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Sample records for nanoparticles promotes ectopic

  1. Ex vivo culturing of stromal cells with dexamethasone-loaded carboxymethylchitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles promotes ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J M; Kotobuki, N; Tadokoro, M; Hirose, M; Mano, J F; Reis, R L; Ohgushi, H

    2010-05-01

    Recently, our group has proposed a combinatorial strategy in tissue engineering principles employing carboxymethylchitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles (CMCht/PAMAM) towards the intracellular release and regimented supply of dexamethasone (Dex) aimed at controlling stem cell osteogenic differentiation in the absence of typical osteogenic inducers, in vivo. In this work, we have investigated if the Dex-loaded CMCht/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles could play a crucial role in the regulation of osteogenesis, in vivo. Macroporous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were seeded with rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs), whose cells were expanded in MEM medium supplemented with 0.01 mg ml(-1) Dex-loaded CMCht/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles and implanted subcutaneously on the back of rats for 2 and 4 weeks. HA porous ceramics without RBMSCs and RBMSCs/HA scaffold constructs seeded with cells expanded in the presence and absence of 10(-8) M Dex were used as controls. The effect of initial cell number seeded in the HA scaffolds on the bone-forming ability of the constructs was also investigated. Qualitative and quantitative new bone formation was evaluated in a non-destructive manner using micro-computed tomography analyses of the explants. Haematoxylin and Eosin stained implant sections were also used for the histomorphometrical analysis. Toluidine blue staining was carried out to investigate the synthesis of proteoglycan extracellular matrix. In addition, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels in the explants were also quantified, since these markers denote osteogenic differentiation. At 4 weeks post-implantation results have shown that the novel Dex-loaded carboxymethylchitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles may be beneficial as an intracellular nanocarrier, supplying Dex in a regimented manner and promoting superior ectopic de novo bone formation. PMID:20152952

  2. Intraocular BDNF Promotes Ectopic Branching, Alters Motility and Stimulates Abnormal Collaterals in Regenerating Optic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Amy J.; Miotke, Jill A.; Meyer, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of effort has been invested in using trophic factors and other bioactive molecules to promote cell survival and axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system. Far less attention has been paid to investigating potential effects that trophic factors may have that might interfere with recovery. In the visual system, BDNF has been previously reported to prevent regeneration. To test if BDNF is inherently incompatible with regeneration, BDNF was given intraocularly during optic nerve regeneration in the adult goldfish. In vivo imaging and anatomical analysis of selectively labeled axons were used as a sensitive assay for effects on regeneration within the tectum. BDNF had no detectable inhibitory effect on the ability of axons to regenerate. Normal numbers of axons regenerated into the tectum, exhibited dynamic growth and retractions similar to controls, and were able to navigate to their correct target zone in the tectum. However, BDNF was found to have additional effects that adversely affected the quality of regeneration. It promoted premature branching at ectopic locations, diminished the growth rate of axons through the tectum, and resulted in the formation of ectopic collaterals. Thus, although BDNF has robust effects on axonal behavior, it is, nevertheless, compatible with axonal regeneration, axon navigation and the formation of terminal arbors. PMID:25847715

  3. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ectopic Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Ectopic Pregnancy Page ... Ectopic Pregnancy FAQ155, August 2011 PDF Format Ectopic Pregnancy Pregnancy What is an ectopic pregnancy? Who is ...

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Ectopic Pregnancy Print A A ... lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ...

  5. Lkb1 Deletion Promotes Ectopic Lipid Accumulation in Muscle Progenitor Cells and Mature Muscles

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, TIZHONG; ZHANG, PENGPENG; BI, PENGPENG; KUANG, SHIHUAN

    2015-01-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triglycerides (muscle lipids) are associated with reduced contractile function, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes, but what governs lipid accumulation in muscle is unclear. Here we report a role of Lkb1 in regulating lipid metabolism in muscle stem cells and their descendent mature muscles. We used MyodCre and Lkb1flox/flox mice to specifically delete Lkb1 in myogenic cells including stem and differentiated cells, and examined the lipid accumulation and gene expression of myoblasts cultured from muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Genetic deletion of Lkb1 in myogenic progenitors led to elevated expression of lipogenic genes and ectopic lipid accumulation in proliferating myoblasts. Interestingly, the Lkb1-deficient myoblasts differentiated into adipocyte-like cells upon adipogenic induction. However, these adipocyte-like cells maintained myogenic gene expression with reduced ability to form myotubes efficiently. Activation of AMPK by AICAR prevented ectopic lipid formation in the Lkb1-null myoblasts. Notably, Lkb1-deficient muscles accumulated excessive lipids in vivo in response to high-fat diet feeding. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 acts through AMPK to limit lipid deposition in muscle stem cells and their derivative mature muscles, and point to the possibility of controlling muscle lipid content using AMPK activating drugs. PMID:25251157

  6. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how far into the pregnancy she is: Methotrexate Methotrexate is a medicine that stops an ectopic pregnancy ... of ectopic pregnancies can be successfully treated with methotrexate if detected early enough. The rest will require ...

  7. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  8. Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper IV proteins promote stomatal development and ectopically induce stomata beyond the epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kylee M.; Shyu, Christine; Burr, Christian A.; Horst, Robin J.; Kanaoka, Masahiro M.; Omae, Minami; Sato, Yutaka; Torii, Keiko U.

    2013-01-01

    The shoot epidermis of land plants serves as a crucial interface between plants and the atmosphere: pavement cells protect plants from desiccation and other environmental stresses, while stomata facilitate gas exchange and transpiration. Advances have been made in our understanding of stomatal patterning and differentiation, and a set of ‘master regulatory’ transcription factors of stomatal development have been identified. However, they are limited to specifying stomatal differentiation within the epidermis. Here, we report the identification of an Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper IV (HD-ZIP IV) protein, HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS2 (HDG2), as a key epidermal component promoting stomatal differentiation. HDG2 is highly enriched in meristemoids, which are transient-amplifying populations of stomatal-cell lineages. Ectopic expression of HDG2 confers differentiation of stomata in internal mesophyll tissues and occasional multiple epidermal layers. Conversely, a loss-of-function hdg2 mutation delays stomatal differentiation and, rarely but consistently, results in aberrant stomata. A closely related HD-ZIP IV gene, Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (AtML1), shares overlapping function with HDG2: AtML1 overexpression also triggers ectopic stomatal differentiation in the mesophyll layer and atml1 mutation enhances the stomatal differentiation defects of hdg2. Consistently, HDG2 and AtML1 bind the same DNA elements, and activate transcription in yeast. Furthermore, HDG2 transactivates expression of genes that regulate stomatal development in planta. Our study highlights the similarities and uniqueness of these two HD-ZIP IV genes in the specification of protodermal identity and stomatal differentiation beyond predetermined tissue layers. PMID:23515473

  9. Ectopic expression of ABSCISIC ACID 2/GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 1 in Arabidopsis promotes seed dormancy and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Chi; Hwang, San-Gwang; Endo, Akira; Okamoto, Masanori; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Cheng, Wan-Hsing

    2007-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that plays a critical role in seed development, dormancy, and stress tolerance. 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase is the key enzyme controlling ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated the effect of ectopic expression of another ABA biosynthesis gene, ABA2 (or GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 1 [GIN1]) encoding a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that ABA2-overexpressing transgenic plants with elevated ABA levels exhibited seed germination delay and more tolerance to salinity than wild type when grown on agar plates and/or in soil. However, the germination delay was abolished in transgenic plants showing ABA levels over 2-fold higher than that of wild type grown on 250 mm NaCl. The data suggest that there are distinct mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination under diverse stress. The ABA-deficient mutant aba2, with a shorter primary root, can be restored to normal root growth by exogenous application of ABA, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing ABA2 showed normal root growth. The data reflect that the basal levels of ABA are essential for maintaining normal primary root elongation. Furthermore, analysis of ABA2 promoter activity with ABA2::beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants revealed that the promoter activity was enhanced by multiple prolonged stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold, and flooding, but not by short-term stress treatments. Coincidently, prolonged drought stress treatment led to the up-regulation of ABA biosynthetic and sugar-related genes. Thus, the data support ABA2 as a late expression gene that might have a fine-tuning function in mediating ABA biosynthesis through primary metabolic changes in response to stress. PMID:17189333

  10. Paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and ectopic MMP-13 expression promotes neurotoxicity in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lisse, Thomas S.; Middleton, Leah J.; Pellegrini, Adriana D.; Martin, Paige B.; Spaulding, Emily L.; Lopes, Olivia; Brochu, Elizabeth A.; Carter, Erin V.; Waldron, Ashley; Rieger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in cancer treatment and in a number of curative and palliative regimens. Despite its beneficial effects on cancer, paclitaxel also damages healthy tissues, most prominently the peripheral sensory nervous system. The mechanisms leading to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy remain elusive, and therapies that prevent or alleviate this condition are not available. We established a zebrafish in vivo model to study the underlying mechanisms and to identify pharmacological agents that may be developed into therapeutics. Both adult and larval zebrafish displayed signs of paclitaxel neurotoxicity, including sensory axon degeneration and the loss of touch response in the distal caudal fin. Intriguingly, studies in zebrafish larvae showed that paclitaxel rapidly promotes epithelial damage and decreased mechanical stress resistance of the skin before induction of axon degeneration. Moreover, injured paclitaxel-treated zebrafish skin and scratch-wounded human keratinocytes (HEK001) display reduced healing capacity. Epithelial damage correlated with rapid accumulation of fluorescein-conjugated paclitaxel in epidermal basal keratinocytes, but not axons, and up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, collagenase 3) in the skin. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13, in contrast, largely rescued paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and neurotoxicity, whereas MMP-13 overexpression in zebrafish embryos rendered the skin vulnerable to injury under mechanical stress conditions. Thus, our studies provide evidence that the epidermis plays a critical role in this condition, and we provide a previously unidentified candidate for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27035978

  11. Paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and ectopic MMP-13 expression promotes neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lisse, Thomas S; Middleton, Leah J; Pellegrini, Adriana D; Martin, Paige B; Spaulding, Emily L; Lopes, Olivia; Brochu, Elizabeth A; Carter, Erin V; Waldron, Ashley; Rieger, Sandra

    2016-04-12

    Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in cancer treatment and in a number of curative and palliative regimens. Despite its beneficial effects on cancer, paclitaxel also damages healthy tissues, most prominently the peripheral sensory nervous system. The mechanisms leading to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy remain elusive, and therapies that prevent or alleviate this condition are not available. We established a zebrafish in vivo model to study the underlying mechanisms and to identify pharmacological agents that may be developed into therapeutics. Both adult and larval zebrafish displayed signs of paclitaxel neurotoxicity, including sensory axon degeneration and the loss of touch response in the distal caudal fin. Intriguingly, studies in zebrafish larvae showed that paclitaxel rapidly promotes epithelial damage and decreased mechanical stress resistance of the skin before induction of axon degeneration. Moreover, injured paclitaxel-treated zebrafish skin and scratch-wounded human keratinocytes (HEK001) display reduced healing capacity. Epithelial damage correlated with rapid accumulation of fluorescein-conjugated paclitaxel in epidermal basal keratinocytes, but not axons, and up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, collagenase 3) in the skin. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13, in contrast, largely rescued paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and neurotoxicity, whereas MMP-13 overexpression in zebrafish embryos rendered the skin vulnerable to injury under mechanical stress conditions. Thus, our studies provide evidence that the epidermis plays a critical role in this condition, and we provide a previously unidentified candidate for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27035978

  12. Ectopic heartbeat

    MedlinePlus

    ... recording device, or implanted loop recorder) Coronary angiography ECG Echocardiogram Treatment The following may help reduce ectopic ... section through the middle Heart, front view Electrocardiogram (ECG) References Olgin JE. Approach to the patient with ...

  13. Ectopic pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal pregnancy; Cervical pregnancy; Tubal ligation-ectopic pregnancy ... In most pregnancies, the fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube to the womb (uterus). If the movement of the egg ...

  14. A new platelet cryoprecipitate glue promoting bone formation after ectopic mesenchymal stromal cell-loaded biomaterial implantation in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the promising effect of a new Platelet Glue obtained from Cryoprecipitation of Apheresis Platelet products (PGCAP) used in combination with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) loaded on ceramic biomaterials to provide novel strategies enhancing bone repair. Methods PGCAP growth factor content was analyzed by ELISA and compared to other platelet and plasma-derived products. MSC loaded on biomaterials (65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP or 100% beta-TCP) were embedded in PGCAP and grown in presence or not of osteogenic induction medium for 21 days. Biomaterials were then implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Effect of PGCAP on MSC was evaluated in vitro by proliferation and osteoblastic gene expression analysis and in vivo by histology and immunohistochemistry. Results We showed that PGCAP, compared to other platelet-derived products, allowed concentrating large amount of growth factors and cytokines which promoted MSC and osteoprogenitor proliferation. Next, we found that PGCAP improves the proliferation of MSC and osteogenic-induced MSC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PGCAP up-regulates the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers (Collagen type I, Osteonectin, Osteopontin and Runx2). In vivo, type I collagen expressed in ectopic bone-like tissue was highly enhanced in biomaterials embedded in PGCAP in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. Better results were obtained with 65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP biomaterials as compared to 100% beta-TCP. Conclusions We have demonstrated that PGCAP is able to enhance in vitro MSC proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation and in vivo bone formation in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. This clinically adaptable platelet glue could be of interest for improving bone repair. PMID:23290259

  15. Ectopic Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Development March of Dimes National Office MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Ectopic Kidney Page Content On this page: What is an ...

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to check your levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG is a hormone that is produced by the ... an ectopic pregnancy, you may have a low hCG level. Your doctor may also want to perform ...

  17. Expression of a flower-specific Myb protein in leaf cells using a viral vector causes ectopic activation of a target promoter.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, R W; Baulcombe, D C; Bevan, M

    1995-07-18

    The promoter of the bean PAL2 gene (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; EC 4.3.1.5) is a model for studies of tissue-restricted gene expression in plants. Petal epidermis is one of the tissues in which this promoter is activated in tobacco. Previous work suggested that a major factor establishing the pattern of PAL2 expression in tobacco petals is the tissue distribution of a protein closely related to Myb305, which is a Myb-like transcriptional activator from snapdragon. In the present work, we show that Myb305 expression in tobacco leaves causes ectopic activation of the PAL2 promoter. To achieve Myb305 expression in planta, a viral expression vector was used. This approach combines the utility of transient assays with the possibility of direct biochemical detection of the introduced factor and may have wider application for studying the function of plant transcription factors. PMID:7624340

  18. Ectopic expression of Flt3 kinase inhibits proliferation and promotes cell death in different human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Oveland, Eystein; Wergeland, Line; Hovland, Randi; Lorens, James B; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Fladmark, Kari E

    2012-08-01

    Stable ectopic expression of Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase is usually performed in interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent murine cell lines like Ba/F3, resulting in loss of IL-3 dependence. Such high-level Flt3 expression has to date not been reported in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, despite the fact that oncogenic Flt3 aberrancies are frequent in AML patients. We show here that ectopic Flt3 expression in different human cancer cell lines might reduce proliferation and induce apoptotic cell death, involving Bax/Bcl2 modulation. Selective depletion of Flt3-expressing cells occurred in human AML cell lines transduced with retroviral Flt3 constructs, shown here using the HL-60 leukemic cell line. Flt3 expression was investigated in two cellular model systems, the SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line and the human embryonic kidney HEK293 cell line, and proliferation was reduced in both systems. HEK293 cells underwent apoptosis upon ectopic Flt3 expression and cell death could be rescued by overexpression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, we observed that the Flt3-induced inhibition of proliferation in HL-60 cells appeared to be Bax-dependent. Our results thus suggest that excessive Flt3 expression has growth-suppressive properties in several human cancer cell lines. PMID:22422053

  19. Ectopic expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in adult macaque Schwann cells promotes their migration and remyelination potential in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Bachelin, C.; Zujovic, V.; Buchet, D.; Mallet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that inducing neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation in rodents is a promising strategy for promoting tissue repair in the injured central nervous system. Since autologous grafting of Schwann cells is one potential strategy to promote central nervous system remyelination, it is essential to show that such a strategy can be translated to adult primate Schwann cells and is of interest for myelin diseases. Adult macaque Schwann cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding sialyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation. In vitro, we found that ectopic expression of polysialylate promoted adult macaque Schwann cell migration and improved their integration among astrocytes in vitro without modifying their antigenic properties as either non-myelinating or pro-myelinating. In addition, forced expression of polysialylate in adult macaque Schwann cells decreased their adhesion with sister cells. To investigate the ability of adult macaque Schwann cells to integrate and migrate in vivo, focally induced demyelination was targeted to the spinal cord dorsal funiculus of nude mice, and both control and sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells overexpressing green fluorescein protein were grafted remotely from the lesion site. Analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the grafted Schwann cells performed in toto and in situ, showed that in both groups, Schwann cells migrated towards the lesion site. However, migration of sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells was more efficient than that of control Schwann cells, leading to their accelerated recruitment by the lesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule promoted adult macaque Schwann cell interaction with reactive astrocytes when exiting the graft, and their ‘chain-like’ migration along the dorsal midline. The accelerated migration of sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells to the

  20. High-Fat Diet Promotion of Endometriosis in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model is Associated With Altered Peripheral and Ectopic Lesion Redox and Inflammatory Status.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa E; Melnyk, Stepan B; Simmen, Frank A; Yang, Yanqing; Pabona, John Mark P; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2016-07-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition that causes considerable morbidity due to associated infertility, debilitating pelvic pain and inflammatory dysfunctions. Diet is a highly modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, but its contribution to endometriosis has not been extensively investigated, due partly to the paradoxical inverse association between obesity and disease incidence. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to dietary high-fat intake has been linked to greater systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, both features of women with endometriosis. Here, we evaluated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat kcal) on endometriosis progression using an immunocompetent mouse model where ectopic lesion incidence was induced in wild-type recipients by ip administration of endometrial fragments from transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 9-null donor mice. We show that HFD significantly increased ectopic lesion numbers in recipient mice with no significant weight gain and modifications in systemic ovarian steroid hormone and insulin levels, relative to control diet-fed (17% fat kcal) mice. HFD promotion of lesion establishment was associated with reductions in stromal estrogen receptor 1 isoform and progesterone receptor expression, increased F4/80-positive macrophage infiltration, higher stromal but not glandular epithelial proliferation, and enhanced expression of proinflammatory and prooxidative stress pathway genes. Lesion-bearing HFD-fed mice also displayed higher peritoneal fluid TNFα and elevated local and systemic redox status than control diet-fed counterparts. Our results suggest that HFD intake exacerbates endometriosis outcome in the absence of ovarian dysfunction and insulin resistance in mice and warrants further consideration with respect to clinical management of endometriosis progression and recurrence in nonobese patients. PMID:27175969

  1. BAFF overexpression increases lymphocytic infiltration in Sjögren's target tissue, but only inefficiently promotes ectopic B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Haskett, Scott; Pellerin, Alex; Xu, Shanqin; Petersen, Britta; Jandreski, Luke; Hamann, Stefan; Reynolds, Taylor L; Zheng, Timothy S; Mingueneau, Michael

    2016-08-01

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF) levels are increased in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). However, BAFF contribution to pathogenesis is not completely understood. In pSS, immune infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands leads to xerostomia and xerophtalmia. Glandular B cell hyperactivation, differentiation into germinal center (GC)-like structures and plasma cell accumulation are histopathological hallmarks that were attributed to increased BAFF. Here, we experimentally tested this hypothesis by overexpressing BAFF in a mouse model of pSS. BAFF overexpression enhanced lymphocytic infiltration and MHCII expression on B cells. Increased BAFF also induced B cell differentiation into GC B cells within the autoimmune target tissue. However, even in these conditions, GC B cells only accounted for <1% of glandular B cells, demonstrating that BAFF is not efficiently promoting ectopic GC formation in pSS and warranting further investigation of therapeutics targeting both BAFF and the related TNF-family member APRIL. PMID:27352977

  2. Ectopic Expression of ABSCISIC ACID 2/GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 1 in Arabidopsis Promotes Seed Dormancy and Stress Tolerance1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Chi; Hwang, San-Gwang; Endo, Akira; Okamoto, Masanori; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Cheng, Wan-Hsing

    2007-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that plays a critical role in seed development, dormancy, and stress tolerance. 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase is the key enzyme controlling ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated the effect of ectopic expression of another ABA biosynthesis gene, ABA2 (or GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 1 [GIN1]) encoding a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that ABA2-overexpressing transgenic plants with elevated ABA levels exhibited seed germination delay and more tolerance to salinity than wild type when grown on agar plates and/or in soil. However, the germination delay was abolished in transgenic plants showing ABA levels over 2-fold higher than that of wild type grown on 250 mm NaCl. The data suggest that there are distinct mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination under diverse stress. The ABA-deficient mutant aba2, with a shorter primary root, can be restored to normal root growth by exogenous application of ABA, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing ABA2 showed normal root growth. The data reflect that the basal levels of ABA are essential for maintaining normal primary root elongation. Furthermore, analysis of ABA2 promoter activity with ABA2∷β-glucuronidase transgenic plants revealed that the promoter activity was enhanced by multiple prolonged stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold, and flooding, but not by short-term stress treatments. Coincidently, prolonged drought stress treatment led to the up-regulation of ABA biosynthetic and sugar-related genes. Thus, the data support ABA2 as a late expression gene that might have a fine-tuning function in mediating ABA biosynthesis through primary metabolic changes in response to stress. PMID:17189333

  3. Observable Electrochemical Oxidation of Carbon Promoted by Platinum Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kou, Zongkui; Cheng, Kun; Wu, Hui; Sun, Ronghui; Guo, Beibei; Mu, Shichun

    2016-02-17

    The radical degradation of Pt-based catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), predominantly caused by the oxidation of carbon supports, heavily blocks the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). As reported, the electrochemical oxidation of carbon could be accelerated by Pt catalysts; however, hitherto no direct evidence is present for the promotion of Pt catalysts. Herein, a unique ultrathin carbon layer (approximately 2.9 nm in thickness) covered Pt catalyst (Pt/C-GC) is designed and synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. This magnifies the catalysis effect of Pt to carbon oxidation due to the greatly increased contact sites between the metal-support, making it easy to investigate the carbon oxidation process by observing the thinning of the carbon layer on Pt nanoparticles from TEM observations. Undoubtedly, this finding can better guide the structural design of the durable metal catalysts for PEMFCs and other applications. PMID:26788962

  4. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we established TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.

  5. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles. PMID:23976990

  6. Do calcifying nanoparticles promote nephrolithiasis? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Shiekh, F A; Miller, V M; Lieske, J C

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been learned regarding the pathogenesis of kidney stones, the reason(s) why some individuals form stones while others do not remains incompletely understood. Nanoparticles, which have been observed in geologic samples, have also been isolated from biologic specimens, including kidney stones. These nanoparticles have certain properties that are consistent with a novel life form, including in vitro self-replication, and contain lipids, DNA and proteins. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that nanoparticles may represent a type of infective agent that initiates stone formation in some individuals. Despite a large body of intriguing and suggestive evidence, the true biologic nature of these entities has been elusive, and controversy remains as to whether these nano-sized particles are analogous to other recently described unusual and novel microorganisms, or a transmissible, yet inert nanoparticle. Although unique DNA or RNA has yet to be identified, a proteomic biosignature is beginning to emerge that may allow more definitive clinical investigation. This review evaluates the current evidence regarding nanoparticles as causal to disease and emphasizes the need for additional research to further elucidate their role in human stone formation. PMID:19203544

  7. Primary ectopic frontotemporal craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Porcayo, Luis Alberto; Ponce-Gómez, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Moreno, Mauricio; Portocarrero-Ortíz, Lesly; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary ectopic craniopharyngiomas have only rarely been reported. Craniopharyngiomas involve usually the sellar and suprasellar region, but can be originated from cell remnants of the obliterated craniopharyngeal duct or metaplastic change of andenohypophyseal cells. We present the first case of a primary ectopic frontotemporal craniopharyngioma. Presentation of case A 35-year old woman presented with a one-year history of headache and diplopia. MRI showed a large frontotemporal cystic lesion. Tumor resection was performed with a keyhole endoscopic frontal lateral approach. The pathological features showed an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma with a cholesterol granuloma reaction. Discussion There have been reported different localizations for primary ectopic craniopharyngioma. Our case presented a lobulated frontotemporal cystic mass formed by a dense eosinophilic proteinaceous material dystrophic calcifications and cholesterol crystals, with epithelial remnants. No tumor regrowth was observed in the magnetic resonance image 27 months postoperatively. Conclusion Primary ectopic craniopharyngioma is a rare entity with a pathogenesis that remains uncertain. This is an unusual anatomic location associated with unique clinical findings. PMID:25725331

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles for Microengine with Promoted Catalytic Motion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chi; Huang, Gaoshan; Ding, Shi-Jin; Dong, Hongliang; Men, Chuanling; Mei, Yongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle-decorated tubular microengines were synthesized by a combination of rolled-up nanotechnology and atomic layer deposition. The presence of Pt nanoparticles with different sizes and distributions on the walls of microengines fabricated from bilayer nanomembranes with different materials results in promoted catalytic reaction efficiency, which leads to an ultrafast speed (the highest speed 3200 μm/s). The motion speed of the decorated microengines fits the theoretical model very well, suggesting that the larger surface area is mainly responsible for the acceleration of the motion speed. The high-speed nanoparticle-decorated microengines hold considerable promise for a variety of applications. PMID:27295257

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles for Microengine with Promoted Catalytic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chi; Huang, Gaoshan; Ding, Shi-Jin; Dong, Hongliang; Men, Chuanling; Mei, Yongfeng

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle-decorated tubular microengines were synthesized by a combination of rolled-up nanotechnology and atomic layer deposition. The presence of Pt nanoparticles with different sizes and distributions on the walls of microengines fabricated from bilayer nanomembranes with different materials results in promoted catalytic reaction efficiency, which leads to an ultrafast speed (the highest speed 3200 μm/s). The motion speed of the decorated microengines fits the theoretical model very well, suggesting that the larger surface area is mainly responsible for the acceleration of the motion speed. The high-speed nanoparticle-decorated microengines hold considerable promise for a variety of applications.

  10. Efficient ectopic gene expression targeting chick mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kerby C; Pira, Charmaine U; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Ratz, Beate; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Eichele, Gregor

    2002-07-01

    The chick model has been instrumental in illuminating genes that regulate early vertebrate development and pattern formation. Targeted ectopic gene expression is critical to dissect further the complicated gene interactions that are involved. In an effort to develop a consistent method to ectopically introduce and focally express genes in chick mesoderm, we evaluated and optimized several gene delivery methods, including implantation of 293 cells laden with viral vectors, direct adenoviral injection, and electroporation (EP). We targeted the mesoderm of chick wing buds between stages 19 and 21 (Hamburger and Hamilton stages) and used beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to document gene transfer. Expression constructs using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, the beta-actin promoter, and vectors with an internal ribosomal entry sequence linked to GFP (IRES-GFP) were also compared. After gene transfer, we monitored expression for up to 3 days. The functionality of ectopic expression was demonstrated with constructs containing the coding sequences for Shh, a secreted signaling protein, or Hoxb-8, a transcription factor, both of which can induce digit duplication when ectopically expressed in anterior limb mesoderm. We identified several factors that enhance mesodermal gene transfer. First, the use of a vector with the beta-actin promoter coupled to the 69% fragment of the bovine papilloma virus yielded superior mesodermal expression both by markers and functional results when compared with several CMV-driven vectors. Second, we found the use of mineral oil to be an important adjuvant for EP and direct viral injection to localize and contain vector within the mesoderm at the injection site. Lastly, although ectopic expression could be achieved with all three methods, we favored EP confined to the mesoderm with insulated microelectrodes (confined microelectroporation- CMEP), because vector construction is rapid, the method is efficient, and results

  11. WO3/Pt nanoparticles promote light-induced lipid peroxidation and lysosomal instability within tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrea J; Petty, Howard R

    2016-02-19

    Although metal-metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest as catalysts, they have attracted little interest in nanomedicine. This is likely due to the fact that metal oxide semiconductors generally require biologically harmful ultraviolet excitation. In contrast, this study focuses upon WO3/Pt nanoparticles, which can be excited by visible light. To optimize the nanoparticles' catalytic performance, platinization was performed at alkaline pH. These nanoparticles destroyed organic dyes, consumed dissolved oxygen and produced hydroxyl radicals. 4T1 breast cancer cells internalized WO3/Pt nanoparticles within the membrane-bound endo-lysosomal compartment as shown by electron and fluorescence microscopy. During visible light exposure, but not in darkness, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture reactive oxygen species, promote lipid peroxidation, and trigger lysosomal membrane disruption. As cells of the immune system degrade organic molecules, produce reactive oxygen species, and activate the lipid peroxidation pathway within target cells, these nanoparticles mimic the chemical attributes of immune effector cells. These biomimetic nanoparticles should become useful in managing certain cancers, especially ocular cancer. PMID:26788907

  12. Sustained release poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres of bone morphogenetic protein 2 plasmid/calcium phosphate to promote in vitro bone formation and in vivo ectopic osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chunyan; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Bin; Liu, Jinzhong; Song, Jiyu; Hu, Yue; Yang, Shihui; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration often requires continuous stimulation to promote local bone formation. In the present study, calcium phosphate (CaPi) was used to promote transfection of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) cDNA plasmid, and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used to prepare microspheres of pBMP-2/CaPi (i.e., PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi) using W/O/W double emulsion solvent evaporation method. We showed that PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres were spherical with smooth surface, and the particle size ranged from 0.5 to 35 μm. Encapsulation efficiency was up to 30~50%. The release of BMP-2 cDNA from microspheres continued more than 30 days and constituted, less than 7.5% of total plasmid amount within the first 24 h. Real-time PCR results showed that co-culturing of PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) increased calcium deposition and gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), SP7, and collagen type I (COLL I) in a time-dependent manner. Finally, X-ray analysis demonstrated that in vivo delivery of PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres into the tibialis anterior muscles of rats promoted the generation of osteoblasts, bone tissue, and bone structure. The findings suggested that PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres can promote ectopic osteogenesis in non-bone tissues, with strong prospects in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26885257

  13. Electrocatalytic processes promoted by diamond nanoparticles in enzymatic biosensing devices.

    PubMed

    Briones, M; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Casero, E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a biosensing platform for lactate determination based on gold electrodes modified with diamond nanoparticles of 4nm of nominal diameter, employing the enzyme lactate oxidase and (hydroxymethyl)ferrocene (HMF) as redox mediator in solution. This system displays a response towards lactate that is completely different to those typically observed for lactate biosensors based on other nanomaterials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles or even diamond nanoparticles of greater size. We have observed by cyclic voltammetry that, under certain experimental conditions, an irreversible wave (E(0)=+0.15V) appears concomitantly with the typical Fe(II)/Fe(III) peaks (E(0)=+0.30V) of HMF. In this case, the biosensor response to lactate shows simultaneous electrocatalytic peaks at +0.15V and +0.30V, indicating the concurrence of different feedback mechanisms. The achievement of a biosensor response to lactate at +0.15V is very convenient in order to avoid potential interferences. The developed biosensor presents a linear concentration range from 0.02mM to 1.2mM, a sensitivity of 6.1μAmM(-1), a detection limit of 5.3μM and excellent stability. These analytical properties compare well with those obtained for other lactate-based biosensors that also include nanomaterials and employ HMF as redox mediator. PMID:27261566

  14. Cholesteatoma in ectopic kidney

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Yasemin Yuyucu; Tek, Mesut; Eti, Neslihan; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteatoma in the urinary system is a rarely seen benign condition. Rosina firstly defined this condition in the year 1953. Histopathologically it is characterized with keratinization, and squamous metaplasia of urothelial epithelium associated with desquamation of keratinized layers. Flank pain is the most common symptom that is caused by elimination of keratinous material. In our case we will discuss cholesteatoma developed in an ectopic kidney which has not been described in the literature before.

  15. Ectopic intracranial germinoma.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Samantha; Wu, Xiao; Kalra, Vivek B; Huttner, Anita J; Malhotra, Ajay

    2016-09-01

    Intracranial ectopic germinomas are often associated with synchronous midline disease. Germinomas involving the corpus callosum are exceedingly rare. The reported imaging appearance is not as varied as one might expect and a review of the literature reveals a few common imaging features amongst most ectopic lesions, including cyst formation. We report a 24-year-old man with panhypopituitarism. Neuroimaging revealed three enhancing lesions involving the pituitary infundibulum, the pineal region, and a parenchymal lesion involving the genu of the corpus callosum. The described ectopic mass, a parenchymal lesion, was associated with small peripheral cysts. Stereotactic biopsy and histopathological evaluation revealed this mass to be a germinoma. Following chemotherapy and radiation therapy, there was near-total resolution of the intracranial disease. Preoperative imaging plays an important role, not only in delineating the extent of disease, but also in assisting in generating an appropriate differential diagnosis. Germinomas in the corpus callosum are exceedingly rare but should be considered in the differential of any young patient with a characteristic cystic and solid intra-axial mass. PMID:27050919

  16. WO3/Pt nanoparticles promote light-induced lipid peroxidation and lysosomal instability within tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    Although metal-metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest as catalysts, they have attracted little interest in nanomedicine. This is likely due to the fact that metal oxide semiconductors generally require biologically harmful ultraviolet excitation. In contrast, this study focuses upon WO3/Pt nanoparticles, which can be excited by visible light. To optimize the nanoparticles’ catalytic performance, platinization was performed at alkaline pH. These nanoparticles destroyed organic dyes, consumed dissolved oxygen and produced hydroxyl radicals. 4T1 breast cancer cells internalized WO3/Pt nanoparticles within the membrane-bound endo-lysosomal compartment as shown by electron and fluorescence microscopy. During visible light exposure, but not in darkness, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture reactive oxygen species, promote lipid peroxidation, and trigger lysosomal membrane disruption. As cells of the immune system degrade organic molecules, produce reactive oxygen species, and activate the lipid peroxidation pathway within target cells, these nanoparticles mimic the chemical attributes of immune effector cells. These biomimetic nanoparticles should become useful in managing certain cancers, especially ocular cancer.

  17. The Catastrophe-promoting Activity of Ectopic Op18/Stathmin Is Required for Disruption of Mitotic Spindles But Not Interphase Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Holmfeldt, Per; Larsson, Niklas; Segerman, Bo; Howell, Bonnie; Morabito, Justin; Cassimeris, Lynne; Gullberg, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Oncoprotein18/stathmin (Op18) is a microtubule (MT) destabilizing protein that is inactivated during mitosis by phosphorylation at four Ser-residues. Op18 has at least two functions; the N-terminal region is required for catastrophe-promotion (i.e., transition from elongation to shortening), while the C-terminal region is required to inhibit MT-polymerization rate in vitro. We show here that a “pseudophosphorylation” derivative of Op18 (i.e., four Ser- to Glu-substitutions at phosphorylation sites) exhibits a selective loss of catastrophe-promoting activity. This is contrasted to authentic phosphorylation, which efficiently attenuates all activities except tubulin binding. In intact cells, overexpression of pseudophosphorylated Op18, which is not phosphorylated by endogenous kinases, is shown to destabilize interphase MTs but to leave spindle formation untouched. To test if the mitotic spindle is sensitive only to the catastrophe-promoting activity of Op18 and resistant to C-terminally associated activities, N- and C-terminal truncations with defined activity-profiles were employed. The cell-cycle phenotypes of nonphosphorylatable mutants (i.e., four Ser- to Ala-substitutions) of these truncation derivatives demonstrated that catastrophe promotion is required for interference with the mitotic spindle, while the C-terminally associated activities are sufficient to destabilize interphase MTs. These results demonstrate that specific Op18 derivatives with defined activity-profiles can be used as probes to distinguish interphase and mitotic MTs. PMID:11160824

  18. Gold Nanoparticle-Decorated Scaffolds Promote Neuronal Differentiation and Maturation.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Koby; Shevach, Michal; Shefi, Orit; Dvir, Tal

    2016-05-11

    Engineered 3D neuronal networks are considered a promising approach for repairing the damaged spinal cord. However, the lack of a technological platform encouraging axonal elongation over branching may jeopardize the success of such treatment. To address this issue we have decorated gold nanoparticles on the surface of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds, characterized the composite material, and investigated their effect on the differentiation, maturation, and morphogenesis of primary neurons and on an immature neuronal cell line. We have shown that the nanocomposite scaffolds have encouraged a longer outgrowth of the neurites, as judged by the total length of the branching trees and the length and total distance of neurites. Moreover, neurons grown on the nanocomposite scaffolds had less neurites originating out of the soma and lower number of branches. Taken together, these results indicate that neurons cultivated on the gold nanoparticle scaffolds prefer axonal elongation over forming complex branching trees. We envision that such cellular constructs may be useful in the future as implantable cellular devices for repairing damaged neuronal tissues, such as the spinal cord. PMID:26674672

  19. An Ectopic Pelvic Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bhoil, Rohit; Sood, Dinesh; Singh, Yash Paul; Nimkar, Kshama; Shukla, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background If a kidney does not ascend as it should in normal fetal development, it remains in the pelvic area and is called a pelvic kidney. Often a person with a pelvic kidney will go through his/her whole life unaware of this condition, unless it is discovered during neonatal kidney ultrasound screening or if complications arise later in life due to this or a completely different reason and the condition is noted during investigations. Generally, this is not a harmful condition but it can lead to complications like in our case. With appropriate testing and treatment, if needed, an ectopic kidney should cause no serious long-term health complications and all that may be required for the patient is reassurance with advice to follow up at regular intervals. Case Report A 28-year-old male presented with recurrent pain in his lower left abdomen for one month and an episode of hematuria 3 days earlier accompanied by an attack of acute pain lasting for 3–4 hours. He gave a history of passing 2 small (about 5 mm each) calculi in his urine after the occurrence of hematuria, following which pain decreased in intensity. No history of fever was present. Conclusions Although a simple ectopic kidney seldom causes symptoms, the association of malrotation of the renal pelvis with calculus increases the risk of hematuria and/or hydronephrosis, presenting with colicky pain as in the present case. The clinician should be aware of these in such a case. If asymptomatic, no treatment is required. However, the patient should be advised to have follow-up ultrasounds at regular intervals to detect complications like calculus, hydronephrosis, etc. With appropriate testing and treatment, if required, an ectopic kidney should not cause serious long-term health complications. PMID:26413178

  20. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  1. Plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles can promote neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paviolo, Chiara; Haycock, John W.; Yong, Jiawey; Yu, Aimin; McArthur, Sally L.; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    As-synthesized, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS)-coated and SiO2 coated gold nanorods were taken up by NG108-15 neuronal cells. Exposure to laser light at the plasmon resonance wavelength of gold nanorods was found to trigger the differentiation process in the nanoparticle treated cells. Results were assessed by measuring the maximum neurite length, the number of neurites per neuron and the percentage of neurons with neurites. When the intracellular Ca2+ signaling was monitored, evidence of photo-generated transients were recorded without altering other normal cell functions. These results open new opportunities for peripheral nerve regeneration treatments and for the process of infrared nerve stimulation.

  2. Promoting optofluidic actuation of microparticles with plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Julien; Si, Satyabrata; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The amplitude of optical forces on flowing dielectric microparticles can be actuated by coating them partially with metallic nanospheres and exposing them to laser light within the surface plasmon resonance. Here, optical forces on both pure silica particles and silica-gold raspberries are characterized within an optical chromatography setup by measuring the Stokes drag versus laser beam power. Results are compared to Mie theory predictions for both core dielectric particles and core-shell ones where the shell is described by a continuous dielectricmetal composite of dielectric constant determined from the Maxwell Garnett approach. The nice observed quantitative agreement demonstrates that radiation pressure forces are directly related to the metal concentration present at the microparticle surface and that nano-metallic objects increase the magnitude of optical forces compared to pure dielectric particles of the same overall size, even at very low metal concentration. Behaving as "micro-sized nanoparticles", the benefit of microparticles coated with metallic nanospheres is thus twofold: (i) to enhance optofluidic manipulation and transport at the microscale and (ii) to increase sensing capabilities at the nanoscale, compared to separated pure dielectric particles and single metallic nanosystems.

  3. A Method for Promoting Assembly of Metallic and Nonmetallic Nanoparticles into Interfacial Monolayer Films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yikai; Konrad, Magdalena P; Lee, Wendy W Y; Ye, Ziwei; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-10

    Two-dimensional metal nanoparticle arrays are normally constructed at liquid-oil interfaces by modifying the surfaces of the constituent nanoparticles so that they self-assemble. Here we present a general and facile new approach for promoting such interfacial assembly without any surface modification. The method use salts that have hydrophobic ions of opposite charge to the nanoparticles, which sit in the oil layer and thus reduce the Coulombic repulsion between the particles in the organic phase, allowing the particles to sit in close proximity to each other at the interface. The advantage of this method is that because it does not require the surface of the particles to be modified it allows nonmetallic particles including TiO2 and SiO2 to be assembled into dense interfacial layers using the same procedure as is used for metallic particles. This opens up a route to a new family of nanostructured functional materials. PMID:27454020

  4. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  5. Primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhalili, Reza; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmad; Seif, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma. Primary ectopic craniopharyngiomas are very rare and have been reported involving the fourth ventricle, infrasellar region, lateral ventricle, temporal area, cerebellopontine angle, clivus, corpus callosum, and prepontine cistern. There was just 1 case of craniopharyngioma previously presented in the literature, with nearly same location as the presenting case. PMID:27195250

  6. Cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys' ballon tamponade. PMID:25810679

  7. Natural polysaccharides promote chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on magnetic nanoparticle/PVA composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruixia; Nie, Lei; Du, Gaolai; Xiong, Xiaopeng; Fu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the synergistic effects of natural polysaccharides and inorganic nanoparticles on cell adhesion and growth on intrinsically cell non-adhesive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite (nHAP) nanoparticles are effective in increasing osteoblast growth on PVA hydrogels. Herein, we blended hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), two important components of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), with Fe2O3/nHAP/PVA hydrogels. The presence of these natural polyelectrolytes dramatically increased the pore size and the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) while maintaining excellent compressive strength of hydrogels. Chondrocytes were seeded and cultured on composite PVA hydrogels containing Fe2O3, nHAP and Fe2O3/nHAP hybrids and Fe2O3/nHAP with HA or CS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay consistently confirmed that the addition of HA or CS promotes chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA and composite hydrogels. Particularly, the combination of HA and CS exhibited further promotion to cell adhesion and proliferation compared with any single polysaccharide. The results demonstrated that the magnetic composite nanoparticles and polysaccharides provided synergistic promotion to cell adhesion and growth. Such polysaccharide-augmented composite hydrogels may have potentials in biomedical applications. PMID:26037704

  8. Sonography of Methotrexate for Ectopics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzicǎ, Denise; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2007-04-01

    Treatment unruptured ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate (MTX) and citrovorum factor is now an established alternative to surgical therapy. Serial measurements of serum beta-HCG and early ultrasound examination have allowed detection of early and unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancies, permitting treatment without removal of the tube. It is believed that preserving the tube increases the chance of subsequent live births. Our findings suggest that outpatient transvaginal intratubal methorexate administration can provide a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment for patients with early and unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  9. Promoting DNA loading on magnetic nanoparticles using a DNA condensation strategy.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhi; Jiang, Youjun; Guo, Mengyu; Bennett, J Craig; Li, Xianghai; Tian, Hefeng; Oakes, Ken; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Qianming; Chen, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing DNA loading on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is crucial for their successful utilization in gene transfer, DNA isolation, and bio-analytical applications. This enhancement is typically achieved by altering particle size and surfaces as well as charge density and ionic strength. We demonstrate a novel route for promoting DNA loading on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) by prior condensation of elongated DNA to a compact globule before adsorption. The enhanced DNA-loading capacity, as demonstrated by a reduction in the number of ASMNPs needed to achieve complexation, was presumably due to the elimination of DNA wrapping around nanoparticles and substantially reduced electrostatic interactions of DNA with nanoparticles because the compacted DNA globule conformation decreases its exposed surface charge. The maximum loading capacity of ASMNPs for condensed DNA was 4.4 times greater than that for elongated coiled DNA, achieving the highest ever reported value of 385 μg mg(-1). Practical applications for plasmid DNA isolation from cleared lysate confirmed the reliability of the proposed method. PMID:25454752

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments. PMID:25158862

  11. Nickel-doped ceria nanoparticles for promoting catalytic activity of Pt/C for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiang; Du, Chunyu; Sun, Yongrong; Du, Lei; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis of monodispersed nickel-doped ceria nanoparticles by a thermal decomposition method, which is used to promote catalytic properties of Pt/C. The Pt/Ni-doped CeO2/C catalyst obtained exhibits remarkably high activity and stability towards the ethanol electrooxidation in acidic media. This is attributed to higher oxygen releasing capacity and stronger interaction of Ni-doped CeO2 with Pt than pure CeO2 nanoparticles that contribute positively to the removal of poisoning intermediates. We believe that the design concept and synthetic strategy of metal doped oxides used for fuel cell catalysts can be potentially extended to other catalytic fields.

  12. Promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles for cancer stem cell therapy by TGF-β signaling pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zu-Qi; Chen, Kai-Ge; Yu, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Gui; Shen, Song; Cao, Zhi-Ting; Luo, Ying-Li; Wang, Yu-Cai; Wang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which hold a high capacity for self-renewal, play a central role in the development, metastasis, and recurrence of various malignancies. CSCs must be eradicated to cure instances of cancer; however, because they can reside far from tumor vessels, they are not easily targeted by drug agents carried by nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. We herein demonstrate that promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway inhibition facilitates CSC therapy. In our study, we observed that although nanoparticles carrying siRNA targeting the oncogene polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) efficiently killed breast CSCs derived from MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, this intervention enriched CSCs in the residual tumor tissue following systemic treatment. However, inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway with LY364947, an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, promoted the penetration of nanoparticles in tumor tissue, significantly ameliorating the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 xenografts and further leading to enhanced internalization of nanoparticles by CSCs. As a result, synergistic treatment with a nanoparticle drug delivery system and LY364947 inhibited tumor growth and reduced the proportion of CSCs in vivo. This study suggests that enhanced tumor penetration of drug-carrying nanoparticles can enhance CSCs clearance in vivo and consequently provide superior anti-tumor effects. PMID:26751819

  13. Cobalt-promoted Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for the Selective Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Matthew

    -Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), BET N2 Physisorption, and CO Temperature Programmed Reduction (CO-TPR). These characterizations helped us to correlate the selectivity and activity data for each catalyst in an attempt to understand what roles the surface species played. It was found that iron oxide nanoparticles doped with 2-10 mol% cobalt formed a stable surface phase, enriched in Co (20 at%), independent of the bulk concentration. XPS measurements indicate this phase is rich in octahedral Co2+ cations. The selectivity to benzene was much higher in the Co-promoted iron oxide samples. This high concentration of octahedral cobalt(II) cations appear to have a strong promotional effect on the weakly held surface oxygen sites which have been shown previously to be the active sites for this reaction. Addition of cobalt also promoted the activity of the iron oxide nanoparticles; and stabilized them against particle growth under the reaction conditions, typically held at several different temperatures up to 370 °C, in a mixture of 0.4% cyclohexane and 4% oxygen, for several hours.

  14. Nanoparticles carrying neurotrophin-3-modified Schwann cells promote repair of sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Haibin; Zhao, Hongxing; Zhao, Yilei; Jia, Jingling; Yang, Libin; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Yuzhen

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells and neurotrophin-3 play an important role in neural regeneration, but the secretion of neurotrophin-3 from Schwann cells is limited, and exogenous neurotrophin-3 is inactived easily in vivo. In this study, we have transfected neurotrophin-3 into Schwann cells cultured in vitro using nanoparticle liposomes. Results showed that neurotrophin-3 was successfully transfected into Schwann cells, where it was expressed effectively and steadily. A composite of Schwann cells transfected with neurotrophin-3 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable conduits was transplanted into rats to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects. Transplantation of the composite scaffold could restore the myoelectricity and wave amplitude of the sciatic nerve by electrophysiological examination, promote nerve axonal and myelin regeneration, and delay apoptosis of spinal motor neurons. Experimental findings indicate that neurotrophin-3 transfected Schwann cells combined with bridge grafting can promote neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury. PMID:25206420

  15. Nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles accelerate wound healing by promoting fibroblast migration and collagen deposition.

    PubMed

    Han, George; Nguyen, Long N; Macherla, Chitralekha; Chi, Yuling; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Martinez, Luis R

    2012-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that involves coordinated interactions between diverse immunological and biological systems. Long-term wounds remain a challenging clinical problem, affecting approximately 6 million patients per year, with a high economic impact. To exacerbate the problem, these wounds render the individual susceptible to life-threatening microbial infections. Because current therapeutic strategies have proved suboptimal, it is imperative to focus on new therapeutic approaches and the development of technologies for both short- and long-term wound management. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a critical molecule in wound healing, with NO levels increasing rapidly after skin damage and gradually decreasing as the healing process progresses. In this study, we examined the effects of a novel NO-releasing nanoparticle technology on wound healing in mice. The results show that the NO nanoparticles (NO-np) significantly accelerated wound healing. NO-np modified leukocyte migration and increased tumor growth factor-β production in the wound area, which subsequently promoted angiogenesis to enhance the healing process. By using human dermal fibroblasts, we demonstrate that NO-np increased fibroblast migration and collagen deposition in wounded tissue. Together, these data show that NO-releasing nanoparticles have the ability to modulate and accelerate wound healing in a pleiotropic manner. PMID:22306734

  16. [Cancer in ectopic breast tissue].

    PubMed

    Røikjer, Johan; Lindmark, Ida; Knudsen, Thor

    2015-06-15

    Two different forms of ectopic breast tissue exist in human beings: supernumerary and aberrant. Both forms are usually seen alongside the milk lines, which extend from the upper limbs to the inguinal region where they give rise to mammary glands, areolas and nipples. Although ectopic- and orthotopic breast tissue are placed in different areas of the body, they still share the same ability to undergo pathological degeneration. The focus of this case report is to shed light on this unusual form of breast cancer, and raise the level of awareness in cases with lumps located in the milk lines. PMID:26101129

  17. Surgical management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stock, Laura; Milad, Magdy

    2012-06-01

    Surgery remains an acceptable, and sometimes necessary, modality for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopy is the preferred method of access, yet controversy remains regarding the optimal procedure and postoperative management. Generally, salpingostomy is employed with the goal of maintaining fertility, although data to support this tenet are lacking. In most cases, the decision to perform conservative versus radical surgery is on the basis of the patient's history, her desire for future fertility, and surgical findings. The procedures of salpingostomy and salpingectomy, techniques to prevent and control blood loss at the time of surgery, and surgical options for nontubal ectopic pregnancies are reviewed. PMID:22510627

  18. Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Xu, Gu-feng; Liu, Yi-feng; Qu, Fan; Yao, Wei-miao; Zhu, Yi-min; Gao, Hui-juan; Zhang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case. PMID:25091994

  19. Treatment of ectopic varices with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro

    2015-06-28

    Ectopic varices are unusual with portal hypertension and can involve any site along the digestive tract outside the gastroesophageal region. Hemorrhage from ectopic varices generally are massive and life threatening. Diagnosis of ectopic varices is difficult and subsequent treatment is also difficult; the optimal treatment has not been established. Recently, interventional radiology and endoscopic treatments have been carried out successfully for hemorrhage from ectopic varices. PMID:26140080

  20. NGF-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles promote differentiation and outgrowth of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Marcus, M; Skaat, H; Alon, N; Margel, S; Shefi, O

    2015-01-21

    The search for regenerative agents that promote neuronal differentiation and repair is of great importance. Nerve growth factor (NGF) which is an essential contributor to neuronal differentiation has shown high pharmacological potential for the treatment of central neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, growth factors undergo rapid degradation, leading to a short biological half-life. In our study, we describe a new nano-based approach to enhance the NGF activity resulting in promoted neuronal differentiation. We covalently conjugated NGF to iron oxide nanoparticles (NGF-NPs) and studied the effect of the novel complex on the differentiation of PC12 cells. We found that the NGF-NP treatment, at the same concentration as free NGF, significantly promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the complexity of the neuronal branching trees. Examination of neuronal differentiation gene markers demonstrated higher levels of expression in PC12 cells treated with the conjugated factor. By manipulating the NGF specific receptor, TrkA, we have demonstrated that NGF-NPs induce cell differentiation via the regular pathway. Importantly, we have shown that NGF-NPs undergo slower degradation than free NGF, extending their half-life and increasing NGF availability. Even a low concentration of conjugated NGF treatment has led to an effective response. We propose the use of the NGF-NP complex which has magnetic characteristics, also as a useful method to enhance NGF efficiency and activity, thus, paving the way for substantial neuronal repair therapeutics. PMID:25473934

  1. Ectopic ATP synthase in endothelial cells: a novel cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi; Zhu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces ATP in cells and is found on the inner membrane of mitochondria or the cell plasma membrane (ectopic ATP synthase). Here, we summarize the functions of ectopic ATP synthase in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Ectopic ATP synthase is involved in adenosine metabolism on the cell surface through its ATP generation or hydrolysis activity. The ATP/ADP generated by the enzyme on the plasma membrane can bind to P2X/P2Y receptors and activate the related signalling pathways to regulate endothelial function. The β-chain of ectopic ATP synthase on the EC surface can recruit inflammatory cells and activate cytotoxic activity to damage ECs and induce vascular inflammation. Angiostatin and other angiogenesis inhibitors can have anti-angiogenic functions by inhibiting ectopic ATP synthase on ECs. Moreover, ectopic ATP synthase on ECs is a receptor for apoA-I, the acceptor of cholesterol efflux, which implies that endothelial ectopic ATP synthase is involved in cholesterol metabolism. Coupling factor 6 (CF6), a part of ectopic ATP synthase, is released from ECs and can inhibit prostacyclin synthesis and promote nitric oxide (NO) degradation to enhance NO bioactivity. Because ATP/ADP generated by ectopic ATP synthase can induce NO production, substances such as CF6 can inhibit NO generation by inhibiting surface ATP/ADP production. Thus, the components of ectopic ATP synthase are associated with regulation of vascular tone. Through these functions, ectopic ATP synthase on ECs is considered a potential and novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, hypertension and lipid disorders. PMID:21247400

  2. An Isoniazid Analogue Promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Nanoparticle Interactions and Enhances Bacterial Killing by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Tatiany J.; Roman, Mariane; de Souza, Nicole M.; De Vecchi, Rodrigo; de Assis, João Vitor; dos Santos, Ana Lúcia Gomes; Bechtold, Ivan H.; Winter, Nathalie; Soares, Maurilio José; Silva, Luciano Paulino; De Almeida, Mauro V.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoenabled drug delivery systems against tuberculosis (TB) are thought to control pathogen replication by targeting antibiotics to infected tissues and phagocytes. However, whether nanoparticle (NP)-based carriers directly interact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and how such drug delivery systems induce intracellular bacterial killing by macrophages is not defined. In the present study, we demonstrated that a highly hydrophobic citral-derived isoniazid analogue, termed JVA, significantly increases nanoencapsulation and inhibits M. tuberculosis growth by enhancing intracellular drug bioavailability. Importantly, confocal and atomic force microscopy analyses revealed that JVA-NPs associate with both intracellular M. tuberculosis and cell-free bacteria, indicating that NPs directly interact with the bacterium. Taken together, these data reveal a nanotechnology-based strategy that promotes antibiotic targeting into replicating extra- and intracellular mycobacteria, which could actively enhance chemotherapy during active TB. PMID:22330919

  3. NGF-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles promote differentiation and outgrowth of PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, M.; Skaat, H.; Alon, N.; Margel, S.; Shefi, O.

