of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles and Crystal  

E-print Network

, diameter) nanoparticles were formed by the redox reactions between Ni(II) ions incorporated in 1 and metal reaction. We also reported that the redox-active coordination polymer produced silver nanoparticles of 3 nmA Redox-Active Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymer: Preparation of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

182

Recovery and redispersion of gold nanoparticles using the self-assembly of a pH sensitive zwitterionic amphiphile.  

PubMed

The pH-responsive self-assembly of zwitterionic amphiphile C16CA was expanded to the recovery of gold (Au) nanoparticles for environmentally friendly chemistry applications. Multilayered lamellae at pH ? 4 were successfully incorporated into nanoparticles by dispersion. Redispersion of nanoparticles was achieved under basic conditions by the transition of self-assembly. PMID:25219607

Morita-Imura, Clara; Imura, Yoshiro; Kawai, Takeshi; Shindo, Hitoshi

2014-11-01

183

Antibacterial applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are known to have bactericidal effects. A new generation of dressings incorporating antimicrobial agents like silver nanoparticles is being formulated to reduce or prevent infections. The particles can be incorporated in materials and cloth rendering them sterile. Recently, it was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Apart from being environmentally friendly process, use of Neem leaves extract might add synergistic antibacterial effect of Neem leaves to the biosynthesized nanoparticles. With this hypothesis the biosynthetic production of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Neem leaves and its bactericidal effect in cotton cloth against E. Coli were studied in this work. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by short-term (1 day) and long-term (21 days) interaction of Neem extract (20% w/v) and 0.01 M AgNO3 solution in 1:4 mixing ratio. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and incorporated into cotton disks by (i) centrifuging the disks with liquid broth containing nanoparticles, (ii) in-situ coating process during synthesis, and (iii) coating with dried and purified nanoparticles. The antibacterial property of the nanoparticles coated cotton disks was studied by disk diffusion method. The effect of consecutive washing of the coated disks with distilled water on antibacterial property was also investigated. This work demonstrates the possible use of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles by its incorporation in cloths leading them to sterilization. PMID:20055111

Tripathi, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Raichur, A M; Mukherjee, A

2009-02-01

184

Nanoparticles and the control of oral infections.  

PubMed

The potential of antimicrobial nanoparticles to control oral infections is reviewed. Such particles can be classified as having a size no greater than 100 nm and are produced using traditional or more novel techniques. Exploitation of the toxic properties of nanoparticles to bacteria, fungi and viruses, in particular metals and metal oxides, as well as their incorporation into polymeric materials have increased markedly over the past decade. The potential of nanoparticles to control the formation of biofilms within the oral cavity, as a function of their biocidal, anti-adhesive and delivery capabilities, is now receiving close attention. Latest insights into the application of nanoparticles within this field, including their use in photodynamic therapy, will be reviewed. Possible approaches to alter biocompatibility and desired function will also be covered. PMID:24388116

Allaker, Robert P; Memarzadeh, Kaveh

2014-02-01

185

Nanoparticle Solubility in Liquid Crystalline Defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystalline materials often incorporate regions (defects) where the orientational ordering present in the bulk phase is disrupted. These include point hedgehogs, line disclinations, and domain boundaries. Recently, it has been shown that defects will accumulate impurities such as small molecules, monomer subunits or nanoparticles. Such an effect is thought to be due to the alleviation of elastic stresses within the bulk phase, or to a solubility gap between a nematic phase and the isotropic defect core. This presents opportunities for encapsulation and sequestration of molecular species, in addition to the formation of novel structures within a nematic phase through polymerization and nanoparticle self-assembly. Here, we examine the solubility of nanoparticles within a coarse-grained liquid crystalline phase and demonstrate the effects of nanoparticle size and surface interactions in determining sequestration into defect regions.

Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Armas-Perez, Julio C.; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; Roberts, Tyler F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

2013-03-01

186

Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for oral delivery of budesonide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-functionalized and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle were loaded with anti-inflammatory drug budesonide and additionally post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol). TEM images showed spherical shape of the nanoparticles and slightly higher polydispersity after coating with carbopol. Nitrogen physisorption and thermogravimetic analysis revealed that more efficient loading and incorporation into the pores of nanoparticles was achieved with the amino-functionalized silica carrier. Infrared spectra indicated that the post-coating of these nanoparticles with carbopol led to the formation of bond between amino groups of the functionalized carrier and carboxyl groups of carbopol. The combination of amino-functionalization of the carrier with the post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained budesonide release. Further, an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease showed that the cytoprotective effect of budesonide loaded in the post-coated silica nanoparticles on damaged HT-29 cells was more pronounced compared to the cytoprotection obtained with pure budesonide.

Yoncheva, K.; Popova, M.; Szegedi, A.; Mihaly, J.; Tzankov, B.; Lambov, N.; Konstantinov, S.; Tzankova, V.; Pessina, F.; Valoti, M.

2014-03-01

187

Nepal CRS project incorporates.  

PubMed

The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki-Dhaal sales have never been high. In 1982 2 additional products were introduced--Nilocan (Norminest) low does OCs and Kamal Neo Sampoon foaming tablets. The CRS program recruited and trained its own sales representatives who work shop to shop, promoting products and educating retailers and consumers. An important part of the communication starategy includes consumer and retailer education. Advertising messages were developed to increase brand awareness, create demand, educate consumers about side effects of OCs, and to identify contraceptives as a means of adequately space children. PMID:12312964

1983-01-01

188

Towards the Rational Design of Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is focused on development of routes towards the rational design of nanoparticle catalysts. Primarily, it is focused on two main projects; (1) the use of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as greener media for the design of quasi-homogeneous nanoparticle catalysts and (2) the rational design of heterogeneous-supported nanoparticle catalysts from structured nanoparticle precursors. Each project has different studies associated with the main objective of the design of nanoparticle catalysts. In the first project, imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been used for the synthesis of nanoparticle catalysts. In particular, studies on recyclability, reuse, mode-of-stability, and long-term stability of these ionic-liquid supported nanoparticle catalysts have been done; all of which are important factors in determining the overall "greenness" of such synthetic routes. Three papers have been published/submitted for this project. In the first publication, highly stable polymer-stabilized Au, Pd and bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticle catalysts have been synthesized in imidazolium-based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6) ionic liquid (Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 2008, 286, 114). The resulting nanoparticles were found to be effective and selective quasi-homogeneous catalysts towards a wide-range of hydrogenation reactions and the catalyst solution was reused for further catalytic reactions with minimal loss in activity. The synthesis of very pure and clean ILs has allowed a platform to study the effects of impurities in the imidazolium ILs on nanoparticle stability. In a later study, a new mode of stabilization was postulated where the presence of low amounts of 1-methylimidazole has substantial effects on the resulting stability of Au and Pd-Au nanoparticles in these ILs (Chemical Communications, 2009, 812). In further continuation of this study, a comparative study involving four stabilization protocols for nanoparticle stabilization in BMIMPF6 IL is described, and have shown that nanoparticle stability and catalytic activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the overall stability of the nanoparticles towards aggregation (manuscript submitted). The second major project is focused on synthesizing structurally well-defined supported catalysts by incorporating the nanoparticle precursors (both alloy and core shell) into oxide frameworks (TiO2 and Al2O 3), and examining their structure-property relationships and catalytic activity. a full article has been published on this project (Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009, 113, 12719) in which a route to rationally design supported catalysts from structured nanoparticle precursors with precise control over size, composition, and internal structure of the nanoparticles has been shown. In a continuation of this methodology for the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts, efforts were carried out to apply the same methodology in imidazolium-based ILs as a one-pot media for the synthesis of supported-nanoparticle heterogeneous catalysts via the trapping of pre-synthesized nanoparticles into porous inorganic oxide materials. Nanoparticle catalysts in highly porous titania supports were synthesized using this methodology (manuscript to be submitted).

Dash, Priyabrat

189

Nanoparticle-directed self-assembly of amphiphilic block-copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-assembly of nanoparticles and amphiphilic polymers provides a powerful tool for the fabrication of functional composite materials for a range of applications spanning from nanofabrication to medicine. Here, we present how the incorporation of nanoparticles affects the self-assembly behavior of amphiphilic block-copolymers and how to control the morphology of nanoparticle-encapsulating polymer assemblies. Based on the approach, we have prepared various types of well-defined nanoparticle-encapsulating polymeric nanostructures, including polymersomes packed with magnetic nanoparticles and unique cavity-like quantum dot assembles. We found that the incorporation of nanoparticles drastically affects the self-assembly structure of block-copolymers by modifying the relative volume ratio between the hydrophobic block and the hydrophilic block. In addition, the nanoparticle-polymer and nanoparticle-solvent interactions impact the arrangement and the hybridization of nanoparticles in polymer matrix. These findings should form the basis for the design rules of the self-assembly of nanoparticles and polymer amphiphiles, which will allow one to create new hybrid structures with predesigned morphology and properties. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the morphology of nanoparticle-encapsulating polymer assemblies significantly affects their properties such as magnetic relaxation properties, underscoring the importance of the overall self-assembly structure and the nanoparticle arrangement in polymer matrixes.

Park, So-Jung

2011-03-01

190

Physicochemical signatures of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles are potentially powerful therapeutic tools that have the capacity to target drug payloads and imaging agents. However, some nanoparticles can activate complement, a branch of the innate immune system, and cause adverse side-effects. Recently, we developed an in vitro hemolytic assay protocol for measuring the nanoparticle-dependent complement activity of serum samples and applied this protocol to several nanoparticle formulations that differed in size, surface charge, and surface chemistry; quantifying the nanoparticle-dependent complement activity using a metric called Residual Hemolytic Activity (RHA). In the present work, we have used a decision tree learning algorithm to derive the rules for estimating nanoparticle-dependent complement response based on the data generated from the hemolytic assay studies. Our results indicate that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, namely, size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and mole percentage of the active surface ligand of a nanoparticle, can serve as good descriptors for prediction of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation in the decision tree modeling framework. The robustness and predictability of the model can be improved by training the model with additional data points that are uniformly distributed in the RHA/physicochemical descriptor space and by incorporating instability effects on nanoparticle physicochemical properties into the model.

Thomas, Dennis G.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Tardiff, Mark F.; Xu, Zhixiang; Hourcade, Dennis; Pham, Christine; Lanza, Gregory M.; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Baker, Nathan A.

2014-03-21

191

Using Models that Incorporate Uncertainty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the use in policy analysis of models that incorporate uncertainty. He believes that all models should consider incorporating uncertainty, but that at the same time it is important to understand that sampling variability is not usually the dominant driver of uncertainty in policy analyses. He also argues that

Caulkins, Jonathan P.

2002-01-01

192

Earth abundant bimetallic nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer exchange membrane fuel cells have the potential to replace current fossil fuel-based technologies in terms of emissions and efficiency, but CO contamination of H2 fuel, which is derived from steam methane reforming, leads to system inefficiency or failure. Solutions currently under development are bimetallic nanoparticles comprised of earth-abundant metals in different architectures to reduce the concentration of CO by PROX during fuel cell operation. Chapter One introduces the Pt-Sn and Co-Ni bimetallic nanoparticle systems, and the intermetallic and core-shell architectures of interest for catalytic evaluation. Application, theory, and studies associated with the efficacy of these nanoparticles are briefly reviewed. Chapter Two describes the concepts of the synthetic and characterization methods used in this work. Chapter Three presents the synthetic, characterization, and catalytic findings of this research. Pt, PtSn, PtSn2, and Pt 3Sn nanoparticles have been synthesized and supported on gamma-Al2O3. Pt3Sn was shown to be an effective PROX catalyst in various gas feed conditions, such as the gas mixture incorporating 0.1% CO, which displayed a light-off temperatures of 95蚓. Co and Ni monometallic and CoNi bimetallic nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized, ultimately leading to the development of target Co Ni core-shell nanoparticles. Proposed studies of catalytic properties of these nanoparticles in preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) reactions will further elucidate the effects of different crystallographic phases, nanoparticle-support interactions, and architecture on catalysis, and provide fundamental understanding of catalysis with nanoparticles composed of earth abundant metals in different architectures.

Senn, Jonathan F., Jr.

193

Concept of Assessing Nanoparticle Hazards Considering Nanoparticle Dosemetric and Chemical\\/Biological Response Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineered nanoparticles (NP) are being developed and incorporated in a number of commercial products, raising the potential of human exposure during manufacture, use, and disposal. Although data concerning the potential toxicity of some NP have been reported, validated simple assays are lacking for predicting their in vivo toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate new response metrics based

Erik K. Rushton; Jingkun Jiang; Stephen S. Leonard; Shirley Eberly; Vincent Castranova; Pratim Biswas; Alison Elder; Xianglu Han; Robert Gelein; Jacob Finkelstein; Gnter Oberd顤ster

2010-01-01

194

Evaluation of the physical stability of SLN and NLC before and after incorporation into hydrogel formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles are being investigated as drug delivery systems for different therapeutic purposes. One of their interesting features is the possibility of topical use, for which these systems have to be incorporated into commonly used dermal carriers, such as creams or hydrogels, in order to have a proper semisolid consistency. For the present investigation four different gel-forming

E. B Souto; S. A Wissing; C. M Barbosa; R. H Mller

2004-01-01

195

Near-infrared photothermal activation of microgels incorporating polypyrrole nanotransducers through droplet microfluidics.  

PubMed

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) composite microgels incorporating polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles were produced using droplet microfluidics. The composite microgels exhibited site-specific de-swelling-swelling properties that were activated by near-infrared light. Their applications for programmable drug release by pulsed-light control were also demonstrated. PMID:23903434

Luo, Rong-Cong; Ranjan, Shashi; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Chia-Hung

2013-09-18

196

Retardation of nanoparticles growth by doping  

PubMed Central

The process of doping of CdS nanoparticles with Mn during colloidal synthesis is analyzed by EPR and optical studies. Analysis of EPR results demonstrated that Mn2+ ions are successfully incorporated into the nanoparticles and occupy the crystal sites both in the bulk of a NP and near the surface of a NP. Optical absorption measurements revealed the retardation of absorption edge shift during the growth for Mn-doped CdS NPs as compared to the undoped CdS NPs. It was concluded that the presence of Mn in the solution leads to the inhibition of NPs growth. PMID:25593561

2014-01-01

197

Polymer nanoparticles and nanoparticle arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacturing of polymeric nanoparticles by intramolecular crosslinking is studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Firstly an overview of the intramolecular crosslinking process is obtained by the simulations of benzocyclobutene(BCB)/styrene copolymers using an atomistic model. Then various coarse grained models, including Freely Jointed Chain (FJC). Freely Rotating Chain (FRC) and stiff chain models, are adopted for studying general properties of intramolecular crosslinking of polymers. A temperature series simulation on the FJC model reveals that the change of ambient temperature results in the formation of nanoparticles with distinct morphologies. To describe their structures, a quantity referred to as chemical distance density is introduced, with a quantitative relation between it and the radius of gyration being found. The subsequent study of rigidity effects adopts FRC and stiff chain models. It is found that in the rigid regime, the crosslinking process leaves a substantial number of crosslinkers unlinked, and forms nanoparticles that are significantly larger than their non-rigid counterparts. The Maxwell constraint counting method is used to determine the rigidity thresholds, which yields good agreements with the simulation data. In the last chapter, the atomistic model for polystyrene in the previous crosslinking simulations is employed for a study of polystyrene chains on attractive substrates. The phase diagram and a rough overview of chain dynamics on substrates are obtained.

Liu, Jiwu

198

Grain boundary engineering with gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated high-TC grain boundary Josephson junctions with and without incorporated gold nanoparticles. Pulsed laser deposition was used for the deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-? thin films on SrTiO3 bicrystal substrates with different grain boundary angles. During the deposition process, single-crystalline nanoparticles self-assembled from a thin gold layer which was sputtered on the substrate before the YBCO deposition. The interaction between nanoparticles and thin film growth significantly influences the quality of the YBCO films [1]. The critical current density and the critical temperature of the superconducting films can be increased in a defined manner. Furthermore, the nanoparticles influence the growth conditions in the region of the grain boundary and thus the properties of the later patterned Josephson junctions. The comparison between Josephson junctions with and without nanoparticles on the same substrate shows a reduction of the critical current IC and an increase of the normal state resistance RN for all investigated types of grain boundaries in the areas with gold nanoparticles. In some cases we even found an increase of the resulting ICRN product. We present the influence of light irradiation on the properties of the Josephson junctions.

Schmidl, F.; Katzer, C.; Michalowski, P.; Koch, S.; Tympel, V.

2014-05-01

199

Incorporate GPS into Geologic Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

William Montgomery, New Jersey City University Summary This activity is an easy and fun way to incorporate GPS into a Field Methods course. It facilitates "asynchronous" learning by enabling urban, ...

Montgomery, William

200

Nanoparticle technology: Addressing the fundamental roadblocks to protein biomarker discovery  

PubMed Central

The incorporation of affinity baits into N-isopropylacrylamide-hydrogel-based nanoparticles offers a novel technology that addresses the major analytical challenges of disease biomarker discovery. In solution in complex biologic fluids (e.g. blood or urine), core-shell bait-containing nanoparticles can perform three functions in one step: (a) sieve molecules according to size, (b) sequestrate and concentrate target analytes, and (c) protect analytes from degradation. PMID:20585471

Luchini, Alessandra; Longo, Caterina; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.

2010-01-01

201

Magnetic and fluorescent multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles as a smart drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative drug delivery system based on magnetic and fluorescent multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles was developed, which combined magnetic targeting, fluorescent imaging and stimulus-responsive drug release properties into one drug delivery system. Water-soluble superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and pharmaceutical drugs were simultaneously incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles; cross-linking the composite particles with glutaraldehyde tailored their size, morphology, surface properties

Linlin Li; Dong Chen; Yanqi Zhang; Zhengtao Deng; Xiangling Ren; Xianwei Meng; Fangqiong Tang; Jun Ren; Lin Zhang

2007-01-01

202

Luminescence enhancement by Au nanoparticles in Er(3+)-doped germano-silicate optical fiber.  

PubMed

We report on the fabrication of the Au nanoparticles/Er(3+) codoped germano-silicate fibers by modified chemical vapor deposition and solution doping processes. Absorption and luminescence characteristics of the Er(3+)-doped germano-silicate fibers incorporated with Au nanoparticles in the core of the fibers were investigated. The Au nanoparticles were found to be effective absorbents for hydroxyl groups to enhance the luminescence of Er(3+) ions upon pumping with the 980nm laser diode. PMID:19547194

Lin, Aoxiang; Boo, Seongjae; Moon, Dae S; Jeong, Hye J; Chung, Youngjoo; Han, Won-Taek

2007-07-01

203

Predicting thermal conductivity of liquid suspensions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) based on rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is proposed for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) based on rheology. The methodology uses the rheological data to infer microstructures of nanoparticles quantitatively, which is then incorporated into the conventional HamiltonCrosser equation to predict the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The methodology is experimentally validated using four types of nanofluids made of

Haisheng Chen; Sanjeeva Witharana; Yi Jin; Chongyoup Kim; Yulong Ding

2009-01-01

204

Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to prepare aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles flurbiprofen solid lipid nanoparticles (FLUSLN) and flurbiprofen nanostructured lipid carriers (FLUNLC) by hot homogenization followed by sonication technique and then incorporated into the freshly prepared hydrogels for transdermal delivery. They are characterized for particle size, for all the formulations, more than 50% of the particles were

Kesavan Bhaskar; Jayaraman Anbu; Velayutham Ravichandiran; Vobalaboina Venkateswarlu; Yamsani Madhusudan Rao

2009-01-01

205

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery a review of the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) introduced in 1991 represent an alternative carrier system to traditional colloidal carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric micro- and nanoparticles. SLN combine advantages of the traditional systems but avoid some of their major disadvantages. This paper reviews the present state of the art regarding production techniques for SLN, drug incorporation, loading capacity and drug release,

Rainer H. Mller; Karsten M輐er; Sven Gohla

2000-01-01

206

Design of biodegradable nanoparticles: a novel approach to encapsulating poorly soluble phytochemical ellagic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosizing of poorly water soluble drugs or incorporating them into nanoparticles to increase their solubility and thereby the bioavailability has become a favoured approach today. This work describes a novel method for encapsulating poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid that is also sparingly soluble/insoluble in routine solvents used to prepare nanoparticles.

Bala, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hariharan, S.; Sitterberg, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

2005-12-01

207

Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 -xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt-iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, M飉sbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe(2+) site with Co(2+), with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

Byrne, J M; Coker, V S; Moise, S; Wincott, P L; Vaughan, D J; Tuna, F; Arenholz, E; van der Laan, G; Pattrick, R A D; Lloyd, J R; Telling, N D

2013-06-01

208

Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 ?xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobaltiron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, M飉sbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe2+ site with Co2+, with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

Byrne, J. M.; Coker, V. S.; Moise, S.; Wincott, P. L.; Vaughan, D. J.; Tuna, F.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Lloyd, J. R.; Telling, N. D.

2013-01-01

209

Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. PMID:25607734

Palza, Humberto

2015-01-01

210

Efficacy of nanoparticles in achieving hemostasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrollable hemorrhage is significant cause of preventable death in the military and civilian setting. Hemostatic wound dressings have been created in an attempt to rectify this problem, but none currently on the market are highly effective at controlling hemorrhage resulting in a need for an effective hemostatic wound dressing. This study investigated the effects of gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles on blood coagulation time in order to determine if nanoparticle incorporation into a hemostatic wound dressing would effectively achieve hemostasis. Gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles were experimented with two different ex vivo studies to determine their effects on coagulation. A modified Lee White Method and a rotational viscometer were utilized to assess the nanoparticles ability to clot blood. Results obtained from the modified Lee White Method proved inconsistent and inconclusive demonstrating a need for improved testing methods. Results acquired from viscometer testing demonstrated that silica was effective in decreasing coagulation time indicating its potential use as a hemostatic agent and its prospective incorporation into a hemostatic wound dressing.

Schmitt, Carrie Catherine

211

Iron Nanoparticles in Reactive Environmental Barriers  

SciTech Connect

Zero-valent iron is cheap, environmentally innocuous, and effective at reducing chlorinated organics. It has, as a result, become a popular candidate for remediating aquifers contaminated with trichloroethylene and other halogenated pollutants. In this paper, we discuss one such system, where iron nanoparticles are synthesized and incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol membranes, forming water-permeable barriers to these pollutants. These barriers are tested against a variety of contaminants, including carbon tetrachloride, copper, and chromate.

Nuxoll, Eric E.; Shimotori, Tsutomu; Arnold, William A.; Cussler, Edward L.

