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1

Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induces oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Engineered nanoparticles offer great promise in many industrial and biomedical applications, however little information is available about gastrointestinal toxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and proinflammatory mediator release induced by ZnO nanoparticles on human colon carcinoma LoVo cells. The biological activity of these particles was related to their physico-chemical characteristics. The physico-chemical characteristics were evaluated by analytical electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was determined by growth curves and water-soluble tetrazolium assay. The reactive oxygen species production, cellular glutathione content, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis cell death were quantified by flow cytometry. The inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. Treatment with ZnO (5 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} corresponding to 11.5 {mu}g/ml) for 24 h induced on LoVo cells a significant decrease of cell viability, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/OH{center_dot} increase, O2{sup -{center_dot}} and GSH decrease, depolarization of inner mitochondrial membranes, apoptosis and IL-8 release. Higher doses induced about 98% of cytotoxicity already after 24 h of treatment. The experimental data show that oxidative stress may be a key route in inducing the cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in colon carcinoma cells. Moreover, the study of the relationship between toxicological effects and physico-chemical characteristics of particles suggests that surface area does not play a primary role in the cytotoxicity.

De Berardis, Barbara; Civitelli, Gabriele; Condello, Maria; Lista, Pasquale; Pozzi, Roberta; Arancia, Giuseppe [Department of Technology and Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Meschini, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.meschini@iss.i [Department of Technology and Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

2010-08-01

2

Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by different metallic nanoparticles on human kidney cells  

PubMed Central

Background Some manufactured nanoparticles are metal-based and have a wide variety of applications in electronic, engineering and medicine. Until now, many studies have described the potential toxicity of NPs on pulmonary target, while little attention has been paid to kidney which is considered to be a secondary target organ. The objective of this study, on human renal culture cells, was to assess the toxicity profile of metallic nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO and CdS) usable in industrial production. Comparative studies were conducted, to identify whether particle properties impact cytotoxicity by altering the intracellular oxidative status. Results Nanoparticles were first characterized by size, surface charge, dispersion and solubility. Cytotoxicity of NPs was then evaluated in IP15 (glomerular mesangial) and HK-2 (epithelial proximal) cell lines. ZnO and CdS NPs significantly increased the cell mortality, in a dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effects were correlated with the physicochemical properties of NPs tested and the cell type used. Analysis of reactive oxygen species and intracellular levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione revealed that particles induced stress according to their composition, size and solubility. Protein involved in oxidative stress such as NF-?b was activated with ZnO and CdS nanoparticles. Such effects were not observed with TiO2 nanoparticles. Conclusion On glomerular and tubular human renal cells, ZnO and CdS nanoparticles exerted cytotoxic effects that were correlated with metal composition, particle scale and metal solubility. ROS production and oxidative stress induction clearly indicated their nephrotoxic potential. PMID:21371295

2011-01-01

3

Cytotoxicity of Photoactive Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the cytotoxicity of photoactive materials (specifically, quantum dots, noble metal nanoparticles (including\\u000a gold and silver), and fluorescent silica nanoparticles). A thorough representation of in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies\\u000a is presented. Since the toxicity on photoactive nanomaterials described in this chapter has developed rapidly and has attracted\\u000a a great amount of interest, it is expected that

Yuhui Jin; Xiaojun Zhao

4

Gold Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used for many scientific applications and have attracted attention due to the specific chemical, electronic and optical size dependent properties that make them very promising agents in many fields such as medicine, imagine techniques and electronics. More specifically, biocompatible gold nanoparticles have a huge potential for use as the contrast augmentation agent in X-ray Computed Tomography and Photo Acoustic Tomography for early tumor diagnostic as well these nanoparticles are extensively researched for enhancing the targeted cancer treatment effectiveness such as photo-thermal and radiotherapy. In most biomedical applications biocompatible gold nanoparticles are labeled with specific tumor or other pathology targeting antibodies and used for site specific drug delivery. However, even though gold nanoparticles poses very high level of anti cancer properties, the question of their cytotoxicity ones they are released in normal tissue has to be researched. Moreover, the huge amount of industrially produced gold nanoparticles raises the question of these particles being a health hazard, since the penetration is fairly easy for the "nano" size substances. This study focuses on the effect of AuNPs on a human skin tissue, since it is fall in both categories -- the side effects for biomedical applications and industrial workers and users' exposure during production and handling. Therefore, in the present project, gold nanoparticles stabilized with the biocompatible agent citric acid were generated and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxic effect of AuNPs release to healthy skin tissue was modeled on 3 different cell types: human keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and human adipose derived stromal (ADS) cells. The AuNPs localization inside the cell was found to be cell type dependent. Overall cytotoxicity was found to be dependent on time, concentration and nanoparticle size. Additionally, the question of cell recovery once the source of AuNPs is removed was investigated in the present work. It was found that full cell functions recovery is possible after removing the source of nanoparticles.

Mironava, Tatsiana

5

Cytotoxic Effects of Fucoidan Nanoparticles against Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

In this study, we analyzed the size-dependent bioactivities of fucoidan by comparing the cytotoxic effects of native fucoidan and fucoidan lipid nanoparticles on osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that nanoparticle fucoidan induced apoptosis of an osteosarcoma cell line more efficiently than native fucoidan. The more potent effects of nanoparticle fucoidan, relative to native fucoidan, were confirmed in vivo using a xenograft osteosarcoma model. Caco-2 cell transport studies showed that permeation of nanoparticle fucoidan was higher than native fucoidan. The higher bioactivity and superior bioavailability of nanoparticle fucoidan could potentially be utilized to develop novel therapies for osteosarcoma. PMID:24177673

Kimura, Ryuichiro; Rokkaku, Takayoshi; Takeda, Shinji; Senba, Masachika; Mori, Naoki

2013-01-01

6

Real-time cell-microelectronic sensing of nanoparticle-induced cytotoxic effects.  

PubMed

We report a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) sensing method of 96 electronic microwells for profiling the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on different cell lines. The method consists of 96 microwells embedded with microelectrodes (96x E-plate) to measure impedance changes of adherent cell lines. When the testing cells change in population, adhesion, and/or morphology, the impedance at the cell-electrode interface changes to provide real-time monitoring of overall cell status. To demonstrate this technique, we used three cell lines as sensing probes: two human lung carcinoma cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, and a normal mammalian cell line, CHO-K1. We tested two well-characterized nanoparticles: nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2) and nano-silver (nAg). The three cell lines were separately seeded into 96x E-plates and treated with varying concentrations of nanoparticles (0.078-160 ?g mL(-1)). This method provides dynamic cell response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms, showing concentration-, time-, particle-, and cell-dependent cytotoxicity. The 24 h and 48 h IC50 values of nAg obtained using both the RTCA and the neutral red uptake (NRU) assays were in good agreement, validating the RTCA technique. The RTCA assay does not suffer interference from nTiO2, whereas the NRU assay cannot be used due to severe interference from nTiO2. A cytostatic response was observed in CHO-K1 cells after 24 h exposure to 40 ?g mL(-1) nTiO2, which was correlated with S-phase cell cycle arrest based on cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry. This suggests that the shapes of the response curves provide indicative information, directing further studies into the mode of action of the toxicant. Advantages of the RTCA technique over traditional colorimetric assays for screening the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles include minimizing interference, qualitative and quantitative cytotoxicity data, and the capability of real-time and high-throughput measurements. PMID:23856233

Moe, Birget; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang

2013-07-30

7

RESEARCH Open Access Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by different  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by different metallic nanoparticles: Nanoparticles were first characterized by size, surface charge, dispersion and solubility. Cytotoxicity of NPs and tubular human renal cells, ZnO and CdS nanoparticles exerted cytotoxic effects that were correlated

Boyer, Edmond

8

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and reduce mitotic index in human amniotic fluid-derived cells.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used materials present in many consumables for which most people are exposed to. The biological hazards of the NPs on human health have been demonstrated previously. In this study, we aimed to assess the cytotoxicity potency of TiO2 NPs on the primary human amniotic fluid cells. The cells derived from amniotic fluid were treated with different dosages of TiO2 NPs for some periods. Cell adhesion status was assessed using a light microscopic observation. Cell proliferation and cell death rates were determined using trypan blue staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Also, mitotic index was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 8 centromer-specific DNA probe. Disrupted cell adhesion, decreased proliferation, and increased mortality rates were detected in the cells that were treated with TiO2 NPs depending on the dosage (p < 0.001). Also, reduced mitotic index was determined in the cells depending on the time and TiO2 dosage when compared with the controls (p < 0.0001). These results showed that TiO2 NPs have high cytotoxicity for amniotic fluid-derived cells. Therefore, different products containing TiO2 NPs should be used with care, especially for pregnant women. PMID:24717318

Acar, Ms; Bulut, Zb; Ate?, A; Nami, B; Koçak, N; Y?ld?z, B

2015-01-01

9

Oxidative stress contributes to cobalt oxide nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human hepatocarcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co3O4NPs in human cells. Methods We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co3O4NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA damage were assessed in HepG2 cells after Co3O4NPs and Co2+ exposure. Results Co3O4NPs elicited a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in glutathione with a concomitant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, ROS generation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity after 24- and 48-hour exposure. Co3O4NPs had a mild cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells; however, it induced ROS and oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. The comet assay showed a statistically significant (P < 0.01) dose- and time-related increase in DNA damage for Co3O4NPs, whereas Co2+ induced less change than Co3O4NPs but significantly more than control. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Co3O4NPs induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells through ROS and oxidative stress. PMID:23326189

Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Y, Al Omar Suliman; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

2013-01-01

10

Activation of Erk and p53 regulates copper oxide nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity in keratinocytes and fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONP) have attracted increasing attention due to their unique properties and have been extensively utilized in industrial and commercial applications. For example, their antimicrobial capability endows CuONP with applications in dressings and textiles against bacterial infections. Along with the wide applications, concerns about the possible effects of CuONP on humans are also increasing. It is crucial to evaluate the safety and impact of CuONP on humans, and especially the skin, prior to their practical application. The potential toxicity of CuONP to skin keratinocytes has been reported recently. However, the underlying mechanism of toxicity in skin cells has remained unclear. In the present work, we explored the possible mechanism of the cytotoxicity of CuONP in HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). CuONP exposure induced viability loss, migration inhibition, and G2/M phase cycle arrest in both cell types. CuONP significantly induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [Erk], p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]) activation in dose- and time-dependent manners. U0126 (an inhibitor of Erk), but not SB 239063 (an inhibitor of p38) or SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK), enhanced CuONP-induced viability loss. CuONP also induced decreases in p53 and p-p53 levels in both cell types. Cyclic pifithrin-?, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity, enhanced CuONP-induced viability loss. Nutlin-3?, a p53 stabilizer, prevented CuONP-induced viability loss in HaCaT cells, but not in MEF cells, due to the inherent toxicity of nutlin-3? to MEF. Moreover, the experiments on primary keratinocytes are in accordance with the conclusions acquired from HaCaT and MEF cells. These data demonstrate that the activation of Erk and p53 plays an important role in CuONP-induced cytotoxicity, and agents that preserve Erk or p53 activation may prevent CuONP-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25336953

Luo, Cheng; Li, Yan; Yang, Liang; Zheng, Yan; Long, Jiangang; Jia, Jinjing; Xiao, Shengxiang; Liu, Jiankang

2014-01-01

11

Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical imaging and diagnos- tic tests. Based on their established use in the laboratory and the chemical stability of Au0, gold nanoparticles were expected to be safe. The recent literature, however, contains conflictingdata reg ardingthe cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles. Against this background a systematic study of water- soluble gold nanoparticles stabilized by triphenylphosphine derivatives

Yu Pan; Sabine Neuss; Annika Leifert; Monika Fischler; Fei Wen; Ulrich Simon; Günter Schmid; Wolfgang Brandau; Willi Jahnen-Dechent

2007-01-01

12

Iron oxide nanoparticle enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been investigated as a promising means for inducing tumor cell-specific hyperthermia. Although the ability to generate and use nanoparticles that are biocompatible, tumor specific, and have the ability to produce adequate cytotoxic heat is very promising, significant preclinical and clinical development will be required for clinical efficacy. At this time it appears using IONP-induced hyperthermia as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapeutics, rather than as an independent treatment, will provide the initial IONP clinical treatment. Due to their high-Z characteristics, another option is to use intracellular IONPs to enhance radiation therapy without excitation with AMF (production of heat). To test this concept IONPs were added to cell culture media at a concentration of 0.2 mg Fe/mL and incubated with murine breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) cells for either 48 or 72 hours. Extracellular iron was then removed and all cells were irradiated at 4 Gy. Although samples incubated with IONPs for 48 hrs did not demonstrate enhanced post-irradiation cytotoxicity as compared to the non-IONP-containing cells, cells incubated with IONPs for 72 hours, which contained 40% more Fe than 48 hr incubated cells, showed a 25% decrease in clonogenic survival compared to their non-IONP-containing counterparts. These results suggest that a critical concentration of intracellular IONPs is necessary for enhancing radiation cytotoxicity. PMID:25301998

Mazur, Courtney M.; A.Tate, Jennifer; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Gladstone, David J.; Hoopes, P. Jack

2014-01-01

13

Cytotoxic activities of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan nanoparticles and copper(II)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions and copper ion sorption. In this study, the cytotoxic activities of the chitosan nanoparticles and copper(II)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was investigated and a relationship between physiochemical properties and activity is suggested. The chitosan nanoparticles and copper(II)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles elicited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on

Lifeng Qi; Zirong Xu; Xia Jiang; Yan Li; Minqi Wang

2005-01-01

14

Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in industrial, household, and healthcare-related products due to their excellent antimicrobial activity. With increased exposure of AgNPs to human beings, the risk of safety has attracted much attention from the public and scientists. In review of recent studies, we discuss the potential impact of AgNPs on individuals at the cell level. In detail, we highlight the main effects mediated by AgNPs on the cell, such as cell uptake and intracellular distribution, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunological responses, as well as some of the major factors that influence these effects in vivo and in vivo, such as dose, time, size, shape, surface chemistry, and cell type. At the end, we summarize the main influences on the cell and indicate the challenges in this field, which may be helpful for assessing the risk of AgNPs in future. PMID:24532494

Zhang, Tianlu; Wang, Liming

2014-01-01

15

Irradiation stability and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles for radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles are promising as a kind of novel radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. If gold nanoparticles are shown to have good irradiation stability and biocompatibility, they would play an important role in radiotherapy. In this work, we investigated irradiation effects of gold nanoparticles under 2–10 kR gamma irradiation and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles with human K562 cells by using Cell Titre-Glo™ luminescent cell viability assay. The results revealed that gamma irradiation had not induced any obvious instability and size variations in gold nanoparticles. We found that gold nanoparticles showed excellent radiation hardness with an absorbed dose conversation factor of 9.491 rad/R. Meanwhile, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was enhanced obviously after 2–10 kR gamma irradiation. Subsequently, cytotoxicity tests indicated that the extremely high concentration of gold nanoparticles could cause a sharp decrease in K562 cell viability, while the low concentration of gold nanoparticles had no obvious influence on the cell viability. Our results revealed that gold nanoparticles were stable under high-energy ray irradiation and showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. PMID:19774115

Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Mei-Li; Wu, Hong-Ying; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Ding, Yan-Qiu; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Liang-An

2009-01-01

16

Irradiation stability and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles for radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles are promising as a kind of novel radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. If gold nanoparticles are shown to have good irradiation stability and biocompatibility, they would play an important role in radiotherapy. In this work, we investigated irradiation effects of gold nanoparticles under 2-10 kR gamma irradiation and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles with human K562 cells by using Cell Titre-Glo luminescent cell viability assay. The results revealed that gamma irradiation had not induced any obvious instability and size variations in gold nanoparticles. We found that gold nanoparticles showed excellent radiation hardness with an absorbed dose conversation factor of 9.491 rad/R. Meanwhile, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was enhanced obviously after 2-10 kR gamma irradiation. Subsequently, cytotoxicity tests indicated that the extremely high concentration of gold nanoparticles could cause a sharp decrease in K562 cell viability, while the low concentration of gold nanoparticles had no obvious influence on the cell viability. Our results revealed that gold nanoparticles were stable under high-energy ray irradiation and showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. PMID:19774115

Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Mei-Li; Wu, Hong-Ying; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Ding, Yan-Qiu; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Liang-An

2009-01-01

17

Selective cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles on glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles on various human cancer and normal cells. We found that\\u000a the ZnO nanoparticles exerted a cytotoxic effect on the human glioma cell lines A172, U87, LNZ308, LN18, and LN229, whereas\\u000a no cytotoxic effect was observed on normal human astrocytes. Similarly, the ZnO nanoparticles induced cell death in breast\\u000a and

Stella Ostrovsky; Gila Kazimirsky; Aharon Gedanken; Chaya Brodie

2009-01-01

18

Euphorbiaceae latex induced green synthesis of non-cytotoxic metallic nanoparticle solutions: A rational approach to antimicrobial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem latex of a medicinally important plant, Euphorbia nivulia was successfully used to induce room temperature\\/microwave synthesis of silver and copper nanoparticles even at high concentrations. The major component of the latex, Euphol, is assumed to be the reducing moiety; while stabilization is assisted by certain peptides and terpenoids present within the latex as supported by the FT-IR analysis.

Mayur Valodkar; Padamanabhi S. Nagar; Ravirajsinh N. Jadeja; Menaka C. Thounaojam; Ranjitsinh V. Devkar; Sonal Thakore

2011-01-01

19

Cytotoxicity of nanoparticle-loaded polymer capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxic effects of micrometer-sized polymer capsules composed out of alternating layers of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) on a fibroblast cell line have been investigated with an adhesion assay. For the purpose of visualization with fluorescence nanometer-sized CdTe nanoparticles have been embedded in the walls of the capsules. Similar to free CdTe nanoparticles, toxic Cd-ions are also released from

C. Kirchner; A. Muńoz Javier; A. S. Susha; A. L. Rogach; O. Kreft; G. B. Sukhorukov; W. J. Parak

2005-01-01

20

Molybdenum nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, G2/M arrest, and DNA damage in mouse skin fibroblast cells (L929).  

PubMed

The present investigation was aimed to study the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity induced by molybdenum nanoparticles (Mo-NPs) in mouse skin fibroblast cells (L929). Cells were exposed to different concentrations (1-100?g/ml) of Mo-NPs (size 40nm) for 24 and 48h. After the exposure, different cytotoxicity assays (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT; neutral red uptake, NRU; and cellular morphology) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, LPO; glutathione, GSH; and catalase) were studied. Further, Mo-NPs-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage were also studied. L929 cells treated with Mo-NPs showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and a loss of the normal cell morphology. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 25%, 42%, and 58% by MTT assay and 24%, 46%, and 56% by NRU assay at 25, 50, and 100?g/ml of Mo-NPs, respectively after 48h exposure. Furthermore, the cells showed a significant induction of oxidative stress. This was confirmed by the increase in LPO and ROS generation, as well as the decrease in the GSH and catalase levels. The decrease in MMP also confirms the impaired mitochondrial membrane. The cell cycle analysis and comet assay data revealed that Mo-NPs induced G2/M arrest and DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, Mo-NPs induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in L929 cells. Thus, data suggest the potential hazardous nature of Mo-NPs. PMID:25437066

Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Saquib, Quaiser; Ahamed, Maqusood; Farshori, Nida N; Ahmad, Javed; Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams T; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Pant, Aditya B

2015-01-01

21

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 ?g/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 ?g/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 ?g/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 ?g/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

2013-04-01

22

Nanoparticles: cellular uptake and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with cells and how these interactions influence their cellular uptake is essential to exploring the biomedical applications of NPs, particularly for drug delivery. Various factors, whether differences in physical properties of NPs or variations in cell-membrane characteristics, influence NP-cell interactions and uptake processes. NP-cell membrane interactions may also influence intracellular trafficking of NPs, their sorting into different intracellular compartments, cellular retention, and hence the efficacy of encapsulated therapeutics. A crucial consideration is whether such interactions might cause any toxicity, starting with how NPs interact in transit with the biological environment prior to their interactions with targeted cells and tissues. Understanding the effects of various NP characteristics on cellular and biological processes could help in designing NPs that are efficient but also nontoxic. PMID:24683028

Adjei, Isaac M; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

2014-01-01

23

Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.  

PubMed

Concerns about the risk of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) to human health and environment are gradually increasing due to their wide range of applications. In this study, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis induced by TiO2 NPs (5 nm) in A549 cells were investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays revealed the time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects of TiO2 NPs in a concentration range of 50 to 200 ?g/mL. A statistically significant (p?induced by TiO2 NPs at the above concentrations were observed by scanning electron micrographs. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells treated with TiO2 NPs at concentrations of 100 and 200 ?g/mL showed a significant G2/M phase arrest and a significant increased proportion of apoptotic cells. TiO2 NPs also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by rhodamine 123 staining. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased significantly at the concentrations of 100 and 200 ?g/mL TiO2 NPs for 48 h. Taken together, these findings suggest that TiO2 NPs can inhibit A549 cell proliferation, cause DNA damage, and induce apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data provide strong evidence that TiO2 NPs can induce cytotoxicity, significant DNA damage, and apoptosis of A549 cells, suggesting that exposure to TiO2 NPs could cause cell injury and be hazardous to health. PMID:25339530

Wang, Yurong; Cui, Haiyan; Zhou, Jiaping; Li, Fengjuan; Wang, Jinju; Chen, Mianhua; Liu, Qingdai

2014-10-24

24

Cell-specific cytotoxicity of dextran-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicity of dextran-hybridized magnetite nanoparticles which were prepared by a novel polyol method was evaluated by incubation with four different kinds of cells, including rat liver cells BRL 3A, renal cells NRK, astrocyte and periphery blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The study was designed not only to evaluate their cytotoxicity but also to reflect the interaction between nanoparticles and related cells

Jing Ding; Ke Tao; Jiyu Li; Sheng Song; Kang Sun

2010-01-01

25

Copper(ii) oxide nanoparticles penetrate into HepG2 cells, exert cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and induce pro-inflammatory response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-?B and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major role in the activation of AP-1. In addition, cytotoxicity, inflammatory and antioxidative responses and activation of intracellular transduction pathways induced by rod-shaped CuO NPs were more important than spherical CuO NPs. Measurement of Cu2+ released in cell culture medium suggested that Cu2+ cations released from CuO NPs were involved only to a small extent in the toxicity induced by these NPs on HepG2 cells.The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-?B and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major role in the activation of AP-1. In addition, cytotoxicity, inflammatory and antioxidative responses and activation of intracellular transduction pathways induced by rod-shaped CuO NPs were more important than spherical CuO NPs. Measurement of Cu2+ released in cell culture medium suggested that Cu2+ cations released from CuO NPs were involved only to a small extent in the toxicity induced by these NPs on HepG2 cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional tables and figures supporting the information presented in the manuscript. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31785k

Piret, Jean-Pascal; Jacques, Diane; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Mejia, Jorge; Boilan, Emmanuelle; Noël, Florence; Fransolet, Maude; Demazy, Catherine; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

2012-10-01

26

Cytotoxicity of titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles have been tested concerning their toxicity on selected mammalian cell lines. Various powders and suspensions, all of which consist of titanium or silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been examined. These particles differ in the crystal structure, the size and the BET-surface area. There was also a classification in fixed particles and in particles easily accessible in solution. With focus on the possible adsorption of the nanoparticles into the human organism, via skin and via respiratory tract, the effects on fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) and on a human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line were examined. Additionally, the particles were tested with HEP-G2 cells, which are often used as model cell line for biocompatibility tests, and PC-12 cells, a rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line. The viability of the cells was examined by the MTT-test. The viability results were found to partly depend on the type of cells used. The experimental results show that the adhesion of the cells on the different powders strongly depends on the type of cell lines as well as on the type of powder. It was found that the lower viability of some cells on the powder coatings is not only caused by a cytotoxicity effect of the powders, but is also due to a lower adhesion of the cells on the particle surfaces. Furthermore, it could be shown that the physical properties of the powders cannot be easily correlated to any observed biological effect. While some powders show a significant suppression of the cell growth, others with similar physical properties indicate no toxic effect.

Wagner, Stefanie; Münzer, Simon; Behrens, Peter; Scheper, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef; Kasper, Cornelia

2009-05-01

27

Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxicity of different fractions of gold nanoparticles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from gold scrap. The target cells were rat thymocytes, as a type of nonproliferating cells, and L929 mouse fibroblasts, as a type of continuous proliferating cells. Fractions 1 and 2, composed of pure gold nanoparticles, as determined by scanning

R. Rudolf; B. Friedrich; S. Stopi?; I. Anžel; S. Tomi?; M. ?oli?

2012-01-01

28

Cytotoxicity of different sized TiO2 nanoparticles in mouse macrophages.  

PubMed

With large-scale production and wide application of nano-titanium oxide (TiO2), its health hazard has attracted extensive attention worldwide. In this study, mouse macrophages (Ana-1 and MH-S cells) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different sized TiO2 nanoparticles. The results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles caused low toxicity, especially in MH-S cells. There was a difference in the cytotoxicity induced by different sized TiO2 particles. The 25 nm anatase particles induced the strongest cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, followed by 5 and 100 nm anatase particles; in contrast, 100 nm rutile particles induced the lowest toxicity. Although TiO2 nanoparticles induced high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the determination of ROS demonstrated that the inherent oxidative capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles was lower in the absence of photoactivation. Therefore, the generation of intracellular ROS could not completely depend on inherent oxidative capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles. Toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles could mainly depend on the structural characteristics. PMID:22508397

Zhang, Jinyang; Song, Wenhua; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Jinhua; Sun, Zengtian; Li, Liying; Ding, Feng; Gao, Minling

2013-07-01

29

Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2 (•-), and intracellular Ca(2+) were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170-225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca(2+) influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

2015-01-01

30

Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2•?, and intracellular Ca2+ were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170–225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca2+ influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca2+ induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

2015-01-01

31

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

32

Cytotoxicity of selenium nanoparticles in rat dermal fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a deadly nosocomial infection caused by contaminated endotracheal tubes. It has been shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC, the endotracheal tube substrate) coated with elemental selenium nanoparticles reduces bacterial adherence and proliferation on PVC by over 99%. However, it is not known if selenium nanoparticles elicit a cytotoxic effect in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of PVC coated with selenium nanoparticles on fibroblasts, which are mammalian cells central to endotracheal tube intubation. Methods: Different concentrations of selenium nanoparticles were precipitated onto the PVC surface by reduction of selenium salts using glutathione. Characterization of PVC coated with selenium nanoparticles was done by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, and contact angle measurements. For the cytotoxicity experiments, fibroblasts were seeded at a density of 5000 cm2 onto PVC coated with three different concentrations of selenium nanoparticles (high, medium, low) and incubated for 4 hours (adhesion) as well as for 24 hours and 72 hours (proliferation). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was determined after 72 hours using an ultrahigh concentration. MTT assays were used to assess cell viability at the indicated time points. Results: The three concentrations of selenium nanoparticles did not elicit a cytotoxic effect after 72 hours (P < 0.01, n = 3). It was found that the IC50value was at the ultrahigh concentration of selenium nanoparticles. The nanoparticulate elemental selenium concentration previously shown to decrease the function of bacteria was shown not to cause a cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate great selectivity between bacteria and healthy cells, and are a viable option for coating endotracheal tubes in order to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:22915842

Ramos, Joseph F; Webster, Thomas J

2012-01-01

33

Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P; Moley, Kelle H; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A; Hood, Joshua L

2014-01-01

34

Unraveling the cytotoxic potential of Temozolomide loaded into PLGA nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Nanotechnology has received great attention since a decade for the treatment of different varieties of cancer. However, there is a limited data available on the cytotoxic potential of Temozolomide (TMZ) formulations. In the current research work, an attempt has been made to understand the anti-metastatic effect of the drug after loading into PLGA nanoparticles against C6 glioma cells. Nanoparticles were prepared using solvent diffusion method and were characterized for size and morphology. Diffusion of the drug from the nanoparticles was studied by dialysis method. The designed nanoparticles were also assessed for cellular uptake using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results PLGA nanoparticles caused a sustained release of the drug and showed a higher cellular uptake. The drug formulations also affected the cellular proliferation and motility. Conclusion PLGA coated nanoparticles prolong the activity of the loaded drug while retaining the anti-metastatic activity. PMID:24410831

2014-01-01

35

Cytotoxicity and therapeutic effect of irinotecan combined with selenium nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Although chemotherapeutic drugs are widely applied for clinic tumor treatment, severe toxicity restricts their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we reported a new form of selenium, selenium nanoparticles (Nano Se) which have significant lower toxicity and acceptable bioavailability. We investigated Nano Se as chemotherapy preventive agent to protect against toxicities of anticancer drug irinotecan and synergistically enhance the anti-tumor treatment effect in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms were also investigated. The combination of Nano Se and irinotecan showed increased cytotoxic effect with HCT-8 tumor cells likely by p53 mediated apoptosis. Nano Se inhibited growth of HCT-8 tumor cells partially through caspases mediated apoptosis. In vivo experiment showed Nano Se at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated adverse effects induced by irinotecan (60 mg/kg) treatment. Nano Se alone treatment did not induce any toxic manifestations. The combination of Nano Se and irinotecan dramatically inhibited tumor growth and significantly induced apoptosis of tumor cells in HCT-8 cells xenografted tumor. Tumor inhibition rate was about 17.2%, 48.6% and 62.1% for Nano Se, irinotecan and the combination of Nano Se and irinotecan, respectively. The beneficial effects of Nano Se for tumor therapy were mainly ascribed to selectively regulating Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant responsive elements) pathway in tumor tissues and normal tissues. Our results suggest Nano Se is a promising selenium species with potential application in cancer treatment. PMID:25064805

Gao, Fuping; Yuan, Qing; Gao, Liang; Cai, Pengju; Zhu, Huarui; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Wei, Yueteng; Huang, Guodong; Liang, Jian; Gao, Xueyun

2014-10-01

36

Investigation of the cytotoxicity mechanism of silver nanoparticles in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, more and more nanotechnology products and nanomaterials are being applied in our lives. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are used in infection prevention and treatment due to their antimicrobial activity. However, as a kind of nanomaterial, the toxicology of SNPs has not been completely studied. The mechanism of cytotoxicity of SNPs in vitro to mouse's fibroblast cells (L929) was investigated in

Lina Wei; Jinglong Tang; Zhixiong Zhang; Yanmei Chen; Gui Zhou; Tingfei Xi

2010-01-01

37

The Influences of Cell Type and ZnO Nanoparticle Size on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology represents a new and enabling platform that promises to provide a range of innovative technologies for biological applications. ZnO nanoparticles of controlled size were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity toward different human immune cells evaluated. A differential cytotoxic response between human immune cell subsets was observed, with lymphocytes being the most resistant and monocytes being the most susceptible to ZnO nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Significant differences were also observed between previously activated memory lymphocytes and naive lymphocytes, indicating a relationship between cell-cycle potential and nanoparticle susceptibility. Mechanisms of toxicity involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with monocytes displaying the highest levels, and the degree of cytotoxicity dependent on the extent of nanoparticle interactions with cellular membranes. An inverse relationship between nanoparticle size and cytotoxicity, as well as nanoparticle size and reactive oxygen species production was observed. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles induce the production of the proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-12, at concentrations below those causing appreciable cell death. Collectively, these results underscore the need for careful evaluation of ZnO nanoparticle effects across a spectrum of relevant cell types when considering their use for potential new nanotechnology-based biological applications.

Hanley, Cory; Thurber, Aaron; Hanna, Charles; Punnoose, Alex; Zhang, Jianhui; Wingett, Denise G.

2009-12-01

38

Cell Death Mechanisms Induced by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

One of the functions of the immune system is to recognize and destroy abnormal or infected cells to maintain homeostasis. This is accomplished by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity is a highly organized multifactor process. Here, we reviewed the apoptosis pathways induced by the two main cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. In base to recent experimental evidence, we reviewed NK receptors involved in recognition of target-cell, as well as lytic molecules such as perforin, granzymes-A and -B, and granulysin. In addition, we reviewed the Fas-FasL intercellular linkage mediated pathway, and briefly the cross-linking of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor pathway. We discussed three models of possible molecular interaction between lytic molecules from effector cytotoxic cells and target-cell membrane to induction of apoptosis. PMID:19254476

Chávez-Galán, L; Arenas-Del Angel, M C; Zenteno, E; Chávez, R; Lascurain, R

2009-01-01

39

Differential cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the potential health hazards of nanomaterials are growing. To determine the potential toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and H4 neuroglioma cells were exposed to Fe2O3, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles and their metal ion counterparts (Fe, Cu and Zn) at a concentration range of 0.01–100 µM for 48 h, under the cell culture conditions: 95% O2,

Jian Chen; Jinmin Zhu; Hyun-Hee Cho; Kemi Cui; Fuhai Li; Xiaobo Zhou; Jack T. Rogers; Stephen T. C. Wong; Xudong Huang

2008-01-01

40

Cytotoxicity of titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles have been tested concerning their toxicity on selected mammalian cell lines. Various powders and suspensions, all of which consist of titanium or silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been examined. These particles differ in the crystal structure, the size and the BET-surface area. There was also a classification in fixed particles and in particles easily accessible in

Stefanie Wagner; Simon Münzer; Peter Behrens; Thomas Scheper; Detlef Bahnemann; Cornelia Kasper

2009-01-01

41

Microsomal Glutathione Transferase 1 Protects Against Toxicity Induced by Silica Nanoparticles but Not by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) is an antioxidant enzyme located predominantly in the mitochondrial outer membrane and endoplasmic reticulum and has been shown to protect cells from lipid peroxidation induced by a variety of cytostatic drugs and pro-oxidant stimuli. We hypothesized that MGST1 may also protect against nanomaterial-induced cytotoxicity through a specific effect on lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, and ZnO in the human MCF-7 cell line with or without overexpression of MGST1. SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles caused dose- and time-dependent toxicity, whereas no obvious cytotoxic effects were induced by nanoparticles of TiO2 and CeO2. We also noted pronounced cytotoxicity for three out of four additional SiO2 nanoparticles tested. Overexpression of MGST1 reversed the cytotoxicity of the main SiO2 nanoparticles tested and for one of the supplementary SiO2 nanoparticles but did not protect cells against ZnO-induced cytotoxic effects. The data point toward a role of lipid peroxidation in SiO2 nanoparticle-induced cell death. For ZnO nanoparticles, rapid dissolution was observed, and the subsequent interaction of Zn2+ with cellular targets is likely to contribute to the cytotoxic effects. A direct inhibition of MGST1 by Zn2+ could provide a possible explanation for the lack of protection against ZnO nanoparticles in this model. Our data also showed that SiO2 nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity is mitigated in the presence of serum, potentially through masking of reactive surface groups by serum proteins, whereas ZnO nanoparticles were cytotoxic both in the presence and in the absence of serum. PMID:22303956

2012-01-01

42

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles in human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare the potential cytotoxicity induced by amorphous silica particles with different sizes. The effects of one fine particle (498nm) and three nanoparticles (68, 43, and 19nm) on cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were investigated by detecting morphological changes, cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, DNA damage, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis after the cells were

Yang Li; Lei Sun; Minghua Jin; Zhongjun Du; Xiaomei Liu; Caixia Guo; Yanbo Li; Peili Huang; Zhiwei Sun

2011-01-01

43

Role of the Nrf2-heme oxygenase-1 pathway in silver nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) have been widely used in various commercial products including textiles, electronic appliances and biomedical products. However, there remains insufficient information on the potential risk of nano-Ag to human health and environment. In the current study, we have investigated the role of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor in nano-Ag-induced cytotoxicity. When Nrf2 expression was blocked using interring

Su Jin Kang; In-geun Ryoo; Young Joon Lee; Mi Kyoung Kwak

44

Optimal descriptor as a translator of eclectic data into prediction of cytotoxicity for metal oxide nanoparticles under different conditions.  

PubMed

The Monte Carlo technique has been used to build up quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of dark cytotoxicity and photo-induced cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to bacteria Escherichia coli (minus logarithm of lethal concentration for 50% bacteria pLC50, LC50 in mol/L). The representation of nanoparticles include (i) in the case of the dark cytotoxicity a simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES), and (ii) in the case of photo-induced cytotoxicity a SMILES plus symbol '^'. The predictability of the approach is checked up with six random distributions of available data into the visible training and calibration sets, and invisible validation set. The statistical characteristics of these models are correlation coefficient 0.90-0.94 (training set) and 0.73-0.98 (validation set). PMID:25463851

Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A; Rallo, Robert; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2015-02-01

45

Induction of anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses through PLGA-nanoparticle mediated antigen delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology-based antigen delivery has been developing as a vaccine strategy due to its dose-sparing and prolonged antigen presentation features. In the current study, we examined the feasibility of nanoparticle (NP)-mediated delivery of antigenic peptides to efficiently induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against tumor-associated self-antigens in C57BL\\/6 mouse models. The biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) carrying murine melanoma antigenic peptides, hgp10025–33 and

Zhiping Zhang; Songsak Tongchusak; Yo Mizukami; Yoon Joong Kang; Tetsuya Ioji; Maki Touma; Bruce Reinhold; Derin B. Keskin; Ellis L. Reinherz; Tetsuro Sasada

2011-01-01

46

In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Mammalian Germline Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Gametogenesis is a complex biological process that is particularly sensitive to environmental insults such as chemicals. Many chemicals have a negative impact on the germline, either by directly affecting the germ cells, or indirectly through their action on the somatic nursing cells. Ultimately, these effects can inhibit fertility, and they may have negative consequences for the development of the offspring. Recently, nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanowires, fullerene derivatives (buckyballs), and quantum dots have received enormous national attention in the creation of new types of analytical tools for biotechnology and the life sciences. Despite the wide application of nanomaterials, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. Thus, there are limited studies available on toxicity of nanoparticles for risk assessment of nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of a mouse spermatogonial stem cell line as a model to assess nanotoxicity in the male germline in vitro. The effects of different types of nanoparticles on these cells were evaluated by light microscopy, and by cell proliferation and standard cytotoxicity assays. Our results demonstrate a concentration-dependent toxicity for all types of particles tested, whereas the corresponding soluble salts had no significant effect. Silver nanoparticles were the most toxic while molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticles were the least toxic. Our results suggest that this cell line provides a valuable model with which to assess the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in the germ line in vitro. PMID:16014736

Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Hussain, Saber; Schlager, John J.; Hofmann, Marie-Claude

2010-01-01

47

The effect of static magnetic fields on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), including superparamagnetic nanoparticles, have expanded dramatically in recent years. Systematic and standardized cytotoxicity assessment to ensure the biosafety and biocompatibility of those applications is compulsory. We investigated whether exposure to static magnetic field (SMF) from e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could affect the cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using mouse hepatocytes and

Ji-Eun Bae; Man-Il Huh; Byung-Kyu Ryu; Ji-Yeon Do; Seong-Uk Jin; Myung-Jin Moon; Jae-Chang Jung; Yongmin Chang; Eungseok Kim; Sung-Gil Chi; Gang-Ho Lee; Kwon-Seok Chae

2011-01-01

48

In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding popular usage of nanomaterials have resulted in uncertainties regarding their environmental impacts. In this study, we used a systematic approach to study and compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of selected engineered metal oxide nanoparticles to the test organisms — E. coli. Among the seven test nano-sized metal oxides, ZnO, CuO, Al2O3, La2O3,

Xiaoke Hu; Sean Cook; Peng Wang; Huey-min Hwang

2009-01-01

49

Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Y(2)O(3) Nanoparticles of Various Morphologies.  

PubMed

As the field of nanotechnology continues to grow, evaluating the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is important in furthering their application within biomedicine. Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles of different morphologies of yttrium oxide, a promising material for biological imaging applications. Nanoparticles of spherical, rod-like, and platelet morphologies were synthesized via solvothermal and hydrothermal methods and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), light scattering, surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and zeta potential measurements. Nanoparticles were then tested for cytotoxicity with human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells, with the goal of elucidating nanoparticle characteristics that influence cytotoxicity. Cellular response was different for the different morphologies, with spherical particles exhibiting no cytotoxicity to HFF cells, rod-like particles increasing cell proliferation, and platelet particles markedly cytotoxic. However, due to differences in the nanoparticle chemistry as determined through the characterization techniques, it is difficult to attribute the cytotoxicity responses to the particle morphology. Rather, the cytotoxicity of the platelet sample appears due to the stabilizing ligand, oleylamine, which was present at higher levels in this sample. This study demonstrates the importance of nanoparticle chemistry on in vitro cytotoxicity, and highlights the general importance of thorough nanoparticle characterization as a prerequisite to understanding nanoparticle cytotoxicity. PMID:20672046

Andelman, Tamar; Gordonov, Simon; Busto, Gabrielle; Moghe, Prabhas V; Riman, Richard E

2009-01-01

50

Intracellular mechanisms of aminoglycoside-induced cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Since introduction into clinical practice over 60 years ago, aminoglycoside antibiotics remain important drugs in the treatment of bacterial infections, cystic fibrosis and tuberculosis. However, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic properties of these drugs are still a major clinical problem. Recent advances in molecular biology and biochemistry have begun to uncover the intracellular actions of aminoglycosides that lead to cytotoxicity. In this review, we discuss intracellular binding targets of aminoglycosides, highlighting specific aminoglycoside-binding proteins (HSP73, calreticulin and CLIMP-63) and their potential for triggering caspases and Bcl-2 signalling cascades that are involved in aminoglycoside-induced cytotoxicity. We also discuss potential strategies to reduce aminoglycoside cytotoxicity, which are necessary for greater bactericidal efficacy during aminoglycoside pharmacotherapy. PMID:21799993

Karasawa, Takatoshi; Steyger, Peter S.

2013-01-01

51

Relating cytotoxicity, zinc ions, and reactive oxygen in ZnO nanoparticle-exposed human immune cells.  

PubMed

Although zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely formulated in sunscreens, the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by these particles, zinc ions, and cytotoxicity is not clearly understood. This study explores whether these factors can be accurately quantified and related. The study demonstrates a strong correlation between ZnO NP-induced cytotoxicity and free intracellular zinc concentration (R (2) = .945) in human immune cells, indicating a requirement for NP dissolution to precede cytotoxicity. In addition, although direct exposure to ZnO NPs was found to induce cytotoxicity at relatively high concentrations, indirect exposure (via dialysis) was not cytotoxic, even at extremely high concentrations, highlighting a requirement for NP-to-cell contact. Elevated levels of ROS present in NP-exposed cells also correlated to both cytotoxicity and intracellular free zinc. Although the addition of antioxidant was able to reduce ROS, cytotoxicity to ZnO NPs was unaffected, suggesting ROS may be, in part, a result of cytotoxicity rather than a causal factor. This study highlights both the requirement and role of intracellular dissolution of zinc nanomaterials to elicit a cytotoxic response. This response is only partially ROS dependent, and therefore, modification of NP uptake and their intracellular solubility are key components in modulating the bioactivity of ZnO NPs. PMID:23997113

Shen, Cenchao; James, Simon A; de Jonge, Martin D; Turney, Terence W; Wright, Paul F A; Feltis, Bryce N

2013-11-01

52

Cationic Nanoparticles Induce Nanoscale Disruption in Living Cell Plasma Membranes Jiumei Chen,,  

E-print Network

nanoparticles that yield millimolar charge concentra- tions are acutely cytotoxic and lead to cell lysis.1Cationic Nanoparticles Induce Nanoscale Disruption in Living Cell Plasma Membranes Jiumei Chen recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found

Tew, Gregory N.

53

Reducing ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity by surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and its toxicology has gained considerable recent attention. A key aspect for controlling biological interactions at the nanoscale is understanding the relevant nanoparticle surface chemistry. In this study, we have determined the disposition of ZnO nanoparticles within human immune cells by measurement of total Zn, as well as the proportions of extra- and intracellular dissolved Zn as a function of dose and surface coating. From this mass balance, the intracellular soluble Zn levels showed little difference in regard to dose above a certain minimal level or to different surface coatings. PEGylation of ZnO NPs reduced their cytotoxicity as a result of decreased cellular uptake arising from a minimal protein corona. We conclude that the key role of the surface properties of ZnO NPs in controlling cytotoxicity is to regulate cellular nanoparticle uptake rather than altering either intracellular or extracellular Zn dissolution.Nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and its toxicology has gained considerable recent attention. A key aspect for controlling biological interactions at the nanoscale is understanding the relevant nanoparticle surface chemistry. In this study, we have determined the disposition of ZnO nanoparticles within human immune cells by measurement of total Zn, as well as the proportions of extra- and intracellular dissolved Zn as a function of dose and surface coating. From this mass balance, the intracellular soluble Zn levels showed little difference in regard to dose above a certain minimal level or to different surface coatings. PEGylation of ZnO NPs reduced their cytotoxicity as a result of decreased cellular uptake arising from a minimal protein corona. We conclude that the key role of the surface properties of ZnO NPs in controlling cytotoxicity is to regulate cellular nanoparticle uptake rather than altering either intracellular or extracellular Zn dissolution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00458b

Luo, Mingdeng; Shen, Cenchao; Feltis, Bryce N.; Martin, Lisandra L.; Hughes, Anthony E.; Wright, Paul F. A.; Turney, Terence W.

2014-05-01

54

Effect of size and processing method on the cytotoxicity of realgar nanoparticles in cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

In this study, the effects of the size and Chinese traditional processing (including elutriation, water cleaning, acid cleaning, alkali cleaning) on realgar nanoparticles (RN)-induced antitumor activity in human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63) and hepatoma carcinoma cell lines (HepG-2) were investigated. The human normal liver cell line (L-02) was used as control. RN was prepared by high-energy ball milling technology. The results showed that with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the size of realgar could be reduced to 127 nm after 12 hours’ ball milling. The surface charge was decreased from 0.83 eV to ?17.85 eV and the content of As2O3 clearly increased. Except for elutriation, the processing methods did not clearly change the size of the RN, but the content of As2O3 was reduced dramatically. In vitro MTT tests indicated that in the two cancer cell lines, RN cytotoxicity was more intense than that of the coarse realgar nanoparticles, and cytotoxicity was typically time- and concentration-dependent. Also, RN cytotoxicities in the HepG-2 and L-02 cells all increased with increasing milling time. Due to the reduction of the As2O3 content, water cleaning, acid cleaning, and alkali cleaning decreased RN cytotoxicity in HepG-2, but RN after elutriation, with the lowest As2O3 (3.5 mg/g) and the smallest size (109.3 nm), showed comparable cytotoxicity in HepG-2 to RN without treatment. Meanwhile, RN-induced cytotoxicity in L-02 cells was clearly reduced. Therefore, it can be concluded that RN may provide a strong antiproliferation effect in the MG-63 and HepG-2 cells. Elutriation processing is a suitable approach to limit the dangerous side-effects of As2O3, while maintaining the effectiveness of RN. PMID:21845047

Zhao, Weizhong; Lu, Xun; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng; Yang, Baican; Hong, Hua; Wang, Guoying; Zeng, Fanyan

2011-01-01

55

Cytotoxicity of monodispersed chitosan nanoparticles against the Caco-2 cells  

SciTech Connect

Published toxicology data on chitosan nanoparticles (NP) often lack direct correlation to the in situ size and surface characteristics of the nanoparticles, and the repeated NP assaults as experienced in chronic use. The aim of this paper was to breach these gaps. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by spinning disc processing were characterised for size and zeta potential in HBSS and EMEM at pHs 6.0 and 7.4. Cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cells was evaluated by measuring the changes in intracellular mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, TEER and sodium fluorescein transport data and cell morphology. Cellular uptake of NP was observed under the confocal microscope. Contrary to established norms, the collective data suggest that the in vitro cytotoxicity of NP against the Caco-2 cells was less influenced by positive surface charges than by the particle size. Particle size was in turn determined by the pH of the medium in which the NP was dispersed, with the mean size ranging from 25 to 333 nm. At exposure concentration of 0.1%, NP of 25 ± 7 nm (zeta potential 5.3 ± 2.8 mV) was internalised by the Caco-2 cells, and the particles were observed to inflict extensive damage to the intracellular organelles. Concurrently, the transport of materials along the paracellular pathway was significantly facilitated. The Caco-2 cells were, however, capable of recovering from such assaults 5 days following NP removal, although a repeat NP exposure was observed to produce similar effects to the 1st exposure, with the cells exhibiting comparable resiliency to the 2nd assault. -- Highlights: ? Chitosan nanoparticles reduced mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. ? Cellular uptake of chitosan nanoparticles was observed. ? Chitosan nanoparticles inflicted extensive damage to the cell morphology. ? The transport of materials along the paracellular pathway was facilitated.

Loh, Jing Wen [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia)] [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Martin [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia)] [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia); Lim, Lee-Yong, E-mail: lee.lim@uwa.edu.au [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia) [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia (Australia); School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 (Australia)

2012-08-01

56

Coating-dependent induction of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Abstract Surface coatings of nanoparticles (NPs) are known to influence advantageous features of NPs as well as potential toxicity. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) NPs are applied for both medical diagnostics and targeted drug delivery. We investigated the potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of uncoated iron oxide (U-Fe3O4) NPs in comparison with oleate-coated iron oxide (OC-Fe3O4) NPs. Testing was performed in vitro in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells and in primary human blood cells. For cytotoxicity testing, relative growth activity, trypan blue exclusion, (3)H-thymidine incorporation and cytokinesis-block proliferation index were assessed. Genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline comet assay for detection of strand breaks and oxidized purines. Particle characterization was performed in the culture medium. Cellular uptake, morphology and pathology were evaluated by electron microscopy. U-Fe3O4 NPs were found not to be cytotoxic (considering interference of NPs with proliferation test) or genotoxic under our experimental conditions. In contrast, OC-Fe3O4 NPs were cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner, and also induced DNA damage, indicating genotoxic potential. Intrinsic properties of sodium oleate were excluded as a cause of the toxic effect. Electron microscopy data were consistent with the cytotoxicity results. Coating clearly changed the behaviour and cellular uptake of the NPs, inducing pathological morphological changes in the cells. PMID:24228750

Magdolenova, Zuzana; Drlickova, Martina; Henjum, Kristi; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Tulinska, Jana; Bilanicova, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Kazimirova, Alena; Barancokova, Magdalena; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Staruchova, Marta; Ciampor, Fedor; Vavra, Ivo; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Collins, Andrew; Rinna, Alessandra; Fjellsbř, Lise; Volkovova, Katarina; Marcomini, Antonio; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Dusinska, Maria

2013-11-14

57

In vitro cytotoxicity of SiO2 or ZnO nanoparticles with different sizes and surface charges on U373MG human glioblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications, raising issues regarding the possible adverse effects of these metal oxide nanoparticles on human cells. In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of differently charged SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, with mean sizes of either 100 or 20 nm, on the U373MG human glioblastoma cell line. The overall cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against U373MG cells was significantly higher than that of SiO2 nanoparticles. Neither the size nor the surface charge of the ZnO nanoparticles affected their cytotoxicity against U373MG cells. The 20 nm SiO2 nanoparticles were more toxic than the 100 nm nanoparticles against U373MG cells, but the surface charge had little or no effect on their cytotoxicity. Both SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles activated caspase-3 and induced DNA fragmentation in U373MG cells, suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Thus, SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles appear to exert cytotoxic effects against U373MG cells, possibly via apoptosis.

Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hyejin; An, Seong Soo A; Maeng, Eun Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Song, Yoon-Jae

2014-01-01

58

Relation between the Redox State of Iron-Based Nanoparticles and Their Cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron-based nanoparticles have been proposed for an increasing number of biomedical or environmental applications although in vitro toxicity has been observed. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the redox state of iron-based nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity toward a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. While chemically stable nanoparticles (Fe2O3) have no apparent cytotoxicity, nanoparticles containing ferrous and,

Me?lanie Auffan; Wafa Achouak; Je?rôme Rose; Marie-Anne Roncato; C. Chaneac; David T. Waite; A. Miasion; Joseph C. Woicik; Mark R. Wiesner; Jean-Yves Bottero

2008-01-01

59

Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of nanoparticles from photocopiers in three human cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Photocopiers emit nanoparticles with complex chemical composition. Short-term exposures to modest nanoparticle concentrations triggered upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy human volunteers in a recent study. To further understand the toxicological properties of copier-emitted nanoparticles, we studied in-vitro their ability to induce cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, DNA damage, and apoptosis in relevant human cell lines. Methods Three cell types were used: THP-1, primary human nasal- and small airway epithelial cells. Following collection in a large volume photocopy center, nanoparticles were extracted, dispersed and characterized in the cell culture medium. Cells were doped at 30, 100 and 300 ?g/mL administered doses for up to 24 hrs. Estimated dose delivered to cells, was ~10% and 22% of the administered dose at 6 and 24 hrs, respectively. Gene expression analysis of key biomarkers was performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in THP-1 cells at 5 ?g nanoparticles/mL for 6-hr exposure for confirmation purposes. Results Multiple cytokines, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IFN?, MCP-1, TNF-? and VEGF, were significantly elevated in THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis confirmed up-regulation of the TNF-? gene in THP-1 cells, consistent with cytokine findings. In both primary epithelial cells, cytokines IL-8, VEGF, EGF, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6 and GM-CSF were significantly elevated. Apoptosis was induced in all cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the significant up-regulation of key apoptosis-regulating genes P53 and Casp8 in THP-1 cells. No significant DNA damage was found at any concentration with the comet assay. Up-regulation of key DNA damage and repair genes, Ku70 and Rad51, were also observed in THP-1 cells, albeit not statistically significant. Significant up-regulation of the key gene HO1 for oxidative stress, implicates oxidative stress induced by nanoparticles. Conclusions Copier-emitted nanoparticles induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and modest cytotoxicity but no DNA damage in all three-human cell lines. Taken together with gene expression data in THP-1 cells, we conclude that these nanoparticles are directly responsible for inflammation observed in human volunteers. Further toxicological evaluations of these nanoparticles, including across different toner formulations, are warranted. PMID:23968360

2013-01-01

60

Synthesis, colloidal properties and cytotoxicity of biopolymer nanoparticles.  

PubMed

To characterize the physicochemical and biological stability of nanodevices suitable for biomedical applications, polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) of 112?±?6 nm and polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) of 15?±?5 nm size were prepared by standardizing the suitable method for each. Morphology of NPs was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and temperature stability by thermogravimetric analysis. Their stability in biological fluids (simulated gastrointestinal and saliva) and tolerance against 0.5 mM NaCl were analyzed. PHB NPs remained stable in all fluids, while after 24 h treatment, the PLA NPs showed the beginning of disintegration with intestinal fluid mimic. In addition to the preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface-coated NPs, PLA-PEG-PLA triblock copolymer (MW???7,366 Da) was also chemically synthesized and characterized. Cytotoxicity of all forms of nanoparticles was tested by MTT assay and by annexin pi staining. PMID:25172058

Moorkoth, Dhanya; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

2014-11-01

61

Novel application of the CORAL software to model cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to bacteria Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Novel application of the CORAL software to model cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles. " The CORAL model for cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles is demonstrated. " The model is a mathematical Keywords: QSAR CORAL software Cytotoxicity to bacterium Escherichia coli Metal oxide nanoparticle a b s t r

Gini, Giuseppina

62

Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards freshwater sediment microorganisms at low exposure concentrations.  

PubMed

There is a persistent need to assess the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the aquatic ecosystem owing to their increasing usage in consumer products and risk of environmental release. The current study is focused on TiO2 nanoparticle-induced acute toxicity at sub-ppm level (?1ppm) on the three different freshwater sediment bacterial isolates and their consortium under two different irradiation (visible light and dark) conditions. The consortium of the bacterial isolates was found to be less affected by the exposure to the nanoparticles compared to the individual cells. The oxidative stress contributed considerably towards the cytotoxicity under both light and dark conditions. A statistically significant increase in membrane permeability was noted under the dark conditions as compared to the light conditions. The optical and fluorescence microscopic images showed aggregation and chain formation of the bacterial cells, when exposed to the nanoparticles. The electron microscopic (SEM, TEM) observations suggested considerable damage of cells and bio-uptake of nanoparticles. The exopolysaccrides (EPS) production and biofilm formation were noted to increase in the presence of the nanoparticles, and expression of the key genes involved in biofilm formation was studied by RT-PCR. PMID:25462683

Kumari, Jyoti; Kumar, Deepak; Mathur, Ankita; Naseer, Arif; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Thanjavur Chandrasekaran, Prathna; Chaudhuri, Gouri; Pulimi, Mrudula; Raichur, Ashok M; Babu, S; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Nagarajan, R; Mukherjee, Amitava

2014-11-01

63

Cytotoxicity of ?-D-glucose coated silver nanoparticles on human lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the cytotoxicity of 30 nm sized ?-D-Glucose-coated silver NanoParticles (AgNPs-G) on human lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Human lymphocytes were treated with different amounts (2 or 10×103 NPs/cell) of AgNPs-G for 24hs. AgNPs-G toxicity was assayed with MTT test and morphological observations. Further evaluation included: (i) ROS generation (NBT assay) and (ii) absorption/uptake of AgNPs-G by lymphocytes (GF-AAS). As a general result, AgNPs-G were absorbed/taken up by lymphocytes and cytotoxicity and morphology changes were amount and time-dependent. By incubating cells with the highest NPs amount, only 10% viable lymphocytes were found at the end of experimental time. Parallel to cytotoxicity, morphological modifications and ROS generation were induced, thus supporting the increasing cell deaths. Interestingly, the lower amount of AgNPs-G increased cell viability as the glucose did. Our findings suggest that AgNPs-G-induced cytotoxicity depends on NPs amount and provide evidence of AgNPs-G adsorption/entering by lymphocytes; however, the mechanisms of interaction/internalization needs to be further investigated.

Vergallo, Cristian; Panzarini, Elisa; Izzo, Daniela; Carata, Elisabetta; Mariano, Stefania; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Serra, Antonio; Manno, Daniela; Dini, Luciana

2014-06-01

64

Comparative cytotoxicity studies of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in murine glioma cells.  

PubMed

Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) have recently emerged as a new class of magnetic nanomaterials with a great potential for an increasing number of biomedical applications. To address the current deficient knowledge of cellular responses due to CEIN exposures, we focused on the investigation of internalization profile and resulting cytotoxic effects of CEINs (0.0001-100 ?g/ml) in murine glioma cells (GL261) in vitro. The studied CEIN samples were characterized (TEM, FT-IR, Zeta potential, Boehm titration) and examined as raw and purified nanomaterials with various surface chemistry composition. Of the four type CEINs (the mean diameter 47-56 nm) studied here, the as-synthesized raw nanoparticles (Fe@C/Fe) exhibited high cytotoxic effects on the plasma cell membrane (LDH, Calcein AM/PI) and mitochondria (MTT, JC-1) causing some pro-apoptotic evens (Annexin V/PI) in glioma cells. The effects of the purified (Fe@C) and surface-modified (Fe@C-COOH and Fe@C-(CH2)2COOH) CEINs were found in quite similar patterns; however, most of these cytotoxic events were slightly diminished compared to those induced by Fe@C/Fe. The study showed that the surface-functionalized CEINs affected the cell cycle progression in both S and G2/M phases to a greater extent compared to that of the rest of nanoparticles studied to data. Taken all together, the present results highlight the importance of the rational design of CEINs as their physicochemical features such as morphology, hydrodynamic size, impurity profiles, and especially surface characteristics are critical determinants of different cytotoxic responses. PMID:24632386

Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Cywinska, Monika A; Kosmider, Anita; Poplawska, Magdalena; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Fijalek, Zbigniew; Ostrowska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

65

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles on primary Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

PubMed

Silver-nanoparticles (NPs) have become increasingly common in various applications, raising some safety concerns. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver-NPs on primary Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were investigated. Cell viability was assessed using a methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and genotoxic potential was evaluated using a cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The results showed that dose-dependent cytotoxicity was induced after 24 h of exposure to silver-NPs. The micronucleation frequency (MNF) also increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), suggesting that silver-NPs induce genotoxicity. This is consistent with an increased MNF observed in primary SHE cells. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that the cell cycles became arrested in the GO/G1 phase and that the S phase shortened after only 8 h of silver-NP exposure, suggesting that DNA replication had been inhibited, which in turn inhibited further cell proliferation. The rate of late-stage apoptosis increased after 12 h of silver-NP exposure, and both early- and late-stage apoptosis were obviously increased after 72 h of exposure than in controls. This study demonstrated that silver-NPs could induce strong cytotoxicity and significant genotoxicity in primary SHE cells and that this is probably due to silver-NP-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of cell proliferation. PMID:23646712

Li, Xuefei; Xu, Liming; Shao, Anliang; Wu, Gang; Hanagata, Nobutaka

2013-01-01

66

Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Y 2 O 3 Nanoparticles of Various Morphologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of nanotechnology continues to grow, evaluating the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is important in furthering\\u000a their application within biomedicine. Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles of\\u000a different morphologies of yttrium oxide, a promising material for biological imaging applications. Nanoparticles of spherical,\\u000a rod-like, and platelet morphologies were synthesized via solvothermal and hydrothermal methods and characterized

Tamar Andelman; Simon Gordonov; Gabrielle Busto; Prabhas V. Moghe; Richard E. Riman

2010-01-01

67

Relation between the Redox State of Iron-Based Nanoparticles and Their Cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Iron-based nanoparticles have been proposed for an increasing number of biomedical or environmental applications although in vitro toxicity has been observed. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the redox state of iron-based nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity toward a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. While chemically stable nanoparticles ({gamma}Fe2O3) have no apparent cytotoxicity, nanoparticles containing ferrous and, particularly, zerovalent iron are cytotoxic. The cytotoxic effects appear to be associated principally with an oxidative stress as demonstrated using a mutant strain of E. coli completely devoid of superoxide dismutase activity. This stress can result from the generation of reactive oxygen species with the interplay of oxygen with reduced iron species (FeII and/or Fe0) or from the disturbance of the electronic and/or ionic transport chains due to the strong affinity of the nanoparticles for the cell membrane.

Auffan,M.; Achouak, W.; Rose, J.; Roncato, M.; Chaneac, C.; Waite, D.; Miasion, A.; Woicik, J.; Wiesner, M.; Bottero, J.

2008-01-01

68

Silica-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles: enzyme immobilization and cytotoxic study.  

PubMed

Silica-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared via microemulsion method. The products were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). MNPs with no observed cytotoxic activity against human lung carcinoma cell and brine shrimp lethality were used as suitable support for glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization. Binding of GOD onto the support was confirmed by the FTIR spectra. The amount of immobilized GODs was 95 mg/g. Storage stability study showed that the immobilized GOD retained 98% of its initial activity after 45 days and 90% of the activity was also remained after 12 repeated uses. Considerable enhancements in thermal stabilities were observed for the immobilized GOD at elevated temperatures up to 80°C and the activity of immobilized enzyme was less sensitive to pH changes in solution. PMID:22269345

Ashtari, Khadijeh; Khajeh, Khosro; Fasihi, Javad; Ashtari, Parviz; Ramazani, Ali; Vali, Hojatollah

2012-05-01

69

Interaction of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles with earthworm coelomic fluid and related cytotoxicity in Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with biological fluid is important for predicting the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in living systems. The earthworm Eisenia andrei was exposed to citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs), and the interaction of cAgNPs with earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF), the cytotoxicity of cAgNPs in earthworm coelomocytes was assessed. The neutral red retention assay showed a reduction in lysosomal stability after exposure. The toxicity of silver ions dissolved from cAgNPs in the soil medium was not significant. The aggregation and dissolution of cAgNPs increased in ECF, which contains various electrolytes that alter the properties of nanoparticles, and their subsequent toxicity. Microscopic and dissolution studies demonstrated that the aggregation of cAgNPs rapidly increased, and readily dissolved in ECF. The bioavailability of cAgNPs to earthworms induced lysosomal cytotoxicity. This is the first report to test the interaction and lysosomal cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in earthworm biofluids. PMID:24532537

Kwak, Jin Il; Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

2014-11-01

70

Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.  

PubMed

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 ?g/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled. PMID:24362007

Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

2014-02-10

71

Received: 17 November 2009, Revised: 9 April 2010, Accepted: 15 April 2010, Published online in Wiley Online Library: 2010 Cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles made  

E-print Network

in Wiley Online Library: 2010 Cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles made from the thermal decomposition. Keywords: MRI; molecular imaging; nanoparticles; superparamagnetic agents; cytotoxicity; colorimetric assay. Kushleikac , Michael E. Rosenfeldc and Kannan M. Krishnana * Magnetic nanoparticles are promising molecular

Krishnan, Kannan M.

72

Hormesis Effects of Silver Nanoparticles at Non-Cytotoxic Doses to Human Hepatoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted considerable attentions due to their unique properties and diverse applications. Although it has been reported that AgNPs have acute toxic effects on a variety of cultured mammalian cells and animal models, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the associated risk of AgNPs to human health at non-cytotoxic doses. In this paper, HepG2 cells were exposed to 10 nm and 100 nm AgNPs under non-cytotoxic conditions, and cell viability was assessed. At low doses, AgNPs displayed “hormesis” effects by accelerating cell proliferation. Further studies indicated that the activation states of MAPKs were differentially regulated in this process. Specifically, by increasing the expression of downstream genes, p38 MAPK played a central role in non-cytotoxic AgNP-induced hormesis. Moreover, the treatment of HepG2 cells with silver ions (Ag+) at the same dose levels induced distinct biological effects, suggesting that different intrinsic properties exist for AgNPs and Ag+. PMID:25033410

Jiao, Zhi-Hao; Li, Ming; Feng, Yi-Xing; Shi, Jia-Chen; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

2014-01-01

73

Comparison of nanoparticle-mediated transfection methods for DNA expression plasmids: efficiency and cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Reproducibly high transfection rates with low methodology-induced cytotoxic side effects are essential to attain the required effect on targeted cells when exogenous DNA is transfected. Different approaches and modifications such as the use of nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated to increase transfection efficiencies. Several studies have focused on the attained transfection efficiency after NP-mediated approaches. However, data comparing toxicity of these novel approaches with conventional methods is still rare. Transfection efficiency and methodology-induced cytotoxicity were analysed after transfection with different NP-mediated and conventional approaches. Two eukaryotic DNA-expression-plasmids were used to transfect the mammalian cell line MTH53A applying six different transfection protocols: conventional transfection reagent (FuGENE HD, FHD), FHD in combination with two different sizes of stabilizer-free laser-generated AuNPs (PLAL-AuNPs_S1,_S2), FHD and commercially available AuNPs (Plano-AuNP), and two magnetic transfection protocols. 24 h post transfection efficiency of each protocol was analysed using fluorescence microscopy and GFP-based flow cytometry. Toxicity was assessed measuring cell proliferation and percentage of propidium iodide (PI%) positive cells. Expression of the respective recombinant proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Results The addition of AuNPs to the transfection protocols significantly increased transfection efficiency in the pIRES-hrGFPII-eIL-12 transfections (FHD: 16%; AuNPs mean: 28%), whereas the magnet-assisted protocols did not increase efficiency. Ligand-free PLAL-AuNPs had no significant cytotoxic effect, while the ligand-stabilized Plano-AuNPs induced a significant increase in the PI% and lower cell proliferation. For pIRES-hrGFPII-rHMGB1 transfections significantly higher transfection efficiency was observed with PLAL-AuNPs (FHD: 31%; PLAL-AuNPs_S1: 46%; PLAL-AuNPs_S2: 50%), while the magnet-assisted transfection led to significantly lower efficiencies than the FHD protocol. With PLAL-AuNPs_S1 and _S2 the PI% was significantly higher, yet no consistent effect of these NPs on cell proliferation was observed. The magnet-assisted protocols were least effective, but did result in the lowest cytotoxic effect. Conclusions This study demonstrated that transfection efficiency of DNA-expression-plasmids was significantly improved by the addition of AuNPs. In some combinations the respective cytotoxicity was increased depending on the type of the applied AuNPs and the transfected DNA construct. Consequently, our results indicate that for routine use of these AuNPs the specific nanoparticle formulation and DNA construct combination has to be considered. PMID:22014272

2011-01-01

74

Cytotoxical products formation on the nanoparticles heated by the pulsed laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytotoxical effect of a pulsed laser irradiation in presence of nanoparticles of carbon black, sulphuretted carbon and fullerene-60 on death of human uterus nick cancer HeLa and mice lymphoma P 388 cells was studied in vitro. Bubbles formation as result of "microexplosions" of nanoparticles is one of possible mechanisms of this effect. Other possible mechanism is cytotoxical products formation in result of pyrolysis of nanoparticles and biomaterial which is adjoining. The cytotoxical effect of addition of a supernatant from the carbon nanoparticles suspensions irradiated by the pulsed laser was studied to test this assumption. Analysis using gas chromatograph determined that carbon monoxide is principal gaseous product of such laser pyrolysis. This is known as cytotoxical product. Efficiency of its formation is estimated.

Kogan, Boris Ya.; Titov, Andrey A.; Rakitin, Victor Yu.; Kvacheva, Larisa D.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.

2006-02-01

75

Cytotoxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is influenced by cell density and culture format  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parameter that has often been overlooked in cytotoxicity assays is the density and confluency of mammalian cell monolayers\\u000a utilized for toxicology screening. Hence, this study investigated how different cell seeding densities influenced their response\\u000a to cytotoxic challenge with ZnO nanoparticles. Utilizing the same volume (1 ml per well) and concentration range (5–40 ?g\\/ml)\\u000a of ZnO nanoparticles, contradictory results were observed with

Boon Chin Heng; Xinxin Zhao; Sijing Xiong; Kee Woei Ng; Freddy Yin-Chiang Boey; Joachim Say-Chye Loo

2011-01-01

76

Evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative stress, proinflammatory and genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various products, due to their antibacterial properties. Despite its wide spread use, only little information on possible adverse health effects exists. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxic potential of silver nanoparticles (<100 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and the underlying mechanism of its cellular toxicity. Silver nanoparticles induced dose and time-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT and LDH assays. Silver nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose and time-dependent manner indicated by depletion of GSH and induction of ROS, LPO, SOD, and catalase. Further, the activities of caspases and the level of proinflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly higher in treated cells. DNA damage, as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis, was also dose and time-dependent signicants in A549 cells. This study investigating the effects of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells has provided valuable insights into the mechanism of potential toxicity induced by silver nanoparticles and warrants more careful assessment of silver nanoparticles before their industrial applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 149-160, 2015. PMID:23804405

Suliman Y, Al Omar; Ali, Daoud; Alarifi, Saud; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Mansour, Lamjed; Alwasel, Saleh Hamad

2015-02-01

77

Synthesis and cytotoxicity of silicon nanoparticles with covalently attached organic monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of highly monodisperse silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) with either positively (amine), neutral (azide) or negatively (carboxylic acid) charged covalently attached organic monolayers were synthesized and investigated for their cytotoxicity. Infrared data confirmed the presence of these covalently attached surface groups. The Si NPs were characterized by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity was investigated in Caco-2 cells by

Loes Ruizendaal; Sourav Bhattacharjee; Kamyar Pournazari; Milena Rosso-Vasic; Haan de L. H. J; Gerrit M. Alink; Antonius T. M. Marcelis; Han Zuilhof

2009-01-01

78

Cytotoxic, genotoxic and the hemolytic effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles on human erythrocyte and lymphocyte cells in vitro.  

PubMed

With the increasing clinical use of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, a better understanding of their safety in the blood stream is required. The present study evaluates the toxic effect of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (~100 nm) using a battery of cytotoxic, genotoxic, hemolytic and morphological parameters. The cytotoxic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles in human lymphocyte cells were studied with respect to membrane damage, mitochondrial function, metabolic activity and lysosomal membrane stability. Genotoxicity in lymphocyte cells was quantitated using a comet assay. The mode of cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) was evaluated using PI/Annexin V staining. TiO2 nanoparticles were also evaluated for their hemolytic properties, osmotic fragility and interaction with hemoglobin. Human erythrocyte cells were studied for morphological alterations using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results suggest that the particles could induce a significant reduction in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in human lymphocyte cells. Membrane integrity remained unaffected by nanoparticle treatment. DNA damage and apoptosis were induced by TiO2 nanoparticles in a dose-dependent manner. A study on human erythrocyte cells revealed a hemolytic property of TiO2 nanoparticles characterized by spherocytosis and echinocytosis. Spectral analysis revealed a hemoglobin TiO2 nanoparticle interaction. Our in vitro study results suggest that commercially available blood contacting nanoparticles (TiO2 nanoparticle) should be carefully evaluated for their toxic potential. PMID:23616399

Ghosh, Manosij; Chakraborty, Anirban; Mukherjee, Anita

2013-10-01

79

In vitro cytotoxicity of monodispersed hematite nanoparticles on Hek 293 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple hydrothermal method was developed to prepare monodispersed and well-crystallized hematite nanoparticles with a diameter distribution of about 180nm. In-vitro cytotoxicity of such nanoparticles was carried out using Hek 293 cell culture system with different dosages. Assessment of cell viability reveals that hematite nanoparticles reduce cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner within a rather wide dosage range.

Haijuan Yan; Benshu Zhang

2011-01-01

80

Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles (NPs) are tiny materials used in a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a type of nanoparticle that is widely used in paints, pigments, and cosmetics; however, little is known about the impact of TiO2 on human health and the environment. Therefore, considerable research has focused on characterizing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles such as TiO2 and on understanding the mechanism of TiO2 NP-induced nanotoxicity through the evaluation of biomarkers. Uncoated TiO2 NPs tend to aggregate in aqueous media, and these aggregates decrease cell viability and induce expression of stress-related genes, such as those encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heat shock protein 70B’ (HSP70B’), indicating that TiO2 NPs induce inflammatory and heat shock responses. In order to reduce their toxicity, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to eliminate aggregation. Our findings indicate that modifying TiO2 NPs with PEG reduces their cytotoxicity and reduces the induction of stress-related genes. Our results also suggest that TiO2 NP-induced effects on cytotoxicity and gene expression vary depending upon the cell type and surface modification. PMID:22489177

Mano, Sharmy Saimon; Kanehira, Koki; Sonezaki, Shuji; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

2012-01-01

81

Proinflammatory and cytotoxic response to nanoparticles in precision-cut lung slices  

PubMed Central

Summary Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) are an established ex vivo alternative to in vivo experiments in pharmacotoxicology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of PCLS as a tool in nanotoxicology studies. Silver (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) nanoparticles as well as quartz particles were used because these materials have been previously shown in several in vitro and in vivo studies to induce a dose-dependent cytotoxic and inflammatory response. PCLS were exposed to three concentrations of 70 nm monodisperse polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated Ag-NPs under submerged culture conditions in vitro. ZnO-NPs (NM110) served as ‘soluble’ and quartz particles (Min-U-Sil) as ‘non-soluble’ control particles. After 4 and 24 h, the cell viability and the release of proinflammatory cytokines was measured. In addition, multiphoton microscopy was employed to assess the localization of Ag-NPs in PCLS after 24 h of incubation. Exposure of PCLS to ZnO-NPs for 4 and 24 h resulted in a strong decrease in cell viability, while quartz particles had no cytotoxic effect. Moreover, only a slight cytotoxic response was detected by LDH release after incubation of PCLS with 20 or 30 µg/mL of Ag-NPs. Interestingly, none of the particles tested induced a proinflammatory response in PCLS. Finally, multiphoton microscopy revealed that the Ag-NP were predominantly localized at the cut surface and only to a much lower extent in the deeper layers of the PCLS. In summary, only ‘soluble’ ZnO-NPs elicited a strong cytotoxic response. Therefore, we suggest that the cytotoxic response in PCLS was caused by released Zn2+ ions rather than by the ZnO-NPs themselves. Moreover, Ag-NPs were predominantly localized at the cut surface of PCLS but not in deeper regions, indicating that the majority of the particles did not have the chance to interact with all cells present in the tissue slice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PCLS may have some limitations when used for nanotoxicology studies. To strengthen this conclusion, however, other NP types and concentrations need to be tested in further studies.

Haberl, Nadine; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Rehberg, Markus; Krombach, Fritz

2014-01-01

82

The noncellular reduction of MTT tetrazolium salt by TiO? nanoparticles and its implications for cytotoxicity assays.  

PubMed

We report results of noncellular tests, revealing the occurrence of photocatalytic interactions between titanium dioxide (TiO2, titania) nanoparticles and the MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide] cytotoxicity indicator. These interactions induce the reduction of MTT and formation of purple formazan under biologically relevant conditions. Classical MTT assays have been performed to evaluate the production of formazan in DMEM-F12 and RPMI-1640 cell culture media (containing 10% fetal bovine serum-FBS) treated with Degussa-P25 TiO2 nanoparticles, in the absence of cells. The colorimetric determinations revealed the noncellular MTT to formazan transformation induced by TiO2 nanoparticles, under conditions commonly used for in vitro cytotoxicity testing of nanomaterials. The formazan precipitation was found to be proportional to the TiO2 concentration, being enhanced under laboratory daylight exposure. The photocatalytic nature of the studied effect was assessed under UV irradiation at 365nm. The biological significance of the reported reaction was established with respect to cellular reference experiments performed on V79-4, HeLa and B16 cell lines. The results show false viability increases with up to 14% (for TiO2 concentrations generally higher than 50?g/ml), induced by the TiO2-MTT reaction. This type of artifacts may lead to underestimated toxicity or false proliferation results. PMID:23531555

Lupu, A R; Popescu, T

2013-08-01

83

Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel Incorporated in PLGA Nanoparticles on Hypoxic Human Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this work was to prepare paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and determine cytotoxicity of released paclitaxel\\u000a for two hypoxic human tumor cell lines: breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and carcinoma cervicis (HeLa).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing paclitaxel were prepared by o\\/w emulsification-solvent evaporation\\u000a method. Physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was evaluated by transmission\\u000a electronic microscopy and

Cheng Jin; Ling Bai; Hong Wu; Wenjie Song; Guozhen Guo; Kefeng Dou

2009-01-01

84

An impedance-based high-throughput method for evaluating the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impedance-based assays can constitute a reliable alternative to the conventional methods used in nanotoxicology due to the important advantages of being label-free and monitoring the cells in real-time. In this study, the suitability of impedance-monitoring for the screening of nanoparticle (NP)-induced cytotoxicity was assessed. The effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-NPs on cellular proliferation, viability, spreading, and detachment from substrate was evaluated by continuous impedance-based measurements made with an xCELLigence system. Fibroblasts seeded in microelectrode-embedded E-plates were exposed to spherical anatase nano-TiO2 (5, 10, and 40 nm in diameter) for up to 120 h. An alternative excitation signal (20 mV control voltage amplitude) was applied at 10, 25, and 50 kHz to the microelectrodes in the E-plates. Cells attached to the electrode surfaces act as insulators and lead to an increase in impedance. For validating the impedance-method, Trypan Blue exclusion and ultrahigh resolution imaging (URI) were employed. The general trend observed was a decrease in impedance following exposure to TiO2-NPs. Impedance-based results were in most instances in accordance with those from the Trypan Blue exclusion and URI assays indicating that the impedance-based approach has merit. Further studies are needed to validate it as a high-throughput method for evaluating NPs' cytotoxicity.

Cimpan, M. R.; Mordal, T.; Schölermann, J.; Allouni, Z. E.; Pliquett, U.; Cimpan, E.

2013-04-01

85

Determination, characterization and cytotoxicity on HELF cells of ZnO nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different size were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The potential cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs with various concentrations has been investigated using human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) cells. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs on the normal HELF cell was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenltetrazoliumhromide (MTT) assay and characterized with photo microscopy and

Jin-Hua Yuan; Yu Chen; He-Xia Zha; Li-Jun Song; Chun-Ye Li; Jie-Quan Li; Xing-Hua Xia

2010-01-01

86

Role of surface charge and oxidative stress in cytotoxicity of organic monolayer-coated silicon nanoparticles towards macrophage NR8383 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Surface charge and oxidative stress are often hypothesized to be important factors in cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. However, the role of these factors is not well understood. Hence, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the role of surface charge, oxidative stress and possible involvement of mitochondria in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon exposure of rat macrophage NR8383 cells to silicon nanoparticles. For this aim highly monodisperse (size 1.6 ± 0.2 nm) and well-characterized Si core nanoparticles (Si NP) were used with a surface charge that depends on the specific covalently bound organic monolayers: positively charged Si NP-NH2, neutral Si NP-N3 and negatively charged Si NP-COOH. Results Positively charged Si NP-NH2 proved to be more cytotoxic in terms of reducing mitochondrial metabolic activity and effects on phagocytosis than neutral Si NP-N3, while negatively charged Si NP-COOH showed very little or no cytotoxicity. Si NP-NH2 produced the highest level of intracellular ROS, followed by Si NP-N3 and Si NP-COOH; the latter did not induce any intracellular ROS production. A similar trend in ROS production was observed in incubations with an isolated mitochondrial fraction from rat liver tissue in the presence of Si NP. Finally, vitamin E and vitamin C induced protection against the cytotoxicity of the Si NP-NH2 and Si NP-N3, corroborating the role of oxidative stress in the mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity of these Si NP. Conclusion Surface charge of Si-core nanoparticles plays an important role in determining their cytotoxicity. Production of intracellular ROS, with probable involvement of mitochondria, is an important mechanism for this cytotoxicity. PMID:20831820

2010-01-01

87

Preparation and cytotoxicity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/alginate beads containing gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Polyelectrolyte complex beads based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) were obtained. This biomaterial was characterised by FTIR, TGA/DTG, DSC and SEM analysis. The good properties of polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel beads were associated, for the first time, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Through a straightforward methodology, AuNPs were encapsulated into the beads. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays on the Caco-2 colon cancer cells and healthy VERO cells showed that the beads presented good biocompatibility on both cell lines, whereas the beads loaded with gold nanoparticles (beads/AuNPs) was slightly cytotoxic on the Caco-2 and VERO cells. PMID:25159881

Martins, Alessandro F; Facchi, Suelen P; Monteiro, Johny P; Nocchi, Samara R; Silva, Cleiser T P; Nakamura, Celso V; Girotto, Emerson M; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

2015-01-01

88

Uptake and cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles in human liver cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanoparticles, and the liver being the main detoxifying organ in the human body, there are limited studies which delineate the hepatotoxicity of nanoparticles. This paper reports on the biological interactions between liver cells and chitosan nanoparticles, which have been widely recognised as biocompatible. Using the MTT assay, human liver cells

Jing Wen Loh; George Yeoh; Martin Saunders; Lee-Yong Lim

2010-01-01

89

Evaluations of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity on Ag Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

E. coli and S. aureus were used as model for testing antimicrobial activity, and L-929 cell line was selected for toxicity evaluation by cellular mitochondrial function (MTT assay). The results show that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can significantly increase antibacterial activity with the increasing of concentration of the silver nanoparticles. The lowest effective concentration of silver nanoparticles (30×10?6) which leads

Li Xinping; Li Shengli; Zhang Miaotao; Zhang Wenlong; Li Chuanghong

2011-01-01

90

PLGA-nanoparticle mediated delivery of anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody enhances anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses.  

PubMed

OX40 (CD134) is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor expressed mainly on activated T cells and transmits a potent costimulatory signal once engaged. Agonistic anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) enhances tumor immune response leading to therapeutic effects in mouse tumor models. However, when tested in phase I clinical trials it did not show objective clinical activity in cancer patients. In this study, we examined the feasibility of nanoparticle (NP)-mediated delivery of anti-OX40 mAb to efficiently induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) carrying anti-OX40 mAb, anti-OX40-PLGA-NP, was prepared by double emulsion method and showed an average diameter of 86 nm with a loading efficiency of 25%. We found that anti-OX40-PLGA-NP induced CTL proliferation and tumor antigen-specific cytotoxicity as well as cytokine production more strongly than free anti-OX40 mAb. These results suggest that PLGA-based nanoparticle formulation may provide efficient delivery system of anti-OX40 mAb for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24487032

Chen, Mingshui; Ouyang, Haichao; Zhou, Shangyong; Li, Jieyu; Ye, Yunbin

2014-02-01

91

Suppression of nanoparticle cytotoxicity approaching in vivo serum concentrations: limitations of in vitro testing for nanosafety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials challenge paradigms of in vitro testing because unlike molecular species, biomolecules in the dispersion medium modulate their interactions with cells. Exposing cells to nanoparticles known to cause cell death, we observed cytotoxicity suppression by increasing the amount of serum in the dispersion medium towards in vivo-relevant conditions.Nanomaterials challenge paradigms of in vitro testing because unlike molecular species, biomolecules in the dispersion medium modulate their interactions with cells. Exposing cells to nanoparticles known to cause cell death, we observed cytotoxicity suppression by increasing the amount of serum in the dispersion medium towards in vivo-relevant conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures; cell viability, proliferation and endocytosis levels of cultures grown in the relevant media; cellular uptake and physicochemical characterisation by DCS of silica nanoparticles; physicochemical characterisation by DLS of the amino-modified polystyrene nanoparticles used in the relevant biological media. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04970e

KimPresent Address: Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department Of Chemistry; Applied Biosciences, Eth Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland., Jong Ah; SalvatiPresent Address: Division Of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology; Targeting, Department Of Pharmacy, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 Av Groningen, The Netherlands., Anna; ĹbergPresent Address: Groningen Institute Of Biomolecular Sciences; Biotechnology, University Of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 Ag Groningen, The Netherlands., Christoffer; Dawson, Kenneth A.

2014-11-01

92

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in testicular cells of male wistar rat.  

PubMed

Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use in consumer products and medicines; also, the potential effects on reproduction and fertility are relevant for this risk evaluation. In the present study, we examined the effects of intravenously injected titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs; 21 nm), with special emphasis on reproductive system. Antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase showed a significant decrease, while significant increase in lipid peroxidase was observed. Our results confirmed the bioaccumulation of TiO2-NPs in testicular cells. In TiO2-NPs-treated animals, various functional and pathological disorders, such as reduced sperm count, increase in caspase-3 (a biomarker of apoptosis), creatine kinase activity, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis were observed. Moreover, the testosterone activity was decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in the animals treated with TiO2-NPs as compared with control group animals. It is concluded that TiO2-NPs induce oxidative stress, which produce cytotoxic and genotoxic changes in sperms which may affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. PMID:25344432

Meena, Ramovatar; Kajal, Kumari; R, Paulraj

2015-01-01

93

Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of

M. Baek; M. K. Kim; H. J. Cho; J. A. Lee; J. Yu; H. E. Chung; S. J. Choi

2011-01-01

94

Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic effect of plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Morinda citrifolia root extract.  

PubMed

Silver has been used since time to control bodily infection, prevent food spoilage and heal wounds by preventing infection. The present study aims at an environmental friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from the root of Morinda citrifolia; without involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanopartilces were capped with plant compounds. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the spherical nature of the silver nanoparticles with a size of 30-55 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum XRD pattern clearly indicates that the silver nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell. PMID:23434694

Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kanchana, A; Elizabeth, S Beena

2013-06-01

95

Evaluating Cytotoxicity of Hyaluronate Targeted Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Etoposide on SK-OV-3 Cells  

PubMed Central

The epithelial ovarian carcinoma is one of the most fatal gynecological cancers. Etoposide is used in treating platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Sodium hyaluronate is a substance that binds to the CD44 receptors overexpressed in SK-OV-3 cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The aim of the present work was to study the cytotoxicity effect of hyaluronate targeted solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells. The cytotoxicity of the targeted and nontargeted SLNs of etoposide was compared to free drug on the SK-OV-3 cells by MTT assay method. The cellular uptake of the targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles containing sodium fluorescein was also studied. The difference of cell vitality between nontargeted nanoparticles and also targeted nanoparticles with free drug was significant. Targeted nanoparticles also caused more toxicity than nontargeted nanoparticles (P < 0.05). After 4 hours of incubating, the fluorescence was remarkably higher in the cells treated by targeted SLNs rather than nontargeted ones, and there was no observable fluorescence in cells incubated with pure sodium fluorescein. Hyaluronate targeted SLNs containing etoposide increased the cytotoxicity of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells which may be a worthwhile potential method for reducing the prescribed dose and systemic side effects of this drug in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24868467

Varshosaz, Jaleh; Sadeghi Aliabadi, Hojatollah

2014-01-01

96

Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67?g/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

2014-01-01

97

Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of cyclosporine A loaded PLGA nanoparticles for ocular use.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine A loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared using the o/w emulsification solvent evaporation method and the effect of four preparation parameters on particle size and zeta potential was investigated. Release properties of the nanoparticles were examined and in vitro experiments were performed in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the nanoparticles developed. Particle sizes varied between 191 and 303 nm depending on the different preparation parameters and all nanoparticle dispersions were monodisperse. The nanoparticles showed negative zeta potential values varying between -16 and -35 mV and 57 to 70 % of the amount of loaded cyclosporine A was released after 24 h. None of the nanoparticle formulations showed significant cytotoxicity compared to the negative control using human epithelial cells (HaCaT). Cyclosporine A incorporated in the various nanoparticle formulations retained its anti-inflammatory activity as significant suppression of interleukine-2 secretion in concanavalin A stimulated Jurkat T cells was measured. As the overall influence of the freeze-drying process on the characteristics of nanoparticles was limited, trehalose and carnitine should be preferred as cryoprotectants in ocular formulations for treatment of dry eye disease. PMID:24601220

Hermans, K; Van Den Plas, D; Schreurs, E; Weyenberg, W; Ludwig, A

2014-01-01

98

Analysis of the cytotoxicity of differentially sized titanium dioxide nanoparticles in murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased use of nanophase titanium dioxide (TiO2) in bone implants and scaffolds. However, nano-debris is generated at the bone-biomaterial interface. Therefore, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) of many sizes were investigated for cytotoxic effects on murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. These TiO2 NPs induced a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. There was a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase\\u000a (LDH)

Yilin Zhang; Weiqiang Yu; Xinquan Jiang; Kaige Lv; Shengjun Sun; Fuqiang Zhang

2011-01-01

99

Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Malus domestica (apple) extract. Polyphenols present in the apple extract act as a reducing and capping agent to produce the silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible analysis shows the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption at 420 nm. The FTIR analysis was used to identify the functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ion. The XRD and HRTEM images confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of silver nanoparticles was recorded against most of the bacteria and fungus. Further, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line was employed to observe the efficacy of cancer cell killing. PMID:24583606

Lokina, S; Stephen, A; Kaviyarasan, V; Arulvasu, C; Narayanan, V

2014-04-01

100

Cytotoxical products formation on the nanoparticles heated by the pulsed laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxical effect of a pulsed laser irradiation in presence of nanoparticles of carbon black, sulphuretted carbon and fullerene-60 on death of human uterus nick cancer HeLa and mice lymphoma P 388 cells was studied in vitro. Bubbles formation as result of \\

Boris Ya. Kogan; Andrey A. Titov; Victor Yu. Rakitin; Larisa D. Kvacheva; Sergey G. Kuzmin; Georgy N. Vorozhtsov

2006-01-01

101

Antibacterial activity, inflammatory response, coagulation and cytotoxicity effects of silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. Here, we studied the effects of 24 nm silver NPs (AgNPs) on a panel of bacteria isolated from medical devices used in a hospital intensive care unit. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated in

Fidel Martínez-Gutierrez; Emily P. Thi; Judith M. Silverman; Carolina Camargo de Oliveira; Sarah L. Svensson; Amanda Vanden Hoek; Elpidio Morales Sánchez; Neil E. Reiner; Erin C. Gaynor; Edward L. G. Pryzdial; Edward M. Conway; Erasmo Orrantia; Facundo Ruiz; Yossef Av-Gay; Horacio Bach

102

Cytotoxicity of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Function of the Lipid Matrix and the Surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a function of lipid matrix (Dynasan 114, Compritol ATO 888), and stabilizing surfactant (poloxamers, Tween 80, soya lecithin, and sodium dodecyl sulphate). Comparison with other colloidal carriers should determine their potential use in the clinic.

Rainer H. Müller; Dörte Rühl; Stephan Runge; Kai Schulze-Forster; Wolfgang Mehnert

1997-01-01

103

Surface Coatings Determine Cytotoxicity and Irritation Potential of Quantum Dot Nanoparticles in Epidermal Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have potential applications in nanomedicine as drug delivery vectors and diagnostic agents, but the skin toxicity and irritation potential of QDs are unknown. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) were used to assess if QDs with different surface coatings would cause differential effects on HEK cytotoxicity, proinflammatory cytokine release, and cellular uptake. Commercially available QDs of two different

Jessica P Ryman-Rasmussen; Jim E Riviere; Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere

2007-01-01

104

In vitro release behavior and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin-loaded gold nanoparticles in cancerous cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doxorubicin (DOX), a common cancer chemotherapeutics, was conjugated to folate-modified thiolated-polyethylene glycol-functionalized\\u000a gold nanoparticles. The in vitro, controlled release behavior of DOX-loaded gold nanoparticles was observed using porous dialysis\\u000a membranes (cut-off = 2 kDa). DOX-loaded gold nanoparticles had higher cytotoxicity for folate-receptor-positive cells (KB\\u000a cells) compared to folate-receptor-negative cells (A549 cells) which were 48 and 62% viable for 10 ?M doxorubicin, respectively.\\u000a This indicates the

B. Asadishad; M. Vossoughi; I. Alamzadeh

2010-01-01

105

Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

Kai, Wei; Xiaojun, Xu; Ximing, Pu; Zhenqing, Hou; Qiqing, Zhang

2011-07-01

106

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

2014-01-01

107

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-09-01

108

Kinetics and pathogenesis of intracellular magnetic nanoparticle cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticles excited by alternating magnetic fields (AMF) have demonstrated effective tumor-specific hyperthermia. This treatment is effective as a monotherapy as well as a therapeutic adjuvant to chemotherapy and radiation. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been shown, so far, to be non-toxic, as are the exciting AMF fields when used at moderate levels. Although higher levels of AMF can be more

Andrew J. Giustini; Rachel E. Gottesman; A. A. Petryk; A. M. Rauwerdink; P. Jack Hoopes

2011-01-01

109

Cytotoxicity of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles on cancer cells of epithelial origin  

PubMed Central

In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles against human colon cancer HT29, breast cancer MCF7, and liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. The morphology, homogeneity, and elemental composition of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The exposure of cancer cells to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (15.6–1,000 ?g/mL; 72 hours) has resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The quantification of caspase-3 and -9 activities and DNA fragmentation to assess the cell death pathway of the treated cells showed that both were stimulated when exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles. Light microscopy examination of the cells exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles demonstrated significant changes in cellular morphology. The HepG2 cells were most prone to apoptosis among the three cells lines examined, as the result of treatment with NiZn nanoparticles. In conclusion, NiZn ferrite nanoparticles are suggested to have potential cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:23885175

Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Ahmad, Sahrim HJ; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Eid, Eltayeb EM; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saeed, Mohd; Ilowefah, Muna; Fakurazi, Sharida; Isa, Norhaszalina Mohd; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El

2013-01-01

110

Biocompatibility of various ferrite nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using HeLa cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles for thermotherapy must be biocompatible and possess high thermal efficiency as heating elements. The biocompatibility of Fe 3O 4 (20-30 nm), ZnFe 2O 4 (15-30 nm) and NiFe 2O 4 (20-30 nm) nanoparticles was studied using a cytotoxicity colony formation assay and a cell viability assay. The Fe 3O 4 sample was found to be biocompatible on HeLa cells. While ZnFe 2O 4 and NiFe 2O 4 were non-toxic at low concentrations, HeLa cells exhibited cytotoxic effects when exposed to concentrations of 100 ?g/ml nanoparticles.

Tomitaka, Asahi; Hirukawa, Atsuo; Yamada, Tsutomu; Morishita, Shin; Takemura, Yasushi

2009-05-01

111

Uptake and cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles in human liver cells  

SciTech Connect

Despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanoparticles, and the liver being the main detoxifying organ in the human body, there are limited studies which delineate the hepatotoxicity of nanoparticles. This paper reports on the biological interactions between liver cells and chitosan nanoparticles, which have been widely recognised as biocompatible. Using the MTT assay, human liver cells were shown to tolerate up to 4 h of exposure to 0.5% w/v of chitosan nanoparticles (18 {+-} 1 nm, 7.5 {+-} 1.0 mV in culture medium). At nanoparticle concentrations above 0.5% w/v, cell membrane integrity was compromised as evidenced by leakage of alanine transaminase into the extracellular milieu, and there was a dose-dependent increase in CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Uptake of chitosan nanoparticles into the cell nucleus was observed by confocal microscopic analysis after 4 h exposure with 1% w/v of chitosan nanoparticles. Electron micrographs further suggest necrotic or autophagic cell death, possibly caused by cell membrane damage and resultant enzyme leakage.

Loh, Jing Wen [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); Yeoh, George [School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); Centre for Medical Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, WA 6009 (Australia); Saunders, Martin [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); Lim, Lee-Yong, E-mail: limly@cyllene.uwa.edu.a [Laboratory for Drug Delivery, Pharmacy, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia); School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, 6009 (Australia)

2010-12-01

112

Effects of Internalized Gold Nanoparticles with Respect to Cytotoxicity and Invasion Activity in Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of gold nanoparticles on lung cancer cells is not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and cell invasion activity of lung cancer cells after treatment with gold nanoparticles and showed that small gold nanoparticles can be endocytosed by lung cancer cells and that they facilitate cell invasion. The growth of A549 cells was inhibited after treatment with 5-nm gold nanoparticles, but cell invasion increased. Endocytosed gold nanoparticles (size, 10 nm) notably promoted the invasion activity of 95D cells. All these effects of gold nanoparticles were not seen after treatment with larger particles (20 and 40 nm). The enhanced invasion activity may be associated with the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this study, we obtained evidence for the effect of gold nanoparticles on lung cancer cell invasion activity in vitro. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, key modulators of cell invasion, were found to be regulated by gold nanoparticles. These data also demonstrate that the responses of the A549 and 95D cells to gold nanoparticles have a remarkable relationship with their unique size-dependent physiochemical properties. Therefore, this study provides a new perspective for cell biology research in nanomedicine. PMID:24901215

Guo, Zhirui; Liu, Ying; Shen, Yujie; Zhou, Ping; Lu, Xiang

2014-01-01

113

Glyconanoparticle Aided Detection of ?-Amyloid by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Attenuation of ?-Amyloid Induced Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The development of a noninvasive method for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease is of high current interest, which can be critical in early diagnosis and in guiding treatment of the disease. The aggregates of ?-amyloid are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Carbohydrates such as gangliosides have been shown to play significant roles in initiation of amyloid aggregation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach using superparamagnetic iron oxide glyconanoparticles to detect ?-amyloid. The bindings of ?-amyloid by the glyconanoparticles were demonstrated through several techniques including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, gel electrophoresis, tyrosine fluorescence assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The superparamagnetic nature of the nanoparticles allowed easy detection of ?-amyloid both in vitro and ex vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the glyconanoparticles not only were nontoxic to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells but also greatly reduced ?-amyloid induced cytotoxicity to cells, highlighting the potential of these nanoparticles for detection and imaging of ?-amyloid. PMID:23590250

2013-01-01

114

Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Ceria Nanoparticles on Different Cell Lines in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Owing to their radical scavenging and UV-filtering properties, ceria nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) are currently used for various applications, including as catalysts in diesel particulate filters. Because of their ability to filter UV light, CeO2-NPs have garnered significant interest in the medical field and, consequently, are poised for use in various applications. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of short-term (24 h) and long-term (10 days) CeO2-NP exposure to A549, CaCo2 and HepG2 cell lines. Cytotoxicity assays tested CeO2-NPs over a concentration range of 0.5 ?g/mL to 5000 ?g/mL, whereas genotoxicity assays tested CeO2-NPs over a concentration range of 0.5 ?g/mL to 5000 ?g/mL. In vitro assays showed almost no short-term exposure toxicity on any of the tested cell lines. Conversely, long-term CeO2-NP exposure proved toxic for all tested cell lines. NP genotoxicity was detectable even at 24-h exposure. HepG2 was the most sensitive cell line overall; however, the A549 line was most sensitive to the lowest concentration tested. Moreover, the results confirmed the ceria nanoparticles’ capacity to protect cells when they are exposed to well-known oxidants such as H2O2. A Comet assay was performed in the presence of both H2O2 and CeO2-NPs. When hydrogen peroxide was maintained at 25 ?M, NPs at 0.5 ?g/mL, 50 ?g/mL, and 500 ?g/mL protected the cells from oxidative damage. Thus, the NPs prevented H2O2-induced genotoxic damage. PMID:23377016

De Marzi, Laura; Monaco, Antonina; De Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; Poma, Anna

2013-01-01

115

Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brřnsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 ?g/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brřnsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications.

Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

2015-01-01

116

Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells  

PubMed Central

In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy. PMID:22679374

Wang, Ye; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Su, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Li, Jian-Xiu; Yin, Meng; Yang, Feng; Hu, Yi-Ping

2012-01-01

117

Cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of PVP-coated silver nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in rats  

PubMed Central

Summary Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the most promising nanomaterials, and their usage in medical applications and consumer products is growing rapidly. To evaluate possible adverse health effects, especially to the lungs, the current study focused on the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of AgNP after the intratracheal instillation in rats. Monodisperse, PVP-coated AgNP (70 nm) showing little agglomeration in aqueous suspension were instilled intratracheally. After 24 hours, the lungs were lavaged, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, and cytokine levels as well as total and differential cell counts were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Instillation of 50 µg PVP-AgNP did not result in elevated LDH, total protein, or cytokine levels in BALF compared to the control, whereas instillation of 250 µg PVP-AgNP caused a significant increase in LDH (1.9-fold) and total protein (1.3-fold) levels as well as in neutrophil numbers (60-fold) of BALF. Furthermore, while there was no change in BALF cytokine levels after the instillation of 50 µg PVP-AgNP, instillation of 250 µg PVP-AgNP resulted in significantly increased levels of seven out of eleven measured cytokines. These finding suggest that exposure to inhaled AgNP can induce moderate pulmonary toxicity, but only at rather high concentrations. PMID:24455451

Hirn, Stephanie; Wenk, Alexander; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Johnston, Blair D; Krombach, Fritz; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schleh, Carsten

2013-01-01

118

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines; including the potential effects on reproduction and fertility, are relevant for this risk evaluation. In this study, we examined effects of silver particles of nano- (20nm) and submicron-

Nana Asare; Christine Instanes; Wiggo J. Sandberg; Magne Refsnes; Per Schwarze; Marcin Kruszewski; Gunnar Brunborg

119

Cytotoxicity induced by nanobacteria and nanohydroxyapatites in human choriocarcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

We explored the cytotoxic effects of nanobacteria (NB) and nanohydroxyapatites (nHAPs) against human choriocarcinoma cells (JAR) and the mechanisms of action underlying their cytotoxicity. JAR cells were co-cultured with NB and nHAPs for 48 h, and ultrastructural changes were more readily induced by NB than nHAPs. Autophagy in the plasma of JAR cells were observed in the NB group. The rate of apoptosis induced by NB was higher than that for nHAPs. The expression of Bax and FasR proteins in the NB group was stronger than that for the nHAP group. NB probably resulted in autophagic formation. Apoptosis was possibly activated via FasL binding to the FasR signaling pathway. PMID:25411570

2014-01-01

120

Biosynthesis, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Using a Novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications, research interest in nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. In the present study, an ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 has been attempted. We used culture supernatant of Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 for the simple and cost effective green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with the Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 culture supernatant at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, TEM, FE-SEM, EDX, FTIR, and XRD spectroscopy. The nanoparticles exhibited an absorption peak around 420?nm, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. They were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 45 ± 0.15?nm. The EDX analysis showed the presence of elemental silver signal in the synthesized nanoparticles. The FTIR analysis revealed that the protein component in the form of enzyme nitrate reductase produced by the isolate in the culture supernatant may be responsible for reduction and as capping agents. The XRD spectrum showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 2 3, 2 0 4, 0 4 3, 1 4 4, and 3 1 1 facets of the face centered cubic silver nanoparticles and confirms that these nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs against in vitro human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) showed a dose-response activity. IC50 value was found to be 200??g/mL of AgNPs against HeLa cancer cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the toxicity and the mechanism involved with antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the synthesized AgNPs as nanomedicine. PMID:23936787

Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

2013-01-01

121

Classification Nano-SAR Development for Cytotoxicity of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

A classification based cytotoxicity nano-structure-activity-realtionship (nano-SAR) is presented based on a set of nine metal oxide nanoparticles to which transformed bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed over a range of concentrations of 0.375–200 mg·L?1 and exposure times up to 24 h. The nano-SAR is developed using cytotoxicity data from high throughput screening (HTS) assay that was processed to identify and label toxic (in terms of the Propidium Iodide uptake of BEAS-2B cells) versus non-toxic events relative to unexposed control cell population. Starting with a set of fourteen intuitive but fundamental physicochemical nano-SAR input parameters, a number of models were identified which had classification accuracy above 95%. The best performing model had a 100% classification accuracy in both internal and external validation. This model is based on four descriptors including the atomization energy of the metal oxide, period of the nanoparticle metal, nanoparticle primary size, in addition to nanoparticle volume fraction (in solution). Notwithstanding the success of the present modeling approach with a relatively small nanoparticle library, it is important to recognize that a significantly larger data set would be needed in order to expand the applicability domain and increase the confidence and reliability of data-driven nano-SARs. PMID:21456088

Liu, Rong; Rallo, Robert; George, Saji; Ji, Zhaoxia; Nair, Sumitra; Nel, André E.

2014-01-01

122

Cytotoxic Effect of Paclitaxel Incorporated in Nanoparticles Based on Lactic and Glycolic Acid Copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclitaxel dosage form on nanoparticles of 200–300 nm based on lactic and glycolic acid copolymer was obtained by the co-precipitation\\u000a method. The possibility of controlled release of paclitaxel at pH 7.4 for 24 h was studied in vitro. Studies on Jurkat\\/WT human T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells showed that incorporation of paclitaxel in the nanoparticles led\\u000a to a 4-fold increase of its cytotoxicity (6.8?×?10?6 M)

V. Bojat; D. S. Baranov; E. A. Oganesyan; Y. M. Hamdy; V. Yu. Balaban’yan; R. N. Alyautdin

2011-01-01

123

In vitro cytotoxicity screening of water-dispersible metal oxide nanoparticles in human cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present in vitro cytotoxicity of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and manganese oxide (MnO) using live\\/dead cell assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay, and reactive oxygen species detection\\u000a with variation of the concentration of nanoparticles (5–500 ?g\\/ml), incubation time (18–96 h), and different human cell lines\\u000a (lung adenocarcinoma, breast cancer cells, and glioblastoma cells). The surface of nanoparticles is modified with polyethyleneglycol-derivatized

Jong Young Choi; Su Hee Lee; Hyon Bin Na; Kwangjin An; Taeghwan Hyeon; Tae Seok Seo

2010-01-01

124

Human Cell Line-Dependent WC-Co Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity: A Key Role of ROS Production.  

PubMed

Although tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used because of their robustness, their risk to human health remains poorly studied, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifying them as "probably carcinogenic" for humans (Group 2A) in 2006. Our current study aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of one set of commercially available 60-nm diameter WC-Co NPs on three human cell lines representative of potential target organs: A549 (lung), Hep3B (liver), and Caki-1 (kidney). The cytotoxicity of WC-Co NPs was determined by evaluating cell impedance (xCELLigence), cell survival/death, and cell cycle checkpoints. Flow cytometry was used to not only evaluate cell cycle checkpoints, but to also estimate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In addition, ?-H2Ax foci detection (confocal microscopy), considered to be the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks, was utilized to evaluate genotoxicity. As a final part of this study, we assessed the cellular incorporation of WC-Co NPs, first byflow cytometry (side scatter), and then by confocal microscopy (light reflection) to ensure that the NPs had entered cells. Overall, our current findings demonstrate that WC-Co NPs induce cell mortality, DNA double-strand breaks, and cell cycle arrest in human renal (Caki-1) and liver (Hep3B) cell lines, but do not induce significant cytotoxic effects in A549 lung cells. Interestingly, although WC-Co NPs effectively entered the cells in all 3 lines tested, ROS were detected in Caki-1 and Hep3B, but not in A549. This may explain the great differences in the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects we observed between these lines. PMID:25398624

Paget, V; Moche, H; Kortulewski, T; Grall, R; Irbah, L; Nesslany, F; Chevillard, S

2015-02-01

125

Cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticles on HT29 colorectal cancer cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) carrying cholesteryl butyrate (chol-but), doxorubicin and paclitaxel had previously been developed, and the antiproliferative effect of SLN formulations versus conventional drug formulations was here evaluated on HT-29 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were interpolated from growth curves obtained by trypan blue exclusion assay. In vitro cytotoxicity of SLN carrying chol-but (IC5072h 0.3±0.03 mM vs

L. Serpe; M. G. Catalano; R. Cavalli; E. Ugazio; O. Bosco; R. Canaparo; E. Muntoni; R. Frairia; M. R. Gasco; M. Eandi; G. P. Zara

2004-01-01

126

Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles differs in four liver cells from human and rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are the important nanoscale components of composites. Although TiO2 NPs and their related nanocomposites have been widely used in industrial and medical applications, the adverse effects of TiO2 nanomaterials have not been well studied. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs in vitro using four liver cell lines: human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SMMC-7721),

BaoYong Sha; Wei Gao; ShuQi Wang; Feng Xu; TianJian Lu

2011-01-01

127

Effects of serum proteins on intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of carbon nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the effects of the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) on cytotoxicity, the adsorption of serum proteins in cell culture medium on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and three kinds of carbon blacks was investigated. The uptake of CNPs by Hela cells was measured quantitatively using 99mTc radionuclide labeling and tracing techniques, and the dependence of CNPs uptake on serum

Ying Zhu; Wenxin Li; Qingnuan Li; Yuguo Li; Yufeng Li; Xiaoyong Zhang; Qing Huang

2009-01-01

128

Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of clinically relevant cobalt nanoparticles and ions on macrophages in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the satisfactory short-term implant survivorship of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty, periprosthetic soft-tissue masses such as pseudotumours are being increasingly reported. Cytotoxic effects of cobalt or chromium have been suggested to play a role in its aetiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of clinically relevant metal nanoparticles and ions on the viability of macrophages in

Young-Min Kwon; Zhidao Xia; Sion Glyn-Jones; David Beard; Harinderjit S. Gill; David W. Murray

2009-01-01

129

Cytotoxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles and implications for safety in cell labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro labelling of cultured cells with iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is a frequent practice in biomedical research. To date, the potential cytotoxicity of these particles remains an issue of debate. In the present study, 4 different NP types (dextran-coated Endorem, carboxydextran-coated Resovist, lipid-coated magnetoliposomes (MLs) and citrate-coated very small iron oxide particles (VSOP)) are tested on a variety

Stefaan J. H. Soenen; Uwe Himmelreich; Nele Nuytten; Marcel De Cuyper

2011-01-01

130

Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brřnsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9-1,000 ?g/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brřnsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-Eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

2015-01-01

131

Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different size and surface characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Polymer nanoparticles (PNP) are becoming increasingly important in nanomedicine and food-based applications. Size and surface characteristics are often considered to be important factors in the cellular interactions of these PNP, although systematic investigations on the role of surface properties on cellular interactions and toxicity of PNP are scarce. Results Fluorescent, monodisperse tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different sizes (45 and 90 nm) and surface charges (positive and negative) were synthesized, characterized and studied for uptake and cytotoxicity in NR8383 and Caco-2 cells. All types of PNP were taken up by the cells. The positive smaller PNP45 (45 nm) showed a higher cytotoxicity compared to the positive bigger PNP90 (90 nm) particles including reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ATP depletion and TNF-? release. The negative PNP did not show any cytotoxic effect. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), uncoupling of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and the resulting ATP depletion, induction of ROS and oxidative stress may all play a role in the possible mode of action for the cytotoxicity of these PNP. The role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the intracellular uptake of different PNP was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Involvement of size and charge in the cellular uptake of PNP by clathrin (for positive PNP), caveolin (for negative PNP) and mannose receptors (for hydroxylated PNP) were found with smaller PNP45 showing stronger interactions with the receptors than bigger PNP90. Conclusions The size and surface characteristics of polymer nanoparticles (PNP; 45 and 90 nm with different surface charges) play a crucial role in cellular uptake. Specific interactions with cell membrane-bound receptors (clathrin, caveolin and mannose) leading to cellular internalization were observed to depend on size and surface properties of the different PNP. These properties of the nanoparticles also dominate their cytotoxicity, which was analyzed for many factors. The effective reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), uncoupling of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and resulting ATP depletion, induction of ROS and oxidative stress likely all play a role in the mechanisms behind the cytotoxicity of these PNP. PMID:22546147

2012-01-01

132

Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Non-biodegradable Engineered Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has improved the quality of many industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical products. Increased surface reactivity, a major reason for the positive effects of NPs, may, on the other hand, also cause adverse biological effects. Almost all non-biodegradable NPs cause cytotoxic effects but employ quite different modes of action. The relation of biodegradable or loaded NPs to cytotoxic mechanism is more difficult to identify because effects may by caused by the particles or degradation products thereof. This review introduces problems of NPs in conventional cytotoxicity testing (changes of particle parameters in biological fluids, cellular dose, cell line and assay selection). Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by NPs and of metal ions due to dissolution of the NPs is discussed as a cause for cytotoxicity. The effects of NPs on plasma membrane, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleus, and intracellular proteins as cellular targets for cytotoxicity are summarized. The comparison of the numerous studies on the mechanism of cellular effects shows that, although some common targets have been identified, other effects are unique for particular NPs or groups of NPs. While titanium dioxide NPs appear to act mainly by generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, biological effects of silver and iron oxide are caused by both reactive species and free metal ions. NPs lacking heavy metals, such as carbon nanotubes and polystyrene particles, interfere with cell metabolism mainly by binding to macromolecules. PMID:24160294

Fröhlich, Eleonore

2013-01-01

133

Nitric oxide enhancement of melphalan-induced cytotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

The effects of the diatomic radical, nitric oxide (NO), on melphalan-induced cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster V79 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells were studied using clonogenic assays. NO delivered by the NO-releasing agent (C2H5)2N[N(O)NO]- Na+ (DEA/NO; 1 mM) resulted in enhancement of melphalan-mediated toxicity in Chinese hamster V79 lung fibroblasts and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells by 3.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, at the IC50 level. Nitrite/nitrate and diethylamine, the ultimate end products of DEA/NO decomposition, had little effect on melphalan cytotoxicity, which suggests that NO was responsible for the sensitization. Whereas maximal sensitization of melphalan cytotoxicity by DEA/NO was observed for simultaneous exposure of DEA/NO and melphalan, cells pretreated with DEA/NO were sensitized to melphalan for several hours after NO exposure. Reversing the order of treatment also resulted in a time-dependent enhancement in melphalan cytotoxicity. To explore possible mechanisms of NO enhancement of melphalan cytotoxicity, the effects of DEA/NO on three factors that might influence melphalan toxicity were examined, namely NO-mediated cell cycle perturbations, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and melphalan uptake. NO pretreatment resulted in a delayed entry into S phase and a G2/M block for both V79 and MCF-7 cells; however, cell cycle redistribution for V79 cells occurred after the cells returned to a level of cell survival, consistent with treatment with melphalan alone. After 15 min exposure of V79 cells to DEA/NO (1 mM), GSH levels were reduced to 40% of control values; however, GSH levels recovered fully after 1 h and were elevated 2 h after DEA/NO incubation. In contrast, DEA/NO (1 mM) incubation did not reduce GSH levels significantly in MCF-7 cells (approximately 10%). Melphalan uptake was increased by 33% after DEA/NO exposure in V79 cells. From these results enhancement of melphalan cytotoxicity mediated by NO appears to be complex and may involve several pathways, including possibly alteration of the repair of melphalan-induced lesions. Our observations may give insights for improving tumour kill with melphalan using either exogenous or possibly endogenous sources of NO. PMID:9252199

Cook, J. A.; Krishna, M. C.; Pacelli, R.; DeGraff, W.; Liebmann, J.; Mitchell, J. B.; Russo, A.; Wink, D. A.

1997-01-01

134

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and mechanism of apoptosis of doxorubicin using folate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted delivery to retinoblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles are the new entities that can greatly limit the various side effects of systemic chemotherapy, and that coupled\\u000a with a targeting moiety enables site-specific delivery of drugs. Folate receptors are overexpressed in retinoblastoma cells,\\u000a thus these can specifically uptake the drug-loaded nanoparticles, thereby increasing the cytotoxicity at the tumor site. In\\u000a our work, doxorubicin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was prepared and

Suphiya Parveen; Sanjeeb K. Sahoo

2010-01-01

135

A novel bone cement impregnated with silver–tiopronin nanoparticles: its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and mechanical properties  

PubMed Central

Post-operatory infections in orthopedic surgeries pose a significant risk. The common approach of using antibiotics, both parenterally or embedded in bone cement (when this is employed during surgery) faces the challenge of the rising population of pathogens exhibiting resistance properties against one or more of these compounds; therefore, novel approaches need to be developed. Silver nanoparticles appear to be an exciting prospect because of their antimicrobial activity and safety at the levels used in medical applications. In this paper, a novel type of silver nanoparticles capped with tiopronin is presented. Two ratios of reagents during synthesis were tested and the effect on the nanoparticles investigated through TEM, TGA, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Once encapsulated in bone cement, only the nanoparticles with the highest amount of inorganic fraction conferred antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at concentrations as low as 0.1% w/w. No other characteristics of the bone cement, such as cytotoxicity or mechanical properties, were affected by the presence of the nanoparticles. Our work presents a new type of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates that they can be embedded in bone cement to prevent infections once the synthetic conditions are tailored for such applications. PMID:23818779

Prokopovich, Polina; Leech, Ralph; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P; Perni, Stefano

2013-01-01

136

Surface-Charge-Dependent Cell Localization and Cytotoxicity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown great potential as antioxidant and radioprotective agents for applications in cancer therapy. Recently, various polymer-coated nanoceria preparations have been developed to improve their aqueous solubility and allow for surface functionalization of these nanoparticles. However, the interaction of polymer-coated nanoceria with cells, their uptake mechanism and subcellular localization are poorly understood. Herein, we engineered polymer-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles with different surface charge (positive, negative and neutral) and studied their internalization and toxicity in normal and cancer cell lines. Results showed that nanoceria with a positive or neutral charge enters most of the cell lines studied, while nanoceria with a negative charge internalizes mostly in the cancer cell lines. Moreover, upon entry into the cells, nanoceria is localized to different cell compartments (e.g. cytoplasm and lysosomes) depending on the nanoparticle's surface charge. The internalization and subcellular localization of nanoceria plays a key role in the nanoparticlescytotoxicity profile, exhibiting significant toxicity when they localize in the lysosomes of the cancer cells. In contrast, minimal toxicity is observed when they localize into the cytoplasm or do not enter the cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the differential surface-charge-dependent localization of nanoceria in normal and cancer cells plays a critical role in the nanoparticles’ toxicity profile. PMID:20690607

Asati, Atul; Santra, Santimukul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Perez, J Manuel

2010-01-01

137

Study the cytotoxicity of different kinds of water-soluble nanoparticles in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Preparation of three kinds of water-soluble QDs: CdTe, CdTe@SiO{sub 2}, Mn:ZnSe. ? Evaluated the cytotoxicity qualitatively and quantitatively. ? Fluorescent staining. ? Detected the total intracellular cadmium in cells. -- Abstract: Quantum nanoparticles have been applied extensively in biological and medical fields, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles becomes the key point we should concern. In this paper, the cytotoxicity of three kinds of water-soluble nanoparticles: CdTe, CdTe@SiO{sub 2} and Mn:ZnSe was studied. We evaluated the nanoparticles toxicity qualitatively by observing the morphological changes of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells at different incubation times and colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were carried out to detect the cell viability quantitatively. The results showed that CdTe nanoparticles with high concentrations caused cells to die largely while CdTe@SiO{sub 2} and Mn:ZnSe nanoparticles had no obvious effect. For further study, we studied the relation between the cell viability and the total cadmium concentration in cells and found that the viability of cells treated with CdTe@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was higher than that treated with CdTe nanoparticles. We also discovered that the death rate of cells co-incubated with CdTe nanoparticles was proportional to the total intracellular cadmium concentrations.

Niu, Lu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Yang; Li, Xiaojie [Department of Pathophysiology, Prostate Diseases Prevention and Treatment Research Centre, Norman Bethune Medical School, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Pathophysiology, Prostate Diseases Prevention and Treatment Research Centre, Norman Bethune Medical School, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Gao, Xue [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2012-11-15

138

Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of copper-zinc alloy nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In the present study, in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of copper-zinc alloy nanoparticles (Cu-Zn ANPs) on human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were investigated. XTT test and clonogenic assay were used to determine cytotoxic effects. Cell death mode and intracellular reactive oxygen species formations were analyzed using M30, M65 and ROS Elisa assays. Genotoxic effects were evaluated using micronucleus, comet and ?-H2AX foci assays. Cu-Zn ANPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. Characterization of Cu-Zn ANPs showed an average size of 200nm and zeta potential of -22mV. TEM analyses further revealed the intracellular localization of Cu-Zn ANPs in cytoplasm within 24h. Analysis of micronucleus, comet and ?-H2AX foci counts showed that exposure to Cu-Zn ANPs significantly induced chromosomal damage as well as single and double stranded DNA damage in BEAS-2B cells. Our results further indicated that exposure to Cu-Zn ANPs significantly induced intracellular ROS formation. Evaluation of M30:M65 ratios suggested that cell death was predominantly due to necrosis. PMID:25116682

Kumb?çak, Umit; Cava?, Tolga; Cink?l?ç, Nilüfer; Kumb?çak, Zübeyde; Vatan, Ozgür; Y?lmaz, Dilek

2014-11-01

139

Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash.  

PubMed

This paper reports that the main component of respirable volcanic ash, allophane, induces lipid peroxidation (LP), the oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes, and cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. Naturally-occurring allophane collected from New Zealand, Japan, and Ecuador was studied. The quantification of LP was conducted using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The cytotoxic effect was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) determinations of naturally-occurring allophane confirmed the incorporation in the structure and clustering of structural Fe(3+), and nucleation and growth of small-sized Fe (oxyhydr)oxide or gibbsite. LP induced by allophane varied with time, and solid concentration and composition, reaching 6.7 ± 0.2 nmol TBARS mg prot(-1). LP was surface controlled but not restricted by structural or surface-bound Fe(3+), because redox processes induced by soluble components other than perferryl iron. The reactivity of Fe(3+) soluble species stemming from surface-bound Fe(3+) or small-sized Fe(3+) refractory minerals in allophane surpassed that of structural Fe(3+) located in tetrahedral or octahedral sites of phyllosilicates or bulk iron oxides. Desferrioxamine B mesylate salt (DFOB) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited LP. EDTA acted as a more effective inhibitor, explained by multiple electron transfer pathways. Registered cell-viability values were as low as 68.5 ± 6.7%. PMID:24793297

Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Antonio-Nieto-Camacho; Gomez-Vidales, Virginia; Ramirez-Apan, María Teresa; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Kaufhold, Stephan; Abidin, Zeanal; Theng, Benny K G

2014-06-15

140

Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (?-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ? Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ? Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ? In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ? Cell cycle analysis shows alterations in both cell lines with both silica NP tested. ? Buthionine sulfoximine enhances cytotoxicity of Ludox CL-X in 3T3-L1 cells.

St?pnik, Maciej, E-mail: mstep@imp.lodz.pl [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland)] [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland); Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieni??ek, Anna [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland)] [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland); Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A. [Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)] [Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gromadzi?ska, Jolanta [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland)] [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland); De Jong, Wim H. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9 NL?3720, Bilthoven (Netherlands)] [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9 NL?3720, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Rydzy?ski, Konrad [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland)] [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, ?ód? (Poland)

2012-08-15

141

Effects of fullerenol nanoparticles on acetamiprid induced cytoxicity and genotoxicity in cultured human lung fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of water soluble fullerene (fullerenol) nanoparticles on the in vitro genotoxicity induced by the insecticide acetamiprid. Healthy human lung cells (IMR-90) were treated with fullerenol C60(OH)n (n: 18-22) alone and in combination with acetamiprid for 24h. The micronucleus test, comet assay and ?-H2AX foci formation assays were used as genotoxicity endpoints. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the clonogenic assay. The maximum tested concentration of fullerenol (1.600 ?g/ml) induced 77% survival where as the lowest concentration (25 ?g/ml) was not cytotoxic where as acetamiprid was cytotoxic. Fullerenol did not induce genotoxicity at tested concentrations (50-1600 ?g/L). On the other hand, acetamiprid (>50 ?M) significantly induced formation of micronuclei, and double and single stranded DNA breaks in IMR-90 cells. For simultaneous exposure studies, two non-cytotoxic concentrations (50 and 200 ?g/ml) of fullerenol and three cytotoxic concentrations of acetamiprid (100, 200 and 400 ?M) were selected. As a result, we observed that co-exposure with fullerenol significantly reduced the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of acetamiprid in IMR-90 cells. Our results indicated the protective effect of water soluble fullerene particles on herbicide induced genotoxicity. PMID:25175643

Çava?, Tolga; Çink?l?ç, Nilüfer; Vatan, Özgür; Y?lmaz, Dilek

2014-09-01

142

Cellular uptake of solid lipid nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of encapsulated paclitaxel in A549 cancer cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and cytotoxicity of its paclitaxel delivery system. The conjugate of octadecylamine-fluorescein isothiocyanate (ODA-FITC) was synthesized, and used as a marker to prepare fluorescent SLN. The cellular uptakes of fluorescent SLN with different lipid material were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and the measurement of fluorescence intensity. The order of cellular uptake ability was glycerol tristearate SLN>monostearin SLN>stearic acid SLN>Compritol 888 ATO SLN (ATO888 SLN). The cellular cytotoxicities of paclitaxel were highly enhanced by the encapsulation of lipid matrix. Due to the lower drug entrapment efficiency of glycerol tristearate SLN, monostearin SLN was considered as the best lipid material to improve the cytotoxicity of drug. The polyethylene glycol monostearate (PEG-SA) and the synthesized conjugate of folic acid-stearic acid (FA-SA) were further introduced into monostearin SLN, respectively. The PEG and folate modified SLN could enhance the cellular uptake of SLN and the cellular cytotoxicity of drug by the membrane disturb ability of PEG chains on the SLN surface and the improved endocytosis mediated by folate receptor. PMID:17714896

Yuan, Hong; Miao, Jing; Du, Yong-Zhong; You, Jian; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Zeng, Su

2008-02-01

143

Effect of Crystal Size and Surface Functionalization on the Cytotoxicity of Silicalite1 Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline silicalite (the purely siliceous form of the zeolite, ZSM-5) of defined crystal size and surface functionalization and determine the effect on the type and degree of cytotoxicity induced in two distinct model cell lines. The silicalite materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering andpotential, solid state

Anton Petushkov; Janjira Intra; Jessica B. Graham; Sarah C. Larsen; Aliasger K. Salem

2009-01-01

144

HEMA-induced cytotoxicity: oxidative stress, genotoxicity and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Dental resin composites consist of organic polymers with inorganic fillers used as bonding resins and direct filling materials in dentine adhesives and as sealing agents for inlays, crowns and orthodontic brackets. Despite various modifications in the formulation, the chemical composition of composite resins includes inorganic filler particles and additives, which are incorporated into a mixture of an organic resin matrix. Among them, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) is one of the most frequently used. Several studies have attempted to clarify the mechanisms underlying HEMA cytotoxicity. Most of them support the hypothesis that this compound, once released in the oral environment, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative DNA damage through double-strand breaks evidenced by in vitro presence of micronuclei. As a consequence, the glutathione detoxifying intracellular pool forms adducts with HEMA through its cysteine motif and inflammation begins to occur: transcription of early genes of inflammation such as tumour necrosis factor ? or inducible cyclooxygenase up to the secretion of prostaglandins 2. These phenomena are counteracted by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a nonenzymatic antioxidant, but not by vitamin E or other antioxidant. Consequently, NAC prevents HEMA-induced apoptosis acting as a direct ROS scavenger. This minireview collects the most significant papers on HEMA and tries to make an overview of its cytotoxicity on different cell types and experimental models. PMID:24355064

Gallorini, M; Cataldi, A; di Giacomo, V

2014-09-01

145

Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Silver Nanocrystallites is Dependent on Surface Coatings and Cell Types  

SciTech Connect

Due to their unique antimicrobial properties silver nanocrystallites have garnered substantial recognition and are used extensively in biomedical applications such as wound dressing, surgical instruments and as bone substitute material. They are also released into unintended locations such as the environment or biosphere. Therefore it is imperative to understand the potential interactions, fate and transport of nanoparticles with environmental biotic systems. Although numerous factors including the composition, size, shape, surface charge and capping molecule of nanoparticles are known to influence the cell cytotoxicity, our results demonstrate for the first time that surface coatings are a major determinant in eliciting the potential cytotoxicity and cell interactions of silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, silver nanocrystallites with nearly uniform size and shape distribution but with different surface coatings, imparting overall high negativity to high positivity, were synthesized. These nanoparticles were poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride-Ag, biogenic-Ag, colloidal-Ag (uncoated) and oleate-Ag with zeta potentials +45 5 mV, -12 2 mV, -42 5 mV and -45 5 mV respectively; the particles were thoroughly purified so as to avoid false cytotoxicity interpretations. A systematic investigation on the cytotoxic effects, cellular response and membrane damage caused by these four different silver nanoparticles were evaluated using multiple toxicity measurements on mouse macrophage (RAW-264.7) and lung epithelial (C-10) cell lines. From a toxicity perspective, our results clearly indicated that the cytotoxicity was depend on various factors such as synthesis procedure, surface coat or surface charge and the cell-type for the different silver nanoparticles that were investigated. Poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride -Ag was found to be the most toxic, followed by biogenic-Ag and oleate-Ag, whereas uncoated-Ag was found to be least toxic to both macrophage and epithelial cells. Also, based on our cytotoxicity interpretations, epithelial cells were found to be more resistant to the silver nanoparticles than the macrophage cells, regardless of the surface coating.

Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2012-01-01

146

The intensity of internalization and cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different surface modifications in human tumor and diploid lung cells.  

PubMed

The human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cells and the human embryo lung (HEL 12469) cells were used to investigate the uptake and cytotoxicity of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with different chemically modified surfaces. MNPs uptake was an energy-dependent process substantially affected by the serum concentration in the culture medium. Internalized MNPs localized in vesicle-bound aggregates were observed in the cytoplasm, none in the nucleus or in mitochondria. All MNPs induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in cytotoxicity in both human lung cell lines. The cytotoxicity of MNPs increased proportionally with the particle size. Since the cytotoxicity of MNPs was nearly identical when the doses were equalized based on particle surface area, we suppose that the particle surface area rather than the surface modifications per se underlay the cytotoxicity of MNPs. In general, higher internalized amount of MNPs was found in HEL 12469 cells compared with A549 cells. Accordingly, the viability of the human embryo lung cells was reduced more substantially than that of the adenocarcinoma lung cells. The weak MNPs uptake into A549 cells might be of biomedical relevance in cases where MNPs should be used as nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery in tumor tissue derived from alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:22668025

Mesarosova, M; Ciampor, F; Zavisova, V; Koneracka, M; Ursinyova, M; Kozics, K; Tomasovicova, N; Hashim, A; Vavra, I; Krizanova, Z; Husekova, Z; Kubovcikova, M; Kopcansky, P; Timko, M; Gabelova, A

2012-01-01

147

Anti-platelet agents augment cisplatin nanoparticle cytotoxicity by enhancing tumor vasculature permeability and drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor vasculature is critically dependent on platelet mediated hemostasis and disruption of the same can augment delivery of nano-formulation based chemotherapeutic agents which depend on enhanced permeability and retention for tumor penetration. Here, we evaluated the role of Clopidogrel, a well-known inhibitor of platelet aggregation, in potentiating the tumor cytotoxicity of cisplatin nano-formulation in a murine breast cancer model. In vivo studies in murine syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer model showed a significant greater penetration of macromolecular fluorescent nanoparticles after clopidogrel pretreatment. Compared to self-assembling cisplatin nanoparticles (SACNs), combination therapy with clopidogrel and SACN was associated with a 4 fold greater delivery of cisplatin to tumor tissue and a greater reduction in tumor growth as well as higher survival rate. Clopidogrel enhances therapeutic efficiency of novel cisplatin based nano-formulations agents by increasing tumor drug delivery and can be used as a potential targeting agent for novel nano-formulation based chemotherapeutics.

Pandey, Ambarish; Sarangi, Sasmit; Chien, Kelly; Sengupta, Poulomi; Papa, Anne-Laure; Basu, Sudipta; Sengupta, Shiladitya

2014-11-01

148

The effect of humic acids on the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to a natural aquatic bacterial assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a terrestrial humic acid (HA) and a river HA on the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to natural aquatic bacterial assemblages (0?M, 2.5?M and 5?M) was measured with spread plate counting. The effect of HA (20 and 40ppm) on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs ranging in size between 15 and 25nm was tested in the presence and in

Thabitha P. Dasari; Huey-Min Hwang

2010-01-01

149

In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles.  

PubMed

Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The extracts were obtained and exposed to culture media of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mouse L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results. Both adhesives were moderately toxic for HGF cells on the first day of the experiment, but the TiO2-containing adhesive produced significantly lower toxicity than the pure adhesive (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in cell viability percentages between the two groups on the other days (P>0.05). There was a significant reduction in cell toxicity with increasing pre-incubation time (P<0.001). L929 cells showed similar toxicity trends, but lower sensitivity to detect cytotoxicity of dental composites. Conclusion. The orthodontic adhesive containing TiO2 nano-particles indicated comparable or even lower toxicity than its nano-particle-free counterpart, indicating that incorporation of 1 wt% TiO2 nano-particles to the composite structure does not result in additional health hazards compared to that occurring with the pure adhesive. PMID:24578816

Heravi, Farzin; Ramezani, Mohammad; Poosti, Maryam; Hosseini, Mohsen; Shajiei, Arezoo; Ahrari, Farzaneh

2013-01-01

150

In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). The extracts were obtained and exposed to culture media of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mouse L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results. Both adhesives were moderately toxic for HGF cells on the first day of the experiment, but the TiO2-containing adhesive produced significantly lower toxicity than the pure adhesive (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in cell viability percentages between the two groups on the other days (P>0.05). There was a significant reduction in cell toxicity with increasing pre-incubation time (P<0.001). L929 cells showed similar toxicity trends, but lower sensitivity to detect cytotoxicity of dental composites. Conclusion. The orthodontic adhesive containing TiO2 nano-particles indicated comparable or even lower toxicity than its nano-particle-free counterpart, indicating that incorporation of 1 wt% TiO2 nano-particles to the composite structure does not result in additional health hazards compared to that occurring with the pure adhesive. PMID:24578816

Heravi, Farzin; Ramezani, Mohammad; Poosti, Maryam; Hosseini, Mohsen; Shajiei, Arezoo; Ahrari, Farzaneh

2013-01-01

151

Cytotoxicity of Al2O3 nanoparticles at low exposure levels to a freshwater bacterial isolate.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NP) at very low exposure levels (1 ?g/mL and less) to a dominant bacterial isolate from freshwater (lake water), Bacillus licheniformis, was examined. Sterile lake water was directly used as a test medium or matrix to simulate the freshwater environment. Exposure to 1 ?g/mL Al(2)O(3) NP for 2 h caused a 17% decrease in cell viability (as determined by plate count and MTT assay). During the test period, the particles were found to be stable against aggregation in the matrix and exerted a nano-size effect on the exposed test organisms. The decrease in cell viability was proven not to be due to the release of Al(3+) ions from the nanoparticles in the dispersion. The zeta potential and FT-IR analyses suggested that the surface charge based attachment of nanoparticles on to the bacterial cell wall was responsible for flocculation leading to toxicity. The cell wall damage confirmed through SEM and the lipid peroxidation assay also contributed toward toxicity. This study warns of possible ecotoxicity of nanoparticles even at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, detailed studies need to be carried out to establish probable mechanistic aspects of this low concentration toxicity phenomenon. PMID:21967630

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Sabat, Debabrat; Singh, Suniti; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

2011-11-21

152

Green synthesis and characterization of selenium nanoparticles and its augmented cytotoxicity with doxorubicin on cancer cells.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) was achieved by a simple biological procedure using the reducing power of fenugreek seed extract. This method is capable of producing SeNPs in a size range of about 50-150 nm, under ambient conditions. The synthesized nanoparticles can be separated easily from the aqueous sols by a high-speed centrifuge. These selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Nanocrystalline SeNPs were obtained without post-annealing treatment. FTIR spectrum confirms the presence of various functional groups in the plant extract, which may possibly influence the reduction process and stabilization of nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of SeNPs was assayed against human breast-cancer cells (MCF-7). It was found that SeNPs are able to inhibit the cell growth by dose-dependent manner. In addition, combination of SeNPs and doxorubicin shows better anticancer effect than individual treatments. PMID:23446776

Ramamurthy, Ch; Sampath, K S; Arunkumar, P; Kumar, M Suresh; Sujatha, V; Premkumar, K; Thirunavukkarasu, C

2013-08-01

153

Assessing carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles cytotoxicity in Lewis lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) have been considered as attractive candidates for several biomedical applications. In the present study, we synthesized CEINs (the mean diameter 40-80?nm) using a carbon arc route, and the as-synthesized CEINs were characterized (scanning and transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, turbidimetry, Zeta potential) and further tested as raw and purified nanomaterials containing the carbon surface modified with acidic groups. For cytotoxicity evaluation, we applied a battery of different methods (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, lactate dehydrogenase, calcein AM/propidium iodide, annexin V/propidium iodide, JC-1, cell cycle assay, Zeta potential, TEM and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to address the strategic cytotoxic endpoints of Lewis lung carcinoma cells due to CEIN (0.0001-100?µg?ml(-1) ) exposures in vitro. Our studies evidence that incubation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells with CEINs is accompanied in substantial changes of zeta potential in cells and these effects may result in different internalization profiles. The results show that CEINs increased the mitochondrial and cell membrane cytotoxicity; however, the raw CEIN material (Fe@C/Fe) produced higher toxicities than the rest of the CEINs studied to data. The study showed that non-modified CEINs (Fe@C/Fe and Fe@C) elevated some pro-apoptotic events to a greater extent compared to that of the surface-modified CEINs (Fe@C-COOH and Fe@C-(CH2 )2 COOH). They also diminished the mitochondrial membrane potentials. In contrast to non-modified CEINs, the surface-functionalized nanoparticles caused the concentration- and time-dependent arrest of the S phase in cells. Taken all together, our results shed new light on the rational design of CEINs, as their geometry, hydrodynamic and, in particular, surface characteristics are important features in selecting CEINs as future nanomaterials for nanomedicine applications. PMID:24474239

Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Cywinska, Monika A; Kosmider, Anita; Poplawska, Magdalena; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Fijalek, Zbigniew; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Parzonko, Andrzej

2014-04-01

154

Poly(ethylene) glycol-capped silver and magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and comparison of bactericidal and cytotoxic effects.  

PubMed

Silver and magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have attracted wide attention as novel antimicrobial agents due to their unique chemical and physical properties. In order to study the comparative effects on antibacterial and animal cytotoxicity, Staphylococcus aureus and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were used, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized via a novel matrix-mediated method using poly(ethylene) glycol. Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques. The poly(ethylene) glycol-coated silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, particle size analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antimicrobial results indicate that both poly(ethylene) glycol-coated silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles inhibited S. aureus growth at the concentrations of 5 and 10?µg/mL at all time points without showing any significant cytotoxicity on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The particle size of both the poly(ethylene) glycol-coated silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles dominated in the range 10-15?nm, obtained by particle size analyzer. The poly(ethylene) glycol coating on the particles showed less aggregation of nanoparticles, as observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The overall obtained results indicated that these two nanoparticles were stable and could be used to develop a magnetized antimicrobial scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:23959858

Mandal, A; Sekar, S; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, A; Sastry, T P

2013-11-01

155

Cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized silicon and germanium nanoparticles: the dominant role of surface charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is frequently hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study, quantifying nine different cellular endpoints, was performed with a broad series of monodisperse, well characterized silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) NPs with various surface functionalizations. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and rat alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells were used to clarify the toxicity of this series of NPs. The surface coatings on the NPs appeared to dominate the cytotoxicity: the cationic NPs exhibited cytotoxicity, whereas the carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrophilic PEG- or dextran-terminated NPs did not. Within the cationic Si NPs, smaller Si NPs were more toxic than bigger ones. Manganese-doped (1% Mn) Si NPs did not show any added toxicity, which favors their further development for bioimaging. Iron-doped (1% Fe) Si NPs showed some added toxicity, which may be due to the leaching of Fe3+ ions from the core. A silica coating seemed to impart toxicity, in line with the reported toxicity of silica. Intracellular mitochondria seem to be the target for the toxic NPs since a dose-, surface charge- and size-dependent imbalance of the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed. Such an imbalance led to a series of other cellular events for cationic NPs, like decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and ATP production, induction of ROS generation, increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ content, production of TNF-? and enhanced caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the results explain the toxicity of Si NPs/Ge NPs largely by their surface characteristics, provide insight into the mode of action underlying the observed cytotoxicity, and give directions on synthesizing biocompatible Si and Ge NPs, as this is crucial for bioimaging and other applications in for example the field of medicine.Although it is frequently hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study, quantifying nine different cellular endpoints, was performed with a broad series of monodisperse, well characterized silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) NPs with various surface functionalizations. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and rat alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells were used to clarify the toxicity of this series of NPs. The surface coatings on the NPs appeared to dominate the cytotoxicity: the cationic NPs exhibited cytotoxicity, whereas the carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrophilic PEG- or dextran-terminated NPs did not. Within the cationic Si NPs, smaller Si NPs were more toxic than bigger ones. Manganese-doped (1% Mn) Si NPs did not show any added toxicity, which favors their further development for bioimaging. Iron-doped (1% Fe) Si NPs showed some added toxicity, which may be due to the leaching of Fe3+ ions from the core. A silica coating seemed to impart toxicity, in line with the reported toxicity of silica. Intracellular mitochondria seem to be the target for the toxic NPs since a dose-, surface charge- and size-dependent imbalance of the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed. Such an imbalance led to a series of other cellular events for cationic NPs, like decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and ATP production, induction of ROS generation, increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ content, production of TNF-? and enhanced caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the results explain the toxicity of Si NPs/Ge NPs largely by their surface characteristics, provide insight into the mode of action underlying the observed cytotoxicity, and give directions on synthesizing biocompatible Si and Ge NPs, as this is crucial for bioimaging and other applications in for example the field of medicine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Syn

Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Purkait, Tapas K.; Xu, Zejing; Regli, Sarah; Shukaliak, Amber; Clark, Rhett J.; Mitchell, Brian S.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Fink, Mark J.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Zuilhof, Han

2013-05-01

156

Iron(III) and manganese(II) substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Characterization and cytotoxicity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of natural bones and can bond to bone directly in vivo. Thus HA is widely used as coating material on bone implants due to its good osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. Metal ions doped HA have been used as catalyst or absorbents since the ion exchange method has introduced new properties in HA which are inherent to the metal ions. For example, Mn2+ ions have the potential to increase cell adhesion while Fe3+ ions have magnetic properties. Here, Fe(III) substituted hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) and Mn(II) substituted hydroxyapatite (Mn-HA) were produced by wet chemical method coupled with ion exchange mechanism. Compared with pure HA, the colour of both Fe-HA and Mn-HA nanoparticles changed from white to brown and pink respectively. The intensity of the colours increased with increasing substitution concentrations. XRD patterns showed that all samples were single phased HA while the FTIR spectra revealed all samples possessed the characteristic phosphate and hydroxyl adsorption bands of HA. However, undesired adsorption bands of carbonate substitution (B-type carbonated HA) and H2O were also detected, which was reasonable since the wet chemical method was used in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. FESEM images showed all samples were elongated spheroids with small size distribution and of around 70 nm, regardless of metal ion substitution concentrations. EDX spectra showed the presence of Fe and Mn and ICP-AES results revealed all metal ion substituted HA were non-stoichiometric (Ca/P atomic ratio deviates from 1.67). Fe-HA nanoparticles were paramagnetic and the magnetic susceptibility increased with the increase of Fe content. Based on the extraction assay for cytotoxicity test, both Fe-HA and Mn-HA displayed non-cytotoxicity to osteoblast.

Li, Yan; Teck Nam, Chai; Ooi, Chui Ping

2009-09-01

157

Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells  

SciTech Connect

Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

1985-06-01

158

Impact of agglomeration and different dispersions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the human related in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.  

PubMed

The published results on nanoparticles cytotoxicity and genotoxicity such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) are inconsistent, and often conflicting and insufficient. Since different parameters may have impact on the toxicity results, there is need to lay stress on detailed characterization of NPs and the use of different testing conditions for assessment of NPs toxicity. In order to investigate whether dispersion procedures influence NP cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, we compared two protocols giving TiO(2) NP dispersions with different stability and agglomeration states. Detailed primary and secondary characteristics of both TiO(2) NP dispersions in culture media were carried out before toxicological testing; TK6 human lymphoblast cells, EUE human embryonic epithelial cells and Cos-1 monkey kidney fibroblasts were used to assess cytotoxicity (by trypan blue exclusion, proliferation activity and plating efficiency assays) and genotoxicity (by the comet assay). DNA strand breaks were detected by the alkaline comet assay. DNA oxidation lesions (especially 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, 8-oxoG) were measured with a modified comet assay including incubation with specific repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG). The TiO(2) NPs dispersion with large agglomerates (3 min sonication and no serum in stock solution) induced DNA damage in all three cell lines, while the TiO(2) NPs dispersed with agglomerates less than 200 nm (foetal serum in stock solution and sonication 15 min) had no effect on genotoxicity. An increased level of DNA oxidation lesions detected in Cos-1 and TK6 cells indicates that the leading mechanism by which TiO(2) NPs trigger genotoxicity is most likely oxidative stress. Our results show that the dispersion method used can influence the results of toxicity studies. Therefore at least two different dispersion procedures should be incorporated into assessment of cyto- and genotoxic effects of NPs. It is important, when assessing the hazard associated with NPs, to establish standard testing procedures and thorough strategies to consider the diverse conditions relevant to possible exposures. PMID:22277962

Magdolenova, Zuzana; Bilani?ová, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Fjellsbř, Lise M; Hudecova, Alexandra; Hasplova, Katarina; Marcomini, Antonio; Dusinska, Maria

2012-02-01

159

Augmented cytotoxicity of hydroxycamptothecin-loaded nanoparticles in lung and colon cancer cells by chemosensitizing pharmaceutical excipients.  

PubMed

The aim of this was to investigate and compare the chemosensitizing effect of some pharmaceutical excipients (TPGS, Pluronic P85 and chitosan) by evaluating the cytotoxicity of the chemotherapeutic drug Hydroxy Camptothecin (HCPT) loaded into PLGA nanoparticles. Different nanoparticles formulations were developed and evaluated for size, zeta potential, morphology, loading and encapsulation efficiency as well as in vitro drug release. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay in A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line) and HT29 (human colon carcinoma cell line) whereas their cellular uptake was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and microfluorimetry assay. The results revealed that nanoparticles possessed a desirable nanometric size (revealed by dynamic light scattering measurements and TEM) with appreciable HCPT encapsulation (>48%) and negative surface charge that was switched to positive upon coating with chitosan. The nanoparticles adopted a sustained release phase preceded by initial burst of HCPT that was reduced by chitosan coating. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles in A549 and HT29 cells was significantly augmented compared to simple drug solution and basic nanoparticles without excipients. The excipients could be ranked according to their IC50 lowering effect in the following order [TPGS (sixfold lower IC50)?> Pluronic P85 > Chitosan]. The augmented cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing effect might be attributed to overcoming drug efflux (in case of TPGS 1000 or Pluronic P85) and/or maximizing internalization by cancer cells (chitosan coating). Acting as chemopotentiators, the studied excipients could have potential in reducing therapeutic HCPT doses and minimizing adverse effects in lung and colon chemotherapy. PMID:24093513

Zaki, Noha M

2014-06-01

160

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human lung cells: the role of cellular uptake, agglomeration and Ag release  

PubMed Central

Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently one of the most manufactured nanomaterials. A wide range of toxicity studies have been performed on various AgNPs, but these studies report a high variation in toxicity and often lack proper particle characterization. The aim of this study was to investigate size- and coating-dependent toxicity of thoroughly characterized AgNPs following exposure of human lung cells and to explore the mechanisms of toxicity. Methods BEAS-2B cells were exposed to citrate coated AgNPs of different primary particle sizes (10, 40 and 75 nm) as well as to 10 nm PVP coated and 50 nm uncoated AgNPs. The particle agglomeration in cell medium was investigated by photon cross correlation spectroscopy (PCCS); cell viability by LDH and Alamar Blue assay; ROS induction by DCFH-DA assay; genotoxicity by alkaline comet assay and ?H2AX foci formation; uptake and intracellular localization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and cellular dose as well as Ag release by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results The results showed cytotoxicity only of the 10 nm particles independent of surface coating. In contrast, all AgNPs tested caused an increase in overall DNA damage after 24 h assessed by the comet assay, suggesting independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity and DNA damage. However, there was no ?H2AX foci formation and no increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The reasons for the higher toxicity of the 10 nm particles were explored by investigating particle agglomeration in cell medium, cellular uptake, intracellular localization and Ag release. Despite different agglomeration patterns, there was no evident difference in the uptake or intracellular localization of the citrate and PVP coated AgNPs. However, the 10 nm particles released significantly more Ag compared with all other AgNPs (approx. 24 wt% vs. 4–7 wt%) following 24 h in cell medium. The released fraction in cell medium did not induce any cytotoxicity, thus implying that intracellular Ag release was responsible for the toxicity. Conclusions This study shows that small AgNPs (10 nm) are cytotoxic for human lung cells and that the toxicity observed is associated with the rate of intracellular Ag release, a ‘Trojan horse’ effect. PMID:24529161

2014-01-01

161

In vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

There are increasing safety concerns about the development and abundant use of nanoparticles. The unique physical and chemical characteristics of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles result in different chemical and biological activities compared to their larger micron-sized counterparts, and can subsequently play an important role in influencing toxicity. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles with respect to their selected physicochemical properties, as well as the role of surface coating of these nanoparticles. While all types of tested TiO2 samples decrease cell viability in a mass-based concentration- and size-dependent manner, the polyacrylate-coated nano-TiO2 product was only cytotoxic at higher concentrations. A similar pattern of response was observed for induction of apoptosis/necrosis, and no DNA damage was detected in the polyacrylate-coated nano-TiO2 model. Given the increasing production of TiO2 nanoparticles, toxicological studies should take into account the physiochemical properties of these nanoparticles that may help researchers to develop new nanoparticles with minimum toxicity. PMID:23274916

Hamzeh, Mahsa; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2013-03-01

162

Lysosomal involvement in hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by Cu(2+) but not Cd(2+).  

PubMed

Previously we showed that the redox active Cu(2+) was much more effective than Cd(2+) at inducing reactive oxygen species ("ROS") formation in hepatocytes and furthermore "ROS" scavengers prevented Cu(2+)-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity (Pourahmad and O'Brien, 2000). In the following it is shown that hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by Cu(2+), but not Cd(2+), was preceded by lysosomal membrane damage as demonstrated by acridine orange release. Cytotoxicity, "ROS" formation, and lipid peroxidation were also readily prevented by methylamine or chloroquine (lysosomotropic agents) or 3-methyladenine (an inhibitor of autophagy). Hepatocyte lysosomal proteolysis was also activated by Cu(2+), but not Cd(2+), as tyrosine was released from the hepatocytes and was prevented by leupeptin and pepstatin (lysosomal protease inhibitors). Cu(2+)-induced cytotoxicity was also prevented by leupeptin and pepstatin. A marked increase in Cu(2+)-induced hepatocyte toxicity also occurred if the lysosomal toxins gentamicin or aurothioglucose were added at the same time as the Cu(2+). Furthermore, destabilizing lysosomal membranes beforehand by preincubating the hepatocytes with gentamicin or aurothioglucose prevented Cu(2+)-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. It is proposed that Cu(2+)-induced cytotoxicity involves lysosomal damage that causes the release of cytotoxic digestive enzymes as a result of lysosomal membrane damage by "ROS" generated by lysosomal Cu(2+) redox cycling. PMID:11134899

Pourahmad, J; Ross, S; O'Brien, P J

2001-01-01

163

Metabolic profiling reveals disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in mouse fibroblast cells induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

As titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles are widely used commercially, their potential biosafety and metabolic mechanism needs to be fully explained. In this study, the cytotoxicity of homogeneous and weakly aggregated (< 100?nm) TiO(2) nanoparticles was investigated by analyzing the changes in metabolite profiles both in mouse fibroblast (L929) cells and their corresponding culture media using gas chromatograph with a time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS)-based metabolomic strategy. With multivariate statistics analysis, satisfactory separations were observed in principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models. Based on the variable importance in the OPLS-DA models, a series of differential metabolites were identified by comparison between TiO(2) nanoparticle-treated L929 cells or their corresponding culture media and the control groups. It was found that the major biochemical metabolism (carbohydrate metabolism) was suppressed in TiO(2) nanoparticle-treated L929 cells and their corresponding culture media. These results might account for the serious damage to energy metabolism in mitochondria and the increased cellular oxidation stress in TiO(2) nanoparticle-induced L929 cells. These results also suggest that the metabolomic strategy had a great potential in evaluating the cytotoxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles and thus was very helpful in understanding its underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:22996321

Jin, Chengyu; Liu, Yumin; Sun, Limin; Chen, Tianlu; Zhang, Yinan; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cristau, Melanie; Wang, Kaisheng; Jia, Wei

2013-12-01

164

Preparation and cytotoxicity comparison of type a gelatin nanoparticles with recombinant human gelatin nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelatin nanoparticles derived from bovine or porcine have been developed as various types of drug delivery system, and they\\u000a need to be cross-linked to maintain their physicochemical properties in aqueous environments. Although gelatin is a widely\\u000a used material in pharmaceutical industries, the safety issue of animal-origin gelatins, such as transmissible mad cow disease\\u000a and anaphylaxis, remains to be solved. The

Young-Wook Won; Yong-Hee Kim

2009-01-01

165

Apoptosis in mesangial cells induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis in mesangial cells induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs. Mesangial proliferation contributes to the pathogenesis of many forms of glomerulonephritis. To evaluate the role of apoptosis on the pharmacologic effects of cytotoxic drugs and ionizing radiation, we studied their effects on cultured rat mesangial cells (MC), whose apoptotic response to these drugs is unknown. Mesangial cells were cultured

Dae Ryong Cha; Stella M Feld; Cynthia Nast; Janine LaPage; Sharon G Adler

1996-01-01

166

Effect of the protein corona on nanoparticles for modulating cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Although the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is greatly influenced by their interactions with blood proteins, toxic effects resulting from blood interactions are often ignored in the development and use of nanostructured biomaterials for in vivo applications. Protein coronas created during the initial reaction with NPs can determine the subsequent immunological cascade, and protein coronas formed on NPs can either stimulate or mitigate the immune response. Along these lines, the understanding of NP-protein corona formation in terms of physiochemical surface properties of the NPs and NP interactions with the immune system components in blood is an essential step for evaluating NP toxicity for in vivo therapeutics. This article reviews the most recent developments in NP-based protein coronas through the modification of NP surface properties and discusses the associated immune responses. PMID:25565807

Lee, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju; Webster, Thomas J; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Khang, Dongwoo

2015-01-01

167

Shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles induce lower immunotoxicity than their non-crosslinked analogs  

PubMed Central

The development of stable nanoparticles that can withstand the changing conditions experienced in a biological setting and also be of low toxicity and immunogenicity is of particular importance to address the problems associated with currently utilized nanotechnology-based therapeutics and diagnostics. The use of crosslinked nanoparticles continues to receive special impetus, due to their robust structure and high kinetic stability, and they have recently been shown to induce lower cytotoxicity than their non-crosslinked micellar counterparts. In the current study, poly(acrylamidoethylamine)-block-poly(DL-lactide) (PAEA90-b-PDLLA40) copolymers were synthesized, self-assembled in water to yield nanoscopic polymeric micelles, and the effects of decorating the micellar surface with poly(ethylene glycol) (i.e. PEGylation) and crosslinking the PAEA layer to varying extents on the physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of the nanoparticles were studied. Herein, we report for the first time that crosslinking can efficiently reduce the immunotoxicity of polymeric nanomaterials. In addition, increasing the degree of crosslinking further reduced the accessibility of biomolecules to the core of the nanoparticles and decreased their cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity. It is also highlighted that crosslinking can be more efficient than PEGylation in reducing the immunotoxicity of nanomaterials. Shell-crosslinking of block copolymer micelles, therefore, is expected to advance their clinical development beyond the earlier known effects, and to broaden the implications in the field of nanomedicine. PMID:24187610

Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Samarajeewa, Sandani; Raymond, Jeffery E.; Clark, Corrie; Wooley, Karen L.

2013-01-01

168

Cytotoxicity of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as an antimicrobial and disinfectant agents. However, there is limited information about antitumor potential. Therefore, this study focused on determining cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and its mechanism of cell death. Herein, we developed a green method for synthesis of AgNPs using culture supernatant of Bacillus funiculus, and synthesized AgNPs were characterized by various analytical techniques such as UV-visible spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The toxicity was evaluated using cell viability, metabolic activity, and oxidative stress. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of AgNPs (5 to 25??g/mL) for 24?h. We found that AgNPs inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner using MTT assay. AgNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells through activation of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), caspase-3, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, eventually leading to induction of apoptosis which was further confirmed through resulting nuclear fragmentation. The present results showed that AgNPs might be a potential alternative agent for human breast cancer therapy. PMID:23936814

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Jeyaraj, Muniyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2013-01-01

169

Enhanced cytotoxic activity of cetuximab in EGFR-positive lung cancer by conjugating with gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Cetuximab (C225) is a unique agent, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive cancer. However, the therapeutic effect of C225 in EGFR high-expressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. Here, we report that conjugation of C225 with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhances the cytotoxicity of C225 in NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo. The NSCLC cell lines A549 (EGFRhigh) and H1299 (EGFRlow) were employed to investigate different responses to C225, IgG-AuNPs and C225-AuNPs. The antitumor properties of C225-AuNPs were explored in vivo by establishing a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Overall, the therapeutic effect of C225-AuNPs was more pronounced in EGFRhigh A549 cells compared with EGFRlow H1299 cells. The cytotoxic effect of C225-AuNPs in A549 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. C225-AuNPs significantly suppressed A549 cell proliferation and migration capacity and accelerated apoptosis compared with C225, and this effect was probably due to enhanced EGFR endocytosis and the subsequent suppression of downstream signaling pathway. Finally in the tumor xenograft of nude mice, treatment with C225-AuNPs also led to a significant reduction in tumor weight and volume with low toxicity. Our findings suggest that C225-AuNPs conjugate has promising potential for targeted therapy of EGFR positive NSCLC patients. PMID:25502402

Qian, Yichun; Qiu, Mantang; Wu, Qingquan; Tian, Yanyan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Li, Suyi; Xu, Lin; Yin, Rong

2014-01-01

170

The cytotoxicity evaluation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on human aortic endothelial cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major obstacle for successful application of nanoparticles in medicine is its potential nanotoxicity on the environment and human health. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated iron oxide (DMSA-Fe2O3) using cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Our results showed that DMSA-Fe2O3 in the culture medium could be absorbed into HAECs, and dispersed in the cytoplasm. The cytotoxicity effect of DMSA-Fe2O3 on HAECs was dose-dependent, and the concentrations no more than 0.02 mg/ml had little toxic effect which were revealed by tetrazolium dye assay. Meanwhile, the cell injury biomarker, lactate dehydrogenase, was not significantly higher than that from control cells (without DMSA-Fe2O3). However, the endocrine function for endothelin-1 and prostacyclin I-2, as well as the urea transporter function, was altered even without obvious evidence of cell injury in this context. We also showed by real-time PCR analysis that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure resulted in differential effects on the expressions of pro- and anti-apoptosis genes of HAECs. Meanwhile, it was noted that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure could activate the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, which suggested that inflammatory response might be evoked. Moreover, we demonstrated by in vitro endothelial tube formation that even a small amount of DMSA-Fe2O3 (0.01 and 0.02 mg/ml) could inhibit angiogenesis by the HAECs. Altogether, these results indicate that DMSA-Fe2O3 have some cytotoxicity that may cause side effects on normal endothelial cells.

Ge, Gaoyuan; Wu, Hengfang; Xiong, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Zhirui; Bian, Zhiping; Xu, Jindan; Gu, Chunrong; Gu, Ning; Chen, Xiangjian; Yang, Di

2013-05-01

171

The cytotoxicity evaluation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on human aortic endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

One major obstacle for successful application of nanoparticles in medicine is its potential nanotoxicity on the environment and human health. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated iron oxide (DMSA-Fe2O3) using cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Our results showed that DMSA-Fe2O3 in the culture medium could be absorbed into HAECs, and dispersed in the cytoplasm. The cytotoxicity effect of DMSA-Fe2O3 on HAECs was dose-dependent, and the concentrations no more than 0.02 mg/ml had little toxic effect which were revealed by tetrazolium dye assay. Meanwhile, the cell injury biomarker, lactate dehydrogenase, was not significantly higher than that from control cells (without DMSA-Fe2O3). However, the endocrine function for endothelin-1 and prostacyclin I-2, as well as the urea transporter function, was altered even without obvious evidence of cell injury in this context. We also showed by real-time PCR analysis that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure resulted in differential effects on the expressions of pro- and anti-apoptosis genes of HAECs. Meanwhile, it was noted that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure could activate the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, which suggested that inflammatory response might be evoked. Moreover, we demonstrated by in vitro endothelial tube formation that even a small amount of DMSA-Fe2O3 (0.01 and 0.02 mg/ml) could inhibit angiogenesis by the HAECs. Altogether, these results indicate that DMSA-Fe2O3 have some cytotoxicity that may cause side effects on normal endothelial cells. PMID:23647620

2013-01-01

172

Cytotoxicity in the age of nano: the role of fourth period transition metal oxide nanoparticle physicochemical properties.  

PubMed

A clear understanding of physicochemical factors governing nanoparticle toxicity is still in its infancy. We used a systematic approach to delineate physicochemical properties of nanoparticles that govern cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of fourth period metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs): TiO2, Cr2O3, Mn2O3, Fe2O3, NiO, CuO, and ZnO increases with the atomic number of the transition metal oxide. This trend was not cell-type specific, as observed in non-transformed human lung cells (BEAS-2B) and human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells (A549). Addition of NPs to the cell culture medium did not significantly alter pH. Physiochemical properties were assessed to discover the determinants of cytotoxicity: (1) point-of-zero charge (PZC) (i.e., isoelectric point) described the surface charge of NPs in cytosolic and lysosomal compartments; (2) relative number of available binding sites on the NP surface quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to estimate the probability of biomolecular interactions on the particle surface; (3) band-gap energy measurements to predict electron abstraction from NPs which might lead to oxidative stress and subsequent cell death; and (4) ion dissolution. Our results indicate that cytotoxicity is a function of particle surface charge, the relative number of available surface binding sites, and metal ion dissolution from NPs. These findings provide a physicochemical basis for both risk assessment and the design of safer nanomaterials. PMID:24120544

Chusuei, Charles C; Wu, Chi-Heng; Mallavarapu, Shravan; Hou, Fang Yao Stephen; Hsu, Chen-Ming; Winiarz, Jeffrey G; Aronstam, Robert S; Huang, Yue-Wern

2013-11-25

173

Diabetes exacerbates nanoparticles induced brain pathology.  

PubMed

Long term exposure of nanoparticles e.g., silica dust (SiO2) from desert environments, or engineered nanoparticles from metals viz., Cu, Al or Ag from industry, ammunition, military equipment and related products may lead to adverse effects on mental health. However, it is unclear whether these nanoparticles may further adversely affect human health in cardiovascular or metabolic diseases e.g., hypertension or diabetes. It is quite likely that in diabetes or hypertension where the body immune system is already compromised there will be greater adverse effects following nanoparticles exposure on human health as compared to their exposure to healthy individuals. Previous experiments from our laboratory showed that diabetic or hypertensive animals are more susceptible to heat stress-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, traumatic injury to the spinal cord in SiO2 exposed rats resulted in exacerbation of cord pathology. However, whether nanoparticles such as Cu, Ag or SiO2 exposure will lead to enhanced neurotoxicity in diabetic animals are still not well investigated. Previous data from our laboratory showed that Cu or Ag intoxication (50 mg/kg, i.p. per day for 7 days) in streptozotocine induced diabetic rats exhibited enhanced neurotoxicity and exacerbation of sensory, motor and cognitive function as compared to normal animals under identical conditions. Thus the diabetic animals showed exacerbation of regional blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, edema formation and cell injuries along with greater reduction in the local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as compared to normal rats. These observations suggest that diabetic animals are more vulnerable to nanoparticles induced brain damage than healthy rats. The possible mechanisms and functional significance of these findings are discussed in this review largely based on our own investigations. PMID:22229323

Lafuente, José Vicente; Sharma, Aruna; Patnaik, Ranjana; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Sharma, Hari Shanker

2012-02-01

174

Enhancement of etoposide-induced cytotoxicity by cyclosporin A.  

PubMed

Following the clinical observation of enhanced antineoplastic action of etoposide in the presence of cyclosporin A (CyA), we investigated this drug interaction in several in vitro and in vivo tumor systems. Macromolecular DNA damage induced by etoposide at drug levels comparable to plasma AUC values achieved in patients was increased not only in leukemic peripheral blood cells from patients but also in mononuclear peripheral blood cells from a healthy donor. Intracellular retention of radioactivity from 3H-etoposide was increased by a factor of 1.5 at the most in the presence of CyA. The cytotoxicity of etoposide and adriamycin to L 1210 leukemic cells was clearly enhanced, whereas CyA had no effect on the action of cisplatin or ionizing irradiation. At CyA blood levels not exceeding 1.44 microgram/ml, increased tumor inhibition of etoposide was observed in a human embryonal cancer xenograft, but there was also higher lethality in normal mice. We conclude from our own data and from other recent findings that with respect to chemosensitization the effects of CyA resemble those of calcium channel blockers or anticalmodulin agents. In contrast to calcium channel blockers, however, adequate plasma levels of CyA can well be achieved in patients. PMID:3026674

Osieka, R; Seeber, S; Pannenbäcker, R; Soll, D; Glatte, P; Schmidt, C G

1986-01-01

175

Cytotoxic and antiangiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic because of its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated the unique PTX-RUB formulation. PTX was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6-6.3?mg/ml at 10-40% weight/volume. These nanomicellar PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder, which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5?h, 85-99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble in gastric fluid, whereas 79-96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB, with an average diameter of 6.6?nm. Compared with Taxol, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with dimethyl sulfoxide-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 20?nmol/l. In addition, tubule formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited at levels as low as 5?nmol/l. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations. PMID:25243454

Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Fang; Koh, Gar Yee; Dong, Xin; Hollingsworth, Javoris; Zhang, Jian; Russo, Paul S; Yang, Peiying; Stout, Rhett W

2015-02-01

176

Influence of surface properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on their cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on several factors including size, shape, surface properties and chemical nature of the NPs. The release of toxic ions due to the dissolution of NPs is another important factor. In addition, impurities or reaction products from synthesis procedures on the NP surfaces may contribute to the toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the unique NPs showing toxicity through all of these mentioned factors. In this study, we demonstrate that the treatment of the ZnO NPs with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters the surface properties of the ZnO NPs by decomposing organic impurities remained from synthesis procedures. The changes on the surface chemistry and properties of the ZnO NPs influence their behavior in cell culture media and the NPs-cell interactions. Finally, a decrease in the cytotoxicity of H2O2 treated ZnO NPs is observed on HDF and A549 cells through the decrease of the membrane damage and oxidative stress. PMID:25042418

Altunbek, Mine; Baysal, Asl?; Çulha, Mustafa

2014-09-01

177

Sunflower oil mediated biomimetic synthesis and cytotoxicity of monodisperse hexagonal silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this work, sunflower oil was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), leading to highly mono-dispersed hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles (NPs) at various concentrations. It was found that the biomolecules of the oil not only have the capability to reduce silver ions, due to its extended phenolic system, but also appear to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (110) face, leading to hexagonal growth of the NPs of 50 nm size. Initially, some spherical AgNPs of less than 10nm diameter were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. The one step synthesis can be extended for other metals. The as prepared sunflower oil capped AgNPs being completely free of toxic chemicals can be directly utilized for in vitro studies and offer a more rational approach for cellular applications. The NP solution exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human lung carcinoma cells and physiologically relevant cell model (3T3L1 cells). PMID:25280698

Thakore, Sonal; Rathore, Puran Singh; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thounaojam, Menaka; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V

2014-11-01

178

Uremic Toxins Enhance Statin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is considerably increased in statin users with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Uremic toxins, which accumulate in patients with ESRF, exert cytotoxic effects that are mediated by various mechanisms. Therefore, accumulation of uremic toxins might increase statin-induced cytotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of four uremic toxins—hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-indoxyl sulfate—on statin-induced myopathy. Differentiated rhabdomyosarcoma cells were pre-treated with the uremic toxins for seven days, and then the cells were treated with pravastatin or simvastatin. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by viability assays and flow cytometry. Pre-treatment with uremic toxins increased statin- but not cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated). In addition, the pre-treatment increased statin-induced apoptosis, which is one of the cytotoxic factors (p < 0.05 vs. untreated). However, mevalonate, farnesol, and geranylgeraniol reversed the effects of uremic toxins and lowered statin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated). These results demonstrate that uremic toxins enhance statin-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. The mechanism underlying this effect might be associated with small G-protein geranylgeranylation. In conclusion, the increased severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with ESRF is likely due to the accumulation of uremic toxins. PMID:25192420

Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Shinmoto, Tadakazu; Ogino, Hitomi; Oda, Tomoko; Yoshida, Takuya; Furukubo, Taku; Izumi, Satoshi; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Tachiki, Hidehisa; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

2014-01-01

179

Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5?g and 3.0?g-TiO2-NPg(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartório, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

2015-01-01

180

Evaluation of Azathioprine-Induced Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System  

PubMed Central

Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used in clinical practice for preventing graft rejection in organ transplantations and various autoimmune and dermatological diseases with documented unpredictable hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using “Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening” techniques. The concentration of AZA required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2?hrs at 37°C was found to be 400??M. A significant increase in AZA-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was observed when glutathione- (GSH-) depleted hepatocytes were used. The addition of N-acetylcysteine decreased cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol decreased AZA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation and increased % mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Addition of N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol together caused nearly complete cytoprotection against AZA-induced hepatocyte death. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl), a known ROS scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimic, and antioxidants, like DPPD (N,N?-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue), and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate), also decreased hepatocyte death and ROS formation. Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. PMID:25101277

Maruf, Abdullah Al; Wan, Luke; O'Brien, Peter J.

2014-01-01

181

Evaluation of azathioprine-induced cytotoxicity in an in vitro rat hepatocyte system.  

PubMed

Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used in clinical practice for preventing graft rejection in organ transplantations and various autoimmune and dermatological diseases with documented unpredictable hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using "Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening" techniques. The concentration of AZA required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2?hrs at 37°C was found to be 400??M. A significant increase in AZA-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was observed when glutathione- (GSH-) depleted hepatocytes were used. The addition of N-acetylcysteine decreased cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol decreased AZA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation and increased % mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Addition of N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol together caused nearly complete cytoprotection against AZA-induced hepatocyte death. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl), a known ROS scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimic, and antioxidants, like DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue), and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate), also decreased hepatocyte death and ROS formation. Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. PMID:25101277

Al Maruf, Abdullah; Wan, Luke; O'Brien, Peter J

2014-01-01

182

Cytotoxicity study of iron oxide nanoparticles, single-wall carbon nanotubes and their complexes applied to MCF7 breast cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are radicals of great concern to biologists. Their role in several diseases---such as neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, premature aging and cancer---has been intensively investigated during the last decade. Since a major focus in cancer research is to better understand how it is induced and therefore how it can be cured, the study of the cytotoxic effects of ROS production within cancer cells is vital. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science that promises great improvements in a number of disciplines. Nano medicine is one of its daughter fields. Various nanomaterials are used for diagnosis and disease detection, therapy and medical imaging, and many are already being used in oncology medicine. The two most frequently used nanomaterials in cancer research are Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). They have been proven to play a significant role in the ROS production of various cancer cells. In this context, this thesis emphasizes the need to study the impact of nanoparticles, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and their complexes, on a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). To date, there have been very few studies assessing the effect on the oxidative stress activity of this cell line using these nanoparticles and their complexes.

Mege, Karine

183

Co-nanoencapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles and selol for breast tumor treatment: in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and magnetohyperthermia efficacy  

PubMed Central

Antitumor activities have been described in selol, a hydrophobic mixture of molecules containing selenium in their structure, and also in maghemite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Both selol and MNPs were co-encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsules for therapeutic purposes. The PLGA-nanocapsules loaded with MNPs and selol were labeled MSE-NC and characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, electrophoretic mobility, photon correlation spectroscopy, presenting a monodisperse profile, and positive charge. The antitumor effect of MSE-NC was evaluated using normal (MCF-10A) and neoplastic (4T1 and MCF-7) breast cell lines. Nanocapsules containing only MNPs or selol were used as control. MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity induced by MSE-NC was dose and time dependent. Normal cells were less affected than tumor cells. Cell death occurred mainly by apoptosis. Further exposure of MSE-NC treated neoplastic breast cells to an alternating magnetic field increased the antitumor effect of MSE-NC. It was concluded that selol-loaded magnetic PLGA-nanocapsules (MSE-NC) represent an effective magnetic material platform to promote magnetohyperthermia and thus a potential system for antitumor therapy. PMID:23055734

Estevanato, Luciana LC; Silva, Jaqueline R Da; Falqueiro, André M; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Ewa; Suchocki, Piotr; Tedesco, Antônio C; Morais, Paulo C; Lacava, Zulmira GM

2012-01-01

184

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using alcoholic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis and in vitro investigation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. PMID:25492011

Gogoi, Nayanmoni; Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Mahanta, Chandan; Bora, Utpal

2015-01-01

185

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of europium doped NaYF ? nanoparticles in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF4 (NaYF4:Eu(3+)) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future. PMID:25175221

Chen, Shizhu; Zhang, Cuimiao; Jia, Guang; Duan, Jianlei; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

2014-10-01

186

Evaluation of topically applied copper(II) oxide nanoparticle cytotoxicity in human skin organ culture.  

PubMed

The increasing use of nano-sized materials in our environment, and in many consumer products, dictates new safety concerns. In particular, adequate experimental models are needed to evaluate skin toxicity of metal oxide ions, commonly found in cosmetic and dermatologic preparations. We have addressed the biological effects of topically applied copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in human skin organ cultures, using light and electron microscopy, and biochemical tests. Nanoparticles were more toxic than micro-sized particles, and their effects were stronger when supplied in growth medium than in topical application. Still topically applied CuO nanoparticles induced inflammatory cytokine secretion and necrosis, especially in epidermis deprived of its protective cornea. Since nanoparticle penetration was not seen, we propose that they may adhere to skin surface, react with the local acidic environment, and generate soluble ions that make their way to inner sites. This work illustrates the abilities of skin organ culture to evaluate the biological effects of topically-applied materials on skin in vitro. PMID:22954531

Cohen, Dror; Soroka, Yoram; Ma'or, Zeev; Oron, Miriam; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Brégégčre, François Menahem; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hai, Noam; Milner, Yoram

2013-02-01

187

cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells.  

E-print Network

cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. Both classes of T cells express cell-surface, antibodylike receptors, encoded by genes that are assembled from multiple gene segments during T cell

Morante, Silvia

188

Dose dependent cytotoxicity of pranoprofen in cultured human corneal endothelial cells by inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Pranoprofen (PPF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is often used in keratitis treatment in clinic. Several studies have assessed in vitro the cytotoxicity of topical NSAIDs to corneal epithelial cells due to its importance for predicting human corneal toxicity. Damage by cytotoxic drugs can result in excessive loss of human corneal endothelial (HCE) cells which lead to decompensation of the endothelium and eventual loss of visual acuity. However, the endothelial cytotoxicity of PPF has not yet been reported using an in vitro model of HCE cells. This study assessed the cytotoxicity of PPF to HCE cells and its underlying mechanism. Cellular viability was determined using inverted phase contrast light microscopy, and plasma membrane permeability, genomic DNA fragmentation, and ultrastructure were detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results on cellular viability showed that PPF at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 1.0?g/l had poignant cytotoxicity to HCE cells, and the extent of its cytotoxicity was dose- and time-dependent. Further characterization indicated that PPF induced plasma membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation, proving its apoptosis inducing effect on HCE cells. In conclusion, PPF above 0.0625?g/l has poignant cytotoxicity on HCE cells in vitro by inducing cell apoptosis, and should be carefully employed in eye clinic. PMID:24641202

Li, Yi-Han; Wen, Qian; Fan, Ting-Jun; Ge, Yuan; Yu, Miao-Miao; Sun, Ling-Xiao; Zhao, Yu

2015-01-01

189

Comparative Cytotoxic Evaluation of Free and Sodium Alginate Nanoparticle-Encapsulated ICD-85 on Primary Lamb Kidney Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Current anti-cancer drug therapy results in systemic side effects due to non-specific uptake by normal healthy noncancerous tissues. To alleviate this difficulty, many attempts have been devoted to the development of new delivery systems such as polymeric Nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we prepared ICD-85 NPs based on sodium alginate and analyzed the cytotoxic activity of ICD-85 NPs relative to free ICD-85 on primary lamb kidney cells. Methods ICD-85 loaded sodium alginate nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and were characterized by the particle size, size distribution and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and membrane integrity was evaluated by measuring Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The morphological alterations of untreated and treated cells were assessed by light inverted microscope. Results MTT assay showed that ICD-85 NPs could significantly decrease the in vitro cytotoxicity on primary lamb kidney cells compared to the free ICD-85. The IC10 value at 72 hours was increased from 9±2.7 ?g/ml for free ICD-85 to 52±4.3 ?g/ml for ICD-85 NPs. LDH assay demonstrated that free ICD-85 had dose-dependent cytotoxicity on primary lamb kidney cells while ICD-85 NPs exhibited significantly decreased cytotoxicity at equivalent concentrations. Moreover, morphological analysis showed no significant difference between control and treated cells with ICD-85 NPs. Conclusion Based on the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that encapsulation of ICD-85 with sodium alginate nanoparticles can reduce its necrotic effect on primary lamb kidney cells. PMID:25250126

Zare Mirakabadi, Abbas; Moradhaseli, Saeed

2013-01-01

190

Role of the dissolved zinc ion and reactive oxygen species in cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With large-scale production and wide application of nanoscale ZnO, its health hazard has attracted extensive worldwide attention. In this study, cytotoxicity of different sized and shaped ZnO nanoparticles in mouse macrophage Ana-1 was investigated. And contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and ROS in toxicity of ZnO particles was analyzed. The results indicated that ZnO particles manifested dose-dependent toxic effect on Ana-1

Wenhua Song; Jinyang Zhang; Jing Guo; Jinhua Zhang; Feng Ding; Liying Li; Zengtian Sun

2010-01-01

191

Size-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPN) have been discovered to exert cytotoxicity and apoptosis-induction in some cancer cells. But it is still not clear how tumor cells interact with HAPNs with various sizes. In this study, we investigated the effect of the particle size of the HAPN on the anti-tumor activity, apoptosis-induction and the levels of the apoptotic signaling proteins in human hepatoma

Yuan Yuan; Changsheng Liu; Jiangchao Qian; Jing Wang; Yuan Zhang

2010-01-01

192

Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl2) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to

Yongpeng Tong; Changming Li; Feng Liang; Jianmin Chen; Hong Zhang; Guoqing Liu; Huibin Sun; John H. T. Luong

2008-01-01

193

Enhanced cytotoxic activity of cetuximab in EGFR-positive lung cancer by conjugating with gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Cetuximab (C225) is a unique agent, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive cancer. However, the therapeutic effect of C225 in EGFR high-expressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. Here, we report that conjugation of C225 with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhances the cytotoxicity of C225 in NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo. The NSCLC cell lines A549 (EGFR(high)) and H1299 (EGFR(low)) were employed to investigate different responses to C225, IgG-AuNPs and C225-AuNPs. The antitumor properties of C225-AuNPs were explored in vivo by establishing a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Overall, the therapeutic effect of C225-AuNPs was more pronounced in EGFR(high) A549 cells compared with EGFR(low) H1299 cells. The cytotoxic effect of C225-AuNPs in A549 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. C225-AuNPs significantly suppressed A549 cell proliferation and migration capacity and accelerated apoptosis compared with C225, and this effect was probably due to enhanced EGFR endocytosis and the subsequent suppression of downstream signaling pathway. Finally in the tumor xenograft of nude mice, treatment with C225-AuNPs also led to a significant reduction in tumor weight and volume with low toxicity. Our findings suggest that C225-AuNPs conjugate has promising potential for targeted therapy of EGFR positive NSCLC patients. PMID:25502402

Qian, Yichun; Qiu, Mantang; Wu, Qingquan; Tian, Yanyan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Li, Suyi; Xu, Lin; Yin, Rong

2014-01-01

194

Periodic table-based descriptors to encode cytotoxicity profile of metal oxide nanoparticles: a mechanistic QSTR approach.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology has evolved as a frontrunner in the development of modern science. Current studies have established toxicity of some nanoparticles to human and environment. Lack of sufficient data and low adequacy of experimental protocols hinder comprehensive risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs). In the present work, metal electronegativity (?), the charge of the metal cation corresponding to a given oxide (?ox), atomic number and valence electron number of the metal have been used as simple molecular descriptors to build up quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for prediction of cytotoxicity of metal oxide NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli. These descriptors can be easily obtained from molecular formula and information acquired from periodic table in no time. It has been shown that a simple molecular descriptor ?ox can efficiently encode cytotoxicity of metal oxides leading to models with high statistical quality as well as interpretability. Based on this model and previously published experimental results, we have hypothesized the most probable mechanism of the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to E. coli. Moreover, the required information for descriptor calculation is independent of size range of NPs, nullifying a significant problem that various physical properties of NPs change for different size ranges. PMID:24949897

Kar, Supratik; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Puzyn, Tomasz; Roy, Kunal; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2014-09-01

195

Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using normal, glia and breast cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal the biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate cytotoxicity tests were performed as a function of concentration from low (0.1 µg ml-1) to higher concentration (100 µg ml-1) using various human glia, human breast cancer and normal cell lines. Cytotoxicity tests for human glia (D54MG, G9T, SF126, U87, U251, U373), human breast cancer (MB157, SKBR3, T47D) and normal (H184B5F5/M10, WI-38, SVGp12) cell lines exhibited almost nontoxicity and reveal biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the concentration range of 0.1-10 µg ml-1, while accountable cytotoxicity can be seen at 100 µg ml-1. The results of our studies suggest that Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate are biocompatible and promising for bio-applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia.

Ankamwar, B.; Lai, T. C.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.; Hsiao, M.; Chen, C. H.; Hwu, Y. K.

2010-02-01

196

Cytotoxic effect of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized via seaweed aqueous extract  

PubMed Central

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) are among the most useful metal nanoparticles for multiple applications across a broad spectrum in the biomedical field, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In previous work, we synthesized and characterized Fe3O4 MNPs using a simple, rapid, safe, efficient, one-step green method involving reduction of ferric chloride solution using brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum) aqueous extract containing hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino functional groups mainly relevant to polysaccharides, which acts as a potential stabilizer and metal reductant agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity and cellular effects of these Fe3O4 MNPs. Their in vitro anticancer activity was demonstrated in human cell lines for leukemia (Jurkat cells), breast cancer (MCF-7 cells), cervical cancer (HeLa cells), and liver cancer (HepG2 cells). The cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of Fe3O4 MNPs, and an MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to test for cytotoxicity, resulting in an inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value of 23.83±1.1 ?g/mL (HepG2), 18.75±2.1 ?g/mL (MCF-7), 12.5±1.7 ?g/mL (HeLa), and 6.4±2.3 ?g/mL (Jurkat) 72 hours after treatment. Therefore, Jurkat cells were selected for further investigation. The representative dot plots from flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis showed that the percentages of cells in early apoptosis and late apoptosis were increased. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in accumulation of Fe3O4 MNP-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, confirming induction of apoptosis by Fe3O4 MNPs. The Fe3O4 MNPs also activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a time-response fashion. The nature of the biosynthesis and therapeutic potential of Fe3O4 MNPs could pave the way for further research on the green synthesis of therapeutic agents, particularly in nanomedicine, to assist in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24899805

Namvar, Farideh; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Baharara, Javad; Mahdavi, Mahnaz; Amini, Elaheh; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Yeap, Swee Keong

2014-01-01

197

Biosensors based on inorganic nanoparticles with biomimetic properties: Biomedical applications and in vivo cytotoxicity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid progress of nanotechnology and advanced nanomaterials production offer significant opportunities for designing powerful biosensing devices with enhanced performances. This thesis introduces ceria (CeO 2) nanoparticles and its congeners as a new class of materials with huge potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. Unique redox, catalytic and oxygen storage/release properties of ceria nanoparticles, originating from their dual oxidation state are used to design biomedical sensors with high sensitivity and low oxygen dependency. This thesis describes a new approach for fabrication of implantable microbiosensors designed for monitoring neurological activity in physiological conditions. Understanding the mechanisms involved in neurological signaling and functioning is of great physiological importance. In this respect, the development of effective methods that allow accurate detection and quantification of biological analytes (i.e. L-glutamate and glucose) associated with neurological processes is of paramount importance. The performance of most analytical techniques currently used to monitor L-glutamate and glucose is suboptimal and only a limited number of approaches address the problem of operation in oxygen-restricted conditions, such as ischemic brain injury. Over the past couple of years, enzyme based biosensors have been used to investigate processes related to L-glutamate release/uptake and the glucose cycle within the brain. However, most of these sensors, based on oxidoreductase enzymes, do not work in conditions of limited oxygen availability. This thesis presents the development of a novel sensing technology for the detection of L-glutamate and glucose in conditions of oxygen deprivation. This technology provides real-time assessment of the concentrations of these analytes with high sensitivity, wide linear range, and low oxygen dependence. The fabrication, characterization and optimization of enzyme microbiosensors are discussed. This work introduces a new generic approach of improving the sensitivity of oxidase-based enzymatic assays and indicates that ceria and its mixture with other metal oxide nanoparticles could be used to minimize the problems associated with variations of the oxygen. These materials have great potential in bioanalytical and biotechnological applications and offer great opportunities for development of implantable sensing devices for in vivo and in vitro monitoring of analytes of clinical relevance. Additionally, this thesis evaluates the toxicity of different metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by using zebrafish embryos as a toxicological target. Because of their similarities with other vertebrates, rapid development and low cost, zebrafish embryos are ideal animal models for probing toxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials. Among the nanomaterials tested, nickel nanoparticles were characterized by high toxicity and induced delayed development and morphological malformations, while metal oxides nanoparticles (i.e. ceria nanoparticles) had no toxic effects.

Ispas, Cristina R.

198

Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory response in human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs), used in several applications, seems to be influenced by their specific physicochemical characteristics. Cyto-genotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by a mixture of 79% anatase/21% rutile TiO2 -NPs were investigated in human alveolar (A549) and bronchial (BEAS-2B) cells exposed to 1-40?µg?ml(-1) 30?min, 2 and 24?h to assess potential pulmonary toxicity. The specific physicochemical properties such as crystallinity, NP size and shape, agglomerate size, surface charge and specific surface area (SSA) were analysed. Cytotoxic effects were studied by evaluating cell viability using the WST1 assay and membrane damage using LDH analysis. Direct/oxidative DNA damage was assessed by the Fpg-comet assay and the inflammatory potential was evaluated as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? release by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). In A549 cells no significant viability reduction and moderate membrane damage, only at the highest concentration, were detected, whereas BEAS-2B cells showed a significant viability reduction and early membrane damage starting from 10?µg?ml(-1) . Direct/oxidative DNA damage at 40?µg?ml(-1) and increased IL-6 release at 5?µg?ml(-1) were found only in A549 cells after 2?h. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, involved in the early acute inflammatory response, and oxidative DNA damage indicate the promotion of early and transient oxidative-inflammatory effects of tested TiO2 -NPs on human alveolar cells. The findings show a higher susceptibility of normal bronchial cells to cytotoxic effects and higher responsiveness of transformed alveolar cells to genotoxic, oxidative and early inflammatory effects induced by tested TiO2 -NPs. This different cell behaviour after TiO2 -NPs exposure suggests the use of both cell lines and multiple end-points to elucidate NP toxicity on the respiratory system. PMID:25224607

Ursini, Cinzia Lucia; Cavallo, Delia; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Ciervo, Aureliano; Maiello, Raffaele; Tassone, Paola; Buresti, Giuliana; Casciardi, Stefano; Iavicoli, Sergio

2014-11-01

199

In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles with different coatings and different sizes in A3 human T lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever expanding use of engineered nanoscaled materials has brought about a commensurate growth in concern about their potential risks to human and environmental health. Toxicity of nanoparticles could vary with their physicochemical parameters. The dependence of cytotoxicity on particle size and surface coating of iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in this in vitro study using the A3 human T

Erbo Ying; Huey-Min Hwang

2010-01-01

200

Protective Effects of Anethole Dithiolethione against Oxidative Stress-induced Cytotoxicity in Human Jurkat T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of anethole dithiolethione (ADT) against H2O2- or 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced cytotoxicity in human Jurkat T cells were investigated. Jurkat T cells were pretreated with ADT (10–50 ?M) for 18 hr and then challenged with H2O2 or HNE for up to 4 hr. Cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring: 1) leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from cells to medium; and 2)

Savita Khanna; Chandan K Sen; Sashwati Roy; Marie-Odile Christen; Lester Packer

1998-01-01

201

Antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using latex of Calotropis gigantea L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aimed to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a greener route using aqueous latex extract of Calotropis gigantea L. toward biomedical applications. Initially, synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed through UV-Vis spectroscopy which shows the surface plasmonic resonance peak (SPR) at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provides clear evidence that protein fractions present in the latex extract act as reducing and stabilizing bio agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy confirms the presence of silver as a major constituent element. X-ray diffractograms displays that the synthesized AgNPs were biphasic crystalline nature. Electron microscopic studies such as Field emission scanning electron microscopic (Fe-SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that synthesized AgNPs are spherical in shape with the size range between 5 and 30 nm. Further, crude latex aqueous extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against different bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Enterococci sp, Shigella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compared to the crude latex aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNPs exhibits a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Likewise invitro anticancer study manifests the cytotoxicity value of synthesized AgNPs against tested HeLa cells. The output of this study clearly suggesting that biosynthesized AgNPs using latex of C. gigantea can be used as promising nanomaterial for therapeutic application in context with nanodrug formulation.

Rajkuberan, Chandrasekaran; Sudha, Kannaiah; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

2015-02-01

202

Gold nanoparticles uptake and cytotoxicity assessed on rat liver precision-cut slices.  

PubMed

A major obstacle in the field of nanotoxicology is the development of an in vitro model that accurately predicts an in vivo response. To address this concern, rat liver precision-cut slices were used to assess the impact of 5-nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the mammalian liver, following exposure to different concentrations and for a duration of up to 24 h. The presence of GNPs inside endocytotic vesicles of hepatocytes was appreciable within 30 min of their addition. After 2 h, GNPs were clearly visualized inside endosome-like vesicles within the slice, not only in hepatocytes but also in endothelial and Kupffer cells located within the first two cellular layers. This uptake did not translate into modifications of either phase I or phase II of 7-ethoxycoumarin metabolism or alter activities of cytochrome P450 toward marker substrates. Furthermore, although the GNPs were rapidly internalized, no overt signs of cytotoxicity, assessed through lactate dehydrogenase release, reduction of methylthiazolyldiphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and glutathione levels, were observed. In conclusion, the use of rat liver slices successfully enhanced nanomaterial screening and determined that PVP-coated 5-nm GNPs were biocompatible with rat liver cells. PMID:22539612

Dragoni, Stefania; Franco, Giulia; Regoli, Marě; Bracciali, Monica; Morandi, Vittorio; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Bertelli, Eugenio; Valoti, Massimo

2012-07-01

203

Respiratory epithelial cytotoxicity and membrane damage (holes) caused by amine-modified nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The respiratory epithelium is a significant target of inhaled, nano-sized particles, the biological reactivity of which will depend on its physicochemical properties. Surface-modified, 50 and 100 nm, polystyrene latex nanoparticles (NPs) were used as model particles to examine the effect of particle size and surface chemistry on transformed human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1). Live images of TT1 exposed to amine-modified NPs taken by hopping probe ion conductance microscopy revealed severe damage and holes on cell membranes that were not observed with other types of NPs. This paralleled induction of cell detachment, cytotoxicity and apoptotic (caspase-3/7 and caspase-9) cell death, and increased release of CXCL8 (IL-8). In contrast, unmodified, carboxyl-modified 50 nm NPs and the 100 nm NPs did not cause membrane damage, and were less reactive. Thus, the susceptibility and membrane damage to respiratory epithelium following inhalation of NPs will depend on both surface chemistry (e.g., cationic) and nano-size. PMID:21352086

Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Novak, Pavel; Berhanu, Deborah; Thorley, Andrew J; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Gorelik, Julia; Korchev, Yuri E; Tetley, Teresa D

2012-02-01

204

In vitro cytotoxicity and bioavailability of solid lipid nanoparticles containing tamoxifen citrate.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with the poorly water-soluble drug tamoxifen citrate (TC) on the in vitro antitumor activity and bioavailability of the drug. TC-loaded SLN were prepared by solvent injection method using glycerol monostearate (GMS) or stearic acid (SA) as lipid matrix. Poloxamer 188 or tween 80 were used as stabilizers. TC-loaded SLN (F3 and F4) prepared using GMS and stabilized by poloxamer 188 showed highest entrapment efficiency % (86.07?±?1.74 and 90.40?±?1.22%) and reasonable mean particle sizes (130.40?±?9.45 and 243.80?±?12.33 nm), respectively. The in vitro release of TC from F3 and F4 exhibited an initial burst effect followed by a sustained drug release. In vitro cytotoxicity of F3 against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 showed comparable antitumor activity to free drug. Moreover, the results of bioavailability evaluation of TC-loaded SLN in rats compared to free TC indicated that 160.61% increase in the oral bioavailability of TC. The obtained results suggest that incorporation of the poorly water-soluble drug TC in SLN preserves the in vitro antitumor activity and significantly enhance oral bioavailability of TC in rats. PMID:24032414

Hashem, Fahima M; Nasr, Mohamed; Khairy, Ahmed

2014-11-01

205

Antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using latex of Calotropis gigantea L.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a greener route using aqueous latex extract of Calotropis gigantea L. toward biomedical applications. Initially, synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed through UV-Vis spectroscopy which shows the surface plasmonic resonance peak (SPR) at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provides clear evidence that protein fractions present in the latex extract act as reducing and stabilizing bio agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy confirms the presence of silver as a major constituent element. X-ray diffractograms displays that the synthesized AgNPs were biphasic crystalline nature. Electron microscopic studies such as Field emission scanning electron microscopic (Fe-SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that synthesized AgNPs are spherical in shape with the size range between 5 and 30 nm. Further, crude latex aqueous extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against different bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Enterococci sp, Shigella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compared to the crude latex aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNPs exhibits a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Likewise in vitro anticancer study manifests the cytotoxicity value of synthesized AgNPs against tested HeLa cells. The output of this study clearly suggesting that biosynthesized AgNPs using latex of C. gigantea can be used as promising nanomaterial for therapeutic application in context with nanodrug formulation. PMID:25459618

Rajkuberan, Chandrasekaran; Sudha, Kannaiah; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

2015-02-01

206

Cytotoxicity Evaluation and Magnetic Characteristics of Mechano-thermally Synthesized CuNi Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CuNi alloys are very well known, both in academia and industry, based on their wide range of applications. In the present investigation, the previously synthesized Cu0.5Ni0.5 nanoparticles (NPs) by mechano-thermal method were studied more extensively. Phase composition and morphology of the samples were studied by employing x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Curie temperature (T c) was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cytotoxicity was studied through methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. XRD and FESEM results indicated the formation of single-phase Cu0.5Ni0.5. TEM micrographs showed that the mean particle size of powders is 20 nm. DSC results revealed that T c of mechano-thermally synthesized Cu0.5Ni0.5 is 44 °C. The MTT assay results confirmed the viability and proliferation of human bone marrow stem cells in contact with Cu0.5Ni0.5 NPs. In summary, the fabricated particles were demonstrated to have potential in low concentrations for cancer treatment applications.

Amrollahi, P.; Ataie, A.; Nozari, A.; Seyedjafari, E.; Shafiee, A.

2015-01-01

207

Radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cement associated with niobium oxide micro and nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland Cement (PC) and bismuth oxide (BO). Replacing BO for niobium oxide (NbO) microparticles (Nbµ) or nanoparticles (Nb?) may improve radiopacity and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of the materials: 1) PC; 2) White MTA; 3) PC+30% Nbµ; 4) PC+30% Nb?. Material and Methods For the radiopacity test, specimens of the different materials were radiographed along an aluminum step-wedge. For cell culture assays, Saos-2 osteoblastic-cells (ATCC HTB-85) were used. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT assay, and bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Results The results demonstrated higher radiopacity for MTA, followed by Nbµ and Nb?, which had similar values. Cell culture analysis showed that PC and PC+NbO associations promoted greater cell viability than MTA. Conclusions It was concluded that the combination of PC+NbO is a potential alternative for composition of MTA. PMID:25591023

Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Gomes-Cornélio, Ana Livia; Salles, Loise Pedrosa; Bernardi, Maria Inęs Basso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

2014-12-01

208

Protective Effects of Liposomal N-Acetylcysteine against Paraquat-Induced Cytotoxicity and Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide that preferentially accumulates in the lung and exerts its cytotoxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is no specific treatment for paraquat poisoning. Attempts have been made to increase the antioxidant status in the lung using antioxidants (e.g., superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, N-acetylcysteine) but the outcome from such treatments is limited. Encapsulation of antioxidants in liposomes improves their therapeutic potential against oxidant-induced lung damage because liposomes facilitate intracellular delivery and prolong the retention of entrapped agents inside the cell. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of conventional N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and liposomal-NAC (L-NAC) against PQ-induced cytotoxicity and examined the mechanism(s) by which these antioxidant formulations conferred cytoprotection. The effects of NAC or L-NAC against PQ-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells were assessed by measuring cellular PQ uptake, intracellular glutathione content, ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular gene expression, inflammatory cytokine release and cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with L-NAC was significantly more effective than pretreatment with the conventional drug in reducing PQ-induced cytotoxicity, as indicated by the biomarkers used in this study. Our results suggested that the delivery of NAC as a liposomal formulation improves its effectiveness in counteracting PQ-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:21584258

Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Suntres, Zacharias E.

2011-01-01

209

Study of cadmium-induced cytotoxicity using two-photon excitation endogenous fluorescence  

E-print Network

Study of cadmium-induced cytotoxicity using two-photon excitation endogenous fluorescence microscopy, the cadmium Cd - induced cellular toxic level can be assessed by the free-to protein- bound excited at 730 nm is captured at different times following exposure to cadmium at a variety

Qu, Jianan

210

Silica nanoparticles and silver-doped silica nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response and alter cytochrome P4501A activity.  

PubMed

Engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO(2)-NPs) find widespread application and may lead to exposure of humans and the environment. Here we compare the effects of SiO(2)-NPs and SiO(2)-NPs doped with silver (SiO(2)-Ag-NPs) on survival and cellular function of human liver cells (Huh7) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) fibroblast cells (FMH). In Huh7 cells we investigate effects on the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), including ER stress, and interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters. The NPs formed agglomerates/aggregates in cell culture media as revealed by SEM and TEM. SiO(2) and SiO(2)-1% Ag-NPs were taken up into cells as demonstrated by agglomerates occurring in vesicular-like structures or freely dispersed in the cytosol. Cytotoxicity was more pronounced in Huh7 than in FMH cells, and increased with silver content in silver-doped NPs. Dissolved silver was the most significant factor for cytotoxicity. At toxic and non-cytotoxic concentrations SiO(2)-NPs and SiO(2)-1% Ag-NPs induced perturbations in the function of ER. In Huh7 cells NPs induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), or ER stress response, as demonstrated in induced expression of BiP and splicing of XBP1 mRNA, two selective markers of ER stress. Additionally, SiO(2)-1% Ag-NPs and AgNO(3) induced reactive oxygen species. Pre-treatment of Huh7 cells with SiO(2)-1% Ag-NPs followed by exposure to the inducer benzo(a)pyrene caused a significant reduced induction of CYP1A activity. NPs did not alter the activity of ABC transporters. These data demonstrate for the first time that SiO(2)-NPs and SiO(2)-1% Ag-NPs result in perturbations of the ER leading to the ER stress response. This represents a novel and significant cellular signalling pathway contributing to the cytotoxicity of NPs. PMID:22245057

Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

2012-04-01

211

Use of a Rapid Cytotoxicity Screening Approach to Engineer a Safer Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle through Iron Doping  

PubMed Central

The establishment of verifiably safe nanotechnology requires the development of assessment tools to identify hazardous nanomaterial properties that could be modified to improve nanomaterial safety. While there is a lot of debate of what constitutes appropriate safety screening methods, one approach is to use the assessment of cellular injury pathways to collect knowledge about hazardous material properties that could lead to harm to humans and the environment. We demonstrate the use of a multi-parameter cytotoxicity assay that evaluates toxic oxidative stress to compare the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2), cerium oxide (CeO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in bronchial epithelial and macrophage cell lines. The nanoparticles were chosen based on their volume of production and likelihood of spread to the environment. Among the materials, dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ release were capable of ROS generation and activation of an integrated cytotoxic pathway that includes intracellular calcium flux, mitochondrial depolarization, and plasma membrane leakage. These responses were chosen based on the compatibility of the fluorescent dyes that contemporaneously assess their response characteristics by a semi-automated epifluorescence procedure. Purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by iron doping, which changed the material matrix to slow Zn2+ release. In summary, we demonstrate the utility of a rapid throughput, integrated biological oxidative stress response pathway to perform hazard ranking of a small batch of metal oxide nanoparticles, in addition to showing how this assay can be used to improve nanosafety by decreasing ZnO dissolution through Fe doping. PMID:20043640

George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Xia, Tian; Gilbert, Benjamin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas; Damoiseaux, Robert; Bradley, Kenneth A; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E

2014-01-01

212

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 ?g/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by AgNPs have a significant role in apoptosis. The present findings suggest that AgNPs could contribute to the development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of a novel nanomedicine for the treatment of cancers. PMID:24265551

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

2013-01-01

213

Role of Fe doping in tuning the band gap of TiO2 for photo-oxidation induced cytotoxicity paradigm  

PubMed Central

UV-Light induced electron-hole (e?/h+) pair generation and free radical production in TiO2 based nanoparticles is a major conceptual paradigm for biological injury. However, to date, this hypothesis has been difficult to experimentally verify due to the high energy of UV light that is intrinsically highly toxic to biological systems. Here, a versatile flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthetic process has been exploited to synthesize a library of iron doped (0–10 at wt%) TiO2 nanoparticles. These particles have been tested for photoactivation-mediated cytotoxicity using near-visible light exposure. The reduction in TiO2 band gap energy with incremental levels of Fe loading maintained the nanoparticle crystalline structure in spite of homogeneous Fe distribution (demonstrated by XRD, HRTEM, SAED, EFTEM, and EELS). Photochemical studies showed that band gap energy was reciprocally tuned proportional to the Fe content. The photo-oxidation capability of Fe-doped TiO2 was found to increase during near-visible light exposure. Use of a macrophage cell line to evaluate cytotoxic and ROS production showed increased oxidant injury and cell death in parallel with a decrease in band gap energy. These findings demonstrate the importance of band gap energy in the phototoxic response of the cell to TiO2 nanoparticles and reflect the potential of this material to generate adverse effects in humans and the environment during high intensity light exposure. PMID:21678906

George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Ji, Zhaoxia; Henderson, Bryana L.; Xia, Tian; Li, LinJiang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, André E.; Mädler, Lutz

2014-01-01

214

Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice.  

PubMed Central

The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism. PMID:7068208

Lammert, J K

1982-01-01

215

Inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism enhance ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Pharmacological ascorbate, via its oxidation, has been proposed as a pro-drug for the delivery of H(2)O(2) to tumors. Pharmacological ascorbate decreases clonogenic survival of pancreatic cancer cells, which can be reversed by treatment with scavengers of H(2)O(2). The goal of this study was to determine if inhibitors of intracellular hydroperoxide detoxification could enhance the cytotoxic effects of ascorbate. Human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with ascorbate alone or in combination with inhibitors of hydroperoxide removal including the glutathione disulfide reductase inhibitor 1,3 bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea (BCNU), siRNA targeted to glutathione disulfide reductase (siGR), and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), which inhibits glucose metabolism. Changes in the intracellular concentration of H(2)O(2) were determined by analysis of the rate of aminotriazole-mediated inactivation of endogenous catalase activity. Pharmacological ascorbate increased intracellular H(2)O(2) and depleted intracellular glutathione. When inhibitors of H(2)O(2) metabolism were combined with pharmacological ascorbate the increase in intracellular H(2)O(2) was amplified and cytotoxicity was enhanced. We conclude that inclusion of agents that inhibit cellular peroxide removal produced by pharmacological ascorbate leads to changes in the intracellular redox state resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity. PMID:23205739

Olney, K E; Du, J; van 't Erve, T J; Witmer, J R; Sibenaller, Z A; Wagner, B A; Buettner, G R; Cullen, J J

2013-03-01

216

Influence of the surface coating on the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and uptake of gold nanoparticles in human HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The toxicological profile of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) remains controversial. Significant efforts to develop surface coatings to improve biocompatibility have been carried out. In vivo biodistribution studies have shown that the liver is a target for AuNPs accumulation. Therefore, we investigated the effects induced by ~20?nm spherical AuNPs (0-200??M Au) with two surface coatings, citrate (Cit) compared with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA), in human liver HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays after 24 to 72?h of incubation. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay, 24?h after incubation with the capped AuNPs. Uptake and subcellular distribution of the tested AuNPs was evaluated by quantifying the gold intracellular content by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The obtained results indicate that both differently coated AuNPs did not induce significant cytotoxicity. An inverse concentration-dependent increase in comet tail intensity and tail moment was observed in Cit-AuNPs- but not in MUA-AuNPs-exposed cells. Both AuNPs were internalized in a concentration-dependent manner. However, no differences were found in the extent of the internalization between the two types of NPs. Electron-dense deposits of agglomerates of Cit- and MUA-AuNPs were observed either inside endosomes or in the intercellular spaces. In spite of the absence of cytotoxicity, DNA damage was observed after exposure to the lower concentrations of Cit- but not to MUA-AuNPs. Thus, our data supports the importance of the surface properties to increase the biocompatibility and safety of AuNPs. PMID:23529830

Fraga, Sónia; Faria, Helena; Soares, Maria Elisa; Duarte, José Alberto; Soares, Leonor; Pereira, Eulália; Costa-Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Joăo Paulo; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena

2013-10-01

217

Study of cytotoxic and therapeutic effects of stable and purified silver nanoparticles on tumor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized and purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (11.3 +/- 2.3 nm) that are stable (non-aggregated) in cell culture medium and inside single living cells. We have developed new imaging methods to characterize sizes and number of single NPs in the medium and in single living cells in real-time and determine their stability (non-aggregation) in the medium and in single living cells at single NP resolution. These new approaches allow us to study toxic and therapeutic effects of single Ag NPs on tumor cells (L929, mouse fibroblast cells) with determined sizes and concentrations (doses) of NPs over time at single NP and single cell resolution. We found that Ag NPs inhibited the growth and division of tumor cells and their nuclei, in a dose and time dependent manner, showing significant inhibitory effects and abnormal cells with giant undivided nuclei or multiple nuclei beyond 12 h incubation. The results show that Ag NPs inhibited the segregation of chromosomes, but not their replication. Intracellular Ag NPs were well distributed in the cell population, and located in the nuclei and cytoplasm with higher numbers in the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates the possibility of using Ag NPs to inhibit the growth and division of tumor cells and using their cytotoxicity for potential therapeutic treatments. This study offers a new method to count the number of single NPs in the medium for characterization of their concentration and stability at single NP resolution over time.We have synthesized and purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (11.3 +/- 2.3 nm) that are stable (non-aggregated) in cell culture medium and inside single living cells. We have developed new imaging methods to characterize sizes and number of single NPs in the medium and in single living cells in real-time and determine their stability (non-aggregation) in the medium and in single living cells at single NP resolution. These new approaches allow us to study toxic and therapeutic effects of single Ag NPs on tumor cells (L929, mouse fibroblast cells) with determined sizes and concentrations (doses) of NPs over time at single NP and single cell resolution. We found that Ag NPs inhibited the growth and division of tumor cells and their nuclei, in a dose and time dependent manner, showing significant inhibitory effects and abnormal cells with giant undivided nuclei or multiple nuclei beyond 12 h incubation. The results show that Ag NPs inhibited the segregation of chromosomes, but not their replication. Intracellular Ag NPs were well distributed in the cell population, and located in the nuclei and cytoplasm with higher numbers in the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates the possibility of using Ag NPs to inhibit the growth and division of tumor cells and using their cytotoxicity for potential therapeutic treatments. This study offers a new method to count the number of single NPs in the medium for characterization of their concentration and stability at single NP resolution over time. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Study of Ag NPs dispersed in nanopure DI water and cell culture medium using an ensemble method, UV-vis spectroscopy. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00080a

Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

2010-06-01

218

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle using Streptomyces sp. 09 PBT 005 and its antibacterial and cytotoxic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of microorganisms for the synthesis of nanoparticles as an eco-friendly and promising approach is welcome due to its non-toxicity and simplicity. The aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticle using Streptomyces sp. (09 PBT 005). 09 PBT 005 was isolated from the soil sample of the agriculture field in Vengodu, Thiruvannamalai district, Tamil Nadu, India. 09 PBT 005 was subjected to molecular characterization by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. It was found that 09 PBT 005 belonged to Streptomyces sp. The isolate Streptomyces sp. 09 PBT 005 was inoculated in fermentation medium and incubated at 30 şC for 12 days in different pH conditions. The 0.02 molar concentration showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at pH-7. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. The synthesized AgNPs sizes were found to be in the dimensions ranging between 198 and 595 nm. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized nanoparticles was studied against A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell line. It showed 83.23 % activity at 100 ?l with IC 50 value of 50 ?l. This method will be useful in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles.

Saravana Kumar, P.; Balachandran, C.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Ramasamy, D.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

2015-02-01

219

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity caused by yttrium oxide nanoparticles in HEK293 cells  

PubMed Central

Background The increased use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has caused new concerns about the potential exposure to biological systems and the potential risk that these materials may pose on human health. Here, we examined the effects of exposure to different concentrations (0–50 ?g/mL) and incubation times (10 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours) of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) NPs on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Changes in cellular morphology, cell viability, cell membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death (apoptosis and necrosis), and the DNA damage after NP exposure were compared to the effects seen following incubation with paraquat, a known toxicant. Results The 24-hour inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of Y2O3 NPs (41±5 nm in size) in the HEK293 cells was found to be 108 ?g/mL. Incubation with Y2O3 NPs (12.25–50 ?g/mL) increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 expression and promoted apoptotic- and necrotic-mediated cell death in both a concentration and a time-dependent manner. Decreases in cell survivability were associated with elevations in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, and evidence of DNA damage, which were consistent with the possibility that mitochondria impairment may play an important role in the cytotoxic response. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the Y2O3 NP exposure is associated with increased cellular apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HEK293 cells. PMID:24648735

Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Bodapati, Sravanthi; Murray, Elizabeth; Rice, Kevin M; Winston, Nicole; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Zhao, Yu; Blough, Eric

2014-01-01

220

Effects of Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors on Itraconazole and Fluconazole Induced Cytotoxicity in Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Itraconazole and fluconazole have been reported to induce hepatotoxicity in patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors, SKF 525A, and curcumin pretreatment on the cytotoxicity of antifungal drugs fluconazole and itraconazole. For 3 consecutive days, female rats were administered daily SKF 525A or curcumin (5 and 25?mg/kg). Control rats received an equivalent amount of dosed vehicle. The animals were anaesthetized 24 hours after receiving the last dose for liver perfusion. Hepatocytes were then exposed to various concentrations of antifungal drugs. In vitro incubation of hepatocytes with itraconazole revealed significantly lower viability when compared to fluconazole as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. The cytotoxicity of itraconazole was enhanced when incubated with hepatocytes pretreated with SKF 525A. SKF 525A had no effects on the cytotoxicity of fluconazole. Curcumin failed to either increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of both antifungal drugs. ATP levels also showed significant decrease in both itraconazole and fluconazole incubated hepatocytes. However, SKF 525A pretreated hepatocytes had significantly lower ATP levels after itraconazole incubations. Collectively, these results confirm the involvement of cytochrome P450 in the cytoprotection in itraconazole induced hepatocyte toxicity. Differences of the effects of SKF 525A on the cytotoxicity induced by itraconazole and fluconazole may be due to the differences on the metabolism of each antifungal drug in vivo. PMID:20130764

Somchit, Nhareet; Ngee, Chong Sock; Yaakob, Azhar; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

2009-01-01

221

Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Efficacy of Extracellular Silver Nanoparticles Biofabricated from Chromium Reducing Novel OS4 Strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Biofabricated metal nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, inexpensive, and ecofriendly, therefore, are used preferably in industries, medical and material science research. Considering the importance of biofabricated materials, we isolated, characterized and identified a novel bacterial strain OS4 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GenBank: JN247637.1). At neutral pH, this Gram negative bacterial strain significantly reduced hexavalent chromium, an important heavy metal contaminant found in the tannery effluents and minings. Subsequently, even at room temperature the supernatant of log phase grown culture of strain OS4 also reduced silver nitrate (AgNO3) to generate nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were further characterized by UV–visible, Nanophox particle size analyzer, XRD, SEM and FTIR. As evident from the FTIR data, plausibly the protein components of supernatant caused the reduction of AgNO3. The cuboid and homogenous AgNPs showed a characteristic UV-visible peak at 428 nm with average size of ?93 nm. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 111, 200, 220 and 311 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. From the nanoparticle release kinetics data, the rapid release of AgNPs was correlated with the particle size and increasing surface area of the nanoparticles. A highly significant antimicrobial activity against medically important bacteria by the biofabricated AgNPs was also revealed as decline in growth of Staphylococcus aureus (91%), Escherichia coli (69%) and Serratia marcescens (66%) substantially. Additionally, different cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs to liver function, RBCs, splenocytes and HeLa cells, hence these particles were safe to use. Therefore, this novel bacterial strain OS4 is likely to provide broad spectrum benefits for curing chromium polluted sites, for biofabrication of AgNPs and ultimately in the nanoparticle based drug formulation for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23555625

Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas; Ahmed, Arham S.; Ahmed, Faheem; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad; Azam, Ameer

2013-01-01

222

Functionalized nanoparticles for AMF-induced gene and drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties and broad applications of nano-magnetic colloids have generated much interest in recent years. Specially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention since their magnetic properties can be used for hyperthermia treatment or drug targeting. For example, enhanced levels of intracellular gene delivery can be achieved using Fe3O4 nano-vectors in the presence of an external magnetic field, a process known as 'magnetofection'. The low cytotoxicity, tunable particle size, ease of surface functionalization, and ability to generate thermal energy using an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) are properties have propelled Fe3O4 research to the forefront of nanoparticle research. The strategy of nanoparticle-mediated, AMF-induced heat generation has been used to effect intracellular hyperthermia. One application of this 'magnetic hyperthermia' is heat activated local delivery of a therapeutic effector (e.g.; drug or polynucleotide). This thesis describes the development of a magnetic nano-vector for AMF-induced, heat-activated pDNA and small molecule delivery. The use of heat-inducible vectors, such as heat shock protein ( hsp) genes, is a promising mode of gene therapy that would restrict gene expression to a local region by focusing a heat stimulus only at a target region. We thus aimed to design an Fe3O4 nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer vehicle for AMF-induced localized gene expression. We opted to use 'click' oximation techniques to assemble the magnetic gene transfer vector. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis, characterization, and transfection studies of the oxime ether lipid-based nano-magnetic vectors MLP and dMLP. The synthesis and characterization of a novel series of quaternary ammonium aminooxy reagents (2.1--2.4) is described. These cationic aminooxy compounds were loaded onto nanoparticles for ligation with carbonyl groups and also to impart a net positive charge on the nanoparticle surface. Our studies indicated that the non-toxic magnetoplexes (magnetic nanoparticle + pDNA complex) derived from dMLP deliver pDNA into mammalian cells even without external magnetic assistance. To date, dMLP is the only polymer-free magnetic gene delivery system that can deliver pDNA without any magnetic assistance. Chapter 3 of this thesis outlines the synthesis and characterization of other oxime ether lipids and details studies using derived-lipoplexes. These lipids were evaluated in pDNA and siRNA transfection studies in various mammalian cell lines. This work constitutes the first use of an oxime ether as the linking domain in cationic transfection lipids. These biocompatible oxime ether lipids can be readily assembled by click chemistry through ligation of hydrophobic aldehydes with quaternary ammonium aminooxy salts. Our studies showed that the oxime ether lipids transfected pDNA and siRNA efficiently in MCF-7, H 1792, and in PAR C10 cells comparable to and in some cases better than commercial transfection lipids. Chapter 4 describes the design and characterization of a nano-magnetic delivery system for AMF-induced drug (doxorubicin) release. In efforts to develop a magnetic formulation free from thermosensitive materials, such as hydrogels, we synthesized three nanoparticle-based doxorubicin formulations using charge interactions as the key associative force. To do so, we synthesized and characterized a novel cationic oxime ether conjugate at C-13 of doxorubicin. Our investigation indicated that the positive charge of the oxime ether drug conjugate tended to bind better to the negatively charged nanoparticle than did the other formulations prepared in stepwise manner. Our findings show that the nano-magnetic formulations remained essestially inactive at body temperature (37.5 °C) and released a majority of the cargo only when exposed to an external AMF. Our designed magnetic drug delivery platform is the first example of an AMF-inducible system that does not depend on the inclusion of thermosensitive materials. Finally, we have developed a bioanalytical application of the highly chemosele

Biswas, Souvik

223

Cytotoxicity and antibacterial property of titanium alloy coated with silver nanoparticle-containing polyelectrolyte multilayer.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was incorporated into dopamine-modified alginate/chitosan (DAL/CHI) polyelectrolyte multilayer to modify the surface of titanium alloy and improve its antibacterial property. Scanning electron microscopy showed that AgNP with the size of 50 nm embedded in DAL/CHI multilayers homogeneously. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the nanoparticles were silver (0) with peaks at 368.4 and 374.4 eV, respectively. The formation of silver (0) without the addition of reductants was due to the self-polymerization of dopamine, which can reduce the silver cation into neutral metal. The polyelectrolyte multilayer coating enhanced the wettability of titanium alloy and promoted the fibroblast proliferation significantly, which could be attributed to the excellent biocompatibility of DAL/CHI. Despite the slight fall of L929 cell activity after AgNP incorporation, AgNP-DAL/CHI multilayer inhibited the growth of both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The above results demonstrate that dopamine decoration is a simple and effective way to induce the in-situ formation of AgNP within polyelectrolyte multilayer. Furthermore, the AgNP-containing multilayer considerably enhances the antibacterial activity of titanium alloy. The fabrication of AgNP-DAL/CHI multilayer on the surface of titanium implant might have great potential in orthopedic use. PMID:23623101

Zhang, Xinming; Li, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Xubo; Cui, Zhenduo; Bao, Huijing; Li, Xue; Liu, Yunde; Yang, Xianjin

2013-07-01

224

Biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles from actinomycetes: biomedical applications and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been well proved by using bacteria, fungi, algae, actinomycetes, plants, etc. Among the different microorganisms used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles, actinomycetes are less known. Although, there are reports, which have shown that actinomycetes are efficient candidates for the production of metal nanoparticles both intracellularly and extracellularly. The nanoparticles synthesized by the members of actinomycetes present good polydispersity and stability and possess significant biocidal activities against various pathogens. The present review focuses on biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles and their application in medicine. In addition, the toxicity of these biogenic metal nanoparticles to human beings and environment has also been discussed. PMID:25158833

Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Ingle, Avinash P; Gupta, Indarchand; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

2014-10-01

225

Blocking autophagy enhanced cytotoxicity induced by recombinant human arginase in triple-negative breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Depletion of arginine by recombinant human arginase (rhArg) has proven to be an effective cancer therapeutic approach for a variety of malignant tumors. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) lack of specific therapeutic targets, resulting in poor prognosis and limited therapeutic efficacy. To explore new therapeutic approaches for TNBC we studied the cytotoxicity of rhArg in five TNBC cells. We found that rhArg could inhibit cell growth in these five TNBC cells. Intriguingly, accumulation of autophagosomes and autophagic flux was observed in rhArg-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ), 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and siRNA targeting Beclin1 significantly enhanced rhArg-induced cytotoxic effect, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in rhArg-induced cell death. In addition, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a common antioxidant, blocked autophagy induced by rhArg, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) had an essential role in the cytotoxicity of rhArg. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in rhArg-induced cytotoxicity in TNBC cells. Meanwhile, our results revealed that rhArg, either alone or in combination with autophagic inhibitors, might be a potential novel therapy for the treatment of TNBC.Cell Death and Disease (2014) 5, e1563; doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.503; published online 11 December 2014. PMID:25501824

Wang, Z; Shi, X; Li, Y; Fan, J; Zeng, X; Xian, Z; Wang, Z; Sun, Y; Wang, S; Song, P; Zhao, S; Hu, H; Ju, D

2014-01-01

226

Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced effects. Chlorophyllin is a water-soluble hydrolysis product of chlorophyll that inhibits the toxicity of many planar

Vogel de J; D. S. M. L. Jonker-Termont; M. B. Katan; Meer van der R

2005-01-01

227

Role of Bim in diallyl trisulfide-induced cytotoxicity in human cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on the cell death signaling pathway in a human breast cell line (MDA-MB-231). We observed that DATS (10–100 ?M) treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with a cytotoxicity inducing concentration of DATS (50–80 ?M) resulted in an increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Data from assay with MitoSOX™ Red reagent suggest that mitochondria are the main source of ROS generation during DATS treatment. DATS-induced oxidative stress was detected through glutaredoxin (GRX), a redox-sensing molecule, and subsequently GRX was dissociated from apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). Dissociation of GRX from ASK1 resulted in the activation of ASK1. ASK1 activated a downstream signal transduction JNK (C-Jun N-terminal kinase)-Bim pathway. SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited DATS-induced Bim phosphorylation and protected cells from DATS-induced cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity caused by DATS is mediated by the generation of ROS and subsequent activation of the ASK1-JNK-Bim signal transduction pathway in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:21053278

Lee, Byeong-Chel; Park, Bae-Hang; Kim, Seog-Young; Lee, Yong J.

2010-01-01

228

Single walled carbon nanotubes induce indirect cytotoxicity by medium depletion in A549 lung cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of two types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), namely Arc Discharge (AD) and HiPco® single walled carbon nanotubes, to induce an indirect cytotoxicity in A549 lung cells by means of medium depletion was investigated. The nanotubes were dispersed in a commercial cell culture medium and subsequently removed by centrifugation and filtration. Spectroscopic analysis confirmed the removal of

A. Casey; E. Herzog; F. M. Lyng; H. J. Byrne; G. Chambers; M. Davoren

2008-01-01

229

Biogenic-Production of SnO2 Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxic Effect Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line (HepG2).  

PubMed

In this paper, we have established for the first time, the terrific efficiency of aqueous extract of agricultural waste dried peel of sugar apple (Annona squamosa) in the rapid synthesis of stable SnO2 nanoparticles. In topical years, the deployment of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel technology for the synthesis of various nanoparticles. In this paper, we have studied the potential of SnO2 nanoparticles assembly using agricultural waste source for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as SnO2 nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and TEM analysis. The motivation of this study was to examine cytotoxicity study of SnO2 nanoparticles against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). SnO2 nanoparticles inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 148 ?g/mL. The treated cells showed an altered morphology with increasing concentrations of SnO2 nanoparticles. Our result shows that the SnO2 nanoparticles exhibit moderate cytotoxicity towards the hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) at tested concentrations. PMID:25410804

Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kumar, Subramanian Hari Subbish; Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Suthindhiran, Krishnamurthy

2015-02-01

230

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:22051850

Sakr, Saber A; El-Shenawy, Salama M; Al-Shabka, Ahmed M

2012-01-01

231

Dexamethasone-loaded Block Copolymer Nanoparticles Induce Leukemia Cell Death and Enhances Therapeutic Efficacy: A Novel Application in Pediatric Nanomedicine  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing treatment efficacy with lower doses of chemotherapeutics. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery approaches are poorly developed for childhood leukemia. Dexamethasone (Dex) is one of the most common chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of childhood leukemia. In this study, we encapsulated Dex in polymeric nanoparticles and validated their anti-leukemic potential in vitro and in vivo. Nanoparticles (NPs) with an average diameter of 110 nm were assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) bearing pendant cyclic ketals. The blank nanoparticles were non-toxic to cultured cells in vitro and to mice in vivo. Encapsulation of Dex into the nanoparticles (Dex-NP) did not compromise the bioactivity of the drug. Dex-NPs induced glucocorticoid phosphorylation and showed cytotoxicity similar to the free Dex in leukemic cells. Studies using nanoparticles labeled with fluorescent dyes revealed leukemic cell surface binding and internalization. In vivo biodistribution studies showed NP accumulation in the liver and spleen with subsequent clearance of the particles with time. In a pre-clinical model of leukemia, Dex-NPs significantly improved the quality of life and survival of mice compared to the free drug. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the efficacy of polymeric nanoparticles to deliver Dex to potentially treat childhood leukemia and reveals that low dose of Dex should be sufficient for inducing cell death and improve survival. PMID:23194373

Krishnan, Vinu; Xu, Xian; Barwe, Sonali P.; Yang, Xiaowei; Czymmek, Kirk; Waldman, Scott A.; Mason, Robert W.; Jia, Xinqiao; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

2014-01-01

232

Cytotoxicity of sophorolipid-gellan gum-gold nanoparticle conjugates and their doxorubicin loaded derivatives towards human glioma and human glioma stem cell lines.  

PubMed

Biocompatible gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a naturally occurring gum--Gellan Gum--as a capping and reducing agent. These were further conjugated with sophorolipids which again were accessed through a biochemical transformation of a fatty acid. The cellular uptake of sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line LN-229 and human glioma stem cell line HNGC-2 were investigated. Quite surprisingly even the simple sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced/capped gold nanoparticles showed greater efficacy in killing the glioma cell lines and, gratifyingly, the glioma stem cell lines also. The cytotoxic effects became more prominent once the anti cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride was also conjugated to these gold nanoparticles. PMID:21069248

Dhar, Sheetal; Reddy, E Maheswara; Prabhune, Asmita; Pokharkar, Varsha; Shiras, Anjali; Prasad, B L V

2011-02-01

233

Cytotoxicity of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers containing the local anesthetic dibucaine designed for topical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dibucaine (DBC) is powerful long-lasting local anesthetic, but it is also considered fairly toxic to the CNS. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have attracted attention as carriers for drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of DBC-loaded SLN and NLC against 3T3 fibroblast and HaCat keratinocyte cells. The SLN and NLC had myristyl myristate and Liponate®GC as their lipid matrices, respectively, plus a surfactant. SLN and NLC were characterized in terms in their diameter, size distribution, surface charge and DBC encapsulation efficiency. The particle size of SLN and NLC were around 234.33 and 166.62 nm, respectively. The polydispersity index was kept below 0.2 for both nanomaterials. Negative surface charges were observed for both nanoparticles, which decreased in the presence of the anesthetic. Encapsulation efficiency reached 76% and 90%, respectively, in SLN and NLC. DBC alone was found to be toxic to 3T3 and HaCat cells in culture. However, NLC and SLN loaded DBC decreased its intrinsic cytotoxic effect against 3T3 and HaCat cells. In conclusion, encapsulation of DBC in SLN and NLC decreased the in vitro toxicity of the local anesthetic, indicating the potential of these nanocarriers for clinical applications.

Barbosa, R. M.; da Silva, C. M. G.; Bella, T. S.; de Araújo, D. R.; Marcato, P. D.; Durán, N.; de Paula, E.

2013-04-01

234

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam.  

PubMed

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25189525

Rathi Sre, P R; Reka, M; Poovazhagi, R; Arul Kumar, M; Murugesan, K

2015-01-25

235

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

2015-01-01

236

Docetaxel Loaded PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles: Optimized Drug Loading, In-vitro Cytotoxicity and In-vivo Antitumor Effect  

PubMed Central

In this study a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to prepare optimized docetaxel (DTX) loaded pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) with polymer concentration (X1), drug concentration (X2) and ratio of the organic to aqueous solvent (X3) as the independent variables and particle size (Y1), poly dispersity index (PDI) (Y2) and drug loading (Y3) as the responses. The cytotoxicity of optimized DTX loaded PEG-PLGA NPs was studied in SKOV3 tumor cell lines by standard MTT assay. The in-vivo antitumor efficacy of DTX loaded PLGA-PEG NPs was assessed in tumor bearing female BALB/c mice. The optimum level of Y1, Y2 and Y3 predicted by the model were 188 nm, 0.16 and 9% respectively with perfect agreement with the experimental data. The in-vitro release profile of optimum formulation showed a burst release of approximately 20% (w/w) followed by a sustained release profile of the loaded drug over 288 h. The DTX loaded optimized nanoparticles showed a greater cytotoxicity against SKOV3 cancer cells than free DTX. Enhanced tumor-suppression effects were achieved with DTX-loaded PEG-PLGA NPs. These results demonstrated that optimized NPs could be a potentially useful delivery system for DTX as an anticancer agent. PMID:25276182

Noori Koopaei, Mona; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed Hossein; Amini, Mohsen; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Jeddi Tehrani, Mahmood; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2014-01-01

237

Tetramethylphenylenediamine-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity caused by lysosomal labilisation and redox cycling with oxygen activation.  

PubMed

It has already been reported that in vivo muscle necrosis induced by various phenylenediamine derivatives correlated with their in vitro autoxidation rate [9]. Now in a more detailed investigation of the cytotoxic mechanism of a ring-methylated phenylenediamine known as tetramethylphenylenediamine or durenediamine (DD) towards isolated rat hepatocytes has been carried out. Cytotoxicity was preceded by ROS formation which was markedly increased by inactivating DT-diaphorase or catalase but were prevented by a subtoxic concentration of the mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor cyanide. This suggests that ROS generation could be attributed to a futile two-electron redox cycle involving oxidation of phenylenediamine to the corresponding diimine by the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and re-reduction by the DT-diaphorase. Endocytosis inhibitors, lysosomotropic agents or lysosomal protease inhibitors also prevented DD-induced cytotoxicity suggesting that DD-induced ROS caused lysosomal damage and protease activation in hepatocytes. Furthermore preincubation with deferoxamine (a ferric iron chelator) or addition of antioxidants, catalase or ROS scavengers (mannitol, tempol or dimethylsulfoxide) prevented DD cytotoxicity. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) reacts with lysosomal Fe(2+) to form "ROS" which causes lysosomal lipid peroxidation, membrane disruption, protease release and cell death. PMID:18221936

Pourahmad, Jalal; O'Brien, Peter J; Chan, Katie; Shakouri, Ataollah

2008-03-10

238

Effect of PEG molecular weight on stability, T? contrast, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs).  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are currently unavailable as MRI contrast agents for detecting atherosclerosis in the clinical setting because of either low signal enhancement or safety concerns. Therefore, a new generation of SPIONs with increased circulation time, enhanced image contrast, and less cytotoxicity is essential. In this study, monodisperse SPIONs were synthesized and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of varying molecular weights. The resulting PEGylated SPIONs were characterized, and their interactions with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were examined. SPIONs were tested at different concentrations (100 and 500 ppm Fe) for stability, T2 contrast, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake to determine an optimal formulation for in vivo use. We found that at 100 ppm Fe, the PEG 2K SPIONs showed adequate stability and magnetic contrast, and exhibited the least cytotoxicity and nonspecific cellular uptake. An increase in cell viability was observed when the SPION-treated cells were washed with PBS after 1h incubation compared to 5 and 24h incubation without washing. Our investigation provides insight into the potential safe application of SPIONs in the clinic. PMID:24877593

Park, Yoonjee C; Smith, Jared B; Pham, Tuan; Whitaker, Ragnhild D; Sucato, Christopher A; Hamilton, James A; Bartolak-Suki, Elizabeth; Wong, Joyce Y

2014-07-01

239

Effect of cell media on polymer coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): colloidal stability, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake studies.  

PubMed

The influence of the composition of the polymer coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), vinyl alcohol/vinyl amine copolymer (A-PVA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on the colloidal stability, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of these particles in different cell media is reported in this paper. Although all examined polymer coated SPIONs were stable in water and PBS buffer these colloidal systems had different stabilities in DMEM or RPMI media without and supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). We found that A-PVA coating onto the surface of the SPIONs decreased the cytotoxicity of the polymer compared to the same concentration of A-PVA alone. As well, polyplexes of PEI-SPIONs with DNA in concentration used for transfection experiments showed no cytotoxicity compared to PEI and PEI-SPIONs. Our data show that the choice of medium largely influences the uptake of these particles by HeLa cells. The optimal medium is different for the different examined polymer coated SPIONs and it should be determined in each case, individually. PMID:17881203

Petri-Fink, Alke; Steitz, Benedikt; Finka, Andrija; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Hofmann, Heinrich

2008-01-01

240

Cytotoxicity of sophorolipid-gellan gum-gold nanoparticle conjugates and their doxorubicin loaded derivatives towards human glioma and human glioma stem cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocompatible gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a naturally occurring gum-Gellan Gum-as a capping and reducing agent. These were further conjugated with sophorolipids which again were accessed through a biochemical transformation of a fatty acid. The cellular uptake of sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line LN-229 and human glioma stem cell line

Sheetal Dhar; E. Maheswara Reddy; Asmita Prabhune; Varsha Pokharkar; Anjali Shiras; B. L. V. Prasad

2011-01-01

241

Cytotoxicity of sophorolipid-gellan gum-gold nanoparticle conjugates and their doxorubicin loaded derivatives towards human glioma and human glioma stem cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocompatible gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a naturally occurring gum-Gellan Gum-as a capping and reducing agent. These were further conjugated with sophorolipids which again were accessed through a biochemical transformation of a fatty acid. The cellular uptake of sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line LN-229 and human glioma stem cell line HNGC-2 were investigated. Quite surprisingly even the simple sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced/capped gold nanoparticles showed greater efficacy in killing the glioma cell lines and, gratifyingly, the glioma stem cell lines also. The cytotoxic effects became more prominent once the anti cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride was also conjugated to these gold nanoparticles.Biocompatible gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a naturally occurring gum-Gellan Gum-as a capping and reducing agent. These were further conjugated with sophorolipids which again were accessed through a biochemical transformation of a fatty acid. The cellular uptake of sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line LN-229 and human glioma stem cell line HNGC-2 were investigated. Quite surprisingly even the simple sophorolipid-conjugated gellan gum reduced/capped gold nanoparticles showed greater efficacy in killing the glioma cell lines and, gratifyingly, the glioma stem cell lines also. The cytotoxic effects became more prominent once the anti cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride was also conjugated to these gold nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Confocal Z-stacking images of Texas Red Conjugated SL-GG-Au NPs, thermogravimetic analysis of DOX-SL-GG-Au-NPs and SL-GG-AuNPs, and time-dependent fluorescence spectra of DOX-SL-GG-Au NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00598c

Dhar, Sheetal; Reddy, E. Maheswara; Prabhune, Asmita; Pokharkar, Varsha; Shiras, Anjali; Prasad, B. L. V.

2011-02-01

242

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

SciTech Connect

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

2012-06-01

243

Reversible aggregation between nanoparticles induced by acid-base interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-base interactions between amino-silica and carboxyl-gold protected nanoparticles, functionalized or not with free stable radicals or fluorescent moieties, were studied by ESR, fluorescence, and TEM. While those nanoparticles are stable in solution, mixing them induces aggregation, due to acid-base interactions; addition of a base or an acid redissolves them. By ESR, strong spin-spin interactions were noticed; by fluorescence, only small differences may be observed, while by TEM, it was noticed that gold nanoparticles are distributed evenly on the surface of the silica nanoparticles.

Ionita, Gabriela; Ghica, Corneliu; Turcu, Ioana; Ionita, Petre

2012-09-01

244

Synthesis of copper/nickel nanoparticles using newly synthesized Schiff-base metals complexes and their cytotoxicity/catalytic activities.  

PubMed

Transition metal complexes compounds with Schiff bases ligand representing an important class of compounds that could be used to develop new metal-based anticancer agents and as precursors of metal NPs. Herein, 2,3-bis-[(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]but-2-enedinitrile Schiff base ligand and its corresponding copper/nickel complexes were synthesized. Also, we reported a facile and rapid method for synthesis nickel/copper nanoparticles based on thermal reduction of their complexes. Free ligand, its metal complexes and metals nanoparticles have been characterized based on elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and by various spectroscopic (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS) techniques. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of free ligand and its complexes compounds were assessed against two cancer cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 cells)and one healthy cell line (HEK293 cell). The copper complex was found to be active against these cancer cell lines at very low LD50 than the free ligand, while nickel complex did not show any anticancer activity against these cell lines. Also, the antibacterial activity of as-prepared copper nanoparticles were screened against Escherichia coli, which demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values lower than those values of the commercial Cu NPs as well as the previous reported values. Moreover, the synthesized nickel nanoparticles demonstrated remarkable catalytic performance toward hydrogenation of nitrobenzene that producing clean aniline with high selectivity (98%). This reactivity could be attributed to the high degree of dispersion of Ni nanoparticles. PMID:25159596

Aazam, Elham S; El-Said, Waleed Ahmed

2014-12-01

245

Evaluation of pulsed laser ablation in liquids generated gold nanoparticles as novel transfection tools: efficiency and cytotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Varying transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity are crucial aspects in cell manipulation. The utilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has lately attracted special interest to enhance transfection efficiency. Conventional AuNP are usually generated by chemical reactions or gas pyrolysis requiring often cell-toxic stabilizers or coatings to conserve their characteristics. Alternatively, stabilizer- and coating-free, highly pure, colloidal AuNP can be generated by pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL). Mammalian cells were transfected efficiently by addition of PLAL-AuNP, but data systematically evaluating the cell-toxic potential are lacking. Herein, the transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PLAL AuNP was evaluated by transfection of a mammalian cell line with a recombinant HMGB1/GFP DNA expression vector. Different methods were compared using two sizes of PLAL-AuNP, commercialized AuNP, two magnetic NP-based protocols and a conventional transfection reagent (FuGENE HD; FHD). PLAL-AuNP were generated using a Spitfire Pro femtosecond laser system delivering 120 fs laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm focusing the fs-laser beam on a 99.99% pure gold target placed in ddH2O. Transfection efficiencies were analyzed after 24h using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Toxicity was assessed measuring cell proliferation and percentage of necrotic, propidium iodide positive cells (PI %). The addition of PLAL-AuNP significantly enhanced transfection efficiencies (FHD: 31 %; PLAL-AuNP size-1: 46 %; size-2: 50 %) with increased PI% but no reduced cell proliferation. Commercial AuNP-transfection showed significantly lower efficiency (23 %), slightly increased PI % and reduced cell proliferation. Magnetic NP based methods were less effective but showing also lowest cytotoxicity. In conclusion, addition of PLAL-AuNP provides a novel tool for transfection efficiency enhancement with acceptable cytotoxic side-effects.

Willenbrock, Saskia; Durán, María. Carolina; Barchanski, Annette; Barcikowski, Stephan; Feige, Karsten; Nolte, Ingo; Murua Escobar, Hugo

2014-03-01

246

Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress promotes genomic instability and human diseases. A common oxidized nucleoside is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, which is found both in DNA (8-oxo-G) and as a free nucleotide (8-oxo-dGTP). Nucleotide pools are especially vulnerable to oxidative damage. Therefore cells encode an enzyme (MutT/MTH1) that removes free oxidized nucleotides. This cleansing function is required for cancer cell survival and to modulate Escherichia coli antibiotic sensitivity in a DNA polymerase (pol)-dependent manner. How polymerases discriminate between damaged and non-damaged nucleotides is not well understood. This analysis is essential given the role of oxidized nucleotides in mutagenesis, cancer therapeutics, and bacterial antibiotics. Even with cellular sanitizing activities, nucleotide pools contain enough 8-oxo-dGTP to promote mutagenesis. This arises from the dual coding potential where 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) base pairs with cytosine and 8-oxo-dGTP(syn) uses its Hoogsteen edge to base pair with adenine. Here we use time-lapse crystallography to follow 8-oxo-dGTP insertion opposite adenine or cytosine with human pol ?, to reveal that insertion is accommodated in either the syn- or anti-conformation, respectively. For 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) insertion, a novel divalent metal relieves repulsive interactions between the adducted guanine base and the triphosphate of the oxidized nucleotide. With either templating base, hydrogen-bonding interactions between the bases are lost as the enzyme reopens after catalysis, leading to a cytotoxic nicked DNA repair intermediate. Combining structural snapshots with kinetic and computational analysis reveals how 8-oxo-dGTP uses charge modulation during insertion that can lead to a blocked DNA repair intermediate. PMID:25409153

Freudenthal, Bret D; Beard, William A; Perera, Lalith; Shock, David D; Kim, Taejin; Schlick, Tamar; Wilson, Samuel H

2015-01-29

247

Investigating the immune and cytotoxic responses of mast and lung epithelial cells to engineered nanoparticles.  

E-print Network

??The applications for engineered nanoparticles have increased dramatically in recent years. They have been introduced into the industrial, electrical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical fields due… (more)

Elbaz, A

2012-01-01

248

Weakly Charged Cationic Nanoparticles Induce DNA Bending and Strand Separation  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of interactions between double stranded (ds) DNA and charged nanoparticles will have a broad bearing on many important applications from drug delivery [ 1 4 ] to DNAtemplated metallization. [ 5 , 6 ] Cationic nanoparticles (NPs) can bind to DNA, a negatively charged molecule, through a combination of electrostatic attraction, groove binding, and intercalation. Such binding events induce changes in the conformation of a DNA strand. In nature, DNA wraps around a cylindrical protein assembly (diameter and height of 6 nm) [ 7 ] with an 220 positive charge, [ 8 ] creating the complex known as chromatin. Wrapping and bending of DNA has also been achieved in the laboratory through the binding of highly charged species such as molecular assemblies, [ 9 , 10 ] cationic dendrimers, [ 11 , 12 ] and nanoparticles. [ 13 15 ] The charge of a nanoparticle plays a crucial role in its ability to induce DNA structural changes. If a nanoparticle has a highly positive surface charge density, the DNA is likely to wrap and bend upon binding to the nanoparticle [ 13 ] (as in the case of chromatin). On the other hand, if a nanoparticle is weakly charged it will not induce dsDNA compaction. [ 9 , 10 , 15 ] Consequently, there is a transition zone from extended to compact DNA conformations which depends on the chemical nature of the nanoparticle and occurs for polycations with charges between 5 and 10. [ 9 ] While the interactions between highly charged NPs and DNA have been extensively studied, the processes that occur within the transition zone are less explored.

Railsback, Justin [North Carolina State University; Singh, Abhishek [North Carolina State University; Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Collazo, Ramon [North Carolina State University; Sitar, Zlatko [ORNL; Yingling, Yaroslava [North Carolina State University; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL

2012-01-01

249

Plasma-induced crystallization of silicon nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the formation of nanoparticles in nonthermal plasmas is well known, the heating mechanism leading to their crystallization is poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the crystallization of amorphous silicon nanoparticles in nonthermal plasmas using a tandem plasma configuration. Amorphous silicon nanoparticles with diameters of 3, 4 or 5 nm are formed in a low-power nonthermal upstream plasma, and injected directly into a second separate downstream plasma. Crystallization of the amorphous silicon nanoparticles is investigated as a function of the power used to maintain the second plasma. This approach allows for the decoupling of nanoparticle synthesis and heating. The nanoparticle properties and plasma conditions are examined to obtain a comprehensive understanding of nanoparticle heating and crystallization. The particle crystallinity was studied using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We discovered a threshold power for complete crystallization of the particles. A combination of comprehensive plasma characterization with a nanoparticle heating model reveals the underlying plasma physics leading to crystallization. Here we found that the nanoparticles reach temperatures as high as 750-850 K in the secondary plasma, which is well above the gas temperature and sufficient for complete nanoparticle crystallization. While we demonstrate this method of predicting nanoparticle temperature using silicon, the approach can be applied broadly to other plasma-synthesized nanomaterials.

Kramer, N. J.; Anthony, R. J.; Mamunuru, M.; Aydil, E. S.; Kortshagen, U. R.

2014-02-01

250

Role of surface charge and oxidative stress in cytotoxicity of organic monolayer-coated silicon nanoparticles towards macrophage NR8383 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Surface charge and oxidative stress are often hypothesized to be important factors in cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. However, the role of these factors is not well understood. Hence, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the role of surface charge, oxidative stress and possible involvement of mitochondria in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon exposure

Sourav Bhattacharjee; Laura HJ de Haan; Nynke M Evers; Xue Jiang; Antonius TM Marcelis; Han Zuilhof; Ivonne MCM Rietjens; Gerrit M Alink

2010-01-01

251

Photoexpulsion of Surface-Grafted Ruthenium Complexes and Subsequent Release of Cytotoxic Cargos to Cancer Cells from Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes have emerged both as promising probes of DNA structure and as anticancer agents because of their unique photophysical and cytotoxic properties. A key consideration in the administration of those therapeutic agents is the optimization of their chemical reactivities to allow facile attack on the target sites, yet avoid unwanted side effects. Here, we present a drug delivery platform technology, obtained by grafting the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) with ruthenium(II) dipyridophenazine (dppz) complexes. This hybrid nanomaterial displays enhanced luminescent properties relative to that of the ruthenium(II) dppz complex in a homogeneous phase. Since the coordination between the ruthenium(II) complex and a monodentate ligand linked covalently to the nanoparticles can be cleaved under irradiation with visible light, the ruthenium complex can be released from the surface of the nanoparticles by selective substitution of this ligand with a water molecule. Indeed, the modified MSNPs undergo rapid cellular uptake, and after activation with light, the release of an aqua ruthenium(II) complex is observed. We have delivered, in combination, the ruthenium(II) complex and paclitaxel, loaded in the mesoporous structure, to breast cancer cells. This hybrid material represents a promising candidate as one of the so-called theranostic agents that possess both diagnostic and therapeutic functions. PMID:23815127

Frasconi, Marco; Liu, Zhichang; Lei, Juying; Wu, Yilei; Strekalova, Elena; Malin, Dmitry; Ambrogio, Michael W.; Chen, Xinqi; Botros, Youssry Y.; Cryns, Vincent L.; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Stoddart, J. Fraser

2014-01-01

252

Flutamide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in an in vitro rat hepatocyte system.  

PubMed

Flutamide (FLU) is a competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor which has been reported to induce severe liver injury in some patients. Several experimental models suggested that an episode of inflammation during drug treatment predisposes animals to tissue injury. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of FLU in isolated rat hepatocytes using an in vitro oxidative stress inflammation system were investigated in this study. When a nontoxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system (glucose/glucose oxidase) with peroxidase or iron(II) [Fe(II)] (to partly simulate in vivo inflammation) was added to the hepatocytes prior to the addition of FLU, increases in FLU-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were observed that were decreased by 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil or deferoxamine, respectively. N-Acetylcysteine decreased FLU-induced cytotoxicity in this system. Potent antioxidants, for example, Trolox ((±)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), and DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) also significantly decreased FLU-induced cytotoxicity and LPO and increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the H2O2 generating system with peroxidase. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl), a known reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and superoxide dismutase mimetic, also significantly decreased toxicity caused by FLU in this system. These results raise the possibility that the presence or absence of inflammation may be another susceptibility factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25371773

Al Maruf, Abdullah; O'Brien, Peter

2014-01-01

253

Bacillus anthracis genomic DNA enhances lethal toxinżinduced cytotoxicity through TNF-ż production.  

PubMed

Background Bacillus anthracis is the etiological agent of anthrax. Lethal toxin (LT) produced by B. anthracis is a well-known key virulence factor for anthrax because of its strong cytotoxic activity. However, little is known about the role of B. anthracis genomic DNA (BAG) in anthrax pathogenesis.ResultsWe examined the effect of BAG on TNF-ż production and LT-mediated cytotoxicity during B. anthracis spore infection in mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 cells and J774A.1) and BALB/c mice. Infection of RAW264.7 cells with B. anthracis spores induced TNF-ż expression in a multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent manner, and this enhancement was attenuated by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 inhibitor oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)2088. BAG led to TNF-ż expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner when applied to RAW264.7 cells. TNF-ż expression induced by BAG was reduced by either pretreatment with TLR9 inhibitors (ODN2088 and chloroquine (CQ)) or transfection with TLR9 siRNA. Furthermore, BAG-induced TNF-ż production in TLR9+/+ macrophages was completely abrogated in TLR9ż/ż macrophages. BAG enhanced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and BAG-induced TNF-ż expression was attenuated by pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors. A reporter gene assay and confocal microscopy demonstrated that BAG increased NF-żB activation, which is responsible for TNF-ż expression. Treatment with BAG alone showed no cytotoxic activity on the macrophage cell line J774A.1, whereas LT-mediated cytotoxicity was enhanced by treatment with BAG or TNF-ż. Enhanced LT-induced lethality was also confirmed by BAG administration in mice. Furthermore, LT plus BAG-mediated lethality was significantly recovered by administration of Infliximab, an anti-TNF-ż monoclonal antibody.ConclusionsOur results suggest that B. anthracis DNA may contribute to anthrax pathogenesis by enhancing LT activity via TLR9-mediated TNF-ż production. PMID:25472474

Jeon, Jun; Kim, Yeon; Choi, Min; Kim, Kyung; Lee, Hae-Ri; Jang, Jeyoun; Kim, Yu-Ri; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Eo, Seong; Kim, Tae; Rhie, Gi-Eun

2014-12-01

254

Capsaicin induces cytotoxicity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells via mitochondrial action.  

PubMed

Capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, inhibits growth of various solid cancers via TRPV1 as well as TRPV1-independent mechanisms. Recently, we showed that TRPV1 regulates intracellular calcium level and chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. In the present study, we characterize the role of the TRPV1 agonist - CAP - in controlling proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic BON and QGP-1 NET cells. We demonstrate that CAP reduces viability and proliferation, and stimulates apoptotic death of NET cells. CAP causes mitochondrial membrane potential loss, inhibits ATP synthesis and reduces mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein production. In addition, CAP increases cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 levels in cytoplasm. CAP reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts synergistically with CAP to reduce ROS generation, without affecting CAP-induced toxicity. TRPV1 protein reduction by 75% reduction fails to attenuate CAP-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, these results suggest that CAP induces cytotoxicity by disturbing mitochondrial potential, and inhibits ATP synthesis in NET cells. Stimulation of ROS generation by CAP appears to be a secondary effect, not related to CAP-induced cytotoxicity. These results justify further evaluation of CAP in modulating pancreatic NETs in vivo. PMID:24075930

Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Abdelmessih, S; Mergler, S; Grötzinger, C; Metzke, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

2014-01-01

255

Assessment of the cytotoxicity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on selected mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of nanotechnology raises both enthusiasm and anxiety among researchers, which is related to the safety use of the manufactured materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on the viability of selected mammalian cells in vitro. The aluminium oxide nanoparticles were characterised using SEM and BET analyses. Based on

E. Radziun; J. Dudkiewicz Wilczy?ska; I. Ksi??ek; K. Nowak; E. L. Anuszewska; A. Kunicki; A. Olszyna; T. Z?bkowski

256

Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of rats induced by municipal effluent released by submarine outfall in city of Santos. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were exposed to effluents by drinking water ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % for 30 days. Microscopic analysis revealed severe lesions such as necrosis and hemorrhagic areas in liver and kidney from animals exposed to effluent at 50 and 100 % concentration. DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, and kidney cells were detected by comet assay at higher concentrations of effluent. Moreover, a decrease DNA repair capacity was detected in liver cells. Significant statistical differences (p<0.05) for micronucleated cells from liver were noticed at 50 % concentration of effluent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that municipal effluent is able to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of Wistar rats. PMID:24996946

da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Flavia Andressa Pidone; Cesar, Augusto; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Silva, Marcelo Jose Dias; Vilegas, Wagner; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-11-01

257

Salidroside inhibits endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity of endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., shows potent antioxidant property. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of salidroside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human endothelial cells (EVC-304). EVC-304 cells were incubated in the presence or absence of low steady states of H2O2 (3-4?µM) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) with or without salidroside. 3(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed, together with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis using Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI) label. The results indicated that salidroside pretreatment attenuated endogenous H2O2 induced apoptotic cell death in EVC-304 cells in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, Western blot data revealed that salidroside inhibited activation of caspase-3, 9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) induced by endogenous H2O2. It also decreased the expression of Bax and rescued the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. All these results demonstrated that salidroside may present a potential therapy for oxidative stress in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:23965749

Zhao, Xingyu; Jin, Lianhai; Shen, Nan; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Zhengli

2013-01-01

258

Inhibition of glycyrrhizic acid on aflatoxin B 1-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes oxidative stress and ROS formation via metabolic activation of AFB1. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) has been reported to have antioxidative properties. The present study was to investigate the effect of GA, a major component of licorice on AFB1-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). GA displayed protective effects against AFB1 treatment. Both CYP1A1, and glutathione S-transferase

Hoi-tak Chan; Carrie Chan; John W. Ho

2003-01-01

259

Geldanamycin and its analog induce cytotoxicity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geldanamycin (GA), a benzoquinone ansamycin, was originally isolated as a natural product with anti-fungal activity. GA and its analogs, including 17-allylamino-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG), are also known to block the function of a molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). In light of their anti-tumor properties through direct cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenicity, GA has been previously demonstrated to suppress hypoxia-induced VEGF production

Wen-Chuan Wu; Meng-Hsien Wu; Yo-Chen Chang; Ming-Chu Hsieh; Horng-Jiun Wu; Kai-Chun Cheng; Yu-Hung Lai; Ying-Hsien Kao

2010-01-01

260

Involvement of mitochondrial pathway in NCTD-induced cytotoxicity in human hepG2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Norcantharidin, the demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from a traditional Chinese medicine, Mylabris, has been used in the treatment of anti-cancer effects. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process are generally unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of NCTD-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay for cellular viability

Cheng Chang; You-Qing Zhu; Juan-juan Mei; Shi-quan Liu; Jun Luo

2010-01-01

261

Protective effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark and leaf on amyloid ?-induced cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to investigate the protective effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EUO) bark and leaf against cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-? peptide (A?) and to explore their active components. The PC-12 cells injury mediated by A?25–35 was employed to assess the neuroprotective effects of EUO bark, EUO leaf and various compounds. Intracellular Ca2+ determination, MTT reduction assay,

Yongqiang Zhou; Min Liang; Weize Li; Kai Li; Ping Li; Yuzhu Hu; Zhonglin Yang

2009-01-01

262

Universal solvent restructuring induced by colloidal nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Colloidal nanoparticles, used for applications from catalysis and energy applications to cosmetics, are typically embedded in matrixes or dispersed in solutions. The entire particle surface, which is where reactions are expected to occur, is thus exposed. Here, we show with x-ray pair distribution function analysis that polar and nonpolar solvents universally restructure around nanoparticles. Layers of enhanced order exist with a thickness influenced by the molecule size and up to 2 nanometers beyond the nanoparticle surface. These results show that the enhanced reactivity of solvated nanoparticles includes a contribution from a solvation shell of the size of the particle itself. PMID:25593188

Zobel, Mirijam; Neder, Reinhard B; Kimber, Simon A J

2015-01-16

263

Carnosine's effect on amyloid fibril formation and induced cytotoxicity of lysozyme.  

PubMed

Carnosine, a common dipeptide in mammals, has previously been shown to dissemble alpha-crystallin amyloid fibrils. To date, the dipeptide's anti-fibrillogensis effect has not been thoroughly characterized in other proteins. For a more complete understanding of carnosine's mechanism of action in amyloid fibril inhibition, we have investigated the effect of the dipeptide on lysozyme fibril formation and induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our study demonstrates a positive correlation between the concentration and inhibitory effect of carnosine against lysozyme fibril formation. Molecular docking results show carnosine's mechanism of fibrillogenesis inhibition may be initiated by binding with the aggregation-prone region of the protein. The dipeptide attenuates the amyloid fibril-induced cytotoxicity of human neuronal cells by reducing both apoptotic and necrotic cell deaths. Our study provides solid support for carnosine's amyloid fibril inhibitory property and its effect against fibril-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The additional insights gained herein may pave way to the discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effects against amyloid fibril formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24349167

Wu, Josephine W; Liu, Kuan-Nan; How, Su-Chun; Chen, Wei-An; Lai, Chia-Min; Liu, Hwai-Shen; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Wang, Steven S-S

2013-01-01

264

Vitamin C Effect on Mitoxantrone-Induced Cytotoxicity in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In recent years the use of natural dietary antioxidants to minimize the cytotoxicity and the damage induced in normal tissues by antitumor agents is gaining consideration. In literature, it is reported that vitamin C exhibits some degree of antineoplastic activity whereas Mitoxantrone (MTZ) is a synthetic anti-cancer drug with significant clinical effectiveness in the treatment of human malignancies but with severe side effects. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of vitamin C alone or combined with MTZ on MDA-MB231 and MCF7 human breast cancer cell lines to analyze their dose-effect on the tumor cellular growth, cellular death, cell cycle and cell signaling. Our results have evidenced that there is a dose-dependence on the inhibition of the breast carcinoma cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB231, treated with vitamin C and MTZ. Moreover, their combination induces: i) a cytotoxic effect by apoptotic death, ii) a mild G2/M elongation and iii) H2AX and mild PI3K activation. Hence, the formulation of vitamin C with MTZ induces a higher cytotoxicity level on tumor cells compared to a disjointed treatment. We have also found that the vitamin C enhances the MTZ effect allowing the utilization of lower chemotherapic concentrations in comparison to the single treatments. PMID:25531443

Capone, Francesca; Napolitano, Virginia; Colonna, Giovanni; Storti, Gabriella; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

2014-01-01

265

A genome-wide approach to identify genetic variants that contribute to etoposide-induced cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Large interindividual variance has been observed in sensitivity to drugs. To comprehensively decipher the genetic contribution to these variations in drug susceptibility, we present a genome-wide model using human lymphoblastoid cell lines from the International HapMap consortium, of which extensive genotypic information is available, to identify genetic variants that contribute to chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytotoxicity. Our model integrated genotype, gene expression, and sensitivity of HapMap cell lines to drugs. Cell lines derived from 30 trios of European descent (Center d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain population) and 30 trios of African descent (Yoruban population) were used. Cell growth inhibition at increasing concentrations of etoposide for 72 h was determined by using alamarBlue assay. Gene expression on 176 HapMap cell lines (87 Center d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain population and 89 Yoruban population) was determined by using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0ST Array. We evaluated associations between genotype and cytotoxicity, genotype and gene expression and correlated gene expression of the identified candidates with cytotoxicity. The analysis identified 63 genetic variants that contribute to etoposide-induced toxicity through their effect on gene expression. These include genes that may play a role in cancer (AGPAT2, IL1B, and WNT5B) and genes not yet known to be associated with sensitivity to etoposide. This unbiased method can be used to elucidate genetic variants contributing to a wide range of cellular phenotypes induced by chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17537913

Huang, R. Stephanie; Duan, Shiwei; Bleibel, Wasim K.; Kistner, Emily O.; Zhang, Wei; Clark, Tyson A.; Chen, Tina X.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Blume, John E.; Cox, Nancy J.; Dolan, M. Eileen

2007-01-01

266

Human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced by phytohemagglutinin: conditions for CTL generation and effect of interferon.  

PubMed

The present study demonstrates that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMC) can be stimulated in vitro to become cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) by PHA. A significant cytotoxic activity of PMC was detected 48 hr after the culture initiation in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml of PHA and the peak level of the activity was obtained by culturing PMC for 72 hr. The cytotoxic cells require the presence of PHA as a cell agglutinin for the expression of their cytotoxic activity. The effector cells mediating the activity were identified as T lymphocytes by E-rosette fractionation of PMC. In this system, removal of carbonyl iron phagocytosed or attached cells from PMC did not abrogate CTL generation of PMC. In addition, human alpha-interferon did not augment CTL generation or expression of their activity. Although the target cells employed were sensitive to natural killer (NK) cells, the effector cells induced by PHA did not seem to have any relation to the NK cells. The present study may provide a useful tool to analyze for precursors of killer T cells. PMID:6186831

Motoi, S; Aoike, A; Kawai, K; Amagai, T; Kishida, T

1982-01-01

267

Signaling Pathways Involved in Lunar Dust Induced Cytotoxicity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (< 3 micron), that is respirable. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the toxicity of Apollo moon dust in rodents to assess the health risk of dust exposures to humans. One of the particular interests in the study is to evaluate dust-induced changes of the expression of fibrosis-related genes, and to identify specific signaling pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.

Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

2014-01-01

268

Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity assay of curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticle in IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line.  

PubMed

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) possesses low bioavailability due to its poor solubility, permeability and rapid metabolism. Solid Lipid Nanoparticle of curcumin was prepared by high-speed homogenization technique. Stearic acid was used as a lipid, tween 80 as surfactant and various co surfactants were used for the preparation of SLN. The prepared SLN was characterized using zeta sizer, TEM analysis and the average particle size was found to be in the range of 80 nm - 200nm. The entrapment efficiency of the SLN was ~58 to 85%. The characteristic FTIR peaks suggest that the stearic acid is compatible with curcumin. MTT assay was performed on the optimized formulation and the results are indicative that curcumin SLN showed better cytotoxicity in low dose while compared to plain curcumin. The developed Cu-SLN can find its better place in the anticancer therapy. PMID:25176384

Rahman, Mohamed Habibur; Ramanathan, Muthiah; Sankar, Veintramuthu

2014-09-01

269

Arginine-chitosan- and arginine-polyethylene glycol-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoparticles: Preparation, cytotoxicity and controlled-release.  

PubMed

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be used in targeted drug delivery systems for localized cancer treatment. MNPs coated with biocompatible polymers are useful for delivering anticancer drugs. Iron oxide MNPs were synthesized via co-precipitation method then coated with either chitosan (CS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form CS-MNPs and PEG-MNPs, respectively. Arginine (Arg) was loaded onto both coated nanoparticles to form Arg-CS-MNP and Arg-PEG-MNP nanocomposites. The X-ray diffraction results for the MNPs and the Arg-CS-MNP and Arg-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites indicated that the iron oxide contained pure magnetite. The amount of CS and PEG bound to the MNPs were estimated via thermogravimetric analysis and confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Arg loading was estimated using UV-vis measurements, which yielded values of 5.5% and 11% for the Arg-CS-MNP and Arg-PEG-MNP nanocomposites, respectively. The release profile of Arg from the nanocomposites followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The cytotoxic effects of the MNPs, Arg-CS-MNPs, and Arg-PEG-MNPs were evaluated in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3) and breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). The results indicate that the MNPs, Arg-CS-MNPs, and Arg-PEG-MNPs do not exhibit cytotoxicity toward 3T3 and HeLa cells. However, treatment of the MCF-7 cells with the Arg-CS-MNP and Arg-PEG-MNP nanocomposites reduced the cancer cell viability with IC50 values of 48.6 and 42.6?µg/mL, respectively, whereas the MNPs and free Arg did not affect the viability of the MCF-7 cells. PMID:24445774

Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Dorniani, Dena

2014-01-19

270

Synthesis, Characterization and Manipulation of Creighton Silver Nanoparticles for Future Cytotoxicity Studies.  

E-print Network

??Nowadays, 24% of the nanomaterial-based consumer products contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and exploit the well-known antimicrobial properties of silver. Although AgNPs have a wide range… (more)

Paluri, Sesha Lakshmi Arathi

2011-01-01

271

Action of silver nanoparticles towards biological systems: cytotoxicity evaluation using hen's egg test and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of four silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids and their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated based on signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane using the hen's egg test (HET-CAM). Bactericidal properties and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation were determined using a parallel-flow cell system and a dichromatic fluorescent stain. The percentage of viable cells was calculated from regression data generated from a viability standard. AgNP colloids proved to be non-irritating, as they were unable to promote vasoconstriction, haemorrhage or coagulation. AgNP colloids inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel, and cell viability measured by fluorescence was 0% for samples S1, S2, S3 and S4 and 36.5% for the positive control (diluted 30% silver diamine fluoride). AgNPs are new products with a low production cost because they have a lower concentration of silver, with low toxicity and an effective bactericidal effect against a cariogenic oral bacterium. Moreover, they do not promote colour change in dental enamel, which is an aesthetic advantage compared with traditional silver products. PMID:25455849

Freire, Priscila L L; Stamford, Thayza C M; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Cavalcante, Horacinna M M; Macedo, Rui O; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Rosenblatt, Aronita

2015-02-01

272

Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study  

PubMed Central

The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm). The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast cells (25 ?g/mL); hence, these particles were safe to use. PMID:24426782

Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Vincent, Savariar; Prakash, Nyayirukannaian Udaya; Choi, Seong Ho; Oh, Young-Kyoon; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

2014-01-01

273

Cytotoxic Effect of As2S3 Nanoparticles on Liver Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

As2S3 is playing an important role in the treatment and research for human cancer, but many limitations exist because of its form. We studied preparation method of As2S3 nanoparticles, a completely new form of medicine containing arsenic and explored their antitumor effect. As2S3 nanoparticles were prepared chemically and characterized by Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Methyl thiazolyl

Mei Lin; Ziyu Wang; Dongsheng Zhang

2006-01-01

274

Optical imaging of intracellular reactive oxygen species for the assessment of the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was optically monitored using ROS-sensitive gold nanoprobes in response to an exposure of nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent dye-labeled hyaluronic acid was grafted onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (HF-AuNPs) for imaging intracellular ROS. The ultrasensitive detection of intracellular ROS was utilized as a powerful analytical tool to assess early cellular toxicities of monodisperse

Kyuri Lee; Hyukjin Lee; Kun Woo Lee; Tae Gwan Park

2011-01-01

275

Physicochemical properties affecting the potential in vitro cytotoxicity of inorganic layered nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic layered nanoparticles, also known as anionic nanoclays, have great potential as delivery carriers, since they could\\u000a efficiently intercalate anionic molecules into the gallery spaces and release the intercalated molecules in a controlled manner.\\u000a They also exhibit low toxicity compared to other widely studied inorganic nanoparticles for biological purposes. In this review,\\u000a we summarize and describe physicochemical factors influencing the

Jin Yu; Miri Baek; Hae-Eun Chung; Soo-Jin Choi

2010-01-01

276

Comparison of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second generation photosensitizer mTHPC was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the palliative treatment of advanced head and neck cancer in October 2001. It is known that mTHPC possesses a significant phototoxicity against a variety of human cancer cells in vitro but also exhibits dark toxicity and can cause adverse effects (especially skin photosensitization). Due to its poor water solubility, the administration of hydrophobic photosensitizer still presents several difficulties. To overcome the administration problems, the use of nanoparticles as drug carrier systems is much investigated. Nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively studied as delivery systems into tumours due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The goal of this study was the comparison of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles concerning cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). The nanoparticles delivered the photosensitizer to the colon carcinoma cells and enabled drug release without losing its activity. The cytotoxicity assays showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability after illumination. However, first and foremost mTHPC lost its dark toxic effects using the PLGA nanoparticles as a drug carrier system. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug carrier system for the hydrophobic photosensitizer mTHPC.

Löw, Karin; Knobloch, Thomas; Wagner, Sylvia; Wiehe, Arno; Engel, Andrea; Langer, Klaus; von Briesen, Hagen

2011-06-01

277

Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure.

Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

1985-11-01

278

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-stabilized selenium nanoparticles coated with Tet-1 peptide to reduce amyloid-? aggregation and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease, is caused by an accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposits in the brains. Evidence is increasingly showing that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can partly protect cells from A?-mediated neurotoxicity by inhibiting A? aggregation. In order to better understand the process of A? aggregation and amyloid fibril disaggregation and reduce the cytotoxicity of EGCG at high doses, we attached EGCG onto the surface of selenium nanoparticles (EGCG@Se). Given the low delivery efficiency of EGCG@Se to the targeted cells and the involvement of selenoprotein in antioxidation and neuroprotection, which are the key factors for preventing the onset and progression of AD, we synthesized EGCG-stabilized selenium nanoparticles coated with Tet-1 peptide (Tet-1-EGCG@Se, a synthetic selenoprotein analogue), considering the affinity of Tet-1 peptide to neurons. We revealed that Tet-1-EGCG@Se can effectively inhibit A? fibrillation and disaggregate preformed A? fibrils into nontoxic aggregates. In addition, we found that both EGCG@Se and Tet-1-EGCG@Se can label A? fibrils with a high affinity, and Tet-1 peptides can significantly enhance the cellular uptake of Tet-1-EGCG@Se in PC12 cells rather than in NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:24758520

Zhang, Jingnan; Zhou, Xianbo; Yu, Qianqian; Yang, Licong; Sun, Dongdong; Zhou, Yanhui; Liu, Jie

2014-06-11

279

A Signaling Network Induced by ?2 Integrin Controls the Polarization of Lytic Granulesin Cytotoxic Cells  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic lymphocyte skill target cells by polarized release of the content of perforin-containing granules. In natural killer cells, the binding of ?2 integrin to its ligand ICAM-1 is sufficient to promote not only adhesion but also lytic granule polarization. This provided a unique opportunity to study polarization in the absence of degranulation, and ?2 integrin signaling independently of inside-out signals from other receptors. Using an unbiased proteomics approach we identified a signaling network centered on an integrin-linked kinase (ILK)–Pyk2–Paxillin core that was required for granule polarization. Downstream of ILK, the highly conserved Cdc42–Par6 signaling pathway that controls cell polarity was activated and required for granule polarization. These results delineate two connected signaling networks induced upon ?2 integrin engagement alone, which are integrated to control polarization of the microtubule organizing center and associated lytic granules toward the site of contact with target cells during cellular cytotoxicity. PMID:25292215

Zhang, Minggang; March, Michael E.; Lane, William S.; Long, Eric O.

2014-01-01

280

Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides and Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Kill Mycobacteria without Eliciting DNA Damage and Cytotoxicity in Mouse Macrophages  

PubMed Central

With the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterial strains, better therapeutic strategies are required for the successful treatment of the infection. Although antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are becoming one of the popular antibacterial agents, their antimycobacterial potential is not fully evaluated. In this study, we synthesized biogenic-silver nanoparticles using bacterial, fungal, and plant biomasses and analyzed their antibacterial activities in combination with AMPs against mycobacteria. Mycobacterium smegmatis was found to be more susceptible to AgNPs compared to M. marinum. We found that NK-2 showed enhanced killing effect with NP-1 and NP-2 biogenic nanoparticles at a 0.5-ppm concentration, whereas LLKKK-18 showed antibacterial activity only with NP-2 at 0.5-ppm dose against M. smegmatis. In case of M. marinum NK-2 did not show any additive activity with NP-1 and NP-2 and LLKKK-18 alone completely inhibited the bacterial growth. Both NP-1 and NP-2 also showed increased killing of M. smegmatis in combination with the antituberculosis drug rifampin. The sizes and shapes of the AgNPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. AgNPs showed no cytotoxic or DNA damage effects on macrophages at the mycobactericidal dose, whereas treatment with higher doses of AgNPs caused toxicity and micronuclei formation in cytokinesis blocked cells. Macrophages actively endocytosed fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AgNPs resulting in nitric oxide independent intracellular killing of M. smegmatis. Apoptosis and cell cycle studies showed that treatment with higher dose of AgNPs arrested macrophages at the G1-phase. In summary, our data suggest the combined effect of biogenic-AgNPs and antimicrobial peptides as a promising antimycobacterial template. PMID:23689720

Mohanty, Soumitra; Jena, Prajna; Mehta, Ranjit; Pati, Rashmirekha; Banerjee, Birendranath; Patil, Satish

2013-01-01

281

Systematic study of enhanced cytotoxicity effects of gold-based nanoparticles in targeted cancer radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, cancers are the leading causes of human mortality. To successfully treat advanced-stage cancers, it is important to increase cytotoxicity of targeted tumor cells while reducing side effects on normal cells during radiotherapy. Nanotechnology provides a promising solution to achieve this targeted treatment[1-3]. An ideal strategy is to develop effective nanoscale radio-sensitizers targeting specifically at tumor cells. In this paper,

Kun Song; Peng Xu; Yongde Meng; Jie Chen; Xiaoyan Yang; W. Roa; Beihua Kong; James Xing

2009-01-01

282

Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml). Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS) approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i) human cell line specific stress-response, ii) SiO2NP size and iii) concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell/tissue investigations based on the combined analysis of more subtle signalling pathways associated with accumulation mechanisms, which is essential for establishing the bio-safety of existing and new nanomaterials. PMID:21801388

2011-01-01

283

Polymer Chain Swelling Induced by Dispersed Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimensions of individual deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) chains in a well-dispersed mixture of protonated polystyrene and chemically identical nanoparticles was determined by neutron scattering. A 10% 20% increase in the radius of gyration of d-PS was found when the nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the polymer, an effect that occurs only when the radius of gyration of the polymer is

Anish Tuteja; Phillip M. Duxbury; Michael E. Mackay

2008-01-01

284

Cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles through exocytosis of von Willebrand factor and necrotic cell death in primary human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticle-induced endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, due to the induction of inflammation and\\/or the activation of the coagulation system, is associated with pulmonary and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Although it is contigent on several mechanisms, involving formation of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and 8, the involvement of the coagulation system is not well understood. The results

Alexander T. Bauer; Elwira A. Strozyk; Christian Gorzelanny; Christoph Westerhausen; Anna Desch; Matthias F. Schneider; Stefan W. Schneider

2011-01-01

285

Protective effects of betulin and betulinic acid against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Plant triterpenes, such as oleanolic acid and betulin were described as hepatoprotectants active against cytotoxicity of acetaminophen or cadmium. The aim of this paper is to compare the cytoprotective activity of betulin, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The influence of three triterpenes on ethanol-induced production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide was also examined. Among the examined triterpenes, betulin was the most active protectant of HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity. Betulin and betulinic acid significantly decreased ethanol-induced production of superoxide anion. Oleanolic acid inhibited only ethanol- and phorbol ester-induced production of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that cytoprotective or antioxidative activity of triterpenes depends on their chemical structure. PMID:16227641

Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna

2005-01-01

286

Toxicity of boehmite nanoparticles: impact of the ultrafine fraction and of the agglomerates size on cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory response.  

PubMed

Boehmite (?-AlOOH) nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a wide range of industrial applications. However, little is known about their potential toxicity. This study aimed at a better understanding of the relationship between the physico-chemical properties of these NPs and their in vitro biological activity. After an extensive physico-chemical characterization, the cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by a bulk industrial powder and its ultrafine fraction were assessed using RAW264.7 macrophages. Although the bulk powder did not trigger a significant biological activity, pro-inflammatory response was highly enhanced with the ultrafine fraction. This observation was confirmed with boehmite NPs synthesized at the laboratory scale, with well-defined and tightly controlled physico-chemical features: toxicity was increased when NPs were dispersed. In conclusion, the agglomerates size of boehmite NPs has a major impact on their toxicity, highlighting the need to study not only raw industrial powders containing NPs but also the ultrafine fractions representative of respirable particles. PMID:24992651

Forest, Valérie; Pailleux, Mélanie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Sennour, Mohamed; Hochepied, Jean-François; Grosseau, Philippe; Cottier, Michčle

2014-08-01

287

In vitro study on the individual and synergistic cytotoxicity of adriamycin and selenium nanoparticles against Bel7402 cells with a quartz crystal microbalance.  

PubMed

Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) were prepared based on the reduction of selenious acid (H(2)SeO(3)), by employing sodium alginate (SA) as a template. The real-time monitoring of the drug-inducing apoptosis process of human hepatic cancer cells Bel7402 was performed with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement. The anti-tumor effect of adriamycin (ADM) used in combination with Se NPs was investigated. It is found that both drugs were able to inhibit cell proliferation in a dose-dependent way and the combined treatment with ADM and Se NPs was more effective in inhibiting cell growth than each of the two drugs alone. The cytotoxic effects of drug combination were evaluated with the modified Bürgi formula (Jin equation) based the Deltaf(0) responses. The grades gradually changed from apparent synergism to simple addition with the drug-treatment time increasing but the drug combination with lower concentrations still exhibited synergism after 24h, suggesting a potential application in cancer therapy. PMID:19101136

Tan, Liang; Jia, Xue'en; Jiang, Xiangfu; Zhang, Youyu; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo; Xie, Qingji

2009-03-15

288

Effects of the iron-chelating agent deferoxamine on triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate, hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) are known to deplete glutathione in mammalian cells, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether hydroxyl radicals (·OH), the most lethal and genotoxic ROS, and the Fenton reaction are involved in the cytotoxicity of resin monomers to four different cell types, namely MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts, human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), human gingival fibroblasts, and L929 mouse fibroblasts. Deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelating agent, effectively protected MC3T3-E1 cells from resin monomer-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that cytotoxicity was caused primarily by hydroxyl radicals. However, DFO only had a protective effect against relatively high concentrations of TEGDMA and HEMA in HDPCs and human gingival fibroblasts, and resin monomer-induced cytotoxicity in L929 was not attenuated by DFO. A labile iron pool (LIP) was detectable only in MC3T3-E1 cells among the four cell types. This indicates that the generation of hydroxyl radicals induced by resin monomers is likely dependent on LIP levels. In contrast to resin monomers, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cytotoxicity was not prevented by DFO in any of the cell types examined, although hydroxyl radicals were detected in MC3T3-E1 cells and HDPCs on exposure to exogenous H(2)O(2). This result suggests that generation of hydroxyl radicals is not always the primary cause of cytotoxicity in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. PMID:22102427

Zhu, Tingting; Lim, Bum-Soon; Park, Hee Chul; Son, Kyung Mi; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

2012-01-01

289

Cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and mRNA Expression in the Cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 Cells.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on antioxidant enzyme activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Coculturing experiments are 3D and more reliable compared to mono-culture (2D) experiment. Even though, there are several studies on ZnO nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity, but there are no studies on the effect of ZnO nanoparticle on antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cell viability. At higher concentration of ZnO nanoparticles, C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells almost die. ZnO nanoparticles increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles increased antioxidant enzyme activities and their mRNA expression in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and their mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:25380643

Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Kim, Doo Hwan

2015-02-01

290

Using nano-QSAR to predict the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected that the number and variety of engineered nanoparticles will increase rapidly over the next few years, and there is a need for new methods to quickly test the potential toxicity of these materials. Because experimental evaluation of the safety of chemicals is expensive and time-consuming, computational methods have been found to be efficient alternatives for predicting the

Tomasz Puzyn; Bakhtiyor Rasulev; Agnieszka Gajewicz; Xiaoke Hu; Thabitha P. Dasari; Andrea Michalkova; Huey-Min Hwang; Andrey Toropov; Danuta Leszczynska; Jerzy Leszczynski

2011-01-01

291

Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect of silver and titanium nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Nosocomial infections represent an enormous emerging problem, especially in patients with ambulatory treatment, which requires that they wear medical devices for an extended period of time. In this work, an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of both silver and titanium nanoparticles was carried out against a

Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez; Peggy L. Olive; Adriana Banuelos; Erasmo Orrantia; Nereyda Nino; Elpidio Morales Sanchez; Facundo Ruiz; Horacio Bach; Yossef Av-Gay

2010-01-01

292

A new approach for the in vitro identification of the cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are increasingly used in medical applications, such as targeting delivery and imaging. In the future, patients are more likely to be exposed to pharmaceutical products containing such particles. The study of toxicity of SPIONs has become of great importance in recent years, although the published data in this arena is limited. The aim of the

Morteza Mahmoudi; Abdolreza Simchi; Mohammad Imani; Mohammad A. Shokrgozar; Abbas S. Milani; Urs O. Häfeli; Pieter Stroeve

2010-01-01

293

In vitro cytotoxicity assays of solid lipid nanoparticles in epithelial and dermal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the interest in nanostructured systems to drug delivery has increased because they offer several advantages over conventional dosage forms. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) have been highlighted among these systems because they have advantages such as high physical stability, protection against drug degradation and ease of scale-up and manufacturing, without using organic solvent. The aim of this work

D. M. Ridolfi; P. D. Marcato; D. Machado; R. A. Silva; G. Z. Justo; N. Durán

2011-01-01

294

Targeted cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide gene therapy induces small cell lung cancer specific cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay  

PubMed Central

Purpose Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant cancer for which there is no curable treatment and novel therapies are therefore in high demand. In the present study we investigated the therapeutic effect of transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy for SCLC based on the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) gene alone or fused with the yeast uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (YUPRT) gene followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) prodrug Experimental design The YCD gene or the YCD-YUPRT gene was placed under regulation of the SCLC-specific promoter Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1). Therapeutic effect was evaluated in vitro in SCLC cell lines and in vivo in SCLC xenografted nude mice using the non-viral nanoparticle, DOTAP:Cholesterol for transgene delivery. Results INSM1-YCD/5-FC and INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced high cytotoxicity in a range of SCLC cell lines. The highest therapeutic effect was obtained from the YCD-YUPRT fusion gene strategy. No cytotoxicity was induced after treatment of cell lines of other origin than SCLC. In addition the INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy was superior to an established suicide gene system consisting of the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSVTK) gene and prodrug Ganciclovir (GCV). The superior effect was in part due to massive bystander cytotoxicity of YCD-YUPRT-produced toxins. Finally, INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced significant tumor growth delay in SCLC xenografts compared to control treated xenografts. Conclusions The current study is the first to test cytosine deaminase-based suicide gene therapy for SCLC and the first to demonstrate an anti-tumor effect from the delivery of suicide gene therapeutics for SCLC in vivo. PMID:20371678

Christensen, Camilla L.; Gjetting, Torben; Poulsen, Thomas T.; Cramer, Frederik; Roth, Jack A.; Poulsen, Hans S.

2012-01-01

295

Manganoporphyrins increase ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing H2O2 generation.  

PubMed

Renewed interest in using pharmacological ascorbate (AscH-) to treat cancer has prompted interest in leveraging its cytotoxic mechanism of action. A central feature of AscH- action in cancer cells is its ability to act as an electron donor to O2 for generating H2O2. We hypothesized that catalytic manganoporphyrins (MnP) would increase AscH- oxidation rates, thereby increasing H2O2 fluxes and cytotoxicity. Three different MnPs were tested (MnTBAP, MnT2EPyP, and MnT4MPyP), exhibiting a range of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties. Of the MnPs tested, MnT4MPyP exerted the greatest effect on increasing the rate of AscH- oxidation as determined by the concentration of ascorbate radical [Asc•-] and the rate of oxygen consumption. At concentrations that had minimal effects alone, combining MnPs and AscH- synergized to decrease clonogenic survival in human pancreatic cancer cells. This cytotoxic effect was reversed by catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, consistent with a mechanism mediated by H2O2. MnPs increased steady-state concentrations of Asc•- upon ex vivo addition to whole blood obtained either from mice infused with AscH- or patients treated with pharmacologic AscH-. Finally, tumor growth in vivo was inhibited more effectively by combining MnT4MPyP with AscH-. We concluded that MnPs increase the rate of oxidation of AscH- to leverage H2O2 flux and ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:23764544

Rawal, Malvika; Schroeder, Samuel R; Wagner, Brett A; Cushing, Cameron M; Welsh, Jessemae L; Button, Anna M; Du, Juan; Sibenaller, Zita A; Buettner, Garry R; Cullen, Joseph J

2013-08-15

296

Manganoporphyrins increase ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing H2O2 generation  

PubMed Central

Renewed interest in using pharmacological ascorbate (AscH?) to treat cancer has prompted interest in leveraging its cytotoxic mechanism of action. A central feature of AscH? action in cancer cells is its ability to act as an electron donor to O2 for generating H2O2. We hypothesized that catalytic manganoporphyrins (MnPs) would increase AscH? oxidation rates, thereby increasing H2O2 fluxes and cytotoxicity. Three different MnPs were tested (MnTBAP, MnT2EPyP, and MnT4MPyP) exhibiting a range of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties. Of the MnPs tested, MnT4MPyP exerted the greatest effect on increasing the rate of AscH? oxidation as determined by the concentration of ascorbate radical [Asc•?] and the rate of oxygen consumption. At concentrations that had minimal effects alone, combining MnPs and AscH? synergized to decrease clonogenic survival in human pancreatic cancer cells. This cytotoxic effect was reversed by catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, consistent with a mechanism mediated by H2O2. MnPs increased steady-state concentrations of Asc•? upon ex vivo addition to whole blood obtained either from mice infused with AscH? or patients treated with pharmacologic AscH?. Lastly, tumor growth in vivo was inhibited more effectively by combining MnT4MPyP with AscH?. We concluded that MnPs increase the rate of oxidation of AscH? to leverage H2O2 flux and ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:23764544

Rawal, Malvika; Schroeder, Samuel R.; Wagner, Brett A.; Cushing, Cameron M.; Welsh, Jessemae; Button, Anna M.; Du, Juan; Sibenaller, Zita A.; Buettner, Garry R.; Cullen, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

297

Disorder-induced Purcell enhancement in nanoparticle chains  

E-print Network

In this paper we report on numerical study of plasmonic nanoparticle chains with long-range dipole-dipole interaction. We have shown that introduction of positional disorder gives a peak in the density of resonant states (DOS) at the frequency of individual nanoparticle resonance. This peak is referred to Dyson singularity in one-dimensional disordered structures [Dyson F., 1953] and, according to our calculations, governs the spectral properties of local DOS. This provides disorder-induced Purcell enhancement that can found its applications in random lasers and for SERS spectroscopy. We stress that this effect relates not only to plasmonic nanoparticles but to an arbitrary chain of nanoparticles or atoms with resonant polarizabilities.

Petrov, Mihail I

2014-01-01

298

Pharmacological ascorbate induces cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells through ATP depletion and induction of autophagy.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed the scientific basis for the use of intravenous (i.v.) vitamin C or ascorbic acid (ascorbate) in treating cancers, and raised the possibility of using i.v. ascorbate as a prooxidant anticancer therapy. Through the production of H2O2, pharmacologic ascorbate can induce some cancer cell death in vitro and inhibit a number of types of tumor growth in animal models. However, the mechanism of cell death triggered by ascorbate is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of pharmacological concentrations of ascorbate to human prostate cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. The results showed that ascorbate in the millimolar range induced cytotoxicity in five of the six tested prostate cancer cell lines. The IC50 values in the sensitive prostate cancer cells ranged from 1.9 to 3.5 mmol/l, concentrations clinically achievable with i.v. ascorbate use. All tested androgen-independent cells were sensitive to ascorbate treatment. The ascorbate-insensitive cell line LaPC4 is hormonally dependent. Whereas the reasons for sensitivity/resistance to ascorbate treatment need to be investigated further, cell death in sensitive cells was dependent on H2O2. Ascorbate treatment depleted ATP and induced autophagy in sensitive prostate cancer cells, resulting in cell death. Taken together with previous studies, high-dose ascorbate has the potential to be a novel treatment option to hormone-refractory prostate cancer. PMID:22205155

Chen, Ping; Yu, Jun; Chalmers, Brain; Drisko, Jeanne; Yang, Jun; Li, Benyi; Chen, Qi

2012-04-01

299

Three-dimensional culture conditions lead to decreased radiation induced cytotoxicity in human mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

For both targeted and non-targeted exposures, the cellular responses to ionizing radiation have predominantly been measured in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Although convenient for biochemical analysis, the true interactions in vivo depend upon complex interactions between cells themselves and the surrounding extracellular matrix. This study directly compares the influence of culture conditions on radiation induced cytotoxicity following exposure to low-LET ionizing radiation. Using a three-dimensional (3D) human mammary epithelial tissue model, we have found a protective effect of 3D cell culture on cell survival after irradiation. The initial state of the cells (i.e., 2D versus 3D culture) at the time of irradiation does not alter survival, nor does the presence of extracellular matrix during and after exposure to dose, but long term culture in 3D which offers significant reduction in cytotoxicity at a given dose (e.g. approximately 4-fold increased survival at 5Gy). The cell cycle delay induced following exposure to 2 and 5Gy was almost identical between 2D and 3D culture conditions and cannot account for the observed differences in radiation responses. However the amount of apoptosis following radiation exposure is significantly decreased in 3D culture relative to the 2D monolayer after the same dose. A likely mechanism of the cytoprotective effect afforded by 3D culture conditions is the down regulation of radiation induced apoptosis in 3D structures. PMID:20211636

Sowa, Marianne B; Chrisler, William B; Zens, Kyra D; Ashjian, Emily J; Opresko, Lee K

2010-05-01

300

Adiponectin protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome characterized by elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptotic death. Adiponectin, secreted from adipose tissue, mediates systemic insulin sensitivity with liver and muscle as target organs. Adiponectin can also suppress superoxide generation in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of adiponectin on MPP+-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that the protective effects of adiponectin on MPP+-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to its anti-oxidative properties, anti-apoptotic activity via inducing expression of SOD and catalase, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicated that adiponectin might provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:16554029

Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Jong Sun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

2006-05-01

301

CD134 Plus CD137 Dual Costimulation Induces Eomesodermin in CD4 T Cells to Program Cytotoxic Th1 Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic CD4 Th1 cells are emerging as a therapeutically useful T cell lineage that can effectively target tumors, but until now the pathways that govern their differentiation have been poorly understood. We demonstrate that CD134 (OX40) costimulation programs naive self- and virus-reactive CD4 T cells to undergo in vivo differentiation into cytotoxic Th1 effectors. CD137 (4-1BB) costimulation maximized clonal expansion and IL-2 was necessary for cytotoxic Th1 differentiation. Importantly, the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) was critical for inducing the cytotoxic marker granzyme B. CD134 plus CD137 dual costimulation also imprinted a cytotoxic phenotype on bystanding CD4 T cells. Thus, the present study identifies for the first time a specific costimulatory pathway and an intracellular mechanism relying on Eomes that induces both antigen-specific and bystander cytotoxic CD4 Th1 cells. This mechanism might be therapeutically useful since CD134 plus CD137 dual costimulation induced CD4 T cell-dependent tumoricidal function in a mouse melanoma model. PMID:21880986

Qui, Harry Z.; Hagymasi, Adam T.; Bandyopadhyay, Suman; St. Rose, Marie-Clare; Ramanarasimhaiah, Raghunath; Ménoret, Antoine; Mittler, Robert S.; Gordon, Scott M.; Reiner, Steven L.; Vella, Anthony T.; Adler, Adam J.

2011-01-01

302

Cytotoxic effect of Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melia azedarach against in vitro HeLa cell lines and lymphoma mice model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication explains the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Melia azedarach and its cytotoxicity against in vitro HeLa cells and in vivo Dalton's ascites Lymphoma (DAL) mice model. The AgNPs synthesis was determined by UV- visible spectrum and it was further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light Scattering (DLS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Zeta potential

Raman Sukirtha; Kandula Manasa Priyanka; Jacob Joe Antony; Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; Thangam Ramar; Gunasekaran Palani; Muthukalingan Krishnan; Shanmugam Achiraman

303

Porphyran capped gold nanoparticles as a novel carrier for delivery of anticancer drug: in vitro cytotoxicity study.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have explored porphyran as a reducing agent for one pot size controlled green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) and further investigated its application as a carrier for the delivery of an anticancer drug. The prepared AuNps showed surface plasmon resonance centered at 520 nm with average particle size of 13±5 nm. FTIR spectra suggested that the sulfate moiety is mainly responsible for reduction of chloroauric acid. The capping of the AuNps with porphyran was evident from the negative zeta potential value responsible for the electrostatic stability. Thus, porphyran acts as reducing as well as capping agent. These AuNps are highly stable in a wide range of pH and electrolyte concentration. Porphyran capped AuNps exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity on human glioma cell line (LN-229) as compared to native porphyran. Consequently, these AuNps have been utilized as a carrier for delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Spectroscopic examination revealed that DOX conjugated onto AuNps via hydrogen bonding. The release of DOX from DOX loaded AuNps was found to be sixfold higher in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) as compared to physiological buffer (pH 7.4). Further, the DOX loaded AuNps demonstrated higher cytotoxicity on LN-229 cell line as compared with an equal dose of native DOX solution. This established the potential of these AuNps as a carrier for anticancer drug delivery. PMID:21376108

Venkatpurwar, Vinod; Shiras, Anjali; Pokharkar, Varsha

2011-05-16

304

Morphologic categorization of cell death induced by mild hyperthermia and comparison with death induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of the morphological categorization of cell death, results of two in vivo studies on the cell death induced by mild hyperthermia in rat small intestine and mouse mastocytoma, and a comparison of the cell death induced by hyperthermia, radiation and cytotoxic drugs. Two distinct forms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, can be recognized on morphologic grounds. Apoptosis appears to be a process of active cellular self-destruction to which a biologically meaningful role can usually be attributed, whereas necrosis is a passive degenerative phenomenon that results from irreversible cellular injury. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies showed that lower body hyperthermia (43 degrees C for 30 min) induced only apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. In the mastocytoma, hyperthermia (43 degrees C for 15 min) produced widespread tumor necrosis and also enhanced apoptosis of tumor cells. Ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs are also known to induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues. It is attractive to speculate that DNA damage by each agent is the common event which triggers the same process of active cellular self-destruction that characteristically effects selective cell deletion in normal tissue homeostasis.

Allan, D.J.; Harmon, B.V.

1986-01-01

305

Influence of immunomodulatory drugs on the cytotoxicity induced by monoclonal antibody 17-1A and interleukin-2.  

PubMed

Patients treated with monoclonal antibodies and cytokines for cancer receive often co-medication, which may influence treatment efficacy. Therefore, we investigated with a flowcytometric cytotoxicity assay the effect of several immunomodulatory drugs on antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), interleukin-2 (IL-2) induced cytotoxicity and IL-2-induced-ADCC. We found that dexamethasone markedly inhibited the IL-2 induced cytotoxicity and the IL-2-induced-ADCC. Ondansetron, a 5-HT-3 serotonin receptor antagonist augmented significantly ADCC. Clemastine, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist augmented the IL-2-induced-ADCC. The TNF antagonist thalidomide suppressed ADCC whereas pentoxifylline proved to be ineffective. Other tested drugs namely ibuprofen and indomethacin, both prostaglandin E2 antagonists, cimetidine a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, the opioid pethidine, prostaglandin E2 and histamine exerted minor effects or had no influence on the tested parameters. We conclude that glucocorticosteroids should be avoided with monoclonal antibody and cytokine treatment. According to our in vitro data the other drugs tested did not have a negative impact on cellular cytotoxicity and ADCC. PMID:17562330

Flieger, Dimitri; Varvenne, Michael; Kleinschmidt, Rolf; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

2007-03-01

306

Methyl jasmonate down-regulates survivin expression and sensitizes colon carcinoma cells towards TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a plant stress hormone with selective cytotoxic anti-cancer activities. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death pathway is an attractive target for cancer therapy. Although TRAIL receptors are specifically expressed in primary cancer cells and cancer cell lines, many types of cancer cells remain resistant to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity. Here we have assessed a possible synergy between MJ and TRAIL cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH CRC cell lines were pre-incubated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of MJ followed by TRAIL administration. Cell death was determined by XTT assay and microscopy. Cytochrome c release, caspase cleavage, TRAIL-associated factors, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and survivin protein levels were detected by immunoblotting. Survivin transcription was examined by RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS Pre-treatment with MJ resulted in increased TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death, increased cytochrome c release and caspase cleavage. TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10D, Fas-associated death domain and cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein remained unchanged during MJ-induced TRAIL sensitization, whereas MJ induced a significant decrease in survivin protein levels. Overexpression of survivin prevented MJ-induced TRAIL cytotoxicity, implying a role for survivin in MJ-induced TRAIL sensitization. MJ decreased survivin mRNA indicating that MJ may affect survivin transcription. In a ?-catenin/transcription factor (TCF)-dependent luciferase activity assay, MJ decreased TCF-dependent transcriptional activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS MJ, at sub-cytotoxic levels, sensitized CRC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, combinations of MJ and TRAIL, both selective anti-cancer agents, have potential as novel treatments for CRC. PMID:21486277

Raviv, Z; Zilberberg, A; Cohen, S; Reischer-Pelech, D; Horrix, C; Berger, MR; Rosin-Arbesfeld, R; Flescher, E

2011-01-01

307

Effect of particle size on in vitro cytotoxicity of titania and alumina nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in nanotechnology-based products. Recently, researchers and the public have raised concerns about the adverse effects of these NPs in biological systems, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of these two common metal oxide NPs on human lung epithelium

Zhicheng Wei; Limeng Chen; Deanna M. Thompson; Lupita D. Montoya

2012-01-01

308

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in the human lung cancer cell line, A549  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanomaterials, especially silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), are used in a rapidly increasing number of commercial products. Accordingly,\\u000a the hazards associated with human exposure to nanomaterials should be investigated to facilitate the risk assessment process.\\u000a A potential route of exposure to NPs is through the respiratory system. In the present study, we investigated the effects\\u000a of well-characterized PVP-coated Ag NPs and

Rasmus Foldbjerg; Duy Anh Dang; Herman Autrup

2011-01-01

309

Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles as carriers of 5Fluorouracil: Preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) were prepared as carriers of 5-Fluorouracil (CS–5-Fu MNPs) through a reverse microemulsion method. The characteristics of CS–5-Fu MNPs were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating-sampling magnetometry (VSM). It was found that the synthesized CS–5-Fu MNPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 100±20nm, low aggregation and good

Longzhang Zhu; Jingwei Ma; Nengqin Jia; Yu Zhao; Hebai Shen

2009-01-01

310

Preosteoblasts and fibroblasts respond differently to anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles: A cytotoxicity and inflammation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a bundle of proofs suggesting that some industrial nanoparticles (NPs) can provoke diseases and pollute the environment durably. However, these issues still remain controversial. In the biomedical field, TiO2 NPs were recently proposed to serve as fillers in polymeric materials to improve bone prostheses and scaffolds. Submicrometer TiO2 particles could also result from wear debris of prostheses. Thus,

Marie-Charlotte Bernier; Karim El Kirat; Marie Besse; Sandrine Morandat; Muriel Vayssade

311

Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Methods Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles. PMID:23570018

Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2013-01-01

312

Study on the visible-light-induced photokilling effect of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by calcining the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles under ammonia atmosphere. The N-TiO2 showed higher absorbance in the visible region than the pure TiO2. The cytotoxicity and visible-light-induced phototoxicity of the pure- and N-TiO2 were examined for three types of cancer cell lines. No significant cytotoxicity was detected. However, the visible-light-induced photokilling effects on cells were observed. The survival fraction of the cells decreased with the increased incubation concentration of the nanoparticles. The cancer cells incubated with N-TiO2 were killed more effectively than that with the pure TiO2. The reactive oxygen species was found to play an important role on the photokilling effect for cells. Furthermore, the intracellular distributions of N-TiO2 nanoparticles were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The co-localization of N-TiO2 nanoparticles with nuclei or Golgi complexes was observed. The aberrant nuclear morphologies such as micronuclei were detected after the N-TiO2-treated cells were irradiated by the visible light.

Li, Zheng; Mi, Lan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Ji-Yao

2011-04-01

313

Inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of an alveolar-capillary coculture model to silica nanoparticles: Comparison with conventional monocultures  

PubMed Central

Background To date silica nanoparticles (SNPs) play an important role in modern technology and nanomedicine. SNPs are present in various materials (tyres, electrical and thermal insulation material, photovoltaic facilities). They are also used in products that are directly exposed to humans such as cosmetics or toothpaste. For that reason it is of great concern to evaluate the possible hazards of these engineered particles for human health. Attention should primarily be focussed on SNP effects on biological barriers. Accidentally released SNP could, for example, encounter the alveolar-capillary barrier by inhalation. In this study we examined the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles (aSNPs) of 30 nm in size on an in vitro coculture model mimicking the alveolar-capillary barrier and compared these to conventional monocultures. Methods Thus, the epithelial cell line, H441, and the endothelial cell line, ISO-HAS-1, were used in monoculture and in coculture on opposite sides of a filter membrane. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTS assay, detection of membrane integrity (LDH release), and TER (Transepithelial Electrical Resistance) measurement. Additionally, parameters of inflammation (sICAM-1, IL-6 and IL-8 release) and apoptosis markers were investigated. Results Regarding toxic effects (viability, membrane integrity, TER) the coculture model was less sensitive to apical aSNP exposure than the conventional monocultures of the appropriate cells. On the other hand, the in vitro coculture model responded with the release of inflammatory markers in a much more sensitive fashion than the conventional monoculture. At concentrations that were 10-100fold less than the toxic concentrations the apically exposed coculture showed a release of IL-6 and IL-8 to the basolateral side. This may mimic the early inflammatory events that take place in the pulmonary alveoli after aSNP inhalation. Furthermore, a number of apoptosis markers belonging to the intrinsic pathway were upregulated in the coculture following aSNP treatment. Analysis of the individual markers indicated that the cells suffered from DNA damage, hypoxia and ER-stress. Conclusion We present evidence that our in vitro coculture model of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly advantageous compared to conventional monocultures in evaluating the extent of damage caused by hazardous material encountering the principle biological barrier in the lower respiratory tract. PMID:21272353

2011-01-01

314

Effect of population and gender on chemotherapeutic agent–induced cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Large interindividual variance is observed in both response and toxicity associated with chemotherapy. Our goal is to identify factors that contribute to chemotherapy-induced toxicity. To this end, we used EBV-transformed B-lymphoblastoid HapMap cell lines derived from 30 Yoruban trios (African descent) and 30 Centre d' Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) trios (European descent) to evaluate population- and gender-specific differences in cytotoxicity of carboplatin, cisplatin, daunorubicin, and etoposide using a high-throughput, short-term cytotoxicity assay. The IC50 was compared for population- and gender-specific differences for the four drugs. We observed large interindividual variance in IC50 values for carboplatin, cisplatin, daunorubicin, and etoposide for both Yoruban and CEPH populations (range from 8- to 433-fold). Statistically significant differences in carboplatin and daunorubicin IC50 were shown when comparing Yoruban cell lines (n = 89) to CEPH cell lines (n = 87; P = 0.002 and P = 0.029, respectively). This population difference in treatment induced cytotoxicity was not seen for either cisplatin or etoposide. In the Yoruban population, cell lines derived from females were less sensitive to platinating agents than males [median carboplatin IC50, 29.1 versus 24.6 ?mol/L (P = 0.012); median cisplatin IC50, 7.0 versus 6.0 ?mol/L (P = 0.020) in female and male, respectively]. This difference was not observed in the CEPH population. These results show that population and gender may affect risk for toxicities associated with certain chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17237264

Huang, Rong Stephanie; Kistner, Emily O.; Bleibel, Wasim K.; Shukla, Sunita J.; Dolan, M. Eileen

2009-01-01

315

Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity on marine algae chlorella vulgaris through flow cytometric, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress analysis.  

PubMed

The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated in Marine algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). High zinc dissociation from ZnONPs, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONPs toxicity. To examine the mechanism of toxicity, C. vulgaris were treated with 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 200mg/L and 300mg/L ZnO NPs for 24h and 72h. The detailed cytotoxicity assay showed a substantial reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure. Further, flow cytometry revealed the significant reduction in C. vulgaris viable cells to higher ZnO NPs. Significant reductions in LDH level were noted for ZnO NPs at 300mg/L concentration. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the C. vulgaris exposed to 200mg/L and 300mg/L ZnO NPs. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the groups with a ZnO NPs concentration of higher than 100mg/L. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was found to increase as the ZnO NPs dose increased. The FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells. The substantial morphological changes and cell wall damage were confirmed through microscopic analyses (FESEM and CM). PMID:25483368

Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kirubagaran, R

2015-03-01

316

DNA binding, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic-inducing activity of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in the interactions of ruthenium (Ru)(II) complexes with DNA as well as the biological impact of the interactions. Here, by using isothermal titration calorimetry, viscosity measurement, and circular dichroism, we investigated the interactions of a new Ru(II) complex, [Ru(dmp)(2)PMIP](2+){dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, PMIP = 2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline}, with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA). The Ru(II) polypyridyl complex and CT DNA formed a tight 1:1 complex with a binding constant of exceeding 10(6) M(-1) and with a binding mode of intercalation. Cell viability experiments indicated that the Ru(II) complex showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity to human lung tumor cell line A549. Further flow cytometry experiments showed that the cytotoxic Ru(II) complex induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cell line A549. Our data demonstrated that the Ru(II) polypyridyl complex binds to DNA and thereby induces apoptosis in tumor cells, suggesting that anti-tumor activity of the Ru(II) complex could be related to its interaction with DNA. PMID:20705582

Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

2010-07-01

317

Cytotoxic effect of icaritin and its mechanisms in inducing apoptosis in human burkitt lymphoma cell line.  

PubMed

Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from Epimedium genus, exhibits antitumor activities in several human solid-tumor and myeloid leukemia cells with extensive influence on various cell signal molecules, such as MAPKs being involved in cell proliferation and Bcl-2 participating in cell apoptosis. However, the effect of icaritin on Burkitt Lymphoma has not been elucidated. In the present study, we first screened the potential effect of icaritin on Burkitt lymphoma Raji and P3HR-1 cell lines and found that icaritin showed cytotoxicity in both cell lines. We further found that icaritin could significantly inhibit Raji cells proliferation with S-phase arrest of cell cycle and induced cell apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and cleavage of PARP. We also observed that icaritin was able to decrease Bcl-2 levels, thus shifting the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and it could obviously reduce c-Myc, a specific molecular target in Burkitt lymphoma. Our findings demonstrated that icaritin showed cytotoxicity, inhibited cell growth, caused S arrest, and induced apoptosis in Burkitt lymphoma cells and provided a rationale for the further evaluation of icaritin for Burkitt lymphoma therapy. PMID:24895574

Li, Zi-Jian; Yao, Can; Liu, Su-Fang; Chen, Long; Xi, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Guang-Sen

2014-01-01

318

Cytotoxic Effect of Icaritin and Its Mechanisms in Inducing Apoptosis in Human Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from Epimedium genus, exhibits antitumor activities in several human solid-tumor and myeloid leukemia cells with extensive influence on various cell signal molecules, such as MAPKs being involved in cell proliferation and Bcl-2 participating in cell apoptosis. However, the effect of icaritin on Burkitt Lymphoma has not been elucidated. In the present study, we first screened the potential effect of icaritin on Burkitt lymphoma Raji and P3HR-1 cell lines and found that icaritin showed cytotoxicity in both cell lines. We further found that icaritin could significantly inhibit Raji cells proliferation with S-phase arrest of cell cycle and induced cell apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and cleavage of PARP. We also observed that icaritin was able to decrease Bcl-2 levels, thus shifting the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and it could obviously reduce c-Myc, a specific molecular target in Burkitt lymphoma. Our findings demonstrated that icaritin showed cytotoxicity, inhibited cell growth, caused S arrest, and induced apoptosis in Burkitt lymphoma cells and provided a rationale for the further evaluation of icaritin for Burkitt lymphoma therapy. PMID:24895574

Yao, Can; Liu, Su-Fang; Chen, Long; Xi, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Guang-Sen

2014-01-01

319

Semisynthesis of mallotus B from rottlerin: evaluation of cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity.  

PubMed

Mallotus B (2d) is a prenylated dimeric phloroglucinol compound isolated from Mallotus philippensis. There have been no reports on the synthesis or biological activity of this compound. In the present paper, a semisynthetic preparation of mallotus B is reported via base-mediated intramolecular rearrangement of rottlerin (1), which is one of the major constituents of M. philippensis. The homodimer "rottlerone" was also formed as one of the products of this base-mediated intramolecular reaction. Rottlerin (1), along with rottlerone (2c) and mallotus B (2d), was evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines including HEPG2, Colo205, MIAPaCa-2, PC-3, and HL-60 cells. Mallotus B (2d) displayed cytotoxicity for MIAPaCa-2 and HL-60 cells with IC?? values of 9 and 16 ?M, respectively. Microscopic studies in HL-60 cells indicated that mallotus B (2d) induces cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and causes defective cell division. It also induces apoptosis, as evidenced by distinct changes in cell morphology. PMID:24041234

Jain, Shreyans K; Pathania, Anup S; Meena, Samdarshi; Sharma, Rajni; Sharma, Ashok; Singh, Baljinder; Gupta, Bishan D; Bhushan, Shashi; Bharate, Sandip B; Vishwakarma, Ram A

2013-09-27

320

Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway  

SciTech Connect

Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yi-Chuang [Department of Nursing, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Nursing, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Chang [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Liu, Heng-Ling [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Yu, E-mail: mt037@mail.fy.edu.tw [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2012-03-01

321

Synthesis, characterization, in vitro cytotoxicity, and apoptosis-inducing properties of ruthenium(II) complexes.  

PubMed

Two new Ru(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(FAMP)](ClO4)2 1 and 2, are synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The in vitro cytotoxicities and apoptosis-inducing properties of these complexes are extensively studied. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The cell cycle analysis shows that complexes 1 and 2 exhibit effective cell growth inhibition by triggering G0/G1 phase arrest and inducing apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction. The in vitro DNA binding properties of the two complexes are investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. PMID:24804832

Xu, Li; Zhong, Nan-Jing; Xie, Yang-Yin; Huang, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jun

2014-01-01

322

Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Apoptosis-Inducing Properties of Ruthenium(II) Complexes  

PubMed Central

Two new Ru(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(FAMP)](ClO4)2 1 and 2, are synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The in vitro cytotoxicities and apoptosis-inducing properties of these complexes are extensively studied. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The cell cycle analysis shows that complexes 1 and 2 exhibit effective cell growth inhibition by triggering G0/G1 phase arrest and inducing apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction. The in vitro DNA binding properties of the two complexes are investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. PMID:24804832

Xu, Li; Zhong, Nan-Jing; Xie, Yang-Yin; Huang, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jun

2014-01-01

323

Enhanced accumulation of curcumin and temozolomide loaded magnetic nanoparticles executes profound cytotoxic effect in glioblastoma spheroid model.  

PubMed

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly lethal primary brain tumours. Treatment of these malignant gliomas remains ineffective as these are extremely resistant to chemotherapeutic applications. Furthermore, combination therapy for cancer treatment is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, by reducing individual drug-related toxicity and associated side effects. Currently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based drug delivery system has attracted much more attention owing to its intrinsic magnetic properties and drug loading capacity. In the present study, MNPs based drug delivery approach for co-delivering of potent chemotherapeutic drugs such as Curcumin (herbal drug) and Temozolomide (DNA methylating agent) has been implemented. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations were evaluated in two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture and three-dimensional (3-D) tumour spheroid culture of T-98G cells for understanding the therapeutic discrepancy. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations demonstrated higher cytotoxic effect than single drug loaded MNPs formulations as compared to their corresponding native drugs in 2-D and 3-D culture. The combination index (CI) analysis revealed synergistic mode of action of dual drug loaded MNPs formulations, which was further confirmed by cell death induction assay mediated by acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining, illustrating higher efficacy of the formulation towards GBM therapy. PMID:23891772

Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

2013-11-01

324

Polyhydroxybutyrate-coated magnetic nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery: cytotoxic effect against doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell line.  

PubMed

In this study, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by coprecipitation of iron salts (Fe and Fe) by ammonium hydroxide. Characterizations of PHB-coated MNPs were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, thermal gravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Doxorubicin was loaded onto PHB-MNPs, and the release efficiencies at different pHs were studied under in vitro conditions. The most efficient drug loading concentration was found about 87% at room temperature in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2). The drug-loaded MNPs were stable up to 2 months in neutral pH for mimicking physiological conditions. The drug release studies were performed with acetate buffer (pH 4.5) that mimics endosomal pH. Doxorubicin (60%) released from PHB-MNPs within 65 hours. Doxorubicin-loaded PHB-MNPs were about 2.5-fold more cytotoxic as compared with free drug on resistant Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7) cell line (1 ?M doxorubicin) in vitro. Therefore, doxorubicin-loaded PHB-MNPs lead to overcome the drug resistance. PMID:25137407

Yalcin, Serap; Unsoy, Gozde; Mutlu, Pelin; Khodadust, Rouhollah; Gunduz, Ufuk

2014-01-01

325

Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in human hepatocyte and embryonic kidney cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traces of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) used may be found in the liver and kidney. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal viability assay for using with ZnO NPs and to assess their toxicity to human hepatocyte (L02) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were assessed under control and exposed to ZnO NPs conditions for 24 h. The results demonstrated that ZnO NPs lead to cellular morphological modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cause reduction of SOD, depletion of GSH, and oxidative DNA damage. The exact mechanism behind ZnO NPs toxicity suggested that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation played an important role in ZnO NPs-elicited cell membrane disruption, DNA damage, and subsequent cell death. Our preliminary data suggested that oxidative stress might contribute to ZnO NPs cytotoxicity.

Guan, Rongfa; Kang, Tianshu; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Shen, Haitao; Liu, Mingqi

2012-10-01

326

Aqueous extract of unfermented honeybush (Cyclopia maculata) attenuates STZ-induced diabetes and ?-cell cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

New strategies, which include ?-cell protection, are required in the treatment of T2D, as current drugs demonstrate little or no capacity to directly protect the vulnerable ?-cell against diabetes-induced cytotoxicity. In this study we investigated the ameliorative effect of pre-treatment with an aqueous extract of unfermented Cyclopia maculata (honeybush) on STZ-induced diabetes and pancreatic ?-cell cytotoxicity in Wistar rats after demonstrating a protective effect in vitro in RIN-5F cells. The amelioration of STZ-induced diabetes was seen in the reduction of the area under the curve, determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, as well as fasting glucose levels in extract-treated rats. Pre-treatment with extract also improved serum triglyceride levels and the glucose-to-insulin ratio. Pre-treatment with the extract or the drug, metformin, increased the ?-cell area in islets, with a concomitant increase in ?-cell proliferation at the higher extract dose (300 mg/kg/d), but not the lower dose (30 mg/kg/d). Subsequently, the in vitro tritiated thymidine incorporation assay showed that the extract was not mitogenic in RIN-5F cells. STZ-induced elevation of plasma nitrite levels was reduced in extract-treated rats, but no changes were observed in their serum catalase, serum glutathione, liver lipid peroxidation and liver nitrotyrosine levels. Pre-treating the rats with extract ameliorated the diabetic effect of STZ in Wistar rats, with evidence of pancreatic ?-cells protection, attributed to the presence of high levels of antioxidants such as the xanthones, mangiferin and isomangiferin. PMID:24853761

Chellan, Nireshni; Joubert, Elizabeth; Strijdom, Hans; Roux, Candice; Louw, Johan; Muller, Christo J F

2014-06-01

327

SiO2 nanoparticle-induced impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism in hepatocytes directly and through a Kupffer cell-mediated pathway in vitro  

PubMed Central

The liver has been shown to be a primary target organ for SiO2 nanoparticles in vivo, and may be highly susceptible to damage by these nanoparticles. However, until now, research focusing on the potential toxic effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on mitochondria-associated energy metabolism in hepatocytes has been lacking. In this work, SiO2 nanoparticles 20 nm in diameter were evaluated for their ability to induce dysfunction of mitochondrial energy metabolism. First, a buffalo rat liver (BRL) cell line was directly exposed to SiO2 nanoparticles, which induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage accompanied by decreases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, enzymatic expression in the Krebs cycle, and activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Second, the role of rat-derived Kupffer cells was evaluated. The supernatants from Kupffer cells treated with SiO2 nanoparticles were transferred to stimulate BRL cells. We observed that SiO2 nanoparticles had the ability to activate Kupffer cells, leading to release of tumor necrosis factor-?, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species from these cells and subsequently to inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I activity in BRL cells. PMID:24959077

Xue, Yang; Chen, Qingqing; Ding, Tingting; Sun, Jiao

2014-01-01

328

Mechanism of p-hydroxybenzoate ester-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The relationship between the metabolism and the cytotoxic effects of the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) has been studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatocytes with propyl-paraben (0.5 to 2.0 mM) elicited a concentration- and time-dependent cell death that was enhanced when enzymatic hydrolysis of propyl-paraben to p-hydroxybenzoic acid was inhibited by a carboxylesterase inhibitor, diazinon. The cytotoxicity was accompanied by losses of cellular ATP, total adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione, independently of lipid peroxidation and protein thiol oxidation. In the comparative toxic effects based on cell viability, ATP level, and rhodamine 123 retention, butyl- and isobutyl-parabens were more toxic than propyl- and isopropyl-parabens, and ethyl- and methyl-parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were less toxic than propyl-paraben. The addition of propyl-paraben to isolated hepatic mitochondria reduced state 3 respiration with NAD+-linked substrates (pyruvate plus malate) and/or with an FAD-linked substrate (succinate plus rotenone), whereas state 3 respiration with ascorbate plus tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (cytochrome oxidase-linked respiration) was not affected significantly by propyl-paraben. Further, the addition of these parabens caused a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption, indicating an uncoupling effect. The rate of state 3 oxygen consumption was inhibited by propyl-paraben, butyl-paraben, and their chain isomers. These results indicate that a) propyl-paraben-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by the parent compound rather than by its metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid; b) the toxicity is associated with ATP depletion via impairment of mitochondrial function related to membrane potential and/or oxidative phosphorylation; and c) the toxic potency of parabens to hepatocytes or mitochondria depends on the relative elongation of alkyl side-chains esterified to the carboxyl group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. PMID:9714309

Nakagawa, Y; Moldéus, P

1998-06-01

329

Significance of Persistent Inflammation in Respiratory Disorders Induced by Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary inflammation, especially persistent inflammation, has been found to play a key role in respiratory disorders induced by nanoparticles in animal models. In inhalation studies and instillation studies of nanomaterials, persistent inflammation is composed of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, and its pathogenesis is related to chemokines such as the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) family and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and oxidant stress-related genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). DNA damages occur chemically or physically by nanomaterials. Chemical and physical damage are associated with point mutation by free radicals and double strand brake, respectively. The failure of DNA repair and accumulation of mutations might occur when inflammation is prolonged, and finally normal cells could become malignant. These free radicals can not only damage cells but also induce signaling molecules containing immunoreaction. Nanoparticles and asbestos also induce the production of free radicals. In allergic responses, nanoparticles act as Th2 adjuvants to activate Th2 immune responses such as activation of eosinophil and induction of IgE. Taken together, the presence of persistent inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases induced by nanomaterials. PMID:25097864

Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Kuroda, Etsushi

2014-01-01

330

Cadmium telluride quantum dot nanoparticle cytotoxicity and effects on model immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

This study examines dose effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) from two commercial sources on model macrophages (J774A.1) and colonic epithelial cells (HT29). Effects on cellular immune signalling responses were measured following sequential exposure to QDs and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. At CdTe-QD concentrations between 10-2 and 10 µg/ml, cells exhibited changes in metabolism and morphology. Confocal imaging revealed QD internalisation and changes in cell–cell contacts, shapes and internal organisations. QD doses below 10-2 µg/ml caused no observed effects. When QD exposures at 10-7 to 10-3 µg/ml preceded PA01 (107 bacteria/ml) challenges, there were elevated cytotoxicity (5–22%, p < 0.05) and reduced levels (two- to fivefold, p < 0.001) of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-?, KC/CXC?1 and IL-8, compared with PA01 exposures alone. These results demonstrate that exposures to sub-toxic levels of CdTe-QDs can depress cell immune-defence functions, which if occurred in vivo would likely interfere with normal neutrophil recruitment for defence against bacteria. PMID:22264036

Nguyen, Kathy C; Seligy, Vern L

2013-01-01

331

Cadmium telluride quantum dot nanoparticle cytotoxicity and effects on model immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

This study examines dose effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) from two commercial sources on model macrophages (J774A.1) and colonic epithelial cells (HT29). Effects on cellular immune signalling responses were measured following sequential exposure to QDs and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. At CdTe-QD concentrations between 10(-2) and 10 µg/ml, cells exhibited changes in metabolism and morphology. Confocal imaging revealed QD internalisation and changes in cell-cell contacts, shapes and internal organisations. QD doses below 10(-2) µg/ml caused no observed effects. When QD exposures at 10(-7) to 10(-3) µg/ml preceded PA01 (10(7) bacteria/ml) challenges, there were elevated cytotoxicity (5-22%, p < 0.05) and reduced levels (two- to fivefold, p < 0.001) of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-?, KC/CXC-1 and IL-8, compared with PA01 exposures alone. These results demonstrate that exposures to sub-toxic levels of CdTe-QDs can depress cell immune-defence functions, which if occurred in vivo would likely interfere with normal neutrophil recruitment for defence against bacteria. PMID:22264036

Nguyen, Kathy C; Seligy, Vern L; Tayabali, Azam F

2013-03-01

332

Cytotoxicity and immunological responses following oral vaccination of nanoencapsulated avian influenza virus H5 DNA vaccine with green synthesis silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

DNA formulations provide the basis for safe and cost effective vaccine. Low efficiency is often observed in the delivery of DNA vaccines. In order to assess a new strategy for oral DNA vaccine formulation and delivery, plasmid encoding hemagglutinin (HA) gene of avian influenza virus, A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04 (H5N1) (pcDNA3.1/H5) was formulated using green synthesis of sliver nanoparticles (AgNP) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). AgNP were successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed with size in the range of 4 to 18 nm with an average size of 11 nm. Cytotoxicity of the prepared AgNP was investigated in vitro and in vivo using MCF-7 cells and cytokine expression, respectively. At the concentration of -5 log??AgNP, no cytotoxic effects were detected in MCF-7 cells with 9.5% cell death compared to the control. One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized once by oral gavage with 10 ?l of pcDNA3.1/H5 (200 ng/ml) nanoencapsulated with 40 ?l AgNP (3.7×10?˛ ?g of Ag) showed no clinical manifestations. PCR successfully detect the AgNP/H5 plasmid from the duodenum of the inoculated chicken as early as 1h post-immunization. Immunization of chickens with AgNP/H5 enhanced both pro inflammatory and Th1-like expressions, although no significant differences were recorded in the chickens inoculated with AgNP, AgNP/pcDNA3.1 and the control. In addition, serum samples collected from immunized chickens with AgNP/H5 showed rapidly increasing antibody against H5 on day 14 after immunization. The highest average antibody titres were detected on day 35 post-immunization at 51.2±7.5. AgNP/H5 also elicited both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the immunized chickens as early as day 14 after immunization, at 7.5±2.0 and 20±1.9 percentage, respectively. Hence, single oral administrations of AgNP/H5 led to induce both the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses as well as enhanced cytokine production. PMID:22549012

Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Shameli, Kamyar; Moeini, Hassan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

2012-07-10

333

Nanoparticle-induced twist-grain boundary phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of high-resolution ac calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy, it is demonstrated that surface-functionalized spherical CdSSe nanoparticles induce a twist-grain boundary phase when dispersed in a chiral liquid crystal. These nanoparticles can effectively stabilize the one-dimensional lattice of screw dislocations, thus establishing the twist-grain boundary order between the cholesteric and the smectic-A phases. A Landau-de Gennes-Ginzburg model is used to analyze the impact of nanoparticles on widening the temperature range of molecular organizations possessing a lattice of screw dislocations. We show that in addition to the defect-core-replacement mechanism, the saddle-splay elasticity may also play a significant role.

Tr?ek, Maja; Cordoyiannis, George; Tzitzios, Vassilios; Kralj, Samo; Nounesis, George; Lelidis, Ioannis; Kutnjak, Zdravko

2014-09-01

334

Beauvericin-induced cytotoxicity via ROS production and mitochondrial damage in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of beauvericin (BEA) on human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells was studied as a function of time. Moreover, the oxidative damage and cell death endpoints were monitored after 24, 48 and 72 h. After BEA exposure, the IC?? values ranged from 1.9 ± 0.7 to 20.6 ± 6.9 ?M. A decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH; 31%) levels, as well as an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 20%) was observed. In the presence of BEA, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was highly increased at an early stage with the highest production of 2.0-fold higher than the control that was observed at 120 min. BEA induced cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptotic process with loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m; 9% compared to the control), increase in LPO level (from 120% to 207% compared to the control) and reduced G0/G1 phase, with an arrest in G2/M, in a dose and time-dependent manner. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and ??m determined, were in a dose- time-dependent manner. Moreover, DNA damage was observed after 12.0 ?M concentration. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress is one of the mechanism involved in BEA toxicity, moreover apoptosis induction and loss of ??m contribute to its cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. PMID:23850777

Prosperini, A; Juan-García, A; Font, G; Ruiz, M J

2013-10-24

335

UVA-induced oxidative damage and cytotoxicity depend on the mode of exposure.  

PubMed

The reciprocity rule (Bunsen-Roscoe law) states that a photochemical reaction is directly proportional to the total energy dose, irrespective of the dose distribution. In photomedicine the validity of this law is usually taken for granted, although the influence of radiation intensity and dose distribution are largely unknown. We have examined in a tissue culture model the effects of fractionated versus single dose exposure to UV from a metal halide source on survival, DNA synthesis, glutathione, and oxidative membrane damage. Exposure to fractionated UVA was followed by an increased rate of cell death compared to single dose exposure, when intervals between fractions where short (10-120 min). Longer intervals had the opposite effect. Corresponding results were obtained for DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation). The increased cytotoxicity of dose fractionation with short intervals could not be abrogated by non-enzymatic antioxidants (astaxanthin, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol). Fractionated irradiation with short intervals led to higher degree of depletion of glutathione (GSH) and to enhanced formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in comparison to an identical single dose. Long intervals between fractions induced opposite effects. Taken together, these data indicate that immediately after UVA exposure cells are more sensitive to a further oxidative attack making repeated exposure with short intervals more cytotoxic than continuous single dose UVA. This might have implications also for responses to UVA in vivo and further studies will have to extend these findings to the situation in healthy and diseased human skin. PMID:15896646

Merwald, Helga; Klosner, Gabriele; Kokesch, Claudia; Der-Petrossian, Manon; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Trautinger, Franz

2005-06-01

336

Immunostimulatory RNA is a potent inducer of antigen-specific cytotoxic and humoral immune response in vivo.  

PubMed

Single-stranded RNA stimulates immune cells and induces the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. As adjuvant RNA can induce a T(h)2 type of humoral response, however, its potency in the induction of cytotoxic T cells in vivo has not been analyzed. Here we show that immunization with the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the adjuvant phosphodiester RNA complexed to the cationic lipid N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methylsulfate (DOTAP) induced a Toll-like receptor-7-dependent cytotoxic T cell and humoral response. Staining with SIINFEKL-K(b) tetramers demonstrated the induction of antigen-specific T cells that were functional in in vivo cytotoxic T cell assays against SIINFEKL-loaded target cells. In infection experiments with OVA-secreting Listeria monocytogenes, the cytotoxic T cell response strongly reduced the bacterial load in liver and spleen. The RNA-driven humoral response was characterized by OVA-specific antibodies of the IgG1 isotype whereas CpG-DNA induced antigen-specific antibodies of the IgG2a (BALB/c) or IgG2c (C57BL/6) isotype. Furthermore, stimulation with RNA did not induce splenomegaly, a common feature of CpG-DNA-driven immune activation in mice. Taken together, our data confirm that RNA can be used as a safe adjuvant and induces a strong antibody response of the IgG1 isotype. Additionally, we demonstrate that RNA induces an antigen-specific immunity characterized by a potent cytotoxic T cell response to infection. PMID:17289655

Hamm, Svetlana; Heit, Antje; Koffler, Martina; Huster, Katharina M; Akira, Shizuo; Busch, Dirk H; Wagner, Herrmann; Bauer, Stefan

2007-03-01

337

Spred2 is involved in imatinib-induced cytotoxicity in chronic myeloid leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Spreds, a recently established class of negative regulators of the Ras-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, are involved in hematogenesises, allergic disorders and tumourigenesis. However, their role in hematologic neoplasms is largely unknown. Possible effects of Spreds on other signal pathways closely related to Ras-ERK have been poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of Spred2 on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. In addition to inhibiting the well-established Ras-ERK cascade, adenovirus-mediated Spred2 over-expression inhibits constitutive and stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) and Mcl-1 expression, as well as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in CML cells. In K562 cells and primary CML cells, imatinib induces endogenous Spred2 expression. Spred2 silencing by stable RNA interference partly protects K562 cells against imatinib-induced apoptosis. Together, these data implicate Spred2 in imatinib-induced cytotoxicity in CML cells, possibly by inhibiting the Ras-ERK cascade and the pro-survival signaling molecules SPHK1 and Mcl-1. These findings reveal potential targets for selective therapy of CML.

Liu, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Wu, Chu-Tse; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Qun-Wei [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)] [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Ma, Xiao-Ni [Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)] [Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Li, Qing-Fang; Yan, Jun [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)] [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghualjh@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)] [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang, Li-Sheng, E-mail: wangls@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)] [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)

2010-03-19

338

ERK inhibitor U0126 enhanced SDT-induced cytotoxicity of human leukemia U937 cells.  

PubMed

This study was to investigate the cell killing effect of chlorin-e6 (Ce6) mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on human leukemia U937 cells and explore the role of ERK signal pathway in the process. The ultrastructure changes of U937 cells induced by ultrasonic irradiation were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The viability of cells was evaluated by viacount assay. Apoptosis was analyzed using ?ow cytometer as well as ?uorescence microscopy with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) levels were also analyzed by ?ow cytometer after exposure. Our experiments showed that several distinct sonochemical effects were found after Ce6-mediated SDT treatment. Western blotting analysis indicated that the MAPK were activated. Especially, pre-treatment with ERK inhibitor U0126 could additionally enhance SDT-induced cell viability loss, early- and late-apoptotic rate, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Besides, a mass of ROS accumulation and a conspicuous loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were detected in U937 cells. These ?ndings suggested ERK signal pathway may deliver a survival signal which counteracts SDT-induced cell death, while combination with U0126 could significantly potentiate the SDT-induced cytotoxic effect in U937 cells. PMID:24448375

Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Shuang; Xue, Qin; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong

2014-01-01

339

Interleukin-2 can induce suppression of human natural killer cell cytotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

By interaction with monocytes, interleukin-2 (IL-2) suppressed natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) of human, Percoll-fractionated, low-density mononuclear cells. The NK-suppressive effect of IL-2 was independent of de novo formation of prostaglandins or protein since it was unaffected by treatment with indomethacin and cycloheximide, respectively. A monoclonal antibody to the p55 (beta) moiety of the IL-2 receptor (anti-Tac/anti-CD25) blocked IL-2-induced NKCC suppression but did not affect the NK-enhancing effect of the lymphokine. We conclude that IL-2 exerts a monocyte-dependent, IL-2 beta-receptor mediated suppressive influence on human NK cells. PMID:2509116

Hellstrand, K; Hermodsson, S

1989-01-01

340

Design of cationic lipid nanoparticles for ocular delivery: development, characterization and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

In the present study we have developed lipid nanoparticle (LN) dispersions based on a multiple emulsion technique for encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs or/and proteins by a full factorial design. In order to increase ocular retention time and mucoadhesion by electrostatic attraction, a cationic lipid, namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was added in the lipid matrix of the optimal LN dispersion obtained from the factorial design. There are a limited number of studies reporting the ideal concentration of cationic agents in LN for drug delivery. This paper suggests that the choice of the concentration of a cationic agent is critical when formulating a safe and stable LN. CTAB was included in the lipid matrix of LN, testing four different concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, or 1.0%wt) and how composition affects LN behavior regarding physical and chemical parameters, lipid crystallization and polymorphism, and stability of dispersion during storage. In order to develop a safe and compatible system for ocular delivery, CTAB-LN dispersions were exposed to Human retinoblastoma cell line Y-79. The toxicity testing of the CTAB-LN dispersions was a fundamental tool to find the best CTAB concentration for development of these cationic LN, which was found to be 0.5 wt% of CTAB. PMID:24275449

Fangueiro, Joana F; Andreani, Tatiana; Egea, Maria A; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Selma B; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

2014-01-30

341

Docetaxel-loaded polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: formulation, physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies.  

PubMed

In the present study, we developed novel docetaxel (DTX)-loaded polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the combination of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and poloxamer 407, the anionic and non-ionic surfactants respectively for stabilization. The NPs were prepared by emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The combination of these surfactants at weight ratio of 1:0.5 was able to produce uniformly distributed small sized NPs and demonstrated the better stability of NP dispersion with high encapsulation efficiency (85.9 +/- 0.6%). The drug/polymer ratio and phase ratio were 2:10 and 1:10, respectively. The optimized formulation of DTX-loaded PLGA NPs had a particle size and polydispersity index of 104.2 +/- 1.5 nm and 0.152 +/- 0.006, respectively, which was further supported by TEM image. In vitro release study was carried out with dialysis membrane and showed 32% drug release in 192 h. When in vitro release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the n value was 0.481, which suggested the drug was released by anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. In addition, DTX-loaded PLGA NPs in 72 h, displayed approximately 75% cell viability reduction at 10 microg/ml DTX concentration, in MCF-7 cell lines, indicating sustained release from NPs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that incorporation of DTX into PLGA NPs could provide a novel effective nanocarrier for the treatment of cancer. PMID:23882865

Pradhan, Roshan; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

2013-08-01

342

The cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles oh Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their ubiquitous applications in personal care products, solar cells and food whitening agents. Hence, these NPs come in direct contact with the skin, digestive tracts and are absorbed into human tissues. Currently, TiO2 and ZnO are considered safe commercial ingredients by the material safety data sheets with no reported evidence of carcinogenicity or ecotoxicity, and do not classify either NP as a toxic substance. This study examined the direct effects of TiO2 and ZnO on HeLa cells, a human cervical adenocarcinonma cell line, and their membrane mechanics. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used in addition to immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, we examined the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), a glucocorticoid steroid known to have an effect on cell membrane mechanics. Overall, TiO2 and ZnO seemed to have an adverse effect on cell membrane mechanics by effecting cell proliferation, altering cellular structure, decreasing cell-cell adhesion, activating existing ion channels, increasing membrane permeability, and possibly disrupting cell signaling.

Mironava, Tatsiana; Applebaum, Ariella; Applebaum, Eliana; Guterman, Shoshana; Applebaum, Kayla; Grossman, Daniel; Gordon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Wang, H. Z.; Rafailovich, Miriam

2013-03-01

343

Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity evaluation using A549 cells.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has become an attractive area of research as it is environmentally benign. The toxicity of AuNPs synthesized by chemical routes has been widely studied. However, little is known about the toxicity associated with the biological synthesis of AuNPs. The present study was carried out to synthesize AuNPs using star anise (Illicium verum; a commercially available spice in abundance)and evaluate its toxicity using human epithelial lung cells (A549) in comparison with AuNPs synthesized by the traditional chemical methods (using sodium citrate and sodium borohydride). Apart from cell viability, markers of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione) and cell death (caspases) were also evaluated to understand the mechanisms of toxicity. Cell viability was observed to be 65.7 percent and 72.3 percent in cells exposed to chemically synthesized AuNPs at the highest dose (200nM) as compared to 80.2 percent for biologically synthesized AuNPs. Protective coating/capping of AuNPs by various polyphenolic compounds present in star anise extract appears to be a major contributor to lower toxicity observed in biologically synthesized AuNPs. PMID:24835429

Sathishkumar, M; Pavagadhi, S; Mahadevan, A; Balasubramanian, R

2014-05-14

344

Anti-biofilm and cytotoxicity activity of impregnated dressings with silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Infections arising from bacterial adhesion and colonization on chronic wounds are a significant healthcare problem. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) impregnated in dressing have attracted a great deal of attention as a potential solution. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm activities of AgNPs impregnated in commercial dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria isolated of chronic wounds from a hospital patient. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested within biofilms generated under slow fluid shear conditions using a standard bioreactor. A 2-log reduction in the number of colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa was recorded in the reactor on exposure to dressing impregnated with 250ppm of AgNPs, diameter 9.3±1.1nm, and also showed compatibility to mammalian cells (human fibroblasts). Our study suggests that the use of dressings with AgNPs may either prevent or reduce microbial growth in the wound environment, and reducing wound bioburden may improve wound-healing outcomes. PMID:25686989

Velázquez-Velázquez, Jorge Luis; Santos-Flores, Andrés; Araujo-Meléndez, Javier; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Velasquillo, Cristina; González, Carmen; Martínez-Castańon, Gabriel; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

2015-04-01

345

A Polymeric Protein Induces Specific Cytotoxicity in a TLR4 Dependent Manner in the Absence of Adjuvants  

PubMed Central

Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) is a highly immunogenic decameric protein. It is possible to insert foreign peptides or proteins at its ten-amino acid termini. These chimeras elicit systemic and oral immunity without adjuvants, which are commonly needed in the formulation of subunit-based vaccines. Here, we show that BLS induces the cross presentation of a covalently attached peptide OVA257–264 and a specific cytotoxic response to this peptide in the absence of adjuvants. Unlike other subunit-based vaccines, this chimera induces rapid activation of CTLs and a specific cytotoxic response, making this polymeric protein an ideal antigen carrier for vaccine development. Adoptive transfer of transgenic OT-I T cells revealed efficient cross presentation of BLS-OVA257–264 in vivo. BLS-OVA257–264 immunization induced the proliferation of OVA257–264-specific CD8+ lymphocytes and also increased the percentage of OVA257–264-specific CD8+ cells expressing the early activation marker CD69; after 5 days, the percentage of OVA257–264-specific CD8+ cells expressing high levels of CD44 increased. This cell subpopulation showed decreased expression of IL-7R?, indicating that BLS-OVA257–264 induced the generation of CD8+ effector cells. BLS-OVA257–264 was cross presented in vitro independently of the presence of a functional TLR4 in the DCs. Finally, we show that immunization of wild type mice with the chimera BLS-OVA257–264 without adjuvants induced a strong OVA257–264-specific effector cytotoxic response. This cytotoxicity is dependent on TLR4 as is not induced in mice lacking a functional receptor. These data show that TLR4 signaling is necesary for the induction of a cytotoxic response but not for antigen cross presentation. PMID:23029192

Berguer, Paula M.; Alzogaray, Vanina A.; Rossi, Andrés Hugo; Mundińano, Juliana; Piazzon, Isabel; Goldbaum, Fernando A.

2012-01-01

346

The effects of conjugate and light dose on photo-immunotherapy induced cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a highly cell-selective cancer therapy, which employs monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a potent photosensitizer (mAb-IR700). Once the conjugate has bound to the target cell, exposure to near infrared (NIR) light induces necrosis only in targeted cells with minimal damage to adjacent normal cells in vivo. Herein, we report on the effect of altering mAb-IR700 and light power and dose on effectiveness of PIT. Methods For evaluating cytotoxicity, we employed ATP-dependent bioluminescence imaging using a luciferase-transfected MDA-MB-468luc cell line, which expresses EGFR and luciferase. In in vitro experiments, panitumumab-IR700 (Pan-IR700) concentration was varied in combination with varying NIR light doses administered by an LED at one of three power settings, 100 mA and 400 mA continuous wave and 1733 mA intermittent wave. For in vivo experiments, the MDA-MB-468luc orthotopic breast cancer was treated with varying doses of Pan-IR700 and light. Results The in vitro cell study demonstrated that PIT induced cytotoxicity depended on light dose, when the conjugate concentration was kept constant. Increasing the dose of Pan-IR700 allowed lowering of the light dose to achieve equal effects thus indicating that for a given level of efficacy, the conjugate concentration multiplied by the light dose was a constant. A similar relationship between conjugate and light dose was observed in vivo. Conclusions The efficacy of PIT is defined by the product of the number of bound antibody conjugates and the dose of NIR light and can be achieve equally with continuous and pulse wave LED light using different power densities. PMID:24885589

2014-01-01

347

D-Glucose-Induced Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Apoptotic Effects on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Glucose is a simple sugar that plays an important role in energy production in biological systems. However, it has been linked to many long-term health problems including the risk of heart disease and stroke, erectile dysfunction in men and pregnancy complications in women, and damage to the kidneys, nerves, eye and vision. Also, the underlying mechanisms of diabetic complications are poorly understood. Methods In the present study, D-glucose-induced cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects were studied using MCF-7 cells as an in vitro test model. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay). Results The results of MTT assay indicated that D-glucose significantly reduces the viability of MCF-7 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that D-glucose causes DNA damage in MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The flow cytometry assessment (Annexin V FITC/PI) showed a strong dose-response relationship between D-glucose exposure and annexin V positive MCF-7 cells undergoing early apoptosis. Conclusion Taking together, these data provide clear evidence that D-glucose induces cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 cells. This finding represents the basis for further studies addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of glucose overdose. PMID:25506409

Tchounwou, Christine K; Yedjou, Clement G; Farah, Ibrahim; Tchounwou, Paul B

2014-01-01

348

Mitogen-activated protein kinases regulate palytoxin-induced calcium influx and cytotoxicity in cultured neurons  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Palytoxin (PLT) is a potent toxin that binds to the Na,K-ATPase. Palytoxin is highly neurotoxic and increases the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) while decreasing intracellular pH (pHi) in neurons (Vale et al., 2006; Vale-Gonzalez et al., 2007). It is also a tumour promoter that activates several protein kinases. Experimental approach: The role of different protein kinases in the effects of palytoxin on [Ca2+]c, pHi and cytoxicity was investigated in cultured neurons. Key results: Palytoxin-induced calcium load was not affected by inhibition of calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms but it was partially ameliorated by blockade of calcium-independent PKC isozymes. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 eliminated the palytoxin-induced rise in calcium and intracellular acidification, whereas inhibition of MEK greatly attenuated the palytoxin effect on calcium without modifying the PLT-evoked intracellular acidification. Blockade of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK) somewhat decreased the palytoxin-effect on calcium, whereas inhibition of the p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) delayed the onset of the palytoxin-evoked rise in calcium and acidification. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of palytoxin was completely blocked by inhibition of ERK 2 and partially prevented by inhibition of MEK. PLT increased phosphorylated ERK immunoreactivity in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions and implications: MAPKs, specifically ERK 2, link palytoxin cytotoxicity with its effects on calcium homeostasis after inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase. Binding of palytoxin to the Na,K-ATPase would alter signal transduction pathways, even in non-dividing cells, and this finding is related to the potent neurotoxicity of this marine toxin. PMID:17641674

Vale, C; Gómez-Limia, B; Vieytes, M R; Botana, L M

2007-01-01

349

Novel Plant Virus-Based Vaccine Induces Protective Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Antiviral Immunity through Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently used vaccines protect mainly through the production of neutralizing antibodies. However, anti- bodies confer little or no protection for a majority of chronic viral infections that require active involvement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to be efficient inducers of cell-mediated immune responses, but administration of an adjuvant is generally required. We recently reported

Patrick Lacasse; Jerome Denis; R. Lapointe; D. Leclerc; A. Lamarre

2008-01-01

350

Autophagy Plays a Critical Role in ChLym-1-Induced Cytotoxicity of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a critical mechanism in both cancer therapy resistance and tumor suppression. Monoclonal antibodies have been documented to kill tumor cells via apoptosis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In this study, we report for the first time that chLym-1, a chimeric anti-human HLA-DR monoclonal antibody, induces autophagy in Raji Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-methyladenine and NH4Cl) or genetic approaches (siRNA targeting Atg5) suppresses chLym-1-induced growth inhibition, apoptosis, ADCC and CDC in Raji cells, while induction of autophagy could accelerate cytotoxic effects of chLym-1 on Raji cells. Furthermore, chLym-1-induced autophagy can mediate apoptosis through Caspase 9 activation, demonstrating the tumor-suppressing role of autophagy in antilymphoma effects of chLym-1. Moreover, chLym-1 can activate several upstream signaling pathways of autophagy including Akt/mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2). These results elucidate the critical role of autophagy in cytotoxicity of chLym-1 antibody and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy of NHL therapy by monoclonal antibody chLym-1 in combination with autophagy inducer. PMID:24015249

Li, Yubin; Wang, Shaofei; Wang, Ziyu; Sun, Yun; Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Guoping; Feng, Meiqing; Ju, Dianwen

2013-01-01

351

Unprecedented inhibition of tubulin polymerization directed by gold nanoparticles inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the polymerization of tubulin has not been examined till now. We report that interaction of weakly protected AuNPs with microtubules (MTs) could cause inhibition of polymerization and aggregation in the cell free system. We estimate that single citrate capped AuNPs could cause aggregation of ~105 tubulin heterodimers. Investigation of the nature of inhibition of polymerization and aggregation by Raman and Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies indicated partial conformational changes of tubulin and microtubules, thus revealing that AuNP-induced conformational change is the driving force behind the observed phenomenon. Cell culture experiments were carried out to check whether this can happen inside a cell. Dark field microscopy (DFM) combined with hyperspectral imaging (HSI) along with flow cytometric (FC) and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analyses suggested that AuNPs entered the cell, caused aggregation of the MTs of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and concomitant apoptosis. Further, Western blot analysis indicated the upregulation of mitochondrial apoptosis proteins such as Bax and p53, down regulation of Bcl-2 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) confirming mitochondrial apoptosis. Western blot run after cold-depolymerization revealed an increase in the aggregated insoluble intracellular tubulin while the control and actin did not aggregate, suggesting microtubule damage induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The observed polymerization inhibition and cytotoxic effects were dependent on the size and concentration of the AuNPs used and also on the incubation time. As microtubules are important cellular structures and target for anti-cancer drugs, this first observation of nanoparticles-induced protein's conformational change-based aggregation of the tubulin-MT system is of high importance, and would be useful in the understanding of cancer therapeutics and safety of nanomaterials.The effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the polymerization of tubulin has not been examined till now. We report that interaction of weakly protected AuNPs with microtubules (MTs) could cause inhibition of polymerization and aggregation in the cell free system. We estimate that single citrate capped AuNPs could cause aggregation of ~105 tubulin heterodimers. Investigation of the nature of inhibition of polymerization and aggregation by Raman and Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies indicated partial conformational changes of tubulin and microtubules, thus revealing that AuNP-induced conformational change is the driving force behind the observed phenomenon. Cell culture experiments were carried out to check whether this can happen inside a cell. Dark field microscopy (DFM) combined with hyperspectral imaging (HSI) along with flow cytometric (FC) and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analyses suggested that AuNPs entered the cell, caused aggregation of the MTs of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and concomitant apoptosis. Further, Western blot analysis indicated the upregulation of mitochondrial apoptosis proteins such as Bax and p53, down regulation of Bcl-2 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) confirming mitochondrial apoptosis. Western blot run after cold-depolymerization revealed an increase in the aggregated insoluble intracellular tubulin while the control and actin did not aggregate, suggesting microtubule damage induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The observed polymerization inhibition and cytotoxic effects were dependent on the size and concentration of the AuNPs used and also on the incubation time. As microtubules are important cellular structures and target for anti-cancer drugs, this first observation of nanoparticles-induced protein's conformational change-based aggregation of the tubulin-MT system is of high importance, and would be useful in the understanding of cancer therapeutics and safety of nanomaterials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

Choudhury, Diptiman; Xavier, Paulrajpillai Lourdu; Chaudhari, Kamalesh; John, Robin; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Pradeep, Thalappil; Chakrabarti, Gopal

2013-05-01

352

Non-specific interaction of carbon nanotubes with the resazurin assay reagent: Impact on in vitro assessment of nanoparticle cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

In vitro cytotoxicity assays are essential tools in the screening of engineered nanomaterials (NM) for cellular toxicity. The resazurin live cell assay is widely used because it is non-destructive and is well suited for high-throughput platforms. However, NMs, in particular carbon nanotubes (CNT) can interfere in assays through quenching of transmitted light or fluorescence. We show that using the resazurin assay with time-point reading of clarified supernatants resolves this problem. Human lung epithelial (A549) and murine macrophage (J774A.1) cell lines were exposed to NMs in 96-well plates in 200?L of media/well. After 24h incubation, 100?L of supernatant was removed, replaced with resazurin reagent in culture media and aliquots at 10min and 120min were transferred to black-wall 96-well plates. The plates were quick-spun to sediment the residual CNTs and fluorescence was top-read (?Ex=540nm, ?Em=600nm). The procedure was validated for CNTs as well as silica nanoparticles (SiNP). There was no indication of reduction of resazurin by the CNTs. Stability of resorufin, the fluorescent product of the resazurin reduction was then assessed. We found that polar CNTs could decrease the fluorescence signal for resorufin, possibly through oxidation to resazurin or hyper-reduction to hydroxyresorufin. This effect can be easily quantified for elimination of the bias. We recommend that careful consideration must be given to fluorimetric/colorimetric in vitro toxicological assessments of optically/chemically active NMs in order to relieve any potential artifacts due to the NMs themselves. PMID:25283091

Breznan, Dalibor; Das, Dharani; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Simard, Benoit; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud

2015-02-01

353

Self-reporter shikonin-Act-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle: formulation, physicochemical characterization and geno/cytotoxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

Shikonin and some of its derivative have approved apoptotic potential in different human cancer cell lines, and moreover have a dominant fluorescent emission at ?600nm. Here, to enhance shikonin-Act anti-proliferation properties, it was successfully incorporated in Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) by the hot homogenization and entrapment efficiency (EE) of drug in SLNs was determined by ultrafiltration method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffractometry and zeta-sizer indicated that shikonin-Act-SLN were spherical and regular particles in the range of 70-120nm with polydispersity index (PI) of less than 0.10. The physical stability of shikonin-Act-loaded SLN in aqueous dispersion was evaluated in terms of size, PI, EE and drug leakage and the results showed that SLNs were stable upon storing three month. Long term in vitro release of the shikonin-Act was also approved. Cellular uptake of the shikonin-Act-SLN was examined by the in vitro fluorescent microscopy and facs flow cytometry analyses. In vivo rat imaging approved the penetrating capability of shikonin-Act-SLN emission through living tissues. In vitro anti-proliferation and genotoxicity evaluation by MTT and comet assay confirmed that shikonin-Act-SLN showed higher cytotoxic/antitumor potential than intact shikonin in terms of IC50 and DNA damage. This work provide sufficient information about improving of the therapeutic efficacy of the shikonin-Act, and also using of the shikonin-Act-SLN in bio-distribution studies during drug delivery investigation by incorporating in lipidic and colloidal drug delivery particles such as SLNs. PMID:24768857

Eskandani, Morteza; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

2014-08-01

354

In depth analysis of apoptosis induced by silica coated manganese oxide nanoparticles in vitro.  

PubMed

Manganese oxide nanoparticles (MnO NPs) have been regarded as a new class of T1-positive contrast agents. The cytotoxicity of silica coated MnO NPs (MnO@SiO2 NPs) was investigated in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) and mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The changes of cell viability, cell morphology, cellular oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle induced by MnO@SiO2 NPs were evaluated. Compared to HeLa cells, L929 cells showed lower cell viability, more strongly response to oxidative stress and higher percentage in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. The appearance of sub-G1 peak, double staining with Annexin V-FITC/PI and the increase of Caspase-3 activity further confirmed apoptosis should be the major form of cell death. Moreover, the apoptotic pathway was clarified as follows. Firstly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated induced by MnO@SiO2 NPs, then p53 is activated followed by an increase in the bax and a decrease in the bcl-2, ultimately leading to G2/M phase arrest, increasing the activity of caspase-3 and inducing apoptosis. PMID:25464291

Yu, Chao; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Jun; Sun, Jin; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yanan; Kong, Bin; Yang, Hong; Yang, Shiping

2015-02-11

355

Preosteoblasts and fibroblasts respond differently to anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a cytotoxicity and inflammation study.  

PubMed

There is a bundle of proofs suggesting that some industrial nanoparticles (NPs) can provoke diseases and pollute the environment durably. However, these issues still remain controversial. In the biomedical field, TiO(2) NPs were recently proposed to serve as fillers in polymeric materials to improve bone prostheses and scaffolds. Submicrometer TiO(2) particles could also result from wear debris of prostheses. Thus, it appears to be of the highest importance to elucidate the effects of well-characterized TiO(2) NPs on the behaviour of osteoblasts. In this work, we have measured the toxicity of anatase TiO(2) NPs with two different cell types, on L929 fibroblasts and for the first time on MC-3T3 pre-osteoblasts, with the aim to determine the level of cellular toxicity and inflammation. Our results clearly show that these NPs provoke different dose-response effects, with the pre-osteoblasts being much more sensitive than fibroblasts. Furthermore, we observed that anatase TiO(2) NPs had no effect on cell adhesion. By contrast, both cell types had their morphology and LDH release modified in the presence of NPs. Their DNA was also found to be fragmented as analyzed by quantifying the sub-G1 cell population with flow cytometry. By measuring the production of IL-6 and TNF-? proinflammatory cytokines, we have shown that TNF-? was never produced and that MC-3T3 cells were secreting IL-6. Most importantly, our results highlight the necessity of evaluating the toxicity of prostheses wear debris, and of NP coatings of medical implants, to determine if they can possibly provoke inflammation and inhibit bone reconstruction. PMID:22019048

Bernier, Marie-Charlotte; El Kirat, Karim; Besse, Marie; Morandat, Sandrine; Vayssade, Muriel

2012-02-01

356

Cytotoxic and cytokine inducing properties of Candida glabrata in single and mixed oral infection models  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection, with Candida albicans being the most prevalent etiologic agent and Candida glabrata emerging as an important pathogen. C. glabrata is frequently co-isolated with C. albicans from oral lesions. Although C. albicans has been shown to trigger significant cytokine responses and cell damage, C. glabrata has not been systematically studied yet. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ability of C. glabrata to induce proinflammatory cytokine responses and host damage as a single infecting organism and in combination with C. albicans, using in vitro models of the oral mucosa. In monolayer oral epithelial cell cultures, C. glabrata failed to induce a significant interleukin-1? and interleukin-8 cytokine response and showed lower cytotoxicity, compared to C. albicans. However, C. glabrata triggered a significantly higher granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor response than C. albicans. C. glabrata strains showed a strain-dependent tissue damaging ability and a superficial invasion of the mucosal compartment in a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model of the human oral mucosa and submucosa. In the 3-D system, co-infection failed to promote host damage beyond the levels of infection with C. albicans alone. These studies indicate that C. glabrata induces cytokines in human oral epithelium in a strain-specific manner, but its tissue/cell damaging ability, compared to C. albicans, is low. Synergy between C. glabrata and C. albicans in cytokine induction and host damage was not observed with the strains tested. PMID:17306958

Li, Lulu; Kashleva, Helena; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

2007-01-01

357

Evaporation induced wrinkling of graphene oxide at the nanoparticle interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the thickness of only a single atomic layer, graphene displays many interesting surface properties. A general observation is that wrinkles are formed on graphene oxide (GO) when it is dried in the presence of adsorbed inorganic nanoparticles. In this case, evaporation induced wrinkling is not an elastic deformation but is permanent. Understanding the nanoscale force of wrinkle formation is important for device fabrication and sensing. Herein, we employ surface functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model system. All tested AuNPs induced wrinkling, including those capped by DNA, polymers and proteins. The size of AuNPs is less important compared to the properties of solvent. Wrinkle formation is attributed to drying related capillary force acting on the GO surface, and a quantitative equation is derived. After drying, the adsorption affinity between GO and AuNPs is increased due to the increased contact area.With the thickness of only a single atomic layer, graphene displays many interesting surface properties. A general observation is that wrinkles are formed on graphene oxide (GO) when it is dried in the presence of adsorbed inorganic nanoparticles. In this case, evaporation induced wrinkling is not an elastic deformation but is permanent. Understanding the nanoscale force of wrinkle formation is important for device fabrication and sensing. Herein, we employ surface functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model system. All tested AuNPs induced wrinkling, including those capped by DNA, polymers and proteins. The size of AuNPs is less important compared to the properties of solvent. Wrinkle formation is attributed to drying related capillary force acting on the GO surface, and a quantitative equation is derived. After drying, the adsorption affinity between GO and AuNPs is increased due to the increased contact area. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05832a

Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

2014-12-01

358

Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by zinc oxide nanoparticles is an earlier biomarker for nanotoxicological evaluation.  

PubMed

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in cosmetics and sunscreens, advanced textiles, self-charging and electronic devices; the potential for human exposure and the health impact at each stage of their manufacture and use are attracting great concerns. In addition to pulmonary damage, nanoparticle exposure is also strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases; however, their toxic potential remains largely unclear. Herein, we investigated the cellular responses and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induced by ZnO NPs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in comparison with the Zn2+ ions and CeO2 NPs. We found that the dissolved zinc ion was the most significant factor for cytotoxicity in HUVECs. More importantly, ZnO NPs at noncytotoxic concentration, but not CeO2 NPs, can induce significant cellular ER stress response with higher expression of spliced xbp-1, chop, and caspase-12 at the mRNA level, and associated ER marker proteins including BiP, Chop, GADD34, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, and cleaved Caspase-12 at the protein levels. Moreover, ER stress was widely activated after treatment with ZnO NPs, while six of 84 marker genes significantly increased. ER stress response is a sensitive marker for checking the interruption of ER homeostasis by ZnO NPs. Furthermore, higher dosage of ZnO NPs (240 ?M) quickly rendered ER stress response before inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ZnO NPs activate ER stress-responsive pathway and the ER stress response might be used as an earlier and sensitive end point for nanotoxicological study. PMID:24490819

Chen, Rui; Huo, Lingling; Shi, Xiaofei; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chang, Yanzhong; Chen, Chunying

2014-03-25

359

Renal interstitial fibrosis induced by high-dose mesoporous silica nanoparticles via the NF-?B signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that the nephrotoxicity induced by mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is closely related to inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), a common rapid transcription factor associated with inflammation, plays an important role in the process of many kidney diseases. Acute toxicity assessment with a high-dose exposure is critical for the development of nanoparticle, as a part of standardized procedures for the evaluation of their toxicity. The present study was undertaken to observe the acute toxicity, predict the potential target organs of MSNs injury, and test the hypothesis that the NF-?B pathway plays a role in mediating the acute kidney injury and renal interstitial fibrosis in mice induced by MSNs. Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with MSNs at concentrations of 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. All of the animals were euthanized 2 and 12 days after exposure, and the blood and kidney tissues were collected for further studies. In vitro, the cytotoxicity, fibrosis markers, and NF-?B pathway were measured in a normal rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E). Acute kidney injury was induced by MSNs in mice after 2 days, some renal tubules regenerated and renal interstitial fibrosis was also observed. The expression of fibrosis markers and the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 in the kidney homogenates increased after exposure to MSNs. The in vitro study showed that MSNs cause cytotoxicity in NRK-52E cells and increased the expression of fibrosis markers. In addition, the NF-?B pathway could be induced, and inhibition of the NF-?B pathway could alleviate the fibrosis caused by MSNs. We conclude that inflammation is a major effector of the acute kidney toxicity induced by MSNs and results in renal interstitial fibrosis, which is mediated by the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:25565800

Chen, Xi; Zhouhua, Wang; Jie, Zhou; Xinlu, Fu; Jinqiang, Liang; Yuwen, Qiu; Zhiying, Huang

2015-01-01

360

Renal interstitial fibrosis induced by high-dose mesoporous silica nanoparticles via the NF-?B signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that the nephrotoxicity induced by mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is closely related to inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), a common rapid transcription factor associated with inflammation, plays an important role in the process of many kidney diseases. Acute toxicity assessment with a high-dose exposure is critical for the development of nanoparticle, as a part of standardized procedures for the evaluation of their toxicity. The present study was undertaken to observe the acute toxicity, predict the potential target organs of MSNs injury, and test the hypothesis that the NF-?B pathway plays a role in mediating the acute kidney injury and renal interstitial fibrosis in mice induced by MSNs. Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with MSNs at concentrations of 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. All of the animals were euthanized 2 and 12 days after exposure, and the blood and kidney tissues were collected for further studies. In vitro, the cytotoxicity, fibrosis markers, and NF-?B pathway were measured in a normal rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E). Acute kidney injury was induced by MSNs in mice after 2 days, some renal tubules regenerated and renal interstitial fibrosis was also observed. The expression of fibrosis markers and the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 in the kidney homogenates increased after exposure to MSNs. The in vitro study showed that MSNs cause cytotoxicity in NRK-52E cells and increased the expression of fibrosis markers. In addition, the NF-?B pathway could be induced, and inhibition of the NF-?B pathway could alleviate the fibrosis caused by MSNs. We conclude that inflammation is a major effector of the acute kidney toxicity induced by MSNs and results in renal interstitial fibrosis, which is mediated by the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:25565800

Chen, Xi; Zhouhua, Wang; Jie, Zhou; Xinlu, Fu; Jinqiang, Liang; Yuwen, Qiu; Zhiying, Huang

2015-01-01

361

Gangliosides inhibit bee venom melittin cytotoxicity but not phospholipase A{sub 2}-induced degranulation in mast cells  

SciTech Connect

Sting accident by honeybee causes severe pain, inflammation and allergic reaction through IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. In addition to this hypersensitivity, an anaphylactoid reaction occurs by toxic effects even in a non-allergic person via cytolysis followed by similar clinical manifestations. Auto-injectable epinephrine might be effective for bee stings, but cannot inhibit mast cell lysis and degranulation by venom toxins. We used connective tissue type canine mast cell line (CM-MC) for finding an effective measure that might inhibit bee venom toxicity. We evaluated degranulation and cytotoxicity by measurement of {beta}-hexosaminidase release and MTT assay. Melittin and crude bee venom induced the degranulation and cytotoxicity, which were strongly inhibited by mono-sialoganglioside (G{sub M1}), di-sialoganglioside (G{sub D1a}) and tri-sialoganglioside (G{sub T1b}). In contrast, honeybee venom-derived phospholipase A{sub 2} induced the net degranulation directly without cytotoxicity, which was not inhibited by G{sub M1}, G{sub D1a} and G{sub T1b}. For analysis of distribution of G{alpha}{sub q} and G{alpha}{sub i} protein by western blotting, lipid rafts were isolated by using discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifuge. Melittin disrupted the localization of G{alpha}{sub q} and G{alpha}{sub i} at lipid raft, but gangliosides stabilized the rafts. As a result from this cell-based study, bee venom-induced anaphylactoid reaction can be explained with melittin cytotoxicity and phospholipase A{sub 2}-induced degranulation. Taken together, gangliosides inhibit the effect of melittin such as degranulation, cytotoxicity and lipid raft disruption but not phospholipase A{sub 2}-induced degranulation in mast cells. Our study shows a potential of gangliosides as a therapeutic tool for anaphylactoid reaction by honeybee sting.

Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Kitani, Seiichi, E-mail: drkitani@kaiyodai.ac.jp

2011-05-01

362

Surface coating mediates the toxicity of polymeric nanoparticles towards human-like macrophages.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of a series of poly(lactide-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles on human-like THP-1 macrophages. Positively-, negatively-charged and neutral nanoparticles (200nm) were prepared using chitosan (CS), poloxamer 188 (PF68) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as stabilizer. Stabilizer-free PLGA nanoparticles were obtained as well. When used at therapeutically relevant concentrations (up to 0.1mg/mL in vitro), all tested nanoparticles showed no or scarce signs of toxicity, as assessed by cell mitochondrial activity, induction of apoptosis and necrosis, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At high concentrations (above 1mg/mL), cytotoxicity was found to be induced by the presence of stabilizers, whatever the toxicological pattern of the stabilizer itself. While stabilizer-free PLGA nanoparticles exerted no cytotoxicity, the slightly cytotoxic CS polymer conferred PLGA nanoparticles significant cytotoxicity when used as nanoparticle stabilizer; more surprisingly, the otherwise innocuous PVA and PF68 polymers also conferred a significant cytotoxicity to PLGA nanoparticles. These results unveiled the critical toxicological contribution played by stabilizers used for the formulation of PLGA nanoparticles when used at high concentrations, which may have implications for local toxicities of PLGA-based nanomedicine, and provided additional insight in cytotoxic effects of internalized nanoparticles. PMID:25448553

Grabowski, Nadčge; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud, Juliette; Tsapis, Nicolas; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Fattal, Elias

2014-11-18

363

Ganoderma lucidum stimulates NK cell cytotoxicity by inducing NKG2D/NCR activation and secretion of perforin and granulysin.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom long used in Asia as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies indicate that G. lucidum activates NK cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect has not been studied so far. To address this question, we prepared a water extract of G. lucidum and examined its effect on NK cells. We observed that G. lucidum treatment increases NK cell cytotoxicity by stimulating secretion of perforin and granulysin. The mechanism of activation involves an increased expression of NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), as well as increased phosphorylation of intracellular MAPKs. Our results indicate that G. lucidum induces NK cell cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines by activating NKG2D/NCR receptors and MAPK signaling pathways, which together culminate in exocytosis of perforin and granulysin. These observations provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to account for the reported anticancer effects of G. lucidum extracts in humans. PMID:23803412

Chang, Chih-Jung; Chen, Yi-Yuan M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Tsai, Sheng-Hui; Ko, Yun-Fei; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

2014-04-01

364

Crocetin induces cytotoxicity and enhances vincristine-induced cancer cell death via p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the anticancer effect of crocetin, a major ingredient in saffron, and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Cervical cancer cell line HeLa, non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 were treated with crocetin alone or in combination with vincristine. Cell proliferation was examined using MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and sub-G1 fraction were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining. Apoptosis was detected using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit with flow cytometry. Cell death was measured based on the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The expression levels of p53 and p21WAF1/Cip1 as well as caspase activation were examined using Western blot analysis. Results: Treatment of the 3 types of cancer cells with crocetin (60-240 ?mol/L) for 48 h significantly inhibited their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Crocetin (240 ?mol/L) significantly induced cell cycle arrest through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms accompanied with p21WAF1/Cip1 induction. Crocetin (120-240 ?mol/L) caused cytotoxicity in the 3 types of cancer cells by enhancing apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. In the 3 types of cancer cells, crocetin (60 ?mol/L) significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by vincristine (1 ?mol/L). Furthermore, this synergistic effect was also detected in the vincristine-resistant breast cancer cell line MCF-7/VCR. Conclusion: Ccrocetin is a potential anticancer agent, which may be used as a chemotherapeutic drug or as a chemosensitizer for vincristine. PMID:21986580

Zhong, Ying-jia; Shi, Fang; Zheng, Xue-lian; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Lan; Sun, Hong; He, Fan; Zhang, Lin; Lin, Yong; Qin, Yong; Liao, Lin-chuan; Wang, Xia

2011-01-01

365

Effect of prolactin on carcinoembryonic antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

The cytokine hormone prolactin (PRL) has been shown previously to modulate native cellular responses and maturation of antigen-presenting cells. Here we have addressed its effect on the antigen-specific response of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL were generated from HLA-A2 lymphocytes after three rounds of stimulation with autologous dendritic cells loaded with HLA-A2-restricted carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) Cap-1 (YLSGANLNL) peptide. Selected cultures were expanded on cytokine-supplemented feeder-layers, enriched for CD8+ lymphocytes and analysed for PRL-receptor (PRL-R) expression and PRL responsiveness. Resting CD8+ lymphocytes were negative for PRL-R, whereas antigen-activated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from long-term cultures were highly positive. Results of a 51Cr release assay showed CTL killing of CEA-loaded, but not unloaded, T2 cell line and the CEA-positive gastric carcinoma cell line KATO, but not of the CEA-negative T leukaemia cell line Jurkat. Interferon (IFN)-? release, evaluated in an ELISPOT assay against CEA-loaded T2, was enhanced (P < 0·05) by concentrations of PRL (12–25 ng/ml) very close to the physiological levels (6–20 ng/ml), but was decreased (P < 0·05) by high concentrations (200 ng/ml). Pre-incubation of the stimulators with the anti-MHC class I MoAb W6·32 induced a 40–60% decrease of the PRL-boosted IFN-? release, thus proving the MHC restriction of the lymphocyte response. Cytotoxicity against CEA-loaded T2 and KATO cell lines was also increased by 12–25 ng (P < 0·05) and decreased (P < 0·05) by 200 ng PRL. Pre-incubation of CTL with an antibody specific for the PRL-R almost completely abrogated this effect. PMID:15270849

Matera, L; Beltramo, E; Martinuzzi, E; Buttiglieri, S

2004-01-01

366

Protective and curative effects of Cocos nucifera inflorescence on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was planned to investigate the effects of pre and post-treatment of young inflorescence of Cocos nucifera (CnI) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Male albino Sprague Dawely rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I was normal control, Group II was diabetic control, Cocos nucifera Inflorescence (CnI) was fed along with diet [20% (w/w)] orally (Group III) for a period of 11 days prior to alloxan injection (150 mg/kg i.p.). The curative effect of CnI was evaluated at the same feeding levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Group IV) for a period of 30 days. The effects of both pretreatment and post-treatment (Group V) were also evaluated. Biochemical parameters such serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, and enzymes involving carbohydrate metabolism (hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen phosphorylase) were assayed along with pancreatic histopathology. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan's post hoc multiple variance test. P < 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Results: Diabetic control rats showed significant increase in serum glucose (P < 0.05) and decrease in hepatic glycogen levels (P < 0.05) compared to normal rats, which was reversed to near normal in both CnI pretreated and post-treated rats. Treatment with CnI resulted in significant decrease (P < 0.05) in activities of gluconeogenic enzymes in Group III and IV on compared to the diabetic control group, while glycolytic enzyme activities were improved in these groups. The cytotoxicity of pancreatic islets also ameliorated by treatment with CnI on histopathological examination. Conclusion: The results obtained in the study indicate the protective and curative effects of CnI on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity, which is mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and islets cell repair. PMID:23112412

Renjith, Raveendran S.; Rajamohan, Thankappan

2012-01-01

367

Regulatory T Cells and IL-10 Independently Counterregulate Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses Induced by Transcutaneous Immunization  

PubMed Central

Background The imidazoquinoline derivate imiquimod induces inflammatory responses and protection against transplanted tumors when applied to the skin in combination with a cognate peptide epitope (transcutaneous immunization, TCI). Here we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) and the suppressive cytokine IL-10 in restricting TCI-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Methodology/Principal Findings TCI was performed with an ointment containing the TLR7 agonist imiquimod and a CTL epitope was applied to the depilated back skin of C57BL/6 mice. Using specific antibodies and FoxP3-diphteria toxin receptor transgenic (DEREG) mice, we interrogated inhibiting factors after TCI: by depleting FoxP3+ regulatory T cells we found that specific CTL-responses were greatly enhanced. Beyond this, in IL-10 deficient (IL-10-/-) mice or after blocking of IL-10 signalling with an IL-10 receptor specific antibody, the TCI induced CTL response is greatly enhanced indicating an important role for this cytokine in TCI. However, by transfer of Treg in IL-10-/- mice and the use of B cell deficient JHT-/- mice, we can exclude Treg and B cells as source of IL-10 in the setting of TCI. Conclusion/Significance We identify Treg and IL-10 as two important and independently acting suppressors of CTL-responses induced by transcutaneous immunization. Advanced vaccination strategies inhibiting Treg function and IL-10 release may lead the development of effective vaccination protocols aiming at the induction of T cell responses suitable for the prophylaxis or treatment of persistent infections or tumors. PMID:22114725

Stein, Pamela; Weber, Michael; Prüfer, Steve; Schmid, Beate; Schmitt, Edgar; Probst, Hans-Christian; Waisman, Ari; Langguth, Peter; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P.

2011-01-01

368

Effect of vitamin C administration on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in periodontal ligament cells.  

PubMed

Periodontitis is a disease, which is associated with chronic inflammation and leads to significant destruction of periodontal tissues. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) constitute the largest cell population in PDL tissues and a considerable body of evidence has demonstrated an association between oxidative stress and the progression of periodontitis. However, the effects on PDLCs exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the molecular mechanisms by which H2O2 affects periodontitis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the potential cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and the antioxidative function of vitamin C (Vc) in PDLCs were investigated. The results demonstrated that H2O2 treatment decreased the viability of PDLCs. The decreased PDLC viability was primarily induced by apoptosis, which was evidenced by cleaved caspases-3, caspases-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Following optimal Vc addition, the proapoptotic effects of H2O2 were partially antagonized. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that H2O2 primarily induced the apoptosis of PDLCs and that these adverse effects were partially rescued following treatment with Vc. These results revealed how H2O2 promotes the progression of periodontitis and provide an improved understanding of the reversal effect of antioxidant treatment. Therefore, optimal Vc administration may provide a potentially effective technique in periodontal therapy. PMID:25333298

Wu, Wenlei; Yang, Nanfei; Feng, Xiujing; Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping; Sun, Weibin

2015-01-01

369

Lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity induce rapid microtubule axonal destabilization independently and before signs of neuronal death  

PubMed Central

MS (multiple sclerosis) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease of the CNS (central nervous system) historically characterized as an inflammatory and demyelinating disease. More recently, extensive neuronal pathology has lead to its classification as a neurodegenerative disease as well. While the immune system initiates the autoimmune response it remains unclear how it orchestrates neuronal damage. In our previous studies, using in vitro cultured embryonic neurons, we demonstrated that MBP (myelin basic protein)-specific encephalitogenic CD4 T-cells induce early neuronal damage. In an extension of those studies, here we show that polarized CD4 Th1 and Th17 cells as wells as CD8 T-cells and NK (natural killer) cells induce microtubule destabilization within neurites in a contact-independent manner. Owing to the cytotoxic potential of these immune cells, we isolated the luminal components of lytic granules and determined that they were sufficient to drive microtubule destabilization. Since lytic granules contain cytolytic proteins, we determined that the induction of microtubule destabilization occurred prior to signs of apoptosis. Furthermore, we determined that microtubule destabilization was largely restricted to axons, sparing dendrites. This study demonstrated that lymphocytes with cytolytic activity have the capacity to directly drive MAD (microtubule axonal destabilization) in a bystander manner that is independent of neuronal death. PMID:23289514

Miller, Nichole M.; Shriver, Leah P.; Bodiga, Vijaya L.; Ray, Avijit; Basu, Sreemanti; Ahuja, Rajiv; Jana, Arundhati; Pahan, Kalipada; Dittel, Bonnie N.

2013-01-01

370

Nitidine chloride induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts have been widely used for cancer treatment. Nitidine chloride (NC) is a natural bioactive alkaloid that has recently been reported to have diverse anticancer properties. We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of NC and the effectiveness of combinatorial treatment including NC and doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. Using MTT and flowcytometry assays, we found that NC induced cell growth inhibition and G2/M cell cycle arrest in a time- and dose-dependent manner both in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Cancer cell growth inhibition was associated with increased levels of the p53 and p21 proteins. Apoptosis induction by NC treatment was confirmed by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-positive cell, and TUNEL staining. Using western blot analysis, we found that NC upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and -3 and cleaved PARP and that it downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and PARP. By using the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, we further demonstrated that NC-induced apoptosis might be Akt-specific or dependent. In addition, NC exhibited a synergistic effect with doxorubicin on the growth inhibition of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our study demonstrated the anticancer effect of NC on breast cancer and highlighted the potential clinical application of NC. PMID:25027404

Sun, Mingjuan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xiaolong; Cai, Chang; Cun, Jinjing; Li, Yaming; Lv, Shangge; Yang, Qifeng

2014-10-01

371

Studies on mouse Moloney virus induced tumours: I. The detection of p30 as a cytotoxic target on murine Moloney leukaemic spleen cells, and on an in vitro Moloney sarcoma line by antibody mediated cytotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

Antigenic determinants of p30, the most abundant internal virion protein of C type RNA viruses, were detected on the surface of spleen cells from mice bearing Moloney leukaemia and on an in vitro line of Moloney sarcoma, MSC. On both cell types, these determinants on the p30 molecules served as cytotoxic targets in a xenogenic complement dependent antibody mediated 51Cr release assay. Two antisera were used: a rat anti MLV -M induced lymphoma serum, and an antiserum raised in goats to either disrupted FeLV. The cytotoxic target antigens of these antisera were analysed by inhibition of cytotoxicity with viral and cellular proteins. PMID:50852

Epstein, L. B.; Knight, R. A.

1975-01-01

372

Synthetic wogonin derivatives suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production and hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) has been reported to exhibit a variety of biological properties including anti-inflammatory\\u000a and neuroprotective functions. In this study, biological activities of diverse synthetic wogonin derivatives have been evaluated\\u000a in two experimental cell culture models. Inhibitory activities of wogonin derivatives on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced\\u000a nitric oxide (NO) production in BV2 microglial cells and on hydrogen peroxide (H202)-induced neuronal cell death

Wanjoo Chun; Hee Jae Lee; Pil-Jae Kong; Gun Hee Lee; ll-Young Cheongsu; Sung-Soo Kim

2005-01-01

373

A possible role of oxidative stress in the vanadium-induced cytotoxicity in the MC3T3E1 osteoblast and UMR106 osteosarcoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicity and free radical production induced by vanadium compounds were investigated in an osteoblast (MC3T3E1) and an osteosarcoma (UMR106) cell lines in culture. Vanadate induced cell toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1–10 mM) after 4 h. The concentration–response curve of vanadate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in MC3T3E1

Ana Mar??a Cortizo; Liliana Bruzzone; Silvina Molinuevo; Susana Beatriz Etcheverry

2000-01-01

374

Determination and prevention of cytotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes by the alkylating agent 2,2`-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD). (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

2,2`-Dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard), HD, 1,1`thiobis(2-chloroethane) is a potent vesicant which can cause severe lesions to skin, lung, and eyes. There is no convenient in vitro or in vivo method(s) to objectively measure the damage induced by HD; therefore, a simple in vitro method was developed using human peripheral lymphocytes to study HD-induced cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of HD was measured using dye exclusion as an indicator of human lymphocyte viability. Exposure to HD resulted in both a time- and a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on human lymphocytes. Using this in vitro assay, the effectiveness of various therapeutics (niacin, niacinamide, and 3-aminobenzamide) in preventing HD-induced cytotoxicity was studied. Niacinamide and 3-aminobenzamide prevented the cytotoxic effects of HD for up to 2 days.

Meier, H.L.; Johnson, J.B.

1992-12-31

375

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extract of Oak Fruit Hull (Jaft): Synthesis and In Vitro Cytotoxic Effect on MCF-7 Cells  

PubMed Central

A green synthetic approach by using oak fruit hull (Jaft) extract for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed and optimized. Parameters affecting the synthesis of AgNPs, such as temperature, extract pH, and concentration of extract (ratio of plant sample to extraction solvent), were investigated and optimized. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles are as follows: Ag+ concentration, 1?mM; extract concentration, 40?g/L (4% w/v); pH = 9 and temperature, 45°C. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TEM and DLS analyses have shown the synthesized AgNPs were predominantly spherical in shape with an average size of 40?nm. The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized AgNPs and Jaft extract containing AgNPs against human breast cancer cell (MCF-7) was investigated and the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were found to be 50 and 0.04??g/mL at 24?h incubation, respectively. This eco-friendly and cost-effective synthesis method can be potentially used for large-scale production of silver nanoparticles.

Rashidipour, Marzieh

2015-01-01

376

Lipid-Coated Cisplatin Nanoparticles Induce Neighboring Effect and Exhibit Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Encapsulation of cisplatin (CDDP) into nanoparticles (NPs) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency has been difficult due to the poor solubility of CDDP. However, this barrier has been overcome with a reverse microemulsion method appropriating CDDP’s poor solubility to our advantage promoting the synthesis of a pure cisplatin nanoparticle with a high drug loading capacity (approximately 80.8wt%). Actively targeted CDDP NPs exhibited significant accumulation in human A375M melanoma tumor cells in vivo. In addition, CDDP NPs achieved potent anti-tumor efficacy through the neighboring effect at a dose of 1 mg/kg when injected weekly via IV without inducing nephrotoxicity. The neighboring effect regards an observation made in vivo when the tumor cells that took up CDDP NPs released active drug following apoptosis. Via diffusion, surrounding cells that were previously unaffected showed intake of the released drug and their apoptosis soon followed. This observation was also made in vitro when A375M melanoma tumor cells incubated with CDDP NPs exhibited release of active drug and induced apoptosis on untreated neighboring cells. However, the neighboring effect was unique to rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Liver functional parameters and H&E staining of liver tissue in vivo failed to detect any difference between CDDP NP treated and control groups in terms of tissue health. By simultaneously promoting an increase in cytotoxicity and a lesser degree of side effects over free CDDP, CDDP NPs show great therapeutic potential with lower doses of drug while enhancing anti-cancer effectiveness. PMID:24083505

Guo, Shutao; Wang, Yuhua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Zhenghong; Lin, C. Michael; Zhang, Yuan; Huang, Leaf

2014-01-01

377

Tumor-specific cytotoxicity and type of cell death induced by gefitinib in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Gefitinib is an orally active, selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antitumor activity of gefitinib alone or in combination with other antitumor agents. Gefitinib showed higher cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, T98G and U87MG) than against three human normal oral cells (gingival fibroblast HGF, pulp cell HPC and periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF). Gefitinib showed little or no growth stimulation effects at lower concentrations (so-called hormetic effect). Non-cytotoxic concentration of gefitinib effectively enhanced the cytotoxicity of docetaxel against HSC-2 and T98G cell, but failed to enhance the cytotoxicity of other antitumor agents (mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, methotrexate, cisplatin, sodium ascorbate, sodium fluoride) or herbal extracts (Drynaria baronii, Angelica sinensis and Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc). Gefitinib alone and combined with docetaxel induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, but not in HSC-2 or T98G cells. Combination treatment with gefitinib and docetaxel induced the formation of acidic organelles (stained with acridine orange) and mitochondrial shrinkage, vacuolization and production of autophagosome and the loss of cell surface microvilli, without destruction of cell surface and nuclear membranes in HSC-2 and T98G cells (demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy), suggesting the induction of autophagy in HSC-2 and T98G cells. PMID:20044612

Chu, Qing; Amano, Osamu; Kanda, Yumiko; Kunii, Shiro; Wang, Qintao; Sakagami, Hiroshi

2009-12-01

378

In vitro generation of human cytotoxic lymphocytes by virus. Viral glycoproteins induce nonspecific cell-mediated cytotoxicity without release of interferon  

PubMed Central

Purified hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins of measles virus either in soluble form or inserted in artifical membranes bind to human peripheral blood lymphocytes and induce cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) in a dose-response fashion. Both autologous and heterologous noninfected target cells are lysed in vitro. The expression of CMC is not inhibited by anti-measles virus antibody added to lymphocytes previously exposed to viral glycoproteins. THe killer lymphocytes are Fc receptor positive, both erythrocyte-rosetting and non-erythrocyte- rosetting, as assessed by both positive and negative selection experiments. The induction of nonspecific CMC by viral glycoproteins either in the soluble state or inserted into artificial membranes could be segregated from the CMC associated with whole virions. First, on kinetics studies, purified viral glycoproteins induced CMC more rapidly than did whole virus. Second, viral glycoprotein-produced response occurred in the absence of detectable release of interferon into the culture medium, whereas CMC activity due to whole virions was associated with interferon release. The fact that purified measles virus glycoproteins integrated into artificial membrane bilayers were as efficient as their soluble counterparts in inducing CMC suggests that the hydrophobic portion of the glycoproteins was not involved in the induction and expression of the lytic activity. Purified glycoproteins from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus behave similarly, although this virus is unrelated to measles virus. It is inferred that interferon-independent CMC induced by viral glycoproteins might account for some of the biological reactions occurring early in the control of a viral infection. PMID:7276828

1981-01-01

379

Plasmon-induced hot carriers in metallic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Plasmon-induced hot carrier formation is attracting an increasing research interest due to its potential for applications in photocatalysis, photodetection and solar energy harvesting. However, despite very significant experimental effort, a comprehensive theoretical description of the hot carrier generation process is still missing. In this work we develop a theoretical model for the plasmon-induced hot carrier process and apply it to spherical silver nanoparticles and nanoshells. In this model, the conduction electrons of the metal are described as free particles in a finite spherical potential well, and the plasmon-induced hot carrier production is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule. We show that the inclusion of many-body interactions has only a minor influence on the results. Using the model we calculate the rate of hot carrier generation, finding that it closely follows the spectral profile of the plasmon. Our analysis reveals that particle size and hot carrier lifetime play a central role in determining both the production rate and the energy distribution of the hot carriers. Specifically, larger nanoparticle sizes and shorter lifetimes result in higher carrier production rates but smaller energies, and vice versa. We characterize the efficiency of the hot carrier generation process by introducing a figure of merit that measures the number of high energy carriers generated per plasmon. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial distribution and directionality of these excitations. The results presented here contribute to the basic understanding of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and provide insight for optimization of the process. PMID:24960573

Manjavacas, Alejandro; Liu, Jun G; Kulkarni, Vikram; Nordlander, Peter

2014-08-26

380

Dissociation of the vacuolar and macroautophagic cytopathology from the cytotoxicity induced by the lipophilic local anesthetic bupivacaine.  

PubMed

Local anesthetics, like many other cationic drugs, induce a vacuolar and macroautophagic cytopathology that has been observed in vivo and in various cell types; some also induce cytotoxicity of mitochondrial origin (apoptosis and necrosis) and it is not known whether the 2 types of toxicity overlap or interact. We compared bupivacaine with a