    2014-12-01

    The search for regenerative agents that promote neuronal differentiation and repair is of great importance. Nerve growth factor (NGF) which is an essential contributor to neuronal differentiation has shown high pharmacological potential for the treatment of central neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, growth factors undergo rapid degradation, leading to a short biological half-life. In our study, we describe a new nano-based approach to enhance the NGF activity resulting in promoted neuronal differentiation. We covalently conjugated NGF to iron oxide nanoparticles (NGF-NPs) and studied the effect of the novel complex on the differentiation of PC12 cells. We found that the NGF-NP treatment, at the same concentration as free NGF, significantly promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the complexity of the neuronal branching trees. Examination of neuronal differentiation gene markers demonstrated higher levels of expression in PC12 cells treated with the conjugated factor. By manipulating the NGF specific receptor, TrkA, we have demonstrated that NGF-NPs induce cell differentiation via the regular pathway. Importantly, we have shown that NGF-NPs undergo slower degradation than free NGF, extending their half-life and increasing NGF availability. Even a low concentration of conjugated NGF treatment has led to an effective response. We propose the use of the NGF-NP complex which has magnetic characteristics, also as a useful method to enhance NGF efficiency and activity, thus, paving the way for substantial neuronal repair therapeutics.The search for regenerative agents that promote neuronal differentiation and repair is of great importance. Nerve growth factor (NGF) which is an essential contributor to neuronal differentiation has shown high pharmacological potential for the treatment of central neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, growth factors undergo rapid degradation, leading to a short

  4. Brief review of models of ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michelle A; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; James, Aaron W

    2012-03-20

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity--distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used for experimentation, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and kidney capsule transplantation. The method, benefits and detractions of each method are summarized in the following review. Briefly, subcutaneous implantation is the simplest method. However, the most pertinent concern is the relative paucity of bone formation in comparison to other models. Intramuscular implantation is also widely used and relatively simple, however intramuscular implants are exposed to skeletal muscle satellite progenitor cells. Thus, distinguishing host from donor osteogenesis becomes challenging without cell-tracking studies. The kidney capsule (perirenal or renal capsule) method is less widely used and more technically challenging. It allows for supraphysiologic blood and nutrient resource, promoting robust bone growth. In summary, ectopic bone models are extremely useful in the evaluation of bone-forming stem cells, new osteoinductive biomaterials, and growth factors; an appropriate choice of model, however, will greatly increase experimental success. PMID:22085228

  5. Nanoparticle-facilitated autophagy inhibition promotes the efficacy of chemotherapeutics against breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rong; Shen, Song; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Xu, Cong-Fei; Cao, Zhi-Ting; Wen, Long-Ping; Wang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have garnered increasing attention over the past decade, as they are believed to play a crucial role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis, relapse and drug resistance. Therapeutic strategies which simultaneously exterminate both bulk tumor cells and the rare CSC subpopulation may produce striking response and result in long-term tumor remission. Accumulating evidence provides insight into the function of autophagy in maintenance, plasticity and survival of CSCs. The role of autophagy in the susceptibility of breast CSCs to chemotherapeutics was investigated in the present work, reduced 'stemness' and increased susceptibility to chemotherapy drugs (doxorubicin, DOX and docetaxel, DTXL) were observed after chloroquine (CQ)-mediated autophagy inhibition in sorted ALDH(hi) cells of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. We further proved that nanoparticle-mediated autophagy inhibition promoted the efficacy of chemotherapeutics against ALDH(hi) MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Administration of drug delivery systems significantly prolonged the circulation half-life and augmented enrichment of two different drugs in tumor tissues and ALDH(hi) cells. More importantly, compared with single treatment, the combined delivery systems NPCQ/NPDOX and NPCQ/DOX (NPCQ/NPDTXL and NPCQ/DTXL) showed most effective and persistent tumor growth inhibitory effect by eliminating bulk tumor cells as well as CSCs (p < 0.01) in an MDA-MB-231 orthotopic tumor murine model. Therefore, our research provides new insights into the nanoparticle-facilitated combination of autophagy inhibition and chemotherapy for effective therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27376558

  6. Promote potential applications of nanoparticles as respiratory drug carrier: insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xubo; Bai, Tingting; Zuo, Yi Y.; Gu, Ning

    2014-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs with different hydrophobicity and sizes on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface. Four different NPs were considered, including hydrophilic and hydrophobic NPs, each with two diameters of 3 nm and 5 nm (the sizes are comparable to that of generation 3 and 5 PAMAM dendrimers, which have been widely used for nanoscale drug carrier systems). Our simulations showed that hydrophilic NPs can readily penetrate into the aqueous phase with little or no disturbance on the DPPC monolayer. However, hydrophobic NPs tend to induce large structural disruptions, thus inhibiting the normal phase transition of the DPPC monolayer upon film compression. Our simulations also showed that this inhibitory effect of hydrophobic NPs can be mitigated through PEGylation. Our results provide useful guidelines for molecular design of NPs as carrier systems for pulmonary drug delivery.Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs

  7. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch.

    PubMed

    Törenek, K; Akgül, H M; Bayrakdar, I S

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. PMID:27547475

  8. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, H. M.; Bayrakdar, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. PMID:27547475

  9. Thermoplastics Reinforced with Self-Welded Short Carbon Fibers: Nanoparticle-Promoted Structural Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongge; Liu, Yaohua; Lin, Yu; Wu, Guozhang

    2016-07-27

    The large volume of currently available fiber-reinforced polymer composites critically limits the intrinsic versatility of fibers such as high mechanical strength, heat resistance, and excellent thermal/electrical conductivity. We proposed a facile and widely applicable strategy to promote self-organization of randomly dispersed short carbon fibers (CFs) into a three-dimensionally continuous scaffold. The morphological evolution and structural reinforcement of the self-welded CF-polyamide 6 (PA6) scaffold in polystyrene (PS) matrix were investigated, with carbon black (CB) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively localized in the PA6 domains. Surprisingly, all of the PA6 droplets once dispersed in the PS matrix can migrate and evenly encapsulate onto the CF surface when 5.8 wt % CB is incorporated, whereas in the TiO2-filled system, the PA6 droplets preferentially segregate at the junction point of CFs to fasten the self-welded CF structure. In addition, a remarkable increase in the interfacial adhesive work between PA6 and CF was observed only when TiO2 is added, and a loading of even less than 0.8 wt % can effectively abruptly strengthen the self-welded CF scaffold. We clarified that the structural evolution is promoted by the nature of self-agglomeration of NPs. CB is highly capable of self-networking in the PA6 domain, resulting in high encapsulation of PA6, although the capillary force for preferential segregation of PA6 at the junction point of CFs is reduced. By contrast, the TiO2 particles tend to form compact aggregates. Such an agglomeration pattern, together with enhanced interfacial affinity, must contribute to a strong capillary force for the preferential segregation of PA6. PMID:27391703

  10. Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on “urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization” and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 μg/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 μg/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells. PMID:24899804

  11. Cutaneous ectopic schistosomiasis: diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Barros, Cláudia Renata Castro do Rêgo; Maia, Daniela Cristina Caetano; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Medeiros, Camila Carolina Queiroz; de Araújo, Jessica Guido

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous schistosomiasis is a rare clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis, an infectious and parasitic disease, caused in Brazil by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The lesions are due to the deposition of eggs or, rarely, adult worms, usually involving the genital and groin areas. Extra-genital lesions occur mainly on the torso as papules of zosteriform appearance. The case of a patient with ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis is reported in this article, due to the rarity of its occurrence and its difficult clinical diagnosis. PMID:26982792

  12. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules. PMID:25807288

  13. Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kangning; Cao, Weipeng; Hao, Xiaohong; Xue, Xue; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Meng, Jie; Sun, Baoyun; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33575a

  14. Possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Kin, Tatsuya; Korbutt, Gregory S.; Shapiro, A.M. James

    2012-01-01

    We report on the incidental observation of ectopic pancreas in a donor for islet cell transplantation. The donor’s clinical and imaging presentation was definitive for holoprosencephaly. This case report discusses a possible link between ectopic pancreas and holoprosencephaly. PMID:22688061

  15. Ectopic scrotum: A unique case report.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, H Krishna; Pillai, Biju S; Rathore, Renjeeth Singh; Mehta, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic scrotum is a rare congenital anomaly. Most common location is supra-inguinal. We present a case of left ectopic scrotum in a three year old boy with no associated congenital anomalies, who underwent successful scrotoplasty and orchiopexy. PMID:26425237

  16. Ectopic scrotum: A unique case report

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, H. Krishna; Pillai, Biju S.; Rathore, Renjeeth Singh; Mehta, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic scrotum is a rare congenital anomaly. Most common location is supra-inguinal. We present a case of left ectopic scrotum in a three year old boy with no associated congenital anomalies, who underwent successful scrotoplasty and orchiopexy. PMID:26425237

  17. Ectopic breast cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Önel, Safa; Karateke, Faruk; Kuvvetli, Adnan; Özyazıcı, Sefa; Özdoğan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic breast may be present at any site, from the axilla to the vulva, other than its normal location. Cysts, adenofibromas and rarely carcinomas have been reported in ectopic breasts. In this case report, we present a patient with ectopic breast cancer. The patient had a thickening and enlarging of her ectopic breast tissue, on the left arcus costarium. Tru-cut biopsy revealed "invasive lobular carcinoma". Left ectopic mastectomy and level I-II axillary dissection were performed and then chemotherapy+radiotherapy+endocrine therapy treatment was commenced. During follow up, the patient is doing well; in spite of R1 resection, she has no evidence of local recurrences or distant metastases. PMID:25931856

  18. Cell-Specific Promoters Enable Lipid-Based Nanoparticles to Deliver Genes to Specific Cells of the Retina In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Ammaji; Cao, Binrui; Ranjo-Bishop, Michelle; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Mao, Chuanbin; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-viral vectors, such as lipid-based nanoparticles (liposome-protamine-DNA complex [LPD]), could be used to deliver a functional gene to the retina to correct visual function and treat blindness. However, one of the limitations of LPD is the lack of cell specificity, as the retina is composed of seven types of cells. If the same gene is expressed in multiple cell types or is absent from one desired cell type, LPD-mediated gene delivery to every cell may have off-target effects. To circumvent this problem, we have tested LPD-mediated gene delivery using various generalized, modified, and retinal cell-specific promoters. We achieved retinal pigment epithelium cell specificity with vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2), rod cell specificity with mouse rhodopsin, cone cell specificity with red/green opsin, and ganglion cell specificity with thymocyte antigen promoters. Here we show for the first time that cell-specific promoters enable lipid-based nanoparticles to deliver genes to specific cells of the retina in vivo. This work will inspire investigators in the field of lipid nanotechnology to couple cell-specific promoters to drive expression in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. PMID:27446487

  19. Glutathione promoted expeditious green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in water using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanoparticles with size range 5-10 nm has been synthesized under microwave irradiation conditions using gluathione, an absolutely benign antioxidant that serves as the reducing as well as capping agent in aqueous medium. This rapid protocol yields the nanoparticles within ...

  20. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  1. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; Fatemi, Hind El; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  2. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; El Fatemi, Hind; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  3. Formation of ectopic osteogenesis in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An ectopic osteogenesis experiment aboard the Cosmos-936 biosatellite is described. Decalcified, lyophilized femur and tibia were implanted under the fascia or in the anterior wall of the abdomen in rats. Bone formation before and after the tests is described and illustrated. The extent of formation of ectopic bone in weightlessness did not differ significantly from that in the ground controls, but the bone marrow of the ectopic bone of the flight rats consisted exclusively of fat cells. The deficit of support-muscle loading was considered to cause the disturbance in skeletal bone tissue development.

  4. Ectopic Schistosoma mansoni Eggs Inside a Lipoma.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Kelly Renata; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Petroianu, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic schistosomiasis is uncommon and tends to occur when the parasite's eggs or adult forms are located far from their normal site. This report presents the first described case of ectopic Schistosoma mansoni eggs inside a subcutaneous lipoma far from the tissues of this worm's life cycle and with no connection to either portal veins or any other vascular system. These eggs were found inside giant cells surrounded by inflammatory cells. In conclusion, in humans, ectopic S. mansoni eggs can be found far from the tissues of the described life cycle of this worm, with no connection to portal veins or other blood vessels used for their migration. PMID:26598562

  5. Renal Anomalies Associated with Ectopic Neurohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Samim; Şişmek, Damla Gökşen; Önder, Asan; Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the etiology of ectopic neurohypophysis that leads to pituitary hormone deficiencies is not yet clearly understood, birth trauma or genetic factors have been considered responsible. Concurrent cranial and extracranial congenital anomalies have been reported in such cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of renal anomalies in nonsyndromic cases with ectopic neurohypophysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 20 patients with ectopic neurohypophysis who were followed up between January 1990 and December 2007 in a tertiary University Hospital. Results: Renal anomalies were identified in three (15%) cases including unilateral renal agenesis in one case, renal hypoplasia in one case, and double collecting system and unilateral renal agenesis in one case. Conclusions: In the present study, the increased frequency of renal anomalies in cases of ectopic neurohypophysis was highlighted, and it was emphasized that there might be common genetic factors that lead to such associations. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750632

  6. Trends in ectopic pregnancy in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Hockin, J C; Jessamine, A G

    1984-01-01

    The incidence in Canada of one complication of sexually transmitted disease, ectopic pregnancy, was examined by age group for the years 1971 through 1980 by means of hospital statistics provided by Statistics Canada. The denominator was "reported pregnancies"--the total of live births, stillbirths, legal abortions and ectopic pregnancies in a given year. In 1980, 4123 ectopic pregnancies (9.3/1000 reported pregnancies) were reported, a 63% increase from 1970. The incidence had increased in each age stratum. This trend may be related to increasing rates of gonococcal infection and of hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease and lends confirmation to data from other countries that relate the increase in the rate of ectopic pregnancy to rising rates of sexually transmitted disease. PMID:6478362

  7. Ectopic Axillary Breast during Systemic Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Ben Dhaou, Besma; Boussema, Fatma; Aydi, Zohra; Baili, Lilia; Rokbani, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    Many breast changes may occur in systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a 41-year-old woman with lupus who presented three years after the onset of lupus an ectopic mammary gland confirmed by histological study. PMID:22924044

  8. Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Hazel; Heggs, Karen; White, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This case study discusses a recent diagnosis of a rare form of ectopic pregnancy within a Caesarean section scar. Evidence indicates that the prevalence of this form of ectopic pregnancy is escalating due to the increasing number of Caesarean sections performed. As ultrasound plays a major role in diagnosing this rare life-threatening condition, we recommend key points for practitioners to consider for meticulous assessment and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27433207

  9. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xu; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2015-12-01

    A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (NIr/NPd = 0.1), the activity of PdIr0.1/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd-Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir.

  10. Gold–promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2014-11-06

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here, we report on a structurally ordered Au₁₀Pd₄₀Co₅₀ catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that via addition of gold atoms PdCo nanoparticles undergo at elevated temperatures an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets. The superior stability of this catalyst compared to platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributed to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matters.

  11. Rapid and Persistent Delivery of Antigen by Lymph Node Targeting PRINT Nanoparticle Vaccine Carrier To Promote Humoral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sarah N.; Tian, Shaomin; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle delivery of subunit vaccines may increase vaccine efficacy, leading to a wide variety of safe and effective vaccines beyond those available through dosing inactivated or live, attenuated whole pathogens. Here we present a versatile vaccine delivery platform based on PRINT hydrogels made of biocompatible hydroxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that is able to activate the complement system by the alternative pathway. These lymph node targeting nanoparticles (NPs) promote the immunogenicity of a model antigen, ovalbumin, showing comparable adjuvant effect to alum. We demonstrate that an antigen-specific humoral response is correlated with antigen delivery to the draining lymph nodes, in particular, B cell rich regions of the lymph nodes. 80 × 180 nm cylindrical NPs were able to sustain prolonged antigen presentation to antigen presenting cells (APCs) and elicit a stronger immune response than nondraining 1 × 1 μm NPs or rapidly clearing soluble antigen. The 80 × 180 nm NPs also show high levels of uptake by key APCs and efficiently stimulate CD4+ helper T cell proliferation in vivo, further promoting antibody production. These features together produce a significant humoral immune response, superior to that produced by free antigen alone. The simplicity of the chemistries used in antigen conjugation to PRINT NPs confers versatility to this antigen delivery platform, allowing for potential application to many infectious diseases. PMID:25817072

  12. Effects of core/shell structure on magnetic induction heating promotion in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chi; Fu, Chao-Ming; Chang, Fu-Hsiung

    2013-10-01

    Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have demonstrated superior heating efficiency by applying the alternating magnetic field. The magnetic induction heating properties of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were analyzed by the rate-dependent hysteresis model, taken into account the magnetic anisotropies and actual size distribution of particles. The analyzed results have disclosed the significance of magnetic anisotropies and shell-thickness to the promotion of magnetic induction heating performance. Further experiments about the cancer cells with uptake of these core-shell magnetic nanoparticles conjugated biocompatible cationic liposomes have achieved in vitro intracellular magnetically induced hyperthermia under a weak alternating magnetic field.

  13. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Assembled Entirely from Immune Signals on Gold Nanoparticle Templates Promote Antigen-Specific T Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peipei; Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Jewell, Christopher M

    2015-06-23

    Materials that allow modular, defined assembly of immune signals could support a new generation of rationally designed vaccines that promote tunable immune responses. Toward this goal, we have developed the first polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coatings built entirely from immune signals. These immune-PEMs (iPEMs) are self-assembled on gold nanoparticle templates through stepwise electrostatic interactions between peptide antigen and polyanionic toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that serve as molecular adjuvants. iPEMs do not require solvents or mixing, offer direct control over the composition and loading of vaccine components, and can be coated on substrates at any scale. These films also do not require other structural components, eliminating the potentially confounding effects caused by the inherent immune-stimulatory characteristics of many synthetic polymers. iPEM loading on gold nanoparticle substrates is tunable, and cryoTEM reveals iPEM shells coated on gold cores. These nanoparticles are efficiently internalized by primary dendritic cells (DCs), resulting in activation, selective triggering of TLR signaling, and presentation of the antigens used to assemble iPEMs. In coculture, iPEMs drive antigen-specific T cell proliferation and effector cytokines but not cytokines associated with more generalized inflammation. Compared to mice treated with soluble antigen and adjuvant, iPEM immunization promotes high levels of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood after 1 week. These enhancements result from increased DC activation and antigen presentation in draining lymph nodes. iPEM-immunized mice also exhibit a potent recall response after boosting, supporting the potential of iPEMs for designing well-defined vaccine coatings that provide high cargo density and eliminate synthetic film components. PMID:26035231

  14. Fragmentation of Care in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Debra B; Dahlquist, Irma; Jarosch, Christina; Lindau, Stacy T

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women who experience fragmented care may undergo unnecessary delays to diagnosis and treatment. Based on ectopic pregnancy cases observed in clinical practice that raised our concern about fragmentation of care, we designed an exploratory study to describe the number, characteristics, and outcomes of fragmented care among patients with ectopic pregnancy at one urban academic hospital. Methods Chart review with descriptive statistics. Fragmented care was defined as a patient being evaluated at an outside facility for possible ectopic pregnancy and transferred, referred, or discharged before receiving care at the study institution. Results Of 191 women seen for possible or definite ectopic pregnancy during the study period, 42 (22 %) met the study definition of fragmented care. The study was under-powered to observe statistically significant differences across groups, but we found concerning, non-significant trends: patients with fragmented care were more likely to be Medicaid recipients (65.9 vs. 58.8 %) and to experience a complication (23.8 vs. 18.1 %) compared to those with non-fragmented care. Most patients (n = 37) received no identifiable treatment prior to transfer and arrived to the study hospital with no communication to the receiving hospital from the outside provider (n = 34). Nine patients (21 %) presented with ruptured ectopic pregnancies. The fragmentation we observed in our study may contribute to previously identified socio-economic disparities in ectopic pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion If future research confirms these findings, health information exchanges and regional coordination of care may be important strategies for reducing maternal mortality. PMID:26987855

  15. Restoration of Vision with Ectopic Expression of Human Rod Opsin.

    PubMed

    Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Jasmina; Eleftheriou, Cyril; Allen, Annette E; Milosavljevic, Nina; Pienaar, Abigail; Bedford, Robert; Davis, Katherine E; Bishop, Paul N; Lucas, Robert J

    2015-08-17

    Many retinal dystrophies result in photoreceptor loss, but the inner retinal neurons can survive, making them potentially amenable to emerging optogenetic therapies. Here, we show that ectopically expressed human rod opsin, driven by either a non-selective or ON-bipolar cell-specific promoter, can function outside native photoreceptors and restore visual function in a mouse model of advanced retinal degeneration. Electrophysiological recordings from retinal explants and the visual thalamus revealed changes in firing (increases and decreases) induced by simple light pulses, luminance increases, and naturalistic movies in treated mice. These responses could be elicited at light intensities within the physiological range and substantially below those required by other optogenetic strategies. Mice with rod opsin expression driven by the ON-bipolar specific promoter displayed behavioral responses to increases in luminance, flicker, coarse spatial patterns, and elements of a natural movie at levels of contrast and illuminance (≈50-100 lux) typical of natural indoor environments. These data reveal that virally mediated ectopic expression of human rod opsin can restore vision under natural viewing conditions and at moderate light intensities. Given the inherent advantages in employing a human protein, the simplicity of this intervention, and the quality of vision restored, we suggest that rod opsin merits consideration as an optogenetic actuator for treating patients with advanced retinal degeneration. PMID:26234216

  16. Restoration of Vision with Ectopic Expression of Human Rod Opsin

    PubMed Central

    Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Jasmina; Eleftheriou, Cyril; Allen, Annette E.; Milosavljevic, Nina; Pienaar, Abigail; Bedford, Robert; Davis, Katherine E.; Bishop, Paul N.; Lucas, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many retinal dystrophies result in photoreceptor loss, but the inner retinal neurons can survive, making them potentially amenable to emerging optogenetic therapies. Here, we show that ectopically expressed human rod opsin, driven by either a non-selective or ON-bipolar cell-specific promoter, can function outside native photoreceptors and restore visual function in a mouse model of advanced retinal degeneration. Electrophysiological recordings from retinal explants and the visual thalamus revealed changes in firing (increases and decreases) induced by simple light pulses, luminance increases, and naturalistic movies in treated mice. These responses could be elicited at light intensities within the physiological range and substantially below those required by other optogenetic strategies. Mice with rod opsin expression driven by the ON-bipolar specific promoter displayed behavioral responses to increases in luminance, flicker, coarse spatial patterns, and elements of a natural movie at levels of contrast and illuminance (≈50–100 lux) typical of natural indoor environments. These data reveal that virally mediated ectopic expression of human rod opsin can restore vision under natural viewing conditions and at moderate light intensities. Given the inherent advantages in employing a human protein, the simplicity of this intervention, and the quality of vision restored, we suggest that rod opsin merits consideration as an optogenetic actuator for treating patients with advanced retinal degeneration. PMID:26234216

  17. Ectopic ganglion in cauda equina: case report.

    PubMed

    Conner, Andrew K; Fung, Kar-Ming; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Glenn, Chad A; Martin, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Macroscopic ectopic or heterotopic ganglionic tissue within the cauda equina is a very rare pathological finding and is usually associated with spinal dysraphism. However, it may mimic genuine neoplasms of the cauda equina. The authors describe a 29-year-old woman with a history of back pain, right leg pain, and urinary incontinence in whom imaging demonstrated an enhancing mass located in the cauda equina at the L1-2 interspace. The patient subsequently underwent biopsy and was found to have a focus of ectopic ganglionic tissue that was 1.3 cm in greatest dimension. To the authors' knowledge, ectopic or heterotopic ganglionic tissue within the cauda equina in a patient without evidence of spinal dysraphism has never been reported. This patient presented with imaging and clinical findings suggestive of a neoplasm, and an open biopsy proved the lesion to be ectopic ganglionic tissue. The authors suggest that ectopic ganglionic tissue be added to the list of differential diagnoses of a space-occupying lesion arising from the cauda equina. PMID:26871650

  18. Mislocalization of the Drosophila centromere-specific histone CIDpromotes formation of functional ectopic kinetochores

    SciTech Connect

    Heun, Patrick; Erhardt, Sylvia; Blower, Michael D.; Weiss,Samara; Skora, Andrew D.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-01-30

    The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally non-centromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic delays, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragmentation, and cell and organismal lethality are all direct consequences of CID mislocalization. In addition, proteins that are normally restricted to endogenous kinetochores assemble at a subset of ectopic CID incorporation regions. The presence of microtubule motors and binding proteins, spindle attachments, and aberrant chromosome morphologies demonstrate that these ectopic kinetochores are functional. We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. Thus, CENP-A mislocalization is one possible mechanism for genome instability during cancer progression, as well as centromere plasticity during evolution.

  19. Response of MAPK pathway to iron oxide nanoparticles in vitro treatment promotes osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiwei; Chen, Bo; Cao, Meng; Sun, Jianfei; Wu, Hao; Zhao, Peng; Xing, Jing; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Xiquan; Ji, Min; Gu, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are generally used in multiple biomedical applications. The tissue repair effect of IONPs had been demonstrated in the previous studies of our group, but the underlying mechanism is unclarified. It is well known that stem cell-based therapies show promising prospect in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, however, whether IONPs could modulate stem cell fate to promote tissue repair is still unclear. Herein, we found that IONPs could promote osteogenic differentiation of human bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. To insightfully understand the molecular mechanisms, we performed systematic analyses by use of gene microarray assay and bioinformatics analysis, which revealed that gene expression was widely regulated and classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway was activated by IONPs treatment. As a result, downstream genes of this pathway were regulated to promote osteogenic differentiation. In summary, the present study elucidates a molecular basis explaining how IONPs effect on hBMSCs, which could have many meaningful impacts for stem cells application in regenerative medicine. PMID:26874888

  20. Molecular modeling of membrane responses to the adsorption of rotating nanoparticles: promoted cell uptake and mechanical membrane rupture.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tongtao; Zhang, Xianren; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-21

    Recently, a unique dynamic magnetic field was developed to induce the rotational movement of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. This technique has been applied to remotely control both cellular internalization and apoptosis. Therefore, a thorough understanding of how a lipid membrane responds to the introduction of rotating NPs is quite important to promote the applications of this technique in a variety of biomedical area. Here, we performed Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulations to systematically investigate the interaction mechanism between lipid membranes and rotating NPs. Two kinds of membrane responses are observed. One is the promoted cell uptake and the other is the mechanical membrane rupture. The promoting effect of NP rotation on the cell uptake is ascribed to the enhanced membrane monolayer protrusion, which can wrap the NP from the top side. Meanwhile, the rotating NP exerts a shearing force on the membrane. Accordingly, the membrane undergoes a local distortion around the NP. If the shearing force exceeds a critical value, the local membrane distortion develops into a mechanical rupture. A number of factors, like NP size, NP shape, ligand density and rotation speed, are critical in both of the above membrane responses. PMID:25388826

  1. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promote neurogenesis and abrogate hypoxia-induced memory impairment through AMPK–PKC–CBP signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Aditya; Gangwar, Anamika; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Roy, Manas; Das, Mainak; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional integrity of the brain is adversely affected by reduced oxygen saturation, especially during chronic hypoxia exposure and often encountered by altitude travelers or dwellers. Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species reportedly affects the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain, promoting memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanoceria, switch between +3 and +4 oxidation states and reportedly scavenge superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective as well as the cognition-enhancing activities of nanoceria during hypobaric hypoxia. Using polyethylene glycol-coated 3 nm nanoceria (PEG-CNPs), we have demonstrated efficient localization of PEG-CNPs in rodent brain. This resulted in significant reduction of oxidative stress and associated damage during hypoxia exposure. Morris water maze-based memory function tests revealed that PEG-CNPs ameliorated hypoxia-induced memory impairment. Using microscopic, flow cytometric, and histological studies, we also provide evidences that PEG-CNPs augmented hippocampus neuronal survival and promoted neurogenesis. Molecular studies revealed that PEG-CNPs promoted neurogenesis through the 5′-adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase–protein kinase C–cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein binding (AMPK-PKC-CBP) protein pathway. Our present study results suggest that nanoceria can be translated as promising therapeutic molecules for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27069362

  2. Gold–promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2014-11-06

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here, we report on a structurally ordered Au₁₀Pd₄₀Co₅₀ catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that via addition of gold atoms PdCo nanoparticles undergo at elevated temperatures an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets. The superior stability of this catalyst compared to platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributedmore » to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matters.« less

  3. [Lithiasis and ectopic pelvic kidney. Therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Aboutaieb, R; Rabii, R; el Moussaoui, A; Joual, A; Sarf, I; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Kidney in ectopic position is dysplasic, and associated to other malformations. The advent of a lithiasis in these conditions rises questions about therapeutic options. We report on five observations of pelvic ectopic kidney with urinary lithiasis. Patients were aged from 16 to 42 years. Kidney was non functional in two cases, or with normal appearance sized 10 to 12 cm. We performed total nephrectomy in two cases, pyelolithotomy in the other cases. Surgical approach was subperitoneal via iliac route. A dismembered pyeloplasty was associated in one case. All patients did well. Radiologic control at 6 and 12 months showed no recurrence in a well functioning kidney. Surgical lithotomy is advocated as a treatment in urinary lithiasis affecting ectopic kidney. It is an easy procedure which permits correction of other associated malformations. PMID:9833030

  4. Ectopic suprasellar pituitary adenoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Caranci, F; Cirillo, L; Bartiromo, F; Ferraioli, M; Del Basso De Caro, M L; Esposito, F; Cappabianca, P; Brunetti, A; Elefante, R

    2007-01-31

    The occurrence of a pituitary adenoma located entirely outside the sella turcica, so-called ectopic adenoma, is extremely rare. We report a case of a non secreting-pituitary adenoma located above the diaphragma sellae, with no invasion into the sella turcica, confirmed at surgery. The tumor was initially treated unsuccessfully by operations via the transphenoidal route. After initial negative exploration by the transphenoidal route, the patient was successfully treated by an endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal approach extended to the tuberculum sellae and the posterior planum sphenoidale to access the suprasellar supraglandular region. A brief review of ectopic adenomas and a discussion of the preoperative diagnosis are presented. PMID:24351300

  5. Peptide-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles with promoted bioactivity and osteo-differentiation ability for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zuyuan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Mengke; Bai, Yanjie; Zhao, Qiang; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-07-01

    Combination of mesoporous silica materials and bioactive factors is a promising niche-mimetic solution as a hybrid bone substitution for bone tissue engineering. In this work, we have synthesized biocompatible silica-based nanoparticles with abundant mesoporous structure, and incorporated bone-forming peptide (BFP) derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) into the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to obtain a slow-release system for osteogenic factor delivery. The chemical characterization demonstrates that the small osteogenic peptide is encapsulated in the mesoporous successfully, and the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms suggest that the peptide encapsulation has no influence on mesoporous structure of MSNs. In the cell experiment, the peptide-laden MSNs (p-MSNs) show higher MG-63 cell proliferation, spreading and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than the bare MSNs, indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. Simultaneously, the osteogenesis-related proteins expression and calcium mineral deposition disclose enhanced osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under the stimulation of the p-MSNs, confirming that BFP released from MSNs could significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, especially at 500μg/mL of p-MSNs concentration. The peptide-modified MSNs with better bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation make it a potential candidate as bioactive material for bone repairing, bone regeneration, and bio-implant coating applications. PMID:25969416

  6. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of nanoparticle size effect on kinetics in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by lanthanum promoted iron catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhaei Pour, Ali; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Behroozsarand, Alireza; Khodagholi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-08-01

    The kinetic parameters of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalyst are analyzed by size-dependent thermodynamic method. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic equation is considered for evaluation of catalytic activity of lanthanum promoted iron catalyst. A series of unsupported iron catalysts with different particle sizes were prepared via microemulsion method. The experimental results showed that catalyst activity pass from a maximum value by increasing the iron particle size. Also, data presented that iron particle size has considerable effects on adsorption parameters and FTS rates. The ratio of surface tension ( σ) to nanoparticle radius ( r) is important in FTS reaction on iron catalyst. Finally, the results showed that by increasing of iron particle size from 18 to 45 nm the activation energies of catalysts and heats of adsorption of catalysts as two main parameters of FTS reaction increased from 89 to 114 kJ/mol and from 51 to 71 kJ/mol, respectively.

  8. [Ectopic pancreas imitating gastric neoplasm -- a case report].

    PubMed

    Buczek, Tomasz; Puzdrowski, Witold; Lenekowski, Radosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare developmental disorder. Usually is asymptomatic. Most frequently is diagnosed in its gastric location accidentally during endoscopy. A patient with ectopic pancreas was described manifesting as a gastric tumor arousing oncological concern. PMID:24455840

  9. Caesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy following postcoital contraception.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, Laura; Perks, Nigel

    2002-07-01

    This is believed to be the first reported case of an ectopic pregnancy following failed progestogen-only emergency contraception. The ectopic pregnancy was at the site of a previous caesarean section scar and was managed conservatively. PMID:16259837

  10. Syndromes resulting from ectopic hormone-producing tumors.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Uria, A; Pazianos, A G

    1975-03-01

    Among the malignant tumors of nonendocrine origin that are capable of producing polypeptide hormones and of manifesting as different endocrine syndromes discussed here are ectopic ACTH syndrome, SIADH, and ectopic gonadotropin-producing tumors. PMID:163945

  11. Collagen peptide-based biomaterials for protein delivery and peptide-promoted self-assembly of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernenwein, Dawn M.

    2011-12-01

    Bottom-up self-assembly of peptides has driven the research progress for the following two projects: protein delivery vehicles of collagen microflorettes and the assembly of gold nanoparticles with coiled-coil peptides. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the mammals yet due to immunogenic responses, batch-to-batch variability and lack of sequence modifications, synthetic collagen has been designed to self-assemble into native collagen-like structures. In particular with this research, metal binding ligands were incorporated on the termini of collagen-like peptides to generate micron-sized particles, microflorettes. The over-arching goal of the first research project is to engineer MRI-active microflorettes, loaded with His-tagged growth factors with differential release rates while bound to stem cells that can be implemented toward regenerative cell-based therapies. His-tagged proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, have successfully been incorporated on the surface and throughout the microflorettes. Protein release was monitored under physiological conditions and was related to particle degradation. In human plasma full release was obtained within six days. Stability of the microflorettes under physiological conditions was also examined for the development of a therapeutically relevant delivery agent. Additionally, MRI active microflorettes have been generated through the incorporation of a gadolinium binding ligand, DOTA within the collagen-based peptide sequence. To probe peptide-promoted self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by non-covalent, charge complementary interactions, a highly anionic coiled-coil peptide was designed and synthesized. Upon formation of peptide-GNP interactions, the hydrophobic domain of the coiled-coil were shown to promote the self-assembly of peptide-GNPs clustering. Hydrophobic forces were found to play an important role in the assembly process, as a peptide with an equally overall negative charge, but lacking an

  12. Electronic cigarette aerosols and copper nanoparticles induce mitochondrial stress and promote DNA fragmentation in lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Chad A; Rutagarama, Pierrot; Ahmad, Tanveer; Sundar, Isaac K; Elder, Alison; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    Oxidants or nanoparticles have recently been identified as constituents of aerosols released from various styles of electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Cells in the lung may be directly exposed to these constituents and harbor reactive properties capable of incurring acute cell injury. Our results show mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and aerosol containing copper nanoparticles when exposed to human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) using an Air-Liquid Interface culture system, evident by elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). Increased mtROS after aerosol exposure is associated with reduced stability of OxPhos electron transport chain (ETC) complex IV subunit and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in HFL-1 conditioned media were also observed. These findings reveal both mitochondrial, genotoxic, and inflammatory stresses are features of direct cell exposure to E-cig aerosols which are ensued by inflammatory duress, raising a concern on deleterious effect of vaping. PMID:27343559

  13. Anchoring and promotion effects of metal oxides on silica supported catalytic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingjie; Ersen, Ovidiu; Chu, Wei; Dintzer, Thierry; Petit, Pierre; Petit, Corinne

    2016-11-15

    The understanding of the interactions between the different components of supported metal doped gold catalysts is of crucial importance for selecting and designing efficient gold catalysts for reactions such as CO oxidation. To progress in this direction, a unique supported nano gold catalyst Au/SS was prepared, and three doped samples (Au/SS@M) were elaborated. The samples before and after test were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the doping metal species prefer to be located on the surface of gold nanoparticles and that a small amount of additional reductive metal leads to more efficient reaction. During the catalytic test, the nano-structure of the metal species transforms depending on its chemical nature. This study allows one to identify and address the contribution of each metal on the CO reaction in regard to oxidative species of gold, silica and dopants. Metal doping leads to different exposure of interface sites between Au and metal oxide, which is one of the key factors for the change of the catalytic activity. The metal oxides help the activation of oxygen by two actions: mobility inside the metal bulk and transfer of water species onto of gold nanoparticles. PMID:27501036

  14. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour.

    PubMed

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5-10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  15. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5–10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  16. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking inguinal lymphoma on ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Prangsgaard, T; Lorentzen, T

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic decidual reaction has been described in various intraperitoneal locations. We present a case of unusual ectopic decidual reaction in the groin mimicking inguinal lymphoma on ultrasound in a pregnant woman. This case contributes evidence illustrating the variability of the clinical presentation of ectopic decidual reaction.

  17. Nanoparticles Encapsulated with LL37 and Serpin A1 Promotes Wound Healing and Synergistically Enhances Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Fumakia, Miral; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2016-07-01

    Wound care is a serious healthcare concern, often complicated by prolonged inflammation and bacterial infection, which contributes significantly to mortality and morbidity. Agents commonly used to treat chronic wound infections are limited due to toxicity of the therapy, multifactorial etiology of chronic wounds, deep skin infections, lack of sustained controlled delivery of drugs, and development of drug resistance. LL37 is an endogenous host defense peptide possessing antimicrobial activity and is involved in the modulation of wound healing. Serpin A1 (A1) is an elastase inhibitor and has been shown to demonstrate wound-healing properties. Hence, our goal was to develop a topical combination nanomedicine for the controlled sustained delivery of LL37 and A1 at precise synergistic ratio combinations that will significantly promote wound closure, reduce bacterial contamination, and enhance anti-inflammatory activity. We have successfully developed the first solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation that can simultaneously deliver LL37 and A1 at specific ratios resulting in accelerated wound healing by promoting wound closure in BJ fibroblast cells and keratinocytes as well as synergistically enhancing antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli in comparison to LL37 or A1 alone. PMID:27182713

  18. nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  19. SERS detection of uranyl using functionalized gold nanostars promoted by nanoparticle shape and size.

    PubMed

    Lu, Grace; Forbes, Tori Z; Haes, Amanda J

    2016-08-15

    The radius of curvature of gold (Au) nanostar tips but not the overall particle dimensions can be used for understanding the large and quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the uranyl (UO2)(2+) moiety. The engineered roughness of the Au nanostar architecture and the distance between the gold surface and uranyl cations are promoted using carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiols containing 2, 5, and 10 methylene groups. By systematically varying the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) thickness with these molecules, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectral properties are used to quantify the SAM layer thickness and to promote uranyl coordination to the Au nanostars in neutral aqueous solutions. Successful uranyl detection is demonstrated for all three functionalized Au nanostar samples as indicated by enhanced signals and red-shifts in the symmetric U(vi)-O stretch. Quantitative uranyl detection is achieved by evaluating the integrated area of these bands in the uranyl fingerprint window. By varying the concentration of uranyl, similar free energies of adsorption are observed for the three carboxylic acid terminated functionalized Au nanostar samples indicating similar coordination to uranyl, but the SERS signals scale inversely with the alkanethiol layer thickness. This distance dependence follows previously established models assuming that roughness features associated with the radius of curvature of the tips are considered. These results indicate that SERS signals using functionalized Au nanostar substrates can provide quantitative detection of small molecules and that the tip architecture plays an important role in understanding the resulting SERS intensities. PMID:27326897

  20. The Paracrinology of Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Julie L. V.; Horne, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of successful human reproduction, the Fallopian tube must provide a suitable environment for pre-implantation development of the embryo and for efficient transport of the embryo to the uterus for implantation. These functions are coordinated by paracrine interactions between tubal epithelial, smooth muscle and immune cells and the cells of the developing embryo. Alterations in these signals can lead to a tubal microenvironment encouraging of embryo implantation and to dysregulated tubal motility, ultimately resulting in inappropriate and early implantation of the embryo in the Fallopian tube. Here, we highlight novel and emerging concepts in tubal physiology and pathobiology, such as the induction of a receptive phenotype within the Fallopian tube, leading to ectopic implantation. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a risk factor for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) in the Fallopian tube epithelium, by C. trachomatis has recently been demonstrated, leading to the dysregulation of factors involved in implantation and smooth muscle contractility, such as prokineticins (PROK), activin A and interleukin 1 (IL-1). The Fallopian tube has also recently been shown to harbour a unique population of immune cells, compared to the endometrium. In addition, the complement of immune cells in the Fallopian tube has been reported to be altered in Fallopian tube from women with ectopic pregnancy. There are increasing data suggesting that vascularisation of the Fallopian tube, by the embryo during ectopic pregnancy, differs from that initiated in the uterus during normal pregnancy. This too, is likely the result of paracrine signals between the embryo and the tubal microenvironment. PMID:21827822

  1. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Larraza-Hernandez, O; Molberg, K H; Lindberg, G; Albores-Saavedra, J

    1997-07-01

    This is the first reported case of ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix, diagnosed in a 38-year-old woman. A cluster of benign prostatic glands with cribriform and papillary patterns and focal squamous metaplasia occupied the superficial endocervical stroma. The glands were immunoreactive for prostatic specific antigen and prostatic specific acid phosphatase. This lesion, which could be confused with microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric rests, or adenocarcinoma in situ may represent an embryonic rest. PMID:9421098

  2. Unilateral duplex horseshoe kidney with ectopic ureterocele

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.E.; Volberg, F.M.; Munitz, A.; Harrison, L.H.; Mashburn, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    Horseshoe kidney results from mesial fusion of the two nephrogenic blastemas during the fourth to seventh weeks of gestation. Associated genitourinary anomalies occur in approximately 25% of patients with horseshoe kidney. The authors report a case of a horseshoe kidney with unilateral pelvis and ureteral duplication with an ectopic ureterocele obstructing its upper moiety diagnosed by intravenous urography and real-time sonography. 13 references, 2 figures.

  3. Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Larry W; Charlesworth, Jon E; Yu, Sam; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano-sized complexes of calcium phosphate mineral and proteins (calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue calcification processes. This study determined if CNPs could augment calcification of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Methods CNPs 210 nm in diameter were propagated in vitro from human serum. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured for up to 28 days in medium in the absence (control) or presence of 2 mM phosphate ([P] positive calcification control) or after a single 3-day exposure to CNPs. Transmission electron-microscopy was used to characterize CNPs and to examine their cellular uptake. Calcium deposits were visualized by light microscopy and von Kossa staining and were quantified by colorimetry. Cell viability was quantified by confocal microscopy of live-/dead-stained cells and apoptosis was examined concurrently by fluorescent labeling of exposed phosphatidylserine. Results CNPs, as well as smaller calcium crystals, were observed by transmission electron-microscopy on day 3 in CNP-treated but not P-treated cells. By day 28, calcium deposits were visible in similar amounts within multicellular nodules of both CNP- and P-treated cells. Apoptosis increased with cell density under all treatments. CNP treatment augmented the density of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris in association with mineralized multicellular nodules. Conclusion Exogenous CNPs are taken up by aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and potentiate accumulation of smooth-muscle-derived apoptotic bodies at sites of mineralization. Thus, CNPs may accelerate vascular calcification. PMID:24920905

  4. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, Ester; Olender, Tsviya; Khen, Miriam; Yanai, Itai; Ophir, Ron; Lancet, Doron

    2006-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information. PMID:16716209

  5. Zoonotic ectopic fascioliasis: review and discussion.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Amr A; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-12-01

    Ectopic fascioliasis (EF) has direct and indirect effects on both humans and animals. The phenomenon of EF was individual cases in the period from 1950 up to the end of last century. From the period of 2000 up to 2006, plenty of researches were on EF in the developed and undeveloped countries. Nineteen EF cases infected with the immature and few with the mature worms were 13 females and 6 males. Three cases of lymphatic, pleural and breast fascioliasis reached the adults and laid their eggs in a lymph node in the cervical region pleural cavity and breast tissues. Until recent, knowledge about the ectopic fascioliasis pathway is little. Fasciola hepatica was the commonest species in most cases. The effect of fascioliasis might be direct to liver as ectopic foci or indirect on other organs due to the metabolites and secretory excretory products. All ages and both sexes were EF infected. Watercress topped the list of water plants born encysted metacercariae followed by lettuce, mint, and alfalfa. Nearly 24 million Egyptians at risk and about 800,000 were infected. On the global scale, about 180 million are at risk of infection. PMID:21268530

  6. Overnutrition, ectopic lipid and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated serum triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, dysglycemia (insulin resistance and elevated serum glucose), a pro-inflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Most persons with metabolic syndrome are obese, and usually have abdominal obesity. Generally, obesity is a reflection of overnutrition. A current view is that when adipose tissue fails to store all excess nutrients as triglyceride, lipid begins to accumulate in various tissues (eg, muscle, liver, pancreas, and heart). This accumulation is called ectopic lipid. Various mechanisms have been proposed whereby ectopic lipid is detrimental in different tissues; these derangements induce metabolic risk factors. The foundation of the metabolic syndrome thus appears to be overnutrition, that is, more nutrient intake than can be safely disposed by lipid oxidation. Excess dietary carbohydrate also induces ectopic lipid. Of interest, less than half of obese individuals develop metabolic syndrome. Through various mechanisms they adapt to overnutrition so as to minimize lipid overload in tissues, and consequently, prevent the syndrome. PMID:27194746

  7. Simulation of Ectopic Pacemakers in the Heart: Multiple Ectopic Beats Generated by Reentry inside Fibrotic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa de Barros, Bruno; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lobosco, Marcelo; Alonso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nonconducting media, mimicking cardiac fibrosis, in two models of cardiac tissue produces the formation of ectopic beats. The fraction of nonconducting media in comparison with the fraction of healthy myocytes and the topological distribution of cells determines the probability of ectopic beat generation. First, a detailed subcellular microscopic model that accounts for the microstructure of the cardiac tissue is constructed and employed for the numerical simulation of action potential propagation. Next, an equivalent discrete model is implemented, which permits a faster integration of the equations. This discrete model is a simplified version of the microscopic model that maintains the distribution of connections between cells. Both models produce similar results when describing action potential propagation in homogeneous tissue; however, they slightly differ in the generation of ectopic beats in heterogeneous tissue. Nevertheless, both models present the generation of reentry inside fibrotic tissues. This kind of reentry restricted to microfibrosis regions can result in the formation of ectopic pacemakers, that is, regions that will generate a series of ectopic stimulus at a fast pacing rate. In turn, such activity has been related to trigger fibrillation in the atria and in the ventricles in clinical and animal studies. PMID:26583127

  8. Silver nanoparticles/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber promotes wound healing by activating TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-wen; Wang, Qing; Li, Jing; Hu, Min; Shi, San-jun; Li, Zi-wei; Wu, Guo-lin; Cui, Huan-huan; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiu-heng; Lu, Lai-chun

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing occupies a remarkable place in everyday pathology and remains a challenging clinical problem. In our previous study, we prepared a silver nanoparticle/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA/COS-AgNPs) nanofiber via electrospinning and revealed that it could promote wound healing; however, the healing mechanism remained unknown. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the accelerated healing effect of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber. The TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway is actively involved in wound healing. Considering the key role of this signaling pathway in wound healing, our preliminary study showed that the TGFβ1 level was significantly increased during the early stage of wound healing. Thus, in this study, hematoxylin–eosin, Masson’s trichrome, immunofluorescent staining, hydroxyproline content, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses were used to analyze the wound healing in a rat model treated with gauze, the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber, and the nanofiber plus SB431542 (an inhibitor of TGFβ1 receptor kinase). The results showed that the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber promoted wound healing and upregulated the expression levels of cytokines associated with the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway such as TGFβ1, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, collagen I, collagen III, pSmad2, and pSmad3. Inhibiting this pathway with SB431542 resulted in prevention of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber-associated salutary effects on the early stage of wound healing and relative cytokines expression. In conclusion, the wound healing effect of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber involves activation of the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:26855575

  9. Silver nanoparticles/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber promotes wound healing by activating TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-wen; Wang, Qing; Li, Jing; Hu, Min; Shi, San-jun; Li, Zi-wei; Wu, Guo-lin; Cui, Huan-huan; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiu-heng; Lu, Lai-chun

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing occupies a remarkable place in everyday pathology and remains a challenging clinical problem. In our previous study, we prepared a silver nanoparticle/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA/COS-AgNPs) nanofiber via electrospinning and revealed that it could promote wound healing; however, the healing mechanism remained unknown. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the accelerated healing effect of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber. The TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway is actively involved in wound healing. Considering the key role of this signaling pathway in wound healing, our preliminary study showed that the TGFβ1 level was significantly increased during the early stage of wound healing. Thus, in this study, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, immunofluorescent staining, hydroxyproline content, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses were used to analyze the wound healing in a rat model treated with gauze, the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber, and the nanofiber plus SB431542 (an inhibitor of TGFβ1 receptor kinase). The results showed that the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber promoted wound healing and upregulated the expression levels of cytokines associated with the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway such as TGFβ1, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, collagen I, collagen III, pSmad2, and pSmad3. Inhibiting this pathway with SB431542 resulted in prevention of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber-associated salutary effects on the early stage of wound healing and relative cytokines expression. In conclusion, the wound healing effect of the PVA/COS-AgNPs nanofiber involves activation of the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:26855575

  10. Reiterated Targeting Peptides on the Nanoparticle Surface Significantly Promote Targeted Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Delivery to Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Dong; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-12-14

    Nonviral gene delivery vectors hold great promise for gene therapy due to the safety concerns with viral vectors. However, the application of nonviral vectors is hindered by their low transfection efficiency. Herein, in order to tackle this challenge, we developed a nonviral vector integrating lipids, sleeping beauty transposon system and 8-mer stem cell targeting peptides for safe and efficient gene delivery to hard-to-transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The 8-mer MSC-targeting peptides, when synthetically reiterated in three folds and chemically presented on the surface, significantly promoted the resultant lipid-based nanoparticles (LBNs) to deliver VEGF gene into MSCs with a high transfection efficiency (∼52%) and long-lasting gene expression (for longer than 170 h) when compared to nonreiterated peptides. However, the reiterated stem cell targeting peptides do not enable the highly efficient gene transfer to other control cells. This work suggests that the surface presentation of the reiterated stem cell-targeting peptides on the nonviral vectors is a promising method for improving the efficiency of cell-specific nonviral gene transfection in stem cells. PMID:26588028

  11. S/MAR-containing DNA nanoparticles promote persistent RPE gene expression and improvement in RPE65-associated LCA

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Adarsha; Makkia, Rasha S.; Conley, Shannon M.; Cooper, Mark J.; Naash, Muna I.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in genes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cause or contribute to debilitating ocular diseases, including Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Genetic therapies, particularly adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), are a popular choice for monogenic diseases; however, the limited payload capacity of AAVs combined with the large number of retinal disease genes exceeding that capacity make the development of alternative delivery methods critical. Here, we test the ability of compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs) containing a plasmid with a scaffold matrix attachment region (S/MAR) and vitelliform macular dystrophy 2 (VMD2) promoter to target the RPE, drive long-term, tissue-specific gene expression and mediate proof-of-principle rescue in the rpe65−/− model of LCA. We show that the S/MAR-containing plasmid exhibited reporter gene expression levels several fold higher than plasmid or NPs without S/MARs. Importantly, this expression was highly persistent, lasting up to 2 years (last timepoint studied). We therefore selected this plasmid for testing in the rpe65−/− mouse model and observe that NP or plasmid VMD2-hRPE65-S/MAR led to structural and functional improvements in the LCA disease phenotype. These results indicate that the non-viral delivery of hRPE65 vectors can result in persistent, therapeutically efficacious gene expression in the RPE. PMID:23335596

  12. Studies of the structure and function of Mms6, a bacterial protein that promotes the formation of magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report structural and functional studies of Mms6, a biomineralization protein that can promote the formation in vitro of magnetic nanoparticles with sizes and morphologies similar to the magnetites synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. We found the binding pattern of Mms6 to ferric ion to be two-phase and multivalent. We quantatively determined that Mms6 binds one Fe3+ with a very high affinity (Kd = 1016 M). The second phase of iron binding is multivalent and cooperative with respect to iron with a Kd in the μM range and a stoichiometry of about 20 ferric ion per protein molecule. We found that Mms6 exists in large particles of two sizes, one consisting of 20-40 monomeric units and the other of 200 units. From proteolytic digestion, ultracentrifugation and liposome fusion studies, we found that Mms6 forms a large micellar quaternary structure with the N-terminal domain self-assembling into a uniformly sized micelle and the C-terminal domain on the surface. The two-phase iron-binding pattern may be relevant to iron crystal formation. We propose that the first high affinity phase may stabilize a new conformation of the C-terminal domain that allows interaction with other C-terminal domains leading to a structural change in the multimeric protein complex that enables the second low affinity iron binding phase to organize iron and initiate crystal formation. We also observed a dimeric apparent molecular mass of the Mms6 C-terminal peptide (C21Mms6). We speculate that the C-terminal domain may form higher order quaternary arrangements on the surface of the micelle or when anchored to a membrane by the N-terminal domain. The change in fluorescence quenching in the N-terminal domain with iron binding suggests a structural integrity between the C- and N-terminal domains. The slow change in trp fluorescence as a function of time after adding iron suggests a very slow conformational change in the protein that involves

  13. Pigment epithelial-derived factor gene loaded novel COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH nanoparticles promoted tumor suppression by systemic administration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ting; Xu, Bei; He, Lili; Xia, Shan; Chen, Yan; Zeng, Jun; Liu, Yongmei; Li, Shuangzhi; Tan, Xiaoyue; Ren, Ke; Yao, Shaohua; Song, Xiangrong

    2016-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis has been proposed as an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is one of the most powerful endogenous anti-angiogenic reagents discovered to date and PEDF gene therapy has been recognized as a promising treatment option for various tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a safe and valid vector for its systemic delivery. Herein, a novel gene delivery system based on the newly synthesized copolymer COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH (CPPC) was developed in this study, which was probably capable of overcoming the disadvantages of viral vectors and cationic lipids/polymers-based nonviral carriers. PEDF gene loaded CPPC nanoparticles (D-NPs) were fabricated by a modified double-emulsion water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method. D-NPs with uniform spherical shape had relatively high drug loading (~1.6%), probably because the introduced carboxyl group in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) terminal enhanced the interaction of copolymer with the PEDF gene complexes. An excellent in vitro antitumor effect was found in both C26 and A549 cells treated by D-NPs, in which PEDF levels were dramatically elevated due to the successful transfection of PEDF gene. D-NPs also showed a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro and inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo by an alginate-encapsulated tumor cell assay. Further in vivo antitumor investigation, carried out in a C26 subcutaneous tumor model by intravenous injection, demonstrated that D-NPs could achieve a significant antitumor activity with sharply reduced microvessel density and significantly promoted tumor cell apoptosis. Additionally, the in vitro hemolysis analysis and in vivo serological and biochemical analysis revealed that D-NPs had no obvious toxicity. All the data indicated that the novel CPPC nanoparticles were ideal vectors for the systemic delivery of PEDF gene and might be widely

  14. [Ectopic internal carotid artery of the oropharynx: two cases report].