2003-09-23

212

In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities of a gemcitabine derivative carried by nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Gemcitabine (Gemzar) is the first line treatment for pancreatic cancer and often used in combination therapy for non-small cell lung, ovarian, and metastatic breast cancers. Although extremely toxic to a variety of tumor cells in culture, the clinical outcome of gemcitabine treatment still needs improvement. In the present study, a new gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation was developed by incorporating a previously reported stearic acid amide derivative of gemcitabine into nanoparticles prepared from lecithin/glyceryl monostearate-in-water emulsions. The stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles were cytotoxic to tumor cells in culture, although it took a longer time for the gemcitabine in the nanoparticles to kill tumor cells than for free gemcitabine. In mice with pre-established model mouse or human tumors, the stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles were significantly more effective than free gemcitabine in controlling the tumor growth. PEGylation of the gemcitabine nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (2000) prolonged the circulation of the nanoparticles in blood and increased the accumulation of the nanoparticles in tumor tissues (> 6-fold), but the PEGylated and un-PEGylated gemcitabine nanoparticles showed similar anti-tumor activity in mice. Nevertheless, the nanoparticle formulation was critical for the stearoyl gemcitabine to show a strong anti-tumor activity. It is concluded that for the gemcitabine derivate-containing nanoparticles, cytotoxicity data in culture may not be used to predict their in vivo anti-tumor activity, and this novel gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation has the potential to improve the clinical outcome of gemcitabine treatment. PMID:21371545

Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Li, Dong; Chung, Woon-Gye; Lansakara-P., Dharmika S. P.; Proteau, Philip J.; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John; Cui, Zhengrong

2011-01-01

213

Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic  

E-print Network

Engineering Research Center Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic Center (PSERC) research project titled "Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational ConsiderationsPSERC Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic Aspects

214

Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock

Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

2014-01-01

215

PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced  

E-print Network

PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane Monjid Hamdan Giner Electrochemical.00 - 4.00 4.66 Electrolyzer Cap. Cost ($/kg-H2) 1.20 0.70 0.30 0.60 Electrolyzer Efficiency %LHV (%HHV Develop and demonstrate advanced low-cost, moderate-pressure PEM water electrolyzer system to meet DOE

216

Biodegradable Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Incorporating Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane  

E-print Network

Biodegradable Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Incorporating Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane Pamela T polyurethane (TPU) system that incorporates an organic, biodegradable poly(D,L- lactide) soft block with a hard

Mather, Patrick T.

217

Photothermal guidance for selective photothermolysis with nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photothermal (PT) technique was applied to optimizing selective photothermolysis of cancer cells and bacteria into which nanoparticles have been incorporated (selective "nanophotothermolysis"). This technique involved first irradiating nanoparticles-penetrated cells with nanosecond pump-laser pulses in the visible spectral ranges. Laser-induced local thermal effects around the nanoparticles in the cancer cells or bacteria were then detected via time-resolved monitoring of temperature-dependent variations of the refractive index. This procedure was accomplished with imaging of a second probe-laser pulse. Analysis of the distinctive temporal shape of the PT response revealed linear and nonlinear phenomena around nanoparticles, such as alteration of local temperature, and bubble-formation-caused cell death accompanied by laser-induced melting and disintegration of particles. The damage threshold was obtained for live cancer cells in vitro depended on the size (range: 2-250 nm) and number of particles, laser energy, and number of pulses. Local heat-based induction of apoptosis and necrosis was controlled in parallel with conventional kits (e.g. trypan blue, Annexin V-propidium iodide) and optical and electron microscopy. The PT technique potentially allowed for the detection of nanoparticles that had been delivered into live cells by direct microinjection, natural diffusion, and selective targeting with antibodies.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galitovskaya, Elena; Viegas, Mark

2004-07-01

218

Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for oral delivery of budesonide  

SciTech Connect

Non-functionalized and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle were loaded with anti-inflammatory drug budesonide and additionally post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol). TEM images showed spherical shape of the nanoparticles and slightly higher polydispersity after coating with carbopol. Nitrogen physisorption and thermogravimetic analysis revealed that more efficient loading and incorporation into the pores of nanoparticles was achieved with the amino-functionalized silica carrier. Infrared spectra indicated that the post-coating of these nanoparticles with carbopol led to the formation of bond between amino groups of the functionalized carrier and carboxyl groups of carbopol. The combination of amino-functionalization of the carrier with the post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained budesonide release. Further, an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease showed that the cytoprotective effect of budesonide loaded in the post-coated silica nanoparticles on damaged HT-29 cells was more pronounced compared to the cytoprotection obtained with pure budesonide. -- Graphical abstract: Silica mesoporous MCM-41 particles were amino-functionalized, loaded with budesonide and post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol) in order to achieve prolonged residence of anti-inflammatory drug in GIT. Highlights: Higher drug loading in amino-functionalized mesoporous silica. Amino-functionalization and post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained drug release. Achievement of higher cytoprotective effect with drug loaded into the nanoparticles.

Yoncheva, K., E-mail: krassi.yoncheva@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Dunav Str., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Popova, M. [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Szegedi, A.; Mihaly, J. [Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri t. 59-67, 1025 Budapest (Hungary); Tzankov, B.; Lambov, N.; Konstantinov, S.; Tzankova, V. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Dunav Str., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Pessina, F.; Valoti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Universita di Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, Siena (Italy)

2014-03-15

219

Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2 (-), and intracellular Ca(2+) were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170-225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca(2+) influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

2015-01-01

220

Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2?, and intracellular Ca2+ were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca2+ influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca2+ induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

2015-01-01

221

CTAB capped silver nanoparticles for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the light harvesting efficiency of Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), we have explored the surface plasmon property of metal nanoparticles in this paper. Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) capped silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical method and studied for spectroscopic and structural investigations. FTIR confirms the capping of CTAB on silver nanoparticles occurs via their head group. Williamson Hall plot revealed the presence of tensile strain. Finally, these particles have been incorporated in DSSC to study the plasmonic effect of nanoparticles on performance of DSSC.

Tanvi, Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, Subodh

2014-04-01

222

Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

2012-07-01

223

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: A Modern Formulation Approach in Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, clinical medicine and research, as well as in other varied sciences. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for secondary and tertiary levels of drug targeting. Hence, solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence have attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their advantages, limitations and their possible remedies. The different types of nanocarriers which were based on solid lipid like solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, lipid drug conjugates are discussed with their structural differences. Different production methods which are suitable for large scale production and applications of solid lipid nanoparticles are described. Appropriate analytical techniques for characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles like photon correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry are highlighted. Aspects of solid lipid nanoparticles route of administration and their biodistribution are also incorporated. If appropriately investigated, solid lipid nanoparticles may open new vistas in therapy of complex diseases. PMID:20502539

Mukherjee, S.; Ray, S.; Thakur, R. S.

2009-01-01

224

Monolithic cryopolymers with embedded nanoparticles. II. Capillary liquid chromatography of proteins using charged embedded nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The preparation of composite monolithic cryopolymers is presented. These novel porous materials were prepared in capillary format at -70蚓 using poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) Mw 258 as the single monomer and a mixture of dioxane and water as the porogen. Positively (NR4(+)) or negatively (SO3(-)) charged nanoparticles were incorporated within the polymeric structure by direct addition of their suspensions to the polymerisation mixture. In contrast to our previous report using neutral nanoparticles, the trapping of charged nanoparticles is mostly observed at the polymer surface. The incorporation of these nanostructures improved the chromatographic separations of standard proteins under a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) separation mode. Moreover, the presence of ionic groups on the polymer surface allowed the application of these columns under ion-exchange (IEX) conditions. The results obtained in this work show that the functionalisation of monolithic columns by direct addition of nanoparticles is a good alternative towards the modification of monolithic polymers without altering the polymeric scaffold. PMID:24011507

Arrua, R Dario; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

2013-10-11

225

Lipid nanoparticles for the topical delivery of retinoids and derivatives.  

PubMed

Retinoids are lipophilic compounds that are highly used in cosmetics/therapeutics for skin disorders. Conventional formulations are limited by poor water solubility, high chemical/photochemical instability and the irritation of retinoids. Interestingly, lipid nanoparticles enable the administration of retinoids in aqueous media, providing drug stabilization and controlled release. Recently, it has been demonstrated that retinoids in solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions and nanocapsules can decrease degradation, improve targeting and enhance efficacy for the treatment of skin disorders. This article focuses on the formulation, fabrication, characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions and nanocapsules loaded with retinoids for skin administration. Furthermore, the incorporation of these lipid nanoparticles into secondary vehicles is discussed. PMID:25600970

Morales, Javier O; Vald廥, Karina; Morales, Javier; Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe

2015-01-01

226

Tuning ferromagnetism in zinc oxide nanoparticles by chromium doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zn1-x Cr x O nanoparticles with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that chromium (Cr) incorporates into the ZnO crystal lattice without disturbing the parent hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show that the average size of these nanoparticles is in the range 15-25 nm. Optical absorption studies show that the band gap of ZnO nanoparticles varies with Cr doping. Photoluminescence (PL) studies depict the presence of defects in Cr-doped nanoparticles. Undoped ZnO exhibits diamagnetic behavior while Cr-doped ZnO samples exhibit weak ferromagnetism to anti-ferromagnetism depending on the Cr content.

Kaur, Palvinder; Pandey, S. K.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Negi, N. S.; Chen, C. L.; Rao, S. M.; Wu, M. K.

2015-01-01

227

Anti-biofilm properties of wound dressing incorporating nonrelease polycationic antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Polycationic nanoparticles show biocompatible, broad-spectrum bactericidal properties invitro and invivo when incorporated in denture lining material post-maxillectomy in head and neck cancer patients. In the present study, the synthesized Crosslinked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles were found to have a strong bactericidal activity against a wide variety of microorganisms rapidly killing bacterial cells when incorporated at small concentrations into soft lining materials without compromising mechanical and biocompatibility properties. This appears advantageous over conventional released antimicrobials with regard to invivo efficacy and safety, and may provide a convenient platform for the development of non-released antimicrobials. This is a crucial issue when it comes to giving an answer to the serious and life-threatening problems of contaminations in immunocompromised patients such as orofacial cancer patient. PMID:25678123

Atar-Froyman, Livnat; Sharon, Anat; Weiss, Ervin I; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Kesler-Shvero, Dana; Domb, Abraham J; Pilo, Raphael; Beyth, Nurit

2015-04-01

228

Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica.  

PubMed

High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ? 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ? 3.8-3.9 ) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ? 3.1-3.2 , U at ? 3.8-3.9 ). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination. PMID:24984107

Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate

2014-08-01

229

Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

2013-01-01

230

A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous luminophores may be encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (< 100 nm) using the reverse microemulsion process. Nevertheless, the behaviour and effect of such luminescent molecules appear to have been much less studied and may possibly prevent the encapsulation process from occurring. Such nanospheres represent attractive nanoplatforms for the development of biotargeted biocompatible luminescent tracers. Physical and chemical properties of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by the nanomatrix. This study examines the synthesis of different types of dispersed silica nanoparticles, the ability of the selected luminophores towards incorporation into the silica matrix of those nanoobjects as well as the photophysical properties of the produced dye-doped silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles present mean diameters between 40 and 60 nm as shown by TEM analysis. Mainly, the photophysical characteristics of the dyes are retained upon their encapsulation into the silica matrix, leading to fluorescent silica nanoparticles. This feature article surveys recent research progress on the fabrication strategies of these dye-doped silica nanoparticles.

Auger, Aur幨ien; Samuel, Jorice; Poncelet, Olivier; Raccurt, Olivier

2011-12-01

231

Nanoparticles on Photovoltaic Performance of Fabricated DSSCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work focuses on the synthesis of mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with reduced band gaps without even being doped. The synthesis was carried out by chemical route followed by heat treatments at different temperatures to favor rutile incorporation in anatase network. The significance of different heat treatment temperatures on the phase composition of TiO2 nanoparticles and its effect on optical band gap and the photovoltaic performance are analyzed. The thermal analysis, phases, morphology, and energy band gap of as-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles have been characterized by DTA/TG, x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and UV-Vis-NIR, respectively. The results show the presence of rutile (~15 nm) and anatase phases (~17 nm) in "as-synthesized" TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles are heat treated for 2 h at 200, 400, and 600 蚓 in air. It is observed that heat treatment results in higher photoactivity in visible region of the solar radiation and the material demonstrated high photovoltaic performance in conjunction with N-719. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.59-2.88 eV. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated by TiO2 nanoparticles, heat treated at 600 慢 show the energy conversion efficiency (?) of 6.08% with high photo current density ( J sc) of 11.76 mA/cm2. The work highlighted in this paper represents the realization of simple method of achieving low band gap semiconductors without being doped, for DSSCs applications.

Agarwala, Pooja; Makkar, Preeti; Sharma, Sarika; Garg, Rajnish

2014-10-01

232

Cytotoxic activities of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan nanoparticles and copper(II)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions and copper ion sorption. In this study, the cytotoxic activities of the chitosan nanoparticles and copper(II)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was investigated and a relationship between physiochemical properties and activity is suggested. The chitosan nanoparticles and copper(II)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles elicited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on

Lifeng Qi; Zirong Xu; Xia Jiang; Yan Li; Minqi Wang

2005-01-01

233

Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Background: Synthetic nanoparticles are emerging as versatile tools in biomedical applications, particularly in the area of biomedical imaging. Nanoparticles 1 to 100 nm in diameter possess dimensions comparable to biological functional units. Diverse surface chemistries, unique magnetic properties, tunable absorption and emission properties, and recent advances in the synthesis and engineering of various nanoparticles suggest their potential as probes for early detection of diseases such as cancer. Surface functionalization has further expanded the potential of nanoparticles as probes for molecular imaging. Objective: To summarize emerging research of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with increased selectivity and reduced non-specific uptake with increased spatial resolution containing stabilizers conjugated with targeting ligands. Methods: This review summarizes recent technological advances in the synthesis of various nanoparticle probes, and surveys methods to improve the targeting of nanoparticles for their applications in biomedical imaging. Conclusion: Structural design of nanomaterials for biomedical imaging continues to expand and diversify. Synthetic methods have aimed to control the size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles to control distribution, half-life and elimination. Although molecular imaging applications using nanoparticles are advancing into clinical applications, challenges such as storage stability and long-term toxicology should continue to be addressed. Keywords: nanoparticle synthesis, surface modification, targeting, molecular imaging, and biomedical imaging.

Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Lin, Ying-Ying; Forrest, Laird M.; Berkland, Cory J.

2009-11-01

234

Influence of ferrite nanoparticle type and content on the crystallization kinetics and electroactive phase nucleation of poly(vinylidene fluoride).  

PubMed

This work reports on the nucleation of the ?-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by incorporating CoFe(2)O(4) and NiFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles, leading in this way to the preparation of magnetoelectric composites. The fraction of filler nanoparticles needed to produce the same ?- to ?-phase ratio in crystallized PVDF is 1 order of magnitude lower in the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The interaction between nanoparticles and PVDF chains induce the all-trans conformation in PVDF segments, and this structure then propagates in crystal growth. The nucleation kinetics is enhanced by the presence of nanoparticles, as corroborated by the increasing number of spherulites with increasing nanoparticle content and by the variations of the Avrami's exponent. Further, the decrease of the crystalline fraction of PVDF with increasing nanoparticle content indicates that an important fraction of polymer chains are confined in interphases with the filler particle. PMID:21545124

Sencadas, Vitor; Martins, Pedro; Pit綣s, Alexandre; Benelmekki, Maria; G鏔ez Ribelles, Jos Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

2011-06-01

235

Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles retain self-assembled nanostructures and provide high specificity.  

PubMed

Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles were demonstrated to have high affinity for an EGFR target in a ligand binding assay. PMID:25516406

Zhai, Jiali; Scoble, Judith A; Li, Nan; Lovrecz, George; Waddington, Lynne J; Tran, Nhiem; Muir, Benjamin W; Coia, Gregory; Kirby, Nigel; Drummond, Calum J; Mulet, Xavier

2015-02-01

236

Imparting functionality to a metal-organic framework material by controlled nanoparticle encapsulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that display permanent porosity show great promise for a myriad of purposes. The potential applications of MOFs can be developed further and extended by encapsulating various functional species (for example, nanoparticles) within the frameworks. However, despite increasing numbers of reports of nanoparticle/MOF composites, simultaneously to control the size, composition, dispersed nature, spatial distribution and confinement of the incorporated nanoparticles within MOF matrices remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a controlled encapsulation strategy that enables surfactant-capped nanostructured objects of various sizes, shapes and compositions to be enshrouded by a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8). The incorporated nanoparticles are well dispersed and fully confined within the ZIF-8 crystals. This strategy also allows the controlled incorporation of multiple nanoparticles within each ZIF-8 crystallite. The as-prepared nanoparticle/ZIF-8 composites exhibit active (catalytic, magnetic and optical) properties that derive from the nanoparticles as well as molecular sieving and orientation effects that originate from the framework material.

Lu, Guang; Li, Shaozhou; Guo, Zhen; Farha, Omar K.; Hauser, Brad G.; Qi, Xiaoying; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xin; Han, Sanyang; Liu, Xiaogang; Duchene, Joseph S.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Qichun; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Jan; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Wei, Wei D.; Yang, Yanhui; Hupp, Joseph T.; Huo, Fengwei

2012-04-01

237

Thermosensitive Gold Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology has experienced a rapid growth recently because nanoparticles exhibit physical and chemical properties that are quite different from those of the bulk solid. Typically, an organic layer comprised of a surfactant or a polymer is anchored at the interface to both localize the nanoparticle and stabilize its properties. Of particular interest is the conjugation of gold nanoparticles with functional macromolecules such as saccharide and oligo deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The combination of organic functionality coupled with the dielectric properties of gold nanoparticles has resulted in a new material that provides for sensitive colorimetric detection of polynucleotides. We report here the introduction of thermosensitive polymers onto Au nanoparticles so that the polymer-bound gold nanoparticles now become responsive to temperature.

Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Li, Alexander D.

2004-03-10

238

Microwave-induced synthesis of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles within the pore channels of mesoporous silica  

SciTech Connect

Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles have been incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15 mesoporous silica through a newly developed strategy assisted by microwave radiation (MR). The sizes of gold are effectively controlled attributed to the rapid and homogeneous nucleation, simultaneous propagation and termination of gold precursor by MR. Diol moieties with high dielectric and dielectric loss constants, and hence a high microwave activation, were firstly introduced to the pore channels of SBA-15 by a simple addition reaction between amino group and glycidiol and subsequently served as the reduction centers for gold nanoparticles. Extraction of the entrapped gold from the nanocomposite resulted in milligram quantities of gold nanoparticles with low dispersity. The successful assembly process of diol groups and formation of gold nanoparticles were monitored and tracked by solid-state NMR and UV-vis measurements. Characterization by small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the incorporation of gold nanoparticles would not breakup the structural integrity and long-range periodicity of SBA-15. The gold nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution with diameters in the size range of 5-10 nm through TEM observation. The average particles size is 7.9 nm via calculation by the Scherrer formula and TEM measurements. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms gave further evidence that the employed method was efficient and gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15. - Graphical abstract: A facile and novel strategy has been developed to incorporate gold nanoparticles into the pore channels of mesoporous SBA-15 assisted by microwave radiation (MR) with mild reaction condition and rapid reaction speed. Due to the rapid and homogeneous nucleation, simultaneous propagation and termination by MR, the size of gold nanoparticles are effectively controlled.

Gu Jinlou; Fan Wei; Shimojima, Atsushi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Okubo, Tatsuya [Department of Chemical System Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: okubo@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

2008-04-15

239

Gold Nanoparticles and Drug Delivery.  

E-print Network

??Nanoparticles are important tools in biotechnology and biomedical research. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have emerged as a particularly important class of nanobiotechnological tools as a result (more)

Solfiell, David J

2014-01-01

240

Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells.  

PubMed

When developing new nanoparticles for bio-applications, it is important to fully characterize the nanoparticle's behavior in biological systems. The most common techniques employed for mapping nanoparticles inside cells include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). These techniques entail passing an electron beam through a thin specimen. STEM or TEM imaging is often used for the detection of nanoparticles inside cellular organelles. However, lengthy sample preparation is required (i.e., fixation, dehydration, drying, resin embedding, and cutting). In the present work, a new matrix (FTO glass) for biological samples was used and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to generate images comparable to those obtained by TEM. Using FE-SEM, nanoparticle images were acquired inside endo/lysosomes without disruption of the cellular shape. Furthermore, the initial steps of nanoparticle incorporation into the cells were captured. In addition, the conductive FTO glass endowed the sample with high stability under the required accelerating voltage. Owing to these features of the sample, further analyses could be performed (material contrast and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)), which confirmed the presence of nanoparticles inside the cells. The results showed that FE-SEM can enable detailed characterization of nanoparticles in endosomes without the need for contrast staining or metal coating of the sample. Images showing the intracellular distribution of nanoparticles together with cellular morphology can give important information on the biocompatibility and demonstrate the potential of nanoparticle utilization in medicine. PMID:25173605

Havrdova, M; Polakova, K; Skopalik, J; Vujtek, M; Mokdad, A; Homolkova, M; Tucek, J; Nebesarova, J; Zboril, R

2014-12-01

241

Uranyl incorporation in natural calcite.  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of trace amounts of uranyl in natural calcite has posed a long-standing problem in crystal chemistry because of speculation that the size and shape of the uranyl ion may preclude its incorporation in a stable lattice position in calcite. This also defines an important environmental problem because of its bearing on the transport and sequestration of uranyl released from nuclear facilities and uranium mining operations. Calcite is a nearly ubiquitous mineral in soils and groundwater aquifers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence microprobe studies of uranium in relatively U-rich {approx}13700-year-old calcite from a speleothem in northernmost Italy indicate substitution of uranyl for a calcium and two adjacent carbonate ions in calcite. These new data imply that uranyl has a stable lattice position in natural calcite, indicating that it may be reliably sequestered in calcite over long time scales.

Kelly, S. D.; Newville, M. G.; Cheng, L.; Kemner, K. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Fenter, P.; Sturchio, N. C.; Spotl, C.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Illiois at Chicago; Univ. of Innsbruck

2003-01-01

242

Incorporation of heparin into biomaterials.  