    PubMed

    Xie, Sanlin; Chen, Shiyan; Chen, Xianming

    2016-02-01

    Ectopic internal carotid artery (ICA) is a very rare congenital variation. Unless the diagnosis is made before neck or tonsil surgery, massive hemorrhage and even death may result from injury to the vessel. Therefore, knowledge of the presence of ectopic ICAs may be important. We report two cases suffering from dysphagia associated with ectopic ICA manifesting itself as a pulsative protruding of the right lateral wall of the oropharynx. PMID:27373046

  15. Recurrent Ectopic Pregnancy in the Tubal Remnant after Salpingectomy

    PubMed Central

    Samiei-Sarir, Bahareh; Diehm, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We present two cases of ectopic pregnancy located within the remnant tube following ipsilateral salpingectomy. This particular pathology is rare and yet has significant consequences for the patient, with mortality rates 10–15 times higher than other ectopic pregnancies. It demonstrates that salpingectomy does not exclude ectopic pregnancy on the ipsilateral side. We suggest careful clinical consideration and bring attention to the current surgical technique. PMID:24151570

  16. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access].

    PubMed

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection. PMID:25230388

  17. [Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, B B; Madureira, G; Bloise, W; Albergaria, A; Halpern, A; Liberman, B; Villares, S M; Batista, M C; Avancini, V F; Nitterdorfi, C T

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied 8 patients (4 males and 4 females) with Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion. Chronological age ranged from 15 to 45 years and duration of the disease ranged from 3 to 48 months. All patients presented typical signs of Cushing's syndrome, blood hypertension, and four of them had hyperpigmentation of the skin. Five patients had fasting hyperglycemia and all patients but one had serum hypokalemia (serum K = 2.2 to 3.9mEq/l). The circadian rhythm of cortisol was absent in all patients and basal cortisol levels were elevated in all patients but one. Basal ACTH levels evaluated in 7 patients were elevated in 6 (29 to 1050 pg/ml-MRC). One patient presented normal depression of urinary 17-OH after two days of dexamethasone and normal increase of urinary 17-OH and serum 11-dexycortisol after methyrapone. Four patients had carcinoid tumor (3 thymic and 1 bronchial), two had pancreatic islets cell tumors, one had bilateral pheochromocytoma and medular carcinoma of the thyroid, and one had oat cell carcinoma of the lung and medular carcinoma of the thyroid. Thoracic X-rays identified the ectopic ACTH secretion tumor in four cases, all confirmed by CT scan. Abdominal CT showed a difuse enlargement of the adrenals in seven cases and bilateral nodules in one case (pheochromocytomas). Six patients died within 3 years of the diagnosis. The authors concluded that clinical and hormonal findings could mislead the findings of ACTH ectopic secretion and Cushing's disease, and suggest that thoracic X-rays and CT scans of the skull, thorax, and abdome should be done in all cases of Cushing's syndrome. PMID:2559451

  18. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  19. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  20. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  1. Treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Oresković, Slavko; Simunić, Velimir; Jezek, Davor; Tomić, Vlatka; Tomić, Jozo; Gall, Vesna; Mihaljević, Slobodan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze retrospectively the safety and success rates of single- and two-dose methotrexate (MTX) protocols for the treatment of hemodynamically stable cases of ectopic pregnancy at University Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zagreb University Hospital Center, during a five-year period. The study evaluated MTX treatment efficacy in 35 women with ectopic pregnancies in relation to the initial levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone. Successful treatment was recorded in 32/35 women, 24/25 on single dose MTX and 8/10 on double dose MTX, whereas 3/35 patients underwent laparoscopy. The mean initial hCG level in all 35 patients on day 0 was 657.54 +/- 592.4 IU/L; 572.99 +/- 488.10 IU/L in those successfully treated with MTX and 1560.30 +/- 890.70 IU/L in those requiring additional laparoscopy (p < 0.005). The mean initial hCG level was 393.10 +/- 305.9 IU/L in patients successfully treated with a single dose of MTX and 973.5 +/- 722.40 IU/L in those with an additional dose of MTX (p < 0.002). The mean initial progesterone level was 16.36 +/-10.70 nmol/L in 35 MTX-treated ectopic pregnancy patients, 13.64 +/- 8.89 nmol/L in those with treatment success and 28.45 +/- 11.32 nmol/L in cases of treatment failure (p < 0.05). The mean level of progesterone on day 0 was 12.74 +/- 830 nmol/L in patients successfully treated with a single dose of MTX and 26.10 +/- 18.80 nmol/L in patients treated with double-dose MTX (p < 0.006). It is concluded that pretreatment values of hCG and progesterone are inversely related to medicamentous treatment success in selected cases ofhemodynamically stable patients, thus they may be used as an important predictor in the management of ectopic pregnancy treated with MTX. PMID:23540161

  2. [Update on Current Care Guidelines: Ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Juha; Töyli, Mira; Niemimaa, Marko; Kulju, Pekka; Sokka, Tarja; Vuorela, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy should be suspected it a woman of fertile age has lower abdominal pain and irregular vaginal bleeding. Symptoms range from almost none to shock. The diagnosis is based on a quantitative serum pregnancy test (hCG) and transvaginal ultrasound. An acute situation requires emergency surgery, whereas patients with mild symptoms should be treated policlinically by follow-up or a single intramuscular dose (1 mg/kg) of methotrexate. No folic acid supplementation is needed. In later pregnancies their location should be verified by transvaginal ultrasound done by the seventh gestational week at the latest. PMID:26245062

  3. Heterolytic Activation of Hydrogen Promoted by Ruthenium Nanoparticles immobilized on Basic Supports and Hydrogenation of Aromatic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Minfeng

    Despite the aggressive development and deployment of new renewable and nuclear technologies, petroleum-derived transportation fuels---gasoline, diesel and jet fuels---will continue to dominate the markets for decades. Environmental legislation imposes severe limits on the tolerable proportion of aromatics, sulfur and nitrogen contents in transportation fuels, which is difficult to achieve with current refining technologies. Catalytic hydrogenation plays an important role in the production of cleaner fuels, both as a direct means to reduce the aromatics and as a key step in the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) processes. However, conventional catalysts require drastic conditions and/or are easily poisoned by S or N aromatics. Therefore, there is still a need for new efficient catalysts for hydrogenation reactions relevant to the production of cleaner fossil fuels. Our catalyst design involves metallic nanoparticles intimately associated with a basic support, with the aim of creating a nanostructure capable of promoting the heterolytic activation of hydrogen and ionic hydrogenation mechanisms, as a strategy to avoid catalyst poisoning and enhance catalytic activity. We have designed and prepared a new nanostructured catalytic material composed of RuNPs immobilized on the basic polymer P4VPy. We have demonstrated that the Ru/P4VPy catalyst can promote heterolytic hydrogen activation and a unique surface ionic hydrogenation mechanism for the efficient hydrogenation of N-aromatics. This is the first time these ionic hydrogenation pathways have been demonstrated on solid surfaces. For the RuNPs surfaces without basic sites in close proximity, the conventional homolytic H2 splitting is otherwise involved. Using the mechanistic concepts from Ru/P4VPy, we have designed and prepared the Ru/MgO catalyst, with the aim to improve the catalytic efficiency for the hydrogenation of heteroatom aromatics operating by the ionic hydrogenation mechanism. The Ru

  4. A test of geochemical reactivity as a function of mineral size: Manganese oxidation promoted by hematite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Andrew S.; Hochella, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Mn 2+(aq) oxidation as promoted by hematite in the presence of molecular oxygen has been studied as a function of hematite particle size. This system is a good candidate to serve as a test of the change of particle reactivity as a function of size due not only to its importance in Earth/environmental processes, but also because it involves electronic coupling between the hematite and adsorbed manganese. The properties of nanoscale hematite, including size quantization of the electronic structure and the relative proportions of terrace vs. edge/kink sites, are expected to change significantly with the particle size in this size range. Experimental results from this study suggest that the heterogeneous manganese oxidation rate is approximately one to one and a half orders of magnitude greater on hematite particles with an average diameter of 7.3 nm than with those having an average diameter of 37 nm, even when normalized to the surface areas of the particles. The acceleration of electron transfer rate for the reactions promoted by the smallest particles is rationalized in the framework of electron transfer theory. According to this theory, for a reaction such as heterogeneous Mn oxidation, the rate depends on three factors: the electronic coupling between initial and final electronic states, the substantial reorganization energy for solvent and coordinated ligands between initial and final states, and the free energy of reaction (corrected for work required to bring reactants together). The adsorbed Mn is electronically coupled with the solid during the electron transfer, and changes in the electronic structure of the solid would be expected to influence the rate. The Lewis base character of surface oxygen atoms increases as the electronic structure becomes quantized, which should allow increased coupling with adsorbed Mn. Finally, as demonstrated previously by in situ AFM observations, the reaction proceeds most readily at topographic features that distort the

  5. Visible light photo-degradation of methylene blue over Fe or Cu promoted ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardani, Hamid Reza; Forouzani, Mehdi; Ziari, Mitra; Biparva, Pourya

    2015-04-01

    CuxZn(1-x)O, FexZn(1-x)O (x = 0.01) and ZnO nanoparticles were and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The photodegradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue (as an organic pollutant) by nanoparticles with H2O2 (30%) under visible light and the progress of the reaction were monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy absorption. The photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of all nanoparticles was 100% at the appropriate time. The degradation time was 90 min for FeZnO, 120 min for CuZnO and 210 min for ZnO. This indicates that the photocatalytic activity of the doped nanoparticles was better than that of ZnO alone. ZnO doped with a small amount of Fe or Cu decreased the size of the nanoparticles and the band gap and increased photocatalytic efficiency.

  6. Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion.

    PubMed

    Cieszyński, Łukasz; Berendt-Obołończyk, Monika; Szulc, Michał; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is defined as a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms occurring due to hypercortisolism. Cortisol excess may be endogenous or exogenous. The most common cause of CS is glucocorticoid therapy with supraphysiological (higher than in the case of substitution) doses used in various diseases (e.g. autoimmune). One possible CS cause is ectopic (extra-pituitary) ACTH secretion (EAS) by benign or malignant tumours. Since its first description in 1963, EAS aetiology has changed, i.e. as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), higher incidence in other malignancies has been reported. Ectopic ACTH secretion symptoms are usually similar to hypercortisolism symptoms due to other causes. A clinical suspicion of CS requires laboratory investigations. There is no single and specific laboratory test for making a CS diagnosis, and therefore multiple dynamic tests should be ordered. A combination of multiple laboratory noninvasive and invasive tests gives 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for EAS diagnosis. If the EAS is caused by localised malignancy, surgery is the optimal treatment choice. Radical tumour excision may be performed in 40% of patients, and 80% of them are cured of the disease. The authors present an interesting clinical case of EAS, which is always a huge diagnostic challenge for clinicians. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 458-464). PMID:27387249

  7. Genetic analysis of ectopic circadian clock induction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kilman, Valerie L; Allada, Ravi

    2009-10-01

    Cell-autonomous feedback loops underlie the molecular oscillations that define circadian clocks. In Drosophila the transcription factor Clk activates multiple clock components of feedback loops many of which feed back and regulate Clk expression or activity. Previously the authors evoked similar molecular oscillations in putatively naïve neurons in Drosophila by ectopic expression of a single gene, Clk, suggesting a master regulator function. Using molecular oscillations of the core clock component PERIOD (PER), the authors observed dramatic and widespread molecular oscillations throughout the brain in flies expressing ectopic Clk. Consistent with the master regulator hypothesis, they found that Clk is uniquely capable of inducing ectopic clocks as ectopic induction of other clock components fails to induce circadian rhythms. Clk also induces oscillations even when expression is adult restricted, suggesting that ectopic clocks can even be induced in differentiated cells. However, if transgene expression is discontinued, PER expression disappears, indicating that Clk must be continually active to sustain ectopic clock function. In some cases Clk-mediated PER induction was observed without apparent synchronous cycling, perhaps due to desynchronization of rhythms between clocks or truly cell autonomous arrhythmic PER expression, indicating that additional factors may be necessary for coherent rhythms in cells ectopically expressing Clk. To determine minimal requirements for circadian clock induction by Clk, the authors determined the genetic requirements of ectopic clocks. No ectopic clocks are induced in mutants of Clk's heterodimeric partner cyc. In addition, noncycling PER is observed when ectopic Clk is induced in a cryb mutant background. While other factors may contribute, these results indicate that persistent Clock induction is uniquely capable of broadly inducing ectopic rhythms even in adults, consistent with a special role at the top of a clock gene

  8. Ectopic expression of rice Xa21 overcomes developmentally controlled resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Chern, Mawsheng; Sharma, Rita; Canlas, Patrick E.; Song, Min-Young; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the innate immune response. The rice PRR, XA21, confers robust resistance at adult stages to most strains of the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Seedlings are still easily infected by Xoo, causing severe yield losses. Here we report that Xa21 is induced by Xoo infection and that ectopic expression of Xa21 confers resistance at three leaf stage (three-week-old), overcoming the developmental limitation of XA21-mediated resistance. Ectopic expression of Xa21 also up-regulates a larger set of defense-related genes as compared to Xa21 driven by the native promoter. These results indicate that altered regulation of Xa21 expression is useful for developing enhanced resistance to Xoo at multiple developmental stages. PMID:21076626

  9. Ectopic Pancreas in the Wall of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Jose Salvador; Stauffer, John A

    2016-07-01

    Ectopic pancreas is an uncommon and benign finding. However, these lesions can cause symptoms including abdominal pain and often require removal. We present the case of a 27-year-old patient with long-standing vague abdominal symptoms eventually found to have ectopic pancreas tissue in the proximal jejunum. PMID:26892166

  10. Laparoscopic management of three rare types of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yan, C M

    2010-04-01

    The laparoscopic management of three rare types of ectopic pregnancy, including rudimentary horn pregnancy, caesarean scar pregnancy, and interstitial pregnancy is described. All were managed with little morbidity. When the appropriate facilities and skills are available, laparoscopic surgery is the surgical treatment of choice for the various types of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:20354248

  11. Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ultimo, Amelia; Giménez, Cristina; Bartovsky, Pavel; Aznar, Elena; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, M Dolores; Amorós, Pedro; Bernardo, Ana R; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Jiménez-Lara, Ana M; Murguía, José R

    2016-01-26

    We describe herein a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) targeting delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) for controlled cargo delivery in SK-BR-3 breast carcinoma cells. Our results show that poly(I:C)-conjugated nanoparticles efficiently targeted breast cancer cells due to dsRNA-TLR3 interaction. Such interaction also triggered apoptotic pathways in SK-BR-3, significantly decreasing cells viability. Poly(I:C) cytotoxic effect in breast carcinoma cells was enhanced by loading nanoparticles' mesopores with the anthracyclinic antibiotic doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26641630

  12. Silver nanoparticles confined in carbon nanotubes: on the understanding of the confinement effect and promotional catalysis for the selective hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianwei; Duan, Xinping; Lin, Haiqiang; Gu, Zhengqiang; Fang, Huihuang; Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Youzhu

    2016-03-01

    A confined Ag nanomaterial in the channels of herringbone multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ag-in/hCNT) was effectively prepared. The space restriction induces morphological changes of Ag nanoparticles into rough nanowires with an estimated aspect ratio of 60 : 8 (nm/nm). Dihydrogen activation is enhanced through the vacancy-enriched wire-like Ag nanocatalyst, as well as the confinement effect. The grain boundaries of Ag and rolled-up graphene layers of CNTs are speculated to play vital roles in the diffusion of activated hydrogen species. The Ag-in/hCNT catalyst exhibits an activity that is three times higher than that of Ag nanoparticles located on the CNT exterior walls in DMO hydrogenation. This finding may insinuate that interplanar spaces provide available access to the external surface of CNTs. Designed experiments further confirm the importance of herringbone CNTs with higher reaction rate than parallel CNTs, and confined Ag produces considerably more activated hydrogen species, thereby benefiting the reduction of surface copper nanoparticles or DMO molecules during hydrogenation. This paper presents a study of the effective utilization of hydrogen over herringbone CNT confined Ag and an understanding of the confinement and promotional catalytic effects.A confined Ag nanomaterial in the channels of herringbone multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ag-in/hCNT) was effectively prepared. The space restriction induces morphological changes of Ag nanoparticles into rough nanowires with an estimated aspect ratio of 60 : 8 (nm/nm). Dihydrogen activation is enhanced through the vacancy-enriched wire-like Ag nanocatalyst, as well as the confinement effect. The grain boundaries of Ag and rolled-up graphene layers of CNTs are speculated to play vital roles in the diffusion of activated hydrogen species. The Ag-in/hCNT catalyst exhibits an activity that is three times higher than that of Ag nanoparticles located on the CNT exterior walls in DMO hydrogenation. This finding may

  13. Radionuclide Imaging of Dual Ectopic Thyroid in a Preadolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Şule; Atılgan, Hasan İkbal; Korkmaz, Meliha; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a congenital defect in which the thyroid gland is located away from the usual pretracheal location. Dual ectopic thyroid, which consists of two foci of thyroid tissue, is very rare. In this case dual ectopic thyroid with subclinical hypothyroidism in a 10-year-old-girl was reported. The absence of the thyroid gland in the pretracheal location was revealed by ultrasonography (USG). Two foci of ectopic thyroid tissue located at the base of the tongue and infrahyoid region were determined by Technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. It can be concluded that if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG, ectopic thyroid tissue should be evaluated with scintigraphy. PMID:25541934

  14. The value of sonography in suspected ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M T; Santos-Ramos, R; Duenhoelter, J H

    1979-06-01

    Of 356 women undergoing sonography to diagnose or rule out an ectopic gestation, data sufficient to assign a final diagnosis were available on 260 of them. Ectopic gestation was diagnosed in 25 cases in this group and intrauterine pregnancy in 99, while the remaining 136 patients were found not to be pregnant. During sonography, ectopic gestations were suspected or diagnosed in 27 instances: In 17 cases this was in agreement with the final diagnosis, but neither an intrauterine nor an extrauterine gestation existed in 10 cases, although neoplastic or inflammatory masses were present. Of the 25 patients with the final diagnosis "ectopic pregnancy," this was not detected with sonography in 8 instances. Intrauterine pregnancies were diagnosed by sonar in 94 of the 99 cases. Although reliable sonar identification of ectopic gestation is not always possible, sonography is helpful in diagnosing intrauterine pregnancy so that surgical intervention can be avoided. PMID:450337

  15. [Thymic carcinoid associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Inoue, C; Sasaki, H; Satou, K; Kimura, N

    1996-04-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to Sendai Red Cross Hospital complaining of chest and back pain associated with Cushing's syndrome. Based on the abnormally high levels of ACTH, cortisol, and CRH in plasma the patient was suspected of having ectopic ACTH syndrome. Histological examination of an extirpated rib and pleural tumor led to the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid tumor, with ribbon and festoon formation, immunoreactivity to ACTH, NSE, Chg-A, and argyrophilia in the tumor cells. Anti-cancer chemotherapy was not effective, and the patient died within a year after the onset of Cushing's syndrome. An autopsy revealed that the patient had an ACTH- and CRH-producing thymic carcinoid with metastases to many organs. The pituitary was atrophic with Crooke's hyaline change. There were many CRH-positive cells in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, where no remarkable pathologic changes were seen. PMID:8691671

  16. The orthodontic management of ectopic canine

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, R.; Sriram, G.; Satish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The canines being the cornerstone of the arch and smile is one of the teeth, which has the longest eruption passage that gets influenced by local and general etiological factors easily. The initial calcification of the crowns starts at 4–5 months of age and proceeds toward eruption about 11–13 years of age with mesiobuccal crown angulation that gets corrected toward occlusion. It gets displaced buccally or palatally or may sometimes get impacted. Early intervention is the best suited to manage canine eruption patterns. Once erupted ectopically, they possess a great challenge in repositioning them back into their correct position. This case report discusses an orthodontic treatment planning and execution to correct a buccally placed canine with an anterior crossbite in an adult. PMID:26538959

  17. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Young; Weigel, Detlef; Lee, Ilha

    2002-01-01

    The floral regulatory gene SUPERMAN (SUP) encodes a C2H2 type zinc finger protein that is required for maintaining boundaries between floral organs in Arabidopsis. It has been proposed that the main function of SUP is to balance cell proliferation in the third and fourth whorl of developing flowers, thereby maintaining the boundaries between the two whorls. To gain further insight into the function of SUP, we have ectopically expressed SUP using the promoter of APETALA1 (AP1), a gene that is initially expressed throughout floral meristems and later becomes restricted to the first and second whorls. Flowers of AP1::SUP plants have fewer floral organs, consistent with an effect of SUP on cell proliferation. In addition, the AP1::SUP transgene caused the conversion of petals to sepals and suppressed the development of stamens. The expression of the B function homeotic gene APETALA3 (AP3) and its regulator UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) were delayed and reduced in AP1::SUP flowers. However, SUP does not act merely through UFO, as constitutive expression of UFO did not rescue the defects in petal and stamen development in AP1::SUP flowers. Together, these results suggest that SUP has both indirect and direct effects on the expression of B function homeotic genes. PMID:11828022

  18. Ectopic expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 potentiates granulocytic differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, E M; Stellacci, E; Valtieri, M; Masella, B; Feccia, T; Marziali, G; Hiscott, J; Testa, U; Peschle, C; Battistini, A

    2001-01-01

    Numerous transcription factors allow haematopoietic cells to respond to lineage- and stage-specific cytokines and to act as their effectors. It is increasingly evident that the interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) transcription factor can selectively regulate different sets of genes depending on the cell type and/or the nature of cellular stimuli, evoking distinct responses in each. In the present study, we investigated mechanisms underlying the differentiation-inducing properties of granulocytic colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and whether IRF transcription factors are functionally relevant in myeloid differentiation. Both normal human progenitors and murine 32Dcl3 myeloblasts induced to differentiate along the granulocytic pathway showed an up-regulation of IRF-1 expression. Ectopic expression of IRF-1 did not abrogate the growth factor requirement of 32Dcl3 cells, although a small percentage of cells that survived cytokine deprivation differentiated fully to neutrophils. Moreover, in the presence of G-CSF, granulocytic differentiation of IRF-1-expressing cells was accelerated, as assessed by morphology and expression of specific differentiation markers. Down-modulation of c-Myb protein and direct stimulation of lysozyme promoter activity by IRF-1 were also observed. Conversely, constitutive expression of IRF-2, a repressor of IRF-1 transcriptional activity, completely abrogated the G-CSF-induced neutrophilic maturation. We conclude that IRF-1 exerts a pivotal role in granulocytic differentiation and that its induction by G-CSF represents a limiting step in the early events of differentiation. PMID:11716756

  19. Silver nanoparticles confined in carbon nanotubes: on the understanding of the confinement effect and promotional catalysis for the selective hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianwei; Duan, Xinping; Lin, Haiqiang; Gu, Zhengqiang; Fang, Huihuang; Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Youzhu

    2016-03-10

    A confined Ag nanomaterial in the channels of herringbone multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ag-in/hCNT) was effectively prepared. The space restriction induces morphological changes of Ag nanoparticles into rough nanowires with an estimated aspect ratio of 60 : 8 (nm/nm). Dihydrogen activation is enhanced through the vacancy-enriched wire-like Ag nanocatalyst, as well as the confinement effect. The grain boundaries of Ag and rolled-up graphene layers of CNTs are speculated to play vital roles in the diffusion of activated hydrogen species. The Ag-in/hCNT catalyst exhibits an activity that is three times higher than that of Ag nanoparticles located on the CNT exterior walls in DMO hydrogenation. This finding may insinuate that interplanar spaces provide available access to the external surface of CNTs. Designed experiments further confirm the importance of herringbone CNTs with higher reaction rate than parallel CNTs, and confined Ag produces considerably more activated hydrogen species, thereby benefiting the reduction of surface copper nanoparticles or DMO molecules during hydrogenation. This paper presents a study of the effective utilization of hydrogen over herringbone CNT confined Ag and an understanding of the confinement and promotional catalytic effects. PMID:26924186

  20. Meckel's diverticulum and ectopic epithelium: Evaluation of a complex relationship

    PubMed Central

    Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Khaing, Phue

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, for any incidentally discovered Meckel's diverticulum, the management approach is based on weighing the statistical odds of future complications against the risks of a diverticulectomy. Materials and Methods: The temporal relationship between age at Meckel's diverticulectomy and the presence of ectopic epithelium was evaluated in our series. A meta-analysis of all reported recent literature on this condition was subsequently performed to evaluate the strength of the relationship between ectopic epithelium and symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. Results: There was a paucity of ectopic epithelium in Meckel's diverticulectomy specimens in infants operated on at less than 1 year of age. Having two or more ectopic epithelia in a diverticulum does not appear to carry an additive risk for complications. The meta-analysis confirmed that ectopic epithelium was the most significant factor that influenced surgical intervention in all series of Meckel's diverticulum. Conclusion: The relationship between ectopic epithelium and the development of symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum is complex. Further understanding of the development of ectopic rests in the diverticulum will facilitate elucidating the pathophysiology in symptomatic cases. PMID:24741211

  1. Polypropylene Sulfide Nanoparticle p24 Vaccine Promotes Dendritic Cell-Mediated Specific Immune Responses against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Caucheteux, Stephan M; Mitchell, John P; Ivory, Matthew O; Hirosue, Sachiko; Hakobyan, Svetlana; Dolton, Garry; Ladell, Kristin; Miners, Kelly; Price, David A; Kan-Mitchell, June; Sewell, Andrew K; Nestle, Frank; Moris, Arnaud; Karoo, Richard O; Birchall, James C; Swartz, Melody A; Hubbel, Jeffrey A; Blanchet, Fabien P; Piguet, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of vaccine formulations into the dermis using antigen-coated microneedle patches is a promising and safe approach because of efficient antigen delivery and safety. We evaluated an intradermal vaccine using HIV-1 p24 Gag peptide-conjugated polypropylene sulfide nanoparticles to induce immunity against HIV-1. This peptide-conjugated polypropylene sulfide nanoparticle formulation did not accelerate the maturation of blood- or skin-derived subsets of dendritic cells, either generated in vitro or purified ex vivo, despite efficient uptake in the absence of adjuvant. Moreover, dendritic cell-mediated capture of particulate antigen in this form induced potent HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses, as well as B-cell-mediated antibody production. Nanoparticle-based intradermal antigen delivery may therefore provide a new option in the global effort to develop an effective vaccine against HIV-1. PMID:26896775

  2. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, H L; Nagarathna, J; Kumar, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  3. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  4. Papillary carcinoma in ectopic thyroid detected by Tl-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Michigishi, T.; Mizukami, Y.; Mura, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with papillary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid is presented. Excisional biopsy revealed the cervical mass to be a metastasis from thyroid cancer. X-ray, ultrasonography, and computed tomography, however, failed to identify the primary tumor in the thyroid. Incidental TI-201 uptake was noted in the midline of the anterior neck, and a palpable nodule was discovered in this area. Fine needle aspiration cytology demonstrated Class V papillary adenocarcinoma, and subsequent surgery confirmed a papillary carcinoma in the ectopic thyroid. This case suggests the usefulness of TI-201 scintigraphy for the detection of ectopic thyroid malignancy.

  5. Persistent trophoblastic tissue following salpingostomy for unruptured ectopic pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Meeks, G.R.; Cowan, B.D.; Bates, G.W.

    1985-02-01

    Radioimmunoassay of beta-hCG was used to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy in a 30 year old patient and the site of pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography. A salpingostomy was performed; the ectopic pregnancy and the residual trophoblastic tissue were removed. Six weeks later a right salpingectomy was performed to remove persistent trophoblastic tissue. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen demonstrated viable chorionic villi. Serial measurements of beta-hCG are recommended following conservative surgery for ectopic gestation to assure the patient and the surgeon that the tube contains no residual products of conception.

  6. Molar tubal ectopic pregnancy: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Chaouki; Jerbi, Emna; Hsayaoui, Najeh; Zouari, Fatma; Ben Brahim, Ehsen; Oueslati, Hedhili

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare occurrence and consequently not often considered as a diagnostic possibility. We report two cases of molar hydatidiform tubal pregnancy. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was confirmed on clinical biological and sonographic investigations. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy was done on histopathology. The clinical course was favorable for both patients. Although rare, molar changes can occur at any site of an ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis of a molar pregnancy is difficult but histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. PMID:25510265

  7. Biocompatible micro-sized cell culture chamber for the detection of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity on a small cell population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Sossalla, Adam; Duschl, Albert; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-08-01

    In most conventional in vitro toxicological assays, the response of a complete cell population is averaged, and therefore, single-cell responses are not detectable. Such averaging might result in misinterpretations when only individual cells within a population respond to a certain stimulus. Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive in vitro systems to verify the toxicity of nanoscale materials. In the present study, a micro-sized cell culture chamber with a silicon nitride membrane (0.16 mm2) was produced for cell cultivation and the detection of specific cell responses. The biocompatibility of the microcavity chip (MCC) was verified by studying adipogenic and neuronal differentiation. Thereafter, the suitability of the MCC to study the effects of nanoparticles on a small cell population was determined by using a green fluorescence protein-based reporter cell line. Interleukin-8 promoter (pIL8) induction, a marker of an inflammatory response, was used to monitor immune activation. The validation of the MCC-based method was performed using well-characterized gold and silver nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the new method was verified comparing the quantified pIL8 activation via MCC-based and standard techniques. The results proved the biocompatibility and the sensitivity of the microculture chamber, as well as a high optical quality due to the properties of Si3N4. The MCC-based method is suited for threshold- and time-dependent analysis of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity. This novel system can give dynamic information at the level of adherent single cells of a small cell population and presents a new non-invasive in vitro test method to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials and other compounds. PACS: 85.35.Be, 81.16.Nd, 87.18.Mp

  8. Development of HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assays in human cells for assessing the oxidative damage induced by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Zhang, Leshuai W; Che, Bizhong; Dong, Guangzhu; Fan, Guoqiang; Cheng, Kaiming

    2016-08-01

    The exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products requires novel tools for rapid and cost-effective toxicology screening. In order to assess the oxidative damage induced by nanoparticles, toxicity test systems based on a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter in HepG2, LO2, A549, and HBE cells were established. After treated with heat shock and a group of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different primary particle sizes, the cell viability, oxidative damage, and luciferase activity were determined. The time-dependent Ag(+) ions release from AgNPs in cell medium was also evaluated. Our results showed that heat shock produced a strong time-dependent induction of relative luciferase activity in the four luciferase reporter cells. Surprisingly, at 4h of recovery, the relative luciferase activity was >98× the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells. Exposure to different sizes of AgNPs resulted in activation of the HSPA1A promoter in a dose-dependent manner, even at low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic doses. The smaller (5nm) AgNPs were more potent in luciferase induction than the larger (50 and 75nm) AgNPs. These results were generally in accordance with the oxidative damage indicated by malondialdehyde concentration, reactive oxygen species induction and glutathione depletion, and Ag(+) ions release in cell medium. Compared with the other three luciferase reporter cells, the luciferase signal in HepG2-luciferase cells is obviously more sensitive and stable. We conclude that the luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a valuable tool for rapid screening of the oxidative damage induced by AgNPs. PMID:27211842

  9. Bioactive Silica Nanoparticles Promote Osteoblast Differentiation through Stimulation of Autophagy and Direct Association with LC3 and p62

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified an engineered bioactive silica-based nanoparticle formulation (designated herein as NP1) that stimulates in vitro differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for bone formation, and increases bone mineral density in young mice in vivo. The results demonstrate that these nanoparticles have intrinsic biological activity; however, the intracellular fate and a complete understanding of the mechanism(s) involved remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the cellular mechanism(s) by which NP1 stimulates differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. We show that NP1 enters the cells through a caveolae-mediated endocytosis followed by stimulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (p44/p42). Our findings further revealed that NP1 stimulates autophagy including the processing of LC3β-I to LC3β-II, a key protein involved in autophagosome formation, which is dependent on ERK1/2 signaling. Using a variant of NP1 with cobalt ferrite magnetic metal core (NP1-MNP) to pull down associated proteins, we found direct binding of LC3β and p62, two key proteins involved in autophagosome formation, with silica nanoparticles. Interestingly, NP1 specifically interacts with the active and autophagosome associated form of LC3β (LC3β-II). Taken together, the stimulation of autophagy and associated signaling suggests a cellular mechanism for the stimulatory effects of silica nanoparticles on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. PMID:24806912

  10. Bioactive silica nanoparticles promote osteoblast differentiation through stimulation of autophagy and direct association with LC3 and p62.

    PubMed

    Ha, Shin-Woo; Weitzmann, M Neale; Beck, George R

    2014-06-24

    We recently identified an engineered bioactive silica-based nanoparticle formulation (designated herein as NP1) that stimulates in vitro differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for bone formation, and increases bone mineral density in young mice in vivo. The results demonstrate that these nanoparticles have intrinsic biological activity; however, the intracellular fate and a complete understanding of the mechanism(s) involved remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the cellular mechanism(s) by which NP1 stimulates differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. We show that NP1 enters the cells through a caveolae-mediated endocytosis followed by stimulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (p44/p42). Our findings further revealed that NP1 stimulates autophagy including the processing of LC3β-I to LC3β-II, a key protein involved in autophagosome formation, which is dependent on ERK1/2 signaling. Using a variant of NP1 with cobalt ferrite magnetic metal core (NP1-MNP) to pull down associated proteins, we found direct binding of LC3β and p62, two key proteins involved in autophagosome formation, with silica nanoparticles. Interestingly, NP1 specifically interacts with the active and autophagosome associated form of LC3β (LC3β-II). Taken together, the stimulation of autophagy and associated signaling suggests a cellular mechanism for the stimulatory effects of silica nanoparticles on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. PMID:24806912

  11. Spontaneous live unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy – A case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mahsood, Shazia; Shelton, Hannah; Zaedi, Khaled; Economides, DL

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has increased in recent years and now is around one in 100 pregnancies. However, the incidence of live twin ectopic pregnancy in a spontaneous conception is still quite rare. A 34-year-old gravida 3, para 0 presented in the Early Pregnancy Unit with a positive pregnancy test, lower abdominal pain and vaginal spotting. Her quantitative serum Beta hCG was high, and the transvaginal scan revealed an empty uterine cavity with a twin ectopic pregnancy in the left adnexa with cardiac activity in both embryos. The patient was taken for laparoscopic surgery and a left ampullary twin pregnancy was confirmed. She underwent a left salpingectomy and is well on a one-year follow-up. This case report discusses the incidence, diagnoses and treatment of ectopic pregnancies in general.

  12. [COMPLICATION AFTER UNRECOGNIZED ECTOPIC PREGNANCY--A CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, I; Uzunova, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a clinical case of performing an abortion at patient with unrecognized ectopic pregnancy and subsequent complication- perforation of the uterus and the colon and life-threatening haemoperitoneum. PMID:27509664

  13. Ectopic Ureter Accompanied by Duplicated Ureter: Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Senel, Ufuk; Tanriverdi, Halil Ibrahim; Ozmen, Zafer; Sozubir, Selami

    2015-09-01

    We report cases of ectopic ureter accompanied by three types of ureteral duplication that had been diagnosed previously and treated for enuresis. Data from three female patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years were evaluated. The ectopic ureter was observed on the left in one case, on the right in another and bilateral in the third case. Complete duplication was found in two cases, while the third had incomplete duplication. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in one case and subtotal nephrectomy was carried out in the other two cases. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed for the ectopic ureter found in the opposite urinary system in one of the cases. Ectopic duplicated ureter should be considered in treatment-resistant enuresis and urinary tract infections and after a careful physical examination, imaging as well as function tests should be performed. PMID:26500949

  14. Ectopic Pregnancy: A Statistical Review of 360 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Jean; Sparling, D. W.; MacFarlane, K. T.

    1967-01-01

    In a statistical analysis of 360 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the Montreal General Hospital over a 20-year period ending December 1964, ectopic gestation occurred once in every 83 admissions to the gynecological service. This incidence has remained constant over the years. Only one out of four patients had had more than one child and 30% of the patients had absolute or relative infertility. Diagnosis was delayed or not made in 58 patients. There was evidence that neurogenic factors play a role in the etiology of ectopic gestation. Ten per cent of the patients had had a previous operation for the same condition. Symptomatology is variable and the possibility of ectopic pregnancy must never be overlooked in a woman of child-bearing age. Once the diagnosis is made the treatment is early operation. The morbidity rate in this series was 28% and there was one death. PMID:6017696

  15. [Ectopic ureter as cause of pyonephrosis and urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Martín, Martín S; García-Ripoll, Torrecilla J R; Ruíz, Sanz A; Rodríguez, Gonzalo V; Ferro, Rivera J; del Busto, Fernández E

    2008-02-01

    Ectopic ureter accounts with an incidence of 1 in 2000 newborns. When present, ectopic ureter can be associated with duplex kidneys in an 85 % of the cases. Clinical manifestations of this malformation include incontinence and urinary tract infections. Ectopic ureter frequently occurs in association with a dysplastic upper pole renal moiety. When a poorly functioning upper pole segment is present, a standard surgical treatment is upper pole heminephrectomy. A 23-years old woman presented with left renal colic pain, fever and urinary leak. Ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram and antegrade pyelogram revealed a partial duplex right kidney and a complete duplex left kidney with hydronephrosis and ectopic insertion into the urethra of the left upper pole moiety. Following diagnosis upper pole heminephrectomy and partial ureterectomy was performed. PMID:18409479

  16. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-loaded PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taghavi Pourianazar, Negar; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-03-01

    One major application of nanotechnology in cancer treatment involves designing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, oligonucleotides, and genes to cancer cells. Nanoparticles should be engineered so that they could target and destroy tumor cells with minimal damage to healthy tissues. This research aims to develop an appropriate and efficient nanocarrier, having the ability of interacting with and delivering CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) to tumor cells. CpG-ODNs activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which can generate a signal cascade for cell death. In our study, we utilized three-layer magnetic nanoparticles composed of a Fe3O4 magnetic core, an aminosilane (APTS) interlayer and a cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. This will be a novel targeted delivery system to enhance the accumulation of CpG-ODN molecules in tumor cells. The validation of CpG-ODN binding to DcMNPs was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-spectrophotometer, XPS analyses. Cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cancer cells based on cell viability by XTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Our results indicated that the synthesized DcMNPs having high positive charges on their surface could attach to CpG-ODN molecules via electrostatic means. These nanoparticles with the average sizes of 40±10nm bind to CpG-ODN molecules efficiently and induce cell death in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 tumor cells and could be considered a suitable targeted delivery system for CpG-ODN in biomedical applications. The magnetic core of these nanoparticles represents a promising option for selective drug targeting as they can be concentrated and held in position by means of an external magnetic field. PMID:26898428

  17. Ectopic anterior cerebellum (ala lobule centralis)

    PubMed Central

    Ozmen, Evrim

    2015-01-01

    In this case report we present an adolescent girl who was referred to our radiology department for assessment with advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on suspicion of low-grade quadrigeminal cistern neoplasm on 1.5 Tesla MR examination. We were able to evaluate detailed cerebellar anatomy more clearly, and detected that the lesion was compatible with ectopic cerebellar tissue (a very rare developmental variation) on submillimetric 3-dimensional (3D) images from a 3 Tesla MR unit which has a 32-channel head coil. Our findings were further supported by diffusion tensor imaging which clearly indicated that the lesion was a part of the cerebellum. Furthermore, MR spectroscopic metabolite ratios were in accordance with the characteristics of normal neuronal tissue. As far we know there is no published report that contains similar findings to those of our patient. In conclusion, cranial MR images, if possible in 3D format (with very small isotropic voxels) should be obtained for the precise diagnosis of the lesions located in this region; in addition, the differential diagnostic list should be well known and advanced imaging techniques should be used when necessary. PMID:26246096

  18. Management of ectopic varix with histoacryl.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adil Naseer; Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Arshad, Muhammad; Hidayat, Rania; Said, Khalid; Shehzad, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastro-intestinal (GI) bleed is one of the most serious situations encountered in the emergency department. There is consensus regarding management of common causes of upper GI bleed but for rare causes no such consensus exists. We present a case of a 35 year old male who presented with 5-6 episodes of hematemesis associated with melena in 24 hours. On examination he was in hypotensive shock with no stigmata of chronic liver disease. Doppler studies showed portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation and varices in peripancreatic region and around duodenum. His upper GI endoscopy showed a large varix with ulceration in the duodenal bulb, indicating it as the source of bleeding. The varix was injected with 1cc of cyanoacrylate. The patient's final diagnosis was non-cirrhotic portal hypertension secondary to portal vein thrombosis. At immediate and long termfollow-up the patient had no complications. We conclude that cyanoacrylate injection effectively manages ectopic duodenal varices and can be used with a simple application technique. PMID:25672200

  19. Ectopic anterior cerebellum (ala lobule centralis).

    PubMed

    Algin, Oktay; Ozmen, Evrim

    2015-06-01

    In this case report we present an adolescent girl who was referred to our radiology department for assessment with advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on suspicion of low-grade quadrigeminal cistern neoplasm on 1.5 Tesla MR examination. We were able to evaluate detailed cerebellar anatomy more clearly, and detected that the lesion was compatible with ectopic cerebellar tissue (a very rare developmental variation) on submillimetric 3-dimensional (3D) images from a 3 Tesla MR unit which has a 32-channel head coil. Our findings were further supported by diffusion tensor imaging which clearly indicated that the lesion was a part of the cerebellum. Furthermore, MR spectroscopic metabolite ratios were in accordance with the characteristics of normal neuronal tissue. As far we know there is no published report that contains similar findings to those of our patient. In conclusion, cranial MR images, if possible in 3D format (with very small isotropic voxels) should be obtained for the precise diagnosis of the lesions located in this region; in addition, the differential diagnostic list should be well known and advanced imaging techniques should be used when necessary. PMID:26246096

  20. A case of an ectopic prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Simsir, Ilgin Yildirim; Kocabas, Gokcen Unal; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Erdogan, Mehmet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Saygili, Fusun; Yilmaz, Candeger; Ozgen, Ahmet Gokhan

    2012-02-01

    A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with a 1.5 year history of secondary amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Prolactin (PRL) level was found to be 151.89 ng/ml. Pituitary imaging was reported to be normal. An examination of the patient revealed that PRL level was still high so the dose of cabergoline was further increased and subsequently, bromocriptine was added to the treatment. There was no reduction in PRL levels in controls. A scanning was performed to look for an ectopic focus. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogenous mass lesion originating from the uterus. Octreotide scintigraphy was performed and we observed an involvement consistent with the mass in the uterus. The patient underwent abdominal total hysterectomy. PRL dropped to 0.4 ng/ml the next day after the operation. The pathology result was a low-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor. Prolactin was found to be immunohistochemically negative. However, galactorrhea disappeared postoperative and PRL levels are still low. Elevated levels of PRL, resistant to bromocriptine and cabergoline, rapidly returned to normal after hysterectomy, which obviously indicates that hyperprolactinemia was associated with the myoma of the uterus. PMID:21780951

  1. Ectopic (subcutaneous) Paragonimus miyazakii infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H

    2009-09-01

    Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis. PMID:19429999

  2. Conversion of quiescent niche cells to somatic stem cells causes ectopic niche formation in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Hétié, Phylis; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult stem cells reside in specialized regulatory microenvironments, or niches, where local signals ensure stem cell maintenance. The Drosophila testis contains a well-characterized niche wherein signals from post-mitotic hub cells promote maintenance of adjacent germline stem cells and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Hub cells were considered to be terminally differentiated; here we show that they can give rise to CySCs. Genetic ablation of CySCs triggers hub cells to transiently exit quiescence, delaminate from the hub, and convert into functional CySCs. Ectopic Cyclin D-Cdk4 expression in hub cells is also sufficient to trigger their conversion into CySCs. In both cases, this conversion causes the formation of multiple ectopic niches over time. Therefore, our work provides a model for understanding how oncogenic mutations in quiescent niche cells could promote loss of quiescence, changes in cell fate, and aberrant niche expansion more generally. PMID:24746819

  3. An assessment of the effects of ectopic gp91phox expression in XCGD iPSC-derived neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan-Ting; Masaki, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Wada, Taizo; Yachie, Akihiro; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Otsu, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    For the treatment of monogenetic hematological disorders, restoration of transgene expression in affected cell populations is generally considered to have beneficial effects. However, X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (XCGD) is unique since the appearance of functional neutrophils in the peripheral blood following hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy is transient only. One contributing factor could be the occurrence of detrimental effects secondary to ectopic gp91phox expression in neutrophils, which has not been formally demonstrated previously. This study uses iPSCs to model XCGD, which allows the process of differentiation to be studied intensely in vitro. Alpharetroviral vectors carrying a ubiquitous promoter were used to drive the "ectopic" expression of codon optimized gp91phox cDNA. In the mature fraction of neutrophils differentiated from transduced XCGD-iPSCs, cellular recovery in terms of gp91phox expression and reactive oxygen species production was abruptly lost before cells had fully differentiated. Most critically, ectopic gp91phox expression could be identified clearly in the developing fraction of the transduced groups, which appeared to correspond with reduced cell viability. It is possible that this impedes further differentiation of developing neutrophils. Therefore, affording cellular protection from the detrimental effects of ectopic gp91phox expression may improve XCGD clinical outcomes. PMID:26682238

  4. Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Ca Promoter: A New Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Bartczak, Piotr; Ambrozkiewicz, Weronika; Sitko, Rafal; Siudyga, Tomasz; Mianowski, Andrzej; Szade, Jacek; Balin, Katarzyna; Lelątko, Józef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a new nanometallic, self-activating catalyst, namely, Ni-supported Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs/Ni) for low temperature ammonia cracking, which was prepared using a novel approach involving the transfer of nanoparticles from the intermediate carrier, i.e. nano-spherical SiO2, to the target carrier technical grade Ni (t-Ni) or high purity Ni (p-Ni) grains. The method that was developed allows a uniform nanoparticle size distribution (4,4±0.8 nm) to be obtained. Unexpectedly, the t-Ni-supported Pd NPs, which seemed to have a surface Ca impurity, appeared to be more active than the Ca-free (p-Ni) system. A comparison of the novel PdNPs/Ni catalyst with these reported in the literature clearly indicates the much better hydrogen productivity of the new system, which seems to be a highly efficient, flexible and durable catalyst for gas-phase heterogeneous ammonia cracking in which the TOF reaches a value of 2615 mmolH2/gPd min (10,570 molNH3/molPd(NP) h) at 600°C under a flow of 12 dm3/h (t-Ni). PMID:26308929

  5. Gold Nanoparticles Promote Oxidant-Mediated Activation of NF-κB and 53BP1 Recruitment-Based Adaptive Response in Human Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mytych, Jennifer; Lewinska, Anna; Zebrowski, Jacek; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Nanogold-based materials are promising candidate tools for nanobased medicine. Nevertheless, no conclusive information on their cytotoxicity is available. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on human astrocytes in vitro. Nanogold treatment in a wide range of concentrations did not result in cytotoxicity. In contrast, nanogold provoked changes in the astrocyte cell cycle and induced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. AuNPs promoted oxidative stress and caused activation of NF-κB pathway. After nanogold treatment, an inverse correlation between the formation of 53BP1 foci and micronuclei generation was observed. The robust 53BP1 recruitment resulted in reduced micronuclei production. Thus, nanogold treatment stimulated an adaptive response in a human astrocyte cell. PMID:26199937

  6. Combining in situ NEXAFS spectroscopy and CO₂ methanation kinetics to study Pt and Co nanoparticle catalysts reveals key insights into the role of platinum in promoted cobalt catalysis.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Simon K; Alayoglu, Selim; Specht, Colin; Michalak, William D; Pushkarev, Vladimir V; Guo, Jinghua; Kruse, Norbert; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-07-16

    The mechanistic role of platinum and precious metals in promoting cobalt hydrogenation catalysts of the type used in reactions such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is highly debated. Here we use well-defined monometallic Pt and Co nanoparticles (NPs) and CO2 methanation as a probe reaction to show that Pt NPs deposited near Co NPs can enhance the CO2 methanation rate by up to a factor of 6 per Co surface atom. In situ NEXAFS spectroscopy of these same Pt NP plus Co NP systems in hydrogen shows that the presence of nearby Pt NPs is able to significantly enhance reduction of the Co at temperatures relevant to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and CO2 methanation. The mechanistic role of Pt in these reactions is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:24978060

  7. Ectopic endometrial tissue in mesonephric duct remnants in bitches.

    PubMed

    Bartel, C; Berghold, P; Walter, I

    2011-12-01

    Common congenital embryonic remnants of the canine female genital tract are Gartner cysts originating from mesonephric duct remnants. They can increase in size and lead to adverse effects in fertility and health. In the present study, three cases of mesonephric remnants in bitches were analysed. The mesonephric remnants featured an inner lining endometrium comprising surface epithelium, glands and stroma. This ectopic endometrium was further characterized by immunohistochemistry (oestrogen and progesterone receptors, proliferation activity, cytokeratin, alpha smooth muscle actin, and vimentin) and lectin histochemistry compared with normal uterine endometrium. Furthermore, hypertrophic cells at the serosal site of the uteri were detected and analysed in the same way compared with normal serosa. The ectopic endometrium of case no. 2 mesonephric remnant was comparable with normal endometrium whereas in nos 1 and 3 uteri the ectopic endometrium was reduced in thickness. In all mesonephric remnants, surface and glandular epithelial cells of the ectopic endometrium gave positive immunoreactions for cytokeratin, oestrogen and progesterone receptors and showed lectin-binding patterns comparable with normal endometrium. Some of the stromal cells of the ectopic endometria were smooth muscle actin and vimentin positive. Mitotic activity of the ectopic endometria was comparable with normal endometria. Hypertrophic epithelial cells of the serosal side showed positive reactions to anti-oestrogen receptor and anti-cytokeratin immunohistochemistry as well as lectin binding patterns and mitotic activity comparable with the normal canine serosa. The present study is the first considerable immunohistochemical characterization of canine mesonephric remnants and discusses the appearance of ectopic endometrium in mesonephric remnants. PMID:21366719

  8. HMGB1 Induces Secretion of Matrix Vesicles by Macrophages to Enhance Ectopic Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Bei, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chuan; Feng, Shi-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Du, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Hou-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical conditions have been linked to ectopic mineralization (EM). This process of pathological biomineralization is complex and not fully elucidated, but thought to be started within matrix vesicles (MVs). We hypothesized that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine associated with biomineralizing process under physiological and pathological conditions, induces EM via promoting MVs secretion from macrophages. In this study, we found that HMGB1 significantly promoted secretion of MVs from macrophages and subsequently led to mineral deposition in elevated Ca/Pi medium in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy of calcifying MVs showed formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the vesicle interior. Subcutaneous injection into mice with MVs derived from HMGB1-treated cells showed a greater potential to initiate regional mineralization. Mechanistic experiments revealed that HMGB1 activated neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2) that involved the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and p38 MAPK (upstream of nSMase2). Inhibition of nSMase2 with GW4869 or p38 MAPK with SB-239063 prevented MVs secretion and mineral deposition. Collectively, HMGB1 induces MVs secretion from macrophages at least in part, via the RAGE/p38 MAPK/nSMase2 signaling pathway. Our findings thus reveal a novel mechanism by which HMGB1 induces ectopic mineralization. PMID:27243975

  9. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Aaraby Yoheswaran; Gjerstorff, Morten Frier

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27275820

  10. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  11. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Aaraby Yoheswaran; Gjerstorff, Morten Frier

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27275820

  12. A serum proteomics approach to the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gerton, G L; Fan, X J; Chittams, J; Sammel, M; Hummel, A; Strauss, J F; Barnhart, K

    2004-06-01

    An ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs when implantation of the embryo occurs outside of the uterus. If left untreated, the developing fetus will continue to grow, leading to life-threatening consequences for the mother. A major difficulty with the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is that methods of detection are limited, and some, such as ultrasound, are not very reliable in the earliest days of gestation. Currently, no effective serum test exists to distinguish an ectopic pregnancy from a normal intrauterine pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is increasing and has doubled in the last 20 years. It is now the second most common cause of maternal death in the first trimester of pregnancy. To address this issue, we initiated a project to identify serum markers of ectopic pregnancy. The subjects for these studies presented at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. We obtained over 140 serum samples from women with suspected ectopic pregnancy: women presenting with pain and/or bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. The approximate racial breakdown of the subjects is as follows: African American, 36%; Caucasian, 3%; Asian, 2%; Hispanic, 1%; unknown, 58%. Serum samples from 139 women (62 with ectopic pregnancy and 77 with a normal intrauterine pregnancy) were applied to WCX2 (weak ion exchange) protein chip surfaces and analyzed for serum markers using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Several proteins in the 7500-18,000 Da mass range were identified that may discriminate an ectopic pregnancy from an intrauterine pregnancy. The most promising markers were analyzed using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with and without clinical variables (serum hCG value, length of amenorrhea). Two different algorithms were developed that classify the patients on the basis of sensitivity (number of EPs who screen positive/# of EPs) or specificity (# of healthy patients who screen negative

  13. Mechanisms of disease: the endocrinology of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Horne, Andrew W; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy implanted outside the uterus, and >98% implant in the Fallopian tube. It has a major clinical and socioeconomic impact worldwide. The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is often difficult and resource intensive owing to a lack of accurate biomarkers, and there is a need for improved medical management of ectopic pregnancy using new or adjuvant treatments. The aetiology of ectopic pregnancy is uncertain, but tubal implantation is probably due to retention of the embryo in the Fallopian tube owing to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. This comprehensive review of the literature supporting current understanding of the endocrinology of Fallopian tube biology and tubal implantation focuses on genes expressed in the Fallopian tube regulated by oestrogen and progesterone and discusses their potential functions. It concludes with a discussion of how advances in this field are enabling the development of novel biomarkers and could lead to the identification of potential new treatments for ectopic pregnancy. PMID:22380790

  14. Ectopic Molar with Maxillary Sinus Drainage Obstruction and Oroantral Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahifakhim, Shahin; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ectopic tooth eruption may result owing to one of 3 processes: developmentalDisturbance, iatrogenic activity, or pathologic process, such as a tumor or a cyst. In rare cases, occlusion of the sinus ostia may predispose a patient to develop a maxillary sinus mucocele. When the maxillary sinus is invaded, symptoms usually occur late in the process. Case Report: A 17 years old boy referred to department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of university of medical sciences, Tabriz_Iran in 2010 with chronic recurrent mucoprulent discharge from retromollar trigone , posterior to right superior alveolar ridge. CT scan revealed a dense mass resembling tooth, obstructing sinus ostium with homogenous opacity with ring enhancement, occupying whole sinus and expanding all walls. A Caldwell Luke approach in combination with endoscopy was selected. Conclusion: In the present patient, removal of ectopic tooth resolved the symptoms completely, the fistula obstructed and discharges discontinued. An ectopic tooth is a rare entity obstructing sinus ostium. The etiology of ectopic eruption has not yet been completely clarified, but many theories have been suggested,including trauma, infection, developmental anomalies and pathologic conditions, such as dentigerous cysts. In summary, although the ectopic teeth is rare but it would be assumed in presence of unilateral symptoms of sinonasal cavity. Therefore in peristant unilateral sinonasal symptoms we should complete examining of this site to rule out rare causes of these symptoms. PMID:24303440

  15. Review article: late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saad Aldin, Ehab; Saadeh, Joanna; Ghulmiyyah, Labib; Hitti, Eveline

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis to prevent the increased mortality associated with rupture. Twenty-seven cases of late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancy reported in the English literature since 1918 were reviewed and analysed for presenting symptoms, missed diagnosis rate at initial presentation, location of ectopic and rupture rate at diagnosis. The presenting symptoms were found to be non-specific. The diagnosis in this population is twice more likely to be missed than in women with intact uteri. The rupture rate is 63%, compared with 37% in women with intact uteri. The majority of late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancies (62%) were located in the fallopian tubes. Because of the potential risk of mortality, emergency physicians should always consider the possibility of ectopic pregnancy in childbearing women whose surgical history includes hysterectomy without oophorectomy. Evaluation of abdominal pain in this population should include a pregnancy test to ensure prompt diagnosis when the possibility of pregnancy exists clinically. PMID:22672163

  16. [Ectopic pregnancy: Its current interest in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    López-Luque, P R; Bergal-Mateo, G J; López-Olivares, M C

    2014-01-01

    An ectopic pregnancy is the implantation and development of the ovum fertilized outside the endometrial cavity. Its incidence has increased in the last 30 years, and although its morbimortality has decreased, it is still the first cause of mortality in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Early suspicion is important, particularly in women of fertile age and with risk factors indicative of an extrauterine gestation. The symptomatology is usually amenorrhea, abdominal pain, metrorrhagia, general pregnancy symptoms, and even syncope and shock. The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is based on the clinical information, analytical results on mother blood and urine, ultrasound examination, transvaginal culdocentesis, laparoscopic or laparotomic inspection, and a histological study. The treatment can be surgical (salpingostomy or salpingectomy), medical (methotrexate) or expectant, depending on the factors of the ectopic pregnancy: early diagnosis, presence of acute complications, clinical condition of the patient, etc. PMID:24529529

  17. PET imaging in ectopic Cushing syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Taieb, David; Giovanella, Luca; Treglia, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Cushing syndrome due to endogenous hypercortisolism may cause significant morbidity and mortality. The source of excess cortisol may be adrenal, pituitary, or ectopic. Ectopic Cushing syndrome is sometimes difficult to localize on conventional imaging like CT and MRI. After performing a multilevel thoracoabdominal imaging with CT, the evidence regarding the use of radiotracers for PET imaging is unclear due to significant molecular and etiological heterogeneity of potential causes of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. In our systematic review of literature, it appears that GalLium-based (Ga68) somatostatin receptor analogs have better sensitivity in diagnosis of bronchial carcinoids causing Cushing syndrome and FDG PET appears superior for small-cell lung cancers and other aggressive tumors. Further large-scale studies are needed to identify the best PET tracer for this condition. PMID:26206753

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Management of Splenic Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Python, Johanne L; Wakefield, Brian W; Kondo, Kimi L; Bang, Tami J; Stamm, Elizabeth R; Hurt, K Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Splenic ectopic pregnancies are a rare cause of abdominal pain in reproductive-age women. A 21-year-old woman with worsening abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test presented with hemoperitoneum and no intrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal ultrasound. After 2 nondiagnostic laparoscopies, a splenic pregnancy was diagnosed by computed tomography scan and abdominal ultrasound. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of splenic pregnancies involve exploratory surgery and splenectomy. We report the successful treatment of this splenic ectopic pregnancy with combined intramuscular plus ultrasound-guided percutaneous methotrexate injection, with preservation of the patient's spleen. Abdominal implantation must be considered in patients with pregnancy of unknown location, and in carefully selected patients splenic ectopic pregnancy can be successfully managed by minimally invasive methods. PMID:27221066

  19. Ectopic Centromere Nucleation by CENP-A in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Dong, Qianhua; Sun, Siyu; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The centromere is a specific chromosomal locus that organizes the assembly of the kinetochore. It plays a fundamental role in accurate chromosome segregation. In most eukaryotic organisms, each chromosome contains a single centromere the position and function of which are epigenetically specified. Occasionally, centromeres form at ectopic loci, which can be detrimental to the cell. However, the mechanisms that protect the cell against ectopic centromeres (neocentromeres) remain poorly understood. Centromere protein-A (CENP-A), a centromere-specific histone 3 (H3) variant, is found in all centromeres and is indispensable for centromere function. Here we report that the overexpression of CENP-ACnp1 in fission yeast results in the assembly of CENP-ACnp1 at noncentromeric chromatin during mitosis and meiosis. The noncentromeric CENP-A preferentially assembles near heterochromatin and is capable of recruiting kinetochore components. Consistent with this, cells overexpressing CENP-ACnp1 exhibit severe chromosome missegregation and spindle microtubule disorganization. In addition, pulse induction of CENP-ACnp1 overexpression reveals that ectopic CENP-A chromatin can persist for multiple generations. Intriguingly, ectopic assembly of CENP-Acnp1 is suppressed by overexpression of histone H3 or H4. Finally, we demonstrate that deletion of the N-terminal domain of CENP-Acnp1 results in an increase in the number of ectopic CENP-A sites and provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of CENP-A prevents CENP-A assembly at ectopic loci via the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These studies expand our current understanding of how noncentromeric chromatin is protected from mistakenly assembling CENP-A. PMID:25298518

  20. Ectopic centromere nucleation by CENP--a in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Dong, Qianhua; Sun, Siyu; Li, Fei

    2014-12-01

    The centromere is a specific chromosomal locus that organizes the assembly of the kinetochore. It plays a fundamental role in accurate chromosome segregation. In most eukaryotic organisms, each chromosome contains a single centromere the position and function of which are epigenetically specified. Occasionally, centromeres form at ectopic loci, which can be detrimental to the cell. However, the mechanisms that protect the cell against ectopic centromeres (neocentromeres) remain poorly understood. Centromere protein-A (CENP-A), a centromere-specific histone 3 (H3) variant, is found in all centromeres and is indispensable for centromere function. Here we report that the overexpression of CENP-A(Cnp1) in fission yeast results in the assembly of CENP-A(Cnp1) at noncentromeric chromatin during mitosis and meiosis. The noncentromeric CENP-A preferentially assembles near heterochromatin and is capable of recruiting kinetochore components. Consistent with this, cells overexpressing CENP-A(Cnp1) exhibit severe chromosome missegregation and spindle microtubule disorganization. In addition, pulse induction of CENP-A(Cnp1) overexpression reveals that ectopic CENP-A chromatin can persist for multiple generations. Intriguingly, ectopic assembly of CENP-A(cnp1) is suppressed by overexpression of histone H3 or H4. Finally, we demonstrate that deletion of the N-terminal domain of CENP-A(cnp1) results in an increase in the number of ectopic CENP-A sites and provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of CENP-A prevents CENP-A assembly at ectopic loci via the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These studies expand our current understanding of how noncentromeric chromatin is protected from mistakenly assembling CENP-A. PMID:25298518

  1. Promotion of Oxygen Reduction by Exsolved Silver Nanoparticles on a Perovskite Scaffold for Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yinlong; Zhou, Wei; Ran, Ran; Chen, Yubo; Shao, Zongping; Liu, Meilin

    2016-01-13

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have potential to be the cleanest and most efficient electrochemical energy conversion devices with excellent fuel flexibility. To make SOFC systems more durable and economically competitive, however, the operation temperature must be significantly reduced, which depends sensitively on the development of highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at low temperatures. Here we report a novel silver nanoparticle-decorated perovskite oxide, prepared via a facile exsolution process from a Sr0.95Ag0.05Nb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (SANC) perovskite precursor, as a highly active and robust ORR electrocatalyst for low-temperature SOFCs. The exsolved Sr0.95Ag0.05Nb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (denoted as e-SANC) electrode is very active for ORR, achieving a very low area specific resistance (∼0.214 Ω cm(2) at 500 °C). An anode-supported cell with the new heterostructured cathode demonstrates very high peak power density (1116 mW cm(-2) at 500 °C) and stable operation for 140 h at a current density of 625 mA cm(-2). The superior ORR activity and stability are attributed to the fast oxygen surface exchange kinetics and the firm adhesion of the Ag nanoparticles to the Sr0.95Nb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (SNC0.95) support. Moreover, the e-SANC cathode displays improved tolerance to CO2. These unique features make the new heterostructured material a highly promising cathode for low-temperature SOFCs. PMID:26619096

  2. Intact Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy and Dermoid Cyst With Intraoperative Rupture.

    PubMed

    Martingano, Daniel; Martingano, Francis X

    2016-05-01

    Of ectopic pregnancies encountered in clinical practice, more than 95% are located within the fallopian tube, and 2% to 4% are cornual. A cornual ectopic pregnancy is a serious clinical condition and poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Thus, understanding the clinical course and treatment options is essential. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The patient was suspected of having a cornual pregnancy, and a dermoid cyst had been detected during routine ultrasonography. In the absence of maternal symptoms, the clinical scenario is potentially dangerous and must be treated promptly and efficiently to decrease morbidity and mortality. PMID:27111785

  3. Rupture of ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingshuai; Zhang, Junhui; Xing, Nianzeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 35-year-old female patient presented with swelling pain at left waist for 1 month. Left renal pelvis stones were found and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy was successfully performed. Two weeks later, the patient suddenly suffered massive bleeding presented with gross hematuria. Rupture of ectopic renal artery pseudoaneurysm was identified by computed tomography and angiography of the renal artery. Emergency selective angioembolization of one branch of the artery was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm. PMID:27564300

  4. Cross ectopic multicystic dysplastic kidney with ureterocele in nonectopic site.

    PubMed

    Narcı, Adnan; Korkmaz, Mevlit; Karakuş, Muhittin; Sen, Tolga Altuğ; Surer, Ilhamı; Cetinkurşun, Salih

    2010-06-01

    Crossed renal ectopy (CRE) is the second most common fusion anomaly of the kidney, with an incidence of 1 in 7000 autopsies; it comes in second after horseshoe kidney. Crossed renal ectopy is associated with an ectopic ureter and generally an ectopic kidney fused with a normal kidney. A 7-month-old boy who had left-to-right crossed non-fused renal ectopy and multicystic renal dysplasia with ureterocele in nonectopic kidney was reported in English language literature. In this article, we present the first case of CRE where surgical intervention has been performed. PMID:23293688

  5. [An ectopic ureter which drained into the perianal area].

    PubMed

    Delgado Chanis, G

    1992-05-01

    The author reviews the clinical record of a 6-year-old boy, who had urinary incontinence with wetting of his underwear in the posterior part. IVP, Cystoscopy, Cystogram, Left Retrograde Pyelogram and Surgery showed a double distal ureter on the left side. The normal ureter drained in the bladder in the orthotopic ureteral orifice. The medial dilated ectopic ureter, in the form of an H, was connected to the normal ureter and drained in the perianal area. The incontinence stopped after the resection of the ectopic ureter. PMID:1620895

  6. Silver nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane and increase endothelial permeability by promoting VE-cadherin internalization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Shi, Junpeng; Zou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chengcheng; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hongwu

    2016-11-01

    The toxicological risks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted widespread attention, and many studies have been published that have contributed to understanding AgNPs-induced toxicity. However, little attention has been paid to the low-dose effects of AgNPs and the related toxicological mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that short-term exposure to AgNPs at low doses induces a substantial increase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) monolayer permeability, whereas Ag ions at low doses do not induce an observable increase in monolayer permeability. This effect is independent of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that AgNPs adhere to the cell membrane after 1h exposure. Furthermore, adhesion of AgNPs to the cell membrane can trigger vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation at Y658 followed by VE-cadherin internalization, which lead to the increase in endothelial monolayer permeability. Our data show that surface interactions of AgNPs with the cell membrane, in other words, the particle effect, is a major factor leading to endothelial dysfunction following low-dose and short-term exposure. Our findings will contribute to understanding the health effects and the toxicological mechanisms of AgNPs. PMID:27344258

  7. Chloride promoted room temperature preparation of silver nanoparticles on two dimensional tungsten oxide nanoarchitectures for the catalytic oxidation of tertiary N-compounds to N-oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shilpi; Acharyya, Shankha S.; Kumar, Malika; Bal, Rajaram

    2015-09-01

    A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies further provide mechanistic insight which proves that the formation of peroxo tungsten species is responsible for the N-oxidation reaction. High stability and recyclability of the 2D Ag/WO3 nanoplates are also observed under the investigated conditions.A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies

  8. Ectopic Pregnancy in caesarean section scar: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Rajarshi; Solanki, Narayan; Kakadiya, Ketan; Bansal, Ashank; Joshi, Manisha; Nawale, Ajita

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of ectopic pregnancy occurring in the scar of a previous caesarean section, diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging of pelvis. We present the clinical details and imaging findings, followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of this condition. PMID:26649124

  9. Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaziz Al-Turki, Haifa

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 14.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There were 274 EPs during the study period; the yearly incidence in terms of 24,098 deliveries was 1.19%. The average age was 28.99 Å 5.62 years. During a three-year period (2000–2002), the incidence was 0.92%; from 2003 to 2005, the incidence was 1.01%; from 2006 to 2008, the incidence was 1.51%; and from 2009 to 2011, the incidence was 1.35%. Age-adjusted ectopic pregnancy incidence rates steadily increased from 92.23 per 10,000 women years during the period 2000–2002 to 149.408 during the 2006–2008 period; since then, it has declined to 110.313 per 10,000 women years. Conclusions. Our study reveals that the incidence of EP has decreased from what it had been during the mid-2000s but has remained significantly elevated when compared to the early 2000s. PMID:23533797

  10. Research Progress in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Related Ectopic Mineralization Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András; Terry, Sharon F.; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Heritable ectopic mineralization disorders represent a phenotypically diverse group of conditions characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in soft connective tissues. The prototype of such conditions is pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), and related conditions with overlapping clinical features include generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC). Molecular genetic investigations have revealed mutations in the genes physiologically involved in generation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and phosphate (Pi), and the findings suggest a unifying pathomechanism relating to reduced PPi/Pi ratio. This hypothesis is based on the notion that PPi serves as a powerful inhibitor of mineralization while Pi is a pro-mineralization factor, and an appropriate PPi/Pi ratio is critical for prevention of ectopic mineralization under homeostatic conditions. PXE International, the premiere patient support organization, advocating on behalf of patients and families with PXE, sponsors regular research meetings evaluating the progress in this and related ectopic mineralization disorders. The latest meetings were held in September 2014 in Bethesda, MD and in September 2015 in Budapest, Hungary. This report summarizes the latest progress in research on PXE and related ectopic mineralization disorders, based on presentations and discussions in these meetings, with pharmacologic implications for currently intractable disorders. PMID:26902123

  11. Links between ectopic fat and vascular disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2014-09-01

    The average of overweight individual can have differential fat depots in target organs or specific compartments of the body. This ectopic fat distribution may be more of a predictive factor for cardiovascular risk than obesity. Abdominal visceral obesity, a representative ectopic fat, is robustly associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Fat depots in the liver and muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic risk by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Pericardial fat and perivascular fat affect coronary atherosclerosis, cardiac function, and hemodynamics. Fat around the neck is associated with systemic vascular resistance. Fat around the kidney may increase blood pressure and induce albuminuria. Fat accumulation in or around the pancreas alters glucose metabolism, conferring cardiovascular risk. Ectopic fat may act as an active endocrine and paracrine organ that releases various bioactive mediators that influence insulin resistance, glucose and lipid metabolism, coagulation, and inflammation, which all contribute to cardiovascular risk. Because both obese and apparently lean individuals can have ectopic fat, regional fat distribution may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases in both nonobese and obese people. PMID:25035342

  12. Tubal ectopic pregnancy two years after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy is a very rare condition, but it must be kept in mind in women with history of hysterectomy who present with abdominal pain and ecographic adnexal heterogeneous images. Since first described by Wendeler in 1895, at least 67 ectopic pregnancies (tubal, ovarian and abdominal) have been described in patients subjected to prior hysterectomy. Case presentation We describe the case of a 41-year-old white caucasian woman admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for two days. The ultrasounds scan and the quantification of beta-HCG led to the diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy, although she had been hysterectomized two years before. An emergency laparoscopy was performed for salpingectomy. The pathology report indicated trophoblastic tubal implantation and hematosalpinx. Conclusions Ectopic pregnancy is one of the conditions to be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in women of child bearing potential, and the absence of the uterus does not rule out its diagnosis. PMID:24886255

  13. Photo-Promoted Platinum Nanoparticles Decorated MoS2@Graphene Woven Fabric Catalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Zang, Xiaobei; Li, Xinming; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen production from water splitting has been considered as an effective and sustainable method to solve future energy related crisis. Molybdenum sulfides (e.g., MoS2) show promising catalytic ability in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Combining MoS2 with conductive carbon-based materials has aroused tremendous research interest recently. In this work, a highly efficient multiple-catalyst is developed for HER by decorating Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) on MoS2@graphene protected nickel woven fabrics (NiWF) substrate, which comprises the following components: (i) Graphene protected NiWF acts as the underlying substrate, supporting the whole structure; (ii) MoS2 nanoplates serve as a central and essential photosensitive component, forming a heterostructure with graphene simultaneously; and (iii) on the basis of the intrinsic photoluminescence effect of MoS2, together with the photoelectric response at the MoS2/graphene interface, Pt NPs are successfully deposited on the whole structure under illumination. Particularly and foremost, this work emphasizes on discussion and verification of the underlying mechanism for photopromoted electroless Pt NPs deposition. Due to this assembly approach, the usage amount of Pt is controlled at ∼5 wt % (∼0.59 at. %) with respect to the whole catalyst. MoS2@Substrate with Pt NPs deposited under 643 nm illumination, with the synergistic effect of MoS2 active sites and Pt NPs, demonstrates the most superior electrocatalytic performance, with negligible overpotential and low Tafel slope of 39.4 mV/dec. PMID:27070762

  14. Chloride promoted room temperature preparation of silver nanoparticles on two dimensional tungsten oxide nanoarchitectures for the catalytic oxidation of tertiary N-compounds to N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shilpi; Acharyya, Shankha S; Kumar, Malika; Bal, Rajaram

    2015-10-01

    A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies further provide mechanistic insight which proves that the formation of peroxo tungsten species is responsible for the N-oxidation reaction. High stability and recyclability of the 2D Ag/WO3 nanoplates are also observed under the investigated conditions. PMID:26313877

  15. An assessment of the effects of ectopic gp91phox expression in XCGD iPSC-derived neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huan-Ting; Masaki, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Wada, Taizo; Yachie, Akihiro; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Otsu, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    For the treatment of monogenetic hematological disorders, restoration of transgene expression in affected cell populations is generally considered to have beneficial effects. However, X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (XCGD) is unique since the appearance of functional neutrophils in the peripheral blood following hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy is transient only. One contributing factor could be the occurrence of detrimental effects secondary to ectopic gp91phox expression in neutrophils, which has not been formally demonstrated previously. This study uses iPSCs to model XCGD, which allows the process of differentiation to be studied intensely in vitro. Alpharetroviral vectors carrying a ubiquitous promoter were used to drive the “ectopic” expression of codon optimized gp91phox cDNA. In the mature fraction of neutrophils differentiated from transduced XCGD-iPSCs, cellular recovery in terms of gp91phox expression and reactive oxygen species production was abruptly lost before cells had fully differentiated. Most critically, ectopic gp91phox expression could be identified clearly in the developing fraction of the transduced groups, which appeared to correspond with reduced cell viability. It is possible that this impedes further differentiation of developing neutrophils. Therefore, affording cellular protection from the detrimental effects of ectopic gp91phox expression may improve XCGD clinical outcomes. PMID:26682238

  16. Aquaporin 5 Plays a Role in Estrogen-Induced Ectopic Implantation of Endometrial Stromal Cells in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiu Xiu; Fei, Xiang Wei; Zhao, Li; Ye, Xiao Lei; Xin, Liao Bin; Qu, Yang; Xu, Kai Hong; Wu, Rui Jin; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) participates in the migration of endometrial cells. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms associated with AQP5-mediated, migration of endometrial cells may contribute to a better understanding of endometriosis. Our objectives included identifying the estrogen-response element (ERE) in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene, and, investigating the effects of AQP5 on ectopic implantation of endometrial cells. Luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified the ERE-like motif in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene. After blocking and up-regulating estradiol (E2) levels, we analysed the expression of AQP5 in endometrial stromal (ES) cells. After blocking E2 /or phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI3K), we analysed the role of AQP5 in signaling pathways. We constructed an AQP5, shRNA, lentiviral vector to knock out the AQP5 gene in ES cells. After knock-out of the AQP5 gene, we studied the role of AQP5 in cell invasion, proliferation, and the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in female mice. We identified an estrogen-response element in the promoter region of the AQP5 gene. Estradiol (E2) increased AQP5 expression in a dose-dependent fashion, that was blocked by ICI182,780(an estrogen receptor inhibitor). E2 activated PI3K /protein kinase B(AKT) pathway (PI3K/AKT), that, in turn, increased AQP5 expression. LY294002(PI3K inhibitor) attenuated estrogen-enhanced, AQP5 expression. Knock-out of the AQP5 gene with AQP5 shRNA lentiviral vector significantly inhibited E2-enhanced invasion, proliferation of ES cells and formation of ectopic implants. Estrogen induces AQP5 expression by activating ERE in the promoter region of the AQP5gene, activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, and, promotes endometrial cell invasion and proliferation. These results provide new insights into some of the mechanisms that may underpin the development of deposits of ectopic endometrium. PMID:26679484

  17. A stubborn anemia caused by ectopic pancreas bleeding in the jejunum revealed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is extremely rare in clinical setting. Meanwhile, a stubborn anemia without obvious dark bloody stool due to ectopic pancreas diagnosed by capsule endoscopy has not been reported. We reported a case of an ectopic pancreas inducing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a 70-year-old woman presenting as stubborn anemia, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. The patient recovered well after resection the lesion. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is extremely difficult with conventional techniques. Endoscopists should pay more attention to the ectopic pancreas as a rare differential consideration for occult intestinal bleeding. PMID:26682148

  18. Comparison of Survival and Osteogenic Ability of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Orthotopic and Ectopic Sites in Mice.

    PubMed

    Manassero, Mathieu; Paquet, Joseph; Deschepper, Mickael; Viateau, Véronique; Retortillo, Jose; Bensidhoum, Morad; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Petite, Hervé

    2016-03-01

    Tissue constructs containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are appealing strategies for repairing large segmental bone defects, but they do not allow consistent bone healing and early cell death was identified as a cause of failure. However, little is known about cell survival in the clinical microenvironment encountered during bone healing process. Osteoconductive coral scaffold with or without luciferase-labeled human MSCs were implanted either in a critical segmental femoral bone defect stabilized by plate or subcutaneously in 44 mice. Cell survival was evaluated by serial bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and osteogenic capabilities by histology and microcomputed tomography. Comparisons between groups were performed with two-way analysis of variance test. Twenty mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after surgery for short-term evaluation and 24 mice at 10 weeks for long-term evaluation. BLI provided evidence of fast and continuous cell death: 85% decrease of the BLI signal over the first 2 weeks in both locations; in fact, less than 2% of the initial cell number was present in all constructs analyzed 4 weeks postimplantation and less than 1% of the initial cell number by 8 weeks postimplantation. By 2 weeks postimplantation, the amount of newly formed bone was self-limited and was similar to ectopic and orthotopic groups. By 10 weeks postimplantation, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the presence of MSCs in orthotopic site and the amount of newly formed bone in cell-containing constructs implanted in orthotopic locations was significantly higher than that observed in the ectopic group. Our results indicated that hMSCs promote bone formation despite early and massive cell death when loaded on coral scaffolds. Interestingly, bone formation was higher in orthotopic than ectopic site despite the same survival pattern. Ectopic implantation of cell-containing constructs is suitable to evaluate cell survival, but assessment of bone formation ability requires

  19. Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-κB signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-κB signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKKβ, an essential component of the NF-κB pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikkβ). K5-Ikkβ mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikkβ mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikkβ mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-κB activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. PMID:25376721

  20. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  1. Multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Hyvönen, Maija L K; Laakkonen, Pirjo M; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Airaksinen, Anu J; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials provide a unique platform for the development of theranostic systems that combine diagnostic imaging modalities with a therapeutic payload in a single probe. In this work, dual-labeled iRGD-modified multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) were prepared from dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO) modified PSi NPs by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Hydrophobic antiangiogenic drug, sorafenib, was loaded into the modified PSi NPs to enhance the drug dissolution rate and improve cancer therapy. Radiolabeling of the developed system with (111)In enabled the monitoring of the in vivo biodistribution of the nanocarrier by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an ectopic PC3-MM2 mouse xenograft model. Fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor 488 was used to determine the long-term biodistribution of the nanocarrier by immunofluorescence at the tissue level ex vivo. Modification of the PSi NPs with an iRGD peptide enhanced the tumor uptake of the NPs when administered intravenously. After intratumoral delivery the NPs were retained in the tumor, resulting in efficient tumor growth suppression with particle-loaded sorafenib compared to the free drug. The presented multifunctional PSi NPs highlight the utility of constructing a theranostic nanosystems for simultaneous investigations of the in vivo behavior of the nanocarriers and their drug delivery efficiency, facilitating the selection of the most promising materials for further NP development. PMID:25701036

  2. Mifepristone Improves Octreotide Efficacy in Resistant Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Andreas G; Auchus, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old Caucasian man presented with severe Cushing's syndrome (CS) resulting from ectopic adrenocorticotropin syndrome (EAS) from a metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The patient remained hypercortisolemic despite treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors, chemotherapy, and octreotide long-acting release (LAR) and was enrolled in a 24-week, phase 3 clinical trial of mifepristone for inoperable hypercortisolemia. After mifepristone was added to ongoing octreotide LAR treatment, EAS symptoms essentially resolved. Cortisol decreased dramatically, despite mifepristone's competitive glucocorticoid receptor antagonist effects. The clinical and biochemical effects reversed upon mifepristone discontinuation despite the continued use of octreotide LAR therapy. Substantial improvement in octreotide LAR efficacy with mifepristone use was noted in this patient with ectopic CS, consistent with upregulation of somatostatin receptors previously downregulated by hypercortisolemia. PMID:26989527

  3. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors after predecessor pulpectomy: five cases.

    PubMed

    Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Barcelos, Roberta; Gleiser, Rogerio; Primo, Laura Guimaraes

    2011-01-01

    Pulpectomy in primary teeth is a common technique that preserves teeth in the oral environment and maintains or recovers periapical tissues to a healthy condition. This article describes the ectopic eruption of permanent incisors whose primary predecessors underwent pulpectomy using ZOE filler paste. In a group of 135 teeth that received pulpectomy therapy due to caries, 10 primary maxillary incisors had overretention and were followed for at least 3.5 years (mean time of 4.2 years), both clinically and radiographically, until the permanent teeth erupted. The proposed treatment included extraction of the overretained primary incisors based on permanent successor eruption chronology and contralateral eruption. Seven permanent teeth erupted ectopically. Autocorrection of the permanent tooth positions was observed in five cases. It can be concluded that periodic clinical and radiographic assessments are essential to verify radicular and filling paste resorptions and to avoid overretention and any subsequent malocclusion. PMID:21903556

  4. Mifepristone Improves Octreotide Efficacy in Resistant Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moraitis, Andreas G.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old Caucasian man presented with severe Cushing's syndrome (CS) resulting from ectopic adrenocorticotropin syndrome (EAS) from a metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The patient remained hypercortisolemic despite treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors, chemotherapy, and octreotide long-acting release (LAR) and was enrolled in a 24-week, phase 3 clinical trial of mifepristone for inoperable hypercortisolemia. After mifepristone was added to ongoing octreotide LAR treatment, EAS symptoms essentially resolved. Cortisol decreased dramatically, despite mifepristone's competitive glucocorticoid receptor antagonist effects. The clinical and biochemical effects reversed upon mifepristone discontinuation despite the continued use of octreotide LAR therapy. Substantial improvement in octreotide LAR efficacy with mifepristone use was noted in this patient with ectopic CS, consistent with upregulation of somatostatin receptors previously downregulated by hypercortisolemia. PMID:26989527

  5. Delayed Puberty due to Pituitary Stalk Dysgenesis and Ectopic Neurohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Suh, Sang Il; Kim, Nan Hee; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop

    2006-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is not a common cause of delayed puberty. A 22 year old man was referred to our clinic because of the absence of the development of secondary sexual characteristics. The patient had no complaints of physical discomfort. Random serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone level were obtained and found to be low. The combined pituitary function stimulation test revealed a partial hypopituitarism. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and showed decreased pituitary stalk enhancement and ectopic neurohypophysis. Therefore, we conclude that the delayed puberty was a result of hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk dysgenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis. The patient was started on hormone replacement therapy and gradually developed secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:16646569

  6. Ectopic 3rd Molar Tooth in the Maxillary Antrum

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Seidu A.; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O.; Osunde, Otasowie D.

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  7. Bilateral Synchronous Ectopic Ethmoid Sinus Olfactory Neuroblastoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Leon-Soriano, Elena; Alfonso, Carolina; Yebenes, Laura; Garcia-Polo, Julio; Lassaletta, Luis; Gavilan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a rare malignant head and neck cancer thought to originate from the olfactory epithelium. It typically invades contiguous structures at presentation. We report a very rare case of multifocal and ectopic ONB. CASE REPORT A 41-year-old man presented with left nasal obstruction and occasional left epistaxis associated with headache. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and computed tomography suggested bilateral polypoid masses. Histopathological diagnosis after endoscopic resection established bilateral olfactory neuroblastoma of the ethmoid sinuses. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy. He remains free of disease 4 years after treatment. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge this is the second documented case of multifocal ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Clinicians should consider ONB in the differential diagnosis of bilateral synchronous nasal and paranasal masses to avoid delayed diagnosis. Endoscopic resection of ONB could be an option in selected cases. PMID:27097989

  8. Ectopic primary olfactory neuroblastoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Margaret; Su, Shirley Y; Bell, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant tumor. Although the vast majority of cases arise in the nasal cavity, ONB is rarely reported in ectopic locations. We report a case of ONB in the maxillary sinus. A 63-year-old woman presented with left-sided nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a nonenhancing left maxillary sinus tumor. Histologic sections showed ONB, Hyams grade IV, invading bone, skeletal muscle, and adjacent fibroadipose tissue. It is essential to be accurate when diagnosing sinonasal tumors because the differential diagnosis is broad, and one must consider the possibility of ectopic ONB, although it is rare. The behavior of ONB and other neuroendocrine tumors of the sinonasal region is quite different, and there are varied approaches to treatment. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis as well as correct grade and stage must be assigned. PMID:27180059

  9. Ectopic 3rd molar tooth in the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu A; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O; Osunde, Otasowie D

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus-related hypercalcemia with ectopic calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lidan; Huang, Linfang; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old female with active systemic lupus erythematosus who complained of lethargy and weakness with a moderate renal impairment. Hypercalcemia was confirmed by laboratory examination. Her X-ray revealed significant ectopic calcinosis in subcutaneous tissue of bilateral hands, and Tc-99(m) methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed a remarkably intense uptake of bilateral lungs. She had no evidence suggestive of other diseases related to hypercalcemia such as hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. She had abnormally high serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) which fell to normal after treatment. Glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide plus calcitonin and etidronate were administered and the patient improved greatly. Literature review demonstrated that lupus-related hypercalcemia with ectopic calcinosis is a rare complication and increased PTHrP is probably one of the main mechanisms. Lung uptake in bone scan may be a special and reliable clue suggestive of hypercalcemia. PMID:27136920

  11. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Jae, Hwan Jun Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  12. Fibroadenoma in axilla: another manifestation of ectopic breast.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Satyendra K; Kumar, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenoma of an accessory breast is a rare disease. The clinical significance lies in the fact that a number of cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic diseases similar to those of a normal breast have been reported in accessory breasts as well. Vigilant self-assessment and complete clinical examination are always encouraged to detect earliest malignancy in the axilla. We report two cases of ectopic breast fibroadenoma with the relevant literature. PMID:25917072

  13. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  14. Ectopic cross-talk between thyroid and retinoic acid signaling: A possible etiology for spinal neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Li, Huili; Bai, Baoling; Zhang, Qin; Bao, Yihua; Guo, Jin; Chen, Shuyuan; Miao, Chunyue; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the connections between neural tube defects (NTDs) and both thyroid hormones (TH) and vitamin A. However, whether the two hormonal signaling pathways interact in NTDs has remained unclear. We measured the expression levels of TH signaling genes in human fetuses with spinal NTDs associated with maternal hyperthyroidism as well as levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling genes in mouse fetuses exposed to an overdose of RA using NanoString or real-time PCR on spinal cord tissues. Interactions between the two signaling pathways were detected by ChIP assays. The data revealed attenuated DIO2/DIO3 switching in fetuses with NTDs born to hyperthyroid mothers. The promoters of the RA signaling genes CRABP1 and RARB were ectopically occupied by increased RXRG and RXRB but displayed decreased levels of inhibitory histone modifications, suggesting that elevated TH signaling abnormally stimulates RA signaling genes. Conversely, in the mouse model, the observed decrease in Dio3 expression could be explained by increased levels of inhibitory histone modifications in the Dio3 promoter region, suggesting that overactive RA signaling may ectopically derepress TH signaling. This study thus raises in vivo a possible abnormal cross-promotion between two different hormonal signals through their common RXRs and the subsequent recruitment of histone modifications, prompting further investigation into their involvement in the etiology of spinal NTDs. PMID:26188161

  15. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date. PMID:27541944

  17. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions. PMID:26172167

  18. The radioreceptor assay for hCG in ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berry, C M; Thompson, J D; Hatcher, R

    1979-07-01

    The Biocept-G test (Wampole) is a commercial modification of the radioreceptor assay for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which takes 1 hours to process and has a sensitivity of 200 mIU/ml for hCG. Over a 9 1/2-month period, 70 consecutive patients with proven ectopic pregnancy were evaluated by the Biocept-G test, 2-minute urine slide test, and culdocentesis. Of 67 of these patients, 94% had a positive Biocept-G test, 82% had a positive culdocentesis, and 69% had a positive urine slide test. Sixty-nine (97%) of the 70 patients had either a positive Biocept-G and/or a positive culdocentesis, while only 1.7% had both a negative culdocentesis and a negative Biocept-G. Thirty-two patients underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy during this time period to rule out ectopic pregnancy but were not found to have this condition. The Biocept-G had a 94% accuracy rate in determining the presence or absence of intrauterine pregnancy in this group, compared to an 82% accuracy rate for the urine slide test. The Biocept-G has the highest true-positive rate for ectopic pregnancy published to date for a rapidly performed, commercially available pregnancy test. PMID:450364

  19. Severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome coexisting with a bilateral ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Chii-Shinn; Chang, Ming-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Hsin; Hsieh, Ching-Chang; Hsieh, Tsang-Tang

    2004-02-01

    Management of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) includes hospitalization for fluid and electrolyte management. Abdominal paracentesis is also used as minimally invasive form of management in selected cases of severe OHSS following ovulation induction. However, if pregnancy ensues, the syndrome persists for a longer period, and the clinical manifestations of severe OHSS could mask the picture of a bleeding gestational sac. It could be easily overlooked unless the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy is kept in mind in cases of severe OHSS exacerbated by early pregnancy with or without a previous ectopic pregnancy history. We report a case of severe OHSS with simultaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy following intrauterine insemination (IUI). A 31-year-old woman with polycystic ovarian disease developed severe OHSS during the therapeutic course of IUI. An emergent exploratory laparotomy was performed 14 days after admission, and the operative findings showed persistent profuse bleeding from the bilateral fimbrial ends with marked enlargement of the ampullary portions. A linear salpingotomy was performed by a longitudinal incision along the area of maximal distension of the dilated fallopian tubes to preserve her fertility. We recommend that in cases of severe OHSS exacerbated by early pregnancy, serial serum beta-hCG and transvaginal ultrasound follow-up may be necessary due to the potential association of severe OHSS in pregnancy with an ectopic pregnancy. PMID:15095961

  20. Ectopic and abnormal hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, A; Ndiaye, N; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism by which cortisol is produced in adrenal Cushing's syndrome, when ACTH is suppressed, was previously unknown and was referred to as being "autonomous." More recently, several investigators have shown that some cortisol and other steroid-producing adrenal tumors or hyperplasias are under the control of ectopic (or aberrant, illicit, inappropriate) membrane hormone receptors. These include ectopic receptors for gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), beta-adrenergic agonists, or LH/hCG; a similar outcome can result from altered activity of eutopic receptors, such as those for vasopressin (V1-AVPR), serotonin (5-HT4), or possibly leptin. The presence of aberrant receptors places adrenal cells under stimulation by a trophic factor not negatively regulated by glucocorticoids, leading to increased steroidogenesis and possibly to the proliferative phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the abnormal expression and function of membrane hormone receptors are still largely unknown. Identification of the presence of these illicit receptors can eventually lead to new pharmacological therapies as alternatives to adrenalectomy, now demonstrated by the long-term control of ectopic P-AR- and LH/hCGR-dependent Cushing's syndrome by propanolol and leuprolide acetate. Further studies will potentially identify a larger diversity of hormone receptors capable of coupling to G proteins, adenylyl cyclase, and steroidogenesis in functional adrenal tumors and probably in other endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:11159817

  1. Ectopic uterine tissue as a chronic pain generator.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, P; Chen, X; Hendrich, J; Irwin, J C; Green, P G; Giudice, L C; Levine, J D

    2012-12-01

    While chronic pain is a main symptom in endometriosis, the underlying mechanisms and effective therapy remain elusive. We developed an animal model enabling the exploration of ectopic endometrium as a source of endometriosis pain. Rats were surgically implanted with autologous uterus in the gastrocnemius muscle. Within two weeks, visual inspection revealed the presence of a reddish-brown fluid-filled cystic structure at the implant site. Histology demonstrated cystic glandular structures with stromal invasion of the muscle. Immunohistochemical studies of these lesions revealed the presence of markers for nociceptor nerve fibers and neuronal sprouting. Fourteen days after surgery rats exhibited persistent mechanical hyperalgesia at the site of the ectopic endometrial lesion. Intralesional, but not contralateral, injection of progesterone was dose-dependently antihyperalgesic. Systemic administration of leuprolide also produced antihyperalgesia. In vivo electrophysiological recordings from sensory neurons innervating the lesion revealed a significant increase in their response to sustained mechanical stimulation. These results are consistent with clinical and pathological findings observed in patients with endometriosis, compatible with the ectopic endometrium as a source of pain. This model of endometriosis allows mechanistic exploration at the lesion site facilitating our understanding of endometriosis pain. PMID:22922120

  2. pH-Responsive Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanoparticles with Rapid Antigen Release Behavior Promote Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiaoming; Jia, Jilei; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Tingyuan; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui

    2015-05-26

    In the quest to treat intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection, nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered to be efficient tools for inducing potent immune responses, specifically cellular immunity. Antigen processing and presenting by antigen presenting cells (APCs) could influence immune response, especially the priming of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity. Here, we fabricated pH-responsive poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with rapid antigen intracellular release behavior in APCs. The NPs, which had thin shells and large inner space, contain ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), which could regulate release in endosomes and lysosomes, acting as an antigen release promoter in dendritic cells (DCs), and were coencapsulated with antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). Hydrogen ions (H(+)) in DC endosomes and lysosomes (pH ∼5.0 and 6.5) could react with NH4HCO3 to generate NH3 and CO2, which broke NPs and released antigens. After uptake by DCs, antigens encapsulated in pH-responsive PLGA NPs could escape from lysosomes into the cytoplasm and be cross-presented. Moreover, the NPs induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and stimulated cytokine production. Mouse immunization with pH-responsive PLGA NPs induced greater lymphocyte activation, more antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, stronger cytotoxic capacity (IFN-γ and granzyme B), enhanced antigen-specific IgG antibodies, and higher serum IgG2a/IgG1, indicating cellular immunity. The NPs also improved generation of memory T cells to protect against reinfection. Thus, pH-responsive PLGA NPs, which induced strong cellular immune responses and offered antibody protection, could be potentially useful as effective vaccine delivery and adjuvant systems for the therapy of intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection. PMID:25898266

  3. Non-Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Supported on Metal-Organic Framework as an Efficient and Durable Catalyst for Promoting H2 Production from Ammonia Borane under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Meicheng; Cui, Yiwen; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-08-24

    In this work, we propose a straightforward method to enhance the catalytic activity of AB dehydrogenation by using non-noble-metal nanoparticle supported on chromium-based metal-organic framework (MIL-101). It was demonstrated to be effective for hydrogen generation from ammonia borane under assistance of visible light irradiation as a noble-metal-free catalyst. The catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles supported on MIL-101 under visible light irradiation is remarkably higher than that without light irradiation. The TOFs of Cu/MIL-101, Co/MIL-101, and Ni/MIL-101 are 1693, 1571, and 3238 h(-1), respectively. The enhanced activity of catalysts can be primarily attributed to the cooperative promoting effects from both non-noble-metal nanoparticles and photoactive metal-organic framework in activating the ammonia borane molecule and strong ability in the photocatalytic production of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and electron-rich non-noble-metal nanoparticle. This work sheds light on the exploration of active non-noble metals supported on photoactive porous materials for achieving high catalytic activity of various redox reactions under visible light irradiation. PMID:27478964

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy in Uncommon Implantation Sites: Intramural Pregnancy and Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Fan; Zeng, Li-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly located in the fallopian tube. Nevertheless, two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy, intramural pregnancy and rudimentary horn pregnancy, seriously threaten maternal life. The diagnosis and treatment of these unusual implantation sites present a clinical challenge. In this study, we illustrated the two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy and summarized the current data regarding diagnosis and optimal treatment from our experience. PMID:26819788

  5. Ectopic Pregnancy in Uncommon Implantation Sites: Intramural Pregnancy and Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Fan; Zeng, Li-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly located in the fallopian tube. Nevertheless, two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy, intramural pregnancy and rudimentary horn pregnancy, seriously threaten maternal life. The diagnosis and treatment of these unusual implantation sites present a clinical challenge. In this study, we illustrated the two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy and summarized the current data regarding diagnosis and optimal treatment from our experience. PMID:26819788

  6. Resection of a large ectopic parathyroid adenoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Seijiro; Kitahara, Akihiko; Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Ohashi, Riuko; Motoi, Noriko; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parathyroid adenomas are the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, cases of parathyroid adenomas greater than 4 cm with osteitis fibrosa cystica are extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of resection of a large ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case presentations A 46-year-old female with chief complaints of bone pain and gait disturbance was referred to our hospital. Physical examination revealed many mobile teeth in her oral cavity, distortion of the vertebral body, and bowlegs. Laboratory tests showed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone. Chest CT revealed a 42-mm well–defined, enhancing mass in front of the left-sided tracheal bifurcation. Her findings were diagnosed as primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid tumor. We performed a median sternotomy and resected the tumor. The tumor was a solid, yellowish-brown mass measuring 42 × 42 mm. Pathologically, the tumor consisted mainly of chief cells with some oxyphil cells; there were no necrotic areas or nuclear atypia, and few mitotic figures. We diagnosed the tumor as an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Eight months after the resection, her serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact PTH levels were normal. Discussion and conclusions Parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas have disparate natural histories, but they can be difficult to differentiate on the basis of preoperative clinical characteristics. We believe that long-term follow-up of these cases is required because there have been few reports on the postoperative natural history of large parathyroid adenomas. PMID:27078868

  7. Role of the planar cell polarity pathway in regulating ectopic hair cell-like cells induced by Math1 and testosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Kai; Ma, Rui; Yang, Juan-Mei; Luo, Wen-Wei; Han, Zhao; Cong, Ning; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-07-30

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates cochlear extension and coordinates orientation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Retroviral-mediated introduction of the Math1 transcription factor leads to the transdifferentiation of some mature supporting cells into hair cells. Testosterone, a gonadal sex steroid hormone, is associated with neuroprotection and regeneration in Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Experiments were performed in vitro using Ad5-EGFP-Math1/Ad5-Math1 in neonatal mouse cochleas. Establishment of ectopic hair-cell like cell(HCLC) polarity in the lesser epithelial ridge (LER) with or without testosterone-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime bovine serum albumin (testosterone-BSA) treatment was investigated to determine the role of the PCP pathway in regulating ectopic regenerated (HCLCs) through induction by Math1 and testosterone treatment. After Math1 infection, new ectopic regenerated HCLCs were detected in the LER. After the HCLCs developed actin-rich stereocilia, the basal bodies moved from the center to the distal side. Moreover, the narrower, non-sensory LER region meant that the convergent extension (CE) was also established after transfection with Math1. After 9 days of in vitro testosterone-BSA treatment, more Edu(+), Sox2(+), and HCLC cells were observed in the LER with an accompanying downregulation of E-cadherin. Interestingly, the CE of the Ad5-EGFP-math1 treated LER is altered, but the intrinsic cellular polarity of the HCLCs is not obviously changed. In summary, our results indicate that PCP signaling is involved in the development of ectopic HCLCs and the CE of the ectopic sensory region is altered by testosterone-BSA through downregulation of cell-cell adhesion. Testosterone-BSA and Math1 treatment could promote an increase in HCLCs in the LER through proliferation and transdifferentiation. PMID:25957791

  8. Bilateral Simultaneous Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report, Review of Literature and a Proposed Management Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Nayak, Monalisha; Das, Leena; Senapati, Swagatika

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy (BTP) is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence is higher in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques or ovulation induction. The clinical presentation is unpredictable and there are no unique features to distinguish it from unilateral ectopic pregnancy. BTP continues to be a clinician’s dilemma as pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and is commonly made during surgery. Treatment options are varied depending on site of ectopic pregnancy, extent of tubal damage and requirement of future fertility. We report a case of BTP which was diagnosed during surgery and propose an algorithm for management of such patients. PMID:27134950

  9. Ectopic pregnancy--an analysis of 180 cases.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Arup Kumar; Roy, Nilotpal; Karmakar, Kakali Sinha; Banerjee, Pradip Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is the most life threatening emergency in pregnancy. Increase in incidence and impairment in fertility are now the real concerns. The aim of this study was to estimate the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ectopic pregnancy with a view to suggest action to improve the prognosis. This was a prospective study carried out at NRS Medical College, Kolkata, among consecutive 180 patients of ectopic pregnancy admitted from January, 2002 to December, 2004. During this period the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 1 in 161(0.6%). The peak age of incidence was 26-30 years; primi were the most sufferers. There were 65.0% patients was had identifiable risk factors. Tubectomy (14.4%), history of abortion (26.1%), infertility (12.2%), pelvic inflammatory diseases (12.8%) and history of previous surgery (11.1%) were the important risk factors. Amenorrhoea (76.1%), abdominal pain (86.1%) and vaginal bleeding (42.2%) were the frequent presenting complaints. There were 87.8% patients was had pallor, 9.4% were admitted with features of shock. Cervical motion tenderness (82.2%) was the most frequent sign. Urinary beta-hCG was positive in 96.1% cases. Ultrasonography revealed diagnosis in 2/3rds cases among 129 patients. Culdocentesis evoked the diagnosis in 73.3% cases out of 135 patients. In 95.0% cases it was of tubal variety, 70.2% ruptured, 19.9% tubal abortion and 9.9% unruptured. Surgery by open method in the form of salpingectomy (81.9%), salpingo-oophorectomy (9.3%) and salpingostomy (5.3%) were the mainstay of management. Expectant management and medical therapy can be offered only in 1.2% and 1.75% respectively. There was no case fatality. By reducing and identifying the risk factors and 'catching' the patients at the earliest it is possible to improve the prognosis so far as morbidity, mortality and fertility are concerned. PMID:18232175

  10. Functional divergence of gene duplicates through ectopic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Joaquin F; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Duitama, Jorge; Brown, Chris A; Ghequire, Maarten G; De Meester, Luc; Michiels, Jan; Wenseleers, Tom; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication stimulates evolutionary innovation as the resulting paralogs acquire mutations that lead to sub- or neofunctionalization. A comprehensive in silico analysis of paralogs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals that duplicates of cell-surface and subtelomeric genes also undergo ectopic recombination, which leads to new chimaeric alleles. Mimicking such intergenic recombination events in the FLO (flocculation) family of cell-surface genes shows that chimaeric FLO alleles confer different adhesion phenotypes than the parental genes. Our results indicate that intergenic recombination between paralogs can generate a large set of new alleles, thereby providing the raw material for evolutionary adaptation and innovation. PMID:23070367

  11. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

    2013-01-01

    The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position. PMID:24396609

  12. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  13. Recycling of Acetylcholine Receptors at Ectopic Postsynaptic Clusters Induced by Exogenous Agrin in Living Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  14. Ectopic Lymphoid Structures Support Ongoing Production of Class-Switched Autoantibodies in Rheumatoid Synovium

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Antonio; Kelly, Stephen; Blades, Mark C; Kirkham, Bruce; Spencer, Jo; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2009-01-01

    Background Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs) that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i) express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes; (ii) support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii) remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium. Methods and Findings Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR) in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Iγ-Cμ circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching) was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial

  15. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably. PMID:26968108

  16. Ectopic Origin of Coronary Arteries Diagnozed by Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Gorani, Daut; Sejdiu, Basri; Citaku, Hajdin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anomalous origin of coronary arteries from opposite sinus of Valsalva is rare finding. The incidence of anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from right sinus is 0.15% and the right coronary artery from the left sinus is 0.92%. The ectopic origin of left coronary artery or right coronary artery from opposite sinus depending on pathways and considering atherosclerotic changes are manifested with different clinical significance. Case report: We report two cases, the first case the coronary angiography showed the left coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus, presenting with proximally and distally stenosed left anterior descending artery (LAD), associated with medial and distal stenosed right coronary artery (RCA). The second case the coronary angiography revealed the right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus, associated with tortuous medial and distal segments of left anterior descending artery (LAD), without atherosclerotic changes. The first case successfully underwent treatment procedures based on guidelines for revascularization. Conclusion: The coronary angiography of patients with coronary ischemia determines atherosclerotic disease with possibility of the presence of coronary artery anomalies that in cases with ectopic origin from opposite sinus continues to exist as a challenge during treatment in interventional cardiology. PMID:27482140

  17. Bilateral Synchronous Ectopic Ethmoid Sinus Olfactory Neuroblastoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Soriano, Elena; Alfonso, Carolina; Yebenes, Laura; Garcia-Polo, Julio; Lassaletta, Luis; Gavilan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Olfactory neuroblastoma Symptoms: Left nasal obstruction • occasional left epistaxis • headache Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Nasal endoscopic examination • neck palpation • CT • bilateral endoscopic resection • MRI • PET-CT • postoperative radiotherapy Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a rare malignant head and neck cancer thought to originate from the olfactory epithelium. It typically invades contiguous structures at presentation. We report a very rare case of multifocal and ectopic ONB. Case Report: A 41-year-old man presented with left nasal obstruction and occasional left epistaxis associated with headache. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and computed tomography suggested bilateral polypoid masses. Histopathological diagnosis after endoscopic resection established bilateral olfactory neuroblastoma of the ethmoid sinuses. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy. He remains free of disease 4 years after treatment. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the second documented case of multifocal ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Clinicians should consider ONB in the differential diagnosis of bilateral synchronous nasal and paranasal masses to avoid delayed diagnosis. Endoscopic resection of ONB could be an option in selected cases. PMID:27097989

  18. The diagnostic approach to ectopic ureterocele and the renal duplication complex

    SciTech Connect

    Geringer, A.M.; Berdon, W.E.; Seldin, D.W.; Hensle, T.W.