PubMed

This review provides an overview of the incorporation of heparin into biomaterials with a focus on drug delivery and the use of heparin-based biomaterials for self-assembly of polymer networks. Heparin conjugation to biomaterials was originally explored to reduce the thrombogenicity of materials in contact with blood. Many of the conjugation strategies that were developed for these applications are still popular today for other applications. More recently heparin has been conjugated to biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Many of the delivery approaches have taken advantage of the ability of heparin to bind to a wide variety of growth factors, protecting them from degradation and potentiating interactions with cell surface receptors. More recently, the use of heparin as a base polymer for scaffold fabrication has also been explored, often utilizing non-covalent binding of heparin with peptides or proteins to promote self-assembly of hydrogel networks. This review will highlight recent advances in each of these areas. PMID:24021232

Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

2014-04-01

243

Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams

244

Stimulus responsive nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

245

Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticle system research and characterization is the focal point of this research and dissertation. In the research presented here, magnetite, cobalt, and ferrite nanoparticle systems have been explored in regard to their magnetocaloric effect (MCE) properties, as well as for use in polymer composites. Both areas of study have potential applications across a wide variety of interdisciplinary fields.\\u000aMagnetite nanoparticles

James Gass

2012-01-01

246

Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic nanoparticles are emerging as versatile tools in biomedical applications, particularly in the area of biomedical imaging. Nanoparticles 1 100 nm in diameter have dimensions comparable to biological functional units. Diverse surface chemistries, unique magnetic properties, tunable absorption and emission properties, and recent advances in the synthesis and engineering of various nanoparticles suggest their potential as probes for early detection of diseases such as cancer. Surface functionalization has expanded further the potential of nanoparticles as probes for molecular imaging. Objective To summarize emerging research of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with increased selectivity and reduced nonspecific uptake with increased spatial resolution containing stabilizers conjugated with targeting ligands. Methods This review summarizes recent technological advances in the synthesis of various nanoparticle probes, and surveys methods to improve the targeting of nanoparticles for their application in biomedical imaging. Conclusion Structural design of nanomaterials for biomedical imaging continues to expand and diversify. Synthetic methods have aimed to control the size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles to control distribution, half-life and elimination. Although molecular imaging applications using nanoparticles are advancing into clinical applications, challenges such as storage stability and long-term toxicology should continue to be addressed. PMID:19743894

Nune, Satish K; Gunda, Padmaja; Thallapally, Praveen K; Lin, Ying-Ying; Forrest, M Laird; Berkland, Cory J

2011-01-01

247

Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are

Ktejik, Mish

2013-01-01

248

Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modalitymagnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field. PMID:20593005

Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

2010-01-01

249

Tracer-incorporated X-ray imaging of biofluid flow phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-traced X-ray imaging technologies have been developed by combining the merits of the X-ray radiography and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The developed X-ray imaging technology has strong potential in the noninvasive analysis of various flows such as non-transparent fluid flows or fluids flowing in opaque conduits. In this study, tracer-incorporated X-ray imaging technology was developed. In addition, new- concepted tracer particles were designed for in vitro and in vivo X-ray imaging analysis of various biofluids. As tracer particles in X-ray image, X-ray contrast enhancer Iopamidol was encapsulated into bio-compatible polymeric chitosan microparticles and gold nanoparticles with high X-ray absorption efficiency were directly incorporated into cells. The Iopamidol-incorporated polymeric microparticles were successfully applied for in vivo blood flow measurement in a rat. The gold nanoparticles were selectively incorporated into cancer cells, by which cancer cells can be detected in situ. The developed X-ray imaging technology would have a great potential in biomedical applications such as in situ analysis of blood flow and cancer detection.

Jung, Sung Yong; Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon

2011-11-01

250

Paramagnetic Liposome Nanoparticles for Cellular and Tumour Imaging  

PubMed Central

In this review we discuss the development of paramagnetic liposomes incorporating MRI contrast agents and show how these are utilized in cellular imaging in vitro. Bi-functional, bi-modal imaging paramagnetic liposome systems are also described. Next we discuss the upgrading of paramagnetic liposomes into bi-modal imaging neutral nanoparticles for in vivo imaging applications. We discuss the development of such systems and show how paramagnetic liposomes and imaging nanoparticles could be developed as platforms for future multi-functional, multi-modal imaging theranostic nanodevices tailor-made for the combined imaging of early stage disease pathology and functional drug delivery. PMID:20480040

Kamaly, Nazila; Miller, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

251

Tea-bag-like polymer nanoreactors filled with gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Gold-containing polymer nanotubes, which showed both catalytic activity and resistance to leaching, were prepared by the "tubes by fiber templates" (TUFT) process. For this purpose, electrospun polymer nonwovens with incorporated poly(L-lactide)-stabilized gold nanoparticles were coated with poly(p-xylylene) by the chemical vapor deposition process, and then the inner fiber templates were removed. The resulting polymer tubes carried encapsulated gold nanoparticles which were shown to be immobilized and featured pronounced catalytic activity towards the hydrolytic oxidation of dimethylphenylsilane and the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol. The macroscopic nonwovens could be used as tea-bag-like catalyst systems and showed excellent reusability. PMID:24700456

Mitschang, Fabian; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

2014-05-01

252

A comprehensive review of the application of chalcogenide nanoparticles in polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review the use of solution-processed chalcogenide quantum dots (CdS, CdSe, PbS, etc.) in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells is explored. Such devices are known as potential candidates for low-cost and efficient solar energy conversion, and compose the so-called third generation solar cells. The incorporation of oxides and metal nanoparticles has also been successfully achieved in this new class of photovoltaic devices; however, we choose to explore here chalcogenide quantum dots in light of their particularly attractive optical and electronic properties. We address herein a comprehensive review of the historical background and state-of-the-art comprising the incorporation of such nanoparticles in polymer matrices. Later strategies for surface chemistry manipulation, in situ synthesis of nanoparticles, use of continuous 3D nanoparticles network (aerogels) and ternary systems are also reviewed.

Freitas, Jilian N.; Gon蓷lves, Agnaldo S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

2014-05-01

253

Biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this manuscript encompasses a merger of two research directions: a study of aqueous nanoparticle colloids and a study of biological polyelectrolytes. The majority of biomedical applications of nanoparticles require stable aqueous colloids of nanoparticles as a starting point. A new one-step method of preparation of aqueous solutions of ultra-fine ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles was developed and generalized to the preparation of stable aqueous colloids of semiconductor nanoparticles. This high-energy ball milling technique is low cost, environmentally friendly, and allows for control of nanoparticle size by changing milling time. Aqueous colloids of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are stable over time, maintain ferroelectricity and can be used as second harmonic generating nanoprobes for biomedical imaging. Biopolyelectrolytes exhibit a variety of novel liquid-crystalline phases in aqueous solutions where their electrolytic nature is a driving force behind phase formation. We study medically relevant mixtures of F-actin, DNA and oppositely charged ions (such as multivalent salts and antibiotic drugs) and map out phase diagrams and laws that govern phase transitions. We combine these research directions in studies of the condensation behavior in aqueous solutions of biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes.

Zribi, Olena

254

Gas Phase Nanoparticle Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on two gas phase nanoparticle integration processes to assemble nanomaterials onto desired areas on a substrate. We expect these processes to work with any material that can be charged. The processes offer self- aligned integration and could be applied to any nanomaterial device requiring site specific assembly. The Coulomb force process directs the assembly of nanoparticles onto charged

Chad R. Barry; Heiko O. Jacobs

2007-01-01

255

Optical sensor for nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate a method for the detection of nanoparticles in order to reduce the risk associated with their toxicity, by taking into account the electromagnetic characteristics and the chemical analysis of the surface of a hybrid silicon photonic microresonator. Device sensing capabilities, both optical and chemical, are optimized in order to detect and size the nanoparticle. Thus,

Caterina Ciminelli; Clarissa M. Campanella; Rosa Pilolli; Nicola Cioffi; Mario N. Armenise

2011-01-01

256

Targeting nanoparticles to cancer.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology applications in medicine, termed as nanomedicine, have introduced a number of nanoparticles of variable chemistry and architecture for cancer imaging and treatment. Nanotechnology involves engineering multifunctional devices with dimensions at the nanoscale, similar dimensions as those of large biological vesicles or molecules in our body. These devices typically have features just tens to hundred nanometers across and they can carry one or two detection signals and/or therapeutic cargo(s). One unique class of nanoparticles is designed to do both, providing this way the theragnostic nanoparticles (therapy and diagnosis). Being inspired by physiologically existing nanomachines, nanoparticles are designed to safely reach their target and specifically release their cargo at the site of the disease, this way increasing the drug's tissue bioavailability. Nanoparticles have the advantage of targeting cancer by simply being accumulated and entrapped in tumours (passive targeting). The phenomenon is called the enhanced permeation and retention effect, caused by leaky angiogenetic vessels and poor lymphatic drainage and has been used to explain why macromolecules and nanoparticles are found at higher ratios in tumours compared to normal tissues. Although accumulation in tumours is observed cell uptake and intracellular drug release have been questioned. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) is used to protect the nanoparticles from the Reticulo-Endothelial System (RES), however, it prevents cell uptake and the required intracellular drug release. Grafting biorecognition molecules (ligands) onto the nanoparticles refers to active targeting and aims to increase specific cell uptake. Nanoparticles bearing these ligands are recognised by cell surface receptors and this leads to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several materials are suggested for the design of nanoparticles for cancer. Polymers, linear and dendrimers, are associated with the drug in a covalent or non-covalent way and have been used with or without a targeting ligand. Stealth liposomes are suggested to carry the drug in the aqueous core, and they are usually decorated by recognition molecules, being widely studied and applied. Inorganic nanoparticles such as gold and iron oxide are usually coupled to the drug, PEG and the targeting ligand. It appears that the PEG coating and ligand decoration are common constituents in most types of nanoparticles for cancer. There are several examples of successful cancer diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles and many of them have rapidly moved to clinical trials. Nevertheless there is still a room for optimisation in the area of the nanoparticle kinetics such as improving their plasma circulation and tumour bioavailability and understanding the effect of targeting ligands on their efficiency to treat cancer. The need to develop novel and efficient ligands has never been greater, and the use of proper conjugation chemistry is mandatory. PMID:20380880

Wang, M; Thanou, M

2010-08-01

257

Sustained release of 5-fluorouracil from polymeric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The use of biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with 5-fluorouracil was investigated as a potential means to sustain the release of this drug. Nanoparticles prepared from four biodegradable polymers were loaded with 5-fluorouracil using three loading concentrations of drug and three different concentrations of added polymer. Washing particles using a centrifugation/re-suspension with ultrasound protocol was found to dislodge the majority of drug, resulting in an over-estimation of incorporation efficiency and low levels of strongly entrapped drug. Increasing the initial 5-fluorouracil concentration before polymer/monomer addition increased the drug loading in both washed and unwashed particles. Increasing the amount of polymer used to make nanoparticles did not increase loadings, but did produce increased amounts of unusable polymer waste. Drug release from nanoparticles was evaluated using a Franz cell diffusion apparatus, which showed an initial burst effect followed by a slower release phase over 24 h. Indeed, nanoparticles prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) released 66% of their 5-fluorouracil payload over this period. It was concluded that 5-fluorouracil-loaded nanoparticles could be readily included into a hydrogel-based delivery system to provide sustained drug release for trans-epithelial drug-delivery applications. PMID:11197072

McCarron, P A; Woolfson, A D; Keating, S M

2000-12-01

258

Ultrasmall lanthanide-doped nanoparticles as multimodal platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been a great amount of interest in nanoparticles which are able to provide a platform with high contrast for multiple imaging modalities in order to advance the tools available to biomedical researchers and physicians. However, many nanoparticles do not have ideal properties to provide high contrast in different imaging modes. In order to address this, ultrasmall lanthanide doped oxide and fluoride nanoparticles with strong NIR to NIR upconversion fluorescence and a strong magnetic response for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed. Specifically, these nanoparticles incorporate gadolinium, dysprosium, or a combination of both into the nano-crystalline host to achieve the magnetic properties. Thulium, erbium, and neodymium codopants provide the strong NIR absorption and emission lines that allow for deeper tissue imaging since near infrared light is not strongly absorbed or scattered by most tissues within this region. This also leads to better image quality and lower necessary excitation intensities. As a part of the one pot synthesis, these nanoparticles are coated with peg, pmao, or d-glucuronic acid to make them water soluble, biocompatible, and bioconjugable due to the available carboxyl or amine groups. Here, the synthesis, morphological characterization, magnetic response, NIR emission, and the quantum yield will be discussed. Cytotoxicity tested through cell viability at varying concentrations of nanoparticles in growth media will also be discussed.

Yust, Brian G.; Pedraza, Francisco J.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

2014-03-01

259

Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle system research and characterization is the focal point of this research and dissertation. In the research presented here, magnetite, cobalt, and ferrite nanoparticle systems have been explored in regard to their magnetocaloric effect (MCE) properties, as well as for use in polymer composites. Both areas of study have potential applications across a wide variety of interdisciplinary fields. Magnetite nanoparticles have been successfully dispersed in a polymer. The surface chemistry of the magnetic nanoparticle proves critical to obtaining a homogenous and well separated high density dispersion in PMMA. Theoretical studies found in the literature have indicated that surface interface energy is a critical component in dispersion. Oleic acid is used to alter the surface of magnetite nanoparticles and successfully achieve good dispersion in a PMMA thin film. Polypyrrole is then coated onto the PMMA composite layer. The bilayer is characterized using cross-sectional TEM, cross-sectional SEM, magnetic characterization, and low frequency conductivity. The results show that the superparmagnetic properties of the as synthesized particles are maintained in the composite. With further study of the properties of these nanoparticles for real and functional uses, MCE is studied on a variety of magnetic nanoparticle systems. Magnetite, manganese zinc ferrite, and cobalt ferrite systems show significant broadening of the MCE and the ability to tune the peak temperature of MCE by varying the size of the nanoparticles. Four distinct systems are studied including cobalt, cobalt core silver shell nanoparticles, nickel ferrite, and ball milled zinc ferrite. The results demonstrate the importance of surface characteristics on MCE. Surface spin disorder appears to have a large influence on the low temperature magnetic and magnetocalorie characteristics of these nanoparticle systems.

Gass, James

260

Shear thinning of nanoparticle suspensions.  

SciTech Connect

Results of large scale non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations are presented for nanoparticles in an explicit solvent. The nanoparticles are modeled as a uniform distribution of Lennard-Jones particles, while the solvent is represented by standard Lennard-Jones particles. Here we present results for the shear rheology of spherical nanoparticles of size 5 to 20 times that of the solvent for a range of nanoparticle volume fractions and interactions. Results from NEMD simulations suggest that for strongly interacting nanoparticle that form a colloidal gel, the shear rheology of the suspension depends only weakly on the size of the nanoparticle, even for nanoparticles as small as 5 times that of the solvent. However for hard sphere-like colloids the size of the nanoparticles strongly affects the shear rheology. The shear rheology for dumbbell nanoparticles made of two fused spheres is also compared to spherical nanoparticles and found to be similar except at very high volume fractions.

Grest, Gary Stephen; Petersen, Matthew K.; in't Veld, Pieter J. (Polymer Research, Ludwigshafen, Germany)

2008-08-01

261

Hydroxycamptothecin-loaded nanoparticles enhance target drug delivery and anticancer effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) has been shown to have activity against a broad spectrum of cancers. In order to enhance its tissue-specific delivery and anticancer activity, we prepared HCPT-loaded nanoparticles made from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PEG-PBLG), and then studied their release characteristics, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and anticancer effects. PEG-PBLG nanoparticles incorporating HCPT were prepared by a dialysis method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was

Anxun Wang; Su Li

2008-01-01

262

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermatological preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were developed at the beginning of the 1990s as an alternative carrier system to emulsions, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. The paper reviews advantagesalso potential limitationsof SLN for the use in topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Features discussed include stabilisation of incorporated compounds, controlled release, occlusivity, film formation on skin including in vivo effects on the skin.

R. H. Mller; M. Radtke; S. A. Wissing

2002-01-01

263

Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome bo3 Oxidase at a series of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Electrodes  

PubMed Central

New membrane-protein based electrodes were prepared incorporating cytochrome bo3 from E. coli and gold nanoparticles. Direct electron transfer between the electrode and the immobilized enzymes was achieved, resulting in an electrocatalytic activity in presence of O2. The size of the gold nanoparticles was shown to be important and smaller particles were shown to reduce the overpotential of the process. PMID:23335854

Melin, Frederic; Meyer, Thomas; Lankiang, Styven; Choi, Sylvia K.; Gennis, Robert B; Blanck, Christian; Schmutz, Marc; Hellwig, Petra

2012-01-01

264

Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome bo Oxidase at a series of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Electrodes.  

PubMed

New membrane-protein based electrodes were prepared incorporating cytochrome bo(3) from E. coli and gold nanoparticles. Direct electron transfer between the electrode and the immobilized enzymes was achieved, resulting in an electrocatalytic activity in presence of O(2). The size of the gold nanoparticles was shown to be important and smaller particles were shown to reduce the overpotential of the process. PMID:23335854

Melin, Frederic; Meyer, Thomas; Lankiang, Styven; Choi, Sylvia K; Gennis, Robert B; Blanck, Christian; Schmutz, Marc; Hellwig, Petra

2013-01-01

265

Efficiency enhancement in DSSC using metal nanoparticles: A size dependent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoelectrode of Eosin-Y sensitised DSSC was modified by incorporating Au-nanoparticles to enhance the power conversion efficiency via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons. Size dependence of Au nanoparticle on conversion efficiency was performed in DSSC for the first time by varying the particle size from 20 to 94nm. It was found that, the conversion efficiency is highly dependent on the

K. G. Deepa; P. Lekha; S. Sindhu

266

Novel ionically crosslinked casein nanoparticles for flutamide delivery: formulation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

A novel particulate delivery matrix based on ionically crosslinked casein (CAS) nanoparticles was developed for controlled release of the poorly soluble anticancer drug flutamide (FLT). Nanoparticles were fabricated via oil-in-water emulsification then stabilized by ionic crosslinking of the positively charged CAS molecules below their isoelectric point, with the polyanionic crosslinker sodium tripolyphosphate. With the optimal preparation conditions, the drug loading and incorporation efficiency achieved were 8.73% and 64.55%, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with a size below 100 nm and a positive zeta potential (+7.54 to +17.3 mV). FLT was molecularly dispersed inside the nanoparticle protein matrix, as revealed by thermal analysis. The biodegradability of CAS nanoparticles in trypsin solution could be easily modulated by varying the sodium tripolyphosphate crosslinking density. A sustained release of FLT from CAS nanoparticles for up to 4 days was observed, depending on the crosslinking density. After intravenous administration of FLT-CAS nanoparticles into rats, CAS nanoparticles exhibited a longer circulation time and a markedly delayed blood clearance of FLT, with the half-life of FLT extended from 0.88 hours to 14.64 hours, compared with drug cosolvent. The results offer a promising method for tailoring biodegradable, drug-loaded CAS nanoparticles as controlled, long-circulating drug delivery systems of hydrophobic anticancer drugs in aqueous vehicles. PMID:23658490

Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Helmy, Maged W; Samy, Wael M; Elgindy, Nazik A

2013-01-01

267

Effect of Gold Nanoparticle on Structure and Fluidity of Lipid Membrane  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the effect of different size gold nanoparticles on the fluidity of lipid membrane at different regions of the bilayer. To investigate this, we have considered significantly large bilayer leaflets and incorporated only one nanoparticle each time, which was subjected to all atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We have observed that, lipid molecules located near to the gold nanoparticle interact directly with it, which results in deformation of lipid structure and slower dynamics of lipid molecules. However, lipid molecules far away from the interaction site of the nanoparticle get perturbed, which gives rise to increase in local ordering of the lipid domains and decrease in fluidity. The bilayer thickness and area per head group in this region also get altered. Similar trend, but with different magnitude is also observed when different size nanoparticle interact with the bilayer. PMID:25469786

Mhashal, Anil R.; Roy, Sudip

2014-01-01

268

Nanoparticle-Based Systems for T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents  

PubMed Central

Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents play a vital role in diagnosing diseases, demand for new MRI contrast agents, with an enhanced sensitivity and advanced functionalities, is very high. During the past decade, various inorganic nanoparticles have been used as MRI contrast agents due to their unique properties, such as large surface area, easy surface functionalization, excellent contrasting effect, and other size-dependent properties. This review provides an overview of recent progress in the development of nanoparticle-based T1-weighted MRI contrast agents. The chemical synthesis of the nanoparticle-based contrast agents and their potential applications were discussed and summarized. In addition, the recent development in nanoparticle-based multimodal contrast agents including T1-weighted MRI/computed X-ray tomography (CT) and T1-weighted MRI/optical were also described, since nanoparticles may curtail the shortcomings of single mode contrast agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. PMID:23698781

Zhu, Derong; Liu, Fuyao; Ma, Lina; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

2013-01-01

269

Nanoparticle flotation collectors II: the role of nanoparticle hydrophobicity.  

PubMed

The ability of polystyrene nanoparticles to facilitate the froth flotation of glass beads was correlated to the hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles. Contact angle measurements were used to probe the hydrophobicity of hydrophilic glass surfaces decorated with hydrophobic nanoparticles. Both sessile water drop advancing angles, ?(a), and attached air bubble receding angle measurements, ?(r), were performed. For glass surfaces saturated with adsorbed nanoparticles, flotation recovery, a measure of flotation efficiency, increased with increasing values of each type of contact angle. As expected, the advancing water contact angle on nanoparticle-decorated, dry glass surfaces increased with surface coverage, the area fraction of glass covered with nanoparticles. However, the nanoparticles were far more effective at raising the contact angle than the Cassie-Baxter prediction, suggesting that with higher nanoparticle coverages the water did not completely wet the glass surfaces between the nanoparticles. A series of polystyrene nanoparticles was prepared to cover a range of surface energies. Water contact angle measurements, ?(np), on smooth polymer films formed from organic solutions of dissolved nanoparticles were used to rank the nanoparticles in terms of hydrophobicity. Glass spheres were saturated with adsorbed nanoparticles and were isolated by flotation. The minimum nanoparticle water contact angle to give high flotation recovery was in the range of 51 < ?(np(min)) ? 85. PMID:21830818

Yang, Songtao; Pelton, Robert

2011-09-20

270

Photoluminescence spectroscopy and lifetime measurements from self-assembled semiconductor-metal nanoparticle hybrid arrays.  

SciTech Connect

We present results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and lifetime measurements on thin film hybrid arrays of semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles embedded in a block copolymer template. The intensity of emission as well as the measured lifetime would be controlled by varying the volume fraction and location of gold nanoparticles in the matrix. We demonstrate the ability to both enhance and quench the luminescence in the hybrids as compared to the quantum dot array films while simultaneously engineering large reduction in luminescence lifetime with incorporation of gold nanoparticles.

Haridas, M.; Basue, J. K.; Gosztola, D. J.; Wiederrecht, G. P. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Indian Inst. of Science)

2010-08-23

271

Facile one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilized with bifunctional amino/siloxy ligands  

SciTech Connect

A method for the direct one-pot synthesis of amine-stabilized gold nanoparticles using 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TMSP dien) is described. The amine groups of this bifunctional molecule act as a stabilizer for gold nanoparticles as they form by reduction of HAuCl{sub 4}. Highly stable gold nanoparticles with sizes tunable between 8 and 20 nm can be readily obtained. This method is quite simple to implement and environmentally benign as there is no need to add an external reducing reagent. The incorporated siloxy functionality was subsequently used to form a silica shell around the gold particle.

Zhu, Haoguo [ORNL; Pan, Zhengwei [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2005-01-01

272

Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks  

PubMed Central

Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 ? /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

2014-01-01

273

Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 ? /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%.

Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

2014-03-01

274

Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks.  

PubMed

Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 ? /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

2014-01-01

275

Electrodeposition and characterization of Pd nanoparticles doped amorphous hydrogenated carbon films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium (0) nanoparticles incorporated hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Pd/a-C:H) films were synthesized on single crystal silicon (100) substrates by electrochemical deposition route using methanol and camphor as carbon source, and Pd nanoparticles as dopant. The characterization results indicate that Pd nanocrystalline particles with diameter in the range of 1-5 nm dispersed in the amorphous carbon matrix. Compared with pure a-C:H films, the introduction of Pd nanoparticles didn't change the structure of carbon films. At the end, the growth mechanism of the Pd/a-C:H composite films was discussed.

Yu, Yuanlie; Zhang, Junyan

2009-11-01

276

Fabrication, Modeling and Characterization of Multi-Crosslinked Methacrylate Copolymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.843.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. PMID:22016653

Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; du Toit, Lisa C.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M.K.; Khan, Riaz A.