    1983-03-01

    The child with ectopic ureterocele frequently presents a diagnostic challenge. The use of standard excretory urography combined with newer modalities, such as ultrasonography and radionuclide renal scanning, provides an orderly diagnostic approach to ectopic ureterocele. This integrated approach should ensure the highest yield in a diagnostic sense and aid in assessing upper tract function, thus, helping with the selection of the proper surgical management.

  19. Ectopic Ureteral Insertion into the Seminal Vesicle Causing Recurrent Epididymitis in a 24-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Tracy; Herrell, Stanley Duke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A 24-year-old male was found to have recurrent epididymitis secondary to ectopic ureteral insertion to the seminal vesicle. His ipsilateral kidney was atrophic and ectopic in the pelvis, suggesting a complex failure of embryological development. He was successfully treated with robot-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy.

  20. Efficacy of landiolol for the treatment of junctional ectopic tachycardia resulting from sepsis.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hideharu; Sugimoto, Masaya; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia, after surgery for CHD, is a serious arrhythmia that can cause increased morbidity and mortality. We report a case of junctional ectopic tachycardia, preceded by sepsis, in a 4-year-old girl, 31 months after open-heart surgery. She was successfully treated using low-dose landiolol hydrochloride. PMID:25785611

  1. Recognition and Management of Ectopic Ureterocele During Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger; Hu, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Ectopic ureter and ureterocele are rare congenital anomalies. As such, are seldom encountered incidentally during urologic surgery. We present a case illustrating an unforeseen encounter of an ectopic ureter with an associated ureterocele during a robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and the surgical technique used to adapt to the anatomical variation. PMID:27313987

  2. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  3. Right ampullary ectopic pregnancy following bilateral tubal ligation using spring clips.

    PubMed

    Obajimi, G O; Balogun, F O; Nwose, U; Obajimi, O M

    2013-12-01

    Pregnancy is unlikely to occur in women who have undergone sterilization. However when it occurs, there is a substantial risk that it will be an ectopic pregnancy. We report a case of right unruptured ampullary ectopic gestation following tubal sterilization with spring clips 6 years prior to presentation. The likely aetiology may be spontaneous reanastomosis. PMID:25161421

  4. RIGHT AMPULLARY ECTOPIC PREGNANCY FOLLOWING BILATERAL TUBAL LIGATION USING SPRING CLIPS

    PubMed Central

    Obajimi, G.O.; Balogun, F.O.; Nwose, U.; Obajimi, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is unlikely to occur in women who have undergone sterilization. However when it occurs, there is a substantial risk that it will be an ectopic pregnancy. We report a case of right unruptured ampullary ectopic gestation following tubal sterilization with spring clips 6 years prior to presentation. The likely aetiology may be spontaneous reanastomosis. PMID:25161421

  5. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy....

  6. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy....

  7. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy....

  8. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy....

  9. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy....

  10. RANKL-Expressing Ectopic Extramammary Paget's Disease on the Lower Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara-Takita, Akiko; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare variant of EMPD that develops in nonapocrine regions. Since reports about ectopic EMPD are limited, little is known about the biological and immunological background of ectopic EMPD. In this report, we present a case of ectopic EMPD on the lower abdomen that expressed RANKL but lacked the expression of MMP7. As we previously reported, Paget's cells express RANKL and MMP7, release soluble RANKL in the tumor microenvironment, and stimulate tumor-associated macrophages to produce tumor-loading factors in conventional EMPD. In our present case, both CCL5-expressing cells and MMP25-bearing cells were lacking, whereas substantial numbers of CCL5-expressing cells and MMP25-bearing cells were found in conventional EMPD. Our case suggested that the lack of MMP7 on Paget's cells might be one of the possible explanations for the biology of ectopic EMPD. PMID:27462221

  11. Etiology, Classification and Management of Ectopic Eruption of Permanent First Molars.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chu-Chun; Boynton, James R

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic eruption of a permanent tooth involves abnormal resorption of a portion or all of the adjacent primary tooth. Among the most commonly ectopically erupted teeth are the permanent first molars. Ectopically erupting molars may require intervention to allow for full eruption, or they may spontaneously self-correct and erupt into occlusion. Decisions regarding the necessity of intervention, its ideal timing, and intervention type are multifactorial. Treatment options for the ectopically erupting permanent first molar include the elastomeric separator, brass wire, pre-fabricated clip separator, custom made appliances (Humphrey appliance, Halterman appliance), or extraction of the primary molar. Early intervention when indicated can ensure proper full eruption of the permanent first molar and prevent mesial angulation, arch perimeter loss, tooth impaction and ankylosis. Two cases are described that manage ectopic eruption of the permanent first molar. PMID:26882645

  12. Fever after Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy; a case report from Gorgan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Besharat, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition, and, although its prevalence has decreased in recent years, it is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in women. Cervical ectopic pregnancy is less than 1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Fever is one of signs of infection, and it is necessary to monitor patients closely for other signs of infection. This paper presents and discusses a case of cervical ectopic pregnancy with fever after treatment. The patient had a high fever that became worse after three hospitalizations. The probable cause of her pyelonephritis was a urinary catheter, although it had been removed earlier, and she was receiving antibiotic therapy. Even though cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition, it has certain complications that must be managed appropriately. PMID:25763173

  13. Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production by a nasal paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Serra, F; Duarte, S; Abreu, S; Marques, C; Cassis, J; Saraiva, M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ectopic secretion of ACTH is an infrequent cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by a nasal paraganglioma, a 68-year-old female with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, serious hypokalaemia and a right paranasal sinus' lesion. Cranial magnetic resonance image showed a 46-mm mass on the right paranasal sinuses. Endocrinological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic ACTH production. Resection of the tumour normalised ACTH and cortisol secretion. The tumour was found to be a paraganglioma through microscopic analysis. On follow-up 3 months later, the patient showed nearly complete clinical recovery. Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to nasal paraganglioma is extremely uncommon, as only two other cases have been discussed in the literature. Learning points Ectopic Cushing's syndrome accounts for 10% of Cushing's syndrome etiologies.Most paraganglioma of the head and neck are not hormonally active.Nasal paraganglioma, especially ACTH producing, is a very rare tumour. PMID:24616770

  14. Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy following intra uterine insemination (IUI): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of ectopic pregnancy varies between 1.5-2% of all pregnancies. Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is rare. It may occur in 1 per 200 000 pregnancies. Case: This is a case report of 25 year-old woman who underwent intra uterine insemination (IUI), because of tubal factor infertility (unilateral). On the 30th day after the IUI she complained from pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasound showed bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy with fluid in Douglas Pouch and empty uterine cavity. Exploratory laparotomy, left salpingectomy, and right salpingostomy were performed on the same day of admission. Conclusion: The above case suggests that cases presenting with infertility and ectopic pregnancy should be followed very closely with β-hCG and or Trans Vaginal Sonography (TVS) to exclude double ectopic. So, as in this case, early diagnosis is essential for prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:24799875

  15. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular sigmoid notch: Report of a case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Baykul, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandible. Methods: We report a case of an impacted mandibular third molar dislocated on mandibular sigmoid notch. 20 cases of ectopic mandibular third molars reported in the English-language literature, identified from Pubmed and Medline databases are also reviewed. Results: Among the 20 article reported in the presented study, ectopic third molars were generally located in the condylar region. The common symptoms of the clinical examination were pain, trismus, swelling, temporomandibular joint syndroms or no symptoms. Conclusions: Ectopic third molar may be asymptomatic initially with clinical manifestations, later on as adjacent structures are affected. The surgical approach must be carefully planned for the aim of choosing the more conservative technique that produces the minimum trauma to patients. Key words:Ectopic third molar, sigmoid notch, cyst. PMID:25810825

  16. Incidence of ectopic pregnancy. First results of a population-based register in France.

    PubMed

    Coste, J; Job-Spira, N; Aublet-Cuvelier, B; Germain, E; Glowaczower, E; Fernandez, H; Pouly, J L

    1994-04-01

    A population-based register of ectopic pregnancy was established in 1992 for two French departments, with the primary aim of monitoring the trend in ectopic pregnancy over a prolonged period. In this paper, data collected during the first year of registration (1992) are analysed. The rate of ectopic pregnancy was 20.2 per 1000 live births, 15.8 per 1000 reported pregnancies and 9.5 per 10,000 women aged 15-44 years. The ectopic pregnancy rate per 1000 live births increased steeply after the age of 30 years and especially after the age of 35 years, whereas rates per 10,000 women of reproductive age steadily increased until the age of 35 years and decreased thereafter. The rates of ectopic pregnancy were lower in spring and summer than autumn and winter. These results are discussed and comparisons with similar studies conducted in the USA and Scandinavia are attempted. PMID:8046033

  17. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Modified Scaffold Interface Enhances Vascularization of Bone Grafts by Activating Calcium Channel of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junyu; Li, Jianmei; He, Jian; Tang, Xiangyu; Dou, Ce; Cao, Zhen; Yu, Bo; Zhao, Chunrong; Kang, Fei; Yang, Lu; Dong, Shiwu; Yang, Xiaochao

    2016-02-01

    Insufficient blood perfusion is one of the critical problems that hamper the clinical application of tissue engineering bone (TEB). Current methods for improving blood vessel distribution in TEB mainly rely on delivering exogenous angiogenic factors to promote the proliferation, migration, differentiation, and vessel formation of endothelial cells (ECs) and/or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, obstacles including limited activity preservation, difficulty in controlled release, and high cost obstructed the practical application of this strategy. In this study, TEB scaffold were modified with cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) and the effects of CNPs existed at the scaffold surface on the growth and paracrine behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. The CNPs could improve the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of MSCs. Meanwhile, the interaction between the cell membrane and the nanoparticle surface could activate the calcium channel of MSCs leading to the rise of intracellular free Ca(2+) level, which subsequently augments the stability of HIF-1α. These chain reactions finally resulted in high expression of angiogenic factor VEGF. The improved paracrine of VEGF could thereby promote the proliferation, differentiation, and tube formation ability of EPCs. Most importantly, in vivo ectopic bone formation experiment demonstrated this method could significantly improve the blood vessel distribution inside of TEB. PMID:26824825

  18. Ectopic G-CSF expression in human melanoma lines marks a trans-dominant pathway of tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Safarians, S.; Rivera, S. P.; Sternlicht, M. D.; Naeim, F.; Barsky, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a human melanoma/Scid xenograft model with the C8161, M24-met, LD-1 and other human melanoma lines to investigate spontaneous metastasis, we made the observation of marked splenomegaly (up to five times normal weight and size) in only those xenografts exhibiting high degrees of spontaneous metastasis. Evaluation of this revealed the cause to be massive myelopoiesis due to ectopic granulocyte/ colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production by the melanoma cells. Because of these observations linking G-CSF expression with metastasis of human melanoma, we decided to investigate the mechanism of this ectopic production. No gross amplification or rearrangement of the G-CSF gene could be detected as the basis for the increased transcriptional activity in any of these lines. Human-human somatic cell hybridization studies carried out between the metastatic C8161 and several different nonmetastatic non-G-CSF-expressing lines revealed, in addition to metastatic dominance, 3- to 10-fold enhancement of G-CSF transcription and expression in the fusions compared with C8161 itself. The suggestion of a trans-dominant mechanism was further supported by transfection studies with a human G-CSF promoter-CAT-reporter construct, which revealed 3- to 5-fold increased reporter activity in only those melanoma lines and hybrids expressing G-CSF. Furthermore, no obvious autocrine or paracrine effects of this ectopic G-CSF expression on the melanoma lines' growth or metastasis were apparent, as all of the G-CSF-expressing lines lacked the G-CSF receptor and injections of purified recombinant G-CSF exerted no stimulatory effects on their tumorigenicity, latency, growth, or metastasis in Scid mice. Thus, we advance the hypothesis that G-CSF expression is serving as a marker of a more generalized trans-dominant pathway linked to tumor progression and metastasis. This hypothesis has direct relevance to many human cancers where ectopic hormone or growth factor production occurs with no obvious

  19. Phenotypic alterations of petal and sepal by ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Noh, Y S; Chung, Y Y; Costa, M A; An, K; An, G

    1995-10-01

    Floral organ development is controlled by a group of regulatory factors containing the MADS domain. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone from rice, OsMADS3, which encodes a MADS-domain containing protein. The OsMADS3 amino acid sequence shows over 60% identity to AG of Arabidopsis, PLE of Antirrhinum majus, and AG/PLE homologues of petunia, tobacco, tomato, Brassica napus, and maize. Homology in the MADS box region is most conserved. RNA blot analysis indicated that the rice MADS gene was preferentially expressed in reproductive organs, especially in stamen and carpel. In situ localization studies showed that the transcript was present primarily in stamen and carpel. The function of the rice OsMADS3 was elucidated by ectopic expression of the gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in a heterologous tobacco plant system. Transgenic plants exhibited an altered morphology and coloration of the perianth organs. Sepals were pale green and elongated. Limbs of the corolla were split into sections which in some plants became antheroid structures attached to tubes that resembled filaments. The phenotypes mimic the results of ectopic expression of dicot AG gene or AG homologues. These results indicate that the OsMADS3 gene is possibly an AG homologue and that the AG genes appear to be structurally and functionally conserved between dicot and monocot. PMID:7579155

  20. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration. PMID:26848656

  1. Caesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kundavi; Varma, Thankam

    2016-01-01

    Cases of Caesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy (CSEP) are becoming increasingly common at tertiary care hospitals because of increase in rate of CS. This condition is often complicated by life threatening bleeding, uterine rupture, which might require hysterectomy leading to permanent infertility. Management can be medical, surgical or combined depending on the clinical presentation. It includes systemic methotrexate or local uterine artery chemoembolisation, dilatation and curettage, excision of trophoblastic tissue either by laparoscopy or laparotomy with uterine repair. We report two such cases managed medically in our hospital. Both the cases presented to us were asymptomatic except amenorrhoea and were diagnosed by transvaginal sonography. First case was managed with systemic methotrexate followed by Dilatation and Curettage (D&C). Second case was managed with systemic methotrexate alone successfully.

  2. Adult Presentation of Ectopic Vas Deferens with Dysplastic Kidney.

    PubMed

    Saifee, Yusuf; Modi, Pranjal

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old male presented with voiding lower urinary tract symptoms. On evaluation, the patient was found to have midbulbar urethral stricture and right dysplastic pelvic kidney with right vesicoureteral reflux. A micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) shows opacification of the right vas deferens along the entire course till the testis. The patient underwent end-to-end urethroplasty. But soon the patient presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and epididymorchitis in the follow-up period. The patient was explored laparoscopically to remove dysplastic kidney and ectopic vas deferens. Laparoscopically, the testicular end of the left vas deferens entering the deep inguinal ring was clipped and cut. Also the dysplastic kidney and ureter were removed till the vesicoureteral junction. At 1 year of follow-up, the patient is voiding well with no episodes of UTI. PMID:27579401

  3. Ectopic thymic carcinoma presenting as an intrathoracic mass.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Murata, Yoshitake; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    An asymptomatic 83-year-old man was found to have a right intrathoracic tumor. Computed tomography demonstrated a soft-tissue density mass measuring 55 × 25 × 22 mm adjacent to the right anterior chest wall. At surgery, the tumor was found to adhere to the diaphragm and right lung, contiguous with the mediastinal fat tissue. Histology of the resected specimen demonstrated proliferation of spindle and sarcomatous cells with multinucleated giant cells. Thus the tumor was diagnosed as undifferentiated thymic carcinoma and was considered to have arisen from ectopic thymic tissue. At 2 years postoperatively, the patient had no evidence of recurrence. PMID:27072863

  4. Adult Presentation of Ectopic Vas Deferens with Dysplastic Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Pranjal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 24-year-old male presented with voiding lower urinary tract symptoms. On evaluation, the patient was found to have midbulbar urethral stricture and right dysplastic pelvic kidney with right vesicoureteral reflux. A micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) shows opacification of the right vas deferens along the entire course till the testis. The patient underwent end-to-end urethroplasty. But soon the patient presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and epididymorchitis in the follow-up period. The patient was explored laparoscopically to remove dysplastic kidney and ectopic vas deferens. Laparoscopically, the testicular end of the left vas deferens entering the deep inguinal ring was clipped and cut. Also the dysplastic kidney and ureter were removed till the vesicoureteral junction. At 1 year of follow-up, the patient is voiding well with no episodes of UTI.

  5. Yeast meiotic mutants proficient for the induction of ectopic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Engebrecht, J; Masse, S; Davis, L; Rose, K; Kessel, T

    1998-01-01

    A screen was designed to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that were defective in meiosis yet proficient for meiotic ectopic recombination in the return-to-growth protocol. Seven mutants alleles were isolated; two are important for chromosome synapsis (RED1, MEK1) and five function independently of recombination (SPO14, GSG1, SPOT8/MUM2, 3, 4). Similar to the spoT8-1 mutant, mum2 deletion strains do not undergo premeiotic DNA synthesis, arrest prior to the first meiotic division and fail to sporulate. Surprisingly, although DNA replication does not occur, mum2 mutants are induced for high levels of ectopic recombination. gsg1 diploids are reduced in their ability to complete premeiotic DNA synthesis and the meiotic divisions, and a small percentage of cells produce spores. mum3 mutants sporulate poorly and the spores produced are inviable. Finally, mum4-1 mutants produce inviable spores. The meiotic/sporulation defects of gsg1, mum2, and mum3 are not relieved by spo11 or spo13 mutations, indicating that the mutant defects are not dependent on the initiation of recombination or completion of both meiotic divisions. In contrast, the spore inviability of the mum4-1 mutant is rescued by the spo13 mutation. The mum4-1 spo13 mutant undergoes a single, predominantly equational division, suggesting that MUM4 functions at or prior to the first meiotic division. Although recombination is variably affected in the gsg1 and mum mutants, we hypothesize that these mutants define genes important for aspects of meiosis not directly related to recombination. PMID:9504908

  6. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    PubMed

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants. PMID:24376756

  7. Increased antioxidant capacity in tomato by ectopic expression of the strawberry D-galacturonate reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Iraida; Osorio, Sonia; Martinez-Ferri, Elsa; Lima-Silva, Viviana; Doblas, Veronica G; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2015-03-01

    Increasing L-ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) content in fruits is a common goal in current breeding programs due to its beneficial effect on human health. Attempts to increase AsA content by genetic engineering have resulted in variable success likely due to AsA's complex regulation. Here, we report the effect of ectopically expressing in tomato the D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) gene from strawberry, involved in AsA biosynthesis, either under the control of the constitutive 35S or the tomato fruit-specific polygalucturonase (PG) promoters. Although transgenic lines showed a moderate increase on AsA content, complex changes in metabolites were found in transgenic fruits. Metabolomic analyses of ripe fruits identified a decrease in citrate, glutamate, asparagine, glucose, and fructose, accompanied by an increase of sucrose, galactinol, and chlorogenic acid. Significant metabolic changes also occurred in leaves of 35S-FaGalUR lines, which showed higher non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ), indicative of a higher constitutive photo-protective capacity. Overall, overexpression of FaGalUR increased total antioxidant capacity in fruits and the results suggest a tight control of AsA content, probably linked to a complex regulation of cellular redox state and metabolic adjustment. PMID:25143316

  8. Ectopic beats in approximate entropy and sample entropy-based HRV assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Butta; Singh, Dilbag; Jaryal, A. K.; Deepak, K. K.

    2012-05-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) are the promising techniques for extracting complex characteristics of cardiovascular variability. Ectopic beats, originating from other than the normal site, are the artefacts contributing a serious limitation to heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The approaches like deletion and interpolation are currently in use to eliminate the bias produced by ectopic beats. In this study, normal R-R interval time series of 10 healthy and 10 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients were analysed by inserting artificial ectopic beats. Then the effects of ectopic beats editing by deletion, degree-zero and degree-one interpolation on ApEn and SampEn have been assessed. Ectopic beats addition (even 2%) led to reduced complexity, resulting in decreased ApEn and SampEn of both healthy and AMI patient data. This reduction has been found to be dependent on level of ectopic beats. Editing of ectopic beats by interpolation degree-one method is found to be superior to other methods.

  9. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Katharine L.; Bellamy, Tomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. PMID:26171253

  10. Reduction of ectopic bone growth in critically-sized rat mandible defects by delivery of rhBMP-2 from kerateine biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczewski, Christine J.; Tombyln, Seth; Wasnick, David C.; Hughes, Michael R.; Ellenburg, Mary D.; Callahan, Michael F.; Smith, Thomas L.; Van Dyke, Mark E.; Burnett, Luke R.; Saul, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    Absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) are used clinically as carriers of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) to promote bone regeneration. ACS exhibit ectopic bone growth due to delivery of supraphysiological levels of rhBMP-2, which is particularly problematic in craniofacial bone injuries for both functional and esthetic reasons. We hypothesized that hydrogels from the reduced form of keratin proteins (kerateine) would serve as a suitable alternative to ACS carriers of rhBMP-2. The rationale for this hypothesis is that keratin biomaterials degrade slowly in vivo, have modifiable material properties, and have demonstrated capacity to deliver therapeutic agents. We investigated kerateine hydrogels and freeze-dried scaffolds as rhBMP-2 carriers in a critically-sized rat mandibular defect model. ACS, kerateine hydrogels, and kerateine scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-2 achieved bridging in animals by 8 weeks as indicated by micro-computed tomography. Kerateine scaffolds achieved statistically increased bone mineral density compared to ACS and kerateine hydrogels, with levels reaching those of native bone. Importantly, both kerateine hydrogels and kerateine scaffolds had significantly less ectopic bone growth than ACS sponges at both 8 and 16 weeks post-operatively. These studies demonstrate the suitability of keratins as rhBMP-2 carriers due to equal regenerative capacity with reduced ectopic growth compared to ACS. PMID:24439399

  11. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  12. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  13. Ultrasound-promoted one-pot three component synthesis of tetrazoles catalyzed by zinc sulfide nanoparticles as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Hossein; Kiani, Fatemeh

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was applied for the appropriate and rapid synthesis of 1-substituted tetrazoles through cyclization reaction of various primary amines, sodium azide and triethyl orthoformate. This reaction was effectively catalyzed by ZnS nanoparticles as an efficient, recoverable and reusable catalyst. Compared with conventional methods, this method has the considerable advantages such as shorter reaction times, easier work-up, purer products with high yields and mild conditions. The ZnS nanoparticles catalyst is an excellent instance to replace Brønsted acids for the preparation of 1-substituted tetrazole derivatives in very short reaction times with excellent yields. The catalyst can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity. PMID:26186861

  14. Microarc-oxidized titanium surfaces functionalized with microRNA-21-loaded chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles promote the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongshan; Wu, Guangsheng; Feng, Zhihong; Bai, Shizhu; Dong, Yan; Wu, Guofeng; Zhao, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have been widely used for the replacement of missing teeth in the clinic, but further improvements are needed to meet the clinical demands for faster and tighter osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated safe and biocompatible chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21) and thereby accelerate osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs). The CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles were cross-linked with 0.2% gel solution onto microarc oxidation (MAO)-treated titanium (Ti) surfaces to fabricate the miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surface, resulting in the development of a novel coating for reverse transfection. To characterize the CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, and gel retardation ability were sequentially investigated. Their biological effects, such as cell viability, cytotoxicity, and expression of osteogenic genes by hBMMSCs on the miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surfaces, were evaluated. Finally, we explored appropriate CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles with a CS/HA ratio of 4:1 and N/P ratio 20:1 for transfection, which presented good spherical morphology, an average diameter of 160.4±10.75 nm, and a positive zeta potential. The miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surfaces demonstrated cell viability, cytotoxicity, and cell spreading comparable to those exhibited by naked MAO Ti surfaces and led to significantly higher expression of osteogenic genes. This novel miR-21-functionalized Ti implant may be used in the clinic to allow more effective and robust osseointegration. PMID:26604744

  15. Osteoma and Ectopic Tooth of the Left Maxillary Sinus: A Unique Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Ümit; Aşık, Burak; Ahmedov, Asif; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ectopic eruption of a tooth or osteoma rarely occurs within the maxillary sinus. Coexistence of these two rare entities in the maxillary sinus has never been reported in the English literature. Case Report: Herein, we present a 21 year-old male patient with osteoma and ectopic tooth in the left maxillary sinus treated with the removal of the ectopic tooth by endoscopic sinus surgery and excision of the osteoma by the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Conclusion: Unique coexistence of two different entities in the maxillary sinus is most likely due to pediatric facial trauma. Pediatric patients with maxillofacial trauma should be carefully watched for dental injury both clinically and radiologically.

  16. Severe Hypokalaemia, Hypertension, and Intestinal Perforation in Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karacaer, Cengiz; Açikgöz, Seyyid Bilal; Aydemir, Yusuf; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is a rare cause of the Cushing’s syndrome. The occurrence of the ectopic ACTH syndrome presenting with severe hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension has been highlighted in case reports. However, presentation with lower gastrointestinal perforation is not known. We report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with severe hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypertension, and colonic perforation as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell lung carcinoma. Ectopic ACTH syndrome should be kept in mind as a cause of hypokalaemia, hypertension, and intestinal perforation in patients with lung carcinoma. PMID:26894113

  17. Ruptured Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy at 18 Weeks Gestation Diagnosed by MRI: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ehab SM; Littooij, Annemieke S; Thia, Edwin WH; Ong, Chiou L

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event, associated with a high rate of complications due to delayed diagnosis. Rupture of such pregnancy often results in catastrophic hemorrhage. Several reports highlighted the role of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging findings of a ruptured advanced interstitial ectopic pregnancy have not been published before. The authors therefore present characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging of a ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy which had reached 18 weeks, in a 25-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:24421921

  18. Delivery of ursolic acid (UA) in polymeric nanoparticles effectively promotes the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through enhanced inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Jing; Xu, Huae; Dai, Xinzheng; Hou, Zhibo; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Kun; Sun, Weihao

    2013-01-30

    It has been demonstrated that ursolic acid (UA) could effectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which constitutively expresses in gastric cancer. However, the hydrophobicity of UA increases the difficulty in its potential clinical application, which raises the possibility for its application as a novel model drug in nanoparticle-based delivery system. UA-loaded nanoparticles (UA-NPs) were prepared by a nano-precipitation method using amphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) block copolymers as drug carriers. UA was effectively transported into SGC7901 cells by nanoparticles and localized around the nuclei in the cytoplasms. The in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis test indicated that UA-NPs significantly elicited more cell death at almost equivalent dose and corresponding incubation time. Moreover, UA-NPs led to more cell apoptosis through stronger inhibition of COX-2 and activation of caspase 3. The most powerful evidence from this report is that the significant differences between the cytotoxicity of free UA and UA-NPs are closely related to the expression levels of COX-2 and caspase-3, which demonstrates the superiority of UA-NPs over free UA through penetrating cell membrane. Therefore, the study offer an effective way to improve the anticancer efficiency of UA through nano-drug delivery system. PMID:23194884

  19. Ectopic osteogenic tissue formation by MC3T3-E1 cell-laden chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Koç, Aysel; Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Elçin, Yaşar Murat

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the suitability of a macroporous three-dimensional chitosan/hydroxyapatite (CS/HA) composite as a bone tissue engineering scaffold using MC3T3-E1 cells. The CS/HA scaffold was produced by freeze-drying, and characterized by means of SEM and FTIR. In vitro findings demonstrated that CS/HA supported attachment and proliferation of cells, and stimulated extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Tissue biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity of the cell-laden constructs were evaluated in an ectopic Wistar rat model. In vivo results showed that the MC3T3-E1 cell-laden CS/HA was essentially histocompatible, promoted neovascularization and calcified matrix formation, and secreted osteoblast-specific protein. We conclude that the composite scaffold evaluated has potential for applications in bone regeneration. PMID:25968048

  20. Ectopic Fat Deposition in Prediabetic Overweight and Obese Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna; Esplana, Sherryl; Liu, Ting; Goran, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Optimizing effective prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes in youth is limited by incomplete understanding of its pathophysiology and how this varies across ethnicities with high risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF), and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) to prediabetes in overweight/obese African American (AA) and Latino youth. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study in an academic pediatric care facility. Subjects: A total of 148 healthy, overweight/obese adolescents (56 AA, 92 Latino; 72 males, 76 females; age, 15.5 ± 1.2 y; BMI z-score, 2.1 ± 0.5) participated in the study. They were normal glucose tolerant (n = 106) and prediabetic (n = 42), based on fasting glucose of 100–125 mg/dL and/or 2-hour glucose of 140–199 mg/dL, and/or hemoglobin A1C 6.0–6.4%. Main Outcome Measures: We measured sc abdominal adipose tissue, VAT, HFF, and PFF by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and measured total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Adolescents with prediabetes had 30% higher HFF (P = .001) and 31% higher PFF (P = .042), compared to those with normal glucose tolerance after controlling for age, sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, total percentage body fat, and VAT. Logistic regression showed that PFF predicted prediabetes in AAs and HFF predicted prediabetes in Latinos, with the odds of having prediabetes increased by 66% for every 1% increase in PFF in African Americans, and increased by 22% for every 1% increase in HFF in Latinos. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that ectopic fat phenotypes associated with prediabetes are established by adolescence. Ethnic differences in the deposition of ectopic fat in adolescents with prediabetes may differ, with pancreatic fat in AAs, vs hepatic fat in Latino adolescents, being associated with diabetes risk. PMID:23386647

  1. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass. PMID:26355587

  2. Combined use of serum HCG and sonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Kadar, N.; Taylor, K.J.W.; Rosenfield, A.T.; Romero, R.

    1983-09-01

    During an 18 month period, 320 patients were referred with clinical suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy. This study is based on 19 patients with ectopic pregnancy who had both a sonographic examination of the pelvis and determination of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) before surgery. Emphasis is focused on the spectrum of sonographic appearances that may occur in ectopic gestation. These are illustrated, and the sonographic criteria that have been used both for a positive diagnosis and for the exclusion of ectopic pregnancy in the past are analyzed. It is suggested that the accuracy of sonography can be increased by determining the serum HCG level on the day of the scan and by interpreting the findings with reference to the discriminatory HCG zone.

  3. Herlyn-Weber-Wunderlich syndrome with ectopic ureter in prepubertal female

    PubMed Central

    Garge, Saurabh; Bagga, Deepak; Acharya, Sameer Kant; Yadav, Devendra Kumar; Khan, Tanvir Roshan; Kumar, Ram; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Srinivas; Gupta, Divya; Prasad, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of uterovaginal duplication in a prepubertal female. The patient also had a permeable ureter (ureter with urine passing through it) subtending a poorly functioning kidney with ectopic insertion in the obstructed hemivagina. PMID:24741215

  4. Multiphasic construct studied in an ectopic osteochondral defect model

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, June E.; Vaquette, Cédryck; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Klein, Travis J.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo osteochondral defect models predominantly consist of small animals, such as rabbits. Although they have an advantage of low cost and manageability, their joints are smaller and more easily healed compared with larger animals or humans. We hypothesized that osteochondral cores from large animals can be implanted subcutaneously in rats to create an ectopic osteochondral defect model for routine and high-throughput screening of multiphasic scaffold designs and/or tissue-engineered constructs (TECs). Bovine osteochondral plugs with 4 mm diameter osteochondral defect were fitted with novel multiphasic osteochondral grafts composed of chondrocyte-seeded alginate gels and osteoblast-seeded polycaprolactone scaffolds, prior to being implanted in rats subcutaneously with bone morphogenic protein-7. After 12 weeks of in vivo implantation, histological and micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrated that TECs are susceptible to mineralization. Additionally, there was limited bone formation in the scaffold. These results suggest that the current model requires optimization to facilitate robust bone regeneration and vascular infiltration into the defect site. Taken together, this study provides a proof-of-concept for a high-throughput osteochondral defect model. With further optimization, the presented hybrid in vivo model may address the growing need for a cost-effective way to screen osteochondral repair strategies before moving to large animal preclinical trials. PMID:24694896

  5. Ectopically tethered CP190 induces large-scale chromatin decondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahanger, Sajad H.; Günther, Katharina; Weth, Oliver; Bartkuhn, Marek; Bhonde, Ramesh R.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Insulator mediated alteration in higher-order chromatin and/or nucleosome organization is an important aspect of epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have suggested a key role for CP190 in such processes. In this study, we analysed the effects of ectopically tethered insulator factors on chromatin structure and found that CP190 induces large-scale decondensation when targeted to a condensed lacO array in mammalian and Drosophila cells. In contrast, dCTCF alone, is unable to cause such a decondensation, however, when CP190 is present, dCTCF recruits it to the lacO array and mediates chromatin unfolding. The CP190 induced opening of chromatin may not be correlated with transcriptional activation, as binding of CP190 does not enhance luciferase activity in reporter assays. We propose that CP190 may mediate histone modification and chromatin remodelling activity to induce an open chromatin state by its direct recruitment or targeting by a DNA binding factor such as dCTCF.

  6. Characterization and ectopic expression of a populus hydroxyacid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ai-Xia; Gou, Jin-Ying; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Huijun; Fang, Xin; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Cutinized and suberized cell walls in plants constitute physiologically important environment interfaces. They act as barriers limiting the loss of water and nutrients and protecting against radiation and invasion of pathogens. The roles of cutin- and suberin polyesters are often attributed to their dominant aliphatic components, but the contribution of aromatic composition to their physiological function remains unclear. By functionally screening a subset of Populus trichocarpa BAHD/HXXXD acyltransferases, we identified a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase that shows specific transacylation activity on ω-hydroxyacids using both feruloyl- and p-coumaroyl- CoA as the acyl donors. We named this enzyme P. trichocarpa hydroxyacid/fatty alcohol hydroxycinnamoyltransferase 1 (PtFHT1). The ectopic expression of the PtFHT1 gene in Arabidopsis increased the incorporation of ferulate in root and seed suberins and in leaf cutin, but not that of p-coumarate, while the aliphatic load in both suberin and cutin polyesters essentially remained unaffected. The overaccumulation of ferulate in lipophilic polyester significantly increased the tolerance of transgenic plants to salt stress treatment; under sub-lethal conditions of salt stress, the ratios of their seed germination and seedling establishment were 50% higher than those of wild-type plants. Our study suggests that, although aromatics are the minor component of polyesters, they play important role in the sealing function of lipidic polymers in planta. PMID:23709341

  7. Prevalence, diagnosis and management of ectopic thyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Giuseppe; Pellino, Gianluca; De Falco, Nadia; Colella, Giuseppe; D'Amato, Salvatore; Maglione, M Grazia; De Luca, Roberto; Canonico, Silvestro; De Falco, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is an uncommon entity that may be found anywhere along the line of the obliterated thyroglossal duct, usually from the tongue to the diaphragm. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing surgical treatment for thyroid disease between January 2000 and December 2013, seeking for ETT All patients with prior neck surgery or trauma were excluded. The clinic-pathologic features, prevalence and diagnosis of the lesions were collected and analyzed. Out of 3092 included patients, 28 ETT were identified (0.9%). The anatomical site of ETT was as follows: lateral cervical in 6 (21.4%), along the thyroglossal duct in 6 (21.4%), mediastinal in 5 (17.9%), lingual in 5 (17.9%), sublingual in 3 (10.7%), and submandibular in 3 (10.7%). Histopathology revealed 27 benign lesions and 1 (3.6%) papillary carcinoma. ETT is found in less than 1% of patients receiving thyroid surgery. Diagnosis of ETT requires clinical imaging. Surgery is a prudent choice due to the potential of malignant evolution of ETT. PMID:26708843

  8. QRS template matching for recognition of ventricular ectopic beats.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena

    2007-12-01

    We propose a quasi real-time method for discrimination of ventricular ectopic beats from both supraventricular and paced beats in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heartbeat waveforms were evaluated within a fixed-length window around the fiducial points (100 ms before, 450 ms after). Our algorithm was designed to operate with minimal expert intervention and we define that the operator is required only to initially select up to three 'normal' heartbeats (the most frequently seen supraventricular or paced complexes). These were named original QRS templates and their copies were substituted continuously throughout the ECG analysis to capture slight variations in the heartbeat waveforms of the patient's sustained rhythm. The method is based on matching of the evaluated heartbeat with the QRS templates by a complex set of ECG descriptors, including maximal cross-correlation, area difference and frequency spectrum difference. Temporal features were added by analyzing the R-R intervals. The classification criteria were trained by statistical assessment of the ECG descriptors calculated for all heartbeats in MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia Database. The performance of the classifiers was tested on the independent MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The achieved unbiased accuracy is represented by sensitivity of 98.4% and specificity of 98.86%, both being competitive to other published studies. The provided computationally efficient techniques enable the fast post-recording analysis of lengthy Holter-monitor ECG recordings, as well as they can serve as a quasi real-time detection method embedded into surface ECG monitors. PMID:17805974

  9. Ectopically tethered CP190 induces large-scale chromatin decondensation

    PubMed Central

    Ahanger, Sajad H.; Günther, Katharina; Weth, Oliver; Bartkuhn, Marek; Bhonde, Ramesh R.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Insulator mediated alteration in higher-order chromatin and/or nucleosome organization is an important aspect of epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have suggested a key role for CP190 in such processes. In this study, we analysed the effects of ectopically tethered insulator factors on chromatin structure and found that CP190 induces large-scale decondensation when targeted to a condensed lacO array in mammalian and Drosophila cells. In contrast, dCTCF alone, is unable to cause such a decondensation, however, when CP190 is present, dCTCF recruits it to the lacO array and mediates chromatin unfolding. The CP190 induced opening of chromatin may not be correlated with transcriptional activation, as binding of CP190 does not enhance luciferase activity in reporter assays. We propose that CP190 may mediate histone modification and chromatin remodelling activity to induce an open chromatin state by its direct recruitment or targeting by a DNA binding factor such as dCTCF. PMID:24472778

  10. Multiphasic construct studied in an ectopic osteochondral defect model.

    PubMed

    Jeon, June E; Vaquette, Cédryck; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Klein, Travis J; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-06-01

    In vivo osteochondral defect models predominantly consist of small animals, such as rabbits. Although they have an advantage of low cost and manageability, their joints are smaller and more easily healed compared with larger animals or humans. We hypothesized that osteochondral cores from large animals can be implanted subcutaneously in rats to create an ectopic osteochondral defect model for routine and high-throughput screening of multiphasic scaffold designs and/or tissue-engineered constructs (TECs). Bovine osteochondral plugs with 4 mm diameter osteochondral defect were fitted with novel multiphasic osteochondral grafts composed of chondrocyte-seeded alginate gels and osteoblast-seeded polycaprolactone scaffolds, prior to being implanted in rats subcutaneously with bone morphogenic protein-7. After 12 weeks of in vivo implantation, histological and micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrated that TECs are susceptible to mineralization. Additionally, there was limited bone formation in the scaffold. These results suggest that the current model requires optimization to facilitate robust bone regeneration and vascular infiltration into the defect site. Taken together, this study provides a proof-of-concept for a high-throughput osteochondral defect model. With further optimization, the presented hybrid in vivo model may address the growing need for a cost-effective way to screen osteochondral repair strategies before moving to large animal preclinical trials. PMID:24694896

  11. Primary breast adenocarcinoma in ectopic breast tissue in the vulva.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Jason; Dua, Anahita; Dowdy, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. An even rarer occurrence is accessory breast tissue afflicted with breast carcinoma. We present a brief report discussing diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with primary breast adenocarcinoma in vulval supranumerary tissue. Brief Report. A 60-year-old Caucasian female presented with a lesion in her left vulva that she first identified during adolescence. The lesion began to grow and ulcerate prompting her to receive treatment. Biopsy was inconclusive, and metastatic workup was negative, so her lesion was treated as an isolated breast lump and removed via wide local excision. Conclusion. Primary breast adenocarcinoma of the vulva is exceedingly rare. A paucity of the literature on this topic unfortunately means that strong evidence does not exist detailing the best management of this patient cohort. However, given that histological data confirms these cancers are virtually the same as breast cancers, it logically follows that the best treatment practices for breast cancer may be applied to treat these patients presenting with primary vulva cancers of ectopic breast tissue. PMID:24066246

  12. Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-dependent brassinosteroid signalling pathway leads to ectopic activation of quiescent cell division and suppresses columella stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak-Soo; Kim, Yoon; Pham, Giang; Kim, Ju Won; Song, Ji-Hye; Lee, Yew; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Roux, Stanley J.; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications have shown that BRI1 EMS suppressor 1 (BES1), a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathway, enhances cell divisions in the quiescent centre (QC) and stimulates columella stem cell differentiation. Here, it is demonstrated that BZR1, a BES1 homologue, also promotes cell divisions in the QC, but it suppresses columella stem cell differentiation, opposite to the action of BES1. In addition, BR and its BZR1-mediated signalling pathway are shown to alter the expression/subcellular distribution of pin-formed (PINs), which may result in changes in auxin movement. BR promotes intense nuclear accumulation of BZR1 in the root tip area, and the binding of BZR1 to the promoters of several root development-regulating genes, modulating their expression in the root stem cell niche area. These BZR1-mediated signalling cascades may account for both the ectopic activation of QC cell divisions as well as the suppression of the columella stem cell differentiation. They could also inhibit auxin-dependent distal stem cell differentiation by antagonizing the auxin/WOX5-dependent pathway. In conclusion, BZR1-/BES1-mediated BR signalling pathways show differential effects on the maintenance of root apical meristem activities: they stimulate ectopic QC division while they show opposite effects on the differentiation of distal columella stem cells in a BR concentration- and BZR1-/BES1-dependent manner. PMID:26136267

  13. Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-dependent brassinosteroid signalling pathway leads to ectopic activation of quiescent cell division and suppresses columella stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak-Soo; Kim, Yoon; Pham, Giang; Kim, Ju Won; Song, Ji-Hye; Lee, Yew; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Roux, Stanley J; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2015-08-01

    Previous publications have shown that BRI1 EMS suppressor 1 (BES1), a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathway, enhances cell divisions in the quiescent centre (QC) and stimulates columella stem cell differentiation. Here, it is demonstrated that BZR1, a BES1 homologue, also promotes cell divisions in the QC, but it suppresses columella stem cell differentiation, opposite to the action of BES1. In addition, BR and its BZR1-mediated signalling pathway are shown to alter the expression/subcellular distribution of pin-formed (PINs), which may result in changes in auxin movement. BR promotes intense nuclear accumulation of BZR1 in the root tip area, and the binding of BZR1 to the promoters of several root development-regulating genes, modulating their expression in the root stem cell niche area. These BZR1-mediated signalling cascades may account for both the ectopic activation of QC cell divisions as well as the suppression of the columella stem cell differentiation. They could also inhibit auxin-dependent distal stem cell differentiation by antagonizing the auxin/WOX5-dependent pathway. In conclusion, BZR1-/BES1-mediated BR signalling pathways show differential effects on the maintenance of root apical meristem activities: they stimulate ectopic QC division while they show opposite effects on the differentiation of distal columella stem cells in a BR concentration- and BZR1-/BES1-dependent manner. PMID:26136267

  14. Management of paroxysmal ectopic atrial tachycardia with long sinus pauses in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Seshadri

    2015-01-01

    Sinus pauses in the setting of supraventricular tachycardia is rare in children. We describe an asymptomatic teen with irregular heart rate detected during an incidental exam who was found to have short runs of a slow ectopic atrial tachycardia on electrocardiogram and prolonged sinus pauses on routine ambulatory ECG. Successful catheter ablation of the ectopic atrial tachycardia led to resolution of the sinus pauses. PMID:27134442

  15. Management of paroxysmal ectopic atrial tachycardia with long sinus pauses in a teenager

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Seshadri

    2016-01-01

    Sinus pauses in the setting of supraventricular tachycardia is rare in children. We describe an asymptomatic teen with irregular heart rate detected during an incidental exam who was found to have short runs of a slow ectopic atrial tachycardia on electrocardiogram and prolonged sinus pauses on routine ambulatory ECG. Successful catheter ablation of the ectopic atrial tachycardia led to resolution of the sinus pauses. PMID:27134442

  16. Increased expression of Talin1 in the eutopic and ectopic endometria of women with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianfa; Sun, Aijun; Wang, Yanfang; Deng, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Adenomyosis is a prevalent gynecologic benign disease in women. Despite its significance, there is only a limited understanding of its pathological mechanisms. Talin1, a cytoskeletal protein, plays an important role in cell survival, proliferation, invasion and migration. The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of talin1 in both the eutopic and ectopic endometria of women with adenomyosis. Higher talin1 mRNA levels were observed in both ectopic and eutopic endometria from the adenomyosis subjects compared with the eutopic endometria from women without adenomyosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased epithelial expression of talin1 in the ectopic and eutopic endometria from patients with adenomyosis compared with those without adenomyosis. When tests were performed on matched samples of eutopic and ectopic endometria of adenomyosis subjects, the mRNA and protein expression of talin1 was much higher in the ectopic endometria than in the eutopic endometria. The results reveal that the expression pattern of talin1 in the eutopic and ectopic endometria is enhanced in women with adenomyosis. Increased talin1 expression may play a role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. PMID:26759065

  17. dBRWD3 Regulates Tissue Overgrowth and Ectopic Gene Expression Caused by Polycomb Group Mutations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsueh-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Shih, Zong-Siou; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hsieh, Paul-Chen; Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Kuo-How; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Liu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shih-Peng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Wu, June-Tai

    2016-09-01

    To maintain a particular cell fate, a unique set of genes should be expressed while another set is repressed. One way to repress gene expression is through Polycomb group (PcG) proteins that compact chromatin into a silent configuration. In addition to cell fate maintenance, PcG proteins also maintain normal cell physiology, for example cell cycle. In the absence of PcG, ectopic activation of the PcG-repressed genes leads to developmental defects and malignant tumors. Little is known about the molecular nature of ectopic gene expression; especially what differentiates expression of a given gene in the orthotopic tissue (orthotopic expression) and the ectopic expression of the same gene due to PcG mutations. Here we present that ectopic gene expression in PcG mutant cells specifically requires dBRWD3, a negative regulator of HIRA/Yemanuclein (YEM)-mediated histone variant H3.3 deposition. dBRWD3 mutations suppress both the ectopic gene expression and aberrant tissue overgrowth in PcG mutants through a YEM-dependent mechanism. Our findings identified dBRWD3 as a critical regulator that is uniquely required for ectopic gene expression and aberrant tissue overgrowth caused by PcG mutations. PMID:27588417

  18. Spontaneous Bilateral Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: Incidental Finding During Laparoscopy – Brief Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, S.; Abele, H.; Bachmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare; the reported incidence is only 1 in 200 000 pregnancies. Detecting bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is urgent because of the associated morbidity and mortality. The appropriate fertility-preserving surgery must also be considered, as preservation of both tubes is presumed to offer better fertility prospects. Case Report: A 39-year-old gravida 2, para 1 presented with vaginal bleeding at 8 + 4 weeks of gestation. An approximately 18 mm adnexal mass in the right fallopian tube was detected on ultrasound. Laparoscopy was performed because ectopic pregnancy was suspected. This suspicion was confirmed during laparoscopy; the right fallopian tube was found to contain a mass measuring 20 mm in the isthmic part. Ultrasound of the left fallopian tube also showed a mass in the ampullary region (diameter: 10 mm), also suspicious for ectopic pregnancy. Bilateral salpingotomy was performed laparoscopically. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions for Practice: Although ectopic tubal pregnancy is seen more often after assisted reproductive techniques, bilateral spontaneous ectopic pregnancies must also be considered in other cases. Laparoscopic surgery is effective to confirm the diagnosis and treat heterotopic pregnancies. Further studies will be needed to confirm whether unilateral or bilateral conservative fertility-preserving surgery is more appropriate. PMID:27134298

  19. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date.  CASE REPORT This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  20. Cerium oxide as a promoter for the electro-oxidation reaction of ethanol: in situ XAFS characterization of the Pt nanoparticles supported on CeO2 nanoparticles and nanorods.

    PubMed

    Corchado-García, Juan; Betancourt, Luis E; Vélez, Carlos A; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Stacchiola, Dario; Sasaki, Kotaro; Guinel, Maxime J-F; Zhou, Yunyun; Cheung, Chin Li; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2015-12-28

    In this study we probe the electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles supported on ceria nanoparticles (NPs) and nanorods (NRs) in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media. The goal of this study was to relate morphology, support structure and composition to the EOR catalytic activity by using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies. Cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that both ceria supported catalysts (NP vs. NR) had similar peak current densities at fast scan rates, however at slow scan rates, the ceria NR catalyst showed superior catalytic activity. In situ XAFS studies in KOH showed that both ceria supported catalysts had more electron density in their d-band (with the ceria NR having more electron density overall) than ceria - free Pt/Vulcan standard. However, in an ethanol solution the ceria NR catalyst had the least electron density. We propose that this change is due to the increased charge transfer efficiency between the ceria nanorod support and platinum. In the KOH solution, the increased electron density makes the platinum less electrophilic and hinders Pt-OH bond formation. In the EtOH solution, platinum's increased nucleophilicity facilitates the bond formation between Pt and the electron deficient carbon in ethanol which in turn withdraws the electron density from platinum and increases the white line intensity as observed in the XAS measurements. PMID:26580293

  1. Iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic field exposure promote functional recovery by attenuating free radical-induced damage in rats with spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Ajay; Singh, Anand; Nag, Tapas C; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) can attenuate oxidative stress in a neutral pH environment in vitro. In combination with an external electromagnetic field, they can also facilitate axon regeneration. The present study demonstrates the in vivo potential of IONPs to recover functional deficits in rats with complete spinal cord injury. Methods The spinal cord was completely transected at the T11 vertebra in male albino Wistar rats. Iron oxide nanoparticle solution (25 μg/mL) embedded in 3% agarose gel was implanted at the site of transection, which was subsequently exposed to an electromagnetic field (50 Hz, 17.96 μT for two hours daily for five weeks). Results Locomotor and sensorimotor assessment as well as histological analysis demonstrated significant functional recovery and a reduction in lesion volume in rats with IONP implantation and exposure to an electromagnetic field. No collagenous scar was observed and IONPs were localized intracellularly in the immediate vicinity of the lesion. Further, in vitro experiments to explore the cytotoxic effects of IONPs showed no effect on cell survival. However, a significant decrease in H2O2-mediated oxidative stress was evident in the medium containing IONPs, indicating their free radical scavenging properties. Conclusion These novel findings indicate a therapeutic role for IONPs in spinal cord injury and other neurodegenerative disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. PMID:23818782

  2. Combination gefitinib and methotrexate treatment for non-tubal ectopic pregnancies: a case series.

    PubMed

    Horne, A W; Skubisz, M M; Tong, S; Duncan, W C; Neil, P; Wallace, E M; Johns, T G

    2014-07-01

    Non-tubal ectopic pregnancies are a rare subgroup of ectopic pregnancies implanted at sites other than the Fallopian tube. Mortality from non-tubal ectopic pregnancies is higher compared with that for tubal ectopic pregnancies, and they are becoming more common, partly due to the rising incidence of Caesarean sections and use of assisted reproductive technologies. Non-tubal ectopic pregnancies can be especially difficult to treat. Surgical treatment is complex, and follow-up after medical treatment is usually protracted. There is therefore a need for more effective medical therapies to resolve non-tubal ectopic pregnancies and reduce operative intervention. We have recently reported successful use of combination gefitinib (an orally available epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) and methotrexate for treatment of tubal pregnancies. To our knowledge, this combination has not been used to treat non-tubal pregnancies. Here we report the use of combination gefitinib and methotrexate to treat eight women with stable, non-tubal ectopic pregnancies at two tertiary academic teaching hospitals (Edinburgh, UK and Melbourne, Australia); five interstitial and three Caesarean section scar ectopic pregnancies. Pretreatment serum hCG levels ranged from 2458 to 48 550 IU/l, and six women had pretreatment hCG levels >5000 IU/l. The women were co-administered 1-2 doses of i.m. methotrexate (50 mg/m² on Day 1, ± Day 4 or Day 7) with seven once daily doses of oral gefitinib (250 mg). The women were monitored until complete resolution of the ectopic pregnancy, defined as a serum hCG <15 IU/l. Time to resolution (days from first methotrexate dose until serum hCG <15 IU/l), safety and tolerability, complication rates and subsequent fertility outcomes were also recorded. All eight women were successfully treated with combination gefitinib and methotrexate. The most common side effects were transient acne/rash and diarrhoea, known side effects of gefitinib. All women promptly

  3. Developmental Potential of Vitrified Mouse Testicular Tissue after Ectopic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, Nazila; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Amidi, Fardin; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ataei Nejad, Nahid; Mougahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue should be considered as an important factor for fertility preservation in young boys with cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate whether immature testicular tissue of mice can be successfully cryopreserved using a simple vitrification procedure to maintain testicular cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, immature mice testicular tissue fragments (0.5-1 mm²) were vitrified-warmed in order to assess the effect of vitrification on testicular tissue cell viability. Trypan blue staining was used to evaluate developmental capacity. Vitrified tissue (n=42) and fresh (control, n=42) were ectopically transplanted into the same strain of mature mice (n=14) with normal immunity. After 4 weeks, the graft recovery rate was determined. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate germ cell differentiation, immunohistochemistry staining by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) assay for proliferation and apoptosis frequency. Results Vitrification did not affect the percentage of cell viability. Vascular anastomoses was seen at the graft site. The recovery rate of the vitrified graft did not significantly differ with the fresh graft. In the vitrified graft, germ cell differentiation developed up to the secondary spermatocyte, which was similar to fresh tissue. Proliferation and apoptosis in the vitrified tissue was comparable to the fresh graft. Conclusion Vitrification resulted in a success rates similar to fresh tissue (control) in maintaining testicular cell viability and tissue function. These data provided further evidence that vitrification could be considered an alternative for cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue. PMID:27054121

  4. P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Nanoparticle Composite Films Mediate Piezoelectric Stimulation and Promote Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marino, Attilio; Labardi, Massimiliano; Marras, Sergio; Pignatelli, Francesca; Bruschini, Luca; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE)) and P(VDF-TrFE)/barium titanate nanoparticle (BTNP) films are prepared and tested as substrates for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. Films are characterized in terms of surface, mechanical, and piezoelectric features before in vitro testing on SH-SY5Y cells. In particular, BTNPs significantly improve piezoelectric properties of the films (4.5-fold increased d31 ). Both kinds of films support good SH-SY5Y viability and differentiation. Ultrasound (US) stimulation is proven to elicit Ca(2+) transients and to enhance differentiation in cells grown on the piezoelectric substrates. For the first time in the literature, this study demonstrates the suitability of polymer/ceramic composite films and US for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. PMID:27283784

  5. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    IZAWA, GENYA; KOBAYASHI, WAKAKO; HARAGUCHI, MISAKO; SUDO, AKIHARU; OZAWA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail-induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the down-regulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  6. Ectopic transgene expression in the retina of four transgenic mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Gábriel, Robert; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Szabó, Gábor; Lawrence, J Josh; Wilhelm, Márta

    2016-09-01

    Retinal expression of transgenes was examined in four mouse lines. Two constructs were driven by the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter: green fluorescent protein conjugated to tau protein (tau-GFP) or cytosolic yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) generated through CRE recombinase-induced expression of Rosa26 (ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP). Two other constructs targeted inhibitory interneurons: GABAergic horizontal and amacrine cells identified by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65-GFP) or parvalbumin (PV) cells (PV-CRE/Rosa26YFP). Animals were transcardially perfused and retinal sections prepared. Antibodies against PV, calretinin (CALR), calbindin (CALB), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were used to counterstain transgene-expressing cells. In PVxRosa and ChAT-tauGFP constructs, staining appeared in vertically oriented row of processes resembling Müller cells. In the ChATxRosa construct, populations of amacrine cells and neurons in the ganglion cell layer were labeled. Some cones also exhibited GFP fluorescence. CALR, PV and TH were found in none of these cells. Occasionally, we found GFP/CALR and GFP/PV double-stained cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). In the GAD65-GFP construct, all layers of the neuroretina were labeled, except photoreceptors. Not all horizontal cells expressed GFP. We did not find GFP/TH double-labeled cells and GFP was rarely present in CALR- and CALB-containing cells. Many PV-positive neurons were also labeled for GFP, including small diameter amacrines. In the GCL, single labeling for GFP and PV was ascertained, as well as several CALR/PV double-stained neurons. In the GCL, cells triple labeled with GFP/CALR/CALB were sparse. In conclusion, only one of the four transgenic constructs exhibited an expression pattern consistent with endogenous retinal protein expression, while the others strongly suggested ectopic gene expression. PMID:26563404

  7. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  8. Ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract: case report.

    PubMed

    Krahulík, David; Karhanová, Marta; Vaverka, Miroslav; Brychtová, Světlana; Pospíšilová, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Ectopic cilia are extremely rare congenital anomalies in which eyelash follicles appear in an abnormal place on the eyelid, most typically on the lateral quadrant of the anterior surface of the upper eyelid. In the majority of cases, simple surgical excision of ectopic cilia is indicated because of its cosmetic aspect. There is usually no associated medical co-morbidity with this anomaly. The authors report an unusual case of ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract. A 3-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with ectopic cilia on the left upper eyelid. There was no history of inflammation or swelling of the eyelid. An ophthalmological examination revealed only 1 mm of ptosis; no proptosis, inferior displacement, or palpable orbital mass was present. During surgical excision of the ectopic cilia, a thin sinus tract was identified, leading posteriorly to the orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging performed after the excision showed a supraorbital extraconal mass just below the roof of the left orbit. A supraorbital 2-piece craniotomy was performed with total extirpation of the dermoid cyst. The cyst was removed en bloc without damage to the extraocular muscles, but the sinus tract could no longer be identified. Follow-up MRI was performed 6 months after surgery and showed no evidence of recurrence. A follow-up ophthalmological examination showed no signs of inferior displacement or proptosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of ectopic cilia associated with a dermoid cyst and sinus tract in which no typical clinical signs and symptoms of possible orbital pathology were present. This case highlights the value of radiological examination in all cases of ectopic cilia prior to surgical excision. PMID:25978533

  9. Ectopic Expression of DREB Transcription Factor, AtDREB1A, Confers Tolerance to Drought in Transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Liu, Dongqing; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Song, Wenqin; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Drought decreases crop productivity more than any other type of environmental stress. Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in regulating plant abiotic stress responses. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene DREB1A/CBF3, encoding a stress-inducible TF, was introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza Ectopic expression of AtDREB1A resulted in increased drought tolerance, and transgenic lines had higher relative water content and Chl content, and exhibited an increased photosynthetic rate when subjected to drought stress. AtDREB1A transgenic plants generally displayed lower malondialdehyde (MDA), but higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities under drought stress. In particular, plants with ectopic AtDREB1A expression under the control of the stress-induced RD29A promoter exhibited more tolerance to drought compared with p35S::AtDREB1A transgenic plants, without growth inhibition or phenotypic aberrations. Differential gene expression profiling of wild-type and pRD29A::AtDREB1A transgenic plants following drought stress revealed that the expression levels of various genes associated with the stress response, photosynthesis, signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and protein protection were substantially higher in transgenic plants. In addition, the amount of salvianolic acids and tanshinones was significantly elevated in AtDREB1A transgenic S. miltiorrhiza roots, and most of the genes in the related biosynthetic pathways were up-regulated. Together, these results demonstrated that inducing the expression of a TF can effectively regulate multiple genes in the stress response pathways and significantly improve the resistance of plants to abiotic stresses. Our results also suggest that genetic manipulation of a TF can improve production of valuable secondary metabolites by regulating genes in associated pathways. PMID:27485523

  10. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted. PMID:23724887

  11. Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before cervical curettage in cervical ectopic pregnancy: Safe and effective for preventing massive bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Kim, Na-Young

    2015-01-01

    Cervical ectopic pregnancy is associated with high risk for massive bleeding conditions. Cervical ectopic pregnancy can usually be treated by methotrexate injection or surgery. We present 4 cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy that were treated successfully with different uterine-conserving methods. By comparing our experience of 4 cases managed in different ways, we found that laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before cervical curettage is more effective method for preventing massive bleeding. PMID:26430673

  12. 11C-Methionine positron emission tomography-computed tomography in localization of methoxyisobutyl isonitrile negative ectopic parathyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Seniaray, Nikhil; Sharma, Harshul; Arbind, Arpana; Jaimini, Abhinav; D’souza, Maria; Saw, Sanjeev; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Mishra, A. K.; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid adenomas in 85% of the cases. Since parathyroid adenomas are known for their ectopic location, presurgical localization of the suspected site of adenoma is desirable. However, current imaging modalities are not always successful in localizing ectopic parathyroid adenomas. The aim of this case report is to show that 11C-methionine positron emission tomography could accurately localize ectopic parathyroid adenomas in patients in whom conventional imaging had failed or is inconclusive. PMID:26917896

  13. Mineral content of the maternal diet influences ectopic mineralization in offspring of Abcc6(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoli; Kingman, Joshua; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization disorders inflicting the connective tissues display a spectrum of severity, some developing in utero and being diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the mineral content of maternal diet can influence the mineralization in the offspring. Pregnant Abcc6(-/-) mice, on 2 different strain backgrounds, were maintained either on normal rodent diet or on "acceleration diet," rich in phosphate and low in magnesium, which has been previously shown to enhance the mineralization processes. The offspring were examined for mineralization by histopathology of various tissues and quantitated by chemical assay of calcium. The ectopic mineralization in the dermal sheath of vibrissae, a progressive biomarker of the overall mineralization, was readily detectable at the age of 4 weeks in the pups whose mothers were on the acceleration diet, while no evidence of mineralization was noted in those on normal diet. The mineralization of the vibrissae progressively increased when examined at 12 weeks of age. There was a significant reduction in urinary calcium and significant increase in urinary phosphorus concentrations both at 4 and 12 weeks of age in mice on the acceleration diet as compared to those on control diet. The results demonstrate that the mineral content of the maternal diet can influence ectopic mineralization in the offspring of mice genetically predisposed to ectopic mineralization (Abcc6(-/-)). These observations have implications for dietary management of pregnancies in which the fetus is diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound to have an ectopic mineralization disorder. PMID:26199043

  14. Middle calyx ureterocalicostomy in ectopic pelvic kidney with ureteropelvic junction obstruction: Only alternative for renal salvage.

    PubMed

    Kalathia, Jaisukh; Agrawal, Santosh; Chipde, Saurabh S; Agrawal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous kidneys are mostly asymptomatic and are often found incidentally during physical or radiological investigations for urological or other medical complaints. The associated genital anomalies ranges from 15% to 45%. Females are associated with bicornuate or unicornuate uterus, rudimentary or absent uterus while males have undescended testes, duplication of the urethra, and hypospadias. A 21 year old married female presented with on and off lower abdomen pain for the past one year with history of primary amenorrhea. On examination an ill defined tender lump palpated in the lower abdomen. USG showed left ectopic pelvic kidney with gross hydronephrosis. The computed tomography confirmed hydronephrotic left ectopic pelvic kidney in front of the sacrum with anteriorly directed renal pelvis with ureter located posteriorly. There was delayed excretion from the ectopic kidney but right kidney was in normal position and function. The diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) scan showed 33% function of the ectopic kidney. On diagnostic laparoscopy, the uterus was small hypoplastic with bilateral ovaries appearing normal. The patient was taken for open pyeloplasty where the ureter was transected below PUJ but for a dependent drainage, the middle calyx as was the most dependent calyx as seen on the CT-scan. So a middle calyx ureterocalicostomy was performed calyx with excellent outcome. The ectopic kidney always remains a challenge because of complex neurovascular anatomy, presence of viscera and associated UPJO, but for a dependent drainage, middle calyx ureterocalicostomy is a feasible option with excellent outcome as was in our case. PMID:27141203

  15. Ectopic divisions in vascular and ground tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana result in distinct leaf venation defects

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf venation patterns vary considerably between species and between leaves within a species. A mechanism based on canalization of auxin transport has been suggested as the means by which plastic yet organized venation patterns are generated. This study assessed the plasticity of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf venation in response to ectopic ground or procambial cell divisions and auxin transport inhibition (ATI). Ectopic ground cell divisions resulted in vascular fragments between major veins, whereas ectopic procambial cell divisions resulted in additional, abnormal vessels along major veins, with more severely perturbed lines forming incomplete secondary and higher-order venation. These responses imply limited vascular plasticity in response to unscheduled cell divisions. Surprisingly, a combination of ectopic ground cell divisions and ATI resulted in massive vascular overgrowth. It is hypothesized that the vascular overproduction in auxin transport-inhibited wild-type leaves is limited by simultaneous differentiation of ground cells into mesophyll cells. Ectopic ground cell divisions may negate this effect by providing undifferentiated ground cells that respond to accumulated auxin by differentiation into vascular cells. PMID:22936832

  16. The expression of IL-6Rα and Gp130 in fallopian tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yousefian, Elham; Fathabadi, Fateme Fadaei; Farahani, Reza Mastery; Kachouei, Emadeddin Yazdani

    2013-01-01

    Women with tubal ectopic pregnancies have high levels of circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6). IL-6 treatment in vitro significantly reduces the ciliary activity of tubal epithelium. The effects of IL-6 on target cells occur via the formation of a high-affinity complex with its receptors IL-6Rα and glycoprotein 130 (Gp130). IL-6Rα is specifically expressed in the cilia of the epithelial cells. In this study, we performed a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to determine the mRNA expression of IL-6Rα and Gp130 in the fallopian tubes obtained from 12 women with ectopic pregnancies, 12 women with normal pregnancies, and 12 healthy nonpregnant women in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. Fallopian tubes were evaluated from specimens taken during tubal ligation in normal pregnancies and nonpregnant fertile women or during tubal surgery in ectopic pregnancies. We observed that IL-6Rα mRNA expression in fallopian tubes was increased in ectopic pregnancy compared with that in the midluteal phase. We also found that the Gp130 mRNA expression was significantly lower in fallopian tubes from ectopic pregnancies than in those from nonpregnant women during the midluteal phase of their menstrual cycle, although its expression was noticeably high in fallopian tubes in the midluteal phase, which suggests that high Gp130 levels may possibly contribute to embryo transport into the uterus. PMID:24179692

  17. Extramedullary plasmacytoma associated with an ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yong; Xu, Yu; Tao, Zezhang

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma and tooth eruption into the nasal cavity are both rare events. We report a case of plasmacytoma associated with an ectopic tooth. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman presented for evaluation of an 8-month history of a bloody nasal discharge from the posterior naris. Nasal endoscopy detected a slight eminence approximately 0.5 cm in diameter in the right nasal floor. Computed tomography demonstrated a tooth-like, high-attenuation shadow. A biopsy identified chronic inflammation of the mucosa and tissue. A diagnosis of an ectopic tooth in the right nasal cavity was initially considered. The mass and the tooth-like neoplasm were removed via nasal endoscopy. Immunohistochemistry of the excised mucosa showed strong positivity for kappa light chains, positivity for leukocyte common antigen and CD138, and negativity for lambda light chains, epithelial membrane antigen, CD1, and HMB-45. The final diagnosis was an extramedullary plasmacytoma in the right nasal cavity associated with an ectopic tooth. No bone metastasis was observed. Definitive radiotherapy was performed after the operation. During 40 months of follow-up, the patient exhibited no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis. The diagnosis in this case was made difficult by the nonspecific clinical manifestations, the presence of the ectopic tooth, and incorrect interpretation of preoperative histopathology. Physicians should maintain a clinical suspicion for the possibility that an ectopic tooth might be associated with a tumor. PMID:26535832

  18. [Do histologic changes of the upper renal pole in double ectopic ureterocele justify a conservative approach?].

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, P A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper pole segment in patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele to verify if a less aggressive surgery is justified in the prenatally diagnosed patients. We reviewed the histology of the upper pole segment of 15 consecutive patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele treated between 1991 and 1999 at the Paediatric Surgery Unit of University Hospital of Messina. The diagnosis of duplex system ectopic ureterocele was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Paediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory and obstructive changes. All 15 patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele were surgically treated with heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine of the 15 patients were prenatally diagnosed. The histology of the upper pole segment of the 9 prenatally diagnosed showed in all patients segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands and an inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in 6 patients (66.6%) and in 2 (22.2%) nephroblastomatosis. The histology of six the postnatal postnatally diagnosed patients showed in all patients segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper pole histology of the patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele diagnosed prenatally did not show any evidence of reversible histological change. Considering the histology and the good outcome of patients treated with upper pole nephroureterectomy a less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified. PMID:11723852

  19. Middle calyx ureterocalicostomy in ectopic pelvic kidney with ureteropelvic junction obstruction: Only alternative for renal salvage

    PubMed Central

    Kalathia, Jaisukh; Agrawal, Santosh; Chipde, Saurabh S.; Agrawal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous kidneys are mostly asymptomatic and are often found incidentally during physical or radiological investigations for urological or other medical complaints. The associated genital anomalies ranges from 15% to 45%. Females are associated with bicornuate or unicornuate uterus, rudimentary or absent uterus while males have undescended testes, duplication of the urethra, and hypospadias. A 21 year old married female presented with on and off lower abdomen pain for the past one year with history of primary amenorrhea. On examination an ill defined tender lump palpated in the lower abdomen. USG showed left ectopic pelvic kidney with gross hydronephrosis. The computed tomography confirmed hydronephrotic left ectopic pelvic kidney in front of the sacrum with anteriorly directed renal pelvis with ureter located posteriorly. There was delayed excretion from the ectopic kidney but right kidney was in normal position and function. The diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) scan showed 33% function of the ectopic kidney. On diagnostic laparoscopy, the uterus was small hypoplastic with bilateral ovaries appearing normal. The patient was taken for open pyeloplasty where the ureter was transected below PUJ but for a dependent drainage, the middle calyx as was the most dependent calyx as seen on the CT-scan. So a middle calyx ureterocalicostomy was performed calyx with excellent outcome. The ectopic kidney always remains a challenge because of complex neurovascular anatomy, presence of viscera and associated UPJO, but for a dependent drainage, middle calyx ureterocalicostomy is a feasible option with excellent outcome as was in our case. PMID:27141203

  20. Ectopic liver and gallbladder in a cloned dog: Possible nonheritable anomaly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Hwan; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Kim, Hyunil; Lee, Yeon Hea; Yoo, Ji Min; Eom, Ki Dong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic liver and gallbladder are rare anomalies usually not accompanied by any symptoms and are found during surgical exploration or autopsy. We aimed to find a cause of this anomaly using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, which can produce genetically identical organisms. A cloned beagle having ectopic organs was produced and died on the day of birth. Major and ectopic organs were fixed and underwent histologic analysis. SCNT was performed using cells derived from the dead puppy to produce reclones. Normality of internal organs in the original donor dog and recloned dogs was evaluated by computed tomography. While a liver without the gallbladder was located in the abdominal cavity of the cloned dog, a well-defined, reddish brown mass with a small sac was also positioned outside of the thoracic cavity. Histologically, they presented as normal liver and gallbladder. Five reclones were produced, and computed tomography results revealed that the original donor dog and reclones had normal liver and gallbladder structure and location. This is the first report of both ectopic liver and gallbladder in an organism and investigation on the etiology of these abnormalities. Normal organ structure and position in the original donor dog and reclones suggests that the ectopic liver and gallbladder is a possible nonheritable anomaly. PMID:26159091

  1. Comparison of transvaginal and transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nahar, M N; Quddus, M A; Sattar, A; Shirin, M; Khatun, A; Ahmed, R; Sultana, F

    2013-12-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Radiology and Imaging, Dhaka Medical College Hospital from July 2008 to June 2010 to compare the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography and transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of clinically suspected cases of ectopic pregnancy. Initially 60 patients with clinical suspicion of ectopic pregnancy were included in this study after analyzing selection criteria 30 patients underwent both transvaginal and transabdominal ultrasonography. 'Histopathological diagnosis' was considered gold standard against which accuracies of two diagnostic modalities were compared. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic modality in evaluation of suspected ectopic pregnancy were 73.1%, 75%, 95%, 30% and 73.3% respectively where as transvaginal ultrasonography was found to have 92.3% sensitivity, 75% specificity, 96% positive predictive value, 60% negative predictive value and 90% accuracy. Transvaginal ultrasonography was superior to transabdominal ultrasonography in the evaluation of suspected ectopic pregnancies so, transvaginal ultrasonography is important for early and accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:26118156

  2. Fabrication of barium- and strontium-doped silica/titania hollow nanoparticles and their synergetic effects on promoting neuronal differentiation by activating ERK and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sojin; Jang, Yoonsun; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Kim, Chanhoi; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-07-01

    Pristine, barium-doped, and strontium-doped hollow nanoparticles (p-HNPs, Ba-HNP, and Sr-HNP; HNPs) are prepared by sonication-mediated etching and redeposition (SMER) method and alkali-earth-metal hydroxide solution treatment. The HNPs are investigated to facilitate synergetic neuronal differentiation through alkali-earth-metal doping and in conjunction with nerve growth factor (NGF). PC12 cells are used as model cells for neuronal differentiation. The differentiation efficiency is improved in the presence of the HNPs+NGF, and the neurite length is in the order of Sr-HNP+NGF > Ba-HNP+NGF > p-HNP+NGF > NGF. Silica/titania have increasing effect on both differentiation efficiency and neurite length, and doped barium/strontium influences additional elongation of the average neurite length. Take advantage of hollow structure, NGF is encapsulated into HNPs, and they are further applied for directly inducing differentiation. The maximum differentiation efficiency is 67% in presence of the NGF-encapsulated Sr-HNP, which was 1.3 times higher than previous research. Furthermore, the neurite length is also 2.7 times higher than MnO2 decorated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoellipsoids. Ba- and Sr-HNP may offer a possibility for novel application of metal-hybrid nanomaterials for cell differentiation, and can be expanded to other cellular applications. PMID:24574036

  3. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KATO, AKIHISA; HAYASHI, KAZUKI; NAITOH, ITARU; SENO, KYOJI; OKADA, YUKIKO; BAN, TESSHIN; KONDO, HIROMU; NISHI, YUJI; UMEMURA, SHUICHIRO; HORI, YASUKI; NATSUME, MAKOTO; JOH, TAKASHI

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is rarely secreted by neuroendocrine tumors. Although neuroendocrine tumors may occur at any site in the gastrointestinal system, they very rarely occur in the ampulla of Vater and have a poor prognosis. The present study described the first Cushing's syndrome as a result of ectopic ACTH arising from the ampulla of Vater neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 69-year-old female was admitted with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, confirmed biochemically by hypokalemia, and elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol. In further investigations, a tumor of the ampulla of Vater and liver metastases were detected. Pathological analysis of the biopsy confirmed a neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and ACTH. Therefore, the present study diagnosed a functional and metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater with ectopic ACTH production causing Cushing's syndrome. The patient succumbed to mortality 4 months later, despite administration of combined chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin. PMID:27330779

  4. Ectopic Expression of Retrotransposon-Derived PEG11/RTL1 Contributes to the Callipyge Muscular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuewen; Ectors, Fabien; Davis, Erica E.; Pirottin, Dimitri; Cheng, Huijun; Farnir, Frédéric; Hadfield, Tracy; Cockett, Noelle; Charlier, Carole; Georges, Michel; Takeda, Haruko

    2015-01-01

    The callipyge phenotype is an ovine muscular hypertrophy characterized by polar overdominance: only heterozygous +Mat/CLPGPat animals receiving the CLPG mutation from their father express the phenotype. +Mat/CLPGPat animals are characterized by postnatal, ectopic expression of Delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1) and Paternally expressed gene 11/Retrotransposon-like 1 (PEG11/RTL1) proteins in skeletal muscle. We showed previously in transgenic mice that ectopic expression of DLK1 alone induces a muscular hypertrophy, hence demonstrating a role for DLK1 in determining the callipyge hypertrophy. We herein describe newly generated transgenic mice that ectopically express PEG11 in skeletal muscle, and show that they also exhibit a muscular hypertrophy phenotype. Our data suggest that both DLK1 and PEG11 act together in causing the muscular hypertrophy of callipyge sheep. PMID:26474044

  5. Prioritization of Susceptibility Genes for Ectopic Pregnancy by Gene Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Long; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a very dangerous complication of pregnancy, affecting 1%–2% of all reported pregnancies. Due to ethical constraints on human biopsies and the lack of suitable animal models, there has been little success in identifying functionally important genes in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy. In the present study, we developed a random walk–based computational method named TM-rank to prioritize ectopic pregnancy–related genes based on text mining data and gene network information. Using a defined threshold value, we identified five top-ranked genes: VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A), IL8 (interleukin 8), IL6 (interleukin 6), ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1) and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor). These genes are promising candidate genes that can serve as useful diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our approach represents a novel strategy for prioritizing disease susceptibility genes. PMID:26840308

  6. A case of an ectopic ureter with vaginal insertion diagnosed in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Demir, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Halil; Kılıçarslan, Nihat; Gümüş, Kemal; Oğur, Mehmet; Gülüm, Mehmet; Yeni, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Ectopic ureter which is one of the causes of urinary incontinence in adults is a rarely seen entity. In this case, diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in a female patient thought to originate from an ectopic ureter will be evaluated. On magnetic resonance (MR) urograms double collecting system in both kidneys and also grade 3 hydroureteronephrosis in the collecting system which drained the upper pole of the right kidney were seen. The ureter draining the upper pole of the right kidney was seen to open into a 24 mm-wide cystic pouch inside the right lateral wall of the vaginal cuff. During vaginal examination an orifice of 3 mm was observed on the right wall of the vagina. Right ureteroneocystostomy was performed. Ureters with ectopic orifices are very rarely seen causes of urinary incontinence. To establish the diagnosis, this pathology must be recognized, should be kept in mind, and appropriate diagnostic methods must be used. PMID:26328201

  7. Arrest of Viral Proliferation by Ectopic Copies of Its Cognate Replication Origin.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Manuel S; Sharan, Chakradhari

    2015-01-01

    The initiation step of DNA replication is the crucial determinant of proliferation in all organisms. This step depends on the specific interaction of DNA sequences present at origins of DNA replication and their cognate activators. We wished to explore the hypothesis that the presence of ectopic origin copies may interfere with proper genome duplication. Bacteriophage λ was used as a model system. To this end, the outcome of an infection of an E. coli strain harboring ectopic copies of the λ origin region was analyzed. By measuring the effect on the host growth, viral production, and electro-microscopic visualization of the resulting λ replicative intermediates, we concluded that the ectopic copies had prevented the normal initiation step of λ DNA replication. These results suggest that DNA decoys encoding viral origins could constitute effective tools to specifically arrest viral proliferation. PMID:26110319

  8. A 5-year experience of the changing management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Janet; Davey, Mark; Hon, Mei-See; Behrens, Renée

    2016-07-01

    This retrospective audit reviewed all ectopic pregnancies over a 5-year period in a district general hospital setting. Of 215 ectopic pregnancies identified, notes were available for 208 (97%). 202 cases were determined to have been diagnosed and managed as ectopic pregnancies. Six cases were excluded as they were pregnancies of unknown location managed as such. The proportion of patients managed non-surgically has increased following the introduction of our consultant-led early pregnancy assessment unit from 25% prior to 31% currently. The success rates have improved in both those managed expectantly (50%-73%) and those with methotrexate (75%-90%). There has been a corresponding drop in those managed surgically from 75% to 69%, and a reduction in negative laparoscopies from 13% to 6%. Provided recommended criteria and follow-up are adhered to, non-surgical management has been shown to have comparative safety to traditional surgical management with acceptable efficacy and patient acceptability. PMID:27012598

  9. Prioritization of Susceptibility Genes for Ectopic Pregnancy by Gene Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a very dangerous complication of pregnancy, affecting 1%-2% of all reported pregnancies. Due to ethical constraints on human biopsies and the lack of suitable animal models, there has been little success in identifying functionally important genes in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy. In the present study, we developed a random walk-based computational method named TM-rank to prioritize ectopic pregnancy-related genes based on text mining data and gene network information. Using a defined threshold value, we identified five top-ranked genes: VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A), IL8 (interleukin 8), IL6 (interleukin 6), ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1) and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor). These genes are promising candidate genes that can serve as useful diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our approach represents a novel strategy for prioritizing disease susceptibility genes. PMID:26840308

  10. The Drosophila dominant wing mutation Dichaete results from ectopic expression of a Sox-domain gene.

    PubMed

    Russell, S

    2000-05-01

    The dominant Drosophila wing mutation Dichaete is characterised by the deletion of proximal wing structures. By analysing a number of new Dichaete alleles, phenotypic revertants and enhancer piracy lines, we show that the wing phenotype results from ectopic expression of the Sox-domain gene Dichaete. Ectopic expression of the Sox gene results in an increase in cell death in the proximal region of the wing imaginal disc and leads to alterations in the normal expression of wingless. Since ectopic expression of wingless in the proximal region of the wing disc can rescue aspects of the Dichaete phenotype, it is likely that Dichaete specifically interferes with the establishment or maintenance of a critical domain of wingless expression in the wing disc. PMID:10852492

  11. Bleeding due to ectopic varices in a urinary diversion: A multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Eduardo Mariano Albers; Reyes, Alfonsi Friera; Menéndez, Ricardo Brime

    2015-01-01

    The ectopic varices in patients with portal hypertension are those that occur at any level of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regardless of the varices that occur at the esophageal level. These ectopic varices account for 2–5% of the causes of GI bleeding varices. The risk of bleeding is quadrupled compared to the esophagogastric area, with a mortality of up to 40%. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, should be considered in cases secondary to recurrent bleeding varices. We present a case report of an urological emergency of bleeding in a urinary diversion secondary to ectopic varices successfully treated through the placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. The condition described here is rare, but important, as it can be a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. This kind of complication should be known by urologic surgeons managing patients with urinary diversions. PMID:26834901

  12. Mechanisms of ectopic bone formation by human osteoprogenitor cells on CaP biomaterial carriers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Roberts, Scott J; Desmet, Eline; Kerckhofs, Greet; van Gastel, Nick; Geris, Liesbet; Carmeliet, Geert; Schrooten, Jan; Luyten, Frank P

    2012-04-01

    Stem cell-based strategies for bone regeneration, which use calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials in combination with developmentally relevant progenitor populations, have significant potential for clinical repair of skeletal defects. However, the exact mechanism of action and the stem cell-host-material interactions are still poorly understood. We studied if pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) in vitro could enhance, in combination with a CaP-based biomaterial carrier, ectopic bone formation in vivo. By culturing hPDCs in a biomimetic calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (P(i)) enriched culture conditions, we observed an enhanced cell proliferation, decreased expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and upregulation of osteogenic genes including osterix, Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and BMP-2. However, the in vitro pre-conditioning protocols were non-predictive for in vivo ectopic bone formation. Surprisingly, culturing in the presence of Ca(2+) and P(i) supplements resulted in partial or complete abrogation of in vivo ectopic bone formation. Through histological, immunohistochemical and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) analysis of the explants, we found that in situ proliferation, collagen matrix deposition and the mediation of osteoclastic activity by hPDCs are associated to their ectopic bone forming capacity. These data were validated by the multivariate analysis and partial least square regression modelling confirming the non-predictability of in vitro parameters on in vivo ectopic bone formation. Our series of experiments provided further insights on the stem cell-host-material interactions that govern in vivo ectopic bone induction driven by hPDCs on CaP-based biomaterials. PMID:22269651

  13. Ectopic Varices in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, Thanila A. Andrews, James C.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous management of ectopic varices, a retrospective review was carried out of 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age 58 years) who between 1992 and 2001 underwent interventional radiological techniques for management of bleeding ectopic varices. A history of prior abdominal surgery was present in 12 of 14 patients. The interval between the surgery and percutaneous intervention ranged from 2 to 38 years. Transhepatic portal venography confirmed ectopic varices to be the source of portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the ectopic varices was performed by a transhepatic approach with coil embolization of the veins draining into the ectopic varices. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed in the standard fashion. Eighteen procedures (12 primary coil embolizations, 1 primary TIPS, 2 re-embolizations, 3 secondary TIPS) were performed in 13 patients. One patient was not a candidate for percutaneous treatment. All interventions but one (re-embolization) were technically successful. In 2 of 18 interventions, re-bleeding occurred within 72 hr (both embolization patients). Recurrent bleeding (23 days to 27 months after initial intervention) was identified in 9 procedures (8 coil embolizations, 1 TIPS due to biliary fistula). One patient had TIPS revision because of ultrasound surveillance findings. New encephalopathy developed in 2 of 4 TIPS patients. Percutaneous coil embolization is a simple and safe treatment for bleeding ectopic varices; however, recurrent bleeding is frequent and reintervention often required. TIPS can offer good control of bleeding at the expense of a more complex procedure and associated risk of encephalopathy.

  14. Single system ectopic ureter to rectum subtending solitary kidney and bladder agenesis in newborn male.

    PubMed

    Weight, Christopher J; Chand, Deepa; Ross, Jonathan H

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of a single system solitary ectopic ureter to the rectum with bladder agenesis in a viable newborn male. Only 2 cases of ectopic ureter to the rectum and 18 cases of bladder agenesis have been reported in viable newborns. To our knowledge, this case constitutes the first reported combination of these defects in a living neonate. Associated anomalies also included renal dysplasia, anal stenosis, and urethral-rectal fistula. Nephrectomy is often necessary to prevent infection or hypertension. PMID:17169660

  15. Enteroscopic Management of Ectopic Varices in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Watson, G A; Abu-Shanab, A; O'Donohoe, R L; Iqbal, M

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis may predispose patients to varices, which have a propensity to bleed and cause significant morbidity and mortality. These varices are most commonly located in the gastroesophageal area; however, rarely ectopic varices may develop in unusual locations outside of this region. Haemorrhage from these sites can be massive and difficult to control; thus early detection and management may be lifesaving. We present a case of occult gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with underlying alcoholic liver disease where an ectopic varix was ultimately detected with push enteroscopy. PMID:27595025

  16. Enteroscopic Management of Ectopic Varices in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Shanab, A.

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis may predispose patients to varices, which have a propensity to bleed and cause significant morbidity and mortality. These varices are most commonly located in the gastroesophageal area; however, rarely ectopic varices may develop in unusual locations outside of this region. Haemorrhage from these sites can be massive and difficult to control; thus early detection and management may be lifesaving. We present a case of occult gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with underlying alcoholic liver disease where an ectopic varix was ultimately detected with push enteroscopy. PMID:27595025

  17. Imaging of Hepatic Ectopic Pregnancy by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingwen; Cheng, Zhen; Hu, Na; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Yunhua

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon form of extrauterine pregnancy. A 31-year-old woman had acute abdominal pain and distention. Laboratory examination showed significantly increased serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level. Both ultrasound and MRI identified a lesion located at the right lobe of the liver. FDG PET/CT was performed to determine whether the other causes of elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin level, which showed an oval mass with mid peripherally increased FDG activity. After surgery, pathological results confirmed a diagnosis of hepatic ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27454601

  18. Ectopic lesion of schistosomiasis of the penis simulating an early carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A; Soyinka, F; Laja, A O

    1978-09-01

    A case of ectopic lesion of Schistosoma haematobium of the penis with extensive tissue destruction, simulating an early carcinoma of the penis and almost resulting in an autoamputation of the crown of the penis, is presented. The penis was surgically repaired and the patient treated with ambilhar. In schistosoma endemic area, it is important to think of ectopic schistosoma lesion by such a presentation. Existing theories to explain the presence of schistosoma eggs in locations outside the portal-caval system were reviewed and another one was advanced: its being sexually transmitted. PMID:31780

  19. Reducing Strength Prevailing at Root Surface of Plants Promotes Reduction of Ag+ and Generation of Ag0/Ag2O Nanoparticles Exogenously in Aqueous Phase

    PubMed Central

    Pardha-Saradhi, Peddisetty; Yamal, Gupta; Peddisetty, Tanuj; Sharmila, Peddisetty; Nagar, Shilpi; Singh, Jyoti; Nagarajan, Rajamani; Rao, Kottapalli S.

    2014-01-01

    Potential of root system of plants from wide range of families to effectively reduce membrane impermeable ferricyanide to ferrocyanide and blue coloured 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) to colourless DCPIPH2 both under non-sterile and sterile conditions, revealed prevalence of immense reducing strength at root surface. As generation of silver nanoparticles (NPs) from Ag+ involves reduction, present investigations were carried to evaluate if reducing strength prevailing at surface of root system can be exploited for reduction of Ag+ and exogenous generation of silver-NPs. Root system of intact plants of 16 species from 11 diverse families of angiosperms turned clear colorless AgNO3 solutions, turbid brown. Absorption spectra of these turbid brown solutions showed silver-NPs specific surface plasmon resonance peak. Transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray confirmed the presence of distinct NPs in the range of 5–50 nm containing Ag. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the silver NPs showed Bragg reflections, characteristic of crystalline face-centered cubic structure of Ag0 and cubic structure of Ag2O. Root system of intact plants raised under sterile conditions also generated Ag0/Ag2O-NPs under strict sterile conditions in a manner similar to that recorded under non-sterile conditions. This revealed the inbuilt potential of root system to generate Ag0/Ag2O-NPs independent of any microorganism. Roots of intact plants reduced triphenyltetrazolium to triphenylformazon and impermeable ferricyanide to ferrocyanide, suggesting involvement of plasma membrane bound dehydrogenases in reduction of Ag+ and formation of Ag0/Ag2O-NPs. Root enzyme extract reduced triphenyltetrazolium to triphenylformazon and Ag+ to Ag0 in presence of NADH, clearly establishing potential of dehydrogenases to reduce Ag+ to Ag0, which generate Ag0/Ag2O-NPs. Findings presented in this manuscript put forth a novel, simple

  20. Copper-promoted circumneutral activation of H2O2 by magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles: Mechanism, stoichiometric efficiency, and pathway of degrading sulfanilamide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the heterogeneous degradation of sulfanilamide by external energy-free Fenton-like reactions, magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and used as catalysts for activation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The physicochemical properties of the CuFe2O4 NPs were characterized with several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetometry. In the catalytic experiments, CuFe2O4 NPs/H2O2 oxidation showed the best degradation performance in the circumneutral conditions that resulted from the presence of Cu(II) on the surface of the CuFe2O4 NPs. The surface area-normalized pseudo-first-order rate constants were calculated as 2.60 × 10(-2) L m(-1) min(-1), 2.58 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), 1.92 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), and 7.30 × 10(-4) L m(-1) min(-1) for CuO, CuFe2O4 NPs, Fe3O4, and α-Fe2O3 catalysts, respectively. Thus, solid state Cu(II) was more reactive and efficient than Fe(III) in the circumneutral activation of H2O2; this finding was further supported by the results regarding the stoichiometric efficiency of H2O2. The effects of experimental parameters such as the oxidant dosage and catalyst loading were investigated. The mechanism for H2O2 activation on the spinel surface was explored and could be explained by the solid redox cycles of Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Cu(II)/Cu(I). Based on the products detected, a degradation pathway via the CS bond cleavage is proposed for the degradation of sulfanilamide. The findings of this study suggest that copper can be used as a doping metal to improve the reactivity and expand the effective pH range of iron oxides. PMID:27085318

  1. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CA...

  2. Ectopic Oral Tonsillar Tissue: A Case Series with Bilateral and Solitary Presentations and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Masashi; Nagao, Toru; Saito, Terumi; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ohto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Akihito; Komaki, Kanji; Naganawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    An ectopic tonsil is defined as tonsillar tissue that develops in areas outside of the four major tonsil groups: the palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils. The occurrence of tonsillar tissue in the oral cavity in ectopic locations, its prevalence, and its developmental mechanisms that belong to its formation remain unclear. In this report, we describe a rare case of bilateral symmetric ectopic oral tonsillar tissue located at the ventral surface of the tongue along with two solitary cases arising from the floor of the mouth. The role of immune system and its aberrant response leading to ectopic deposits desires further studies. As an ectopic tonsil may simulate a benign soft tissue tumor, this case series highlights the importance of this entity in our clinical differential diagnosis of oral soft tissue masses. PMID:25664186

  3. Synthesis of waste cooking oil based biodiesel via ferric-manganese promoted molybdenum oxide / zirconia nanoparticle solid acid catalyst: influence of ferric and manganese dopants.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Fatah H; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferric-manganese promoted molybdenum oxide/zirconia (Fe-Mn- MoO3/ZrO2) (FMMZ) solid acid catalyst for production of biodiesel was demonstrated. FMMZ is produced through impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 h. The characterization of FMMZ had been done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (TPD-NH3), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. The effect of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME's) yield on the reactions variables such as reaction temperature, catalyst loading, molar ratio of methanol/oil and reusability were also assessed. The catalyst was used to convert the waste cooking oil into corresponding methyl esters (95.6%±0.15) within 5 h at 200℃ reaction temperature, 600 rpm stirring speed, 1:25 molar ratio of oil to alcohol and 4% w/w catalyst loading. The reported catalyst was successfully recycled in six connective experiments without loss in activity. Moreover, the fuel properties of WCOME's were also reported using ASTM D 6751 methods. PMID:25843280

  4. Detection and characterization of mineralo-organic nanoparticles in human kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Hsu, Fu-Yung; Ojcius, David M.; Lin, Paul Y.; Young, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic calcification is associated with various human diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Although mineral nanoparticles have been detected in calcified blood vessels, the nature and role of these particles in the human body remain unclear. Here we show for the first time that human kidney tissues obtained from end-stage chronic kidney disease or renal cancer patients contain round, multilamellar mineral particles of 50 to 1,500 nm, whereas no particles are observed in healthy controls. The mineral particles are found mainly in the extracellular matrix surrounding the convoluted tubules, collecting ducts and loops of Henle as well as within the cytoplasm of tubule-delineating cells, and consist of polycrystalline calcium phosphate similar to the mineral found in bones and ectopic calcifications. The kidney mineral nanoparticles contain several serum proteins that inhibit ectopic calcification in body fluids, including albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1. Since the mineralo-organic nanoparticles are found not only within calcified deposits but also in areas devoid of microscopic calcifications, our observations indicate that the nanoparticles may represent precursors of calcification and renal stones in humans. PMID:26497088

  5. The role of SRC1 and SRC2 in steroid-induced SDF1 expression in normal and ectopic endometrium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu; Xu, Wei; Dai, Hui-Hua; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2014-06-01

    To compare the expression patterns of steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) and steroid-induced stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12 (SDF1)) in normal and ectopic endometrium and to explore the roles of NCOA1 (SRC1) and NCOA2 (SRC2) in the steroid-induced CXCL12 expression in normal and ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). The NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3 (SRC3), and CXCL12 (SDF1)α mRNA levels in normal and ectopic endometrium were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Steroid-induced CXCL12 expression was detected by the ELISA method and the chemotactic activity of conditioned supernatant to monocyte was assessed by the Boyden chamber method before and after the silencing of NCOA1 or NCOA2 with siRNA in normal and ectopic ESCs. The expression of NCOA1 and CXCL12 in ectopic endometrium was significantly greater than that in normal endometrium in the secretory phase. Progesterone (P4) was able to significantly inhibit estradiol (E2)-stimulated CXCL12 expression in normal and ectopic ESCs. The inhibitory rate of P4 in ectopic ESCs at 72 and 96 h was significantly lower than that in normal ESCs. Silencing of NCOA1 but not NCOA2 significantly reduced the E2-induced CXCL12 expression in normal and ectopic ESCs. The ability of P4 to inhibit E2-induced CXCL12 expression and monocyte chemotaxis in normal and ectopic ESCs was significantly attenuated when NCOA2 was silenced. NCOA1 plays a necessary role in E2-induced CXCL12 expression and NCOA2 is required for P4 to inhibit the E2-induced CXCL12 production in normal and ectopic endometrium. PMID:24586072

  6. MAPK Phosphatase AP2C3 Induces Ectopic Proliferation of Epidermal Cells Leading to Stomata Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Magyar, Zoltan; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Choopayak, Chonnanit; Boniecka, Justyna; Murray, James A. H.; Bogre, Laszlo; Meskiene, Irute

    2010-01-01

    In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C) that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells. PMID:21203456

  7. Suppression of ectopic assembly of centriole proteins ensures mitotic spindle integrity.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuchi, Gen; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in maintaining the appropriate number of centrioles could be the origin of genome instability in tumor formation. Recently, we demonstrated that ectopic formation of aberrant centriole-related structures occurs even in the presence of pre-existing centrioles, leading to mitotic spindle defects and possibly contributing to tumorigenesis. PMID:27308496

  8. Ectopic spleen presenting with anemia and an abdominal mass in a dog.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Kirsten J; Webb, Jinelle A; Hanselman, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    An 11.5-year-old, neutered male, golden retriever dog that had previously had a splenectomy for benign disease 2 years prior to presentation was diagnosed with anemia and a large abdominal mass. Necropsy and histopathology identified the abdominal mass as ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:24179243

  9. Ectopic spleen presenting with anemia and an abdominal mass in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Kirsten J.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Hanselman, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    An 11.5-year-old, neutered male, golden retriever dog that had previously had a splenectomy for benign disease 2 years prior to presentation was diagnosed with anemia and a large abdominal mass. Necropsy and histopathology identified the abdominal mass as ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:24179243

  10. Surgical treatment of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome with intra-thoracic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Hang, Junbiao; Che, Jiaming; Chen, Zhongyuan; Qiu, Weicheng; Ren, Jian; Yang, Xiaoqing; Xiang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The study was to review the clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, and to analyze the efficacy of surgical treatment. Methods The clinical data, surgical therapy, and outcome of 23 cases of ectopic ACTH syndrome accompanied by intra-thoracic tumors were reviewed. The tumors were removed from all the patients according to the principles of radical resection. Results The tumors were confirmed as associated with ectopic ACTH secretion in 19 cases. Hyperglycemia and hypokalemia were recovered, while plasma cortisol, plasma ACTH and 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels were significantly reduced after surgery in these 19 cases. Recurrences of the disease were found in six cases during following-up, and five of them died. Conclusions The thoracic cavity should be a focus in routine examinations of patients with symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome (CS), because ectopic ACTH-producing tumors are commonly found in bronchus/lung and mediastinum. Despite the incidence of the pulmonary nodule secondary to opportunistic infection in some cases, surgery is still the first choice if the tumor is localized. The surgical procedure should be performed according to the principles in resection of lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. The surgical efficacy is significant for short-term periods; however, the recurrence of the disease in long-term periods is in great part related to distal metastasis or relapse of the tumor. PMID:27162663

  11. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular condyle: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Prats-Golczer, Victoria-Eugenia; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, therapeutic options, and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle from 1980 to 2011. 14 well-documented clinical cases from the literature were evaluated together with a new clinical case provided by the authors, representing a sample of 15 patients. Results: We found a mean age at diagnosis of 48.6 years and a higher prevalence in women. In 14 patients, associated radiolucent lesions were diagnosed on radiographic studies and confirmed histopathologically as odontogenic cysts. Clinical symptoms were pain and swelling in the jaw or preauricular region, trismus, difficulty chewing, cutaneous fistula and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Treatment included conservative management in one case and in the other cases, surgical removal by intra- or extraoral approaches, the latter being the most common approach carried out. In most reported cases, serious complications were not outlined. Conclusions: The etiopathogenic theory involving odontogenic cysts in the displacement of third molars to the mandibular condyle seems to be the most relevant. They must be removed if they cause symptoms or are associated with cystic pathology. The surgical route must be planned according to the location and position of the ectopic third molar, and the possible morbidity associated with surgery. Key words:Third molar, ectopic tooth, condyle, mandible. PMID:22926463

  12. Two Congenital Anomalies in One: An Ectopic Gallbladder with Phrygian Cap Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Varelas, Sotirios; Kotsidis, Naoum; Rafailidis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    The gallbladder is affected by a large number of congenital anomalies, which may affect its location, number, size, or form. Some of these malformations are very rare and may lead to misdiagnosis. An ectopic gallbladder can be misinterpreted as agenesis of the organ or as a cystic hepatic mass when intrahepatic. Given the frequency and the wide acceptance of the ultrasonographic examination of the biliary tract, radiologists should be aware of these malformations. In some cases, ultrasonographic diagnosis can be difficult. However, the use of Computed Tomography can elucidate such cases. We present the case of a patient whose gallbladder had two combined malformations but caused no symptoms. Namely, the patient had a transverse ectopic gallbladder combined with a “Phrygian cap” deformity. The incidence of ectopic locations of the gallbladder is 0.1–0.7%, whereas the “Phrygian cap” deformity can be found in 4% of patients. There is no other cases with combination of these two entities reported in the literature. Ultrasonographic and CT findings are presented and aspects of this malformation are discussed. The clinical significance of ectopic gallbladder is also emphasized because it may alter the clinical presentation of biliary tract diseases and pose technical problems during surgery. PMID:24716073

  13. Ectopic insulin secreting neuroendocrine tumor of kidney with recurrent hypoglycemia: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemia secondary to ectopic insulin secretion of non-pancreatic tumors is rare. Case presentation We describe a middle aged woman with recurrent hypoglycemia. On evaluation, she was detected to have hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and right sided renal mass lesion. 68Ga-Dotanoc and 99mTc-HYNICTOC scans confirmed the intrarenal mass to be of neuroendocrine origin. Right nephrectomy was done and it turned out to be an insulin secreting neuroendocrine tumour. Neuroendocrine nature of this tumour was further confirmed by ultra-structural examination. Her hypoglycemia did not recur after resection of this tumour. Conclusion Few cases of ectopic insulin secretion have been reported though some are not proven convincingly. This case addresses all the issues raised in previous case reports and proves by clinical, laboratory, functional imaging and immunohistochemical analysis that ectopic origin of insulin by non-pancreatic tumors does occur. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ectopic insulinoma arising from the kidney. PMID:24741994

  14. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management. PMID:26697253

  15. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in...

  16. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136.55 Section 136.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  17. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in...

  18. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136a.55 Section 136a.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  19. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in...

  20. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136a.55 Section 136a.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  1. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136a.55 Section 136a.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  2. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in...

  3. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in...

  4. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136a.55 Section 136a.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  5. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136.55 Section 136.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  6. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136.55 Section 136.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  7. Discriminatory hCG zone: its use in the sonographic evaluation for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kadar, N; DeVore, G; Romero, R

    1981-08-01

    The most reliable ultrasonographic criteria for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy are based on the appearance of the uterus in the presence of a positive urine pregnancy test. The absence of an intrauterine sac signifies ectopic pregnancy, whereas its presence indicates intrauterine gestation. These criteria cannot be applied when serum pregnancy tests are used unless the serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level at which the sac of an intrauterine pregnancy becomes visible on ultrasound is known, because these tests are far more sensitive and identify pregnancy at an earlier stage than does sonar. In this study, the hCG level that distinguishes patients with intrauterine pregnancies in whom a gestational sac can be seen from those in whom it cannot be seen was determined and designated the discriminatory hCG zone. This zone lies between 6000 and 65000 mIU/ml. The absence of an intrauterine sac in conjunction with hCG values above this level signifies ectopic pregnancy; however, the absence of an intrauterine sac has no diagnostic significance when associated with hCG values below the discriminatory zone. An intrauterine sac associated with hCG levels above the discriminatory zone reliably indicates an intrauterine pregnancy, but at hCG values below the zone, it is suggestive of an abnormal pregnancy-either a missed abortion or an ectopic gestation. PMID:7254727

  8. Bilateral septic knee arthritis after treatment of an ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Yurdakul, Emre; Tanın, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral septic knee arthritis that followed the administration of methotrexate for nonsurgical termination of an ectopic pregnancy. We believe that methotrexate is a relatively effective alternative to surgery in patients with early unruptured tubal pregnancies, but suggest that it be used with caution in view of possible septic events. PMID:25610005

  9. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136.55 Section 136.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  10. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136a.55 Section 136a.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  11. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136.55 Section 136.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and...