2011-01-01

277

Highly quasi-monodisperse ag nanoparticles on titania nanotubes by impregnative aqueous ion exchange.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were homogenously dispersed on titania nanotubes (NT), which were prepared by alkali hydrothermal methodology and dried at 373 K. Ag(+) incorporation was done by impregnative ion exchange of aqueous silver nitrate onto NT. First, Ag(+) ions incorporate into the layers of nanotube walls, and then, upon heat treatment under N(2) at 573 and 673 K, they migrate and change into Ag(2)O and Ag(0) nanoparticles, respectively. In both cases, Ag nanoparticles are highly dispersed, decorating the nanotubes in a polka-dot pattern. The Ag particle size distribution is very narrow, being ca. 4 +/- 2 nm without any observable agglomeration. The reduction of Ag(2)O into Ag(0) octahedral nanoparticles occurs spontaneously and topotactically when annealing, without the aid of any reducing agent. The population of Ag(0) nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. An electron charge transfer from NT support to Ag(0) nanoparticles, because of a strong interaction, is responsible for considerable visible light absorption in Ag(0) nanoparticles supported on NT. PMID:19485374

Toledo-Antonio, J A; Cortes-J塶ome, M A; Angeles-Chavez, C; L鏕ez-Salinas, E; Quintana, P

2009-09-01

278

Preparation and characterizations of silver incorporated polyurethane composite nanofibers via electrospinning for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

We report on the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PU) nanofibers containing silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by using electrospinning. Two different approaches were adopted to incorporate the Ag nanoparticles in to PU nanofibers. In the first approach, a homogeneous solution of 10 wt% PU containing silver nitrate was electrospun to obtain PU-Ag composite nanofibers. And in the second approach, the pristine PU nanofibers were initially electrospun and then Ag nanoparticles were coated via wet casting method. The surface morphology, structure, bonding configuration, optical and thermal properties of the resultant products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The antibacterial activity was tested against four common food borne pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Our results demonstrated that no bactericidal activity was detected for the pristine PU nanofibers. Further on, antibacterial activity was observed to be more pronounced for the composite nanofibers which were attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles in the composite nanofibers. Overall, this study demonstrates the fabrication of cheap, stable and effective nanofiber mats with excellent antimicrobial activity that can be utilized to inhibit the microbial growth associated with food stuff. PMID:23901491

Nirmala, R; Kalpana, Duraisamy; Navamathavan, R; Lee, Yang Soo; Kim, Hak Yong

2013-07-01

279

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of silver nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. Silver nanoparticles are used in the creation of yellow stained glass in churches around the country, an interesting, but little known fact. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

Johnson, Chris

280

Hygroscopicity and Volatility of Diesel Nanoparticles Studied by Nano TDMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently built a "Nano" Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer that incorporates two TSI Model 3085 DMAs in series to study processes that lead to changes in size for particles in the 4-50 nm diameter range. In this paper we report on measurements of the hygroscopicity and volatility of laboratory aerosols and of diesel exhaust. For hygroscopicity measurements, particles which were size-selected by DMA1 in dry air were exposed to a high relative humidity (>85%), and the final size after water uptake was measured by DMA2. In the study of the diesel nanoparticles, we found smaller nanoparticles are more hygroscopic; the growth factor was about 4-5% at 5 nm while it was 1% at 30 nm. To study the volatility, particles were passed through a heated tube after DMA1. We studied laboratory aerosols of known composition, and the results were used to infer the vapor pressure of the diesel nanoparticles.

Sakurai, H.; Park, K.; Kittelson, D. B.; Ziemann, P. J.; McMurry, P. H.

2001-12-01

281

Importance of the DNA "bond" in programmable nanoparticle crystallization.  

PubMed

If a solution of DNA-coated nanoparticles is allowed to crystallize, the thermodynamic structure can be predicted by a set of structural design rules analogous to Pauling's rules for ionic crystallization. The details of the crystallization process, however, have proved more difficult to characterize as they depend on a complex interplay of many factors. Here, we report that this crystallization process is dictated by the individual DNA bonds and that the effect of changing structural or environmental conditions can be understood by considering the effect of these parameters on free oligonucleotides. Specifically, we observed the reorganization of nanoparticle superlattices using time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering in systems with different DNA sequences, salt concentrations, and densities of DNA linkers on the surface of the nanoparticles. The agreement between bulk crystallization and the behavior of free oligonucleotides may bear important consequences for constructing novel classes of crystals and incorporating new interparticle bonds in a rational manner. PMID:25298535

Macfarlane, Robert J; Thaner, Ryan V; Brown, Keith A; Zhang, Jian; Lee, Byeongdu; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-10-21

282

Poly(amino acid) functionalized maghemite and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimodal MRI/OI imaging probes are of great interest in nanomedicine. Although many organic polymers have been studied thoroughly for in vivo applications, reports on the use of poly(amino acid)s as coating polymers are scarce. In this paper, poly-(d-glutamic acid, d-lysine) (PGL) has been used for coating maghemite and gold nanoparticles. An advantage of this flexible and biocompatible polymer is that, once anchored to the nanoparticle surface, dangling lysine amino groups are available for the incorporation of new functionalities. As an example, Alexa Fluor derivatives have been attached to PGL-coated maghemite nanoparticles to obtain magnetic/fluorescent materials. These dual-property materials could be used as bimodal MRI/OI probes for in vivo imaging.

Perego, Davide; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Dom璯guez-Vera, Jos Manuel; G嫮vez, Natividad

2013-02-01

283

Electrosprayed nanoparticles for drug delivery and pharmaceutical applications  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology based Pharma has emerged significantly and has influenced the Pharma industry up to a considerable extent. Nanoparticles technology holds a good share of the nanotech Pharma and is significant in comparison with the other domains. Electrospraying technology answers the potential needs of nanoparticle production such as scalability, reproducibility, effective encapsulation etc. Many drugs have been electrosprayed with and without polymer carriers. Drug release characteristics are improved with the incorporation of biodegradable polymer carriers which sustain the release of encapsulated drug. Electrospraying is acknowledged as an important technique for the preparation of nanoparticles with respect to pharmaceutical applications. Herein we attempted to consolidate the reports pertaining to electrospraying and their corresponding therapeutic application area. PMID:23512013

Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2013-01-01

284

Poly(amino acid) functionalized maghemite and gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Bimodal MRI/OI imaging probes are of great interest in nanomedicine. Although many organic polymers have been studied thoroughly for in vivo applications, reports on the use of poly(amino acid)s as coating polymers are scarce. In this paper, poly-(d-glutamic acid, d-lysine) (PGL) has been used for coating maghemite and gold nanoparticles. An advantage of this flexible and biocompatible polymer is that, once anchored to the nanoparticle surface, dangling lysine amino groups are available for the incorporation of new functionalities. As an example, Alexa Fluor derivatives have been attached to PGL-coated maghemite nanoparticles to obtain magnetic/fluorescent materials. These dual-property materials could be used as bimodal MRI/OI probes for in vivo imaging. PMID:23358466

Perego, Davide; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Manuel Dom璯guez-Vera, Jos; G嫮vez, Natividad

2013-02-22

285

Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported. PMID:25101298

Dianzani, Chiara; Zara, Gian Paolo; Maina, Giovanni; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Rossi, Federica; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Daga, Martina; Barrera, Giuseppina

2014-01-01

286

Stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for nanomedicine.  

PubMed

Nature continues to be the ultimate in nanotechnology, where polymeric nanometer-scale architectures play a central role in biological systems. Inspired by the way nature forms functional supramolecular assemblies, researchers are trying to make nanostructures and to incorporate these into macrostructures as nature does. Recent advances and progress in nanoscience have demonstrated the great potential that nanomaterials have for applications in healthcare. In the realm of drug delivery, nanomaterials have been used in vivo to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, ensuring reproducible absorption of bioactive molecules that do not naturally penetrate biological barriers, restricting drug access to specific target sites. Several building blocks have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles. Thus, stability, drug release, and targeting can be tailored by surface modification. Herein the state of the art of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles are reviewed. Such systems are able to control drug release by reacting to naturally occurring or external applied stimuli. Special attention is paid to the design and nanoparticle formulation of these so-called smart drug-delivery systems. Future strategies for further developments of a promising controlled drug delivery responsive system are also outlined. PMID:25319803

Crucho, Carina I C

2015-01-01

287

Incorporating Ethics into K-12 STEM Education  

E-print Network

Incorporating Ethics into K-12 STEM Education: An Introduction Richard A. Burgess, M.A. Texas Tech T-STEM Center and Deputy Director, National Institute for Engineering Ethics Summer 2012 #12 for Engineering Ethics (NIEE) to incorporate Ethics into all STEM education and outreach efforts. 繚 In this module

Gelfond, Michael

288

Ribonucleotide incorporation by yeast DNA polymerase ?.  

PubMed

During replication in yeast, the three B family DNA replicases frequently incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) into DNA, and their presence in the nuclear genome can affect genome stability. This prompted us to examine ribonucleotide incorporation by the fourth B family member, Pol ?, the enzyme responsible for the majority of damage-induced mutagenesis in eukaryotes. We first show that Pol ? inserts rNMPs into DNA and can extend primer termini containing 3'-ribonucleotides. We then measure rNMP incorporation by Pol ? in the presence of its cofactors, RPA, RFC and PCNA and at normal cellular dNTP and rNTP concentrations that exist under unstressed conditions. Under these conditions, Pol ? stably incorporates one rNMP for every 200-300 dNMPs incorporated, a frequency that is slightly higher than for the high fidelity replicative DNA polymerases. Under damage-induced conditions wherein cellular dNTP concentrations are elevated 5-fold, Pol ? only incorporates one rNMP per 1300 dNMPs. Functional interaction of Pol ? with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 gives comparable rNMP incorporation frequencies. These results suggest that ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during Pol ?-mediated mutagenesis in vivo may be rare. PMID:24674899

Makarova, Alena V; Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Watts, Brian E; Kunkel, Thomas A; Burgers, Peter M

2014-06-01

289

Incorporation and distribution of strontium in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and incorporation of strontium into bone has been examined in rats, monkeys, and humans after oral administration of strontium (either strontium chloride or strontium ranelate). After repeated administration for a sufficient period of time (at least 4 weeks in rats), strontium incorporation into bone reaches a plateau level. This plateau appears to be lower in females than in

S. G Dahl; P Allain; P. J Marie; Y Mauras; G Boivin; P Ammann; Y Tsouderos; P. D Delmas; C Christiansen

2001-01-01

290

Incorporating Evolutionary Measures into Conservation Prioritization  

E-print Network

Incorporating Evolutionary Measures into Conservation Prioritization DAVID W. REDDING AND ARNE ?. MOOERS Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC V5A 1S6, Canada Abstract: Conservation prioritization recommend developing a mechanism to incorporate a species' genetic value into the prioritization framework

Mooers, Arne

291

Incorporating User Search Behavior into Relevance Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five user experiments on incorporating behavioral information into the relevance feedback process in information retrieval, concentrating on ranking terms for query expansion and selecting new terms to add to the user's query. Topics include term ranking and user behavior; incorporating user behavior into term ranking; and user behavior

Ruthven, Ian; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Keith

2003-01-01

292

An Examination of Nova Scotia Power Incorporated's  

E-print Network

1 An Examination of Nova Scotia Power Incorporated's Green Power Rider Larry Hughes Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3J 2X4 19 July 2002 This submission replaces the one of 17 July 2002. 1 Introduction In December 2001, Nova Scotia Power Incorporated

Hughes, Larry

293

Divalent metal nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

DeVries, Gretchen Anne

2008-01-01

294

Nanoparticles Flat Precipitates  

E-print Network

20 nm Nanorods Nanoparticles Flat Precipitates 10 nm To improve the performance of superconducting precipitates (red arrows). Artificial and Self-assembled Vortex-pinning Centers in Superconducting Ba(Fe1-x

Weston, Ken

295

CCMR: Metal Nanoparticles Architectures for Nanoplasmonics Applications: Synthesis and Characterizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This summer my project was to increase the size of a nano particle called Cornell Dot or C. Dot. A C. Dot is a core-shell silica nanoparticles is the development of fluorescent particles based on organic dyes covalently incorporated into the silica matrix. Reactive dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the coreshell particle.

Livenere, John

2009-08-15

296

Cytotoxicity of Photoactive Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the cytotoxicity of photoactive materials (specifically, quantum dots, noble metal nanoparticles (including\\u000a gold and silver), and fluorescent silica nanoparticles). A thorough representation of in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies\\u000a is presented. Since the toxicity on photoactive nanomaterials described in this chapter has developed rapidly and has attracted\\u000a a great amount of interest, it is expected that

Yuhui Jin; Xiaojun Zhao

297

Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

2013-01-01

298

Lipoprotein-Inspired Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics  

PubMed Central

Over hundreds of millions of years, animals have evolved endogenous lipoprotein nanoparticles for shuttling hydrophobic molecules to different parts of the body. In the last 70 years, scientists have developed an understanding of lipoprotein function, often in relationship to lipid transport and heart disease. Such biocompatible, lipidprotein complexes are also ideal for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents, which means that lipoprotein and lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles also offer opportunities for cancer theranostics. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the nanocarrier can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the bodys defenses. The small size (less than 30 nm) of the low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) classes of lipoproteins allows them to maneuver deeply into tumors. Furthermore, lipoproteins can be targeted to their endogenous receptors, when those are implicated in cancer, or to other cancer receptors. In this Account, we review the field of lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles related to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapy agents. LDL has innate cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate diverse hydrophobic molecules and deliver them to tumors. Natures method of rerouting LDL in atherosclerosis provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins beyond its narrow purview. Although LDL has shown promise as a drug nanocarrier for cancer imaging and therapy, increasing evidence indicates that HDL, the smallest lipoprotein, may also be of use for drug targeting and uptake into cancer cells. We also discuss how synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles, which do not include human or recombinant proteins, can deliver molecules directly to the cytoplasm of certain cancer cells, effectively bypassing the endosomal compartment. This strategy could allow HDL-like nanoparticles to be used to deliver drugs that have increased activity in the cytoplasm. Lipoprotein nanoparticles have evolved to be ideal delivery vehicles, and because of that specialized function, they have the potential to improve cancer theranostics. PMID:21557543

2011-01-01

299

Transport of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+ up-converting nanoparticles into HeLa cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective, simple and practically useful method to incorporate fluorescent nanoparticles inside live biological cells was developed. The internalization time and concentration dependence of a frequently used liposomal transfection factor (Lipofectamine 2000) was studied. A user friendly, one-step technique to obtain water and organic solvent soluble Er3+ and Yb3+ doped NaYF4 nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone was obtained. Structural analysis of the nanoparticles confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of the desired sizes and spectral properties. The internalization of NaYF4 nanoparticles in HeLa cervical cancer cells was determined at different nanoparticle concentrations and for incubation periods from 3 to 24 h. The images revealed a redistribution of nanoparticles inside the cell, which increases with incubation time and concentration levels, and depends on the presence of the transfection factor. The study identifies, for the first time, factors responsible for an effective endocytosis of the up-converting nanoparticles to HeLa cells. Thus, the method could be applied to investigate a wide range of future smart theranostic agents. Nanoparticles incorporated into the liposomes appear to be very promising fluorescent probes for imaging real-time cellular dynamics.

Sikora, Bo?ena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kami?ska, Izabela; Koper, Kamil; Szewczyk, Sebastian; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Sobczak, Kamil; Minikayev, Roman; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; St?pie?, Piotr; Elbaum, Danek

2013-06-01

300

Nano- and microstructures of magnetic field-guided maghemite nanoparticles in diblock copolymer films.  

PubMed

The control over the alignment of nanoparticles within a block copolymer matrix was investigated for different external magnetic fields with respect to producing well-aligned, highly oriented metal-oxide-polymer nanopatterns. Hybrid films were prepared by solution casting under a range of external magnetic fields. The nano- and microstructure of maghemite nanoparticles within poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer films as a function of the nanoparticle concentration was studied using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. Because of a polystyrene (PS) coating, the nanoparticles are incorporated in the PS domains of the diblock copolymer morphology. At higher nanoparticle concentrations, nanoparticle aggregates perturb the block copolymer structure and accumulate at the films surface into wire-shaped stripes. These wire-shaped nanoparticle aggregates form mainly because of the competition between nanoparticle-polymer friction and magnetic dipolar interaction. The magnetic behavior of the hybrid films was probed at different temperatures for two orthogonal directions (with the line-shaped particle aggregates parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field). The hybrid film systems show superparamagnetic behavior and remarkable shape anisotropy that render them interesting for magnetic applications. PMID:24621173

Yao, Yuan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Niedermeier, Martin A; Opel, Matthias; Lin, Chen; Ning, Jing; Perlich, Jan; Roth, Stephan V; Mller-Buschbaum, Peter

2014-04-01

301

Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of cyclosporine A loaded PLGA nanoparticles for ocular use.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine A loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared using the o/w emulsification solvent evaporation method and the effect of four preparation parameters on particle size and zeta potential was investigated. Release properties of the nanoparticles were examined and in vitro experiments were performed in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the nanoparticles developed. Particle sizes varied between 191 and 303 nm depending on the different preparation parameters and all nanoparticle dispersions were monodisperse. The nanoparticles showed negative zeta potential values varying between -16 and -35 mV and 57 to 70 % of the amount of loaded cyclosporine A was released after 24 h. None of the nanoparticle formulations showed significant cytotoxicity compared to the negative control using human epithelial cells (HaCaT). Cyclosporine A incorporated in the various nanoparticle formulations retained its anti-inflammatory activity as significant suppression of interleukine-2 secretion in concanavalin A stimulated Jurkat T cells was measured. As the overall influence of the freeze-drying process on the characteristics of nanoparticles was limited, trehalose and carnitine should be preferred as cryoprotectants in ocular formulations for treatment of dry eye disease. PMID:24601220

Hermans, K; Van Den Plas, D; Schreurs, E; Weyenberg, W; Ludwig, A

2014-01-01

302

Development of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is the functionalization and tailoring of nanoparticle surfaces to perform specific objectives in a biological environment. The nanoparticles examined include carbon nanotubes (CNTs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocomposites. The unique nanomaterials have been developed to address continued issues in cancer therapy, including cancer diagnosis and efficient drug delivery. CNT surfaces were modified by plasma polymerization, providing functional groups for conjugation. Luminescent amine labeled quantum dots were fixed to the surface of the CNTs to aid in cancer diagnosis by in vivo imaging. Mice, injected with the quantum dot functionalized carbon nanotubes, were imaged displaying the in vivo imaging capability. In addition, the drug loading and drug release capabilities were examined by incorporating the drug paclitaxel into PLGA-coated CNTs, which showed much higher cytotoxicity to PC-3MM2 human prostate carcinoma cells compared to CNTs without paclitaxel. Paclitaxel was loaded at 112.5 microg/mg of PLGA-coated CNTs. Iron oxide nanocomposites were functionalized with quantum dots for diagnosis applications. Because the nanocomposites contain iron oxide, the nanoparticle provides the opportunity for magnetic hyperthermia, creating a unique material for diagnosis and therapy. Mice, injected with the quantum dot functionalized iron oxide nanocomposites, were imaged displaying the in vivo imaging capability. The magnetic hyperthermic property of the quantum dot functionalized nanocomposites was observed with the attainment of temperatures above 50蚓 during exposure to an alternating magnetic field. Thermoresponsive nanoparticles were prepared by immobilizing a 2 - 3 nm thick phospholipid layer on the surface of superparamagnetic Fe3O 4 nanoparticles via high affinity avidin/biotin interactions. Morphological and physicochemical surface properties were assessed using TEM, confocal laser scanning microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ATR-FTIR. The zeta potential of Fe3O4 colloids in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) decreased from -23.6 to -5.0 mV as a consequence of phospholipid immobilization. Hyperthermia-relevant temperatures greater than 40蚓 were achieved within 10--15 min using a 7-mT magnetic field alternating at a frequency of 1MHz. Loading of the surface-associated phospholipid layer with the hydrophobic dye dansylcadaverine was accomplished at an efficiency of 479 ng/mg Fe3O4. Release of this drug surrogate was temperature-dependent, resulting in a 2.5-fold greater release rate when nanoparticles were exposed to temperatures above the experimentally determined melting temperature of 39.7蚓. In vitro cytotoxicity studies by release of the cytotoxic drug, doxorubicin, from the thermoresponsive nanoparticles was lastly intended. However, colloidal stability became an issue, prompting a thorough review of nanoparticle stabilization. Factors affecting stabilization, including dispersant, the nanoparticle, and the thermoresponsive coating, were characterized by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. PBS was compared to two dispersants containing lower ionic concentrations, HBSS and HEPES, using the original iron oxide nanoparticles compared to an iron oxide nanocomposite. The nanocomposite in the HEPES buffer displayed the greatest stability with a zeta potential of -30.47 mV and particle size of 155.4 nm. Stabilization of the immobilized phospholipid bilayer was examined with and without incorporation of the cationic lipid stearylamine. Zeta potential (33.6 mV) and size (315 nm) data indicate that stearylamine incorporated DPPC coated nanoparticles provide better stability.

Huth, Christopher

303

Novel light emissive yttrium-based nanoparticles and composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttrium-based inorganic optical materials generally are of practical interest for three applications: solid state lighting/displays, lasers, and scintillators. Solid-state lighting is particularly desirable commercially for its efficiency and lifetime compared to traditional incandescent alternatives. This type of lighting technology is of increasing interest as incandescent light bulbs are being gradually phased-out due to government regulations on maximum wattage of these devices. Additionally, shortcomings in the current state of the art have driven the need for a more thermally stable material for use in this area. In this dissertation, we develop and characterize a novel composite material consisting of optically active yttrium-based nanoparticles doped into silica sol-gels. For lighting and display applications, low-cost, low-temperature synthesis methods for materials that meet or exceed the quality of the materials currently on the market are highly desirable. During the course of this work, we discuss the characterization of yttrium-based nanoparticles with respect to their incorporation in a sol-gel matrix composite. We then prepared these composite materials using a variety of methods and assess their quality according to a set of selection criteria and for lighting/display applications. Novel light-emitting composites consisting of Ce:YAG or Eu:Y2O 3 (yttria) nanoparticles in an inorganic medium were successfully developed and characterized. The optical properties of the nanoparticles were maintained when incorporated into the sol-gel medium and were shown to be comparable with the current state of the art. Comparison was made between the nanoparticle emission and the composite emission and, in the case of the Ce:YAG, the CIE coordinates, showing no change between the emission intensities or peak locations. We successfully demonstrated the conversion of fluoride-based particles into Y2O3 during sol-gel processing and demonstrated that no reaction took place between the nanoparticles and the sol-gel medium. Stability of nanoparticles in suspension was overcome through the control of pH during sol-gel synthesis. Through both base- and/or acid-catalysis, we produced optically active nanoparticle doped sol-gel composites containing YAG and Yttria. Our results indicated no detrimental effect on the nanoparticles upon incorporation into the sol-gel matrix; this was demonstrated through XRD, where no silicate phases were observed, through EDX, where we saw no diffusion of yttrium into the sol-gel and no silicon diffusing into the nanoparticles, and through photoluminescence, where emissions were consistent with that of the as-made nanoparticles. These results led us to theorize that the nanoparticles, rather than being bonded to the matrix, are seated in the void space that is prevalent in sol-gel systems. Additionally, these materials are stable at much higher temperatures than current resin-based systems.

Hill, Laura Burka

304

Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

2014-07-22

305

Automated Morphology Analysis of Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

The functional properties of nanoparticles highly depend on the surface morphology of the particles, so precise measurements of a particle's morphology enable reliable characterizing of the nanoparticle's properties. Obtaining the measurements...

Park, Chiwoo

2012-10-19

306

Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality---magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. Smart and rational design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high sensitivity and colloidal stability, target specificity and/or multimodality. The goal of this research is to develop MNP-based platforms for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. MNPs with high contrast enhancement were coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymers to render aqueous stability and confer therapeutic-loading capability. Tumor-specific MNPs were developed by functionalization of nanoparticles with chlorotoxin (CTX) or arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) that targets, respectively, MMP-2 receptor or alphavbeta3 integrin overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells. The effects of ligands' molecular targets on the temporal and spatial distribution of MNPs within tumors were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. All MNPs exhibited excellent long-term stability in cell culture media. CTX-labeled MNP exhibited sustained accumulation, penetration and distribution in the tumor mass. These findings revealed the influence of the targeting ligands on the intratumoral distribution of the ligand-enabled nanoprobes. To demonstrate the ability of nanoparticles as drug carrier, anthracyline chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and mitoxantrone were attached to iron oxide nanoparticles. The theragnostic nanoparticles showed sufficient contrast enhancement and comparable anti-neoplastic efficacy in vitro. With flexible surface chemistry, our nanoparticle platform can be used in a modular fashion to conjugate biomolecules for intended applications, and the functionalized nanoparticle systems retain a prolonged stability and exhibit high tumor specificity. The study would establish the foundation for future development of integrated theragnostic systems for the treatment of cancer and other complex diseases.

Fang, Chen

2011-12-01

307

Conductivity changes in zinc oxide and magnesium zinc oxide nanoparticle films annealed in hydrogen ambient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the physics of how the electrical properties of ZnO and MgZnO nanoparticle films are modified when exposed to hydrogen gas at high temperatures. Specifically, with the goal of quantifying the ease of incorporation of the hydrogen atom and its properties as a donor. The nanoparticles were grown on insulating silicon substrates and had an average diameter of 40 nm. The devices were of a two terminal design, where the terminals consisted of two 25 mum diameter gold wires laid parallel to each other on the nanoparticle film to measure the current passing through the film. For the first set of experiments when nanoparticles were exposed to H 2 gas at room temperature, no significant changes in the current-voltage behavior of the nanoparticles were observed relative to measurements done in vacuum. Annealing in H2 below 370K resulted in no significant change in the current. Both the ZnO and MgZnO nanoparticle films showed significant changes at about the same threshold temperatures when annealed to 400K. A second set of experiments were carried out in temperatures up to 500K following the same procedure that showed similar but more complex behavior. The formation energy of hydrogen incorporation was calculated by analysis of the solubility of hydrogen in ZnO at various temperatures. Donor energy level of the nanoparticle films was also calculated by analyzing the post-doping conductivity in vacuum as a function of temperature. The origin of the change in I-V characteristics of ZnO and MgZnO nanoparticles when annealed in H2 ambient, the reasons for the differences of hydrogen doping results between nanoscale and bulk, and the mechanism of hydrogen behavior in the nanoparticle films will be discussed in detail.

Chava, Sirisha

308

SKIN MOLE MATCHING INCORPORATING TEMPLATE NORMALIZED COORDINATES  

E-print Network

SKIN MOLE MATCHING INCORPORATING TEMPLATE NORMALIZED COORDINATES HENGAMEH MIRZAALIAN1 , GHASSAN. Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada Abstract: Density of moles propose using an automatic graph- based approach for finding corresponding moles. We evaluate our proposed

Hamarneh, Ghassan

309

Incorporating traffic patterns to improve delivery performance  

E-print Network

Traffic, construction and other road hazards impact the on-time performance of companies that operate delivery fleets. This study examines how incorporating traffic patterns in vehicle route development compares with ...

Dickinson, Melody J

2010-01-01

310

49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy 572.30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this...

2010-10-01

311

Single-Antibody, Targeted Nanoparticle Delivery of Camptothecin  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new method for assembling targeted nanoparticles that utilizes the complexation between targeting agents that contain boronic acids and polymer-drug conjugates that possess diols. Here, we report the first in vivo, antitumor results of a nanoparticle formed via this new assembly methodology. A nanoparticle consisting of a mucic acid polymer conjugate of camptothecin (CPT), MAP-CPT; and containing on average one Herceptin antibody is investigated in nude mice bearing HER2 overexpressing BT-474 human breast cancer tumors. Nontargeted MAP-CPT and antibody-containing MAP-CPT nanoparticles of ca. 3040 nm diameter and slightly negative zeta potential show prolonged in vivo circulation and similar biodistributions after intravenous tail vein injections in mice. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the nontargeted and Herceptin-containing MAP-CPT nanoparticles are found to be 10 and 8 mg CPT/kg, respectively, in mice. Mice bearing BT-474 human breast tumors treated with nontargeted MAP-CPT nanoparticles at 8 mg CPT/kg show significant tumor growth inhibition (mean tumor volume of 63 mm3) when compared to Irinotecan at 80 mg/kg (mean tumor volume of 575 mm3) and CPT at 8 mg/kg (mean tumor volume of 808 mm3) at the end of the study. Herceptin antibody treatment at 5.9 mg/kg results in complete tumor regressions in 5 out of 8 mice, with a mean tumor volume of 60 mm3 at the end of the study. Mice treated with MAP-CPT nanoparticles at 1 mg CPT/kg do not show tumor inhibition. However, all mice receiving administrations of MAP-CPT nanoparticles (1 mg CPT/kg) that contain on average a single Herceptin molecule per nanoparticle (5.9 mg Herceptin equivalent/kg) show complete tumor regression by the end of the study. These results demonstrate that the antitumor efficacy of nanoparticles carrying anticancer drugs can be enhanced by incorporating on average a single antibody. PMID:23676007

Han, Han; Davis, Mark E.

2013-01-01

312

Structural properties of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles accumulated in a model of gastrointestinal epithelium elucidated by micro-beam x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-beam x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to investigate rutile TiO2 nanoparticles internalized into gastrointestinal cells during their crossing of a gut model barrier. Nanoparticles diluted in culture medium tend to accumulate in cells after 48 h exposure; however, no spectral differences arise between particles in cellular and in acellular environments, as corroborated by quantitative analysis. This finding establishes that no modification of the lattice properties of the nanoparticles occurs upon interaction with the barrier. These measurements demonstrate the possibility of interrogating nanoparticles in situ within cells, suggesting a way to investigate their fate when incorporated in biological hosts.

Veronesi, G.; Brun, E.; Fayard, B.; Cotte, M.; Carri鋨e, M.

2012-05-01

313

Dual drug-loaded nanoparticles on self-integrated scaffold for controlled delivery.  

PubMed

Antioxidant (quercetin) and hypoglycemic (voglibose) drug-loaded poly-D,L-lactideco-glycolide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the solvent evaporation method. The dual drug-loaded nanoparticles were incorporated into a scaffold film using a solvent casting method, creating a controlled transdermal drug-delivery system. Key features of the film formulation were achieved utilizing several ratios of excipients, including polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, xylitol, and alginate. The scaffold film showed superior encapsulation capability and swelling properties, with various potential applications, eg, the treatment of diabetes-associated complications. Structural and light scattering characterization confirmed a spherical shape and a mean particle size distribution of 41.3 nm for nanoparticles in the scaffold film. Spectroscopy revealed a stable polymer structure before and after encapsulation. The thermoresponsive swelling properties of the film were evaluated according to temperature and pH. Scaffold films incorporating dual drug-loaded nanoparticles showed remarkably high thermoresponsivity, cell compatibility, and ex vivo drug-release behavior. In addition, the hybrid film formulation showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. These dual drug-loaded nanoparticles incorporated into a scaffold film may be promising for development into a transdermal drug-delivery system. PMID:22888222

Bennet, Devasier; Marimuthu, Mohana; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeongho

2012-01-01

314

Dual drug-loaded nanoparticles on self-integrated scaffold for controlled delivery  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant (quercetin) and hypoglycemic (voglibose) drug-loaded poly-D,L-lactideco-glycolide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the solvent evaporation method. The dual drug-loaded nanoparticles were incorporated into a scaffold film using a solvent casting method, creating a controlled transdermal drug-delivery system. Key features of the film formulation were achieved utilizing several ratios of excipients, including polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, xylitol, and alginate. The scaffold film showed superior encapsulation capability and swelling properties, with various potential applications, eg, the treatment of diabetes-associated complications. Structural and light scattering characterization confirmed a spherical shape and a mean particle size distribution of 41.3 nm for nanoparticles in the scaffold film. Spectroscopy revealed a stable polymer structure before and after encapsulation. The thermoresponsive swelling properties of the film were evaluated according to temperature and pH. Scaffold films incorporating dual drug-loaded nanoparticles showed remarkably high thermoresponsivity, cell compatibility, and ex vivo drug-release behavior. In addition, the hybrid film formulation showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. These dual drug-loaded nanoparticles incorporated into a scaffold film may be promising for development into a transdermal drug-delivery system. PMID:22888222

Bennet, Devasier; Marimuthu, Mohana; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeongho

2012-01-01

315

Gold Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used for many scientific applications and have attracted attention due to the specific chemical, electronic and optical size dependent properties that make them very promising agents in many fields such as medicine, imagine techniques and electronics. More specifically, biocompatible gold nanoparticles have a huge potential for use as the contrast augmentation agent in X-ray Computed Tomography and Photo Acoustic Tomography for early tumor diagnostic as well these nanoparticles are extensively researched for enhancing the targeted cancer treatment effectiveness such as photo-thermal and radiotherapy. In most biomedical applications biocompatible gold nanoparticles are labeled with specific tumor or other pathology targeting antibodies and used for site specific drug delivery. However, even though gold nanoparticles poses very high level of anti cancer properties, the question of their cytotoxicity ones they are released in normal tissue has to be researched. Moreover, the huge amount of industrially produced gold nanoparticles raises the question of these particles being a health hazard, since the penetration is fairly easy for the "nano" size substances. This study focuses on the effect of AuNPs on a human skin tissue, since it is fall in both categories -- the side effects for biomedical applications and industrial workers and users' exposure during production and handling. Therefore, in the present project, gold nanoparticles stabilized with the biocompatible agent citric acid were generated and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxic effect of AuNPs release to healthy skin tissue was modeled on 3 different cell types: human keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and human adipose derived stromal (ADS) cells. The AuNPs localization inside the cell was found to be cell type dependent. Overall cytotoxicity was found to be dependent on time, concentration and nanoparticle size. Additionally, the question of cell recovery once the source of AuNPs is removed was investigated in the present work. It was found that full cell functions recovery is possible after removing the source of nanoparticles.

Mironava, Tatsiana

316

Optimization, characterization and evaluation of chitosan-tailored cubic nanoparticles of clotrimazole.  

PubMed

The present study deals with improvement of the mucoadhesive properties of monoolein based cubic nanoparticles by incorporating chitosan. Chitosan-tailored cubic nanoparticles were prepared by thin film hydration followed by ultrasonication employing clotrimazole as model drug. The effect of Pluronic F127 fraction and concentration of chitosan on particle size and % mucin binding of the formulations was studied using 2-factor, 3-level, central composite experimental design. The concentration of chitosan was found to influence particle size and % mucin binding of cubic nanoparticles while Pluronic F127 fraction influenced only the % mucin binding. Studies indicated 8.33(%w/w) fraction of Pluronic F127 and 0.17 (%w/v) concentration of chitosan as optimum concentration. Finally, the optimized batch was characterized by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy. The results unveiled incorporation of chitosan did not disrupt the inner cubic structure of nanoparticles. Peak indexing of SAXS data revealed the coexistence of P-type and D-type cubic phases in nanoparticles. Further, comparative evaluation studies showed significantly higher anti-fungal activity of clotrimazole-loaded chitosan-tailored cubic nanoparticles than conventional suspension of clotrimazole against Candida albicans. PMID:25463320

Verma, Purnima; Ahuja, Munish

2015-02-01

317

Antibacterial activity, inflammatory response, coagulation and cytotoxicity effects of silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. Here, we studied the effects of 24 nm silver NPs (AgNPs) on a panel of bacteria isolated from medical devices used in a hospital intensive care unit. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated in

Fidel Mart璯ez-Gutierrez; Emily P. Thi; Judith M. Silverman; Carolina Camargo de Oliveira; Sarah L. Svensson; Amanda Vanden Hoek; Elpidio Morales S嫕chez; Neil E. Reiner; Erin C. Gaynor; Edward L. G. Pryzdial; Edward M. Conway; Erasmo Orrantia; Facundo Ruiz; Yossef Av-Gay; Horacio Bach

318

1 Enhancement of surface ligand display on PLGA nanoparticles with amphiphilic 2 ligand conjugates  

E-print Network

and common fatty acids. 31We found that conjugation to linoleic acid resulted in a ~60% increase the highest avidin incorporation in 33previous studies. Further, the linoleic acid簫avidin conjugate yielded density on anti-CD4-targeted nanoparticles 37formulated with the linoleic acid簫avidin conjugate resulted

Fahmy, Tarek

319

Phase I clinical trial and pharmacokinetic evaluation of doxorubicin carried by polyisohexylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doxorubicin (DXR) incorporated into biodegradable acrylate nanoparticles such as polyisohexylcyanoacrylate (PIHCA) has been shown to increase DXR cytotoxicity and reduce cardiotoxicity by modifying tissue distribution in preclinical studies. We have conducted a phase I clinical trial of DXR-PIHCA in 21 patients with refractory solid tumors (10 male, 11 female, median age: 53 years, median PS: 1, prior free-DXR therapy: 7

Joseph Kattan; Jean-Pierre Droz; Patrick Couvreur; Jean-Pierre Marino; Arnaud Boutan-Laroze; Philippe Rougier; Philippe Brault; Henri Vranckx; Jean-Marc Grognet; Xavier Morge; H幨鋝e Sancho-Garnier

1992-01-01

320

Preparation of copper catalyst washcoats for methanol steam reforming in microchannels based on nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand of fast load alternations for hydrogen generation by methanol steam reforming for automotive fuel cell application may be met in an excellent manner by microstructured reactors. However, catalyst incorporation is difficult in the micrometer size. By the use of dispersed nanoparticles a washcoating procedure was developed and is explained on the basis of a copper catalyst system. The

P. Pfeifer; K. Schubert; G. Emig

2005-01-01

321

The Smart Targeting of Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

One major challenge in nanomedicine is how to selectively deliver nanoparticles to diseased tissues. Nanoparticle delivery system requires targeting for specific delivery to pathogenic sites when enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) is not suitable or inefficient. Functionalizing nanoparticles is a widely-used technique that allows for conjugation with targeting ligands, which possess inherent ability to direct selective binding to cell types or states and, therefore, confer smartness to nanoparticles. This review illustrates methods of ligand-nanoparticle functionalization, provides a cross-section of various ligand classes, including small molecules, peptides, antibodies, engineered proteins, or nucleic acid aptamers, and discusses some unconventional approaches currently under investigation. PMID:23470005

Friedman, Adam D.; Claypool, Sarah E.; Liu, Rihe

2014-01-01

322

Development of cellulose-based bactericidal nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles and their use as active food packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of nanomaterials, including metallic as active fillers in polymeric nanocomposites for food packaging has been extensively investigated. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in particular, have been exploited for technological applications as bactericidal agents. In this paper, AgNPs were incorporated into a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix for applications as food packaging materials. The average sizes of the silver nanoparticles were 41nm

M嫫cia R. de Moura; Luiz H. C. Mattoso; Valtencir Zucolotto

323

Wrapping of nanoparticles by membranes.  

PubMed

How nanoparticles interact with biomembranes is central for understanding their bioactivity. Biomembranes wrap around nanoparticles if the adhesive interaction between the nanoparticles and membranes is sufficiently strong to compensate for the cost of membrane bending. In this article, we review recent results from theory and simulations that provide new insights on the interplay of bending and adhesion energies during the wrapping of nanoparticles by membranes. These results indicate that the interplay of bending and adhesion during wrapping is strongly affected by the interaction range of the particle-membrane adhesion potential, by the shape of the nanoparticles, and by shape changes of membrane vesicles during wrapping. The interaction range of the particle-membrane adhesion potential is crucial both for the wrapping process of single nanoparticles and the cooperative wrapping of nanoparticles by membrane tubules. PMID:24703299

Bahrami, Amir H; Raatz, Michael; Agudo-Canalejo, Jaime; Michel, Raphael; Curtis, Emily M; Hall, Carol K; Gradzielski, Michael; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

2014-06-01

324

Magnetic and fluorescent multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles as a smart drug delivery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative drug delivery system based on magnetic and fluorescent multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles was developed, which combined magnetic targeting, fluorescent imaging and stimulus-responsive drug release properties into one drug delivery system. Water-soluble superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and pharmaceutical drugs were simultaneously incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles; cross-linking the composite particles with glutaraldehyde tailored their size, morphology, surface properties and drug release behaviors. The system showed superparamagnetic and strong fluorescent properties, and was used as a controlled drug release vehicle, which showed pH-sensitive drug release over a long time. The composite magnetic and fluorescent chitosan nanoparticles are potential candidates as a smart drug delivery system.

Li, Linlin; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Yanqi; Deng, Zhengtao; Ren, Xiangling; Meng, Xianwei; Tang, Fangqiong; Ren, Jun; Zhang, Lin

2007-10-01

325

High ordered biomineralization induced by carbon nanoparticles in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surprising and unexpected biomineralization process was observed during toxicological assessment of carbon nanoparticles on Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) pluteus larvae. The larvae activate a process of defense against external material, by incorporating the nanoparticles into microstructures of aragonite similarly to pearl oysters. Aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon, the larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles and the biomineralization products were analyzed by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the possible influence of Sp-CyP-1 expression on this biomineralization process by larvae, analyses of gene expression (Sp-CyP-1) and calcein labeling were performed. Overall, we report experimental evidence about the capability of carbon nanoparticles to induce an increment of Sp-CyP-1 expression with the consequent activation of a biomineralization process leading to the production of a new pearl-like biomaterial never previously observed in sea urchins.

Manno, Daniela; Carata, Elisabetta; Tenuzzo, Bernadetta A.; Panzarini, Elisa; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Filippo, Emanuela; Rossi, Marco; Serra, Antonio; Dini, Luciana

2012-12-01

326

LDRD Progress Report: Radioimmunotherapy using oxide nanoparticles: Radionuclide contaiment and mitigation of normal tissue toxicity.  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides with specific emission properties can be incorporated into metal-chalcogenide and metal-oxide nanoparticles. Coupled to antibodies, these conjugates could be injected into the bloodstream to target and destroy non-solid tumors or target organs for radioimaging. In the first year of this project, two types of radioactive nanoparticles, CdTe: {sup 125m}Te and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: {sup 170}Tm were synthesized and coupled to antibodies specific to murine epithelial lung tissue. The nanoparticles successfully target the lung tissue in vivo. Some leaching of the radioisotope was observed. The coming year will explore other types of nanoparticles (other crystal chemistries) in order to minimize leaching.

Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Kennel, Steve J [ORNL

2005-10-01

327

Self-assembled nanoparticles of acetylated cashew gum: characterization and evaluation as potential drug carrier.  

PubMed

Acetylated cashew gum (ACG) was synthesized and self-assembled nanoparticles were obtained through the dialysis of an organic solution (DMSO) against a non-solvent (water). The ACG was characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The degree of substitution was 2.8 as determined by NMR spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties of the self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous media were characterized by DLS, SEM and fluorescence spectroscopy. The mean diameter of the self-assembled nanoparticles obtained was 179 nm and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in water was 2.110(-3) g/L. Indomethacin (IND) was used as a hydrophobic model drug and was incorporated into the hydrophobized polysaccharide. Both loaded and unloaded nanoparticles were found to be spherical with diameters in the ranges of 70-170 nm and 108-314 nm (determined by SEM), respectively. Controlled drug release was observed for up to 72 h. PMID:25498678

Pitombeira, Nadia A O; Veras Neto, Jos Guilherme; Silva, Durcilene A; Feitosa, Judith P A; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

2015-03-01

328

High ordered biomineralization induced by carbon nanoparticles in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.  

PubMed

A surprising and unexpected biomineralization process was observed during toxicological assessment of carbon nanoparticles on Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) pluteus larvae. The larvae activate a process of defense against external material, by incorporating the nanoparticles into microstructures of aragonite similarly to pearl oysters. Aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon, the larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles and the biomineralization products were analyzed by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the possible influence of Sp-CyP-1 expression on this biomineralization process by larvae, analyses of gene expression (Sp-CyP-1) and calcein labeling were performed. Overall, we report experimental evidence about the capability of carbon nanoparticles to induce an increment of Sp-CyP-1 expression with the consequent activation of a biomineralization process leading to the production of a new pearl-like biomaterial never previously observed in sea urchins. PMID:23165288

Manno, Daniela; Carata, Elisabetta; Tenuzzo, Bernadetta A; Panzarini, Elisa; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Filippo, Emanuela; Rossi, Marco; Serra, Antonio; Dini, Luciana

2012-12-14

329

Synthesis and characterization of tat-mediated O-CMC magnetic nanoparticles having anticancer function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new formulation of magnetic nanoparticles coated by a novel polymer matrixO-carboxylmethylated chitosan (O-CMC) as drug/gene carrier. The O-CMC magnetic nanoparticles were derivatized with a peptide sequence from the HIV-tat protein to improve the translocational property and cellar uptake of the nanoparticles. To evaluate the O-MNPs-tat as drug carriers, MTX was incorporated as a model drug and MTX-loaded O-MNPs-tat with an average diameter of 45-60 nm were prepared and characterized by TEM, AFM and VSM. The cytotoxicity of MTX-loaded O-MNPs-tat was investigated with U-937 tumor cells. The results showed that the MTX-loaded O-MNPs-tat retained significant antitumor toxicity; additionally, sustained release of MTX from O-CMC nanoparticles was observed in vitro, suggesting that the tat-O-MNPs could be a novel magnetic targeting carrier.

Zhao, Aijie; Yao, Peng; Kang, Chunshang; Yuan, Xubo; Chang, Jin; Pu, Peiyu

2005-08-01

330

Photosensitizer-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles for simultaneous two-photon imaging and two-photon photodynamic therapy in living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosensitizer doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles have been prepared by incorporating polyoxyethylene nonylphenylether (CO-520) into the nanoparticles using a re-precipitation method. The conjugated polymer, poly[9,9-dibromohexylfluorene-2,7-ylenethylene-alt-1,4-(2,5-dimethoxy)phenylene] (PFEMO), was used as the host matrix to disperse tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and an energy donor to enhance the two-photon excitation properties of TPP. These CO-520 incorporated, TPP-doped PFEMO nanoparticles are stable and have low cytotoxicity in the dark. The TPP emission of the nanoparticles was found to be enhanced by about 20 times by PFEMO under two-photon excitation. The nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced two-photon excitation singlet oxygen generation efficiency and two-photon photodynamic therapy activity in cancer cells. These composite nanoparticles display features required for ideal photosensitizers, such as low cytotoxicity in the dark and efficient two-photon photodynamic activity under laser radiation. In addition, these novel nano-photosensitizers allow simultaneous in vivo monitoring by two-photon fluorescence imaging during two-photon photodynamic treatment. These photosensitizer-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles can act as novel photosensitizing agents for two-photon photodynamic therapy and related applications.Photosensitizer doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles have been prepared by incorporating polyoxyethylene nonylphenylether (CO-520) into the nanoparticles using a re-precipitation method. The conjugated polymer, poly[9,9-dibromohexylfluorene-2,7-ylenethylene-alt-1,4-(2,5-dimethoxy)phenylene] (PFEMO), was used as the host matrix to disperse tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and an energy donor to enhance the two-photon excitation properties of TPP. These CO-520 incorporated, TPP-doped PFEMO nanoparticles are stable and have low cytotoxicity in the dark. The TPP emission of the nanoparticles was found to be enhanced by about 20 times by PFEMO under two-photon excitation. The nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced two-photon excitation singlet oxygen generation efficiency and two-photon photodynamic therapy activity in cancer cells. These composite nanoparticles display features required for ideal photosensitizers, such as low cytotoxicity in the dark and efficient two-photon photodynamic activity under laser radiation. In addition, these novel nano-photosensitizers allow simultaneous in vivo monitoring by two-photon fluorescence imaging during two-photon photodynamic treatment. These photosensitizer-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles can act as novel photosensitizing agents for two-photon photodynamic therapy and related applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Size distribution measured by DLS and cell viability data of the non-modified conjugated polymer nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11104c

Shen, Xiaoqin; Li, Lin; Wu, Hao; Yao, Shao Q.; Xu, Qing-Hua

2011-12-01

331

Imaging the delivery of brain-penetrating PLGA nanoparticles in the brain using magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is largely ineffective, with nearly universal tumor recurrence. The failure of current therapy is primarily due to the lack of approaches for the efficient delivery of therapeutics to diffuse tumors in the brain. In our prior study, we developed brain-penetrating nanoparticles that are capable of penetrating brain tissue and distribute over clinically relevant volumes when administered via convection-enhanced delivery (CED). We demonstrated that these particles are capable of efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics to diffuse tumors in the brain, indicating that they may serve as a groundbreaking approach for the treatment of GBM. In the original study, nanoparticles in the brain were imaged using positron emission tomography (PET). However, clinical translation of this delivery platform can be enabled by engineering a non-invasive detection modality using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this purpose, we developed chemistry to incorporate superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) into the brain-penetrating nanoparticles. We demonstrated that SPIO-loaded nanoparticles, which retain the same morphology as nanoparticles without SPIO, have an excellent transverse (T2) relaxivity. After CED, the distribution of nanoparticles in the brain (i.e., in the vicinity of injection site) can be detected using MRI and the long-lasting signal attenuation of SPIO-loaded brain-penetrating nanoparticles lasted over a one-month timecourse. Development of these nanoparticles is significant as, in future clinical applications, co-administration of SPIO-loaded nanoparticles will allow for intraoperative monitoring of particle distribution in the brain to ensure drug-loaded nanoparticles reach tumors as well asfor monitoring the therapeutic benefit with time and to evaluate tumor relapse patterns. PMID:25403507

Strohbehn, Garth; Coman, Daniel; Han, Liang; Ragheb, Ragy R T; Fahmy, Tarek M; Huttner, Anita J; Hyder, Fahmeed; Piepmeier, Joseph M; Saltzman, W Mark; Zhou, Jiangbing

2014-11-18

332

Synthesis and Characterization of Thermo-Sensitive Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications.  

PubMed

The aim of this research project was to develop new temperature sensitive nanoparticles that have a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that is above body temperature and can be incorporated with various molecules at the surface. The poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-co-allylamine) (NIPA-AAm-AH) nanoparticles were synthesized through a free radical polymerization method. NIPA was polymerized with AAm and AH to increase the LCST and to provide amine groups for functionalization, respectively. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scattering technology, the sizes of these nanoparticles were found to be inversely proportional to the surfactant concentrations. In addition, the LCST of the 100-nm NIPA-AAm-AH nanoparticles was approximately 40 degrees C measured by a spectrophotometer. The chemical composition of the NIPA-AAm-AH nanoparticles determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) also confirmed the presence of functional groups of each monomer. The nanoparticles were also successfully conjugated to bovine anti-rabbit IgG-Texas Red as a model for future bioconjugation. Furthermore, nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity activity against human fibroblast cells. Finally, doxorubicin (DOX) was used in order to investigate the drug release profiles of the NIPA-AAm-AH nanoparticles at different temperatures. The results indicated that DOX was released more at 41 degrees C compared to that of 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, which is evidence for temperature sensitivity of the nanoparticles. Future work will investigate the pharmacological and targeted capabilities of the synthesized nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies for possible application in controlled and targeted drug delivery. PMID:20526427

Rahimi, Maham; Kilaru, Sunitha; Sleiman, Ghida El Hajj; Saleh, Anas; Rudkevich, Dmitry; Nguyen, Kytai

2008-12-01

333

Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect. PMID:23626400

Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P.; Mitra, Ashim K.

2012-01-01

334

Fabricated nanoparticles: current status and potential phytotoxic threats.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology offers unique attributes to various industrial and consumer sectors, and has become a topic of high interest to scientific communities across the world. Our society has greatly benefitted from nanotechnology already, in that many products with novel properties and wide applicability have been developed and commercialized. However, the increased production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns about the environmental fate and toxicological implications of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Research has revealed that various nanomaterials may be hazardous to living organisms. Among biota, plants are widely exposed to released nanomaterials and are sensitive to their effects. The accumulation of nannmaterials in the environment is a potential threat, not only because of potential damage to plants hut also because nanoparticles may enter the food chain. Although the literature that addresses the safety of nanoproducts is growing, little is known about the mechanisms by which these materials produce toxicity on natural species, including humans. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature relevant to what phytotoxic impact fabricated nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotubes, metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, and certain other nanomaterials) have on plants. Nanoparticles produce several effects on plant physiology and morphology. Nanoparticles are known to affect root structure, seed germination, and cellular metabolism. Nanoparticles inhibit growth, induce oxidative stress, morphogenetic abnormalities and produce clastogenic disturbances in several plant species. The size, shape and surface coating of NPs play an important role in determining their level of toxicity. Of course, the dose, route of administration, type of dispersion media, and environmental exposure also contribute to how toxic nanoparticles are to plants. Currently, nanotoxicity studies are only in their initial phases of development and more research will be required to identify the actual threat nanoproducts pose to the plant system. To date, data show that there is a large variation in the phytotoxicity caused by different NPs. Moreover, the studies conducted thus far have mostly relied on microscopy to detect effects. Studies that incorporate measures and analyses undertaken with more modern tools are needed. Among new data that are most urgently needed on NPs is how fabricated NPs behave once released into the environment, and how exposure to them may affect plant resistance, metabolic pathways, and plant genetic responses. In this review, we have attempted to collect, present and summarize recent findings from the literature on nanoparticle toxicity in plants. To strengthen the analysis, we propose a scheme for accessing NP toxicity. We also recommend how the potential challenges presented by increased production and release of NPs should be addressed. It is our belief and recommendation that every nanomaterial-based product be subjected to appropriate toxicity and associated assessment before being commercialized. PMID:24609519

Yadav, Tushar; Mungray, Alka A; Mungray, Arvind K

2014-01-01

335

Pegylated siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticle-driven amplification of cancer cell internalization in vivo  

PubMed Central

The cell membrane is a critical barrier to effective delivery for many therapeutics, including those which are nanoparticle-based. Improving nanoparticle transport across the cell membrane remains a fundamental challenge. Cancer cells preferentially internalized pegylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles over normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, non-cytotoxic levels of doxorubicin markedly amplified this difference by increasing free unbound caveolin-1 and resulted in enhanced caveolin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis in cancer cells. Engineered pegylated siRNA-loaded triple-shell calcium phosphate nanoconstructs incorporating ultra-low levels of doxorubicin recapitulated these effects and delivered increased numbers of siRNA into cancer cells with target-specific results. Systemic administration of nanoparticles in vivo demonstrated highly preferential entry into tumors, little bystander organ biodistribution, and significant tumor growth arrest. In conclusion, siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating non-cytotoxic amounts of doxorubicin markedly enhances nanoparticle internalization and results in increased payload delivery with concomitant on-target effects. PMID:23369215

Tobin, Lisa A.; Xie, Yili; Tsokos, Maria; Chung, Su I.; Merz, Allison A.; Arnold, Michael A.; Li, Guang; Malech, Harry L.; Kwong, King F.

2013-01-01

336

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

337

Targeted nanoparticles for simultaneous delivery of chemotherapeutic and hyperthermia agents--an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to prepare targeted Poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles with simultaneous entrapment of indocyanine green (ICG) and doxorubicin (DOX) by surface decorating them with tumor specific monoclonal antibodies in order to achieve simultaneous therapy and imaging. ICG was chosen as an imaging and hyperthermia agent and DOX was used as a chemotherapeutic agent. ICG and DOX were incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles using the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. These nanoparticles were further surface decorated with antibodies against Human Epithelial Receptor-2 (HER-2) using carbodiimide chemistry. The uptake of antibody conjugated ICG-DOX-PLGA nanoparticles (AIDNP) was enhanced in SKOV-3 (HER-2 overexpressing cell lines) compared to their non-conjugated counterparts (ICG-DOX-PLGA nanoparticles (IDNP)). The uptake of antibody conjugated ICG-DOX-PLGA nanoparticles, however, was similar in MES-SA and MES-SA/Dx5 cancer cells (HER-2 negative cell lines), which were used as negative controls. The cytotoxicity results after laser treatment (808 nm, 6.7 W/cm(2)) showed an enhanced toxicity in treatment of SKOV-3. The negative controls exhibited comparable cytotoxicity with or without exposure to the laser. Thus, this study showed that these antibody conjugated ICG-DOX-PLGA nanoparticles have potential for combinatorial chemotherapy and hyperthermia. PMID:24859437

Srinivasan, Supriya; Manchanda, Romila; Lei, Tingjun; Nagesetti, Abhignyan; Fernandez-Fernandez, Alicia; McGoron, Anthony J

2014-07-01

338

Aluminum nanoparticle/acrylate copolymer nanocomposites for dielectric elastomers with high dielectric constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric elastomers are useful for large-strain actuation and energy harvesting. Their application has been limited by their low dielectric constants and consequently high driving voltage. Various fillers with high dielectric constants have been incorporated into different elastomer systems to improve the actuation strain, force output and energy density of the compliant actuators and generators. However, agglomeration may happen in these nanocomposites, resulting in a decrease of dielectric strength, an increase of leakage current, and in many instances the degree of enhancement of the dielectric constant. In this work, we investigated aluminum nanoparticles as nanofillers for acrylate copolymers. This metallic nanoparticle was chosen because the availability of free electrons could potentially provide an infinite value of dielectric constant as opposed to dielectric materials including ferroelectric nanocrystals. Moreover, aluminum nanoparticles have a self-passivated oxide shell effectively preventing the formation of conductive path. The surfaces of the aluminum nanoparticles were functionalized with methacrylate groups to assist the uniform dispersion in organic solutions and additionally enable copolymerization with acrylate copolymer matrix during bulk polymerization, and thus to suppress large range drifting of the nanoparticles. The resulting Al nanoparticle-acrylate copolymer nanocomposites were found to exhibit higher dielectric constant and increased stiffness. The leakage current under high electric fields were significantly lower than nanocomposites synthesized without proper nanoparticle surface modification. The dielectric strengths of the composites were comparable with the pristine polymers. In dielectric actuation evaluation, the actuation force output and energy specific work density were enhanced in the nanocomposites compared to the pristine copolymer.

Hu, Wei; Zhang, Suki N.; Niu, Xiaofan; Liu, Chao; Pei, Qibing

2014-03-01

339

Carboxymethyl starch-chitosan-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for controlled delivery of isoniazid.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: The coating material of magnetic nanoparticles plays a great role in drug delivery application. The coatings not only increase the stability of the nanoparticles but also improve the drug release pattern, biocompatibility and mucoadhesivity. Objective: Montmorillonite (MMT) containing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) of carboxymethyl starch-chitosan were prepared for controlled release applications. Method: The PEC-coated nanoparticles were characterised by Fourier Transmission Infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and dynamic light scattering. Cytotoxicity study was performed by MTT assay analysis. Mucoadhesivity test was performed by using in vitro wash off and ex vivo method. Result: The coating of PEC showed good stability, biocompatibility and mucoadhesivity of the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. MMT addition enhanced the swelling, drug loading and release and also the cytotoxicity and mucoadhesivity of the nanoparticles. Conclusion: This study revealed that the MMT incorporated PEC of CMS-CS can be effectively used for coating of iron oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25090597

Saikia, Chinmayee; Hussain, Anowar; Ramteke, Anand; Sharma, Hemanta K; Maji, Tarun K

2014-08-01

340

Novel docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles based on PCL-Tween 80 copolymer for cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Background The formulation of docetaxel available for clinical use (Taxotere) contains a high concentration of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80). After incorporation of Tween 80 into poly-?-caprolactone (PCL)-Tween 80 copolymer, the relative amount of Tween 80 should be decreased and the advantages of PCL and Tween 80 should be combined. Methods A novel PCL-Tween 80 copolymer was synthesized from ?-caprolactone and Tween 80 in the presence of stannous octoate as a catalyst via ring opening polymerization. Two types of nanoparticle formulation were made from commercial PCL and a self-synthesized PCL-Tween 80 copolymer using a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. Results The nanoparticles were found by field emission scanning electron microscopy to have a spherical shape and be 200 nm in diameter. The copolymers could encapsulate 10% of the drug in the nanoparticles and release 34.9% of the encapsulated drug over 28 days. PCL-Tween 80 nanoparticles could be internalized into the cells and had higher cellular uptake than the PCL nanoparticles. The drug-loaded PCL-Tween 80 nanoparticles showed better in vitro cytotoxicity towards C6 cancer cells than commercial Taxotere at the same drug concentration. Conclusion Nanoparticles using PCL-Tween 80 copolymer as drug delivery vehicles may have a promising outcome for cancer patients. PMID:22114498

Ma, Yuandong; Zheng, Yi; Zeng, Xiaowei; Jiang, Liqin; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Ranyi; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

2011-01-01

341

Highly luminescent material based on Alq3:Ag nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is an organic semiconductor molecule, widely used as an electron transport layer, light emitting layer in organic light-emitting diodes and a host for fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes. In this work thin films of pure and silver (Ag), cupper (Cu), terbium (Tb) doped Alq3 nanoparticles were synthesized using the physical vapor condensation method. They were fabricated on glass substrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible absorption spectra and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) properties. SEM and AFM results show spherical nanoparticles with size around 70-80 nm. These nanoparticles have almost equal sizes and a homogeneous size distribution. The maximum absorption of Alq3 nanoparticles is observed at 300 nm, while the surface plasmon resonant band of Ag doped sample appears at 450 nm. The PL emission spectra of Tb, Cu and Ag doped Alq3 nanoparticles show a single broad band at around 515 nm, which is similar to that of the pure one, but with enhanced PL intensity. The sample doped with Ag at a concentration ratio of Alq3:Ag = 1:0.8 is found to have the highest PL intensity, which is around 2 times stronger than that of the pure one. This enhancement could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag ions that might have increased the absorption and then the quantum yield. These remarkable result suggest that Alq3 nanoparticles incorporated with Ag ions might be quite useful for future nano-optoelectronic devices. PMID:23653126

Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S; Khan, Zishan H

2013-09-01

342

Nanoparticles in forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

Cantu, Antonio A.

2008-10-01

343

Agglomeration of magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The formation of agglomerates by salt-induced double layer compression of magnetic nanoparticles in the absence and presence of an external magnetic field was investigated experimentally as well as computationally in this study. The structures of the agglomerates were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and proved to be highly porous and composed of large spaces among the branches of a convoluted network. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the branches of such a network were observed to be oriented in no particular direction. In contrast, when the agglomeration process was allowed to occur in the presence of an external magnetic field, these branches appeared to be oriented predominantly in one direction. A modified Discrete Element Method was applied to simulate the agglomeration process of magnetic nanoparticles both in the absence and presence of an external magnetic field. The simulations show that agglomeration occurred by the formation of random clusters of nanoparticles which then joined to form a network. In the presence of anisotropic magnetic forces, these clusters were rotated to align along the direction of the magnetic field and the final network formed consisted largely of elongated branches of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22462837

Lim, Eldin Wee Chuan; Feng, Ruili

2012-03-28

344

49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 393.7...SAFE OPERATION General 393.7 Matter incorporated by reference. (a) Incorporation...Part 393 includes references to certain matter or materials, as listed...

2011-10-01

345

49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 393.7...SAFE OPERATION General 393.7 Matter incorporated by reference. (a) Incorporation...Part 393 includes references to certain matter or materials, as listed...

2014-10-01

346

The Incorporation and Abjection of Official Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the author analyzes two theoretical perspectives--incorporation and abjection--that inform official knowledge generally and high school American history textbooks specifically. While contemporary textbooks increasingly depict the experiences of historically marginalized groups such as women, African Americans, Latinos, American

Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey

2012-01-01

347

Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American

Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

2012-01-01

348

Beyond Classroom Boundaries: Incorporating Context in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) journal periodically devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Incorporating Context in Teaching." Articles include: "Learning Beyond the Classroom: Developing the Community Connection" (Tim Beard); "Smiling through the Turbulence: The Flight Attendant Syndrome and Other Issues of

CATESOL Journal, 1994

1994-01-01

349

Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground

Folley, Milo D.

350

Incorporating Evolutionary Measures into Conservation Prioritization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation prioritization is dominated by the threat status of candidate species. However, species differ markedly in the shared genetic information they embody, and this information is not taken into account if species are prioritized by threat status alone. We developed a system of prioritization that incorporates both threat status and genetic information and applied it to 9546 species of birds

DAVID W. REDDING; ARNE . MOOERS

2006-01-01

351

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01

352

Microwave oscillators incorporating cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported on efforts to develop a commercially-viable high purity X-band signal source incorporating a cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonator. The resonator design is of the whispering gallery type to take advantage of the excellent electromagnetic field confinement offered by this geometry. Complications resulting from the high spurious mode density of this type of resonator have been eliminated by developing

R. C. Taber; C. A. Flory

1995-01-01

353

Tips for Treasurers: The Benefits of Incorporation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that incorporation is one of the best ways for PTAs to protect their officers, volunteers, and staff from being personally responsible or liable for PTA debts and legal obligations while performing PTA business, describing what a corporation is, how a corporation is created, disadvantages to forming a corporation, and legal requirements.

Stansell, Ardith

2001-01-01

354

Flurbiprofen loaded biodegradable nanoparticles for ophtalmic administration.  

PubMed

Poly(lactic/glycolic) acid nanoparticles incorporating flurbiprofen (FB) were prepared by the solvent displacement technique using poloxamer 188 as a stabilizer to improve the availability of the drug for the prevention of the inflammation caused by ocular surgery. A 2(3) + star design was applied to investigate the influence of several factors such as the pH of the aqueous phase, the initial concentration of the stabilizer, and the drug used to prepare the nanoparticles (NPs) on the physicochemical properties (particle size analysis, zeta potential, and drug loading efficiency) of the colloidal system. The best formulations were those prepared at pH 3.5 with a concentration of 1.5 mg/mL of FB and 10 or 20 mg/mL of poloxamer 188. These formulations showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (232.8 and 277.6 nm, respectively) and a good yield of entrapment efficiency (94.60% and 93.55%, respectively). The release behavior of FB from the developed NPs was complete and exhibited a biphasic pattern. Formulations did not show toxicity on ocular tissues. In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in the rabbit eye after topical instillation of sodium arachidonate (SA). A higher decrease of the SA-induced inflammation was obtained for the NP formulations. PMID:16886193

Vega, E; Egea, M A; Valls, O; Espina, M; Garc燰, M L

2006-11-01

355

Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

Speshock, Janice L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Szymanski, Eric R.; Hussain, Saber M.

2010-12-01

356

Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

Speshock, Janice L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Szymanski, Eric R.; Hussain, Saber M.

2011-12-01

357

Quantification of water exchange kinetics for targeted PARACEST perfluorocarbon nanoparticles.  

PubMed

PARACEST (PARAmagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer) agents offer the ability to generate "contrast on demand", negating the need to image before contrast agent injection. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles can deliver very large payloads of PARACEST agents, lowering the effective detection limit for molecular imaging of sparse biomarkers. Also, the PFC core provides a quantitative (19)F signal for measuring particle binding with high signal intensity and no background signal. (19)F quantization coupled with mathematical modeling of the PARACEST signal showed that incorporating PARACEST chelates onto the nanoparticle surface reduces the bound water lifetime and diminishes the available contrast to noise ratio compared to the parent small molecule PARACEST chelate. PARACEST nanoparticles were targeted to fibrin, an early biomarker for atherosclerotic plaque rupture, and bound to the surface of in vitro clots, yielding a detection limit of 2.30 nM at 11.7T. When the particles bind to a target surface, the image contrast is higher than predicted from phantom experiments, perhaps due to improved water exchange kinetics. We demonstrated that PARACEST PFC nanoparticles can provide two unique signatures, (19)F and PARACEST, for quantitative targeted molecular imaging of fibrin. PMID:21751273

Cai, Kejia; Kiefer, Garry E; Caruthers, Shelton D; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M; Winter, Patrick M

2012-02-01

358

Quantification of water exchange kinetics for targeted PARACEST perfluorocarbon nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

PARACEST (PARAmagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer) agents offer the ability to generate contrast on demand, negating the need to image before contrast agent injection. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles can deliver very large payloads of PARACEST agents, lowering the effective detection limit for molecular imaging of sparse biomarkers. Also, the PFC core provides a quantitative 19F signal for measuring particle binding with high signal intensity and no background signal. 19F quantization coupled with mathematical modeling of the PARACEST signal showed that incorporating PARACEST chelates onto the nanoparticle surface reduces the bound water lifetime and diminishes the available contrast to noise ratio compared to the parent small molecule PARACEST chelate. PARACEST nanoparticles were targeted to fibrin, an early biomarker for atherosclerotic plaque rupture, and bound to the surface of in vitro clots, 2 yielding a detection limit of 2.30 nM at 11.7T. When the particles bind to a target surface the image contrast is higher than predicted from phantom experiments, perhaps due to improved water exchange kinetics. We have demonstrated that PARACEST PFC nanoparticles can provide two unique signatures, 19F and PARACEST, for quantitative targeted molecular imaging of fibrin. PMID:21751273

Cai, Kejia; Kiefer, Garry E.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Winter, Patrick M.

2013-01-01

359

Three-dimensional hydrogel constructs for exposing cells to nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In evaluating nanoparticle risks to human health, there is often a disconnect between results obtained from in vitro toxicology studies and those from in vivo activity, prompting the need for improved methods to rapidly assess the hazards of engineered nanomaterials. In vitro studies of nanoparticle toxicology often rely on high doses and short exposure periods due to the difficulty of maintaining monolayer cell cultures over extended time periods as well as the difficulty of maintaining nanoparticle dispersions within the culture environment. In this work, tissue-engineered constructs are investigated as a platform for providing doses of nanoparticles over different exposure periods to cells within a three-dimensional environment that can be tuned to mimic in vivo conditions. Uptake of quantum dots (QDs) by model neural cells was first investigated in a high-dose exposure scenario, resulting in a strong concentration-dependent uptake of carboxyl-functionalised QDs. Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel scaffolds with varying mesh sizes were then investigated for their ability to support cell survival and proliferation. Cells were co-encapsulated with carboxyl-functionalised poly(ethylene glycol)-coated QDs at a lower dose than is typical for monolayer cultures. Although the QDs leach from the hydrogel within 24 h, they are also incorporated by cells within the scaffold, enabling the use of these constructs in future studies of cell behaviour and function. PMID:23611448

Mansfield, Elisabeth; Oreskovic, Tammy L; Rentz, Nikki S; Jeerage, Kavita M

2014-06-01

360

Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenol < k2-nitrophenol < k3-nitrophenol. Thermal conductivity is measured as a function of volume fraction and it is observed that the incorporation of the alloy nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

Meena Kumari, M.; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

2015-02-01

361

Controlled Assembly of Viral Surface Proteins into Biological Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, therapeutic use of engineered particles on the 1-1,000 nm scale has gained popularity; these nanoparticles have been developed for use in drug delivery, gene therapy, vaccine preparation, and diagnostics. Often, viral proteins are utilized in the design of such species, and outlined here are completed studies on the in vitro assembly of nanoparticles derived from two very different viral systems. The incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein precursor gp160 into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs is discussed as a potential platform for vaccine design; efforts were successful, however yield currently limits the practical application of this approach. The utility of bacteriophage lambda procapsids and virus-like particles in therapeutic nanoparticle design is also outlined, as are efforts toward the structural and thermodynamic characterization of a urea-triggered capsid maturation event. It is demonstrated that lambda virus-like particles can be assembled from purified capsid and scaffolding proteins, and that these particles undergo urea-triggered maturation and in vitro decoration protein addition similar to that seen in lambda procapsids. The studies on lambda provided materials for the further development of nanoparticles potentially useful in a clinical setting, as well as shedding light on critical viral assembly and maturation events as they may take place in vivo.

Nakatani-Webster, Eri

362

Chapter 6 Associations between Iron Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticle Growth and Metal Adsorption\\/Structural Incorporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of metal ions and oxyanions with nanoscale mineral phases has not been extensively studied despite the increased recognition of their prevalence in natural systems as a significant component of geomedia. A combination of macroscopic uptake studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of As(V), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) onto nanoparticulate goethite (?-FeOOH) as a function of aging time at

C. S. Kim; C. J. Lentini; G. A. Waychunas

2007-01-01

363

RF/microwave absorbing nanoparticles and hyperthermia.  

E-print Network

??The primary purpose of this work was to evaluate the capability of nanoparticles to transform electromagnetic energy at microwave frequencies into therapeutic heating. Targeted nanoparticles, (more)

Cook, Jason Ray

2010-01-01

364

Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coated gold nanoparticles is greatly enhanced in comparison to disperse silica-coated gold nanoparticles. Because cellular uptake and endocytosis of nanoparticles results in their aggregation, these results have important implications for the application of plasmonic metallic nanoparticles towards quantitative molecular imaging.

Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2013-01-01

365

Evaluation of monolayer protected metal nanoparticle technology  

E-print Network

Self assembling nanostructured nanoparticles represent a new class of synthesized materials with unique functionality. Such monolayer protected metal nanoparticles are capable of resisting protein adsorption, and if utilized ...

Wu, Diana J

2005-01-01

366

POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Targeted polymeric nanoparticles  

E-print Network

systems are polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. Controlled release polymer technology impacts every drugs for combination therapy. The surface engineering of these nanoparticles may yield them "stealth

Alpay, S. Pamir

367

Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coated gold nanoparticles is greatly enhanced in comparison to disperse silica-coated gold nanoparticles. Because cellular uptake and endocytosis of nanoparticles results in their aggregation, these results have important implications for the application of plasmonic metallic nanoparticles towards quantitative molecular imaging. PMID:23288414

Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2013-01-01

368

Some optical and catalytic properties of metallic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials have been the focus of many previous publications and studies. This fact is due to the wealth of new and tunable properties that exist when a material is confined in size. This thesis discusses some of those properties pertaining to metallic nanoparticles. The primarily focus is on the plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles with a final chapter discussing nanocatalysis and the nature of nanocatalytic reactions. The strong electromagnetic field that is induced at the surface of a plasmonic nanoparticle can be utilized for many important applications, including spectroscopic enhancements for molecular sensors and electromagnetic waveguides for sub-wavelength light manipulation. For many of these applications, it is necessary to use two or more nanoparticles in close proximity with overlapping plasmonic fields. Knowledge of how these overlapping fields are affected by the particle orientation, size, and shape is critically important, not only in understanding the fundamental properties of plasmons but also in designing future architectures that employ plasmonic particles. The field of metallic nanoparticles is introduced from its beginning, with artistic use as early as the 4th century AD through current applications and understanding. The broad spectrum of current methodologies for fabricating nanoparticles is discussed, from top down methods using lithography and from bottom up methods using metal salt reduction in solution. There are several methods used in this thesis, all of which are discussed in great detail, with some details pertaining to the specific instrumentation used here. The first study is on the transfer of surface supported gold nanoprisms from a substrate into solution using photo-thermal heating with a femtosecond pulse coincident with the plasmon resonance frequency of the nanoprisms. The mechanism of transfer is discovered to be due to super heating of solvent molecules dissolved at the particle-substrate interface. This process is studied as a function of irradiance fluence and solvent. The stability of the unprotected nanoprisms in solution is discussed. This technique has applications for creating a colloidal suspension of nanoparticle without a surfactant layer covering the surface. The particles can be chemically functionalized with any desired moiety for specific solution phase applications. The second study is on the fundamentals of plasmonic near-field coupling between two plasmonic nanoparticles as a function of the nanoparticle size, shape, and orientation. Experimental results using electron beam lithography fabricated samples are used to better understand the plasmonic coupling between dimers. Previously, the coupling between plasmonic fields around nanoparticles has been described as a near-exponential decay dependence on interparticle separation. This decay was proposed to be consistent among all sizes and shapes of nanoparticles, which was quantitatively measured using the best-fit decay length in units of the nanoparticle size. Experimental proof is presented of the shape dependence of this decay length, which is roughly 50% greater for nanoprisms than for nanodiscs, nanospheres, and nanoellipses. This was shown using simulated and experimental data. Using simulated results, the coupling decay length was shown to be independent of size for all nanoparticle shapes examined. Additionally, the effect of particle orientation on the coupling of the induced nearfields of the plasmonic particles is intensely investigated. Systematic studies using a combination of experimental samples and computer simulations are presented that examine the role of one particle's orientation to another within a plasmonic dimer system. This dependence is compared to the mathematically derived dependence and shown to be in excellent agreement. The plasmon hybridization method is given as a straightforward method to understand and predict the effect of plasmon near-field coupling on orientation. Previous methods used to understand the effect of separation on the plasmon coupling are incorporated i

Tabor, Christopher Eugene

369

Nanoparticles for Detection and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based platforms for identification of chemical and biological agents offer substantial benefits to biomedical and environmental science. These platforms benefit from the availability of a wide variety of core materials as well as the unique physical and chemical properties of these nanoscale materials. This review surveys some of the emerging approaches in the field of nanoparticle based detection systems, highlighting the nanoparticle based screening methods for metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and biologically relevant small molecules. PMID:19913581

Agasti, Sarit S.; Rana, Subinoy; Park, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Chae Kyu; You, Chang-Cheng; Rotello, Vincent M.

2009-01-01

370

Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a AbstractA review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao

371

Magnetocaloric effect in ferrite nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is reported in two different types of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticle systemscobalt ferrite and manganese zinc ferrite with mean size around 5 and 15nm, respectively. While CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation, the Mn0.68Zn0.25Fe2.07O4 (MZFO) nanoparticles were prepared by reverse micelle technique using AOT as surfactant. Our results indicate that the change

P. Poddar; J. Gass; D. J. Rebar; S. Srinath; H. Srikanth; S. A. Morrison; E. E. Carpenter

2006-01-01

372

Probing the switching mechanism in ZnO nanoparticle memristors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the resistance switching mechanism in memristors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles using electroabsorption (EA) spectroscopy. In this EA experiment, we incorporate a small amount of low-bandgap polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole), as a probe molecule in ZnO-nanoparticle memristors. By characterizing this polymer, we can study the change of built-in potential (VBI) in the device during the resistance switching process without disturbing the resistance state by the EA probe light. Our results show that VBI increases when the device is switched to the high resistance state, suggesting a shift of effective workfunction of the electrode. Thus, we attribute the resistance switching to the field-dependent migration of oxygen vacancies associated with the adsorption and desorption of oxygen molecules at the Al/ZnO interface. This process results in the modulation of the interfacial injection barrier, which governs the resistance state of the device.

Li, Cheng; Beirne, Gareth J.; Kamita, Gen; Lakhwani, Girish; Wang, Jianpu; Greenham, Neil C.

2014-09-01

373

Room-temperature ferromagnetism in hydrogenated ZnO nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hydrogen doping on the magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles was investigated. Hydrogen was incorporated by annealing under 5% H{sub 2} in Ar ambient at 700?蚓. Room-temperature ferromagnetism was induced in hydrogenated ZnO nanoparticles, and the observed ferromagnetism could be switched between on and off states through hydrogen annealing and oxygen annealing process, respectively. It was found that Zn vacancy and OH bonding complex (V{sub Zn}?+?OH) was crucial to the observed ferromagnetism by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy analysis. Based on first-principles calculations, V{sub Zn}?+?OH was favorable to be presented due to the low formation energy. Meanwhile, this configuration could lead to a magnetic moment of 0.57??{sub B}. The Raman and photoluminescence measurements excluded the possibility of oxygen vacancy as the origin of the ferromagnetism.

Xue, Xudong; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Zhu; Wu, Yichu, E-mail: ycwu@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2014-01-21

374

Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles via environment-benign atmospheric microplasma electrochemistry.  

PubMed

Atmospheric-pressure microplasma-assisted electrochemistry was used to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for plasmonic applications. It is shown that the size and dispersion of the nanoparticles can be controlled by variation of the microplasma-assisted electrochemical process parameters such as electrolyte concentration and temperature. Moreover, Ag NP synthesis is also achieved in the absence of a stabilizer, with additional control over the dispersion and NP formation possible. As the microplasma directly reduces Ag ions in solution, the incorporation of toxic reducing agents into the electrolytic solution is unnecessary, making this an environmentally friendly fabrication technique with strong potential for the design and growth of plasmonic nanostructures for a variety of applications. These experiments therefore link microplasma-assisted electrochemical synthesis parameters with plasmonic characteristics. PMID:23403974

Huang, X Z; Zhong, X X; Lu, Y; Li, Y S; Rider, A E; Furman, S A; Ostrikov, K

2013-03-01

375

Picomolar sensitivity MRI and photoacoustic imaging of cobalt nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Multimodality imaging based on complementary detection principles has broad clinical applications and promises to improve the accuracy of medical diagnosis. This means that a tracer particle advantageously incorporates multiple functionalities into a single delivery vehicle. In the present work, we explore a unique combination of MRI and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to detect picomolar concentrations of nanoparticles. The nanoconstruct consists of ferromagnetic (Co) particles coated with gold (Au) for biocompatibility and a unique shape that enables optical absorption over a broad range of frequencies. The end result is a dual-modality probe useful for the detection of trace amounts of nanoparticles in biological tissues, in which MRI provides volume detection, whereas PAT performs edge detection. PMID:19251659

Bouchard, Louis-S.; Anwar, M. Sabieh; Liu, Gang L.; Hann, Byron; Xie, Z. Harry; Gray, Joe W.; Wang, Xueding; Pines, Alexander; Chen, Fanqing Frank

2009-01-01

376

Multispectral guided fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We report on improved image detectability for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles doped with rare-earth elements. Core-shell NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}@NaYF{sub 4} upconverting nanoparticles were synthesized through a stoichiometric method. The Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} sensitizer-activator pair yielded two anti-Stokes shifted fluorescence emission bands at 540?nm and 660?nm, here used to a priori estimate the fluorescence source depth with sub-millimeter precision. A spatially varying regularization incorporated the a priori fluorescence source depth estimation into the tomography reconstruction scheme. Tissue phantom experiments showed both an improved resolution and contrast in the reconstructed images as compared to not using any a priori information.

Svenmarker, Pontus, E-mail: pontus.svenmarker@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Ume University, SE-901 87 Ume (Sweden); Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Ume University, SE-901 87 Ume (Sweden); Xu, Can T.; Liu, Haichun; Wu, Xia; Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2014-02-17

377

Towards thiol functionalization of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes using gold nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Template-directed synthesis is a promising route to realize vanadate-based 1-D nanostructures, an example of which is the formation of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes and associated nanostructures. In this work, we report the interchange of long-chained alkyl amines with alkyl thiols. This reaction was followed using gold nanoparticles prepared by the Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD) method with an average diameter of {approx}0.9nm and a stability of {approx}85 days. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanotubes (VOx-NTs) with lengths of {approx}2{mu}m and internal hollow diameters of 20-100nm were synthesized and functionalized in a Au-acetone colloid with a nominal concentration of {approx}4x10{sup -3}mol dm{sup -3}. The interchange reaction with dodecylamine is found only to occur in polar solvents and incorporation of the gold nanoparticles is not observed in the presence of n-decane.

Lavayen, V. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); O'Dwyer, C. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)]. E-mail: codwyer@tyndall.ie; Cardenas, G. [Departamento de Polimeros, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Gonzalez, G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Chile, P.O. Box 653, Santiago (Chile); Sotomayor Torres, C.M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

2007-04-12

378

Self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) together with harmless visible light of the appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. Because many PS are hydrophobic molecules prone to aggregation, numerous drug delivery vehicles have been tested to solubilize these molecules, render them biocompatible and enhance the ease of administration after intravenous injection. The recent rise in nanotechnology has markedly expanded the range of these nanoparticulate delivery vehicles beyond the well-established liposomes and micelles. Self-assembled nanoparticles are formed by judicious choice of monomer building blocks that spontaneously form a well-oriented 3-dimensional structure that incorporates the PS when subjected to the appropriate conditions. This self-assembly process is governed by a subtle interplay of forces on the molecular level. This review will cover the state of the art in the preparation and use of self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles within the context of PDT. PMID:24348377

Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kumar, Raj; Hamblin, Michael R.

2013-01-01

379

Theoretical study of the interparticle interaction of nanoparticles randomly dispersed on a substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal nanoparticles exhibit the phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) due to the collective oscillation of their conduction electrons, which is induced by external electromagnetic radiation. The finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) method is widely used as an electromagnetic field analysis tool for nanoparticles. Although the influence of interparticle interactions is taken into consideration in the FDTD calculation for the plural particles configuration, the FDTD calculation of a random configuration is very difficult, particularly in the case of non-spherical particles. In this study, a theoretical calculation method incorporating interparticle interactions on a substrate with various particle shapes and sizes on a subwavelength scale is developed. The interparticle interaction is incorporated following FDTD calculation with an isolated single particle. This is explained systematically using a signal flow graph. Moreover, the mirror image effect of the substrate and the retardation effect are also taken into account in this method. The validity of this method is verified by calculations for simple arrangements of nanoparticles. In addition, it is confirmed that the method can improve the accuracy of predicted experimental results for Au nanoparticles prepared by the sputtering method, in terms of the plasmon peak wavelength. This method may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling nanoparticle characteristics, such as the size, shape, and distribution density.

Horikoshi, S.; Kato, T.

2015-01-01

380

Thermally conductive of nanofluid from surfactant doped polyaniline nanoparticle and deep eutectic ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-size particles in a fluid. Spherical shape dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid doped polyaniline (DBSA-PANI) nanoparticles were synthesized via reverse micellar polymerization in isooctane with average size of 50 nm- 60 nm. The aim of study is to explore the possibility of using deep eutectic ionic liquid (DES) as a new base fluid in heat transfer application. DES was prepared by heating up choline chloride and urea with stirring. DES based nanofluids containing DBSA-PANI nanoparticles were prepared using two-step method. Thermal conductivity of nanofluids was measured using KD2 Pro Thermal Properties Analyzer. When incorporated with DBSA-PANI nanoparticles, DES with water was found to exhibit a bigger increase in thermal conductivity compared to that of the pure DES. The thermal conductivity of DES with water was increased by 4.67% when incorporated with 0.2 wt% of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles at 50蚓. The enhancement in thermal conductivity of DES based nanofluids is possibly related to Brownian motion of nanoparticles as well as micro-convection of base fluids and also interaction between dopants and DES ions.

Siong, Chew Tze; Daik, Rusli; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul

2014-09-01

381

A Post-synthetic Modification of IIVI Nanoparticles to Create Tb3+ and Eu3+ Luminophores  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel method for creating luminescent lanthanide-containing nanoparticles in which the lanthanide cations are sensitized by the semiconductor nanoparticles electronic excitation. In contrast to previous strategies, this new approach creates such materials by addition of external salt to a solution of fully formed nanoparticles. We demonstrate this post-synthetic modification for the lanthanide luminescence sensitization of two visible emitting lanthanides (Ln), Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions, through ZnS nanoparticles in which the cations were added post-synthetically as external Ln(NO3)3暖H2O salt to solutions of ZnS nanoparticles. The post-synthetically treated ZnS nanoparticle systems display Tb3+ and Eu3+ luminescence intensities that are comparable to those of doped Zn(Ln)S nanoparticles, which we reported previously (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 115, 40314041). A comparison with the synthetically doped systems is used to contrast the spatial distribution of the lanthanide ions, bulk versus surface localized. The post-synthetic strategy described in this work is fundamentally different from the synthetic incorporation (doping) approach and offers a rapid and less synthetically demanding protocol for Tb3+:ZnS and Eu3+:ZnS luminophores, thereby facilitating their use in a broad range of applications. PMID:23997842

Mukherjee, Prasun; Sloan, Robin F.; Shade, Chad M.; Waldeck, David H.; Petoud, St廧hane

2013-01-01

382

Supramolecular Nanoparticles for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decades, significant efforts have been devoted to explore the use of various nanoparticle-based systems in the field of nanomedicine, including molecular imaging and therapy. Supramolecular synthetic approaches have attracted lots of attention due to their flexibility, convenience, and modularity for producing nanoparticles. In this dissertation, the developmental story of our size-controllable supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) will be discussed, as well as their use in specific biomedical applications. To achieve the self-assembly of SNPs, the well-characterized molecular recognition system (i.e., cyclodextrin/adamantane recognition) was employed. The resulting SNPs, which were assembled from three molecular building blocks, possess incredible stability in various physiological conditions, reversible size-controllability and dynamic disassembly that were exploited for various in vitro and in vivo applications. An advantage of using the supramolecular approach is that it enables the convenient incorporation of functional ligands onto SNP surface that confers functionality ( e.g., targeting, cell penetration) to SNPs. We utilized SNPs for molecular imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) by introducing reporter systems (i.e., radio-isotopes, MR contrast agents, and fluorophores) into SNPs. On the other hand, the incorporation of various payloads, including drugs, genes and proteins, into SNPs showed improved delivery performance and enhanced therapeutic efficacy for these therapeutic agents. Leveraging the powers of (i) a combinatorial synthetic approach based on supramolecular assembly and (ii) a digital microreactor, a rapid developmental pathway was developed that is capable of screening SNP candidates for the ideal structural and functional properties that deliver optimal performance. Moreover, SNP-based theranostic delivery systems that combine reporter systems and therapeutic payloads into a single SNP for both diagnosis and therapy were generated. The results show that this type of theranostic SNPs may have a great contribution in the optimization of therapeutic efficacy for individual patients in clinical translation in the near future. It is anticipated that our supramolecular synthetic approach could be adopted to assemble various SNP-based delivery agents for molecular diagnostics and therapeutics that pave the way toward personalized medicine.

Chen, Kuan-Ju

383

Antibiofilm Properties of Silver and Gold Incorporated PU, PCLm, PC and PMMA Nanocomposites under Two Shear Conditions  

PubMed Central

Silver and gold nanoparticles (of average size ?2027 nm) were incorporated in PU (Polyurethane), PCLm (Polycaprolactam), PC (polycarbonate) and PMMA (Polymethylmethaacrylate) by swelling and casting methods under ambient conditions. In the latter method the nanoparticle would be present not only on the surface, but also inside the polymer. These nanoparticles were prepared initially by using a cosolvent, THF. PU and PCLm were dissolved and swollen with THF. PC and PMMA were dissolved in CHCl3 and here the cosolvent, THF, acted as an intermediate between water and CHCl3. FTIR indicated that the interaction between the polymer and the nanoparticle was through the functional group in the polymer. The formation of E.coli biofilm on these nanocomposites under low (in a Drip flow biofilm reactor) and high shear (in a Shaker) conditions indicated that the biofilm growth was higher (twice) in the former than in the latter (ratio of shear force?=?15). A positive correlation between the contact angle (of the virgin surface) and the number of colonies, carbohydrate and protein attached on it were observed. Ag nanocomposites exhibited better antibiofilm properties than Au. Bacterial attachment was highest on PC and least on PU nanocomposite. Casting method appeared to be better than swelling method in reducing the attachment (by a factor of 2). Composites reduced growth of organisms by six orders of magnitude, and protein and carbohydrate by 25 times. This study indicates that these nanocomposites may be suitable for implant applications. PMID:23675476

Sawant, Shilpa N.; Selvaraj, Veerapandian; Prabhawathi, Veluchamy; Doble, Mukesh

2013-01-01

384

Antibiofilm properties of silver and gold incorporated PU, PCLm, PC and PMMA nanocomposites under two shear conditions.  

PubMed

Silver and gold nanoparticles (of average size ?20-27 nm) were incorporated in PU (Polyurethane), PCLm (Polycaprolactam), PC (polycarbonate) and PMMA (Polymethylmethaacrylate) by swelling and casting methods under ambient conditions. In the latter method the nanoparticle would be present not only on the surface, but also inside the polymer. These nanoparticles were prepared initially by using a cosolvent, THF. PU and PCLm were dissolved and swollen with THF. PC and PMMA were dissolved in CHCl? and here the cosolvent, THF, acted as an intermediate between water and CHCl?. FTIR indicated that the interaction between the polymer and the nanoparticle was through the functional group in the polymer. The formation of E.coli biofilm on these nanocomposites under low (in a Drip flow biofilm reactor) and high shear (in a Shaker) conditions indicated that the biofilm growth was higher (twice) in the former than in the latter (ratio of shear force?=?15). A positive correlation between the contact angle (of the virgin surface) and the number of colonies, carbohydrate and protein attached on it were observed. Ag nanocomposites exhibited better antibiofilm properties than Au. Bacterial attachment was highest on PC and least on PU nanocomposite. Casting method appeared to be better than swelling method in reducing the attachment (by a factor of 2). Composites reduced growth of organisms by six orders of magnitude, and protein and carbohydrate by 2-5 times. This study indicates that these nanocomposites may be suitable for implant applications. PMID:23675476

Sawant, Shilpa N; Selvaraj, Veerapandian; Prabhawathi, Veluchamy; Doble, Mukesh

2013-01-01

385

Photoluminescence by Interstellar Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Dust grains in interstellar space are an all-pervasive component of the Universe that affect our perception of virtually every cosmic phenomenon. They play important roles in processes like star formation, formation of molecules and formation of terrestrial planets, to name just a few. Yet, their nature, size, structure, and composition are only poorly understood. I shall report on new investigations of optical luminescence emanating from dust grains that reveal the presence of nanoparticle components of dust, most likely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tiny semiconductor nanocrystals, e.g. silicon nanoparticles. Coordinated laboratory studies of such small particles would greatly aid our efforts of arriving at definitive identifications of the luminescent astronomical dust sources.

Witt, Adolf N. (University of Toledo) [University of Toledo

2004-04-21

386

Magnetic Nanoparticle Sensors  

PubMed Central

Many types of biosensors employ magnetic nanoparticles (diameter = 5300 nm) or magnetic particles (diameter = 3005,000 nm) which have been surface functionalized to recognize specific molecular targets. Here we cover three types of biosensors that employ different biosensing principles, magnetic materials, and instrumentation. The first type consists of magnetic relaxation switch assay-sensors, which are based on the effects magnetic particles exert on water proton relaxation rates. The second type consists of magnetic particle relaxation sensors, which determine the relaxation of the magnetic moment within the magnetic particle. The third type is magnetoresistive sensors, which detect the presence of magnetic particles on the surface of electronic devices that are sensitive to changes in magnetic fields on their surface. Recent improvements in the design of magnetic nanoparticles (and magnetic particles), together with improvements in instrumentation, suggest that magnetic material-based biosensors may become widely used in the future. PMID:22408498

Koh, Isaac; Josephson, Lee

2009-01-01

387

Multicomponent periodic nanoparticle superlattices.  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we review the state-of-the-art in the preparation and characterization of multicomponent self-assembled superlattices of colloidal nanoparticles with core sizes in the range of 2-20 nm and interparticle spacing less than 2 nm down to intimate contact stemming from sintering. Several aspects of the field are discussed, including: structural organization, the role of particle size distribution, key interparticle forces at play, and methods of investigation of the structures. Contrary to the extensively studied colloidal crystals composed of microscale particles, the nanoparticles possess unique size-dependent properties, such as electronic, optical, or magnetic, which when combined into periodic structures can potentially lead to new collective states stemming from precise positioning of the nanocolloids. As such, we examine a number of emerging applications of this new class of metamaterials. Finally, we speculate on the potential impact of these materials, the new directions, and the challenges for the researchers.

Podsiadlo, P.; Krylova, G. V.; Demortiere, A.; Shevchenko, E. V. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

2011-01-01

388

Nanoparticles for neuroimaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of nanotechnology has introduced a variety of novel exciting possibilities into the medical and clinical field. Nanoparticles, ultra-small object sized between 100 and 1 nm, are promising diagnostic tools for various diseases among other devices, thanks to the possibility of their functionalization allowing the selective targeting of organs, tissues and cells and to facilitate their transport to primary target organs. However, brain targeting represents a still unresolved challenge due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, a tightly packed layer of endothelial cells that prevents unwanted substances entering the central nervous system. We review a range of nanoparticles suitable for in vivo diagnostic imaging of neurodegenerative diseases and brain disorders, highlighting the possibility to potentially increase their efficiency and kinetics of brain-targeting. We also review a range of imaging techniques with an emphasis on most recently introduced molecular imaging modalities, their current status and future potential.

Re, F.; Moresco, R.; Masserini, M.

2012-02-01

389

Josephson Phase Qubits Incorporating Novel Coherent Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Josephson phase qubit is an attractive candidate for scalable quantum information processing in the solid state; however, qubit coherence is currently limited by coupling to spurious microscopic defects in the materials used to realize the circuit. Here we demonstrate that the incorporation of crystalline, defect-free dielectrics into the circuit leads to a dramatic enhancement of energy relaxation times. In addition we describe the realization of improved superconductor-insulator interfaces with extremely low levels of excess low-frequency flux noise, and we discuss efforts to incorporate these interfaces into the qubit circuit in order to extend pure dephasing times. We describe qubit fabrication and tomographic characterization and discuss ultimate limits to qubit coherence.

Patel, U.; Gao, Y.; Hover, D.; Ribeill, G.; Sendelbach, S.; McDermott, R.

2013-03-01

390

Nanoparticles in dermatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology have allowed the manufacturing of elaborated nanometer-sized particles for\\u000a various biomedical applications. A broad spectrum of particles, extending from various lipid nanostructures such as liposomes\\u000a and solid lipid nanoparticles, to metal, nanocrystalline and polymer particles have already been tested as drug delivery systems\\u000a in different animal models with remarkable results, promising an extensive

Dimitrios Papakostas; Fiorenza Rancan; Wolfram Sterry; Ulrike Blume-Peytavi; Annika Vogt

391

Metallic Nanoparticles: Biological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among different nanomaterials employed for biomedical research, metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to be the most\\u000a suitable. Based on their unique optical, physical, and electrical properties, metallic NPs have found significant applications\\u000a in a wide spectrum of biomedical utilities like imaging, sensing, drug delivery, and gene targeting. Reports from our lab\\u000a and others suggest that some of these NPs

Sunil K. Singh; Siddhartha Shrivastava; Debabrata Dash

392

Engineering Pharmaceutical Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Technology #0;z Supercritical Fluids #0;z Polymer Nanoparticles #0;z Molecular Technology/Polyplexes #0;z Block copolymers ? micelles #0;z Liposomes/Polymersomes #0;z Polymer/Drug conjugates #0;z Berkland Lab 14 Milling/Spraying Technology 15 Wet milling... of poorly soluble drug #0;z Amprenavair ? HIV protease inhibitor #0;z Formulated with Vitamin E TGPS to improve pharmacological properties (solubility, permeability, etc. Micelle Labs, Inc. ~40 nm diameter 41 Micelles accumulate in tumors through...

Berkland, Cory

2006-10-26

393

Aptamer-Gated Nanoparticles for Smart Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are functional nucleic acid sequences which can bind specific targets. An artificial combinatorial methodology can identify aptamer sequences for any target molecule, from ions to whole cells. Drug delivery systems seek to increase efficacy and reduce side-effects by concentrating the therapeutic agents at specific disease sites in the body. This is generally achieved by specific targeting of inactivated drug molecules. Aptamers which can bind to various cancer cell types selectively and with high affinity have been exploited in a variety of drug delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. Recent progress in selection of cell-specific aptamers has provided new opportunities in targeted drug delivery. Especially functionalization of nanoparticles with such aptamers has drawn major attention in the biosensor and biomedical areas. Moreover, nucleic acids are recognized as an attractive building materials in nanomachines because of their unique molecular recognition properties and structural features. A active controlled delivery of drugs once targeted to a disease site is a major research challenge. Stimuli-responsive gating is one way of achieving controlled release of nanoparticle cargoes. Recent reports incorporate the structural properties of aptamers in controlled release systems of drug delivering nanoparticles. In this review, the strategies for using functional nucleic acids in creating smart drug delivery devices will be explained. The main focus will be on aptamer-incorporated nanoparticle systems for drug delivery purposes in order to assess the future potential of aptamers in the therapeutic area. Special emphasis will be given to the very recent progress in controlled drug release based on molecular gating achieved with aptamers.

Ozalp, Veli Cengiz; Eyidogan, Fusun; Oktem, Huseyin Avni

2011-01-01

394

Composite coatings incorporating solid lubricant phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of incorporating a solid lubricant, silver (Ag), within a hard carbide film for vacuum tribology applications\\u000a is investigated in this paper. SiC\\/Ag and HfC\\/Ag films were deposited by magnetron cosputtering at 200 ?C onto Si and 440C\\u000a steel substrates. The composition, phase structure, and morphology in these films was examined using x-ray diffraction, scanning\\u000a electron microscopy, and x-ray

James E. Krzanowski; J. L. Endrino; J. J. Nainaparampil; J. S. Zabinski

2004-01-01

395

Oxygen incorporation in acceptor-doped perovskites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen is experimentally known to be incorporated in acceptor-doped perovskites at high temperatures, leading to a hole conductivity proportional to pO21/4 and increasing with temperature [(1)/(2)O2+VO?OOX+2h]. Either this high-temperature incorporation is thermodynamically favored by temperature, suggesting an endothermic process (?H0 > 0), or it is exothermic. In the latter case, since it is obviously associated with a ?S0 < 0, the process should be favorable only at low temperatures, except if kinetically blocked. To examine this phenomenon, the reaction of O2 incorporation into the acceptor-doped perovskites BaSnO3 and BaZrO3, doped by trivalent dopants (Ga, Sc, In, Y), according to BaSn/Zr1-xMxO3-x/2+x/4O2?BaSn/Zr1-xMxO3, is studied by density-functional calculations for a high dopant concentration (x=0.25). In this process, the charged vacancies VO resulting from the charge compensation produced by doping, are filled with oxygen atoms, yielding a metallic compound with holes. It is found to be exothermic in all cases, showing that these acceptor-doped perovskites are able to incorporate oxygen at low temperatures, whereas the reaction is unfavorable above a given temperature, whose value is discussed. At any rate, it is suggested that the process is kinetically blocked at low temperatures due to very slow thermally activated vacancy diffusion. A thermochemical approach is presented that tentatively explains why the hole conductivity increases with temperature at high temperatures, although the hole concentration decreases, yielding a model compatible with experimental observations and theoretical calculations.

B憝illon, Emile; Dezanneau, Guilhem; Geneste, Gr嶲ory

2011-05-01

396

Incorporating nutritional considerations when addressing food insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the challenges of global food security will benefit from the simultaneous incorporation of nutritional priorities\\u000a that contribute to the good health of populations. Inclusion of nutritional considerations, when increasing availability and\\u000a access to food, broadens the scope and objectives of agriculture and food production and thus contributes to an integrated\\u000a concept of food and nutrition security. The poor quality

Prakash Shetty

2009-01-01

397

Reconstitutable nanoparticle superlattices.  

PubMed

Colloidal self-assembly predominantly results in lattices that are either: (1) fixed in the solid state and not amenable to additional modification, or (2) in solution, capable of dynamic adjustment, but difficult to transition to other environments. Accordingly, approaches to both dynamically adjust the interparticle spacing of nanoparticle superlattices and reversibly transfer superlattices between solution-phase and solid state environments are limited. In this manuscript, we report the reversible contraction and expansion of nanoparticles within immobilized monolayers, surface-assembled superlattices, and free-standing single crystal superlattices through dehydration and subsequent rehydration. Interestingly, DNA contraction upon dehydration occurs in a highly uniform manner, which allows access to spacings as small as 4.6 nm and as much as a 63% contraction in the volume of the lattice. This enables one to deliberately control interparticle spacings over a 4-46 nm range and to preserve solution-phase lattice symmetry in the solid state. This approach could be of use in the study of distance-dependent properties of nanoparticle superlattices and for long-term superlattice preservation. PMID:24641553

Radha, Boya; Senesi, Andrew J; O'Brien, Matthew N; Wang, Mary X; Auyeung, Evelyn; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-01-01

398

Characterization of starch nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

Szymo?ska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

2009-01-01

399

Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments  

SciTech Connect

We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. (Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa (USA))

1990-08-15

400

Incorporation of bioactive materials into integrated systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia is exploring two classes of integrated systems involving bioactive materials: 1) microfluidic systems that can be used to manipulate biomolecules for applications ranging from counter-terrorism to drug delivery systems, and 2) fluidic systems in which active biomolecules such as motor proteins provide specific functions such as active transport. An example of the first class involves the development of a reversible protein trap based on the integration of the thermally-switchable polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM) into a micro-hotplate device. To exemplify the second class, we describe the technical challenges associated with integrating microtubules and motor proteins into microfluidic systems for: 1) the active transport of nanoparticle cargo, or 2) templated growth of high-aspect ratio nanowires. These examples illustrate the functions of bioactive materials, synthesis and fabrication issues, mechanisms for switching surface chemistry and active transport, and new techniques such as the interfacial force microscope (IFM) that can be used to characterize bioactive surfaces.

Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kim, Byung-Il; Boal, Andrew K.; Bachand, George D.; Rivera, Susan B.; Bauer, Joseph M.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

2003-10-01

401

Zirconia nanoparticles prepared by laser vaporization as fillers for dental adhesives.  

PubMed

Zirconia nanoparticles prepared by laser vaporization were incorporated into the primer or into the adhesive of a commercial adhesive system in order to evaluate its effect on bond strength to dentin. Zirconia nanoparticles (20-50nm) were prepared using a particular laser vaporization technique and incorporated into the primer (P) or into the adhesive (A) of the Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) system at 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.% by means of mechanical mixing (stirring) and ultrasonication. Control (unfilled) and experimental groups (filled) were applied, according to the manufacturer's instructions, onto flat mid-coronal human dentin. Composite crowns were built up, stored in distilled water for 24h at 37蚓 and cut into 0.650.05mm beams following a non-trimming microtensile technique. Specimens were fractured in tension using a universal testing machine (Zwick) and examined by scanning electron microscopy for fractographic analysis. Microtensile bond strength (?TBS) data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and modified LSD test at ?=0.05. Analysis of the nanofiller distribution and ultramorphological characterization of the interface were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zirconia nanoparticle incorporation into the primer or into the adhesive of SBMP significantly increased ?TBS to dentin. Filler concentration only affected ?TBS significantly in the P group. Statistically significant differences between groups P and A occurred only at 20wt.% filler content, with a significantly higher ?TBS in group P. TEM micrographs revealed nanoparticle deposition on top of a hybrid layer when incorporated into the primer, whereas they remained dispersed through the adhesive layer in group A. Zirconia nanoparticles incorporation into SBMP increased bond strength to dentin by reinforcing the interface adhesive layer. Nanofiller incorporation into the primer solution showed a tendency of increasing bond strength with increasing concentration. At high concentrations (20wt.%) nanofiller incorporation was more efficient in increasing bond strength if incorporated in the primer solution. Adding nanofillers to the primer and to the adhesive solutions resulted in different particle distributions at the interface. PMID:20624492

Lohbauer, Ulrich; Wagner, Andrea; Belli, Renan; Stoetzel, Christian; Hilpert, Andrea; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Mller, Frank A

2010-12-01

402

Potential incorporation of transuranics into uranium phases  

SciTech Connect

The UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel is unstable under moist oxidizing conditions and will be altered to uranyl oxide hydrate phases. The transuranics released during the corrosion of spent fuel may also be incorporated into the structures of secondary U{sup 6+} phases. The incorporation of radionuclides into alteration products will affect their mobility. A series of precipitation tests were conducted at either 150 or 90 C for seven days to determine the potential incorporation of Ce{sup 4+} and Nd{sup 3+} (surrogates for Pu{sup 4+} and Am{sup 3+}, respectively) into uranium phases. Ianthinite ([U{sub 2}{sup 4+}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}](H{sub 2}O){sub 5}) was produced by dissolving uranium oxyacetate in a solution containing copper acetate monohydrate as a reductant. The leachant used in these tests were doped with either 2.1 ppm cerium or 399 ppm neodymium. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) analysis of the solid phase reaction products which were dissolved in a HNO{sub 3} solution indicates that about 306 ppm Ce (K{sub d} = 146) was incorporated into ianthinite, while neodymium contents were much higher, being approximately 24,800 ppm (K{sub d} = 62). Solid phase examinations using an analytical transmission electron microscope/electron energy-loss spectrometer (AEM/EELS) indicate a uniform distribution of Nd, while Ce contents were below detection. Becquerelite (Ca[(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}]{center_dot}8H{sub 2}O) was produced by dissolving uranium oxyacetate in a solution containing calcium acetate. The leachant in these tests was doped with either 2.1 ppm cerium or 277 ppm neodymium. ICP-MS results indicate that about 33 ppm Ce (K{sub d}=16) was incorporated into becquerelite, while neodymium contents were higher, being approximately 1,300 ppm (K{sub d}=5). Homogeneous distribution of Nd in the solid phase was noted during AEM/EELS examination, and Ce contents were also below detection.

Kim, C. W.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.; Buck, E. C.

1999-12-07

403

Magneto-responsive nanocomposites: preparation and integration of magnetic nanoparticles into films, capsules, and gels.  

PubMed

This review reports on the latest developments in the field of magnetic nanocomposites, with a special focus on the potentials introduced by the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles into polymer and supramolecular matrices. The general notions and the state of the art of nanocomposite materials are summarized and the results reported in the literature over the last decade on magnetically responsive films, capsules and gels are reviewed. The most promising concepts that have inspired the design of magneto-responsive nanocomposites are illustrated through remarkable examples where the integration of magnetic nanoparticles into organic architectures has successfully taken to the development of responsive multifunctional materials. PMID:24139510

Ridi, Francesca; Bonini, Massimo; Baglioni, Piero

2014-05-01

404

Nanostructured silicon thin films deposited by PECVD in the presence of silicon nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured silicon thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low substrate temperature (100 C) in the presence of silicon nanoparticles. The nanostructure of the films was revealed by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which showed ordered silicon domains (1--2 nm) embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. These ordered domains are due to the particles created in the discharge that contribute to the film growth. One consequence of the incorporation of nanoparticles is the accelerated crystallization of the nanostructured silicon thin films when compared to standard a-Si:H, as shown by the electrical characterization during the annealing.

Viera, G.; Cabarrocas, P.R.; Hamma, S.; Sharma, S.N.; Costa, J.; Bertran, E.

1997-07-01

405

The antimicrobial properties of light-activated polymers containing methylene blue and gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report the formation of polysiloxane polymers containing embedded methylene blue and gold nanoparticles incorporated by a swell-encapsulation-shrink method. These polymers show significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with up to a 3.5 log(10) reduction in the viable count when exposed for 5 min to light from a low power 660 nm laser. The bacterial kill is due to the light-induced production of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species by the methylene blue. Interestingly, the presence of 2 nm gold nanoparticles significantly enhanced the ability of the methylene blue to kill bacteria. PMID:18838166

Perni, Stefano; Piccirillo, Clara; Pratten, Jonathan; Prokopovich, Polina; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Parkin, Ivan P; Wilson, Michael

2009-01-01

406

Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400蚓, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML), 5-FU/LDH (FL), and (MTX + 5-FU)/LDH (MFL) nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy. PMID:24860812

Lee, Gyeong Jin; Kang, Joo-Hee

2014-01-01

407

Design of lipid matrix particles for fenofibrate: effect of polymorphism of glycerol monostearate on drug incorporation and release.  

PubMed

The effect of polymorphism of glycerol monostearate (GMS) on drug incorporation and release from lipid matrix particles (LMPs) was investigated using fenofibrate as a model drug. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the polymorphism change of GMS and the drug incorporation in GMS matrix. When medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) was absent, melted GMS was frozen to ?-form of GMS with drug molecularly dispersed, whereas ?-form of GMS was formed with part of drug crystallized out when the ratio of GMS/MCT in the lipid matrix was 2:1 (w/w). For LMP composed of GMS/MCT (2:1, w/w) prepared, GMS was in ?-form when the particles were in nanometer range, whereas GMS was in ?-form when lipid particles were in micrometer range. The model drug was molecularly dispread in ?-form lipid nanoparticles, whereas part of drug was expulsed out from microparticles because of the denser crystalline packing than ?-form of GMS, and caused a faster drug release from lipid microparticles than that from nanoparticles. During the storage, the transformation of GMS from ?-form into the more stable ?-form promoted drug expulsion and caused drug precipitation. In conclusion, the polymorphism of GMS is an important factor determining particle stability, drug incorporation, and the release of the drug from LMP. Critical attention should be paid on the investigation as well as control of the lipid polymorphism when formulating lipid-based matrix particles. PMID:24375427

Xia, Dengning; Cui, Fude; Gan, Yong; Mu, Huiling; Yang, Mingshi

2014-02-01

408

Covalently dye-linked, surface-controlled, and bioconjugated organically modified silica nanoparticles as targeted probes for optical imaging.  

PubMed

In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles, covalently incorporating the fluorophore rhodamine-B, and surface-functionalized with a variety of active groups. The synthesized nanoparticles are of ultralow size (diameter approximately 20 nm), highly monodispersed, stable in aqueous suspension, and retain the optical properties of the incorporated fluorophore. The surface of the nanoparticles can be functionalized with a variety of active groups such as hydroxyl, thiol, amine, and carboxyl. The carboxyl groups on the surface were used to conjugate with various bioactive molecules such as transferrin, as well as monoclonal antibodies such as anti-claudin 4 and anti-mesothelin, for targeted delivery to pancreatic cancer cell lines. In vitro experiments have revealed that the cellular uptake of these bioconjugated (targeted) nanoparticles is significantly higher than that of the nonconjugated ones. The ease of surface functionalization and incorporation of a variety of biotargeting molecules, combined with their observed noncytotoxicity, makes these fluorescent ORMOSIL nanoparticles potential candidates as efficient probes for optical bioimaging, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19206569

Kumar, Rajiv; Roy, Indrajit; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Goswami, Lalit N; Bonoiu, Adela C; Bergey, Earl J; Tramposch, Kenneth M; Maitra, Anirban; Prasad, Paras N

2008-03-01

409

Role of Nanoparticles in Photocatalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review paper is to give an overview of the development and implications of nanotechnology in photocatalysis. The topics covered include a detailed look at the unique properties of nanoparticles and their relation to photocatalytic properties. Current applications of and research into the use of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has also been reviewed. Also covered is the utilization

D. Beydoun; R. Amal; G. Low; S. McEvoy

1999-01-01

410

Resveratrol in Solid Lipid Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report investigates the possibility of producing solid lipid nanoparticles as protective vehicle of resveratrol, an antioxidant characterised by a fast trans-cis isomerisation. SLN aqueous dispersions were produced by hot melt homogenisation technique and characterised. It was found that the presence of tetradecyl-?-cyclodextrin in SLN formulation induced an improvement of nanoparticle characteristics. Moreover a significant reduction in resveratrol photodegradation was

Maria Eugenia Carlotti; Simona Sapino; Elena Ugazio; Marina Gallarate; Silvia Morel

2011-01-01

411

Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0 , is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and

Steen M鷨up; Britt Rosendahl Hansen

2005-01-01

412

Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides students the opportunity to "explore silver nanoparticles and their effectiveness against bacterial growth in hands-on laboratory activities." Students first make silver nanoparticles and then use them in an experiment they design. This lesson will require two or more class periods and is aimed at secondary students.The document is available to download in PDF file format.

Kouadio, Carrie