  12. Methotrexate treatment in progressive tubal ectopic pregnancies and hCG-related clinicosurgical implications.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Askin; Gulhan, Ibrahim; Uyar, Ibrahim; Ekin, Atalay; Gezer, Cenk; Bilgin, Muzaffer; Taner, Cüneyt E; Ertas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the success of methotrexate treatment and β-hCG levels in progressive tubal ectopic pregnancies. We defined a retrospective cohort of 394 progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy patients treated with methotrexate. A single-dose methotrexate protocol using 50 mg/m(2) was administered to patients with progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy. Surgery was performed in patients who exhibited signs of acute abdomen due to tubal rupture. Of 394 patients that received methotrexate treatment, 335 (84.6%) responded to medical treatment, while the remaining 59 (15.36%) underwent surgery due to treatment failure. β-hCG levels in the failure group were significantly higher as compared with the success group at Day 1, Day 4, and Day 7 (2116±3157 vs. 4178±3422, 2062±3551 vs. 4935±4103, and 1532±3007 vs. 3900±4783, respectively). The receiver operating characteristics curve for β-hCG levels at Day 1 was 0.738, with a cutoff value of 1418 mIU/mL, while sensitivity and specificity values reached the optimum for treatment success (83.1% and 59.4%, respectively). Medical treatment with methotrexate achieved an 85.02% success rate for the treatment of progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy, while success rates for medical treatment decreased significantly when initial β-hCG levels were >1418 mIU/mL. PMID:27377845

  13. [A case of ectopic ureterocele in a male adult found during examination of a traumatic injury].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuuichi; Hyoudou, Youji; Okamoto, Masayuki; Yamada, Yuji; Takechi, Yosizumi

    2004-04-01

    We report a case of ectopic ureterocele in a male adult found during examination of a traumatic injury. A 26-year-old man sustained a blow to his left back during a football game and was admitted to the hospital with a complaint of abdominal pain. The computed tomographic scan showed a huge cystic mass in the retroperitoneum. A cystoscope revealed a large bulge from the left ureteral orifice to the bladder neck and another ureteral orifice distal to the bulge. Retrograde pyelography revealed an ectopic ureterocele showing a complete duplication, a lateral deviation of the left ureter and a bladder deviation to the right. An ectopic ureteral orifice was opening in the posterior urethra. An ureteral catheter inserted into this orifice revealed a dilated left ureter from the upper half of the kidney. Because the function of left upper of kidney was maintained, a transurethral incision was performed. Vesicoureteral reflux remained, but the postoperative course was uneventful. We discuss 11 cases of ectopic ureterocele in male adults including this case. PMID:15188616

  14. Hyperinsulinemia and ectopic fat deposition develop in the face of hyperadiponectinemia in young obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of reduced adiponenctin signaling in childhood obesity is unclear. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were overfed a high fat diet via total enteral nutrition. Excessive caloric intake led to increased weight and fat mass; dyslipidemia; ectopic fat deposition; and hyperinsulinemia (P less th...

  15. Hyperinsulinemia and ectopic fat disposition can develop in the face of hyperadiponectinemia in young obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum adiponectin has been reported to inversely correlate with the degree of adiposity in children. However, the relative contribution of adiponectin-dependent signaling, to the development of ectopic fat deposition and insulin resistance in childhood obesity is unclear. We investigated the role ...

  16. Suppression of ectopic assembly of centriole proteins ensures mitotic spindle integrity

    PubMed Central

    Shiratsuchi, Gen; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in maintaining the appropriate number of centrioles could be the origin of genome instability in tumor formation. Recently, we demonstrated that ectopic formation of aberrant centriole-related structures occurs even in the presence of pre-existing centrioles, leading to mitotic spindle defects and possibly contributing to tumorigenesis. PMID:27308496

  17. Ectopic gestation: a consideration of new and controversial issues relating to pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Mc Elin, T W; Iffy, L

    1976-01-01

    In this chapter on ectopic gestation are have attempted to elucidate new and controversial issues in this area. In summary, we identify the following items as "nominative imperatives": I. Meticulous review of the classic etiologic concepts of ectopic gestation indicates that these concepts are no longer tenable although certain of them may be operative in specific instances. Review of certain veterinary work, animal experimentation, and pathologic and clinical observations in primates lends support to the hypothesis that failure of the ovum to implant may be related to delayed (post-midcycle) ovulation followed by shortening of the luteal phase with defective endometrial development and by a bleeding episode that simulates menstruation. II. Review of the literature indicates that the woman who has a tubal pregnancy has about a 50 to 60 percent chance of never becoming pregnant again. Among those who do conceive, at least 10 percent, and possibly more, develop another ectopic gestation. Only one-third of the women who have a tubal pregnancy will ever succeed in delivering a healthy child. Obviously this unhappy prognosis is the basis for many of our recommendations for management. The woman who had had a tubal pregnancy should consider the use of mechanical contraception after the midcycle to prevent recurrent ectopic pregnancy. This is obviously a suggestion based on the etiologic theory that we espouse. The prophylactic use of anti-Rh immunoglobulin is necessary in ectopic gestation in Rh-negative gravidas. III. In terms of the relation of ectopic pregnancy to intrauterine devices, the most authoritative statement than can be found is that of Lehfeldt, who states that the IUD is 99.5 percent effective in preventing intrauterine pregnancy, 95 percent effective in preventing tubal ectopic gestation, and is ineffective against ovarian implantation. Nonetheless, the fact that one in 23 IUD pregnancies is ectopic makes consideration of this diagnosis mandatory. IV. In

  18. A case of severe ectopic ACTH syndrome from an occult primary – diagnostic and management dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Katherine; Amer, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resection of primary tumour is the management of choice in patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome. However, tumours may remain unidentified or occult in spite of extensive efforts at trying to locate them. This can, therefore, pose a major management issue as uncontrolled hypercortisolaemia can lead to life-threatening infections. We present the case of a 66-year-old gentleman with ectopic ACTH syndrome from an occult primary tumour with multiple significant complications from hypercortisolaemia. Ectopic nature of his ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome was confirmed by non-suppression with high-dose dexamethasone suppression test and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling. The primary ectopic source remained unidentified in spite of extensive anatomical and functional imaging studies, including CT scans and Dotatate-PET scan. Medical adrenolytic treatment at maximum tolerated doses failed to control his hypercortisolaemia, which led to recurrent intra-abdominal and pelvic abscesses, requiring multiple surgical interventions. Laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy was considered but decided against given concerns of technical difficulties due to recurrent intra-abdominal infections and his moribund state. Eventually, alcohol ablation of adrenal glands by retrograde adrenal vein approach was attempted, which resulted in biochemical remission of Cushing's syndrome. Our case emphasizes the importance of aggressive management of hypercortisolaemia in order to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality and also demonstrates that techniques like percutaneous adrenal ablation using a retrograde venous approach may be extremely helpful in patients who are otherwise unable to undergo bilateral adrenalectomy. Learning points Evaluation and management of patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome from an unidentified primary tumour can be very challenging.Persisting hypercortisolaemia in this setting can lead to debilitating and even life-threatening complications and hence

  19. Ectopic Expression of WRINKLED1 Affects Fatty Acid Homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon Vegetative Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Munz, Jacob; Cass, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kong, Que; Ma, Wei; Sedbrook, John; Benning, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a storage lipid used for food purposes and as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a transcription factor that governs fatty acid (FA) synthesis and, indirectly, TAG accumulation in oil-storing plant tissues, and its ectopic expression has led to TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of different dicotyledonous plants. The ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in the grass Brachypodium distachyon induced the transcription of predicted genes involved in glycolysis and FA biosynthesis, and TAG content was increased up to 32.5-fold in 8-week-old leaf blades. However, the ectopic expression of BdWRI1 also caused cell death in leaves, which has not been observed previously in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lipid analysis indicated that the free FA content was 2-fold elevated in BdWRI1-expressing leaf blades of B. distachyon. The transcription of predicted genes involved in β-oxidation was induced. In addition, linoleic FA treatment caused cell death in B. distachyon leaf blades, an effect that was reversed by the addition of the FA biosynthesis inhibitor cerulenin. Taken together, ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in B. distachyon enhances FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in leaves, as expected, but also leads to increased free FA content, which has cytotoxic effects leading to cell death. Thus, while WRI appears to ubiquitously affect FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in diverse plants, its ectopic expression can lead to undesired side effects depending on the context of the specific lipid metabolism of the respective plant species. PMID:26419778

  20. The Relationship of Ectopic Lipid Accumulation to Cardiac and Vascular Function in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ruberg, Frederick L.; Chen, Zhongjing; Hua, Ning; Bigornia, Sherman; Guo, Zifang; Hallock, Kevin; Jara, Hernan; LaValley, Michael; Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Qiao, Ye; Viereck, Jason; Apovian, Caroline M.; Hamilton, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Storage of lipid in ectopic depots outside of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous stores, including within the pericardium and liver, has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine whether anatomically distinct ectopic depots were physiologically correlated and site-specific effects upon cardiovascular function could be identified. Obese subjects (n = 28) with metabolic syndrome but without known atherosclerotic disease and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify pericardial and periaortic lipid volumes, cardiac function, aortic compliance, and intrahepatic lipid content. Fasting plasma lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and free-fatty acids were measured. Pericardial and intrahepatic (P < 0.01) and periaortic (P < 0.05) lipid volumes were increased in obese subjects vs. controls and were strongly and positively correlated (P ≤ 0.01) but independent of BMI (P = NS) among obese subjects. Intrahepatic lipid was associated with insulin resistance (P < 0.01) and triglycerides (P < 0.05), whereas pericardial and periaortic lipid were not (P = NS). Periaortic and pericardial lipid positively correlated to free-fatty acids (P ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P < 0.05). Pericardial lipid negatively correlated to cardiac output (P = 0.03) and stroke volume (P = 0.01) but not to left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.46). None of the ectopic depots correlated to aortic compliance. In conclusion, ectopic storage of lipid in anatomically distinct depots appeared tightly correlated but independent of body size. Site-specific functional abnormalities were observed for pericardial but not periaortic lipid. These findings underscore the utility of MRI to assess individual differences in ectopic lipid that are not predictable from BMI. PMID:19875992

  1. Ectopic Expression of WRINKLED1 Affects Fatty Acid Homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon Vegetative Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Munz, Jacob; Cass, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kong, Que; Ma, Wei; Sedbrook, John; Benning, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a storage lipid used for food purposes and as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a transcription factor that governs fatty acid (FA) synthesis and, indirectly, TAG accumulation in oil-storing plant tissues, and its ectopic expression has led to TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of different dicotyledonous plants. The ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in the grass Brachypodium distachyon induced the transcription of predicted genes involved in glycolysis and FA biosynthesis, and TAG content was increased up to 32.5-fold in 8-week-old leaf blades. However, the ectopic expression of BdWRI1 also caused cell death in leaves, which has not been observed previously in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lipid analysis indicated that the free FA content was 2-fold elevated in BdWRI1-expressing leaf blades of B. distachyon. The transcription of predicted genes involved in β-oxidation was induced. In addition, linoleic FA treatment caused cell death in B. distachyon leaf blades, an effect that was reversed by the addition of the FA biosynthesis inhibitor cerulenin. Taken together, ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in B. distachyon enhances FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in leaves, as expected, but also leads to increased free FA content, which has cytotoxic effects leading to cell death. Thus, while WRI appears to ubiquitously affect FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in diverse plants, its ectopic expression can lead to undesired side effects depending on the context of the specific lipid metabolism of the respective plant species. PMID:26419778

  2. Spatial distribution of the RABBIT EARS protein and effects of its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Seiji; Noguchi, Mariko; Hamamura, Yuki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    In many flowering plants, flowers consist of two peripheral organs, sepals and petals, occurring in outer two whorls, and two inner reproductive organs, stamens and carpels. These organs are arranged in a concentric pattern in a floral meristem, and the organ identity is established by the combined action of floral homeotic genes expressed along the whorls. Floral organ primordia arise at fixed positions in the floral meristem within each whorl. The RABBIT EARS (RBE) gene is transcribed in the petal precursor cells and primordia, and regulates petal initiation and early growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We investigated the spatial and temporal expression pattern of a RBE protein fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Expression of the GFP:RBE fusion gene under the RBE cis-regulatory genomic fragment rescues the rbe petal defects, indicating that the fusion protein is functional. The GFP signal is located to the cells where RBE is transcribed, suggesting that RBE function is cell-autonomous. Ectopic expression of GFP:RBE under the APETALA1 promoter causes the homeotic conversion of floral organs, resulting in sterile flowers. In these plants, the class B homeotic genes APETALA3 and PISTILLATA are down-regulated, suggesting that the restriction of the RBE expression to the petal precursor cells is crucial for flower development. PMID:24366683

  3. Comparative study of the osteogenic ability of four different ceramic constructs in an ectopic large animal model.

    PubMed

    Viateau, Véronique; Manassero, Mathieu; Sensébé, Luc; Langonné, Alain; Marchat, David; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Petite, Hervé; Bensidhoum, Morad

    2016-03-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with biodegradable osteoconductive scaffolds are very promising for repairing large segmental bone defects. Synchronizing and controlling the balance between scaffold-material resorption and new bone tissue formation are crucial aspects for the success of bone tissue engineering. The purpose of the present study was to determine, and compare, the osteogenic potential of ceramic scaffolds with different resorbability. Four clinically relevant granular biomaterial scaffolds (specifically, Porites coral, Acropora coral, beta-tricalcium phosphate and banked bone) with or without autologous bone marrow stromal cells were implanted in the ectopic, subcutaneous-pouch sheep model. Scaffold material resorption and new bone formation were assessed eight weeks after implantation. New bone formation was only detected when the biomaterial constructs tested contained MSCs. New bone formation was higher in the Porites coral and Acropora coral than in either the beta-tricalcium phosphate or the banked bone constructs; furthermore, there was a direct correlation between scaffold resorption and bone formation. The results of the present study provide evidence that, among the biomaterials tested, coral scaffolds containing MSCs promoted the best new bone formation in the present study. PMID:23784976

  4. Stimulation of ectopic bone formation in response to BMP-2 by Rho kinase inhibitor: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshioka, Kiyoko; Nakase, Takanobu; Itoh, Kazuyuki

    2009-12-01

    The small GTPase Rho and Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho kinase, ROCK) signal participates in a variety of biological functions including vascular contraction, tumor invasion, and penile erection. Evidence also suggests Rho-ROCK is involved in signaling for mesenchymal cellular differentiation. However, whether it is involved in osteoblastic differentiation is unknown. We therefore asked whether Rho-ROCK signaling participates in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2)-induced osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Continuous delivery of a specific ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) enhanced ectopic bone formation induced by rhBMP-2 impregnated into an atelocollagen carrier in mice without affecting systemic bone metabolism. Treatment with Y-27632 also enhanced the osteoblastic differentiation of cultured murine neonatal calvarial cells. These effects were associated with increased expression of BMP-4 gene. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of ROCK in ST2 cells promoted osteoblastic differentiation, while a constitutively active mutant of ROCK attenuated osteoblastic differentiation and the ROCK inhibitor reversed this phenotype. Thus, ROCK inhibits osteogenesis, and a ROCK inhibitor in combination with the local delivery of rhBMP/collagen composite may be clinically applicable for stimulating bone formation. PMID:19609629

  5. Human Chorionic Gonadotropine in Cul-de-sac Fluid in Tubal Ectopic Pregnacy; A New Diagnostic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Karahasanoglu, Ayse; Ozdemir, Mucize; Yazicioglu, Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although new diagnostic abilities are being utilised increasingly yet early detection of tubal pregnancy remains a challenge. The use of highly sensitive hCG kits has facilitated the early diagnosis of a pregnancy. But it takes time to determine the localisation of the pregnancy. Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy may reduce the morbidity of ectopic pregnancy. Aim This study was conducted to analyse the cul-de-sac and serum βhCG ratio in tubal ectopic pregnancy cases which may be a new diagnostic approach for ectopic pregnancy. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and July 2011, 263 patients with ectopic pregnancy were included in the study. Risk factors of patients and treatment modalities were evaluated. hCG was measured in peripheral serum and peritoneal fluid, obtained by puncture of Douglas pouch in 52 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy. hCG level was determined in the cul-de-sac fluid and in the maternal serum for comparison. Results Tubectomy (5.3%), history of abortion (9.5%), history of previous surgery (14.8%), previous cesarean section (8%) and pelvic infamatorry disease (15.9 %) were the important risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in our cases. In 51 of 52 patients with tubal pregnancy, the cul-de-sac hCG vaule and the serum hCG value ratio was >1. Conclusion It is concluded that the ratio of hCG in cul-de –sac and serum can be used for the verification of tubal ectopic pregnancy in addition to other diagnostic methods. This may help rapid confirmation of the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27190895

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Needle-Based Probe Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) of Intrapancreatic Ectopic Spleen.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, Amanda B; Holloman, David; Lankarani, Ali; Nieto, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Accessory spleens and splenosis represent the congenital and acquired type of ectopic splenic tissue. Generally, they are asymptomatic entities posing as solid hypervascular masses at the splenic hilum or in other organs, such as the pancreas. Intrapancreatic ectopic spleen mimics pancreatic neoplasms on imaging studies, and due to the lack of radiological diagnostic criteria, patients undergo unnecessary distal pancreatectomy. We present the first case of intrapancreatic ectopic spleen in which the concomitant use of needle-based probe confocal laser endomicroscopy and fine-needle aspiration supported the final diagnosis. PMID:27144203

  7. Single ectopic ureteral orifice with bilateral duplicated renal collecting systems in an adult girl: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Liu, Bianjiang; Li, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal duplication accompanied by ureteral ectopia is an uncommon urinary congenital abnormality. We report the case of a 21-year-old girl who suffered from lifelong continuous urinary leakage. She was finally diagnosed with bilateral duplicated collecting systems complicated with right ectopic ureteral orifice – an extremely rare case. The patient underwent ureteric re-implantation for the ectopic side, and her urinary incontinence ceased soon thereafter. In this case, traditional imaging failed to show the exact insertion of an ectopic ureter. However, magnetic resonance urography combined with retrograde intubation radiography successfully depicted the point of ureteric insertion, which may make the diagnostic process accurate and efficient. PMID:26609333

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Needle-Based Probe Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) of Intrapancreatic Ectopic Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Amanda B.; Holloman, David; Lankarani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Accessory spleens and splenosis represent the congenital and acquired type of ectopic splenic tissue. Generally, they are asymptomatic entities posing as solid hypervascular masses at the splenic hilum or in other organs, such as the pancreas. Intrapancreatic ectopic spleen mimics pancreatic neoplasms on imaging studies, and due to the lack of radiological diagnostic criteria, patients undergo unnecessary distal pancreatectomy. We present the first case of intrapancreatic ectopic spleen in which the concomitant use of needle-based probe confocal laser endomicroscopy and fine-needle aspiration supported the final diagnosis. PMID:27144203

  9. Celecoxib Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Katherine; Neofytou, Evgenios A; Beygui, Ramin E; Zare, Richard N

    2015-09-22

    Controllable induction of blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) presents an important therapeutic goal in ischemic diseases and is also beneficial in various normal physiological processes. In this study, we have shown that nanoparticles of celecoxib, a lipophilic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, effectively evoke therapeutic angiogenesis in animal models, in both normal and ischemic organs. Celecoxib is widely considered to inhibit angiogenesis, although a recent study suggests that it can instead promote blood vessel growth in cancer cell lines. The hydrophobic nature of this drug necessitates its administration in nanoparticulate form in order to elicit a perceivable pharmacological response. We developed a facile method for nanoparticle formation by solvent extraction from microemulsions in supercritical carbon dioxide. This method exploits a spontaneous formation of nanometric domains within the microemulsion system and their rapid conversion to nanoparticles by supercritical fluid. The resultant nanoparticles were administered subcutaneously to mice in a biocompatible hydrogel, and caused a 4-fold increase in blood vessel count in normally perfused skin compared with drug-free particles. They were at least as effective in inducing angiogenesis as nanoparticles of deferoxamine, a well-established neovascularization promoter. Next, we evaluated their effect on ischemic tissues in murine model of myocardial infarction. We found that celecoxib nanoparticles were able to induce a significant vascularization of ischemic myocardium and hamper the progression of heart failure, which points toward a new approach for treating ischemia. PMID:26244654

  10. Ectopic expression of OsMADS3, a rice ortholog of AGAMOUS, caused a homeotic transformation of lodicules to stamens in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Kyozuka, Junko; Shimamoto, Ko

    2002-01-01

    In order to clarify the evolutionary relationship of floral organs between grasses and dicots, we expressed OsMADS3, a rice (Oryza sativa L.) AGAMOUS(AG) ortholog, in rice plants under the control of an Actin1 promoter. As a consequence of the ectopic expression of the OsMADS3, lodicules were homeotically transformed into stamens. In total, the transformation of lodicules to staminoid organs was observed in 18 out of 26 independent transgenic lines. In contrast to the almost complete transformation occurring in lodicules, none of the transgenic plants exhibited any morphological alterations in the palea or the lemma. Our results confirmed the prediction that the lodicule is an equivalent of a dicot petal and that the ABC model can be applied to rice at least for organ specification in lodicules and stamens. PMID:11828031

  11. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activates ectopic production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Doucet, Michele; Tomlinson, Ryan E; Han, Xiaobin; Quarles, L Darryl; Collins, Michael T; Clemens, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which ectopic production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by non-malignant mesenchymal tumors causes phosphate wasting and bone fractures. Recent studies have implicated the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in other phosphate wasting disorders caused by elevated FGF23, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemia. Here we provide evidence that HIF-1α mediates aberrant FGF23 in TIO by transcriptionally activating its promoter. Immunohistochemical studies in phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors resected from patients with documented TIO showed that HIF-1α and FGF23 were co-localized in spindle-shaped cells adjacent to blood vessels. Cultured tumor tissue produced high levels of intact FGF23 and demonstrated increased expression of HIF-1α protein. Transfection of MC3T3-E1 and Saos-2 cells with a HIF-1α expression construct induced the activity of a FGF23 reporter construct. Prior treatment of tumor organ cultures with HIF-1α inhibitors decreased HIF-1α and FGF23 protein accumulation and inhibited HIF-1α-induced luciferase reporter activity in transfected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding to a HIF-1α consensus sequence within the proximal FGF23 promoter, which was eliminated by treatment with a HIF-1α inhibitor. These results show for the first time that HIF-1α is a direct transcriptional activator of FGF23 and suggest that upregulation of HIF-1α activity in TIO contributes to the aberrant FGF23 production in these patients. PMID:27468359

  12. Infected Dentigerous Cyst of Maxillary Sinus Arising from an Ectopic Third Molar

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh; Kura, Umashankar

    2013-01-01

    A dentigerous cyst or follicular cyst is a form of odontogenic cyst. It is believed that it forms during the development of the tooth and is associated with pressure exerted by the crown of an unerupted (or partially erupted) tooth on the fluid within the follicular space. Typically, dentigerous cysts are painless and discovered during routine radiographic examination. However, they may be large and result in a palpable mass. Additionally, as they grow they displace adjacent teeth. They almost exclusively occur in permanent dentition. The cyst is lined by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium. About 70% of dentigerous cysts occur in the mandible and 30% in the maxilla. Dentigerous cysts associated with ectopic teeth within the maxillary sinus are very rare. We report radiologic and pathologic features in a rare case of infected dentigerous cyst of maxillary sinus arising from an ectopic third molar in a 21-year-old female patient. PMID:24516770

  13. Away from the milky way: An extremely rare case of pulmonary ectopic breast.

    PubMed

    Mahmodlou, Rahim; Sugumaran, Rajkumar K; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast is defined as the presence of breast tissue outside the pectoral region. In this article, we are reporting an extremely rare case of pulmonary aberrant breast tissue. A 79-years-old Caucasian woman with the history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease, presented to the emergency department for worsening dyspnea on exertion and pleuritic chest pain over the last few days. Both thoracic CT scan and the gross evaluation of tumor after its removal by thoracotomy were in favor of a soft tissue tumor such as pulmonary lipoma, whilst surprisingly the histological examinations revealed the mass to be ectopic breast tissue. Although it is extremely rare, this diagnosis should be considered in the evaluation of pulmonary masses. PMID:25624600

  14. A Case of Ectopic ACTH-Producing Pulmonary Carcinoid Arising in an Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seijiro; Kitahara, Akihiko; Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Ohashi, Riuko; Kameda, Yoichi; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-04-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-producing bronchopulmonary carcinoid arising in a bronchopulmonary sequestration is extremely rare. The case of a 67-year-old woman with a 1.7-cm nodule in the mediastinal side of the left lower lobe is presented. At 52 years of age, she was diagnosed as having ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, no ectopic source of ACTH-secretion was detected. Seven years later, she underwent a bilateral adrenalectomy because of aggravation of her health condition. This time, tumor excision was performed by thoracoscopic surgery. The tumor adhered sparsely to the mediastinal pleura and the left lower lobe and was bluntly separated from these tissues. Pathologically, the tumor was a typical carcinoid arising in an extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the secretion of ACTH by bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor cells. After surgery, the serum ACTH level was almost normalized, and the dexamethasone (1 mg) suppression test showed significant suppression of ACTH. PMID:26378053

  15. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-01-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  16. A Rare Localization of Ectopic Pregnancy: Intramyometrial Pregnancy in Twin Pregnancy following IVF

    PubMed Central

    Ait Benkaddour, Yassir; Bassir, Ahlam; Aboulfalah, Abdrahim; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2014-01-01

    Intramyometrial pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. It makes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. If misdiagnosed the intramyometrial pregnancy can cause a uterine rupture and become life-threatening condition. We report a case of intramyometrial pregnancy in twin pregnancy following IVF with spontaneous abortion of the first twin At 9 weeks of gestation. The 10 weeks scan showed a normal fetus which was described to be highly localized in the uterus but the diagnosis of intramyometrial pregnancy was not suspected. The patient was admitted at 14 weeks of gestation with pelvic pain, hemorrhage, and shock. She was operated and the diagnosis of ruptured intramyometrial pregnancy was done and managed conservatively. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties of intramyometrial pregnancy. We discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this exceptional form of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:24744925

  17. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  18. A United Kingdom national survey of trends in ectopic pregnancy management.

    PubMed

    Taheri, M; Bharathan, R; Subramaniam, A; Kelly, T

    2014-08-01

    Our national survey demonstrates increased use of medical and laparoscopic management of ectopic pregnancy in the UK. In the UK in 2000, 35% of cases were managed by laparoscopy, 63% by laparotomy and 1% with medication. A recent review in the USA revealed increasing rates of medical management and decreasing rates of laparotomy; a trend driven by both cost-effectiveness and patient choice. A total of 119 early pregnancy units were surveyed regarding the nature and management of the three most recent cases of ectopic pregnancy; in addition, feasibility of training residents was also requested. Participants reported on 124 cases with a median of five cases per month per department. A total of 57% of cases were managed laparoscopically, 31% medically, 5% by laparotomy and 6% conservatively. Out of 44 centres, 29 have the facilities for training in both intermediate laparoscopic surgery and early pregnancy ultrasound. PMID:24766292

  19. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases.

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Cheib, Paula L; de Brito, Gabriela M; Pinto, Larissa S M C

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  20. Extra-uterine twin pregnancy: case report of spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Amine, Ben Haj Hassine; Haythem, Siala

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy. Bilateral tubal pregnancies in the absence of preceding induction of ovulation are a rare occurrence, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 725 to 1 in 1580 ectopicpregnancies. They are usually diagnosed at the time of surgery. We report a case of spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancies diagnosed intraoperatively. A 33-year-old patient was admitted after light vaginal bleeding, 35 days after her last menstruation. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed without complication and the pathology report confirmed the diagnosis. This is an unusual case of early diagnosis. The diagnosis of bilateral tubal pregnancy is usually madeintraoperatively. This underscores the importance ofidentifying and closely examining both tubes at the time ofsurgery, even in the presence of significant adhesive disease. PMID:26309468

  1. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Mei; Yang, Shumin; Li, Qifu

    2014-01-01

    Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders. PMID:25143667

  2. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported.

  3. [Direct cryothermal ablation eliminates conduction of the slow pathway without inducing ectopic rhythms].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Manlio F; Colín, Luis; Iturralde, Pedro; Nava, Santiago; González, Eric; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Gómez, Jorge; Salica, Gabriel; Cossío, Jorge; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia is based on the elimination of conduction of slow or fast intranodal pathway. To avoid potential atrioventricular (AV) block, a new technology has been developed, cryothermal ablation. We report a case of AV nodal reentrant tachycardia in whom direct cryoablation, without previous ice mapping, was successfully performed. Interestingly and as previously described, cryotherapy did not induce ectopic rhythms, the conventional surrogate during radiofrequency ablation. PMID:15909749

  4. Enterobius vermicularis Salpingitis Seen in the Setting of Ectopic Pregnancy in a Malaysian Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sarala; Ong, Diana Bee Lan; Chow, Tak Kuan; Low, Kah Pin; Nureena, Zaidi Syeda; Rajoo, Yamuna; Chin, Yuee Teng; Amir, Amirah; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare and unusual case of invasive Enterobius vermicularis infection in a fallopian tube. The patient was a 23-year-old Malaysian woman who presented with suprapubic pain and vaginal bleeding. A clinical diagnosis of ruptured right ovarian ectopic pregnancy was made. She underwent a laparotomy with a right salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathological examination of the right fallopian tube showed eggs and adult remnants of E. vermicularis, and the results were confirmed using PCR and DNA sequencing. PMID:24989613

  5. Ectopic TBX1 suppresses thymic epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation during thymus organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reeh, Kaitlin A G; Cardenas, Kim T; Bain, Virginia E; Liu, Zhijie; Laurent, Micheline; Manley, Nancy R; Richie, Ellen R

    2014-08-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands arise from a shared endodermal primordium in the third pharyngeal pouch (3rd pp). Thymus fate is specified in the ventral 3rd pp between E9.5 and E11, whereas parathyroid fate is specified in the dorsal domain. The molecular mechanisms that specify fate and regulate thymus and parathyroid development are not fully delineated. Previous reports suggested that Tbx1 is required for thymus organogenesis because loss of Tbx1 in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome and in experimental Tbx1 deletion mutants is associated with thymus aplasia or hypoplasia. However, the thymus phenotype is likely to be secondary to defects in pharyngeal pouch formation. Furthermore, the absence of Tbx1 expression in the thymus-fated domain of the wild-type 3rd pp suggested that Tbx1 is instead a negative regulator of thymus organogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel mouse strain in which expression of a conditional Tbx1 allele was ectopically activated in the thymus-fated domain of the 3rd pp. Ectopic Tbx1 expression severely repressed expression of Foxn1, a transcription factor that marks the thymus-fated domain and is required for differentiation and proliferation of thymic epithelial cell (TEC) progenitors. By contrast, ectopic Tbx1 did not alter the expression pattern of Gcm2, a transcription factor restricted to the parathyroid-fated domain and required for parathyroid development. Ectopic Tbx1 expression impaired TEC proliferation and arrested TEC differentiation at an early progenitor stage. The results support the hypothesis that Tbx1 negatively regulates TEC growth and differentiation, and that extinction of Tbx1 expression in 3rd pp endoderm is a prerequisite for thymus organogenesis. PMID:25053428

  6. Enterobius vermicularis salpingitis seen in the setting of ectopic pregnancy in a Malaysian patient.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Ravindran, Sarala; Ong, Diana Bee Lan; Chow, Tak Kuan; Low, Kah Pin; Nureena, Zaidi Syeda; Rajoo, Yamuna; Chin, Yuee Teng; Amir, Amirah; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-09-01

    We report a rare and unusual case of invasive Enterobius vermicularis infection in a fallopian tube. The patient was a 23-year-old Malaysian woman who presented with suprapubic pain and vaginal bleeding. A clinical diagnosis of ruptured right ovarian ectopic pregnancy was made. She underwent a laparotomy with a right salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathological examination of the right fallopian tube showed eggs and adult remnants of E. vermicularis, and the results were confirmed using PCR and DNA sequencing. PMID:24989613

  7. Induced ectopic kinetochore assembly bypasses the requirement for CENP-A nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gascoigne, Karen E.; Takeuchi, Kozo; Suzuki, Aussie; Hori, Tetsuya; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Cheeseman, Iain M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Accurate chromosome segregation requires assembly of the multi-protein kinetochore complex at centromeres. Although prior work identified the centromeric histone H3-variant CENP-A as the important upstream factor necessary for centromere specification, in human cells CENP-A is not sufficient for kinetochore assembly. Here, we demonstrate that two constitutive DNA-binding kinetochore components, CENP-C and CENP-T, function to direct kinetochore formation. Replacing the DNA-binding regions of CENP-C and CENP-T with alternate chromosome-targeting domains recruits these proteins to ectopic loci, resulting in CENP-A-independent kinetochore assembly. These ectopic kinetochore-like foci are functional based on the stoichiometric assembly of multiple kinetochore components including the microtubule-binding KMN network, the presence of microtubule attachments, the microtubule-sensitive recruitment of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2, and the segregation behavior of foci-containing chromosomes. We additionally find that CENP-T phosphorylation regulates the mitotic assembly of both endogenous and ectopic kinetochores. Thus, CENP-C and CENP-T form a critical regulated platform for vertebrate kinetochore assembly. PMID:21529714

  8. Ectopic ACTH Production Leading to Diagnosis of Underlying Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Leslee N.; Wilson, Jessica R.; Baum, Howard B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been described as a source of ectopic ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. This is an infrequent association, occurring in less than 1% of MTC cases. Among these, it is even more unusual for an initial diagnosis of hypercortisolism to lead to the discovery of underlying MTC. Here we present a case of a patient with weakness, diarrhea, and hypokalemia who was found first to have Cushing’s syndrome and later diagnosed with metastatic MTC. The patient was treated initially with oral agents to control his hypercortisolism, then with an etomidate infusion after experiencing intestinal perforation. He also received vandetanib therapy targeting his underlying malignancy, as this has been shown to reverse clinical signs of Cushing’s syndrome in patients with MTC and subsequent ectopic ACTH secretion. Bilateral adrenalectomy was ultimately required. Medullary thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients presenting with Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, and a multimodality treatment approach is often required. PMID:27141514

  9. Ectopic expression of TAPETUM DETERMINANT1 affects ovule development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Wijeratne, Asela J; Tang, Chong; Zhang, Tianyu; Fenelon, Rebecca E; Owen, Heather A; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved to extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control growth, development, and defense. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1 (EMS1) LRR-RLK and its potential small protein ligand TAPETUM DETERMINANT1 (TPD1) are specifically required for anther cell differentiation; however, TPD1 and EMS1 orthologs also control megaspore mother cell proliferation in rice and maize ovules. Here, the molecular function of TPD1 was demonstrated during ovule development in Arabidopsis using a gain-of-function approach. In ovules, the EMS1 gene was primarily expressed in nucellus epidermis and chalaza, whereas the expression of TPD1 was weakly restricted to the distal end of integuments. Ectopic expression of TPD1 caused pleiotropic defects in ovule and seed development. RNA sequencing analysis showed that ectopic expression of TPD1 altered expression of auxin signaling genes and core cell-cycle genes during ovule development. Moreover, ectopic expression of TPD1 not only affected auxin response but also enhanced expression of cyclin genes CYCD3;3 and CYCA2;3 in ovules. Thus, these results provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which TPD1-EMS1 signaling controls plant development possibly via regulation of auxin signaling and cell-cycle genes. PMID:26685185

  10. Pericardial ectopic thymoma presenting with cardiac tamponade: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hiromasa; Rino, Yasushi; Fushimi, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Masami; Yoshioka, Emi; Okudela, Koji; Yukawa, Norio; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Ectopic thymoma arising from organs other than the thymus, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, lung and pericardium, is rare. To date, there have been only seven other cases of pericardial thymoma reported in the English literature. We herein report a case of pericardial ectopic thymoma that presented with cardiac tamponade. A 72-year-old Japanese male noticed body weight gain and leg edema. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed pericardial effusion and an irregularly shaped mass in the pericardial space compressing the right atrium. He was considered to have cardiac tamponade due to a paracardiac tumor that developed following acute cardiac failure. The intraoperative frozen diagnosis was thymoma. Pericardectomy of the thickened pericardium, tumorectomy and thymectomy via a median sternotomy were performed. The final pathological diagnosis was pericardial ectopic thymoma associated with constrictive pericarditis. The differential diagnosis and complete resection of mediastinal tumors such as this rare case of thymoma are important to obtain a better prognosis, as patients with such tumors often present in a state of shock. PMID:25069422

  11. Ectopic bone formation in severely combat-injured orthopedic patients -- a hematopoietic niche.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thomas A; Lazdun, Yelena; Potter, Benjamin K; Forsberg, Jonathan A

    2013-09-01

    Combat-related heterotopic ossification (HO) has emerged as a common and problematic complication of modern wartime extremity injuries, contributing to substantial patient morbidity and loss of function. We have previously reported that HO-forming patients exhibit a more pronounced systemic and local inflammatory response very early in the wound healing process. Moreover, traumatized muscle-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells from these patients have a skewed differentiation potential toward bone. Here, we demonstrate that HO lesions excised from this patient population contain highly vascularized, mature, cancellous bone containing adipogenic marrow. Histologic analysis showed immature hematopoietic cells located within distinct foci in perivascular regions. The adipogenic marrow often contained low numbers of functional erythroid (BFU-E), myeloid (CFU-GM, CFU-M) and multilineage (CFU-GEMM) colony-forming hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Conversely, tissue from control muscle and non-HO traumatic wound granulation tissue showed no evidence of hematopoietic progenitor cell activity. In summary, our findings suggest that ectopic bone can provide an appropriate hematopoietic microenvironment for supporting the proliferation and differentiation of HPCs. This reactive and vibrant cell population may help maintain normal hematopoietic function, particularly in those with major extremity amputations who have sustained both massive blood loss, prompting systemic marrow stimulation, as well as loss of available native active marrow space. These findings begin to characterize the functional biology of ectopic bone and elucidate the interactions between HPC and non-hematopoietic cell types within the ectopic intramedullary hematopoietic microenvironmental niche identified. PMID:23727270

  12. Effect of culture conditions and calcium phosphate coating on ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hamlet, Stephen M; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating onto a polycaprolactone melt electrospun scaffold and in vitro culture conditions on ectopic bone formation in a subcutaneous rat model. The CaP coating resulted in an increased alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) in ovine osteoblasts regardless of the culture conditions and this was also translated into higher levels of mineralisation. A subcutaneous implantation was performed and increasing ectopic bone formation was observed over time for the CaP-coated samples previously cultured in osteogenic media whereas the corresponding non-coated samples displayed a lag phase before bone formation occurred from 4 to 8 weeks post-implantation. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed bone fill through the scaffolds 8 weeks post-implantation for coated and non-coated specimens and that ALP, osteocalcin and collagen 1 were present at the ossification front and in the bone tissues. Vascularisation in the vicinity of the bone tissues was also observed indicating that the newly formed bone was not deprived of oxygen and nutrients. We found that in vitro osteogenic induction was essential for achieving bone formation and CaP coating accelerated the osteogenic process. We conclude that high cell density and preservation of the collagenous and mineralised extracellular matrix secreted in vitro are factors of importance for ectopic bone formation. PMID:23623428

  13. Giant hepatic hemangioma and cross-fused ectopic kidney in a spaceflight participant.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Richard T; Garriott, Owen K; Bogomolov, Valery V; Pochuev, Vladimir I; Morgun, Valery V; Garriott, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Commercial spaceflight participants are typically older than traditional astronauts and often have medical conditions that make medical certification for flight difficult. This case report considers a 43-yr-old spaceflight participant who planned a short-duration Soyuz flight to the International Space Station (ISS). While he participated in many hazardous activities such as parachuting, hang gliding, scuba diving, Antarctic and jungle exploration, and deep sea submersible operations, he knew that several of his medical conditions precluded serving as a career astronaut. At the time of his initial spaceflight prescreen examination, he was known to have previous bilateral photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for myopia and a cross-fused left ectopic kidney that would be disqualifying for a career astronaut. During the evaluation for the left single cross-fused ectopic kidney, a giant hepatic hemangioma was also discovered. In order to medically qualify for flight, the giant hepatic hemangioma was surgically removed. This case summary investigat*es the implications of a single cross-fused left ectopic kidney and the decision process and treatment implications for spaceflight medical certification in an individual with an asymptomatic giant hepatic hemangioma. PMID:20131656

  14. Tubulosquamous polyps in the vagina. Immunohistochemical comparison with ectopic prostatic tissue and Skene glands.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A

    2016-06-01

    Two tubulosquamous polyps arising in the vagina are reported. Both were diffusely positive for GATA3 in the squamous component and focally positive for NKX3.1 in the glandular component, prostate acid phosphatase was focally positive in only 1 case in the glandular component. Both cases were negative for PAX2, PAX8, SALL4, and prostate-specific antigen. In addition, we included 3 cases of cervical squamous-lined cysts most likely representing ectopic prostatic tissue in the cervix and 1 case of paraurethral Skene-type glands to compare the immunophenotype. We analyze this immunoprofile, not previously reported. We also suggest unifying the nomenclature because vaginal Brenner tumors are most likely synonymous with tubulosquamous polyp (TSP) of the vagina. Our findings add support to the postulated origin of TSPs and cervical ectopic prostatic tissue from eutopic or misplaced Skene glands, equivalent of the prostate in the female. NKX3.1 seems a better marker to study and diagnose ectopic prostatic tissue in the cervix as well as TSPs. PMID:27180063

  15. Setdb1 maintains hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by restricting the ectopic activation of nonhematopoietic genes.

    PubMed

    Koide, Shuhei; Oshima, Motohiko; Takubo, Keiyo; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Nitta, Eriko; Saraya, Atsunori; Aoyama, Kazumasa; Kato, Yuko; Miyagi, Satoru; Nakajima-Takagi, Yaeko; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Matsui, Hirotaka; Arai, Fumio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Suda, Toshio; Shinkai, Yoichi; Iwama, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Setdb1, also known as Eset, is a methyltransferase that catalyzes trimethylation of H3K9 (H3K9me3) and plays an essential role in the silencing of endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) in the developing embryo and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Its role in somatic stem cells, however, remains unclear because of the early death of Setdb1-deficient embryos. We demonstrate here that Setdb1 is the first H3K9 methyltransferase shown to be essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in mice. The deletion of Setdb1 caused the rapid depletion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as leukemic stem cells. In contrast to ESCs, ERVs were largely repressed in Setdb1-deficient HSPCs. A list of nonhematopoietic genes was instead ectopically activated in HSPCs after reductions in H3K9me3 levels, including key gluconeogenic enzyme genes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (Fbp1) and Fbp2 The ectopic activation of gluconeogenic enzymes antagonized glycolysis and impaired ATP production, resulting in a compromised repopulating capacity of HSPCs. Our results demonstrate that Setdb1 maintains HSPCs by restricting the ectopic activation of nonhematopoietic genes detrimental to their function and uncover that the gluconeogenic pathway is one of the critical targets of Setdb1 in HSPCs. PMID:27301860

  16. From variome to phenome: Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of ectopic mineralization disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Vilder, Eva YG; Vanakker, Olivier M

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization - inappropriate biomineralization in soft tissues - is a frequent finding in physiological aging processes and several common disorders, which can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Further, pathologic mineralization is seen in several rare genetic disorders, which often present life-threatening phenotypes. These disorders are classified based on the mechanisms through which the mineralization occurs: metastatic or dystrophic calcification or ectopic ossification. Underlying mechanisms have been extensively studied, which resulted in several hypotheses regarding the etiology of mineralization in the extracellular matrix of soft tissue. These hypotheses include intracellular and extracellular mechanisms, such as the formation of matrix vesicles, aberrant osteogenic and chondrogenic signaling, apoptosis and oxidative stress. Though coherence between the different findings is not always clear, current insights have led to improvement of the diagnosis and management of ectopic mineralization patients, thus translating pathogenetic knowledge (variome) to the phenotype (phenome). In this review, we will focus on the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and management of primary genetic soft tissue mineralization disorders. As examples of dystrophic calcification disorders Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Generalized arterial calcification of infancy, Keutel syndrome, Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification and Arterial calcification due to CD73 (NT5E) deficiency will be discussed. Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis will be reviewed as an example of mineralization disorders caused by metastatic calcification. PMID:26244149

  17. Life-threatening complications following multidose methotrexate for medical management of ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Papa; Sagili, Haritha

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year-old primigravida was diagnosed to be suffering from unruptured ectopic pregnancy. The serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were 2851 mIU/l and the ectopic gestational sac was 2.7×2.7 cm without any fetal pole. It was decided to manage her by expectant therapy. But she received medical therapy with multidose methotrexate because of misinterpretation of expectant therapy as medical therapy. She suffered from methotrexate toxicity, which manifested as high-grade fever, vomiting, melena, oral ulcerations, pneumonitis, subconjunctival haemorrhages and skin pigmentation. She developed severe third space fluid collection and shock, which was mistaken for rupture ectopic gestation. Her haematological picture showed severe neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia which confirmed the clinical picture to be due to methotrexate toxicity. She also developed septicaemia and candidal infection secondary to immunosuppression. She was managed in intensive care unit with ventilatory support, high-dose leucovorin and injection filgastrim. She responded well to the therapy with dramatic recovery in 4 days. PMID:22922914

  18. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  19. A case of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET in a patient with previous bilateral salpingectomy.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Hidenori; Tsutsumi, Seiji; Igarashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Nakahara, Kenji; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    The numbers of ectopic pregnancies have increased because of the popularization of assisted reproductive techniques. However, the retroperitoneal space is an exceptional location for ectopic pregnancy because the entrance to the retroperitoneal space is unknown. A woman 31 years of age who had received bilateral salpingectomy because of a right tubal ectopic pregnancy and a left hydrosalpinx 4 years earlier was treated by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a gestational sac attached to the inferior vena cava in the midabdomen of the retroperitoneal space. Single-dose methotrexate administration was administered twice. However, because of sudden upper abdominal pain with a drastic decline of hemoglobin, an emergent laparotomy was performed. The hematoma and a gestational sac were removed from the aorta and inferior vena cava. Ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET in a patient with bilateral salpingectomy is likely to be the cause of implantation at this unusual site. An unusual ectopic pregnancy has a high risk of life-threatening massive bleeding. Intensive transabdominal ultrasound scanning and whole abdominal MRI should be performed for the early diagnosis of unruptured ectopic pregnancy. PMID:18075960

  20. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2015-11-20

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  1. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  2. Ectopic Aire Expression in the Thymic Cortex Reveals Inherent Properties of Aire as a Tolerogenic Factor within the Medulla.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hitoshi; Kitano, Satsuki; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Junko; Kawano, Hiroshi; Hirota, Fumiko; Morita, Ryoko; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Ikuta, Koichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-11-15

    Cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) play essential roles in the positive and negative selection of developing thymocytes, respectively. Aire in mTECs plays an essential role in the latter process through expression of broad arrays of tissue-restricted Ags. To determine whether the location of Aire within the medulla is absolutely essential or whether Aire could also function within the cortex for establishment of self-tolerance, we used bacterial artificial chromosome technology to establish a semiknockin strain of NOD-background (β5t/Aire-transgenic) mice expressing Aire under control of the promoter of β5t, a thymoproteasome expressed exclusively in the cortex. Although Aire was expressed in cTECs as typical nuclear dot protein in β5t/Aire-Tg mice, cTECs expressing Aire ectopically did not confer transcriptional expression of either Aire-dependent or Aire-independent tissue-restricted Ag genes. We then crossed β5t/Aire-Tg mice with Aire-deficient NOD mice, generating a strain in which Aire expression was confined to cTECs. Despite the presence of Aire(+) cTECs, these mice succumbed to autoimmunity, as did Aire-deficient NOD mice. The thymic microenvironment harboring Aire(+) cTECs, within which many Aire-activated genes were present, also showed no obvious alteration of positive selection, suggesting that Aire's unique property of generating a self-tolerant T cell repertoire is functional only in mTECs. PMID:26453754

  3. Ectopic Expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa Enhances Plant Alkaline Stress Tolerance and Methionine Content

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Chaoyue; DuanMu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) and PEPC kinases (PPCKs) fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3) as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase), H+-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops. PMID:24586886

  4. Ectopic activity in the rat pulmonary vein can arise from simultaneous activation of α1- and β1-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Maupoil, V; Bronquard, C; Freslon, J-L; Cosnay, P; Findlay, I

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common electrical cardiac disorder in clinical practice. The major trigger for AF is focal ectopic activity of unknown origin in sleeves of cardiac muscle that extend into the pulmonary veins. We examined the role of noradrenaline in the genesis of ectopic activity in the pulmonary vein. Experimental approach: Mechanical activity of strips of pulmonary vein isolated from male Wistar rats was recorded via an isometric tension meter. Twitch contractions of cardiac myocytes were evoked by electrical field stimulation in a tissue bath through which flowed Krebs-Heinseleit solution warmed to 36-37°C and gassed with 95% O2 5% CO2. Key results: The superfusion of noradrenaline induced ectopic contractions in 71 of 76 different isolated pulmonary veins. Ectopic contractions in the pulmonary vein were not associated with electrically evoked twitch contractions. The effect of noradrenaline on the pulmonary vein could be replicated by the simultaneous, but not separate, application of the α adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine and the β adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline. The use of selective agonists and antagonists for adrenoceptor subtypes showed that ectopic activity in the pulmonary vein arose from the simultaneous stimulation of α1 and β1 adrenoceptors. The application of noradrenaline to isolated strips of left atrium did not induce ectopic contractions (n=10). Conclusions: These findings suggest an origin for ectopic activity in the pulmonary vein that requires activation of both α and β adrenoceptors. They also open new perspectives towards our understanding of the triggering of AF. PMID:17325650

  5. Ectopic bone formation and chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice carrying the rat C3(1)/T{sub AG} fusion gene

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.E.; Maroulakou, I.G.; Anver, M.

    1994-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the SV40 large T-antigen (T{sup AG}) under the regultory control of the hormone-responsive rat C3(1) prostatein promoter develop unusual bone and cartilage lesions, as well as ectopic bone and cartilage formation. Two lines of transgenic animals have been propagated in which the expression of the transgene in chondrocytes results in a mild to moderate generalized disorganization of cartilage growth which appears to affect multiple tissues, including the trachea, ear pinna and articular cartilage. The epiphyseal plates are also affected with normal architecture of the zones of proliferation and maturation, but marked elongation of the zone of hypertrophy. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that expression of T{sup AG} is limited to the zone of hypertropny in the epiphyseal plates, suggesting that the chondrocytes become hormone-responsive at this particular stage of differentiation. Normal mineralization and trabecular formation in long bone appears to occur. Ectopic bone and cartilage formation occurs in the foot pads of the fore- and hind- feet over the course of several months. This is preceded by proliferation of sweat gland epithelial cells followed by the appearance of nodules of cartilage and bone. The nodules are closely associated with proliferating epithelium but are not contiguous with bony structures normally found in the feet. The roles of BMP`s, growth factors, oncogenes and hormones in the development of these lesions will be presented. These transgenic animals may provide new insights into hormone-responsiveness of chondrocytes, as well as factors involved in the processes of bone and cartilage differentiation and growth. These transgenic animals may serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone formation.

  6. Activation of budding yeast replication origins and suppression of lethal DNA damage effects on origin function by ectopic expression of the co-chaperone protein Mge1.

    PubMed

    Trabold, Peter A; Weinberger, Martin; Feng, Li; Burhans, William C

    2005-04-01

    Initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes requires the origin recognition complex (ORC) and other proteins that interact with DNA at origins of replication. In budding yeast, the temperature-sensitive orc2-1 mutation alters these interactions in parallel with defects in initiation of DNA replication and in checkpoints that depend on DNA replication forks. Here we show that DNA-damaging drugs modify protein-DNA interactions at budding yeast replication origins in association with lethal effects that are enhanced by the orc2-1 mutation or suppressed by a different mutation in ORC. A dosage suppressor screen identified the budding yeast co-chaperone protein Mge1p as a high copy suppressor of the orc2-1-specific lethal effects of adozelesin, a DNA-alkylating drug. Ectopic expression of Mge1p also suppressed the temperature sensitivity and initiation defect conferred by the orc2-1 mutation. In wild type cells, ectopic expression of Mge1p also suppressed the lethal effects of adozelesin in parallel with the suppression of adozelesin-induced alterations in protein-DNA interactions at origins, stimulation of initiation of DNA replication, and binding of the precursor form of Mge1p to nuclear chromatin. Mge1p is the budding yeast homologue of the Escherichia coli co-chaperone protein GrpE, which stimulates initiation at bacterial origins of replication by promoting interactions of initiator proteins with origin sequences. Our results reveal a novel, proliferation-dependent cytotoxic mechanism for DNA-damaging drugs that involves alterations in the function of initiation proteins and their interactions with DNA. PMID:15647270

  7. Erythropoietin Receptor Antagonist Suppressed Ectopic Hemoglobin Synthesis in Xenografts of HeLa Cells to Promote Their Destruction.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yoshiko; Fujita, Mitsugu; Koike, Eiji; Obata, Koshiro; Shiota, Mitsuru; Kotani, Yasushi; Musha, Terunaga; Tsuji-Kawahara, Sachiyo; Satou, Takao; Masuda, Seiji; Okano, Junko; Yamasaki, Harufumi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Uesugi, Tadao; Nakao, Shinichi; Hoshiai, Hiroshi; Mandai, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore a cause-oriented therapy for patients with uterine cervical cancer that expresses erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR). Epo, by binding to EpoR, stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells into hemoglobin-containing red blood cells. In this study, we report that the HeLa cells in the xenografts expressed ε, γ, and α globins as well as myoglobin (Mb) to produce tetrameric α2ε2 and α2γ2 and monomeric Mb, most of which were significantly suppressed with an EpoR antagonist EMP9. Western blotting revealed that the EMP9 treatment inhibited the AKT-pAKT, MAPKs-pMAPKs, and STAT5-pSTAT5 signaling pathways. Moreover, the treatment induced apoptosis and suppression of the growth and inhibited the survival through disruption of the harmonized hemoprotein syntheses in the tumor cells concomitant with destruction of vascular nets in the xenografts. Furthermore, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells with intense HIF-1α expression recruited significantly more in the degenerating foci of the xenografts. These findings were associated with the enhanced expressions of nNOS in the tumor cells and iNOS in macrophages and NK cells in the tumor sites. The treated tumor cells exhibited a substantial number of perforations on the cell surface, which indicates that the tumors were damaged by both the nNOS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the tumor cells as well as the iNOS-induced NO production in the innate immune cells. Taken together, these data suggest that HeLa cells constitutively acquire ε, γ and Mb synthetic capacity for their survival. Therefore, EMP9 treatment might be a cause-oriented and effective therapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. PMID:25874769

  8. Precision Nanoparticles

    ScienceCinema

    John Hemminger

    2010-01-08

    A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

  9. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  10. Precision Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    John Hemminger

    2009-07-21

    A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

  11. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  12. Dual transcriptional activities of SIX proteins define their roles in normal and ectopic eye development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Abigail M; Weasner, Bonnie M; Weasner, Brandon P; Kumar, Justin P

    2012-03-01

    The SIX family of homeodomain-containing DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in both Drosophila and vertebrate retinal specification. In flies, three such family members exist, but only two, Sine oculis (So) and Optix, are expressed and function within the eye. In vertebrates, the homologs of Optix (Six3 and Six6) and probably So (Six1 and Six2) are also required for proper eye formation. Depending upon the individual SIX protein and the specific developmental context, transcription of target genes can either be activated or repressed. These activities are thought to occur through physical interactions with the Eyes absent (Eya) co-activator and the Groucho (Gro) co-repressor, but the relative contribution that each complex makes to overall eye development is not well understood. Here, we attempt to address this issue by investigating the role that each complex plays in the induction of ectopic eyes in Drosophila. We fused the VP16 activation and Engrailed repressor domains to both So and Optix, and attempted to generate ectopic eyes with these chimeric proteins. Surprisingly, we find that So and Optix must initially function as transcriptional repressors to trigger the formation of ectopic eyes. Both factors appear to be required to repress the expression of non-retinal selector genes. We propose that during early phases of eye development, SIX proteins function, in part, to repress the transcription of non-retinal selector genes, thereby allowing induction of the retina to proceed. This model of repression-mediated induction of developmental programs could have implications beyond the eye and might be applicable to other systems. PMID:22318629

  13. Elastic discontinuity due to ectopic calcification in a human fibrous joint

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jeremy D.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Webb, Samuel M.; Ryder, Mark I.; Ho, Sunita P.

    2012-01-01

    Disease can alter the natural ramp-like elastic gradients to steeper step-like profiles at soft-hard tissue interfaces. Prolonged function can further mediate mechanochemical events that alter biomechanical response within diseased organs. In this study a human bone-tooth fibrous joint was chosen as a model system, in which the effects of bacterial-induced disease, i.e. periodontitis, on natural elastic gradients were investigated. Specifically, the effects of ectopic biomineral, i.e. calculus, on innate chemical and elastic gradients within the diseased cementum-dentin complex in comparison to a healthy complex, both of which are fundamental parameters to load-bearing tissues, will be discussed. Complementary techniques for mapping changes in physicochemical properties as a result of disease, included micro-X-ray computed tomography, microprobe micro X-ray fluorescence imaging, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy (TEM, AFM) techniques, and AFM-based nanoindentation. Results demonstrated primary effects as derivatives of ectopic mineralization within the diseased fibrous joint. Ectopic mineralization with no cementum resorption, but altered cementum physicochemical properties with increasing X-ray attenuation, exhibited stratified concretion with increasing X-ray fluorescence counts of calcium and phosphorus elements in the extracellular matrix. These were correlated to decreased hygroscopicity, indenter displacement, and apparent strain relieving characteristics. Disease progression identified as concretion through the periodontal ligament (PDL)-cementum enthesis and sometimes the originally hygroscopic cementum-dentin junction, resulted in a significantly increased indentation elastic modulus (3.16±1.19 GPa) and a shift toward a discontinuous interface compared to healthy conditions (1.54±0.83 GPa) (Student’s t-test, p<0.05). The observed primary effects could result in secondary downstream effects, such as compromised mechanobiology at the

  14. Usefulness of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Management of Bleeding Ectopic Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.; Joly, L.; Perreault, P.; Bouchard, L.; Lafortune, M.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the control of bleeding from ectopic varices. Methods. From 1995 to 2004, 24 cirrhotic patients, bleeding from ectopic varices, mean age 54.5 years (range 15-76 years), were treated by TIPS. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic in 13 patients and nonalcoholic in 11 patients. The location of the varices was duodenal (n = 5), stomal (n = 8), ileocolic (n = 6), anorectal (n = 3), umbilical (n = 1), and peritoneal (n 1). Results. TIPS controlled the bleeding in all patients and induced a decrease in the portacaval gradient from 19.7 {+-} 5.4 to 6.4 {+-} 3.1 mmHg. Postoperative complications included self-limited intra-abdominal bleeding (n = 2), self-limited hemobilia (n = 1), acute thrombosis of the shunt (n = 1), and bile leak treated by a covered stent (n = 1). Median follow-up was 592 days (range 28-2482 days). Rebleeding occurred in 6 patients. In 2 cases rebleeding was observed despite a post-TIPS portacaval gradient lower than 12 mmHg and was controlled by variceal embolization; 1 patient underwent surgical portacaval shunt and never rebled; in 3 patients rebleeding was related to TIPS stenosis and treated with shunt dilatation with addition of a new stent. The cumulative rate of rebleeding was 23% and 31% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 80% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The present series demonstrates that bleeding from ectopic varices, a challenging clinical problem, can be managed safely by TIPS placement with low rebleeding and good survival rates.

  15. Connexin 43 contributes to ectopic orofacial pain following inferior alveolar nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Unno, Syumpei; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically, it is well known that injury of mandibular nerve fiber induces persistent ectopic pain which can spread to a wide area of the orofacial region innervated by the uninjured trigeminal nerve branches. However, the exact mechanism of such persistent ectopic orofacial pain is not still known. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of connexin 43 in the trigeminal ganglion on mechanical hypersensitivity in rat whisker pad skin induced by inferior alveolar nerve injury. Here, we examined changes in orofacial mechanical sensitivity following inferior alveolar nerve injury. Furthermore, changes in connexin 43 expression in the trigeminal ganglion and its localization in the trigeminal ganglion were also examined. In addition, we investigated the functional significance of connexin 43 in relation to mechanical allodynia by using a selective gap junction blocker (Gap27). Results Long-lasting mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin and the upper eyelid skin, and activation of satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, were induced after inferior alveolar nerve injury. Connexin 43 was expressed in the activated satellite glial cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the whisker pad skin, and the connexin 43 protein expression was significantly increased after inferior alveolar nerve injury. Administration of Gap27 in the trigeminal ganglion significantly reduced satellite glial cell activation and mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin. Moreover, the marked activation of satellite glial cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the whisker pad skin following inferior alveolar nerve injury implies that the satellite glial cell activation exerts a major influence on the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons. Conclusions These findings indicate that the propagation of satellite glial cell activation throughout the trigeminal ganglion via gap junctions, which are

  16. Ectopic fat deposition and global cardiometabolic risk: new paradigm in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Kozuka, Chisayo; Taira, Shin-ichiro; Yabiku, Koichi; Dagvasumberel, Munkhbaatar; Ishida, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Yamakawa, Ken; Higa, Moritake; Soeki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hisashi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global public health concern that increases the likelihood of morbidity and mortality of metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and threatens to reduce life expectancy around the world. The concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) takes into account that visceral fat plays an essential role in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, MetS cannot be used to assess global CVD risk but is at best one more modifiable CVD risk factor. Thus, global cardiometabolic risk (the global risk of cardiovascular disease resulting from traditional risk factors combined with the additional contribution of the metabolic syndrome and/or insulin resistance) should be considered individually. There is solid evidence supporting the notion that excess abdominal fat is predictive of insulin resistance and the presence of related metabolic abnormalities currently referred to as MetS. Despite the fact that abdominal obesity is a highly prevalent feature of MetS, the mechanisms by which abdominal obesity is causally related to MetS are not fully elucidated. Besides visceral fat accumulation, ectopic lipid deposition, especially in liver and skeletal muscle, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity-related disorders. Also, ectopic fat deposition could be deteriorated in the heart components such as (1) circulatory and locally recruited fat, (2) intra- and extra-myocellular fat, (3) perivascular fat, and (4) pericardial fat. In this review, the contribution of ectopic lipid deposition to global cardiometabolic risk is reviewed and also discussed are potential underlying mechanisms including adipocytokine, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. PMID:23614905

  17. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  18. Unilateral twin tubal ectopic pregnancy in a patient following tubal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Nadjafi-Semnani, Mohammad; Nadjafi-Semnani, Ali; Nadjfai-Semnani, Fatemeh; Shahabinejad, Sima

    2015-01-01

    We report a spontaneous unilateral live tubal twin pregnancy in a patient with a history of previous ectopic pregnancy (EP) and tubal surgery. Transvaginal ultrasound showed one pregnancy sac containing two fetal poles with cardiac activity, which appeared to be sited within the right adnexum. The right tubal EP was removed by salpingectomy. Ultrasound findings of suspected adnexal mass and free liquid in the Douglas pouch along with an increased a beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels, especially in association of risk factors, can help the early diagnosis of EP and reduce the related mortality and morbidity. PMID:25983775

  19. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Embryonal Cell Carcinoma along with Ectopic Cross Fused Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, NR Manju; Narayana, V; Raja, V Om Pramod Kumar; Jambula, Pranav Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, where there is normal development of male secondary sexual characters, along with the presence of bilateral fallopian tubes and uterus. Majority of these cases go undetected and some cases are accidentally diagnosed while investigating for other problems. Cross fused renal ectopia is a condition where one kidney lies in the opposite side, fused to the other kidney. We present an extremely rare case of a phenotypical male presenting with mass per abdomen and bilateral cryptorchidism, turned out to have uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes, ectopic cross fused right kidney and Embryonal cell carcinoma of left undescended testis. PMID:26894123

  20. Ectopic Intrathymic Parathyroid adenoma demonstrated on Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT.

    PubMed

    Usmani, S; Oteifa, M; Abu Huda, F; Javaid, A; Amanguno, H G; Al Kandari, F

    2016-05-01

    Intrathymic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. In this case, Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT successfully localized abnormal tracer uptake in the mediastinum with corresponding low density lesion on CT images suggestive of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma which late on confirmed on histopathology. After the median sternotomy a large intrathymic parathyroid adenoma was identified and excised. With the help of gamma probe the surgeons detect the lesion early and with more confidence as well as reducing the total operation time. Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT scintigraphy and gamma probe localization is recommended for preoperative and intra operative localization of ectopic parathyroid adenomas. PMID:27250890

  1. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples obtained from fertile women (n = 18) suffering from moderate (stage 3; n = 8) or severe (stage 4; n = 10) ovarian endometriosis during proliferative (n = 13) and secretory (n = 5) phases of menstrual cycle was performed. Methods Individual pure RNA samples were subjected to Agilent’s Whole Human Genome 44K microarray experiments. Microarray data were validated (P < 0.01) by estimating transcript copy numbers by performing real time RT-PCR of seven (7) arbitrarily selected genes in all samples. The data obtained were subjected to differential expression (DE) and differential co-expression (DC) analyses followed by networks and enrichment analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The reproducibility of prediction based on GSEA implementation of DC results was assessed by examining the relative expressions of twenty eight (28) selected genes in RNA samples obtained from fresh pool of eutopic and ectopic samples from confirmed ovarian endometriosis patients with stages 3 and 4 (n = 4/each) during proliferative and secretory (n = 4/each) phases. Results Higher clustering effect of pairing (cluster distance, cd = 0.1) in samples from same individuals on expressional arrays among eutopic and ectopic samples was observed as compared to that of clinical stages of severity (cd = 0.5) and phases of menstrual cycle (cd = 0.6). Post hoc analysis revealed anomaly in the expressional profiles of several genes

  2. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Ectopic Canine and a Supernumerary Tooth: A Rare Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Ashwini; Lambade, Pravin

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the cysts of the jaw dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts, which is associated with the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. DC is more commonly seen with mandibular third molar and maxillary canine and rarely other teeth are involved. These cysts seldom associate with supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of large dentigerous cyst associated with supernumerary teeth and an ectopic canine, which is a rare presentation along with its management. PMID:24741426

  3. Landiolol for junctional ectopic tachycardia refractory to amiodarone after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomomi; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Maruo, Ayako; Matsuhisa, Hironori; Kadowaki, Tasuku; Noda, Rei

    2013-06-01

    Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) in children undergoing cardiac surgery is a serious arrhythmia that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We present here a case of successful landiolol therapy for postoperative JET in a 3-month-old infant who underwent ventricular septal defect closure and right pulmonary artery plasty. His left ventricular function was poor postoperatively. The JET was refractory to amiodarone and caused severe hypotension, which was required cardiac massage. Continuous intravenous infusion of low-dose landiolol reduced the persistent JET rate immediately, and restored to sinus rhythm with stable hemodynamics. PMID:22893321

  4. Open Partial Nephrectomy for Wilms' Tumor in a Cross-fused Pelvic Ectopic Kidney.

    PubMed

    Rac, Goran; Ellet, Justin D; Sarkissian, Hagop; Eklund, Meryle J; Stec, Andrew A

    2016-07-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common pediatric solid renal tumor. Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which the left and right kidneys become fused and fail to ascend from the pelvis and abdomen. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl that underwent open partial nephrectomy on a cross-fused ectopic kidney, "pancake kidney," after incidental discovery of a solid renal mass found to be a Wilms' tumor. Thorough review of the literature shows that this combination of Wilms' tumor in the setting of cross-fused renal ectopia has only been reported twice previously. PMID:26948529

  5. An unusual case of retrovesical ectopic prostate tissue accompanied by primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fu-Qing; Xu, Xin; Shen, Bo-Hua; Qin, Jie; Sun, Ke; You, Qihan; Shang, De-Sheng; Zheng, Xiang-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of retrovesical ectopic prostate tissue in a 73-year-old man with primary prostate cancer. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 24.66 ng/ml.Transabdominal ultrasonography, pelvic computed tomography,and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a heterogeneous 8.5 × 8.0 × 7.0 cm mass in contact with the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. The patient underwent a retropubic radical prostatectomy and resection of tumor. Pathological examination of prostate revealed a prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score of 4 + 5 = 9, and the retrovesical tumor was confirmed to be a benign prostate tissue. PMID:22966979

  6. A TAP1 null mutation leads to an enlarged olfactory bulb and supernumerary, ectopic olfactory glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Cruz, Nicole M.; Ly, Xuan; Welander, Beth A.; Hanson, Kyle; Kronberg, Eugene; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are well known for their immunological role in mediating tissue graft rejection. Recently, these molecules were discovered to be expressed in distinct neuronal subclasses, dispelling the long-held tenet that the uninjured brain is immune-privileged. Here, we show that MHCI molecules are expressed in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of adult animals. Furthermore, we find that mice with diminished levels of MHCI expression have enlarged MOBs containing an increased number of small, morphologically abnormal and ectopically located P2 glomeruli. These findings suggest that MHCI molecules may play an important role in the proper formation of glomeruli in the bulb. PMID:23697805

  7. Minimally invasive transnasal approach for primary ectopic meningioma of the paranasal sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Szczygielski, Kornel; Cierniak, Szczepan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery is a standard procedure in the treatment of various pathologies such as chronic sinusitis or some types of neoplasms. The transnasal approach to tumours of paranasal sinuses is favourable due to functional and aesthetic reasons. We report a rare case of a large primary ectopic meningioma of the paranasal sinuses in a 48-year-old woman referred to the Otolaryngology Clinic due to the incidental finding of a pathologic mass visualised on the orthopantomography picture. After diagnosis, the patient was successfully treated with radical transnasal surgery performed under endoscopic vision. In a 1-year follow-up there were no signs of tumour recurrence. PMID:26649099

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise on ectopic lipids in patients with growth hormone deficiency before and after growth hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Emanuel R.; Egger, Andrea; Allemann, Sabin; Buehler, Tania; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) increases exercise capacity and insulin resistance while it decreases fat mass in growth hormone-deficient patients (GHD). Ectopic lipids (intramyocellular (IMCL) and intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) are related to insulin resistance. The effect of GHRT on ectopic lipids is unknown. It is hypothesized that exercise-induced utilization of ectopic lipids is significantly decreased in GHD patients and normalized by GHRT. GHD (4 females, 6 males) and age/gender/waist-matched control subjects (CS) were studied. VO2max was assessed on a treadmill and insulin sensitivity determined by a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) fat were quantified by MR-imaging. IHCL and IMCL were measured before and after a 2 h exercise at 50–60% of VO2max using MR-spectroscopy (∆IMCL, ∆IHCL). Identical investigations were performed after 6 months of GHRT. VO2max was similar in GHD and CS and significantly increased after GHRT; GHRT significantly decreased SAT and VAT. 2 h-exercise resulted in a decrease in IMCL (significant in CS and GHRT) and a significant increase in IHCL in CS and GHD pre and post GHRT. GHRT didn’t significantly impact on ∆IMCL and ∆IHCL. We conclude that aerobic exercise affects ectopic lipids in patients and controls. GHRT increases exercise capacity without influencing ectopic lipids. PMID:26792091

  9. Ectopic heartbeat

    MedlinePlus

    PVB (premature ventricular beat); Premature beats; PVC (premature ventricular complex/contraction); Extrasystole ... birth (congenital). Most extra heartbeats in children are premature atrial contractions (PACs). These are almost always harmless. ...

  10. Ectopic Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the spine. Every minute, a person’s kidneys filter about 3 ounces of blood, removing wastes and ... occur. As a result, the kidney can’t filter wastes and extra water from the blood. One ...

  11. Dysregulation of the mevalonate pathway promotes transformation

    PubMed Central

    Clendening, James W.; Pandyra, Aleks; Boutros, Paul C.; Ghamrasni, Samah El; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Trentin, Grace A.; Martirosyan, Anna; Hakem, Anne; Hakem, Razqallah; Jurisica, Igor; Penn, Linda Z.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of cancer metabolism has been appreciated for many years, but the intricacies of how metabolic pathways interconnect with oncogenic signaling are not fully understood. With a clear understanding of how metabolism contributes to tumorigenesis, we will be better able to integrate the targeting of these fundamental biochemical pathways into patient care. The mevalonate (MVA) pathway, paced by its rate-limiting enzyme, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), is required for the generation of several fundamental end-products including cholesterol and isoprenoids. Despite years of extensive research from the perspective of cardiovascular disease, the contribution of a dysregulated MVA pathway to human cancer remains largely unexplored. We address this issue directly by showing that dysregulation of the MVA pathway, achieved by ectopic expression of either full-length HMGCR or its novel splice variant, promotes transformation. Ectopic HMGCR accentuates growth of transformed and nontransformed cells under anchorage-independent conditions or as xenografts in immunocompromised mice and, importantly, cooperates with RAS to drive the transformation of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells. We further explore whether the MVA pathway may play a role in the etiology of human cancers and show that high mRNA levels of HMGCR and additional MVA pathway genes correlate with poor prognosis in a meta-analysis of six microarray datasets of primary breast cancer. Taken together, our results suggest that HMGCR is a candidate metabolic oncogene and provide a molecular rationale for further exploring the statin family of HMGCR inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:20696928

  12. Enzyme Nanoparticles-Based Electronic Biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Ostatna, V.; Wang, Joseph

    2005-06-28

    A novel method for fabricating electronic biosensors based on coupling enzyme nanoparticles and self assembly technology is illustrated. Redox horseradish peroxidase nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation with ethanol and subsequent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The cross-linked enzyme nanoparticles were functionalized by cysteine to introduce thiol groups on the nanoparticle surface. Immobilized enzyme nanoparticle on the gold electrode by self-assembly kept redox and electrocatalytic activities, and was used to develop reagentless biosensors for H2O2 detection without promoters and mediators. The new approach is simple, low cost and circumvents complications associated with solution systems. It is a universal immobilization method for biosensor, biomedical devices, biofuel cells and enzymatic bioreactors fabrication and expected to open new opportunities for biosensor, clinical diagnostics, and for bioanalysis, in general.

  13. Bilateral adrenal cysts and ectopic pancreatic tissue in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: is a conservative approach acceptable?

    PubMed

    Rahmah, R; Yong, J F; Sharifa, N A; Kuhnle, U

    2004-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a common overgrowth syndrome associated with an increased risk of neoplasias which might be explained by the nature and localization of the genetic defect. While malignant tumors are often associated with hemihypertrophy, benign tumors are also found. We report a patient with the typical features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with two histologically different abdominal tumors, bilateral cystic adrenals and ectopic pancreatic tissue present at birth. In both tumors no malignancy could be detected. Ectopic pancreatic tissue is rarely seen and has been described in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome only once. After extirpation of the ectopic pancreatic tissue the cystic adrenals were left in situ since macroscopically no normal adrenal tissue could be identified and separated. Regular ultrasound examinations revealed complete resolution of the cystic adrenals within 24 months. Thus it seems that a conservative approach in selected tumors associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome might be acceptable. PMID:15270410

  14. Unusual Case of Sinusitis Related to Ectopic Teeth in the Maxillary Sinus Roof/Orbital Floor: A Report.

    PubMed

    Chagas Júnior, Otacílio Luiz; Moura, Lucas Borin; Sonego, Camila Leal; de Farias, Eduardo Oliveira Campos; Giongo, Caroline Comis; Fonseca, Alisson André Robe

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a case report of an adult patient with chronic sinusitis related to the presence of two erupted ectopic teeth located atypically in the maxillary sinus roof/orbital floor after a long latency period associated with childhood facial trauma. This article aims to show the treatment of chronic sinusitis of odontogenic origin by surgical removal of ectopic teeth in an unusual position by direct visualization. This case report discusses the signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis linked to the presence of ectopic elements and associated with an inflammatory cyst, the choice of complementary tests for diagnosis and surgical treatment through the Caldwell-Luc procedure. After a 2-year follow-up period, the patient presently shows clinical improvement, thus demonstrating the success of the chosen treatment. PMID:27516844

  15. Activin A and follistatin as biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy and missed abortion.

    PubMed

    Daponte, Alexandros; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Garas, Antonios; Pournaras, Spyros; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    Activin A as a predictor of pregnancy failure has been the focus of heated debate, but the value of a combined activin A and follistatin (FS) measurement in serum to predict pregnancy failure has not been reported yet. We assessed whether a single serum measurement of the two physiological antagonists at 6-8 weeks gestation could differentiate ectopic pregnancies (EP) or missed abortions (MA) from healthy intrauterine pregnancies (IUP). activin A concentrations were significantly lower in women with EP (n = 30, median value of 264 pg/mL) and women with MA (n = 30, median value of 350 pg/mL) compared to IUP (n = 33, median value of 788 pg/mL); P < 0.001. At a threshold value of 505 pg/mL, activin A had 87.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity and negative predictive value of 0.974 for discriminating an ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancies. FS was able to discriminate IUP from EP (ROC curve P < 0.001) as was their ratio (ROC curve P = 0.008), but was unable to discriminate a MA from an EP. In EP, activin A did not correlate with beta HCG levels. The present findings support the thesis that activin A or FS could be considered promising biomarkers for the discrimination between an IUP and a failed pregnancy (MA or EP). PMID:24222717

  16. [Ectopic osteogenesis in vivo using bone morphogenetic protein-2 derived peptide loaded biodegradable hydrogel].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Fang, Zhenhua; Huang, Ruokun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Jing; Xie, Ming; Kan, Wusheng

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the development of an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate)(PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 )loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 for ectopic bone formation in vivo and evaluated its release kinetics in vitro. Then we evaluated P24 peptide release kinetics from different concentration of PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel in vitro using bicinchoninic acid (BCA)assay. P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was implanted into each rat's erector muscle of spine and ectopic bone formation of the implanted gel in vivo was detected by hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel with concentration more than 20 percent showed sustained slow release for one month after the initial burst release. Bone trabeculae surround the P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was shown at the end of six weeks by hematoxylin and eosin stain. These results indicated that encapsulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 remained viable in vivo, thus suggesting the potential of PTMC11-F127-PT- MC11 composite hydrogels as part of a novel strategy for localized delivery of bioactive molecules. PMID:25508424

  17. [Ectopic osteogenesis in vivo using bone morphogenetic protein-2 derived peptide loaded biodegradable hydrogel].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Fang, Zhenhua; Huang, Ruokun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Jing; Xie, Ming; Kan, Wusheng

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the development of an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate)(PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 )loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 for ectopic bone formation in vivo and evaluated its release kinetics in vitro. Then we evaluated P24 peptide release kinetics from different concentration of PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel in vitro using bicinchoninic acid (BCA)assay. P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was implanted into each rat's erector muscle of spine and ectopic bone formation of the implanted gel in vivo was detected by hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel with concentration more than 20 percent showed sustained slow release for one month after the initial burst release. Bone trabeculae surround the P24/ PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel was shown at the end of six weeks by hematoxylin and eosin stain. These results indicated that encapsulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) derived peptide P24 remained viable in vivo, thus suggesting the potential of PTMC11-F127-PT- MC11 composite hydrogels as part of a novel strategy for localized delivery of bioactive molecules. PMID:25464793

  18. Ectopic Activation of Germline and Placental Genes Identifies Aggressive Metastasis-Prone Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Sophie; Debernardi, Alexandra; Jacquiau, Baptiste; Vitte, Anne-Laure; Vesin, Aurélien; Nagy-Mignotte, Hélène; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Brichon, Pierre-Yves; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Hainaut, Pierre; Laffaire, Julien; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Beer, David G.; Timsit, Jean-François; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Khochbin, Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of normally silent tissue-specific genes and the resulting cell “identity crisis” are the unexplored consequences of malignant epigenetic reprogramming. We designed a strategy for investigating this reprogramming, which consisted of identifying a large number of tissue-restricted genes that are epigenetically silenced in normal somatic cells and then detecting their expression in cancer. This approach led to the demonstration that large-scale “off-context” gene activations systematically occur in a variety of cancer types. In our series of 293 lung tumors, we identified an ectopic gene expression signature associated with a subset of highly aggressive tumors, which predicted poor prognosis independently of the TNM (tumor size, node positivity, and metastasis) stage or histological subtype. The ability to isolate these tumors allowed us to reveal their common molecular features characterized by the acquisition of embryonic stem cell/germ cell gene expression profiles and the down-regulation of immune response genes. The methodical recognition of ectopic gene activations in cancer cells could serve as a basis for gene signature–guided tumor stratification, as well as for the discovery of oncogenic mechanisms, and expand the understanding of the biology of very aggressive tumors. PMID:23698379

  19. Clival Ectopic Pituitary Adenoma Mimicking a Chordoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Karras, Constantine L.; Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Abecassis, Zachary A.; Adel, Joseph G.; Bit-Ivan, Esther N.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Bendok, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Purely ectopic pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare. Here we report on a patient that presented with an incidental clival mass thought to be a chordoma. Endonasal resection, tumor pathology, and endocrinology workup revealed a prolactinoma. Case Presentation. A 41-year-old male presented with an incidental clival lesion presumed to be a chordoma. On MRI it involved the entire clivus, extended laterally to the petroclival junction, and invaded the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, encasing both internal carotid arteries, without direct extension into the sella. Intraoperatively, it was clear that the tumor originated from the clivus and that the sellar dura was completely intact. Frozen-section pathology was consistent with a pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining was positive for synaptophysin and prolactin with a low Ki-67 index, suggestive of a prolactinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains seen in chordomas (EMA, S100, and Brachyury) and other metastatic tumors were negative. A postoperative endocrine workup revealed an elevated serum prolactin of 881.3 ng/mL (normal < 20). Conclusions. In conclusion, it is crucial to maintain an extensive differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a clival lesion. Ectopic clival pituitary adenomas, although rare, may warrant an endocrinological workup preoperatively as the majority may respond to medical treatment. PMID:26885420

  20. Clival Ectopic Pituitary Adenoma Mimicking a Chordoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Karras, Constantine L; Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Abecassis, Zachary A; Adel, Joseph G; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Chandra, Rakesh K; Bendok, Bernard R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Purely ectopic pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare. Here we report on a patient that presented with an incidental clival mass thought to be a chordoma. Endonasal resection, tumor pathology, and endocrinology workup revealed a prolactinoma. Case Presentation. A 41-year-old male presented with an incidental clival lesion presumed to be a chordoma. On MRI it involved the entire clivus, extended laterally to the petroclival junction, and invaded the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, encasing both internal carotid arteries, without direct extension into the sella. Intraoperatively, it was clear that the tumor originated from the clivus and that the sellar dura was completely intact. Frozen-section pathology was consistent with a pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining was positive for synaptophysin and prolactin with a low Ki-67 index, suggestive of a prolactinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains seen in chordomas (EMA, S100, and Brachyury) and other metastatic tumors were negative. A postoperative endocrine workup revealed an elevated serum prolactin of 881.3 ng/mL (normal < 20). Conclusions. In conclusion, it is crucial to maintain an extensive differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a clival lesion. Ectopic clival pituitary adenomas, although rare, may warrant an endocrinological workup preoperatively as the majority may respond to medical treatment. PMID:26885420

  1. A Case of Live Birth after Uterine Reconstruction for Recurrent Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy following IVF Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maruthini, Deivanayagam; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of recurrent ruptured right cornual ectopic pregnancies conceived after IVF. Following the second episode, a sonohysterography was undertaken to identify possible areas of scar weakness that may rupture with uterine distension in a future pregnancy. The scan revealed asymmetrical muscle thickness in the cornual regions, the right (6 mm) being thinner than the left (1.6 cm). Subsequently, an elective laparotomy was undertaken, and the cornua were reconstructed and thickened in several layers by bringing the laterally retracted myometrial fibres onto the reconstruction site. A sono-hysterography after surgery showed satisfactory (3-4 cm) myometrial thickness all around. A further cycle of IVF resulted in a singleton pregnancy. Pelvic scans confirmed normal intrauterine pregnancy without any myometrial thinning. She was delivered by an uneventful elective caesarean section at term. We propose that, in those who intend to have further pregnancies after a cornual ectopic pregnancy, a sono-hysterography is possibly the best investigative tool to assess myometrial integrity. This case demonstrates that in women with areas of muscle weakness it is possible to successfully perform an interval elective reconstructive surgery on the uterus that can result in an uneventful pregnancy and birth. PMID:23476844

  2. Cushing's storm secondary to a rare case of ectopic ACTH secreting metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bucciarelli, Maura; Lee, Ya-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ectopic ACTH secretion from breast cancer is extremely rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, who presented with psychosis and paranoid behaviour. CT of the head showed white matter disease consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Despite using mifepristone with multiple antihypertensives including lisinopril, spironolactone and metoprolol, she was hypertensive. Transaminitis did not allow mifepristone dose escalation and ketoconazole utilization. Etomidate infusion at a non-sedating dose in the intensive care unit controlled her hypertension and cortisol levels. She was transitioned to metyrapone and spironolactone. She was discharged from the hospital on metyrapone with spironolactone and underwent chemotherapy. She died 9 months later after she rapidly redeveloped Cushing's syndrome and had progressive metastatic breast cancer involving multiple bones, liver and lungs causing respiratory failure. Learning points Cushing's syndrome from ectopic ACTH secreting breast cancer is extremely rare.Cushing's syndrome causing psychosis could be multifactorial including hypercortisolism and PRES.Etomidate at non-sedating doses in intensive care setting can be effective to reduce cortisol production followed by transition to oral metyrapone. PMID:26525183

  3. A gene locus for targeted ectopic gene integration in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, S; Schuster, M; Latz, M; Das Gupta, S; Steinberg, N; Fones, H; Gurr, S J; Talbot, N J; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the cellular organization and biology of fungal pathogens requires accurate methods for genomic integration of mutant alleles or fluorescent fusion-protein constructs. In Zymoseptoria tritici, this can be achieved by integrating of plasmid DNA randomly into the genome of this wheat pathogen. However, untargeted ectopic integration carries the risk of unwanted side effects, such as altered gene expression, due to targeting regulatory elements, or gene disruption following integration into protein-coding regions of the genome. Here, we establish the succinate dehydrogenase (sdi1) locus as a single "soft-landing" site for targeted ectopic integration of genetic constructs by using a carboxin-resistant sdi1(R) allele, carrying the point-mutation H267L. We use various green and red fluorescent fusion constructs and show that 97% of all transformants integrate correctly into the sdi1 locus as single copies. We also demonstrate that such integration does not affect the pathogenicity of Z. tritici, and thus the sdi1 locus is a useful tool for virulence analysis in genetically modified Z. tritici strains. Furthermore, we have developed a vector which facilitates yeast recombination cloning and thus allows assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments in a single cloning step for high throughput vector and strain generation. PMID:26092798

  4. Ectopic primary intrathyroidal thymoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-03-01

    Thymomas are rare tumors that occasionally arise from ectopic locations. Ectopic thymomas originating within the thyroid gland are an exceedingly uncommon clinical entity that has only been described sporadically. In this study, we present the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 3 primary intrathyroidal thymomas. The patients were 2 women and 1 man between the ages of 43 and 53 years (average, 48 years). Clinically, the patients presented with neck pain or enlarged thyroid glands. Physical examination and thyroid ultrasound revealed the presence of nodular masses confined to the thyroid parenchyma. No concurrent mediastinal tumors were identified in any of the cases, and none of the patients had a history of thymoma. Fine needle aspirate performed in 1 case was interpreted as possibly Hashimoto thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in all cases. Grossly, the lesions were circumscribed masses measuring from 1 to 4 cm in size. Histologically, the lesions showed the classic biphasic cellular proliferation of thymomas characterized by varying proportions of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Two patients remain alive and well 1.5 to 2 years after their surgical resection, whereas the third patient was lost to follow-up. The cases herein presented highlight an unusual tumor entity that can be clinically confused for more common lesions affecting the thyroid gland. Awareness of this entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis and secure appropriate clinical management. PMID:26826412

  5. Restriction of Ectopic Eye Formation by Drosophila Teashirt and Tiptop to the Developing Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rhea R.; Lurye, Jessica M.; Kumar, Justin P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In Drosophila, the retinal determination network comprises a set of nuclear factors whose loss-of-function phenotypes often include the complete or near total elimination of the developing eye. These genes also share the ability of being able to induce ectopic eye formation when forcibly expressed in non-retinal tissues such as the antennae, legs, halteres, wings and genitals. However, it appears that the ability to redirect and transform tissue fates is limited; not all tissues and cell populations can be forced into adopting an eye fate. In this report we demonstrate that ectopic eye formation by teashirt and its paralog tiptop, a potential new eye specification gene, is restricted to the developing antennae. Interestingly, tiptop appears to be a more effective inducer of retinal formation than teashirt. A genetic screen for interacting proteins failed to identify paralog specific relationships suggesting that the differences between these two genes may be attributed instead to structural differences between the duplicates. We also demonstrate that in addition to being expressed in co-incident patterns within the developing eye, both paralogs are transcribed at very similar levels. PMID:19347955

  6. Evaluation of mean platelet volume in unruptured ectopic pregnancy: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Erbil; Çim, Numan; Alkış, İsmet; Yıldızhan, Recep; Elçi, Gülhan

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate and compare the mean platelet volume (MPV) levels in ectopic and viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). The medical records of 78 unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy patients (TEP, Group 1) and 150 patients with viable IUP (Group 2) served as control group between May 2014 and February 2015 in our clinic were retrospectively analysed. The demographic characteristics including age, parity, gravida, abortus, haemoglobin levels and leucocyte counts showed no statistically difference between two groups. The mean MPV level was significantly lower in TEP group compared to IUP group (8.69 ± 1.14 and 10.06 ± 1.46, p < 0.001). The platelet (PLT) distribution width was higher in TEP group, however, there was no statistical difference between the two groups (p = 0.078). The early diagnosis of TEP is crucial in order to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality. Our results showed that MPV is lower in TEP than IUP and it seems to be related with the possible inflammation at implantation site of tuba uterina. However, there is need for further studies for employing PLT indices in the diagnosis of TEP. PMID:26923037

  7. An autopsy report on a ruptured rudimentary horn (uterine anomaly) with ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Izumi; Harada, Kazuki; Kuroda, Ryohei; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Takazawa, Yutaka; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-10

    The rudimentary horn is a rare developmental anomaly of the Müllerian duct. Ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is estimated to occur in one out of 76,000-150,000 pregnancies. A 30-year-old primigravida suddenly collapsed after 3 days of continuous abdominal pain. Emergency laparotomy revealed a massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage and fetal demise. The growth of the fetus after 19 weeks of gestation is believed to have caused the rudimentary horn rupture, thereby rapidly leading to hemorrhagic shock in the mother and ischemic death in the fetus. This is the first autopsy report on maternal death due to the rudimentary horn or other Müllerian duct anomalies, which emphasizes the need for forensic pathologists to consider this condition as a possible cause of unexpected death in fertile women. In addition, it is very important for clinicians to detect Müllerian duct anomalies by sonography during routine obstetric examinations, and promptly diagnose anomaly related ectopic pregnancies in women displaying symptoms of an acute abdomen, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, or shock in the emergency practice. PMID:23265443

  8. Successful Endoscopic Resection in a Case of Ectopic and Metachronous Quintuple Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryuzo; Shiraishi, Koichi; Arase, Yoshitaka; Dekiden, Makiko; Shimada, Hideo; Nitta, Miho; Myoujin, Kazunori; Tamiya, Shiho; Sato, Shinkichi; Mine, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    A 71-year-old man was referred to us from another hospital for endoscopic treatment of a IIc lesion at the anterior wall of the lower body of the stomach. In November 2008, he underwent resection of this lesion with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Follow-up endoscopy revealed a IIc lesion in the posterior wall of the lower body of the stomach, and ESD was again performed in February 2009. At the same time, Helicobacter pylori was detected, and successful first-line eradication therapy was verified in May 2009. Subsequent follow-up endoscopy detected multiple ectopic and metachronous gastric cancers at three sites, all of which were endoscopically resected (quintuple gastric cancer). Although ectopic and metachronous recurrence of gastric cancer was detected immediately after H. pylori eradication, recurrence of gastric cancer has not been detected in the 5 years since eradication. Future directions include determining the time point at which the preventative effects of H. pylori eradication therapy appear against gastric cancer recurrence. We report our findings herein, along with a review of the related literature. PMID:26662668

  9. Video assisted thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenomas: a UK regional experience

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali Zamir; Rew, David; Lagattolla, Nicholas; Singh, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Background To report the first series of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resection of mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenomas (MEPAs) in the UK. Methods A case series of seven cases undergoing VATS between 2004 and 2009 to treat single gland hyperparathyroidism. Methylene blue (MB) was used in 5/7 cases immediately before exploration to identify the adenomas. Carbon dioxide (CO2) up to pressures of 10 mmHg was used safely to deflate the lung in two cases. Results There were five women and two men with a mean age of 53 years (range, 27-72 years). Histopathology confirmed successful resection of the parathyroid adenoma in 6/7 cases. There was one conversion to open thoracotomy due to bleeding from the azygos vein resulting from excessive traction. Despite marked MB uptake, this patient proved to have tuberculoid adenopathy and no parathyroid tissue was identified. Postoperative plasma calcium returned to normal in 6/7 patients and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 6/7 patients. The median hospital stay was 2 days and there was no mortality in this series. Conclusions MEPAs can be safely resected using VATS with minimal surgical morbidity, short drainage time and short hospital stay. CO2 insufflation and the intraoperative use of MB are safe and help to accurately localise the ectopic adenoma. VATS should be considered as the first-line approach for resection of MEPAs. PMID:26693148

  10. Ectopic expression of single transcription factors directs differentiation of a medaka spermatogonial cell line.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Eva C; Wagner, Toni U; Weber, Isabell P; Herpin, Amaury; Fischer, Andreas; Schartl, Manfred

    2011-08-01

    The capability to form all cell types of the body is a unique feature of stem cells. However, many questions remain concerning the mechanisms regulating differentiation potential. The derivation of spermatogonial cell lines (SGs) from mouse and human, which can differentiate across germ-layer borders, suggested male germ cells as a potential stem cell source in addition to embryonic stem cells. Here, we present a differentiation system using an SG of the vertebrate model organism Oryzias latipes (medaka). We report differentiation of this cell line into 4 different ectodermal and mesodermal somatic cell types. In addition to differentiation into adipocytes by retinoic acid treatment, we demonstrate for the first time that directed differentiation of an SG can be induced by ectopic expression of single transcription factors, completely independent of culture conditions. Transient transfection with mitf-m, a transcription factor that has been shown to induce differentiation into melanocytes in medaka embryonic stem cells, resulted in the formation of the same cell type in spermatogonia. Similarly, the formation of neuron-like cells and matrix-depositing osteoblasts was induced by ectopic expression of mash1 and cbfa1, respectively. Interestingly, we found that the expression of all mentioned fate-inducing transcription factors leads to recapitulation of the temporal pattern of marker gene expression known from in vivo studies. PMID:21090990

  11. Zebrafish Models for Ectopic Mineralization Disorders: Practical Issues from Morpholino Design to Post-Injection Observations

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Mohammad Jakir; Vanakker, Olivier M.; Willaert, Andy; Huysseune, Ann; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (ZF, Danio rerio) has emerged as an important and popular model species to study different human diseases. Key regulators of skeletal development and calcium metabolism are highly conserved between mammals and ZF. The corresponding orthologs share significant sequence similarities and an overlap in expression patterns when compared to mammals, making ZF a potential model for the study of mineralization-related disorders and soft tissue mineralization. To characterize the function of early mineralization-related genes in ZF, these genes can be knocked down by injecting morpholinos into early stage embryos. Validation of the morpholino needs to be performed and the concern of aspecific effects can be addressed by applying one or more independent techniques to knock down the gene of interest. Post-injection assessment of early mineralization defects can be done using general light microscopy, calcein staining, Alizarin red staining, Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining, and by the use of transgenic lines. Examination of general molecular defects can be done by performing protein and gene expression analysis, and more specific processes can be explored by investigating ectopic mineralization-related mechanisms such as apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this paper, we will discuss all details about the aforementioned techniques; shared knowledge will be very useful for the future investigation of ZF models for ectopic mineralization disorders and to understand the underlying pathways involved in soft tissue calcification. PMID:23760765

  12. [Eutopic and ectopic production of glycoprotein hormones alpha and beta subunits].

    PubMed

    Bidart, J M; Baudin, E; Troalen, F; Bellet, D; Schlumberger, M

    1997-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, linked together by a covalent bond. Ectopic production of hCG has been described in various histological types of cancer. Actually, these malignant tumors predominantly secrete the free beta subunit (hCG beta) and not hCG. Production of free hCG beta is especially found in patients with bladder, pancreas, uterine and lung tumors. In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, serum levels of free hCG beta are higher in gastrointestinal-pancreatic and lung tumors. The significance of ectopic production of hCG beta--epiphenomena or intrinsic biological role--remains unknown. Several reports on the similar structure of hCG beta and certain growth factors suggest that free hCG beta could have an effect on cell proliferation. Increased serum levels of the free alpha subunit are found mainly in patients with neuroendocrine tumors localized in the gut or lung. Serum levels may also be raised in patients with a pituitary tumor, but such production is often associated with a rise in other pituitary hormones. The free alpha subunit plays a role in embryon development and would stimulate production of prolactin by decidual cells. The free alpha subunit may also play a role in tumor growth. PMID:9239230

  13. Ectopic POU5F1 in the male germ lineage disrupts differentiation and spermatogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Phillips, LeAnna J; Hartman, Rachel; An, Junhui; Dann, Christina T

    2016-10-01

    Expression levels of the pluripotency determinant, POU5F1, are tightly regulated to ensure appropriate differentiation during early embryogenesis. POU5F1 is also present in the spermatogonial stem cell/progenitor cell population in mice and it is downregulated as spermatogenesis progresses. To test if POU5F1 downregulation is required for SSCs to differentiate, we produced transgenic mice that ubiquitously express POU5F1 in Cre-expressing lineages. Using a Vasa-Cre driver to produce ectopic POU5F1 in all postnatal germ cells, we found that POU5F1 downregulation was necessary for spermatogonial expansion during the first wave of spermatogenesis and for the production of differentiated spermatogonia capable of undergoing meiosis. In contrast, undifferentiated spermatogonia were maintained throughout adulthood, consistent with a normal presence of POU5F1 in these cells. The results suggest that POU5F1 downregulation in differentiating spermatogonia is a necessary step for the progression of spermatogenesis. Further, the creation of a transgenic mouse model for conditional ectopic expression of POU5F1 may be a useful resource for studies of POU5F1 in other cell lineages, during tumorogenesis and cell fate reprogramming. PMID:27486267

  14. Morphological differences in BMP-2-induced ectopic bone between solid and crushed hyaluronan hydrogel templates.

    PubMed

    Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Piskounova, Sonya; Gedda, Lars; Andersson, Britt-Marie; Bergman, Kristoffer; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Bowden, Tim

    2013-05-01

    The possibility to affect bone formation by using crushed versus solid hydrogels as carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was studied. Hydrogels, based on chemical crosslinking between hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives, were loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite. Crushed and solid forms of the gels were analyzed both in vitro via a release study using ¹²⁵I radioactive labeling of BMP-2, and in vivo in a subcutaneous ectopic bone model in rats. Dramatically different morphologies were observed for the ectopic bone formed in vivo in the two types of gels, even though virtually identical release profiles were observed in vitro. Solid hydrogels induced formation of a dense bone shell around non-degraded hydrogel, while crushed hydrogels demonstrated a uniform bone formation throughout the entire sample. These results suggest that by crushing the hydrogel, the construct's three-dimensional network becomes disrupted. This could expose unreacted functional groups, making the fragment's surfaces reactive and enable limited chemical fusion between the crushed hydrogel fragments, leading to similar in vitro release profiles. However, in vivo these interactions could be broken by enzymatic activity, creating a macroporous structure that allows easier cell infiltration, thus, facilitating bone formation. PMID:23392969

  15. Immortalization of pig fibroblast cells by transposon-mediated ectopic expression of porcine telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Li, Yangyang; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli; Sun, Huaichang

    2016-08-01

    Pigs are the most economically important livestock, but pig cell lines useful for physiological studies and/or vaccine development are limited. Although several pig cell lines have been generated by oncogene transformation or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) immortalization, these cell lines contain viral sequences and/or antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, we established a new method for generating pig cell lines using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated ectopic expression of porcine telomerase reverse transcriptase (pTERT). The performance of the new method was confirmed by generating a pig fibroblast cell (PFC) line. After transfection of primary PFCs with the SB transposon system, one cell clone containing the pTERT expression cassette was selected by dilution cloning and passed for different generations. After passage for more than 40 generations, the cell line retained stable expression of ectopic pTERT and continuous growth potential. Further characterization showed that the cell line kept the fibroblast morphology, growth curve, population doubling time, cloning efficiency, marker gene expression pattern, cell cycle distribution and anchorage-dependent growth property of the primary cells. These data suggest that the new method established is useful for generating pig cell lines without viral sequence and antibiotic resistant gene. PMID:26341227

  16. Warfarin accelerates ectopic mineralization in Abcc6(-/-) mice: clinical relevance to pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoli; Guo, Haitao; Chou, David W; Harrington, Dominic J; Schurgers, Leon J; Terry, Sharon F; Uitto, Jouni

    2013-04-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a multisystem ectopic mineralization disorder caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Warfarin, a commonly used anticoagulant, is associated with increased mineralization of the arterial blood vessels and cardiac valves. We hypothesized that warfarin may accelerate ectopic tissue mineralization in PXE, with clinical consequences. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model in which Abcc6(-/-) mice, which recapitulate features of PXE, were fed a diet supplemented with warfarin and vitamin K1. Warfarin action was confirmed by significantly increased serum levels of oxidized vitamin K. For mice placed on a warfarin-containing diet, quantitative chemical and morphometric analyses revealed massive accumulation of mineral deposits in a number of tissues. Mice fed a warfarin-containing diet were also shown to have abundant uncarboxylated form of matrix Gla protein, which allowed progressive tissue mineralization to ensue. To explore the clinical relevance of these findings, 1747 patients with PXE from the approximately 4000 patients in the PXE International database were surveyed about the use of warfarin. Of the 539 respondents, 2.6% reported past or present use of warfarin. Based on the prevalence of PXE (approximately 1:50,000), thousands of patients with PXE worldwide may be at risk for worsening of PXE as a result of warfarin therapy. PMID:23415960

  17. Normal functioning single system ectopic ureter draining into a Gartner’s cyst: laparoscopic management

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Singh, Bhupendra Pal; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Goel, Apul

    2013-01-01

    Association of single system ectopic ureter with normal functioning bilateral kidney and absence of congenital anomalies is very rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting for the first time a case of this type of anomaly in which uretral ectopia was draining into a Gartner's cyst and was managed by laparoscopy. A 16 year girl presented with normal voiding with continuous dribbling since birth. Voiding cystourethrogram, intravenous urogram, cystovaginoscopy and retrograde contrast study confirmed the diagnosis. Ultrasound of the whole abdomen and physical examination ruled out any associated congenital anomalies. Transperitoneal laparoscopic ureteric reimplantation was performed and distal stump was ligated. On follow-up at 3 months she was completely dry; her vaginoscopy showed disappearance of cystic bulge and her voiding cystourethrogram showed normal study without any reflux. When single system ectopic ureter opens into small-to-moderate size wide opened mouth vaginal Gartner's cyst, laparoscopic ureteric reimplantation and ligation of distal stump is an appropriate procedure. PMID:23737579

  18. Treatment, failures and complications of ectopic pregnancy: changes over a 20 year period.

    PubMed

    Landström, G; Thorburn, J; Bryman, I

    1998-01-01

    Data from all 225 women operated on for ectopic pregnancy in 1992-1994 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital were collected and compared with three previous cross-sectional investigations from our hospital (1975-1979, 1981-1982 and 1986-1987) in order to evaluate the extent to which surgical treatment and post-operative complications have changed over a 20 year period. Laparoscopic surgery, which was not possible in the 1970s, was used in almost 85% of the ectopic pregnancies in 1992-1994. Conservative treatment was still the most frequently used technique. The complication rate was 1.2% in 1975-1979 when only laparotomies were carried out. After the introduction of laparoscopic surgery (1986-1987), the complication rate rose significantly (7.3%) and continued to increase even when this procedure was established as routine (14.2% in 1992-1994). Post-operative complications were most frequent after conservative laparoscopic surgery (24.4%) while there were no complications after laparotomies. In spite of increasing complication rates the frequency of patients in pre-shock, as well as the proportion of patients with heavy intra-abdominal bleeding and tubal rupture, decreased over time. PMID:9512258

  19. Osteophyte formation and matrix mineralization in a TMJ osteoarthritis mouse model are associated with ectopic hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Till E; Saunders, Cheri; Decker, Rebekah S; Um, Hyo-Bin; Cottingham, Naiga; Salhab, Imad; Kurio, Naito; Billings, Paul C; Pacifici, Maurizio; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Koyama, Eiki

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a diarthrodial joint that relies on lubricants for frictionless movement and long-term function. It remains unclear what temporal and causal relationships may exist between compromised lubrication and onset and progression of TMJ disease. Here we report that Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4)-null TMJs exhibit irreversible osteoarthritis-like changes over time and are linked to formation of ectopic mineralized tissues and osteophytes in articular disc, mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa. In the presumptive layer of mutant glenoid fossa's articulating surface, numerous chondrogenic cells and/or chondrocytes emerged ectopically within the type I collagen-expressing cell population, underwent endochondral bone formation accompanied by enhanced Ihh expression, became entrapped into temporal bone mineralized matrix, and thereby elicited excessive chondroid bone formation. As the osteophytes grew, the roof of the glenoid fossa/eminence became significantly thicker and flatter, resulting in loss of its characteristic concave shape for accommodation of condyle and disc. Concurrently, the condyles became flatter and larger and exhibited ectopic bone along their neck, likely supporting the enlarged condylar heads. Articular discs lost their concave configuration, and ectopic cartilage developed and articulated with osteophytes. In glenoid fossa cells in culture, hedgehog signaling stimulated chondrocyte maturation and mineralization including alkaline phosphatase, while treatment with hedgehog inhibitor HhAntag prevented such maturation process. In sum, our data indicate that Prg4 is needed for TMJ integrity and long-term postnatal function. In its absence, progenitor cells near presumptive articular layer and disc undergo ectopic chondrogenesis and generate ectopic cartilage, possibly driven by aberrant activation of Hh signaling. The data suggest also that the Prg4-null mice represent a useful model to study TMJ osteoarthritis-like degeneration

  20. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Asha Shyn, Paul B.; Vivian, Mark A.; Ng, Ju-Mei; Tuncali, Kemal; Lorch, Jorchen H.; Zaheer, Sarah N.; Gordon, Michael S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2015-10-15

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: One was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements.