Science.gov

Sample records for nanoparticulate polymeric vectors

  1. Aggregation-Induced-Emissive Molecule Incorporated into Polymeric Nanoparticulate as FRET Donor for Observing Doxorubicin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiongqi; Liu, De-E; Wang, Tieyan; Lu, Hongguang; Ma, Jianbiao; Chen, Qixian; Gao, Hui

    2015-10-28

    Tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivatives characterized with distinct aggregation-induced-emission, attempted to aggregate with doxorubicin (Dox) to formulate the interior compartment of polymeric nanoparticulate, served as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor to promote emission of acceptor Dox. Accordingly, this FRET formulation allowed identification of Dox in complexed form by detecting FRET. Important insight into the Dox releasing can be subsequently explored by extracting complexed Dox (FRET) from the overall Dox via direct single-photon excitation of Dox. Of note, functional catiomers were used to complex with FRET partners for a template formulation, which was verified to induce pH-responsive release in the targeted subcellular compartment. Hence, this well-defined multifunctional system entitles in situ observation of the drug releasing profile and insight on drug delivery journey from the tip of injection vein to the subcellular organelle of the targeted cells. PMID:26448180

  2. Transport of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in the proximity of silica and sand.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Cheng; Zhang, Ming; Teipel, Blake; de Araujo, Isa Silveira; Yegin, Yagmur; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2015-03-17

    The contamination of the environment with traditional therapeutics due to metabolic excretion, improper disposal, and industrial waste has been well-recognized. However, knowledge of the environmental distribution and fate of emerging classes of nanomedicine is scarce. This work investigates the effect of surface chemistry of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (PNDDS) on their adsorption dynamics and transport in the vicinity of environmentally relevant surfaces for a concentration comparable with hospital and pharmaceutical manufacturing effluents. To this end, five different types of paclitaxel-based nanomedicine having different polymer stabilizers were employed. Their transport behavior was characterized via quartz crystal microbalance, sand column, spectrofluorometry, and dynamic light scattering techniques. PNDDS having positive zeta-potential displayed strong adsorption onto silica surfaces and no mobility in porous media of quartz sand, even in the presence of humic acid. The mobility of negatively charged PNDDS strongly depended on the amount and type of salt present in the aqueous media: Without any salt, such PNDDS demonstrated no adsorption on silica surfaces and high levels of mobility in sand columns. The presence of CaCl2 and CaSO4, even at low ionic strengths (i.e. 10 mM), induced PNDDS adsorption on silica surfaces and strongly limited the mobility of such PNDSS in sand columns. PMID:25695909

  3. Effect of adsorbed extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on colloidal mobility of nanoparticulate iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradip Narvekar, Sneha; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Solubility and transport of nutrients and pollutants is affected by the presence of colloidal nanoparticles (CNP) which may act as mobile geosorbents. In soils and aquifers, pure and organically modified Fe- and Mn-oxy-hydroxides are of particular importance due to their ubiquitous presence and also due to their progressive use for environmental cleanup. Stability and aggregation behavior control the mobility of CNP and depend on pH, ionic strength, and the presence of monovalent or divalent anions. In natural environments, however, iron oxides are usually covered by organic matter. Such coverage will completely change the colloidal surface properties and impose additional control on the colloidal mobility. Important sources for natural organic coatings are extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), i.e., complex mixtures of biopolymers consisting of polysaccharides and proteins and variable amounts of lipids and nucleic acids. The objective of our study was to quantify the effect of EPS coatings on the colloidal stability, mobility and reactivity of hematite by column experiments. Columns (10 cm × 5 cm) were filled with glass beads (0.25 mm ø) as porous medium and operated in sterile closed flow conditions. Nanoparticulate hematite was coated to different degrees by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from, liquid cultures of Bacillus subtillis. The pH was kept constant at 7. The hematite particles exhibited increasing colloidal stability with increasing amounts of EPS. Critical colloidal concentration (CCC) of the particles increased from 95 mM NaCl for uncoated particles to 250 mM NaCl for coated particles. EPS coated hematite did not react with the porous medium and stayed mobile while the uncoated hematite was immobile due to adsorption to the glass beads. Also colloidally unstable hematite particles did not show any mobility. Thus the organic coatings enhanced the colloidal stability, which consecutively increased the mobility of the particles

  4. Development and characterization of polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for hydrophillic drug: Gemcitabine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Jatin

    Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue, used in various carcinomas such as non small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer. The major setbacks to the conventional therapy with gemcitabine include its short half-life and highly hydrophilic nature. The objectives of this investigation were to develop and evaluate the physiochemical properties, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of polymeric nano-particulate formulations containing gemcitabine hydrochloride. The study also entailed development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the analysis of gemcitabine hydrochloride. A reverse phase HPLC method using a C18 Luna column was developed and validated. Alginate and Poly lactide co glycolide/Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PLGA:PCL 80:20) nanoparticles were prepared by multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation methodology. An aqueous solution of low viscosity alginate containing gemcitabine was emulsified into 10% solution of dioctyl-sulfosuccinate in dichloro methane (DCM) by sonication. The primary emulsion was then emulsified in 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Calcium chloride solution (60% w/v) was used to cause cross linking of the polymer. For PLGA:PCL system, the polymer mix was dissolved in dichloromethane (DCM) and an aqueous gemcitabine (with and without sodium chloride) was emulsified under ultrasonic conditions (12-watts; 1-min). This primary emulsion was further emulsified in 2% (w/v) PVA under ultrasonic conditions (24-watts; 3-min) to prepare a multiple-emulsion (w/o/w). In both cases DCM, the organic solvent was evaporated (20- hours, magnetic-stirrer) prior to ultracentrifugation (10000-rpm for PLGA:PCL; 25000-rpm for alginate). The pellet obtained was washed thrice with de-ionized water to remove PVA and any free drug and re-centrifuged. The particles were re-suspended in de-ionized water and then lyophilized to

  5. Enhanced oral bioavailability of fenofibrate using polymeric nanoparticulated systems: physicochemical characterization and in vivo investigation

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-01-01

    Background The intention of this research was to prepare and compare various solubility-enhancing nanoparticulated systems in order to select a nanoparticulated formulation with the most improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods The most appropriate excipients for different nanoparticulated preparations were selected by determining the drug solubility in 1% (w/v) aqueous solutions of each carrier. The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanospheres, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) nanocorpuscles, and gelatin nanocapsules were formulated as fenofibrate/PVP/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), fenofibrate/HP-β-CD, and fenofibrate/gelatin at the optimized weight ratios of 2.5:4.5:1, 1:4, and 1:8, respectively. The three solid-state products were achieved using the solvent-evaporation method through the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characterization of these nanoparticles was accomplished by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Their physicochemical properties, aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated in comparison with the drug powder. Results Among the tested carriers, PVP, HP-β-CD, gelatin, and SLS showed better solubility and were selected as the most appropriate constituents for various nanoparticulated systems. All of the formulations significantly improved the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate compared to the drug powder. The drug was present in the amorphous form in HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles; however, in other formulations, it existed in the crystalline state with a reduced intensity. The aqueous solubility and dissolution rates of the nanoparticles (after 30 minutes) were not significantly different from one another. Among the nanoparticulated systems tested in this study, the initial dissolution rates (up to 10 minutes) were higher with

  6. Doxorubicin loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated the efficacy. Methods Doxorubicin was loaded onto a lipid-modified dextran based polymeric nano-system. The effect of various concentrations of doxorubicin alone or nanoparticle loaded doxorubicin on KHOS, KHOSR2, U-2OS, and U-2OSR2 cells was analyzed. Effects on drug retention, immunofluorescence, Pgp expression, and induction of apoptosis were also analyzed. Results Dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin had a curative effect on multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in the nucleus via Pgp independent pathway. Nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed increased apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells as compared with doxorubicin alone. Conclusion Lipid-modified dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin showed pronounced anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cell lines. These findings may lead to new treatment options for MDR osteosarcoma. PMID:19917123

  7. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Eugen; Verestiuc, Liliana; Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca; Lungu, Adriana; Tsibouklis, John

    2009-06-01

    Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

  8. Nanoparticulate systems for polynucleotide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Basarkar, Ashwin; Singh, Jagdish

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendously influenced gene therapy research in recent years. Nanometer-size systems have been extensively investigated for delivering genes at both local and systemic levels. These systems offer several advantages in terms of tissue penetrability, cellular uptake, systemic circulation, and cell targeting as compared to larger systems. They can protect the polynucleotide from a variety of degradative and destabilizing factors and enhance delivery efficiency to the cells. A variety of polymeric and non-polymeric nanoparticles have been investigated in an effort to maximize the delivery efficiency while minimizing the toxic effects. This article provides a review on the most commonly used nanoparticulate systems for gene delivery. We have discussed frequently used polymers, such as, polyethyleneimine, poly (lactide-co-glycolide), chitosan, as well as non-polymeric materials such as cationic lipids and metallic nanoparticles. The advantages and limitations of each system have been elaborated. PMID:18019834

  9. Advances in polymeric and inorganic vectors for nonviral nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sunshine, Joel C; Bishop, Corey J; Green, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Nonviral systems for nucleic acid delivery offer a host of potential advantages compared with viruses, including reduced toxicity and immunogenicity, increased ease of production and less stringent vector size limitations, but remain far less efficient than their viral counterparts. In this article we review recent advances in the delivery of nucleic acids using polymeric and inorganic vectors. We discuss the wide range of materials being designed and evaluated for these purposes while considering the physical requirements and barriers to entry that these agents face and reviewing recent novel approaches towards improving delivery with respect to each of these barriers. Furthermore, we provide a brief overview of past and ongoing nonviral gene therapy clinical trials. We conclude with a discussion of multifunctional nucleic acid carriers and future directions. PMID:22826857

  10. Three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis of polymerization shrinkage vectors in flowable composite.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yukihiko; Hanaoka, Koji; Kawamata, Ryota; Sakurai, Takashi; Teranaka, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of flowable resin composites was evaluated using air bubbles as traceable markers. Three different surface treatments i.e. an adhesive silane coupling agent, a separating silane coupling agent, and a combination of both, were applied to standard cavities. Before and after polymerization, X-ray micro-computed tomography images were recorded. Their superimposition and comparison allowed position changes of the markers to be visualized as vectors. The movement of the markers in the resin composite was, therefore, quantitatively evaluated from the tomographic images. Adhesion was found to significantly influence shrinkage patterns. The method used here could be employed to visualize shrinkage vectors and shrinkage volume. PMID:24988881

  11. A brain-vectored angiopep-2 based polymeric micelles for the treatment of intracranial fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kun; Wu, Jiqin; Chen, Zhongqing; Huang, Shixian; Li, Jianfeng; Ye, Liya; Lou, Jinning; Zhu, Liping; Jiang, Chen

    2012-10-01

    One of the most common life-threatening infections in immunosuppressive patients, like AIDs patients, is cryptococcal meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Current therapeutic options are mostly ineffective and mortality rates remain high. Hydrophobic antifungal drug Amphotericin B (AmB), has become a golden standard in severe systemic fungal infection therapy. However, most AmB commercial formulations, including deoxycholate AmB and lipid formulations of AmB, show poor penetration into the CNS and difficulty to reach the therapeutic levels. To improve the CNS permeability of AmB, we have successfully developed an effective brain-targeting polymeric micellar system with angiopep-2 modified, named Angiopep-PEG-PE/AmB polymeric micelles. An immunosuppressive murine model with Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis (CNME) was established to evaluate the CNS penetration efficiency and antifungal treatment efficacy of the AmB-incorporated brain-vectored polymeric micellar formulation, compared with the AmB commercial formulations. After three consecutive days of i.v. administration, the results showed that the group treated with Angiopep-PEG-PE/AmB achieved the greatest treatment efficacy, which reached the highest AmB level in brain, reduced the brain fungal burden significantly, decreased histopathological severity and prolonged the median survival time. The increased treatment efficacy could be attributed to the brain-targeting delivery system promoted AmB crossing the BBB and penetrating into the brain to reach the therapeutic concentration. The underlying mechanism was also explored in this work. Therefore, the brain-targeting delivery system could have potential and promising implications for treatment of intracerebral fungal infection. PMID:22789719

  12. Self-assembled polymeric vectors mixtures: characterization of the polymorphism and existence of synergistic effects in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Till, Ugo; Gibot, Laure; Mingotaud, Christophe; Vicendo, Patricia; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Gaucher, Mireille; Violleau, Frédéric; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the relation between the purity of polymeric self-assemblies vectors solution and their photodynamic therapeutic efficiency. For this, several amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone) have been used to form self-assemblies with different morphologies (micelles, worm-like micelles or vesicles). In a first step, controlled mixtures of preformed micelles and vesicles have been characterized both by dynamic light scattering and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF). For this, a custom-made program, STORMS, was developed to analyze DLS data in a thorough manner by providing a large set of fitting parameters. This showed that DLS only sensed the larger vesicles when the micelles/vesicles ratio was 80/20 w/w. On the other hand, AsFlFFF allowed clear detection of the presence of micelles when this same ratio was as low as 10/90. Subsequently, the photodynamic therapy efficiency of various controlled mixtures was assessed using multicellular spheroids when a photosensitizer, pheophorbide a, was encapsulated in the polymer self-assemblies. Some mixtures were shown to be as efficient as monomorphous systems. In some cases, mixtures were found to exhibit a higher PDT efficiency compared to the individual nano-objects, revealing a synergistic effect for the efficient delivery of the photosensitizer. Polymorphous vectors can therefore be superior in therapeutic applications. PMID:27334669

  13. Self-assembled polymeric vectors mixtures: characterization of the polymorphism and existence of synergistic effects in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Ugo; Gibot, Laure; Mingotaud, Christophe; Vicendo, Patricia; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Gaucher, Mireille; Violleau, Frédéric; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the relation between the purity of polymeric self-assemblies vectors solution and their photodynamic therapeutic efficiency. For this, several amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone) have been used to form self-assemblies with different morphologies (micelles, worm-like micelles or vesicles). In a first step, controlled mixtures of preformed micelles and vesicles have been characterized both by dynamic light scattering and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF). For this, a custom-made program, STORMS, was developed to analyze DLS data in a thorough manner by providing a large set of fitting parameters. This showed that DLS only sensed the larger vesicles when the micelles/vesicles ratio was 80/20 w/w. On the other hand, AsFlFFF allowed clear detection of the presence of micelles when this same ratio was as low as 10/90. Subsequently, the photodynamic therapy efficiency of various controlled mixtures was assessed using multicellular spheroids when a photosensitizer, pheophorbide a, was encapsulated in the polymer self-assemblies. Some mixtures were shown to be as efficient as monomorphous systems. In some cases, mixtures were found to exhibit a higher PDT efficiency compared to the individual nano-objects, revealing a synergistic effect for the efficient delivery of the photosensitizer. Polymorphous vectors can therefore be superior in therapeutic applications.

  14. Nanoparticulate drug delivery platforms for advancing bone infection therapies

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The ongoing surge of resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotic therapies and the consistently aging median member of the human race signal an impending increase in the incidence of chronic bone infection. Nanotechnological platforms for local and sustained delivery of therapeutics hold the greatest potential for providing minimally invasive and maximally regenerative therapies for this rare but persistent condition. Areas covered Shortcomings of the clinically available treatment options, including poly(methyl methacrylate) beads and calcium sulfate cements, are discussed and their transcending using calcium-phosphate/polymeric nanoparticulate composites is foreseen. Bone is a composite wherein the weakness of each component alone is compensated for by the strength of its complement and an ideal bone substitute should be fundamentally the same. Expert opinion Discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessments is highlighted, alongside the inherent imperfectness of the former. Challenges entailing the cross-disciplinary nature of engineering a new generation of drug delivery vehicles are delineated and it is concluded that the future for the nanoparticulate therapeutic carriers belongs to multifunctional, synergistic and theranostic composites capable of simultaneously targeting, monitoring and treating internal organismic disturbances in a smart, feedback fashion and in direct response to the demands of the local environment. PMID:25109804

  15. In Vitro Dissolution Testing Strategies for Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems: Recent Developments and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticulate systems have emerged as prevalent drug delivery systems over the past few decades. These delivery systems (such as liposomes, emulsions, nanocrystals, and polymeric nanocarriers) have been extensively used to improve bioavailability, prolong pharmacological effects, achieve targeted drug delivery, as well as reduce side effects. Considering that any unanticipated change in product performance of such systems may result in toxicity and/or change in vivo efficacy, it is essential to develop suitable in vitro dissolution/release testing methods to ensure product quality and performance, and to assist in product development. The present review provides an overview of the current in vitro dissolution/release testing methods such as dialysis, sample and separate, as well as continuous flow methods. Challenges and future directions in the development of standardized and biorelevant in vitro dissolution/release testing methods for novel nanoparticulate systems are discussed. PMID:24069580

  16. Blazed vector grating liquid crystal cells with photocrosslinkable polymeric alignment films fabricated by one-step polarizer rotation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Blazed vector grating liquid crystal (LC) cells, in which the directors of low-molar-mass LCs are antisymmetrically distributed, were fabricated by one-step exposure of an empty glass cell inner-coated with a photocrosslinkable polymer LC (PCLC) to UV light. By adopting a LC cell structure, twisted nematic (TN) and homogeneous (HOMO) alignments were obtained in the blazed vector grating LC cells. Moreover, the diffraction efficiency of the blazed vector grating LC cells was greatly improved by increasing the thickness of the device in comparison with that of a blazed vector grating with a thin film structure obtained in our previous study. In addition, the diffraction efficiency and polarization states of ±1st-order diffracted beams from the resultant blazed vector grating LC cells were controlled by designing a blazed pattern in the alignment films, and these diffraction properties were well explained on the basis of Jones calculus and the elastic continuum theory of nematic LCs.

  17. Nanoformulation of poly(ethylene glycol) polymerized organic insect repellent by PIT emulsification method and its application for Japanese encephalitis vector control.

    PubMed

    Balaji, A P B; Mishra, Prabhakar; Suresh Kumar, R S; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-04-01

    The utilization of increased dosage of insect repellents to overcome mosquito resistance has raised environmental concerns globally. In accord to this, we have formulated an efficacious, water-dispersive, nanometric formulation of a poor water-soluble insect repellent, diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymerization followed by PIT emulsification method. The critical micelle concentration of PEG in the spontaneously emulsified conventional DEPA droplets was determined, based on the droplets physical stability. Subjecting them to PIT emulsification yielded monodispersed polymeric nanomicelles of DEPA (Nano DEPA) with hydrodynamic mean diameter of 153.74 nm. The high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed the characteristic core-shell structure of micelle. The comparative efficacy of Bulk DEPA and Nano DEPA was evaluated by larvicidal and WHO cone bioassay against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The median lethal concentrations (48 h) for 3rd instars C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae were found to be 0.416 mg/L for Bulk DEPA and 0.052 mg/L for Nano DEPA, respectively. The median knockdown concentrations (60 min) for the two to three-day-old, sucrose-fed, female adult mosquitoes were 5.372% (v/v) and 3.471% (v/v) for Bulk and Nano DEPA, respectively. Further investigation by histopathological and biochemical studies propound that Nano DEPA exerted better bioefficacy as comparative to its bulk form even at minimal exposure concentrations. Hence, Nano DEPA will serve as an effective alternate in controlling the vector expansion with reduced dosage. PMID:25766922

  18. Extracellular stability of nanoparticulate drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Karen C.; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticulate (NP) drug carrier systems are attractive vehicles for selective drug delivery to solid tumors. Ideally, NPs should evade clearance by the reticuloendothelial system while maintaining the ability to interact with tumor cells and facilitate cellular uptake. Great effort has been made to fulfill these design criteria, yielding various types of functionalized NPs. Another important consideration in NP design is the physical and functional stability during circulation, which, if ignored, can significantly undermine the promise of intelligently designed NP drug carriers. This commentary reviews several NP examples with stability issues and their consequences, ending in a discussion of experimental methods for reliable prediction of NP stability. PMID:24214175

  19. CREDVW-Linked Polymeric Micelles As a Targeting Gene Transfer Vector for Selective Transfection and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xuefang; Li, Qian; Lv, Juan; Yu, Li; Ren, Xiangkui; Zhang, Li; Feng, Yakai; Zhang, Wencheng

    2015-06-10

    Nowadays, gene transfer technology has been widely used to promote endothelialization of artificial vascular grafts. However, the lack of gene vectors with low cytotoxicity and targeting function still remains a pressing challenge. Herein, polyethylenimine (PEI, 1.8 kDa or 10 kDa) was conjugated to an amphiphilic and biodegradable diblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-b-PLGA) to prepare mPEG-b-PLGA-g-PEI copolymers with the aim to develop gene vectors with low cytotoxicity while high transfection efficiency. The micelles were prepared from mPEG-b-PLGA-g-PEI copolymers by self-assembly method. Furthermore, Cys-Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Trp (CREDVW) peptide was linked to micelle surface to enable the micelles with special recognition for endothelial cells (ECs). In addition, pEGFP-ZNF580 plasmids were condensed into these CREDVW-linked micelles to enhance the proliferation of ECs. These CREDVW-linked micelle/pEGFP-ZNF580 complexes exhibited low cytotoxicity by MTT assay. The cell transfection results demonstrated that pEGFP-ZNF580 could be transferred into ECs efficiently by these micelles. The results of Western blot analysis showed that the relative ZNF580 protein level in transfected ECs increased to 76.9%. The rapid migration of transfected ECs can be verified by wound healing assay. These results indicated that CREDVW-linked micelles could be a suitable gene transfer vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, which has great potential for rapid endothelialization of artificial blood vessels. PMID:26011845

  20. Intratumoral Drug Delivery with Nanoparticulate Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Holback, Hillary

    2011-01-01

    Stiff extracellular matrix, elevated interstitial fluid pressure, and the affinity for the tumor cells in the peripheral region of a solid tumor mass have long been recognized as significant barriers to diffusion of small-molecular-weight drugs and antibodies. However, their impacts on nanoparticle-based drug delivery have begun to receive due attention only recently. This article reviews biological features of many solid tumors that influence transport of drugs and nanoparticles and properties of nanoparticles relevant to their intratumoral transport, studied in various tumor models. We also discuss several experimental approaches employed to date for enhancement of intratumoral nanoparticle penetration. The impact of nanoparticle distribution on the effectiveness of chemotherapy remains to be investigated and should be considered in the design of new nanoparticulate drug carriers. PMID:21213021

  1. Transverse susceptibility method in nanoparticulate magnetic media.

    PubMed

    Cimpoesu, Dorin; Spinu, Leonard; Stancu, Alexandru

    2008-06-01

    Transverse susceptibility (TS) method is a reliable method for the determination of anisotropy in nanoparticulate media. To correctly evaluate the value of anisotropy in various modern nanostructured materials, a number of theoretical problems related to the method have to be well understood to avoid significant systematic errors. This paper presents the state of the art in the TS method which includes the expression for single domain particles with any type of anisotropy, the theoretical and micromagnetic, using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and stochastic LLG equation studies of the effects of ac field amplitude, inter-particle interactions, and magnetic relaxation. The problem of both real and imaginary parts of the TS signal is also discussed. PMID:18681012

  2. Polymeric vector-mediated gene transfection of MSCs for dual bioluminescent and MRI tracking in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Li, Jingguo; Pang, Pengfei; Liu, Jingjing; Zhu, Kangshun; Li, Dan; Cheng, Du; Chen, Junwei; Shuai, Xintao; Shan, Hong

    2014-09-01

    MSC's transplantation is a promising cell-based therapy for injuries in regenerative medicine, and in vivo visualization of transplanted MSCs with noninvasive technique is essential for the tracking of cell infusion and homing. A new cationic polymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-aspartic acid)-grafted polyethylenimine functionalized with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PAI/SPION), was constructed as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible non-viral vector for the delivery of plasmids DNA (pDNA) encoding for luciferase and red fluorescence protein (RFP) as reporter genes into MSCs. As a result, the MSCs were labeled with SPION and reporter genes. The PAI/SPION complexes exhibited high transfection efficiency in transferring pDNA into MSCs, which resulted in efficient luciferase and RFP co-expression. Furthermore, the complexes did not significantly affect the viability and multilineage differentiation capacity of MSCs. After the labeled MSCs were transplanted into the rats with acute liver injury via the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) injection, the migration behavior and organ-specific accumulation of the cells could be effectively monitored using the in vivo imaging system (IVIS) and MRI, respectively. The immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed that the transplanted MSCs were predominantly distributed in the liver parenchyma. Our results indicate that the PAI/SPION is a MRI-visible gene delivery agent which can effectively label MSCs to provide the basis for bimodal bioluminescence and MRI tracking in vivo. PMID:24976241

  3. Zn Sorption Mechanisms onto Sheathed Leptothrix Discophora and the Impact of the Nanoparticulate Biogenic Mn Oxide Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Boonfueng, T.; Axe, L; Yee, N; Hahn, D; Ndiba, P

    2009-01-01

    Zinc sorption on sheathed Leptothrix discophora bacterium, the isolated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) sheath, and Mn oxide-coated bacteria was investigated with macroscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Complexation with L. discophora was dominated by the outer membrane phosphoryl groups of the phospholipid bilayer while sorption to isolated EPS was dominated by carboxyl groups. Precipitation of nanoparticulate Mn oxide coatings on the cell surface increased site capacity by over twenty times with significant increase in metal sorption. XAS analysis of Zn sorption in the coated system showed Mn oxide phase contributions of 18 to 43% through mononuclear inner-sphere complexes. The coordination environments in coprecipitation samples were identical to those of sorption samples, indicating that, even in coprecipitation, Zn is not incorporated into the Mn oxide structure. Rather, through enzymatic oxidation by L. discophora, Mn(II) is oxidized and precipitated onto the biofilm providing a large surface for metal sequestration. The nanoparticulate Mn oxide coating exhibited significant microporosity (75%) suggesting contributions from intraparticle diffusion. Transient studies conducted over 7 months revealed a 170% increase in Zn loading. However, the intraparticle diffusivity of 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for abiotic Mn oxide which we attribute to morphological changes such as reduced pore sizes in the nanoparticulate oxide. Our results demonstrate that the cell-bound Mn oxide particles can sorb significant amounts of Zn over long periods of time representing an important surface for sequestration of metal contaminants.

  4. Zn sorption mechanisms onto sheathed Leptothrix discophora and the impact of the nanoparticulate biogenic Mn oxide coating.

    PubMed

    Boonfueng, Thipnakarin; Axe, Lisa; Yee, Nathan; Hahn, Dittmar; Ndiba, Peter K

    2009-05-15

    Zinc sorption on sheathed Leptothrix discophora bacterium, the isolated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) sheath, and Mn oxide-coated bacteria was investigated with macroscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Complexation with L. discophora was dominated by the outer membrane phosphoryl groups of the phospholipid bilayer while sorption to isolated EPS was dominated by carboxyl groups. Precipitation of nanoparticulate Mn oxide coatings on the cell surface increased site capacity by over twenty times with significant increase in metal sorption. XAS analysis of Zn sorption in the coated system showed Mn oxide phase contributions of 18 to 43% through mononuclear inner-sphere complexes. The coordination environments in coprecipitation samples were identical to those of sorption samples, indicating that, even in coprecipitation, Zn is not incorporated into the Mn oxide structure. Rather, through enzymatic oxidation by L. discophora, Mn(II) is oxidized and precipitated onto the biofilm providing a large surface for metal sequestration. The nanoparticulate Mn oxide coating exhibited significant microporosity (75%) suggesting contributions from intraparticle diffusion. Transient studies conducted over 7 months revealed a 170% increase in Zn loading. However, the intraparticle diffusivity of 10(-19) cm(2) s(-1) is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for abiotic Mn oxide which we attribute to morphological changes such as reduced pore sizes in the nanoparticulate oxide. Our results demonstrate that the cell-bound Mn oxide particles can sorb significant amounts of Zn over long periods of time representing an important surface for sequestration of metal contaminants. PMID:19268965

  5. Development and characterization of nanoparticulate formulation of a water soluble prodrug of dexamethasone by HIP complexation

    PubMed Central

    Gaudana, Ripal; Parenky, Ashwin; Vaishya, Ravi; Samanta, Swapan K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticulate-based sustained release formulation of a water soluble dipeptide prodrug of dexamethasone, valine–valine-dexamethasone (VVD). Being hydrophilic in nature, it readily leaches out in the external aqueous medium and hence partitions poorly into the polymeric matrix resulting in minimal entrapment in nanoparticles. Hence, hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complexation of the prodrug was employed with dextran sulphate as a complexing polymer. A novel, solid in oil in water emulsion method was employed to encapsulate the prodrug in HIP complex form in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix. Nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, crystallinity of entrapped drug and surface morphology. A significant enhancement in the entrapment of the prodrug in nanoparticles was achieved. Finally, a simple yet novel method was developed which can also be applicable to encapsulate other charged hydrophilic molecules, such as peptides and proteins. PMID:20939702

  6. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew T.; Breitkopf, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  7. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Shipp, Jessie; Hamilton, George A; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Keebaugh, Michael; Hill, Hansina; Dutta, Arnab; Zhuo, Xiaoding; Upadhyay, Nabin; Hutchings, James; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Shock, Everett; Hartnett, Hilairy E

    2013-03-01

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3-67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. PMID:23262070

  8. Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Karla Fabiola

    Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For

  9. A New Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Obtained from Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization as a siRNA Vector for CD44 Receptor Tumor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Bavuso Volpe, Antonella; Bongiovì, Flavia; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano

    2015-11-01

    Two derivatives of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), starting from an ethylenediamino HA derivative (HA-EDA) and by using diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) as a monomer for polymerization. Both samples, indicated as HA-EDA-pDEAEMA a and b, are able to condense siRNA, as determined by gel retardation assay and resulting complexes show a size and a zeta potential value dependent on polymerization number, as determined by dynamic light scattering measurements. In vitro studies performed on HCT 116 cell line, that over express CD44 receptor, demonstrate a receptor mediated uptake of complexes, regardless of their surface charge. PMID:26136372

  10. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  11. Vesicular (liposomal and nanoparticulated) delivery of curcumin: a comparative study on carbon tetrachloride–mediated oxidative hepatocellular damage in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Das, Nirmalendu; Ghosh, Swarupa; Ghosh, Debasree; Chakraborty, Somsuta; Ali, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    The liver plays a vital role in biotransforming and extricating xenobiotics and is thus prone to their toxicities. Short-term administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causes hepatic inflammation by enhancing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, promoting mitochondrial dysfunction, and inducing cellular apoptosis. Curcumin is well accepted for its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and can be considered as an effective therapeutic agent against hepatotoxicity. However, its therapeutic efficacy is compromised due to its insolubility in water. Vesicular delivery of curcumin can address this limitation and thereby enhance its effectiveness. In this study, it was observed that both liposomal and nanoparticulated formulations of curcumin could increase its efficacy significantly against hepatotoxicity by preventing cellular oxidative stress. However, the best protection could be obtained through the polymeric nanoparticle-mediated delivery of curcumin. Mitochondria have a pivotal role in ROS homeostasis and cell survivability. Along with the maintenance of cellular ROS levels, nanoparticulated curcumin also significantly (P<0.0001) increased cellular antioxidant enzymes, averted excessive mitochondrial destruction, and prevented total liver damage in CCl4-treated rats. The therapy not only prevented cells from oxidative damage but also arrested the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, it also decreased the fatty changes in hepatocytes, centrizonal necrosis, and portal inflammation evident from the histopathological analysis. To conclude, curcumin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles are more effective in comparison to liposomal curcumin in preventing CCl4-induced oxidative stress–mediated hepatocellular damage and thereby can be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy. PMID:27274242

  12. Investigation of acute nanoparticulate aluminum toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Griffitt, Robert J; Feswick, April; Weil, Roxana; Hyndman, Kelly; Carpinone, Paul; Powers, Kevin; Denslow, Nancy D; Barber, David S

    2011-10-01

    In freshwater fish, aluminum is a well-recognized gill toxicant, although responses are influenced by pH. Aluminum nanomaterials are being used in diverse applications that are likely to lead to environmental release and exposure. However, it is unclear if the effects of nanoparticulate aluminum are similar to those of other forms of aluminum or require special consideration. To examine the acute toxicological effects of exposure to aluminum nanoparticle (Al-NP)s, adult female zebrafish were exposed to either Al-NPs or aluminum chloride for up to 48 hours in moderately hard fresh water. Al-NPs introduced into test water rapidly aggregated and up to 80% sedimented from the water column during exposures. No mortality was caused by concentrations of Al-NP up to 12.5 mg/L. After exposure, tissue concentrations of aluminum, effects on gill morphology, Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) activity, and global gene expression patterns were examined. Exposure to both aluminum chloride and nanoparticulate aluminum resulted in a concentration dependent decrease in sodium potassium ATPase activity, although Al-NP exposure did not alter gill morphology as measured by filament widths. Decreased ATPase activity coincided with decreases in filamental NKA staining and mucous cell counts. Analysis of gill transcriptional responses demonstrated that exposure to 5 mg/L Al-NP only resulted in significant changes in expression of two genes, whereas aluminum chloride exposure significantly affected the expression of 105 genes. Taken together, these results indicate that nanoparticulate aluminum has little acute toxicity for zebrafish in moderately hard freshwater. PMID:21910207

  13. A review of research on nanoparticulate flow undergoing coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Huo, Linlin

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticulate flows occur in a wide range of natural phenomena and engineering applications and, hence, have attracted much attention. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a review of the research conducted over the last decade. The research covered relates to the Brownian coagulation of monodisperse and polydisperse particles, the Taylor-series expansion method of moment, and nanoparticle distributions due to coagulation in pipe and channel flow, jet flow, and the mixing layer and in the process of flame synthesis and deposition.

  14. Nanoparticulate formulations of mithramycin analogs for enhanced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel; Rohr, Jürgen; Bae, Younsoo

    2011-01-01

    Mithramycin (MTM), a natural product of soil bacteria from the Streptomyces genus, displays potent anticancer activity but has been limited clinically by severe side effects and toxicities. Engineering of the MTM biosynthetic pathway has produced the 3-side-chain-modified analogs MTM SK (SK) and MTM SDK (SDK), which have exhibited increased anticancer activity and improved therapeutic index. However, these analogs still suffer from low bioavailability, short plasma retention time, and low tumor accumulation. In an effort to aid with these shortcomings, two nanoparticulate formulations, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate hydrazide) self-assembled and cross-linked micelles, were investigated with regard to the ability to load and pH dependently release the drugs. Micelles were successfully formed with both nanoparticulate formulations of each drug analog, with an average size of 8.36 ± 3.21 and 12.19 ± 2.77 nm for the SK and SDK micelles and 29.56 ± 4.67 nm and 30.48 ± 7.00 nm for the SK and SDK cross-linked micelles respectively. All of the drug-loaded formulations showed a pH-dependent release of the drugs, which was accelerated as pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.0. The micelles retained biological activity of SK and SDK entrapped in the micelles, suppressing human A549 lung cancer cells effectively. PMID:22114504

  15. Concepts and practices used to develop functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Hongkee; Thoma, Laura A; Desu, Hari R; Sah, Edel; Wood, George C

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of bare polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles is limited to drug depot or drug solubilization in their hard cores. They have inherent weaknesses as a drug-delivery system. For instance, when administered intravenously, the nanoparticles undergo rapid clearance from systemic circulation before reaching the site of action. Furthermore, plain PLGA nanoparticles cannot distinguish between different cell types. Recent research shows that surface functionalization of nanoparticles and development of new nanoparticulate dosage forms help overcome these delivery challenges and improve in vivo performance. Immense research efforts have propelled the development of diverse functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate delivery systems. Representative examples include PEGylated micelles/nanoparticles (PEG, polyethylene glycol), polyplexes, polymersomes, core-shell–type lipid-PLGA hybrids, cell-PLGA hybrids, receptor-specific ligand-PLGA conjugates, and theranostics. Each PLGA-based nanoparticulate dosage form has specific features that distinguish it from other nanoparticulate systems. This review focuses on fundamental concepts and practices that are used in the development of various functional nanoparticulate dosage forms. We describe how the attributes of these functional nanoparticulate forms might contribute to achievement of desired therapeutic effects that are not attainable using conventional therapies. Functional PLGA-based nanoparticulate systems are expected to deliver chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, and imaging agents in a highly selective and effective manner. PMID:23459088

  16. Polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1987-05-12

    A process is described for polymerizing at least one alpha olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization wherein the polymerization is conducted in the presence of a catalyst system which comprises: a supported catalyst prepared under anhydrous conditions by the sequential steps of: preparing a slurry of inert particulate support material; adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of a zirconium halide compound, hafnium compound or mixtures thereof; adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium halide compound; and recovering solid catalyst.

  17. Polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1986-10-21

    A process is described for polymerizing at least one alpha-olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization wherein the polymerization is conducted in the presence of a catalyst comprising: a supported catalyst prepared under anhydrous conditions by the steps of: (1) sequentially; (a) preparing a slurry of inert particulate support material; (b) adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; (c) adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of zirconium compound; and (2) thereafter; (d) adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; (e) adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium compound; (f) recovering solid catalyst; and an organoaluminum compound.

  18. A TEM analysis of nanoparticulates in a Polar ice core

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, E.V.; Murr, L.E

    2004-03-15

    This paper explores the prospect for analyzing nanoparticulates in age-dated ice cores representing times in antiquity to establish a historical reference for atmospheric particulate regimes. Analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were utilized to observe representative ice-melt water drops dried down on carbon/formvar or similar coated grids. A 10,000-year-old Greenland ice core was melted, and representative water drops were transferred to coated grids in a clean room environment. Essentially, all particulates observed were aggregates and either crystalline or complex mixtures of nanocrystals. Especially notable was the observation of carbon nanotubes and related fullerene-like nanocrystal forms. These observations are similar with some aspects of contemporary airborne particulates including carbon nanotubes and complex nanocrystal aggregates.

  19. Nanoparticulate carrier system: a novel treatment approach for hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kritika; Kumar, Kulyash; Mishra, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a prevailing risk factor that leads to development and progression of atherosclerosis and consequently cardiovascular diseases. Several antihyperlipidemic drugs are having various disadvantages such as low water solubility and poor bioavailabilty due to presystemic gastrointestinal clearance. Thus, there is a considerable need for the development of efficient delivery methods and carriers. This review focuses on the importance and role of various nanoparticulate systems as carrier for antihyperlipidemic drugs in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Some nanoparticle technology-based products are approved by FDA for effective treatment of hyperlipidemia, namely Tricor® by Abbott Laboratories (Chicago, IL, USA) and Triglide® by Skye Pharma (London, UK). Efforts to address each of these issues are going on, and should remain the focus on the future studies and look forward to many more clinical products in the future. PMID:24904976

  20. Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical drug delivery systems (NDDSs) to enhance the in vivo effectiveness of drugs is now well established. The development of multifunctional and stimulus-sensitive NDDSs is an active area of current research. Such NDDSs can have long circulation times, target the site of the disease and enhance the intracellular delivery of a drug. This type of NDDS can also respond to local stimuli that are characteristic of the pathological site by, for example, releasing an entrapped drug or shedding a protective coating, thus facilitating the interaction between drug-loaded nanocarriers and target cells or tissues. In addition, imaging contrast moieties can be attached to these carriers to track their real-time biodistribution and accumulation in target cells or tissues. Here, I highlight recent developments with multifunctional and stimuli-sensitive NDDSs and their therapeutic potential for diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. PMID:25287120

  1. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  2. Equilibrium polymerization on the equivalent-neighbor lattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Miron

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium polymerization problem is solved exactly on the equivalent-neighbor lattice. The Flory-Huggins (Flory, 1986) entropy of mixing is exact for this lattice. The discrete version of the n-vector model is verified when n approaches 0 is equivalent to the equal reactivity polymerization process in the whole parameter space, including the polymerized phase. The polymerization processes for polymers satisfying the Schulz (1939) distribution exhibit nonuniversal critical behavior. A close analogy is found between the polymerization problem of index the Schulz r and the Bose-Einstein ideal gas in d = -2r dimensions, with the critical polymerization corresponding to the Bose-Einstein condensation.

  3. Microstructures and nanostructures for environmental carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate soots.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the microstructures and nanostructures for natural (mined) chrysotile asbestos nanotubes (Mg3 Si2O5 (OH)4) in comparison with commercial multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), utilizing scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Black carbon (BC) and a variety of specific soot particulate (aggregate) microstructures and nanostructures are also examined comparatively by SEM and TEM. A range of MWCNTs collected in the environment (both indoor and outdoor) are also examined and shown to be similar to some commercial MWCNTs but to exhibit a diversity of microstructures and nanostructures, including aggregation with other multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles. MWCNTs formed in the environment nucleate from special hemispherical graphene "caps" and there is evidence for preferential or energetically favorable chiralities, tube growth, and closing. The multiconcentric graphene tubes ( approximately 5 to 50 nm diameter) differentiate themselves from multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles and especially turbostratic BC and carbonaceous soot nanospherules ( approximately 8 to 80 nm diameter) because the latter are composed of curved graphene fragments intermixed or intercalated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isomers of varying molecular weights and mass concentrations; depending upon combustion conditions and sources. The functionalizing of these nanostructures and photoxidation and related photothermal phenomena, as these may influence the cytotoxicities of these nanoparticulate aggregates, will also be discussed in the context of nanostructures and nanostructure phenomena, and implications for respiratory health. PMID:19151426

  4. Microstructures and Nanostructures for Environmental Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticulate Soots

    PubMed Central

    Murr, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the microstructures and nanostructures for natural (mined) chrysotile asbestos nanotubes (Mg3 Si2O5 (OH)4) in comparison with commercial multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), utilizing scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Black carbon (BC) and a variety of specific soot particulate (aggregate) microstructures and nanostructures are also examined comparatively by SEM and TEM. A range of MWCNTs collected in the environment (both indoor and outdoor) are also examined and shown to be similar to some commercial MWCNTs but to exhibit a diversity of microstructures and nanostructures, including aggregation with other multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles. MWCNTs formed in the environment nucleate from special hemispherical graphene “caps” and there is evidence for preferential or energetically favorable chiralities, tube growth, and closing. The multiconcentric graphene tubes (∼5 to 50 nm diameter) differentiate themselves from multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles and especially turbostratic BC and carbonaceous soot nanospherules (∼8 to 80 nm diameter) because the latter are composed of curved graphene fragments intermixed or intercalated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isomers of varying molecular weights and mass concentrations; depending upon combustion conditions and sources. The functionalizing of these nanostructures and photoxidation and related photothermal phenomena, as these may influence the cytotoxicities of these nanoparticulate aggregates, will also be discussed in the context of nanostructures and nanostructure phenomena, and implications for respiratory health. PMID:19151426

  5. Tunable Nanoparticulate Scaffolds from Self assembly in Surfactant Mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K. P.; Guruswamy, K.; Mondain-Monval, O.; Aswal, V. K.

    2010-03-01

    We examine the organization of silica nanoparticles in non-ionic surfactant, C12E9/water, H1 phase. We show, using SAXS, TEM , Freeze Fracture and Microscopy, that particles with sizes smaller than the mesophase characteristic size, a, template the mesophase; particles with size ˜ a, partition into a dispersed phase and into strand-like aggregates. Particles of size > a phase separate to form particulate strands organized into a scaffold. The particulate network forms by expulsion of particles from growing H1 phase domains; particles are concentrated in the isotropic phase and jam at domain boundaries. Changing the cooling rate into the H1 phase changes the nucleation of domains -- hence providing a route to tune the network mesh size. When the surfactant is heated to the micellar phase, the particles redisperse readily. SANS confirms that C12E9 forms a bilayer on the silica particles, preventing their irreversible aggregation. PEI coated particles (with size >a) also phase separate to form networks. The network of such coated particles can be crosslinked to obtain a free standing nanoparticulate scaffold.

  6. Introducing Vectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, John

    1997-01-01

    Suggests an approach to teaching vectors that promotes active learning through challenging questions addressed to the class, as opposed to subtle explanations. Promotes introducing vector graphics with concrete examples, beginning with an explanation of the displacement vector. Also discusses artificial vectors, vector algebra, and unit vectors.…

  7. Structurally inhomogeneous nanoparticulate catalysts in cobalt-catalyzed carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kohigashi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Takeda, S.; Homma, Y.

    2014-08-18

    The structure of nanoparticulate catalysts involved in cobalt-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated by in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). In contrast to previous studies, the analyses of ETEM images showed that the nanoparticulate catalysts were structurally inhomogeneous during CNT growth in the source gas of acetylene at a rate of pressure increase of about 3 Pa/h and at 550 °C. The lattice fringes observed in the nanoparticulate catalysts can be accounted for by not a single crystalline structure but by several possible pairs of structures including pure Co and cobalt carbides. The inhomogeneous structures were unstable with time. The possible origin of the inhomogeneous structures is discussed.

  8. Pharmaceutical development and regulatory considerations for nanoparticles and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Chang, Rong-Kun; Hussain, Munir A

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceutical nanomaterials (NMs) encompass a wide variety of materials including drug nanoparticles (NPs), which can be amorphous or crystalline; or nanoparticulate drug delivery systems, such as micelles, microemulsions, liposomes, drug-polymer conjugates, and antibody-drug conjugates. These NMs are either transient or persistent-depending on whether the integrity of their structure and size is maintained until reaching the site of drug action. Examples of several approved drug products are included as pharmaceutical nanoparticulate systems along with a commentary on the current development issues and paradigms for various categories of NPs. This commentary discusses the preparation of nanoparticulate systems for commercial development, and the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic advantages of these systems. A criterion of criticality is defined that incorporates the structure, in addition to size requirement of pharmaceutical NPs to identify systems that may require special development and regulatory considerations. PMID:24037829

  9. Structure evolution of nanoparticulate Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlebach, Andreas; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Müller, Frank A.; Sierka, Marek

    2015-02-01

    The atomic structure and properties of nanoparticulate Fe2O3 are characterized starting from its smallest Fe2O3 building unit through (Fe2O3)n clusters to nanometer-sized Fe2O3 particles. This is achieved by combining global structure optimizations at the density functional theory level, molecular dynamics simulations by employing tailored, ab initio parameterized interatomic potential functions and experiments. With the exception of nearly tetrahedral, adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 small (Fe2O3)n clusters assume compact, virtually amorphous structures with little or no symmetry. For n = 2-5 (Fe2O3)n clusters consist mainly of two- and three-membered Fe-O rings. Starting from n = 5 they increasingly assume tetrahedral shape with the adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 unit as the main building block. However, the small energy differences between different isomers of the same cluster-size make precise structural assignment for larger (Fe2O3)n clusters difficult. The tetrahedral morphology persists for Fe2O3 nanoparticles with up to 3 nm in diameter. Simulated crystallization of larger nanoparticles with diameters of about 5 nm demonstrates pronounced melting point depression and leads to formation of ε-Fe2O3 single crystals with hexagonal morphology. This finding is in excellent agreement with the results obtained for Fe2O3 nanopowders generated by laser vaporization and provides the first direct indication that ε-Fe2O3 may be thermodynamically the most stable phase in this size regime.The atomic structure and properties of nanoparticulate Fe2O3 are characterized starting from its smallest Fe2O3 building unit through (Fe2O3)n clusters to nanometer-sized Fe2O3 particles. This is achieved by combining global structure optimizations at the density functional theory level, molecular dynamics simulations by employing tailored, ab initio parameterized interatomic potential functions and experiments. With the exception of nearly tetrahedral, adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 small (Fe2O3)n

  10. Combustion-derived nanoparticulate induces the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Nicholas L.; Miller, Mark R.; Lucking, Andrew J.; Beveridge, Jon; Flint, Laura; Boere, A. John F.; Fokkens, Paul H.; Boon, Nicholas A.; Sandstrom, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken; Hadoke, Patrick W.F.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Newby, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Exposure to road traffic and air pollution may be a trigger of acute myocardial infarction, but the individual pollutants responsible for this effect have not been established. We assess the role of combustion-derived-nanoparticles in mediating the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Methods and results To determine the in vivo effects of inhalation of diesel exhaust components, 16 healthy volunteers were exposed to (i) dilute diesel exhaust, (ii) pure carbon nanoparticulate, (iii) filtered diesel exhaust, or (iv) filtered air, in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Following each exposure, forearm blood flow was measured during intra-brachial bradykinin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and verapamil infusions. Compared with filtered air, inhalation of diesel exhaust increased systolic blood pressure (145 ± 4 vs. 133 ± 3 mmHg, P< 0.05) and attenuated vasodilatation to bradykinin (P= 0.005), acetylcholine (P= 0.008), and sodium nitroprusside (P< 0.001). Exposure to pure carbon nanoparticulate or filtered exhaust had no effect on endothelium-dependent or -independent vasodilatation. To determine the direct vascular effects of nanoparticulate, isolated rat aortic rings (n= 6–9 per group) were assessed in vitro by wire myography and exposed to diesel exhaust particulate, pure carbon nanoparticulate and vehicle. Compared with vehicle, diesel exhaust particulate (but not pure carbon nanoparticulate) attenuated both acetylcholine (P< 0.001) and sodium-nitroprusside (P= 0.019)-induced vasorelaxation. These effects were partially attributable to both soluble and insoluble components of the particulate. Conclusion Combustion-derived nanoparticulate appears to predominately mediate the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation. This provides a rationale for testing environmental health interventions targeted at reducing traffic-derived particulate emissions. PMID:21753226

  11. Cellular partitioning of nanoparticulate versus dissolved metals in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Miller, Robert J

    2014-11-18

    Discharges of metal oxide nanoparticles into aquatic environments are increasing with their use in society, thereby increasing exposure risk for aquatic organisms. Separating the impacts of nanoparticle from dissolved metal pollution is critical for assessing the environmental risks of the rapidly growing nanomaterial industry, especially in terms of ecosystem effects. Metal oxides negatively affect several species of marine phytoplankton, which are responsible for most marine primary production. Whether such toxicity is generally due to nanoparticles or exposure to dissolved metals liberated from particles is uncertain. The type and severity of toxicity depends in part on whether phytoplankton cells take up and accumulate primarily nanoparticles or dissolved metal ions. We compared the responses of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii, exposed to ZnO, AgO, and CuO nanoparticles with the responses of T. weissflogii cells exposed to the dissolved metals ZnCl2, AgNO3, and CuCl2 for 7 d. Cellular metal accumulation, metal distribution, and algal population growth were measured to elucidate differences in exposure to the different forms of metal. Concentration-dependent metal accumulation and reduced population growth were observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides, as well as dissolved metals. Significant effects on population growth were observed at the lowest concentrations tested for all metals, with similar toxicity for both dissolved and nanoparticulate metals. Cellular metal distribution, however, markedly differed between T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides versus those exposed to dissolved metals. Metal concentrations were highest in the algal cell wall when cells were exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles, whereas algae exposed to dissolved metals had higher proportions of metal in the organelle and endoplasmic reticulum fractions. These results have implications for marine plankton communities as well as higher trophic levels, since

  12. The interplay of catechol ligands with nanoparticulate iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alexander K L; Hutton, Georgina A; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The unique properties exhibited by nanoscale materials, coupled with the multitude of chemical surface derivatisation possibilities, enable the rational design of multifunctional nanoscopic devices. Such functional devices offer exciting new opportunities in medical research and much effort is currently invested in the area of "nanomedicine", including: multimodal imaging diagnostic tools, platforms for drug delivery and vectorisation, polyvalent, multicomponent vaccines, and composite devices for "theranostics". Here we will review the surface derivatisation of nanoparticulate oxides of iron and iron@iron-oxide core-shells. They are attractive candidates for MRI-active therapeutic platforms, being potentially less toxic than lanthanide-based materials, and amenable to functionalisation with ligands. However successful grafting of groups onto the surface of iron-based nanoparticles, thus adding functionality whilst preserving their inherent properties, is one of the most difficult challenges for creating truly useful nanodevices from them. Functionalised catechol-derived ligands have enjoyed success as agents for the masking of superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles, often so as to render them biocompatible with medium to long-term colloidal stability in the complex chemical environments of biological milieux. In this perspective, the opportunities and limitations of functionalising the surfaces of iron-oxide nanoparticles, using coatings containing a catechol-derived anchor, are analysed and discussed, including recent advances using dopamine-terminated stabilising ligands. If light-driven ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) processes, and pH-dependent ligand desorption, leading to nanoparticle degradation under physiologically relevant conditions can be suppressed, colloidal stability of samples can be maintained and toxicity ascribed to degradation products avoided. Modulation of the redox behaviour of iron catecholate systems through the introduction of an

  13. Targeted polymeric nanoparticles for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Wilson, David R.; Zamboni, Camila G.; Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, advances in designing polymeric nanoparticles for targeted cancer gene therapy are reviewed. Characterization and evaluation of biomaterials, targeting ligands, and transcriptional elements are each discussed. Advances in biomaterials have driven improvements to nanoparticle stability and tissue targeting, conjugation of ligands to the surface of polymeric nanoparticles enable binding to specific cancer cells, and the design of transcriptional elements has enabled selective DNA expression specific to the cancer cells. Together, these features have improved the performance of polymeric nanoparticles as targeted non-viral gene delivery vectors to treat cancer. As polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be biodegradable, non-toxic, and to have reduced immunogenicity and tumorigenicity compared to viral platforms, they have significant potential for clinical use. Results of polymeric gene therapy in clinical trials and future directions for the engineering of nanoparticle systems for targeted cancer gene therapy are also presented. PMID:26061296

  14. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  15. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus

  16. X-ray phase computed tomography for nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutics: preliminary feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2011-03-01

    With the scientific progress in cancer biology, pharmacology and biomedical engineering, the nano-biotechnology based imaging probes and therapeutical agents (namely probes/agents) - a form of theranostics - are among the strategic solutions bearing the hope for the cure of cancer. The key feature distinguishing the nanoparticulated probes/agents from their conventional counterparts is their targeting capability. A large surface-to-volume ratio in nanoparticulated probes/agents enables the accommodation of multiple targeting, imaging and therapeutic components to cope with the intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Most nanoparticulated probes/agents are synthesized with low atomic number materials and thus their x-ray attenuation are very similar to biological tissues. However, their microscopic structures are very different, which may result in significant differences in their refractive properties. Recently, the investigation in the x-ray grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) CT has demonstrated its advantages in differentiating low-atomic materials over the conventional attenuation-based CT. We believe that a synergy of x-ray grating-based DPC CT and nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutic agents may play a significant role in extensive preclinical and clinical applications, or even become a modality for molecular imaging. Hence, we propose to image the refractive property of nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutical agents using x-ray grating-based DPC CT. In this work, we conduct a preliminary feasibility study with a focus to characterize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast-detail behavior of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT. The obtained data may be instructive to the architecture design and performance optimization of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT for imaging biomarker-targeted imaging probes and therapeutic agents, and even informative to the translation of preclinical research in theranostics into clinical applications.

  17. Novel Effects of Nanoparticulate Delivery of Zinc on Growth, Productivity, and Zinc Biofortification in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Layam Venkata; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Krishna, Thimmavajjula Giridhara; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-05-18

    In the present investigation, nanoscale zinc oxide particulates (ZnO-nanoparticulates) were prepared using a modified oxalate decomposition method. Prepared ZnO-nanoparticulates (mean size = 25 nm) were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and zeta potential analyzer. Different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates were examined to reveal their effects on maize crop on overall growth and translocation of zinc along with bulk ZnSO4 and control. Highest germination percentage (80%) and seedling vigor index (1923.20) were observed at 1500 ppm of ZnO-nanoparticulates. The yield was 42% more compared to control and 15% higher compared to 2000 ppm of ZnSO4. Higher accumulation of zinc (35.96 ppm) in grains was recorded with application of 100 ppm followed by 400 ppm (31.05 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates. These results indicate that ZnO-nanoparticulates have significant effects on growth, yield, and zinc content of maize grains, which is an important feature in terms of human health. PMID:27089102

  18. Analytical Electron Microscopy for Characterization of Fluid or Semi-Solid Multiphase Systems Containing Nanoparticulate Material

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Victoria; Valenta, Claudia; Matsko, Nadejda B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of nanomaterials in pharmaceutical or cosmetic preparations is an important aspect both in formulation development and quality control of marketed products. Despite the increased popularity of nanoparticulate compounds especially in dermal preparations such as emulsions, methods and protocols of analysis for the characterization of such systems are scarce. This work combines an original sample preparation procedure along with different methods of analytical electron microscopy for the comprehensive analysis of fluid or semi-solid dermal preparations containing nanoparticulate material. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and high resolution imaging were performed on model emulsions and a marketed product to reveal different structural aspects of both the emulsion bulk phase and incorporated nanosized material. An innovative analytical approach for the determination of the physical stability of the emulsion under investigation is presented. Advantages and limitations of the employed analytical imaging techniques are highlighted. PMID:24300401

  19. Seeded growth of robust SERS-active 2D Au@Ag nanoparticulate films

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A; Dai, Sheng; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Zhu, Haoguo; Bao, Lili

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate herein a novel and versatile solution-based methodology for fabricating self-organized two-dimensional (2D) Au nanoparticle arrays on glass using in situ nucleation at an aminosilane monolayer followed by seeded, electroless growth; subsequent deposition of Ag produced Au{at}Ag core-shell nanoparticulate films which proved highly promising as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms.

  20. Study of an ultrasound-based process analytical tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cavegn, Martin; Douglas, Ryan; Akkermans, Guy; Kuentz, Martin

    2011-08-01

    There are currently no adequate process analyzers for nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This article aims to evaluate ultrasonic resonator technology as a monitoring tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate gels. Aqueous dispersions of colloidal microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and a mixture of clay particles with xanthan gum were compared with colloidal silicon dioxide in oil. The processing was conducted using a laboratory-scale homogenizing vessel. The study investigated first the homogenization kinetics of the different systems to focus then on process factors in the case of colloidal MCC. Moreover, rheological properties were analyzed offline to assess the structure of the resulting gels. Results showed the suitability of ultrasound velocimetry to monitor the homogenization process. The obtained data were fitted using a novel heuristic model. It was possible to identify characteristic homogenization times for each formulation. The subsequent study of the process factors demonstrated that ultrasonic process analysis was equally sensitive as offline rheological measurements in detecting subtle manufacturing changes. It can be concluded that the ultrasonic method was able to successfully assess homogenization of nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This novel technique can become a vital tool for development and production of pharmaceutical suspensions in the future. PMID:21412782

  1. Preparation and characterization of silica nanoparticulate polyacrylonitrile composite and porous nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liwen; Saquing, Carl; Khan, Saad A.; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2008-02-01

    In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite nanofibers containing different amounts of silica nanoparticulates have been obtained via electrospinning. The surface morphology, thermal properties and crystal structure of PAN/silica nanofibers are characterized using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that the addition of silica nanoparticulates affects the structure and properties of the nanofibers. In addition to PAN/silica composite nanofibers, porous PAN nanofibers have been prepared by selective removal of the silica component from PAN/silica composite nanofibers using hydrofluoric (HF) acid. ATR-FTIR and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments validate the removal of silica nanoparticulates by HF acid, whereas SEM and TEM results reveal that the porous nanofibers obtained from composite fibers with higher silica contents exhibited more nonuniform surface morphology. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of porous PAN nanofibers made from PAN/silica (5 wt%) composite precursors is higher than that of pure nonporous PAN nanofibers.

  2. Evaluation of various adjuvant nanoparticulate formulations for meningococcal capsular polysaccharide-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gala, Rikhav P; D'Souza, Martin; Zughaier, Susu M

    2016-06-14

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis and its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are a major virulence factor in meningococcal infections and form the basis for serogroup designation and preventive vaccines. We have formulated a novel meningococcal nanoparticulate vaccine formulation that does not require chemical conjugation, but encapsulates meningococcal CPS polymers in a biodegradable material that slowly release antigens, thereby has antigen depot effect to enhance antigenicity. The novel vaccine formulation is inexpensive and can be stored as a dry powder with extended shelf life that does not require the cold-chain which facilitates storage and distribution. In order to enhance the antigenicity of meningococcal nanoparticulate vaccine, we screened various adjuvants formulated in nanoparticles, for their ability to potentiate antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Here, we report that MF59 and Alum are superior to TLR-based adjuvants in enhancing dendritic cell maturation and antigen presentation markers MHC I, MHC II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 in dendritic cells pulsed with meningococcal CPS nanoparticulate vaccine. PMID:27177946

  3. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO2 toxicity to freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Angel, Brad M; Vallotton, Pascal; Apte, Simon C

    2015-11-01

    The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10-34nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO2 to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal-CeO2 interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by 'switching off' ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO2 immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113-193nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO2 dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO2 concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6-28mg/L compared with 59mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO2 bioassays under normal light conditions. However, 'switching off' ROS under UV-filtered light conditions resulted in a similar IC50, indicating that ROS generation was not the toxic mechanism. The CytoViva imaging showed negligible sorption of nanoparticulate CeO2 to algal cells in the presence of DOC, and strong sorption in its absence, suggesting that this was the toxic mechanism. The results suggest that DOC in natural waters will coat CeO2 particles and mitigate toxicity to algal cells. PMID:26461912

  4. Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

  5. Brain delivery of intranasal in situ gel of nanoparticulated polymeric carriers containing antidepressant drug: behavioral and biochemical assessment.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Prakash, Atish; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed for brain delivery of Tramadol HCl (centrally acting synthetic opioid) following intranasal administration for treatment of depression. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation method followed by the addition of developed NPs with in the Pluronic and HPMC-based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulation optimized based on the various parameters such as particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release study. Depression induction was done by forced swim test and evaluated by various behavioral and biochemical parameters. Furthermore, results showed significantly increased in locomotors activity, body weight as compared to control group. It also showed alteration in biochemical parameters such glutathione level and catalase levels significantly increased other than lipid peroxidation and nitrite level was found to be decreased after intranasal administration of formulation. Thus, intranasal TRM HCl NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression. PMID:25539073

  6. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  7. Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2(•-), and intracellular Ca(2+) were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170-225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca(2+) influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

  8. Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2•−, and intracellular Ca2+ were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170–225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca2+ influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca2+ induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

  9. Topical nanoparticulate formulation of drugs for ocular keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyan

    The primary objective of this project is to develop drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles suspended in a biocompatible gel for topical delivery of therapeutic agents commonly employed in the treatment of ocular viral/bacterial keratitis. PART 1: Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) of dipeptide monoester prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) including L-Val-L-Val-GCV (LLGCV), L-Val-D-Val-GCV (LDGCV), D-Val-L-Val-GCV (DLGCV) were formulated and dispersed in thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA polymer gel for the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induced viral corneal keratitis. NP containing prodrugs of GCV were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique using various PLGA polymers with different drug/polymer ratios. Cytotoxicity studies suggested that all NP formulations are non-toxic. In vitro release of prodrugs from NP showed a biphasic release pattern with an initial burst phase followed by a sustained phase. Such burst effect was completely eliminated when NP were suspended in thermosensitive gels with near zero-order release kinetics. Prodrugs-loaded PLGA NP dispersed in thermosensitive gels can thus serve as a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of anterior eye diseases. Maximum uptake (around 60%) was noted at 3 h for NP. Cellular uptake and intracellular accumulation of prodrugs are significantly different among three stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs. The microscopic images show that NP are avidly internalized by HCEC cells and distributed throughout the cytoplasm instead of being localized on the cell surface. Following cellular uptake, prodrugs released from NP gradually bioreversed into parent drug GCV. LLGCV showed the highest degradation rate, followed by LDGCV and DLGCV. LLGCV, LDGCV and DLGCV released from NP exhibited superior uptake and bioreversion in corneal cells. PART 2: PLGA NP of hydrocortisone butyrate (HB) suspended in thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA gel were developed for the treatment of

  10. Smart Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The massive amount of human genetic information already available has accelerated the identification of target genes, making gene and nucleic acid therapy the next generation of medicine. Nanoparticle (NP)-based anticancer gene therapy treatment has received significant interest in this evolving field. Recent advances in vector technology have improved gene transfection efficiencies of nonviral vectors to a level similar to viruses. This review serves as an introduction to surface modifications of NPs based on polymeric structural improvements and target moieties. A discussion regarding the future perspective of multifunctional NPs in cancer therapy is also included. PMID:25531409

  11. Vector Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Vector addition is an important skill for introductory physics students to master. For years, I have used a fun example to introduce vector addition in my introductory physics classes based on one with which my high school physics teacher piqued my interest many years ago.

  12. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  13. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  14. Electric relaxation processes in chemodynamics of aqueous metal complexes: from simple ligands to soft nanoparticulate complexants.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Herman P; Buffle, Jacques; Town, Raewyn M

    2012-01-10

    The chemodynamics of metal complexes with nanoparticulate complexants can differ significantly from that for simple ligands. The spatial confinement of charged sites and binding sites to the nanoparticulate body impacts on the time scales of various steps in the overall complex formation process. The greater the charge carried by the nanoparticle, the longer it takes to set up the counterion distribution equilibrium with the medium. A z+ metal ion (z > 1) in a 1:1 background electrolyte will accumulate in the counterionic atmosphere around negatively charged simple ions, as well as within/around the body of a soft nanoparticle with negative structural charge. The rate of accumulation is often governed by diffusion and proceeds until Boltzmann partition equilibrium between the charged entity and the ions in the medium is attained. The electrostatic accumulation proceeds simultaneously with outer-sphere and inner-sphere complex formation. The rate of the eventual inner-sphere complex formation is generally controlled by the rate constant of dehydration of the metal ion, k(w). For common transition metal ions with moderate to fast dehydration rates, e.g., Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+), it is shown that the ionic equilibration with the medium may be the slower step and thus rate-limiting in their overall complexation with nanoparticles. PMID:22126743

  15. Rapid detection of cancer related DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and nanoparticles in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Michael J.; Krishnan, Raj; Sonnenberg, Avery

    2010-08-01

    The ability to rapidly detect cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, cfc-RNA, exosomes and other nanoparticulate disease biomarkers as well as drug delivery nanoparticles directly in blood is a major challenge for nanomedicine. We now show that microarray and new high voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) devices can be used to rapidly isolate and detect cfc-DNA nanoparticulates and nanoparticles directly from whole blood and other high conductance samples (plasma, serum, urine, etc.). At DEP frequencies of 5kHz-10kHz both fluorescent-stained high molecular weight (hmw) DNA, cfc-DNA and fluorescent nanoparticles separate from the blood and become highly concentrated at specific DEP highfield regions over the microelectrodes, while blood cells move to the DEP low field-regions. The blood cells can then be removed by a simple fluidic wash while the DNA and nanoparticles remain highly concentrated. The hmw-DNA could be detected at a level of <260ng/ml and the nanoparticles at <9.5 x 109 particles/ml, detection levels that are well within the range for viable clinical diagnostics and drug nanoparticle monitoring. Disease specific cfc-DNA materials could also be detected directly in blood from patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and confirmed by PCR genotyping analysis.

  16. Ferroportin mediates the intestinal absorption of iron from a nanoparticulate ferritin core mimetic in mice.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohamad F; Frazer, David M; Faria, Nuno; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Wilkins, Sarah J; Mirciov, Cornel; Powell, Jonathan J; Anderson, Greg J; Pereira, Dora I A

    2014-08-01

    The ferritin core is composed of fine nanoparticulate Fe(3+) oxohydroxide, and we have developed a synthetic mimetic, nanoparticulate Fe(3+) polyoxohydroxide (nanoFe(3+)). The aim of this study was to determine how dietary iron derived in this fashion is absorbed in the duodenum. Following a 4 wk run-in on an Fe-deficient diet, mice with intestinal-specific disruption of the Fpn-1 gene (Fpn-KO), or littermate wild-type (WT) controls, were supplemented with Fe(2+) sulfate (FeSO4), nanoFe(3+), or no added Fe for a further 4 wk. A control group was Fe sufficient throughout. Direct intestinal absorption of nanoFe(3+) was investigated using isolated duodenal loops. Our data show that FeSO4 and nanoFe(3+) are equally bioavailable in WT mice, and at wk 8 the mean ± SEM hemoglobin increase was 18 ± 7 g/L in the FeSO4 group and 30 ± 5 g/L in the nanoFe(3+) group. Oral iron failed to be utilized by Fpn-KO mice and was retained in enterocytes, irrespective of the iron source. In summary, although nanoFe(3+) is taken up directly by the duodenum its homeostasis is under the normal regulatory control of dietary iron absorption, namely via ferroportin-dependent efflux from enterocytes, and thus offers potential as a novel oral iron supplement. PMID:24776745

  17. Novel Nanoparticulate Gel Formulations of Steroids for the Treatment of Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the development and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles of dexamethasone (DEX), hydrocortisone acetate (HA), and prednisolone acetate (PA) suspended in thermosensitive gels indicated for the treatment of macular edema (ME). Methods: Nanoparticles were prepared by oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and dialysis methods using PLGA 50:50 and PLGA 65:35. These particles were characterized for entrapment efficiency, size distribution, surface morphology, crystallinity, and in vitro release. Further, ex vivo permeation studies of DEX in suspension and nanoparticulate formulations were carried out across the rabbit sclera. Results: Entrapment efficiencies of DEX, HA, and PA were found to be lower with the dialysis method. O/W emulsion/solvent evaporation technique resulted in higher entrapment efficiencies, that is, 77.3%, 91.3%, 92.3% for DEX, HA, and PA, respectively. Release from nanoparticles suspended in thermosensitive gels followed zero-order kinetics with no apparent burst effect. Ex vivo permeability studies further confirmed sustained release of DEX from nanoparticles suspended in thermosensitive gels. Conclusions: These novel nanoparticulate systems containing particles suspended in thermosensitive gels may provide sustained retina/choroid delivery of steroids following episcleral administration. PMID:20148659

  18. Progress in nanoparticulate systems for peptide, proteins and nucleic acid drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Slomkowski, Stanislaw; Gosecki, Mateusz

    2011-11-01

    Progress in many therapies, in particular in the therapies based on peptides, proteins and nucleic acids used as bioactive compounds, strongly depends on development of appropriate carriers which would be suitable for controlled delivery of the intact abovementioned compounds to required tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. This review presents last ten years' achievements and problems in development and application of synthetic polymer nanoparticulate carriers for oral, pulmonary and nasal delivery routes of oligopeptides and proteins. Whereas some traditional synthetic polymer carriers are only briefly recalled the main attention is concentrated on nanoparticles produced from functional copolymers mostly with hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups, suitable for immobilization of targeting moieties and for assuring prolonged circulation of nanoparticles in blood. Formulations of various nanoparticulate systems are described, including solid particles, polymer micelles, nanovesicles and nanogels, especially systems allowing drug release induced by external stimuli. Discussed are properties of these species, in particular stability in buffers and models of body fluids, loading with drugs and with drug models, drug release processes and results of biological studies. There are also discussed systems for gene delivery with special attention devoted to polymers suitable for compacting nucleic acids into nanoparticles as well as the relations between chemical structure of polymer carriers and ability of the latter for crossing cell membranes and for endosomal escape. PMID:21902630

  19. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  20. Equivalent Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  1. The Science Behind Nanosun-Screens: Learning about Nanoparticulate Ingredients Used to Block the Sun's Ultraviolet Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Alyssa; Schank, Patricia; Stanford, Tina; Horsma, Geri

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of the emerging field of nanoscience and why it is an important area of education. They next explain the science behind the new nanoparticulate sunscreens, describe the different elements of the unit, and reflect on some of the opportunities and challenges of teaching nanoscience at the high…

  2. Nano-particulate Aluminium Nitride/Al: An Efficient and Versatile Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of Biginelli Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekale, S. U.; Tekale, A. B.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Pawar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-particulate aluminium nitride/Al (7:1) is reported as a new heterogeneous solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of 3, 4-dihydroxypyrimidi-2-(1H)-ones and their sulphur analogues using the Biginelli reaction. This method involves short reaction time, easy separation, high yields and purity of products.

  3. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate MnS within the pores of mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Louse; Copley, Mark; Holmes, Justin D.; Otway, David J.; Kazakova, Olga; Morris, Michael A.

    2007-12-01

    Mesoporous silica was loaded with nanoparticulate MnS via a simple post-synthesis treatment. The mesoporous material that still contained surfactant was passivated to prevent MnS formation at the surface. The surfactant was extracted and a novel manganese ethylxanthate was used to impregnate the pore network. This precursor thermally decomposes to yield MnS particles that are smaller or equal to the pore size. The particles exhibit all three common polymorphs. The passivation treatment is most effective at lower loadings because at the highest loadings (SiO 2:MnS molar ratio of 6:1) large particles (>50 nm) form at the exterior of the mesoporous particles. The integrity of the mesoporous network is maintained through the preparation and high order is maintained. The MnS particles exhibit unexpected ferromagnetism at low temperatures. Strong luminescence of these samples is observed and this suggests that they may have a range of important application areas.

  5. Osteogenic and Antimicrobial Nanoparticulate Calcium Phosphate and Poly-(D, L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) Powders for the Treatment of Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Hoover, Charles; Vukomanović, Marija; Uskoković, Dragan P.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a material for simultaneous sustained and localized delivery of antibiotics and induction of spontaneous regeneration of hard tissues affected by osteomyelitis stands for an important clinical need. In this work, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and osteoblastic cell response to two different nanoparticulate carriers of clindamycin, an antibiotic commonly prescribed in the treatment of bone infection, one composed of calcium phosphate and the other comprising poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-coated calcium phosphate, was carried out. Three different non-cytotoxic phases of calcium phosphate, exhibiting dissolution and drug release profiles in the range of one week to two months to one year, respectively, were included in the analysis: monetite, amorphous calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Spherical morphologies and narrow size distribution of both types of nanopowders were confirmed in transmission and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The antibiotic-containing powders exhibited sustained drug release contingent upon the degradation rate of the carrier. Assessment of the antibacterial performance of the antibiotic-encapsulated powders against Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen isolated from infected bone, yielded satisfactory results both in broths and on blood agar plates for all the analyzed powders. In contrast, no cytotoxic behavior was detected upon the incubation of the antibiotic powders with the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line for up to three weeks. The cells were shown to engage in a close contact with the antibiotic-containing particles, irrespective of their internal or surface phase composition, polymeric or mineral. At the same time, both types of particles upregulated the expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runx2 and protocollagen type I, suggesting their ability to promote osteogenesis and enhance remineralization of the infected site in addition to eliminating the bacterial source of

  6. Nanoparticulated docetaxel exerts enhanced anticancer efficacy and overcomes existing limitations of traditional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinhyang; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jae Hee; Ju, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Intae; Kim, Kab-Sig; Lee, Joo-Hwan; Son, Woo-Chan; Lee, Jung Shin; Jung, Joohee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticulation of insoluble drugs improves dissolution rate, resulting in increased bioavailability that leads to increased stability, better efficacy, and reduced toxicity of drugs. Docetaxel (DTX), under the trade name Taxotere™, is one of the representative anticancer chemotherapeutic agents of this era. However, this highly lipophilic and insoluble drug has many adverse effects. Our novel and widely applicable nanoparticulation using fat and supercritical fluid (NUFS™) technology enabled successful nanoscale particulation of DTX (Nufs-DTX). Nufs-DTX showed enhanced dissolution rate and increased aqueous stability in water. After confirming the preserved mechanism of action of DTX, which targets microtubules, we showed that Nufs-DTX exhibited similar effects in proliferation and clonogenic assays using A549 cells. Interestingly, we observed that Nufs-DTX had a greater in vivo tumor growth delay effect on an A549 xenograft model than Taxotere™, which was in agreement with the improved drug accumulation in tumors according to the biodistribution result, and was caused by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Although both Nufs-DTX and Taxotere™ showed negative results for our administration dose in the hematologic toxicity test, Nufs-DTX showed much less toxicity than Taxotere™ in edema, paralysis, and paw-withdrawal latency on a hot plate analysis that are regarded as indicators of fluid retention, peripheral neuropathy, and thermal threshold, respectively, for toxicological tests. In summary, compared with Taxotere™, Nufs-DTX, which was generated by our new platform technology using lipid, supercritical fluid, and carbon dioxide (CO2), maintained its biochemical properties as a cytotoxic agent and had better tumor targeting ability, better in vivo therapeutic effect, and less toxicity, thereby overcoming the current hurdles of traditional drugs. PMID:26457052

  7. Electrohydrodynamic atomization: A two-decade effort to produce and process micro-/nanoparticulate materials

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jingwei; Jiang, Jiang; Davoodi, Pooya; Srinivasan, M. P.; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA), also called electrospray technique, has been studied for more than one century. However, since 1990s it has begun to be used to produce and process micro-/nanostructured materials. Owing to the simplicity and flexibility in EHDA experimental setup, it has been successfully employed to generate particulate materials with controllable compositions, structures, sizes, morphologies, and shapes. EHDA has also been used to deposit micro- and nanoparticulate materials on surfaces in a well-controlled manner. All these attributes make EHDA a fascinating tool for preparing and assembling a wide range of micro- and nanostructured materials which have been exploited for use in pharmaceutics, food, and healthcare to name a few. Our goal is to review this field, which allows scientists and engineers to learn about the EHDA technique and how it might be used to create, process, and assemble micro-/nanoparticulate materials with unique and intriguing properties. We begin with a brief introduction to the mechanism and setup of EHDA technique. We then discuss issues critical to successful application of EHDA technique, including control of composition, size, shape, morphology, structure of particulate materials and their assembly. We also illustrate a few of the many potential applications of particulate materials, especially in the area of drug delivery and regenerative medicine. Next, we review the simulation and modeling of Taylor cone-jet formation for a single and co-axial nozzle. The mathematical modeling of particle transport and deposition is presented to provide a deeper understanding of the effective parameters in the preparation, collection and pattering processes. We conclude this article with a discussion on perspectives and future possibilities in this field. PMID:25684778

  8. Net methylation of mercury in estuarine sediment microcosms amended with dissolved, nanoparticulate, and microparticulate mercuric sulfides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Kim, Bojeong; Deshusses, Marc A; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2014-08-19

    The production of methylmercury (MeHg) by anaerobic microorganisms depends in part on the speciation and bioavailability of inorganic mercury to these organisms. Our previous work with pure cultures of methylating bacteria has demonstrated that the methylation potential of mercury decreased during the aging of mercuric sulfides (from dissolved to nanoparticulate and microcrystalline HgS). The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between mercury sulfide speciation and methylation potential in experiments that more closely simulate the complexity of sediment settings. The study involved sediment slurry microcosms that represented a spectrum of salinities in an estuary and were each amended with different forms of mercuric sulfides: dissolved Hg and sulfide, nanoparticulate HgS (3-4 nm in diameter), and microparticulate HgS (>500 nm). The results indicated that net MeHg production was influenced by both the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (roughly represented by the rate of sulfate loss) and the bioavailability of mercury. In the presence of abundant sulfate and carbon sources (supporting relatively high microbial activity), net MeHg production in the slurries amended with dissolved Hg was greater than in slurries amended with nano-HgS, similar to previous experiments with pure bacterial cultures. In microcosms with minimal microbial activity (indicated by low rates of sulfate loss), the addition of either dissolved Hg or nano-HgS resulted in similar amounts of net MeHg production. For all slurries receiving micro-HgS, MeHg production did not exceed abiotic controls. In slurries amended with dissolved and nano-HgS, mercury was mainly partitioned to bulk-scale mineral particles and colloids, indicating that Hg bioavailability was not simply related to dissolved Hg concentration or speciation. Overall, the results suggest that models for mercury methylation potential in the environment will need to balance the relative contributions of

  9. Polymerization catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a catalyst system for polymerizing at least one alpha-olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization. This system consists of: 1. a supported polymerization catalyst or mixture of polymerization catalysts prepared under anhydrous conditions by the sequential steps of: (a) preparing a slurry of inert particulate porous support material; (b) adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; (c) adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of a zirconium halide compound, hafnium compound or mixtures thereof; (d) adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; (e) adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium halide compound; and (f) recovering solid catalyst component; 2. an organoaluminum compound; and 3. a promotor of chlorinated hydrocarbons having one to 20 carbon atoms.

  10. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  11. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Zavada, Scott R; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes--catalytic proteins--owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol-ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  12. Active radar guides missile to its target: receptor-based targeted treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by nanoparticulate systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Jun; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Lin, Ju-Sheng; He, Xing-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually present at advanced stages and do not benefit from surgical resection, so drug therapy should deserve a prominent place in unresectable HCC treatment. But chemotherapy agents, such as doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel, frequently encounter important problems such as low specificity and non-selective biodistribution. Recently, the development of nanotechnology led to significant breakthroughs to overcome these problems. Decorating the surfaces of nanoparticulate-based drug carriers with homing devices has demonstrated its potential in concentrating chemotherapy agents specifically to HCC cells. In this paper, we reviewed the current status of active targeting strategies for nanoparticulate systems based on various receptors such as asialoglycoprotein receptor, transferrin receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, folate receptor, integrin, and CD44, which are abundantly expressed on the surfaces of hepatocytes or liver cancer cells. Furthermore, we pointed out their merits and defects and provided theoretical references for further research. PMID:25424700

  13. Organocatalyzed Group Transfer Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougen; Kakuchi, Toyoji

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the conventional group transfer polymerization (GTP) using a catalyst of either an anionic nucleophile or a transition-metal compound, the organocatalyzed GTP has to a great extent improved the living characteristics of the polymerization from the viewpoints of synthesizing structurally well-defined acrylic polymers and constructing defect-free polymer architectures. In this article, we describe the organocatalyzed GTP from a relatively personal perspective to provide our colleagues with a perspicuous and systematic overview on its recent progress as well as a reply to the curiosity of how excellently the organocatalysts have performed in this field. The stated perspectives of this review mainly cover five aspects, in terms of the assessment of the livingness of the polymerization, limit and scope of applicable monomers, mechanistic studies, control of the polymer structure, and a new GTP methodology involving the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and hydrosilane. PMID:27427399

  14. Application of Controlled Radical Polymerization for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    CHU, DAVID S.H.; SCHELLINGER, JOAN G.; SHI, JULIE; CONVERTINE, ANTHONY J.; STAYTON, PATRICK S.; PUN, SUZIE H.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Nucleic acid-based therapeutics can potentially address otherwise untreatable genetic disorders and have significant potential for a wide range of diseases. Therapeutic gene delivery can restore protein function by replacing defunct genes to restore cellular health while RNA interference (RNAi) can mask mutated and harmful genes. Cationic polymers have been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications due to their self-assembly with nucleic acids into virus-sized nanoparticles and high transfection efficiency in vitro, but toxicity and particle stability have limited their clinical applications. The advent of controlled radical polymerization has improved the quality, control and reproducibility of synthesized materials. Controlled radical polymerization yields well-defined, narrowly disperse materials of designable architectures and molecular weight, allowing study of the effects of polymer architecture and molecular weight on transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity for improved design of next-generation vectors. Robust methods such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reverse addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and ring-opening metastasis polymerization (ROMP) have been used to engineer materials that specifically enhance extracellular stability, cellular specificity, and decrease toxicity. This Account reviews findings from structure-function studies that have elucidated key design motifs necessary for the development of effective nucleic acid vectors. In addition, polymers that are biodegradable, form supramolecular structures, target specific cells, or facilitate endosomal release are also discussed. Finally, promising materials with in vivo applications ranging from pulmonary gene delivery to DNA vaccines are described. PMID:22242774

  15. Reduction-Responsive Polymeric Micelles and Vesicles for Triggered Intracellular Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huanli; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The therapeutic effects of current micellar and vesicular drug formulations are restricted by slow and inefficient drug release at the pathological site. The development of smart polymeric nanocarriers that release drugs upon arriving at the target site has received a tremendous amount of attention for cancer therapy. Recent Advances: Taking advantage of a high reducing potential in the tumor tissues and in particular inside the tumor cells, various reduction-sensitive polymeric micelles and vesicles have been designed and explored for triggered anticancer drug release. These reduction-responsive nanosystems have demonstrated several unique features, such as good stability under physiological conditions, fast response to intracellular reducing environment, triggering drug release right in the cytosol and cell nucleus, and significantly improved antitumor activity, compared to traditional reduction-insensitive counterparts. Critical Issues: Although reduction-sensitive micelles and polymersomes have accomplished rapid intracellular drug release and enhanced in vitro antitumor effect, their fate inside the cells including the mechanism, site, and rate of reduction reaction remains unclear. Moreover, the systemic fate and performance of reduction-sensitive polymeric drug formulations have to be investigated. Future Directions: Biophysical studies should be carried out to gain insight into the degradation and drug release behaviors of reduction-responsive nanocarriers inside the tumor cells. Furthermore, novel ligand-decorated reduction-sensitive nanoparticulate drug formulations should be designed and explored for targeted cancer therapy in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 755–767. PMID:24279980

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of TiO2/Er3+ nanoparticulate sols.

    PubMed

    Borlaf, Mario; Colomer, María Teresa; Cabello, Fátima; Serna, Rosalia; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2013-02-14

    TiO(2) and TiO(2)/Er(3+) nanoparticulate sols were obtained by the colloidal sol-gel route. Thanks to the combination of three optical techniques (laser diffraction, LD, dynamic light scattering, DLS, and multiple light scattering, MLS), the peptization time was quantified, demonstrating that erbium(III) ions retard the process. The isoelectric point of TiO(2) shifts up to higher pH's when Er(3+) ions are present, which suggests that they are adsorbed onto the surface of the TiO(2) nanoparticles. Moreover, the viscosity of the sols increases when the erbium(III) amount increases. The xerogels obtained from each sol were characterized by XRD and HRTEM, obtaining in all cases anatase as the major phase, although traces of brookite were also present. In the EPD experiments, the addition of ethanol was necessary to reduce the water hydrolysis and facilitate the drying process. As a result, transparent thin films were obtained at short times and low current densities and opal films for larger current densities and deposition times; in addition, the thickness, measured by ellipsometry, increased gradually, but the refractive index did not change significantly (1.9-2). The topography profile of the films and the particle size were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM), giving similar values to those measured by DLS, indicating that the addition of ethanol helps to maintain stabilization without further agglomeration or sedimentation. PMID:22799268

  17. Nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand transforms CpG into a multitask nanoparticulate TLR9 agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Narita, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Etsushi; Hayashi, Masayuki; Tetsutani, Kohhei; Koyama, Shohei; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo; Katakai, Yuko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Akira, Shizuo; Coban, Cevayir; Ishii, Ken J.

    2014-01-01

    CpG DNA, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), has been one of the most promising immunotherapeutic agents. Although there are several types of potent humanized CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), developing “all-in-one” CpG ODNs activating both B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells forming a stable nanoparticle without aggregation has not been successful. In this study, we generated a novel nanoparticulate K CpG ODN (K3) wrapped by the nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG. In sharp contrast to K3 alone, K3-SPG stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce a large amount of both type I and type II IFN, targeting the same endosome where IFN-inducing D CpG ODN resides without losing its K-type activity. K3-SPG thus became a potent adjuvant for induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly CTL induction, to coadministered protein antigens without conjugation. Such potent adjuvant activity of K3-SPG is attributed to its nature of being a nanoparticle rather than targeting Dectin-1 by SPG, accumulating and activating antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. K3-SPG acting as an influenza vaccine adjuvant was demonstrated in vivo in both murine and nonhuman primate models. Taken together, K3-SPG may be useful for immunotherapeutic applications that require type I and type II IFN as well as CTL induction. PMID:24516163

  18. Nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand transforms CpG into a multitask nanoparticulate TLR9 agonist.

    PubMed

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Narita, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Etsushi; Hayashi, Masayuki; Tetsutani, Kohhei; Koyama, Shohei; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo; Katakai, Yuko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Akira, Shizuo; Coban, Cevayir; Ishii, Ken J

    2014-02-25

    CpG DNA, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), has been one of the most promising immunotherapeutic agents. Although there are several types of potent humanized CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), developing "all-in-one" CpG ODNs activating both B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells forming a stable nanoparticle without aggregation has not been successful. In this study, we generated a novel nanoparticulate K CpG ODN (K3) wrapped by the nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG. In sharp contrast to K3 alone, K3-SPG stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce a large amount of both type I and type II IFN, targeting the same endosome where IFN-inducing D CpG ODN resides without losing its K-type activity. K3-SPG thus became a potent adjuvant for induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly CTL induction, to coadministered protein antigens without conjugation. Such potent adjuvant activity of K3-SPG is attributed to its nature of being a nanoparticle rather than targeting Dectin-1 by SPG, accumulating and activating antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. K3-SPG acting as an influenza vaccine adjuvant was demonstrated in vivo in both murine and nonhuman primate models. Taken together, K3-SPG may be useful for immunotherapeutic applications that require type I and type II IFN as well as CTL induction. PMID:24516163

  19. Nervous system effects of dissolved and nanoparticulate cadmium in rats in subacute exposure.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Edina; Oszlánczi, Gábor; Máté, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Andrea; Kozma, Gábor; Sápi, András; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László; Papp, András

    2011-07-01

    Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal with various applications in technology, can affect people both by environmental (foodborne) and occupational (inhalation) exposure and can cause nervous system damage. To model this, rats were subacutely treated either with CdCl(2) solution per os (3.0 mg kg(-1) b.w.) or nanoparticulate CdO(2) (particle size ca 65 nm) by intratracheal instillation (0.04 mg kg(-1) b.w.) alone or in sequential combination. Nervous system effects were observed at different levels of function (open field behavior, cortical electrical activity, nerve action potential) and some general toxicological indicators were also measured. Three weeks of oral plus one week of intratracheal exposure caused significant reduction of body weight gain and open field motility. Lengthening of latency of sensory evoked potentials, observed in all treated rats, was also the most significant in the group receiving oral plus intratracheal treatment. Conduction velocity of the tail nerve was likewise decreased in all treated groups. Several of the effects pointed to a potentiating interaction between the two forms of Cd. Modeling environmental and occupational Cd exposure by oral and intratracheal application in rats was feasible, with results suggesting serious negative health effects in humans suffering such a combined exposure. PMID:21351111

  20. Mechanical degradation of TiO2 nanotubes with and without nanoparticulate silver coating.

    PubMed

    Shivaram, Anish; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the extent of mechanical degradation on TiO2 nanotubes on Ti with and without nano-particulate silver coating using two different lengths of TiO2 nanotubes-300nm and ~1µm, which were fabricated on commercially pure Titanium (cp-Ti) rods using anodization method using two different electrolytic mediums-(1) deionized (DI) water with 1% HF, and (2) ethylene glycol with 1% HF, 0.5wt% NH4F and 10% DI water. Nanotubes fabricated rods were implanted into equine cadaver bone to evaluate mechanical damage at the surface. Silver was electrochemically deposited on these nanotubes and using a release study, silver ion concentrations were measured before and after implantation, followed by surface characterization using a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). In vitro cell-material interaction study was performed using human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) to understand the effect of silver coating using an MTT assay for proliferation and to determine any cytotoxic effect on the cells and to study its biocompatibility. No significant damage due to implantation was observed for nanotubes up to ~1µm length under current experimental conditions. Cell-materials interaction showed no cytotoxic effects on the cells due to silver coating and anodization of samples. PMID:27017285

  1. Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Superb K.; Ansari, Tahera; Mohn, Dirk; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Brunner, Tobias J.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Sibbons, Paul D.; Jones, Eugenia Valsami; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Salih, Vehid

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of adding nanoparticulate (29 nm) bioactive glass particles on the bioactivity, degradation and in vitro cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites/nano-sized bioactive glass (n-BG). Two different concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) of nanoscale bioactive glass particles of 45S5 Bioglass composition were used to prepare composite films. Several techniques (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray) were used to monitor their surface and bioreactivity over a 45-day period of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All results suggested the P(3HB)/n-BG composites to be highly bioactive, confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on material surfaces upon immersion in SBF. The weight loss and water uptake were found to increase on increasing bioactive glass content. Cytocompatibility study (cell proliferation, cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production) using human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in osteogenic and non-osteogenic medium showed that the composite substrates are suitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. PMID:19640877

  2. Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation.

    PubMed

    Chikramane, Prashant S; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Kane, Shantaram G; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2012-11-13

    Extreme dilutions, especially homeopathic remedies of 30c, 200c, and higher potencies, are prepared by a process of serial dilution of 1:100 per step. As a result, dilution factors of 10(60), 10(400), or even greater are achieved. Therefore, both the presence of any active ingredient and the therapeutic efficacy of these medicines have been contentious because the existence of even traces of the starting raw materials in them is inconceivable. However, physicochemical studies of these solutions have unequivocally established the presence of the starting raw materials in nanoparticulate form even in these extreme (super-Avogadro, >10(23)) dilutions. In this article, we propose and validate a hypothesis to explain how nanoparticles are retained even at such enormous dilution levels. We show that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold level of a few nanograms/milliliter (ng/mL), at the end of each dilution step, all of the nanoparticles levitate to the surface and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby forming an asymptotic concentration. Thus, all dilutions are only apparent and not real in terms of the concentrations of the starting raw materials. PMID:23083226

  3. Nanoparticulate carbon black in cigarette smoke induces DNA cleavage and Th17-mediated emphysema

    PubMed Central

    You, Ran; Lu, Wen; Shan, Ming; Berlin, Jacob M; Samuel, Errol LG; Marcano, Daniela C; Sun, Zhengzong; Sikkema, William KA; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Song, Lizhen; Hendrix, Amanda Y; Tour, James M; Corry, David B; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke is the major cause of sterile inflammation and pulmonary emphysema. The effect of carbon black (CB), a universal constituent of smoke derived from the incomplete combustion of organic material, in smokers and non-smokers is less known. In this study, we show that insoluble nanoparticulate carbon black (nCB) accumulates in human myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) from emphysematous lung and in CD11c+ lung antigen presenting cells (APC) of mice exposed to smoke. Likewise, nCB intranasal administration induced emphysema in mouse lungs. Delivered by smoking or intranasally, nCB persisted indefinitely in mouse lung, activated lung APCs, and promoted T helper 17 cell differentiation through double-stranded DNA break (DSB) and ASC-mediated inflammasome assembly in phagocytes. Increasing the polarity or size of CB mitigated many adverse effects. Thus, nCB causes sterile inflammation, DSB, and emphysema and explains adverse health outcomes seen in smokers while implicating the dangers of nCB exposure in non-smokers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09623.001 PMID:26437452

  4. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on Micromechanical Properties of thin Nanoparticulate Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Nina; Schilde, Carsten; Kwade, Arno

    In this study the production of thin nanoparticulate coatings on solid stainless-steel substrates using dip-coating was investigated. Defined particle sizes and particle size distributions of Al2O3-nanoparticles were adjusted by stirred media milling using various operating parameters. Using nanoindentation the influence of particle size and width of the particle size distribution on the mechanical properties was investigated. In particular the establishment of nanoindentation routines for particulate thin films in contrast to hard coatings is discussed. Nanoindentation appears to be an efficient method for analysing mechanical properties of said thin coatings. It will be shown, that the influence of the substrate can be neglected for small indent depth while the coating's surface roughness influences the employed routine of the nanoindentation. The effect of the median particle size and the width of the particle size distribution on the coating structure and the micromechanical coating properties will be discussed. As a result, the maximum indentation force decreases with decreasing particle size but rises again once the nanoparticles reach very small sizes. A change in the width of the particle size distribution influences the micromechanical properties and coating structure as well.

  5. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    PubMed

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting. PMID:24845560

  6. Variable Effect during Polymerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment performing the polymerization of 3-methylthiophene(P-3MT) onto the conditions for the selective electrode to determine the catechol by using cyclic voltammetry was performed. The P-3MT formed under optimized conditions improved electrochemical reversibility, selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of the catechol.

  7. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  8. Programmable Supramolecular Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Daan; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2015-07-13

    Living large: Rational design of self-assembly pathways has been demonstrated in supramolecular polymers. By controlling the concentration of an aggregation-competent monomer through intramolecular interactions, living supramolecular polymerization conditions were achieved. This universal approach can be used to obtain aggregates of well-defined length and narrow dispersity, and allows access to new supramolecular polymer architectures. PMID:26095705

  9. Effective integrative supramolecular polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwei; Tian, He

    2014-09-26

    Exercise control: By taking advantage of self-sorting processes among host-guest components, a controlled supramolecular polymerization can be realized, as demonstrated recently with the preparation of a cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular polymer. This method may be used for the design of more ordered supramolecular polymers from complex and discrete components. PMID:25080388

  10. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  11. In Vitro Analysis of Nanoparticulate Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Composites as Potential Drug Delivery Platforms for the Sustained Release of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    USKOKOVIĆ, VUK; DESAI, TEJAL A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticulate composites of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and chitosan were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted sequential precipitation and characterized for their microstructure at the atomic scale, surface charge, drug release properties, and combined antibacterial and osteogenic response. Crystallinity of HAp nanoparticles was reduced because of the interference of the surface layers of chitosan with the dissolution/reprecipitation-mediated recrystallization mechanism that conditions the transition from the as-precipitated amorphous calcium phosphate phase to the most thermodynamically stable one—HAp. Embedment of 5–10 nm sized, narrowly dispersed HAp nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix mitigated the burst release of the small molecule model drug, fluorescein, bound to HAp by physisorption, and promoted sustained-release kinetics throughout the 3 weeks of release time. The addition of chitosan to the particulate drug carrier formulation, however, reduced the antibacterial efficacy against S aureus. Excellent cell spreading and proliferation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells evidenced on microscopic conglomerates of HAp nanoparticles in vitro also markedly diminished on HAp/chitosan composites. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity exhibited normal values only for HAp/chitosan particle concentrations of up to 2 mg/cm2 and significantly dropped, by about 50%, at higher particle concentrations (4 and 8 mg/cm2). The gene expression of osteocalcin, a mineralization inductor, and the transcription factor Runx2 was downregulated in cells incubated in the presence of 3 mg/cm2 HAp/chitosan composite particles, whereas the expression of osteopontin, a potent mineralization inhibitor, was upregulated, further demonstrating the partially unfavorable osteoblastic cell response to the given particles. The peak in the expression of osteogenic markers paralleling the osteoblastic differentiation was also delayed most for the cell population incubated with HAp/chitosan particles

  12. Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Soto, K. F.; Murr, L. E.; Garza, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano-PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates. PMID:18441401

  13. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders prepared by combustion reaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Pessoni, H. V. S.; Soares, M. P.

    2014-04-01

    Nanoparticulate powders of Eu-doped ZnO with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 at% Eu were synthesized by combustion reaction method using zinc nitrate, europium nitrate and urea as fuel without subsequent heat treatments. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of all samples showed broad peaks consistent with the ZnO wurtzite structure. The absence of extra reflections in the diffraction patterns ensures the phase purity, except for x=0.03 that exhibits small reflection corresponding to Eu2O3 phase. The average crystallite size determined from the most prominent (1 0 1) peak of the diffraction using Scherrer's equation was in good agreement with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); being ~26 nm. The magnetic properties measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in magnetic fields up to 2.0 kOe at room temperature. The hysteresis loops, typical of magnetic behaviors, indicating that the presence of an ordered magnetic structure can exist in the Eu-doped ZnO wurtzite structure at room temperature. The room temperature ferromagnetism behavior increases with the Eu3+ doping concentration. All samples exhibited the same Curie temperature (TC) around ~726 K, except for x=0.01; TC~643 K. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images revealed defects/strain in the lattice and grain boundaries of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders. The origin of room temperature ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders was discussed in terms of these defects, which increase with the Eu3+ doping concentration.

  14. Cytotoxic responses and potential respiratory health effects of carbon and carbonaceous nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte airshed environment.

    PubMed

    Soto, K F; Murr, L E; Garza, K M

    2008-03-01

    We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano- PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates. PMID:18441401

  15. Nanospray technology for an in situ gelling nanoparticulate powder as a wound dressing.

    PubMed

    De Cicco, Felicetta; Porta, Amalia; Sansone, Francesca; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2014-10-01

    In the current study the feasibility of the novel nano spray drying technique for the production of stable nanoparticulate dry powder, able to gel when administered locally on a wound, is explored. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was loaded into alginate/pectin nanoparticles as highly soluble (hygroscopic) model drug with wide range antibacterial agent for wound dressing. The influence of process variables, mainly spray mesh size and feed concentration, on particle size and morphology, powder wound fluid uptake ability and gelling rate, as well as hydrogel water vapour transmission at wound site were studied. Particles morphology was spherical with few exceptions as slightly corrugated particles when the larger nozzle was used. Production of spherical nanoparticles (d50 ∼ 350 nm) in good yield (82-92%) required 4 μm spray mesh whereas 7 μm mesh produced larger wrinkled particles. Nano spray-dried particles showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼ 80%), good flowability, high fluid uptake, fast gel formation (15 min) and proper adhesiveness to fill the wound site and to remove easily the formulation after use. Moreover, moisture transmission of the in situ formed hydrogel was between 95 and 90 g/m(2)/h, an optimum range to avoid wound dehydration or occlusion phenomena. Release of the encapsulated GS, monitored as permeation rate using Franz cells in simulated wound fluid (SWF) was related to particle size and gelling rate. Sustained permeation profiles were obtained achieving total permeation of the drug between 3 and 6 days. However, all nano spray-dried formulations presented a burst effect, suitable to prevent infection spreading at the beginning of the therapy. Antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed stronger and prolonged antimicrobial effect of the nanoparticles compared to pure GS both shortly after administration and over time (till 12 days). PMID:24979533

  16. Nanoparticulate STING agonists are potent lymph node–targeted vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Melissa C.; Crespo, Monica P.; Abraham, Wuhbet; Moynihan, Kelly D.; Szeto, Gregory L.; Chen, Stephanie H.; Melo, Mariane B.; Mueller, Stefanie; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are agonists of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and have potential as vaccine adjuvants. However, cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP) injected s.c. shows minimal uptake into lymphatics/draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and instead is rapidly distributed to the bloodstream, leading to systemic inflammation. Here, we encapsulated cdGMP within PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (NP-cdGMP) to redirect this adjuvant to dLNs. Compared with unformulated CDNs, encapsulation blocked systemic dissemination and markedly enhanced dLN accumulation in murine models. Delivery of NP-cdGMP increased CD8+ T cell responses primed by peptide vaccines and enhanced therapeutic antitumor immunity. A combination of a poorly immunogenic liposomal HIV gp41 peptide antigen and NP-cdGMP robustly induced type I IFN in dLNs, induced a greater expansion of vaccine-specific CD4+ T cells, and greatly increased germinal center B cell differentiation in dLNs compared with a combination of liposomal HIV gp41 and soluble CDN. Further, NP-cdGMP promoted durable antibody titers that were substantially higher than those promoted by the well-studied TLR agonist monophosphoryl lipid A and comparable to a much larger dose of unformulated cdGMP, without the systemic toxicity of the latter. These results demonstrate that nanoparticulate delivery safely targets CDNs to the dLNs and enhances the efficacy of this adjuvant. Moreover, this approach can be broadly applied to other small-molecule immunomodulators of interest for vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:25938786

  17. Characterization and ecological risk assessment of nanoparticulate CeO2 as a diesel fuel catalyst.

    PubMed

    Batley, Graeme E; Halliburton, Brendan; Kirby, Jason K; Doolette, Casey L; Navarro, Divina; McLaughlin, Mike J; Veitch, Colin

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticulate cerium dioxide (nano-CeO2 ), when combusted as an additive to diesel fuel, was transformed from 6 nm to 14 nm sizes into particles near 43 nm, with no obvious change in the unit cell dimensions or crystalline form. Cerium sulfate, if formed during combustion, was below detection limits. Ceria nanoparticles were agglomerated within the soot matrix, with a mean aerodynamic diameter near 100 nm. The dissolution of cerium from the dried ceria catalyst in synthetic soft water was extremely small (<0.0006% or <0.2 µg Ce/L), with particles being highly agglomerated (<450 nm). Agglomeration was reduced in the presence of humic acid. In the combusted samples, soot was dominant, and the solubility of cerium in soft water showed an almost 100-fold increase in the <1 nm fraction compared to that before combustion. It appeared that the nano-CeO2 remained agglomerated within the soot matrix and would not be present as dispersed nanoparticles in aquatic or soil environments. Despite the increased dissolution, the solubility was not sufficient for the combusted ceria to represent a risk in aquatic ecosystems. The predicted environmental concentrations were still orders of magnitude below the predicted no effects concentration of near 1 mg/L. In the soil environment, any cerium released from soot materials would interact with natural colloids, decreasing cerium concentrations in soil solutions and further minimizing the potential risk to soil organisms. PMID:23595783

  18. A nanoparticulate liquid binding phase based DGT device for aquatic arsenic measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwen; Qin, Nannan; Song, Jieyao; Zhang, Ya; Cai, Weiping; Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-11-01

    A nanomaterials-based DGT device constructed with commercial dialysis membrane as diffusive layer and nanoparticulate Fe3O4 aqueous suspension as binding phase is developed and validated for in situ aquatic arsenic measurement. The Fe3O4NPs binding phase is capable of quantitatively accumulated both As(III) and As(V) species. As(III) and As(V) species coexist in the vast majority of environmental water samples. The large difference in diffusion coefficients of As(III) (DAs(III)=3.05×10(-7)cm(2)s(-1)) and As(V) (DAs(V)=1.63×10(-7)cm(2)s(-1)) makes the accurate DGT determination of total arsenic concentration of samples containing both species difficult. An effective diffusion coefficient (DAs¯=DAs(III)[1/(1+x)]+DAs(V)[x/(1+x)],where,x=As(V)/As(III)) approach is therefore proposed and validated for accurate DGT determination of total arsenic when As(III) and As(V) coexist. The experimental results demonstrate that for samples having As(V)/As(III) ratios between 0.1 and 0.9, the DGT determined total arsenic concentrations using DAs¯are within ±93-99% of that determined by ICP-MS. The general principle demonstrated in this work opens up a new avenue of utilizing functional nanomaterials as DGT binding phase, paving a way for developing new generation nanomaterials-based DGT devices that can be readily produced in massive numbers at low costs, facilitating the widespread use of DGT for large-scale environmental assessment and other applications. PMID:27591608

  19. Nanoparticulate Delivery of Agents for Induced Elastogenesis in 3-Dimensional Collagenous Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Lavanya; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Vaidya, Pratik; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of elastic matrix in the infrarenal aortic wall is a critical parameter underlying the formation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). It is mediated by the chronic overexpression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) -2 and -9, leading to a progressive loss of elasticity and weakening of the aortic wall. Delivery of therapeutic agents to inhibit MMPs, while concurrently coaxing cell-based regenerative repair of the elastic matrix represents a potential strategy for slowing or arresting AAA growth. Our prior studies have demonstrated elastogenic induction of healthy and aneurysmal aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and inhibition of MMPs, following exogenous delivery of elastogenic factors such as TGF-β1, as well as MMP-inhibitors such as doxycycline (DOX) in two-dimensional (2-D) culture. Based on these findings, and others that demonstrated elastogenic benefits of nanoparticulate delivery of these agents in 2-D culture, we have developed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for localized, controlled and sustained delivery of DOX and TGF-β1 to human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) within a three-dimensional (3-D) gels of type-I collagen gel, which closely evoke the arterial tissue microenvironment. DOX and TGF-β1 released from these NPs influenced elastogenic outcomes positively within the collagen constructs over 21 days of culture, which were comparable to that induced by exogenous supplementation of DOX and TGF-β1 within the culture medium. However, this was accomplished at doses ∼20-fold lower than the exogenous dosages of the agents, illustrating that their localized, controlled, and sustained delivery from NPs embedded within a 3-D scaffold is an efficient strategy for directed elastogenesis. PMID:24737693

  20. Dual-functional bio-derived nanoparticulates for apoptotic antitumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Wang, Yazhe; Opoku-Damoah, Yaw; Wang, Cheng; Shen, Lingjia; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The application of bio-derived nanoparticulates has gained a remarkable degree of interest as a promising sustained-release, site-targeted and completely biodegradable delivery system for chemotherapeutics. We hereby introduce a dual-functionalized biomimetic nanovector, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-anchored recombinant high density lipoproteins (cp-rHDL), which affords high payload and improved targeting of gambogic acid (GA), a therapeutic agent for apoptotic antitumor therapy. GA-loaded cp-rHDL nanoparticles (cp-rHDL/GA) consisted of hydrophobic core modulating GA, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) for attractive integrating and tumor-homing, and lipophilic anchored R6H4 (RRRRRRHHHH, a pH-responsive CPP) offering a pH-controlled penetrating potential. Upon stepwise incubation with apo A-I and R6H4, cp-rHDL/GA presented several merits, including desirable physicochemical properties, superior biostability, and favorable buffering capacity resulting in proton sponge effect. Synergistic intracellular mechanism for scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated direct transmembrane delivery, and pH-responsive R6H4 associated endocytotic pathway with rapid endo-lysosomal escape was also observed. This tailored cp-rHDL/GA displayed remarkable cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect via triggering p53 pathway, and provided approximately 5-fold increase in IC50 compared to free GA. Moreover, this rational biomimetic therapeutic strategy attained superior tumor accumulation and significant inhibition of tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft tumor animal models without measurable adverse effect. Results of this study demonstrated that bio-derived cp-rHDL/GA presents pH-responsive penetrating potential and efficient cellular internalization. This dual-functionalization model will open an avenue for exploration of multi-functional bio-derived drug delivery, thereby rendering potential broad applications in apoptotic anticancer therapy. PMID:26344366

  1. K-edge ratio method for identification of multiple nanoparticulate contrast agents by spectral CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiri, H; Ay, M R; Shiran, M B; Soltanian-Zadeh, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recently introduced energy-sensitive X-ray CT makes it feasible to discriminate different nanoparticulate contrast materials. The purpose of this work is to present a K-edge ratio method for differentiating multiple simultaneous contrast agents using spectral CT. Methods: The ratio of two images relevant to energy bins straddling the K-edge of the materials is calculated using an analytic CT simulator. In the resulting parametric map, the selected contrast agent regions can be identified using a thresholding algorithm. The K-edge ratio algorithm is applied to spectral images of simulated phantoms to identify and differentiate up to four simultaneous and targeted CT contrast agents. Results: We show that different combinations of simultaneous CT contrast agents can be identified by the proposed K-edge ratio method when energy-sensitive CT is used. In the K-edge parametric maps, the pixel values for biological tissues and contrast agents reach a maximum of 0.95, whereas for the selected contrast agents, the pixel values are larger than 1.10. The number of contrast agents that can be discriminated is limited owing to photon starvation. For reliable material discrimination, minimum photon counts corresponding to 140 kVp, 100 mAs and 5-mm slice thickness must be used. Conclusion: The proposed K-edge ratio method is a straightforward and fast method for identification and discrimination of multiple simultaneous CT contrast agents. Advances in knowledge: A new spectral CT-based algorithm is proposed which provides a new concept of molecular CT imaging by non-iteratively identifying multiple contrast agents when they are simultaneously targeting different organs. PMID:23934964

  2. A phase I study of intraperitoneal nanoparticulate paclitaxel (Nanotax®) in patients with peritoneal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gary A.; Maulhardt, Holly A.; Moore, Kathleen M.; McMeekin, D. S.; Schulz, Thomas K.; Reed, Gregory A.; Roby, Katherine F.; Mackay, Christine B.; Smith, Holly J.; Weir, Scott J.; Wick, Jo A.; Markman, Maurie; diZerega, Gere S.; Baltezor, Michael J.; Espinosa, Jahna; Decedue, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter, open-label, dose-escalating, phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary tumor response of a nanoparticulate formulation of paclitaxel (Nanotax®) administered intraperitoneally for multiple treatment cycles in patients with solid tumors predominantly confined to the peritoneal cavity for whom no other curative systemic therapy treatment options were available. Methods Twenty-one patients with peritoneal malignancies received Nanotax® in a modified dose-escalation approach utilizing an accelerated titration method. All patients enrolled had previously received chemotherapeutics and undergone surgical procedures, including 33 % with optimal debulking. Six doses (50–275 mg/m2) of Cremophor-free Nanotax® were administered intraperitoneally for one to six cycles (every 28 days). Results Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of Nanotax® did not lead to increases in toxicity over that typically associated with intravenous (IV) paclitaxel. No patient reported ≥Grade 2 neutropenia and/or ≥Grade 3 neurologic toxicities. Grade 3 thrombocytopenia unlikely related to study medication occurred in one patient. The peritoneal concentration–time profile of paclitaxel rose during the 2 days after dosing to peritoneal fluid concentrations 450–2900 times greater than peak plasma drug concentrations and remained elevated through the entire dose cycle. Best response assessments were made in 16/21 patients: Four patients were assessed as stable or had no response and twelve patients had increasing disease. Five of 21 patients with advanced cancers survived longer than 400 days after initiation of Nanotax® IP treatment. Conclusions Compared to IV paclitaxel administration, Cremophor-free IP administration of Nanotax® provides higher and prolonged peritoneal paclitaxel levels with minimal systemic exposure and reduced toxicity. PMID:25898813

  3. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  4. Polymeric Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.; Maurer, Wayne W.; Lipic, Paul M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Mortensen, Kell; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    1997-08-01

    High molecular weight block copolymers can be viewed as macromolecular surfactants when blended with thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers. This Letter describes the formation of polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions in mixtures containing a model diblock copolymer and two homopolymers. Although we attribute development of this equilibrium morphology to the effects of fluctuations, mean-field theory provides a quantitative strategy for preparing the bicontinuous state at blend compositions near an isotropic Lifshitz point.

  5. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  6. Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vunnam, S.; Ankireddy, K.; Kellar, J.; Cross, W.

    2014-05-01

    Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 Ω cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10-2 Ω cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate.

  7. Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing.

    PubMed

    Vunnam, S; Ankireddy, K; Kellar, J; Cross, W

    2014-05-16

    Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 Ω cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10(-2) Ω cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate. PMID:24763438

  8. Acrylic esters in radiation polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, N.V.; Khoromskaya, V.A.; Shiryaeva, G.V.

    1988-03-01

    The radiation behavior of (meth)acrylic esters of varying structure was studied. It was shown that in radiation polymerization, in contrast to thermal polymerization, the structure of the ester part can significantly affect the reaction rate and capacity for polymerization in the presence of oxygen. The experimental data are explained from the point of view of consideration of nonvalence effects of the substitutent on the reactivity of the double bond.

  9. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  10. Sustainable polymerizations in recoverable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Yan, Feng; Qiu, Lihua; Lu, Jianmei; Zhou, Yinxia; Chen, Jiaxin; Tang, Yishan; Texter, John

    2010-03-16

    Free radical and atom-transfer radical polymerizations were conducted in monomer/ionic liquid microemulsions. After the polymerization and isolation of the resultant polymers, the mixture of the catalyst and ionic liquids (surfactant and continuous phase) can be recovered and reused, thereby dramatically improving the environmental sustainability of such chemical processing. The addition of monomer to recovered ionic liquid mixtures regenerates transparent, stable microemulsions that are ready for the next polymerization cycle upon addition of initiator. The method combines the advantages of IL recycling and microemulsion polymerization and minimizes environmental disposable effects from surfactants and heavy metal ions. PMID:20170175

  11. Continuous polymerization reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.S.

    1986-05-06

    A method is described for contacting olefinic monomer and initiator in a continuous polymerization process comprising of the steps of: creating three turbulent zones in a vessel; introducing the olefinic monomer into a first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones; introducing the initiator into a second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones, wherein the first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones is substantially diametrically opposed to the second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones respectively.

  12. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  15. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  16. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  17. Design and evaluation of a novel nanoparticulate-based formulation encapsulating a HIP complex of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Gaudana, Ripal; Gokulgandhi, Mitan; Khurana, Varun; Kwatra, Deep; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-01-01

    Formulation development of protein therapeutics using polymeric nanoparticles has found very little success in recent years. Major formulation challenges include rapid denaturation, susceptibility to lose bioactivity in presence of organic solvents and poor encapsulation in polymeric matrix. In the present study, we have prepared hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complex of lysozyme, a model protein, using dextran sulfate (DS) as a complexing polymer. We have optimized the process of formation and dissociation of HIP complex between lysozyme and DS. The effect of HIP complexation on enzymatic activity of lysozyme was also studied. Nanoparticles were prepared and characterized using spontaneous emulsion solvent diffusion method. Furthermore, we have also investigated release of lysozyme from nanoparticles along with its enzymatic activity. Results of this study indicate that nanoparticles can sustain the release of lysozyme without compromising its enzymatic activity. HIP complexation using a polymer may also be employed to formulate sustained release dosage forms of other macromolecules with enhanced encapsulation efficiency. PMID:23137392

  18. Antibacterial efficacy of inhalable antibiotic-encapsulated biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles against E. coli biofilm cells.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Chang, Matthew Wook; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2010-08-01

    Biofilm is a sessile community of bacterial cells enclosed by a self-secreted extracellular polymeric matrix that exhibit a high recalcitrance towards antibiotics. Inhaled antibiotic nanoparticles with a sustained release capability have emerged as one of the most promising anti-biofilm formulations in the fight against respiratory biofilm infections attributed to their ability to penetrate the biofilm sputum. The present work examines the antibacterial efficacies and physical characteristics of different antibiotic-loaded polymeric nanoparticle formulations. PLGA and PCL nanoparticles prepared by an emulsification-solvent-evaporation method are used as the antibiotic carrier nanoparticles. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (i.e., ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) are selected as the antibiotic models due to their proven effectiveness against dormant bacterial cells and their ability to penetrate the biofilm matrix. The antibacterial efficacy against E. coli biofilm cells is examined in a time-kill study in which the effects of biofilm age, antibiotic exposure history, and drug removal are taken into account. Ciprofloxacin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles are identified as the most ideal formulation due to their high drug encapsulation efficiency, high antibacterial efficacy at a low dose against biofilm cells and biofilm-derived planktonic cells of E. coli. Moreover, the nanoparticulate suspension can be transformed into micro-scale dry-powder aerosols having aerodynamic characteristics ideal for inhaled delivery. PMID:21323113

  19. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  20. Particulate Emissions from the Combustion of Diesel Fuel with a Fuel-Borne Nanoparticulate Cerium Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Willis, R. D.; Weinstein, J. P.; Krantz, T.; King, C.

    2013-12-01

    To address the adverse impacts on health and climate from the use of diesel-fueled vehicles, a number of technological solutions have been developed for reducing diesel soot emissions and to improve fuel economy. One such solution is the use fuel-borne metal oxide catalysts. Of current interest are commercially-available fuel additives consisting of nanoparticulate cerium oxide (CeO2). In response to the possible use of CeO2-containing fuels in on-road vehicles in the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency is conducting research to address the potential toxicity and environmental effects of particulate CeO2 emitted with diesel soot. In this study, emissions from a diesel-fueled electric generator were size-segregated on polished silicon wafers in a nanoparticle cascade impactor. The diesel fuel contained 10 ppm Ce by weight in the form of crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles 4 nm to 7.5 nm in size. Primary CeO2 nanoparticles were observed in the diesel emissions as well as CeO2 aggregates encompassing a broad range of sizes up to at least 200 nm. We report the characterization of individual particles from the size-resolved samples with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results show a dependency between the impactor size range and CeO2 agglomeration state: in the larger size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 560 nm to 1000 nm) CeO2 nanoparticles were predominantly attached to soot particles. In the smaller size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 100 nm to 320 nm), CeO2 aggregates tended to be larger and unattached to soot. The result is important because the deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles attached to soot particles in the lung or on environmental surfaces such as plant tissue will likely present different consequences than the deposition of unagglomerated CeO2 particles. Disclaimer The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded and collaborated in the research described

  1. Nanoparticulate assemblies of amphiphiles and diagnostically active materials for multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Willem J M; Strijkers, Gustav J; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Cormode, David P; Fayad, Zahi A; Nicolay, Klaas

    2009-07-21

    Modern medicine has greatly benefited from recent dramatic improvements in imaging techniques. The observation of physiological events through interactions manipulated at the molecular level offers unique insight into the function (and dysfunction) of the living organism. The tremendous advances in the development of nanoparticulate molecular imaging agents over the past decade have made it possible to noninvasively image the specificity, pharmacokinetic profiles, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy of many novel compounds. Several types of nanoparticles have demonstrated utility for biomedical purposes, including inorganic nanocrystals, such as iron oxide, gold, and quantum dots. Moreover, natural nanoparticles, such as viruses, lipoproteins, or apoferritin, as well as hybrid nanostructures composed of inorganic and natural nanoparticles, have been applied broadly. However, among the most investigated nanoparticle platforms for biomedical purposes are lipidic aggregates, such as liposomal nanoparticles, micelles, and microemulsions. Their relative ease of preparation and functionalization, as well as the ready synthetic ability to combine multiple amphiphilic moieties, are the most important reasons for their popularity. Lipid-based nanoparticle platforms allow the inclusion of a variety of imaging agents, ranging from fluorescent molecules to chelated metals and nanocrystals. In recent years, we have created a variety of multifunctional lipid-based nanoparticles for molecular imaging; many are capable of being used with more than one imaging technique (that is, with multimodal imaging ability). These nanoparticles differ in size, morphology, and specificity for biological markers. In this Account, we discuss the development and characterization of five different particles: liposomes, micelles, nanocrystal micelles, lipid-coated silica, and nanocrystal high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We also demonstrate their application for multimodal molecular imaging

  2. Foamy virus vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D W; Miller, A D

    1996-01-01

    Human foamy virus (HFV) is a retrovirus of the spumavirus family. We have constructed vectors based on HFV that encode neomycin phosphotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. These vectors are able to transduce a wide variety of vertebrate cells by integration of the vector genome. Unlike vectors based on murine leukemia virus, HFV vectors are not inactivated by human serum, and they transduce stationary-phase cultures more efficiently than murine leukemia virus vectors. These properties, as well as their large packaging capacity, make HFV vectors promising gene transfer vehicles. PMID:8523528

  3. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. The highest conductivities reported (approximately 4/Scm) were achieved with polythiophene in a polystyrene host polymer. The best films using a polyamide as base polymer were four orders of magnitude less conductive than the polystyrene films. The authors suggested that this was because polyimides were unable to swell sufficiently for infiltration of monomer as in the polystyrene. It was not clear, however, if the different conductivities obtained were merely the result of differing oxidation conditions. Oxidation time, temperature and oxidant concentration varied widely among the studies.

  4. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  5. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  6. Dynamics of nanoparticules detected at 1 AU by S/WAVES onboard STEREO spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belheouane, Soraya; Issautier, Karine; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Le Chat, Gaétan; Czechowski, Andrzej; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Zouganelis, Yannis; Mann, Ingrid

    In order to interpret in detail the S/WAVES data on the interplanetary nanodust discovered by STEREO at 1 AU [Meyer-Vernet et al., 2009], we study the dynamics of nanoparticles in the inner interplanetary medium as well as the distribution of their velocities and directions of arrival, with a model based on [Czechowski and Mann, 2012]. We deduce the charges released by their impacts on the STEREO spacecraft at 1 AU and their dependence on the position of the spacecraft on their orbits. The model studies nanoparticles of size equal or smaller than about 70 nm, assumed to be created via collisional fragmentation of dust grains of larger size moving on keplerian orbits, and sublimation of dust, meteoroids and comets. The nanoparticles are released near the Sun with initial velocities close to keplerian, and mainly subjected to the Lorentz force calculated with a simple solar wind model. A part of the nanoparticles is accelerated to high speeds of the order of 300 km/s, thereby providing impact charges between 10(-14) and 10(-11) Cb [Belheouane, 2014] which enable them to be detected by S/WAVES, whereas another part is trapped within about 0.2 AU from the Sun. We discuss how the fluxes and direction of arrival at 1 AU are expected to change in function of the solar cycle. These results enable us to interpret in detail the STEREO/WAVES observations [Zaslavsky et al., 2012]; [Pantellini et al., 2013]; [Le Chat et al., 2013]. Belheouane, S. (2014). Nanoparticules dans le vent solaire, observations spatiales et theorie. PhD thesis, Pierre and Marie Curie University UPMC. Czechowski, A. and Mann, I. (2012). Nanodust Dynamics in Interplanetary Space, chapter Nanodust Dynamics in Interplanetary Space. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Le Chat, G., Zaslavsky, A., Meyer-Vernet, N., Issautier, K., Belheouane, S., Pantellini, F., Maksimovic, M., Zouganelis, I., Bale, S., and Kasper, J. (2013). Interplanetary Nanodust Detection by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/WAVES Low

  7. Complement activation as a bioequivalence issue relevant to the development of generic liposomes and other nanoparticulate drugs.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Janos; Storm, Gert

    2015-12-18

    Liposomes are known to activate the complement (C) system, which can lead in vivo to a hypersensitivity syndrome called C activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA). CARPA has been getting increasing attention as a safety risk of i.v. therapy with liposomes, whose testing is now recommended in bioequivalence evaluations of generic liposomal drug candidates. This review highlights the adverse consequences of C activation, the unique symptoms of CARPA triggered by essentially all i.v. administered liposomal drugs, and the various features of vesicles influencing this adverse immune effect. For the case of Doxil, we also address the mechanism of C activation and the opsonization vs. long circulation (stealth) paradox. In reviewing the methods of assessing C activation and CARPA, we delineate the most sensitive porcine model and an algorithm for stepwise evaluation of the CARPA risk of i.v. liposomes, which are proposed for standardization for preclinical toxicology evaluation of liposomal and other nanoparticulate drug candidates. PMID:26182876

  8. Urate crystal degradation for treatment of gout: a nanoparticulate combination therapy approach.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sanjay; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop polymeric nanoparticles of uricase and aceclofenac (NSAID) and to incorporate them into gel, for delivering drugs to synovial joints, for effective treatment of Gout. Nanoparticles containing uricase and aceclofenac were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method and emulsion solvent evaporation, using PLGA (50:50) as carrier, respectively. Process parameters were optimized using Taguchi L4 orthogonal array and L9 array, respectively. The formulations were characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency, surface charge, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation, and urate crystal degradation activity. The particle size and entrapment efficiency for optimized batch was found to be 228.8 nm and 81.26% for uricase nanoparticles and 288.5 nm and 85.36% for aceclofenac nanoparticles, respectively. The developed nanoparticles formulations displayed zero order and Higuchi release kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion, respectively. The in vivo studies were performed in rabbit model. Topical application of gel containing polymeric uricase nanoparticles alone and a combination of both, uricase nanoparticles and aceclofenac nanoparticles in rabbit model test groups, provided complete removal of urate crystals and inflammation within 40 and 25 days of treatment, respectively. The combination treatment therapy resulted in effective treatment of gout due to degradation of crystals and anti-inflammatory response. PMID:25787730

  9. Coal and tire burning mixtures containing ultrafine and nanoparticulate materials induce oxidative stress and inflammatory activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Caregnato, Fernanda F; Rabelo, Thallita K; DaBoit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Moreira, José C F; Gelain, Daniel P

    2013-10-01

    Ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials resulting from mixtures of coal and non-coal fuels combustion for power generation release to the air components with toxic potential. We evaluated toxicological and inflammatory effects at cellular level that could be induced by ultrafine/nanoparticles-containing ashes from burning mixtures of coal and tires from an American power plant. Coal fly ashes (CFA) samples from the combustion of high-S coal and tire-derived fuel, the latter about 2-3% of the total fuel feed, in a 100-MW cyclone utility boiler, were suspended in the cell culture medium of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, assessed by MTT reduction, SRB incorporation and contrast-phase microscopy analysis demonstrated that CFA did not induce acute toxicity. However, CFA at 1mg/mL induced an increase of approximately 338% in intracellular TNF-α, while release of this proinflammatory cytokine was increased by 1.6-fold. The expression of the inflammatory mediator CD40 receptor was enhanced by 2-fold, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) had a 5.7-fold increase and the stress response protein HSP70 was increased nearly 12-fold by CFA at 1mg/mL. Although CFA did not induce cell death, parameters of oxidative stress and reactive species production were found to be altered at several degrees, such as nitrite accumulation (22% increase), DCFH oxidation (3.5-fold increase), catalase (5-fold increase) and superoxide dismutase (35% inhibition) activities, lipoperoxidation (4.2 fold-increase) and sulfhydryl oxidation (40% decrease in free SH groups). The present results suggest that CFA containing ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials from coal and tire combustion may induce sub-chronic cell damage, as they alter inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters at the molecular and cellular levels, but do not induce acute cell death. PMID:23856402

  10. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  11. The vector ruling protractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    The theory, structure and working of a vector slide rule is presented in this report. This instrument is used for determining a vector in magnitude and position when given its components and its moment about a point in their plane.

  12. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  13. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  14. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  15. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  16. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  17. MATRIX AND VECTOR SERVICES

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-10-18

    PETRA V2 provides matrix and vector services and the ability construct, query, and use matrix and vector objects that are used and computed by TRILINOS solvers. It provides all basic matr5ix and vector operations for solvers in TRILINOS.

  18. Restart 68000 vector remapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, J.

    1984-05-03

    The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.

  19. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  20. Was Mineral Surface Complexity and Toxicity an Impetus for Evolution of Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, N.; Xu, J.; Zhu, C.; Campbell, J.; Hickey, W.; Zhang, N.

    2011-12-01

    Modern ecological niches are teeming with an astonishing diversity of microbial life closely associated with mineral surfaces, highlighting the remarkable success of microorganisms in conquering the challenges and capitalizing on the benefits presented by the mineral-water interface. Such community-living is enabled by an extracellular, polymeric, biofilm matrix developed at cell surfaces. Despite the energetic penalties, biofilm formation capability likely evolved on early Earth because of crucial cell survival functions, of which recognized roles include facilitating cell-attachment at mineral surfaces, intercellular signaling and lateral gene transfer, protection from dessication in tidal pools, and screening toxic UV light and toxic soluble metals. Cell-attachment to mineral surfaces was likely critical for cell survival and function, but the potential toxicity of mineral surfaces towards cells and the complexities of the mineral-water-cell interface in promoting biofilm formation, have not been fully appreciated. We examined the effects of nanoparticulate oxides (amorphous SiO2, anatase β-TiO2, and γ-Al2O3) on EPS- and biofilm-producing wild-type strains and their isogenic knock-out mutants which are defective in EPS-producing ability. In detail, we used Gram-negative wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and its EPS knock-out mutant Δ-psl, and the Gram-positive wild-type Bacillus subtilis NCIB3610 and its EPS-knock-out mutant yhxBΔ. We conducted bacterial growth experiments in the presence of each oxide in order to determine the viability of each cell type relative to oxide-free controls. The amount of EPS generated in the presence of oxides was also quantified and qualitatively analyzed by fluorescent stains. The results indicated a previously unrecognized role for microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in shielding both Gram-negative and Gram-positive cells against the toxic effects of mineral surfaces. This role is distinct from the

  1. Holographic vector-wave femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaki, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Arbitrary and variable beam shaping of femtosecond pulses by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) have been applied to femtosecond laser processing. The holographic femtosecond laser processing has been widely used in many applications such as two-photon polymerization, optical waveguide fabrication, fabrication of volume phase gratings in polymers, and surface nanostructuring. A vector wave that has a spatial distribution of polarization states control of femtosecond pulses gives good performances for the femtosecond laser processing. In this paper, an in- system optimization of a CGH for massively-parallel femtosecond laser processing, a dynamic control of spatial spectral dispersion to improve the focal spot shape, and the holographic vector-wave femtosecond laser processing are demonstrated.

  2. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles. PMID:16430253

  3. Admicellar polymerization of precipated silica

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.L.; Grady, B.P.; Harwell, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    The tendency of a surfactant molecule to adsorb at a solid-liquid interface is the basis for an in situ surface modification process, termed admicellar polymerization. The four-step admicellar polymerization process includes: (1) adsorption of surfactant at the solid-liquid interface, (2) adsolubilization of monomer into the surfactant bilayer, (3) polymerization using free-radical initiators and heat, (4) removal of excess surfactant to expose the polymer modified surface. The process is used to apply polymer to precipitated silica to enhance the compatibility of the silica when added to filled rubber. The adsorption isotherms were first determined for particular surfactant/silica combinations to find the surfactant concentration that would sufficiently adsolubilize the monomer, while remaining below the critical micelle concentration. A series of experiments were then devised for the polymerization reactions in which the surfactant and monomer amounts were varied over three levels to establish the optimal combination.

  4. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.

    1980-05-01

    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  5. Covariantized vector Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Matthew; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    Vector Galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector Galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a "beyond Horndeski" theory involving vector degrees of freedom that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyze a Higgs mechanism for generating vector Galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantization.

  6. Polymeric Nucleic Acid Carriers: Current Issues and Novel Design Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo; Bae, You Han

    2012-01-01

    To deliver nucleic acids including plasmid DNA (pDNA) and short interfering RNA (siRNA), polymeric gene carriers equipped with various functionalities have been extensively investigated. The functionalities of these polymeric vectors have been designed to overcome various extracellular and intracellular hurdles that nucleic acids and their carriers encounter during their journey from injection site to intracellular target site. This review briefly introduces known extracellular and intracellular issues of nucleic acid delivery and their solution strategies. We examine significant yet overlooked factors affecting nucleic acid delivery (e.g., microenvironmental pH, polymer/siRNA complexation, and pharmaceutical formulation) and highlight our reported approaches to solve these problems. PMID:22771981

  7. Preparation of nanoparticulate Fe 2O 3—polymaleic monoester alternating Langmuir—Blodgett films with functional organic hydrophobic part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Man-Lai; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Kang, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Yun-Hang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, De-Jun; Xiao, Liang-Zhi; Li, Tie-Jin; Chen, Hai-Yan

    1993-07-01

    An organic functional group was introduced into the inorganic nanoparticle—organic alternating LB films by the use of the polymaleic monoester with a functional lateral chain ? to replace a fatty acid. Using the polymer (PMANN), the distance between adjacent nanoparticles in the LB films is apparently decreased and the distribution of the nanoparticles in the monolayer is more homegeneous than that in the nanoparticulate Fe 2O 3—stearate monolayer. All these phenomena are ascribed to the carboxylate groups of a polymer molecule bound to two or more nanoparticles. The photovoltage response of n-type (p-type) silicon coated with a monolayer of nanoparticulate Fe 2O 3—PMANN LB films increases (decreases) for two orders.

  8. Synthesis, morphology and antifungal activity of nano-particulated amphotericin-B, ketoconazole and thymoquinone against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Mohammad A; Gondal, Mohammed A; Al-Zahrani, Al-Hosain J; Rashid, Siddique G; Ali, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, nano-particulated drugs-Amphotericin-B, Ketoconazole and Thymoquinone (an active ingredient of Nigella sativa)-were prepared using the ball milling technique, and their particle sizes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and using a particle size analyzer. The grain sizes of the prepared compounds were found in between 5 to 20 nm, and exhibited quasi-spherical morphology. The antifungal activity of each nano-particulated drug was investigated in vitro against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm, and compared with their micro-structured conventional forms. Nano-sized drugs were found to be two to four times more effective in disinfecting both the Candida yeasts and Candida biofilm. The study is a first of its kind as nano-forms of drugs have not been studied against Candida and Candida biofilm before. Further investigations are required for the determination of the clinical significance of the nano-formulation of antifungal substances. PMID:25560257

  9. Polymeric materials in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    Paper of short review type. It is the continuation of and addition to previous review papers "V. E. Skurat. Polymers in Space. In: Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering, vol. 4, Wiley and sons, 2010; Ibid., 2012 (on line)". Following topics are considered: (1) Destruction of polymers by solar radiation with various wavelengths in different spectral regions (visible-UV, vacuum UV (VUV), deep UV, soft and hard X-rays) are discussed. In difference with common polymer photochemistry induced by UV radiation, directions of various routs of polymer phototransformations and their relative yields are greatly dependent on wavelength of light (photon energy) during illuminations in VUV, deep UV and X-ray regions. During last twenty years, intensive spacecraft investigations of solar spectrum show great periodic and spontaneous variations of radiation intensities in short-wavelengths regions - up to one - two decimal orders of magnitude for X-rays. As a result, during solar flares the absorbed dose on the polymer surfaces from X-rays can be compared with absorbed dose from VUV radiation. (2) Some new approaches to predictions of reaction efficiencies of fast orbital atomic oxygen in their interaction with polymeric materials are considered. (3) Some aspects of photocatalitic destruction of polymers in vacuum conditions by full-spectrum solar radiation are discussed. This process can take place in enamels containing semiconducting particles (TiO2, ZnO) as pigments. (4) Contamination of spacecraft surfaces from intrinsic outer atmosphere play important role not only from the point of view of deterioration of optical and thermophysical properties. Layers of SiO2 contaminations with nanometer thicknesses can greatly diminish mass losses from perfluorinated polymers under VUV irradiation.

  10. Polymeric materials for neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVolder, Ross John

    Revascularization therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to treat various acute and chronic wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tissue defects. It is common to either administer proangiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or transplant cells that endogenously express multiple proangiogenic factors. Additionally, these strategies utilize a wide variety of polymeric systems, including hydrogels and biodegradable plastics, to deliver proangiogenic factors in a sophisticated manner to maintain a sustained proangiogenic environment. Despite some impressive results in rebuilding vascular networks, it is still a challenging task to engineer mature and functional neovessels in target tissues, because of the increasing complexities involved with neovascularization applications. To resolve these challenges, this work aims to design a wide variety of proangiogenic biomaterial systems with tunable properties used for neovascularization therapies. This thesis describes the design of several biomaterial systems used for the delivery of proangiogenic factors in neovascularization therapies, including: an electrospun/electrosprayed biodegradable plastic patch used for directional blood vessel growth (Chapter 2), an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system that biochemically stimulates cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 3), an enzyme-catalyzed alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system for VEGF delivery (Chapter 4), an enzyme-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system with systematically controllable electrical and mechanical properties (Chapter 5), and an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel that enables the decoupled control of electrical conductivity and mechanical rigidity and is use to electrically stimulate cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 6). Overall, the biomaterial systems developed in this thesis will be broadly useful for improving the quality of a wide array of molecular and cellular based

  11. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  12. Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Kasiraman

    Rheology of complex fluids has been a topic of considerable interest recently. Bicontinuous microemulsions (BmuE), made by mixing appropriate amounts of oil, water and a surfactant, form a unique class of complex fluids. They possess a characteristic nanostructure consisting of undulating surfaces with vanishingly small interfacial curvature. BmuEs can also be generated in polymers by mixing appropriate amounts of two homopolymers and their corresponding diblock copolymer. The main objective of the present research is to study effects of shear on a model polymeric BmuE. Scattering is used as a predominant tool with in situ flow devices, along with optical microscopy and rheology. The model BmuE consists of a ternary blend of poly(ethyl ethylene) (PEE), poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and a PEE-PDMS diblock copolymer. Steady shear experiments reveal four regimes as a function of shear rate. At low shear rates (regime I), Newtonian behavior is observed; there is onset of shear thinning at higher rates (regime II). In regime III, the stress is independent of shear rate, whereas it increases with shear rate once again in regime IV. Morphological characterization was carried out for each of these four regimes using scattering and microscopy, the key result being the evidence for flow-induced phase separation in regime III. Transient rheological measurements were conducted for startup and step changes in shear rate, and the BmuE exhibits features similar to worm-like micellar colloidal systems. Time-resolved light scattering and microscopy also reveal interesting characteristics. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy indicates similarities with neat block copolymers near the order-disorder transition. The equilibrium rheological behavior is intriguing and detailed comparisons are made with Landau-Ginzburg theoretical models. Other areas of research as a part of this thesis include study of structural dynamics of BmuEs with dynamic light scattering, and the rheological

  13. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  14. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  15. Novel pentablock copolymer-based nanoparticulate systems for sustained protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sulabh P; Vaishya, Ravi; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-04-01

    The design, synthesis, and application of novel biodegradable and biocompatible pentablock (PB) copolymers, i.e., polyglycolic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polyglycolic acid (PGA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PGA) and polylactic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polylactic acid (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) for sustained protein delivery, are reported. The PB copolymers can be engineered to generate sustained delivery of protein therapeutics to the posterior segment of the eye. PB copolymers with different block arrangements and molecular weights were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was selected as a model protein due to its structural similarity to bevacizumab. The influence of polymer molecular weight, composition, and isomerism on formulation parameters such as entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and in vitro release profile was delineated. Crystallinity and molecular weight of copolymers exhibited a substantial effect on formulation parameters. A secondary structure of released IgG was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity, cell viability, and biocompatibility studies performed on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and/or macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) demonstrated PB copolymers to be excellent biomaterials. Novel PB polymers may be the answer to the unmet need of a sustained release protein formulation. PMID:25319053

  16. Transport of nanoparticulate material in self-assembled block copolymer micelle solutions and crystals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vicki A; Walker, Lynn M

    2016-04-12

    Water soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) [PEO-PPO-PEO] triblock copolymers self-assemble into thermoreversible micellar crystals comprised of periodically spaced micelles. The micelles have PPO cores surrounded by hydrated PEO coronas and the dimensions of the unit cell of the organized micelles is on the order of several to tens of nanometers. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to quantify nanoparticle transport in these nanostructured polymer micelle systems. Diffusivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA, Dh ∼ 7 nm) is quantified across a wide range of polymer, or micelle, concentrations covering both the disordered fluid as well as the structured micellar crystal to understand the effects of nanoscale structure on particle transport. Measured particle diffusivity in these micellar systems is reduced by as much as four orders of magnitude when compared to diffusivity in free solution. Diffusivity in the disordered micellar fluid is best understood in terms of diffusion through a polymeric solution, while transport in the structured micellar phase is possibly due to hopping between interstitial sites. These results not only show that the nanoscale structures of the micelles have a measureable impact on particle diffusivity, but also demonstrate the ability to tune nanoscale transport in self-assembled materials. PMID:26796632

  17. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  18. Deactivator for olefin polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Rekers, L.J.; Speca, A.N.; Mayhew, H.W.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described comprising deactivating an olefin polymerization catalyst selected from the group consisting of Ziegler-Natta transition element catalysts and catalysts based on transition metal oxides by contacting the catalyst with a copolymer. The copolymer consists of an alpha-olefin having from 2 to about 12 carbon atoms and an unsaturated ester of a carboxylic acid. The deactivating copolymer is present in an amount such that the molar ratio of the unsaturated ester thereof to the sum of the transition element component of the polymerization catalyst and a cocatalyst for the transition element catalyst is in the range of between about 0.1 and about 6.

  19. Group transfer polymerization. Mechanism revisted

    SciTech Connect

    Sogah, D.Y.

    1993-12-31

    Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP) is a living polymerization technique that allows control of characteristics of vinyl polymers, especially those derived from methacrylate monomers. Several mechanistic pathways have been proposed by different research groups. This presentation will examine the most plausible mechanisms and the evidence supporting each one. The dependence of the reaction on the type, nature and concentrations of catalysts, other additives, initiators and monomers will be discussed. The crucial role that chiral organosilicon reagents may play will be examined using a novel cyclic initiator containing 2,2`-dialkylsilyl-1,1`-binaphthyl.

  20. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-10

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  1. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-13

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  2. Serotype-specific Binding Properties and Nanoparticle Characteristics Contribute to the Immunogenicity of rAAV1 Vectors.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Maxime; Da Rocha, Sylvie; Corre, Guillaume; Galy, Anne; Boisgerault, Florence

    2015-06-01

    The immunogenic properties of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene transfer vectors remain incompletely characterized in spite of their usage as gene therapy vectors or as vaccines. Molecular interactions between rAAV and various types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as well as the impact of these interactions on transgene or capsid-specific immunization remain unclear. We herein show that binding motifs recognized by the capsid and which determine the vector tissue tropism are also critical for key immune activation processes. Using rAAV capsid serotype 1 (rAAV1) vectors which primary receptors on target cells are α2,3 and α2,6 N-linked sialic acids, we show that sialic acid-dependent binding of rAAV1 on APCs is essential to trigger CD4(+) T-cell responses by increasing rAAV1 uptake and contributing to antigenic presentation of both the capsid and transgene product although this involves different APCs. In addition, the nanoparticulate structure of the vector in itself appears to be sufficient to trigger mobilization and activation of some APCs. Therefore, combinations of structural and of serotype-specific cell-targeting properties of rAAV1 determine its complex immunogenicity. These findings may be useful to guide a selection of rAAV variants depending on the intended level of immunogenicity for either gene therapy or vaccination applications. PMID:25881000

  3. Anti-biofouling polymer-decorated lutetium-based nanoparticulate contrast agents for in vivo high-resolution trimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Dong, Kai; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Xueli; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-06-25

    Nanomaterials have gained considerable attention and interest in the development of novel and high-resolution contrast agents for medical diagnosis and prognosis in clinic. A classical urea-based homogeneous precipitation route that combines the merits of in situ thermal decomposition and surface modification is introduced to construct polyethylene glycol molecule (PEG)-decorated hybrid lutetium oxide nanoparticles (PEG-UCNPs). By utilizing the admirable optical and magnetic properties of the yielded PEG-UCNPs, in vivo up-conversion luminescence and T1 -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of small animals are conducted, revealing obvious signals after subcutaneous and intravenous injection, respectively. Due to the strong X-ray absorption and high atomic number of lanthanide elements, X-ray computed-tomography imaging based on PEG-UCNPs is then designed and carried out, achieving excellent imaging outcome in animal experiments. This is the first example of the usage of hybrid lutetium oxide nanoparticles as effective nanoprobes. Furthermore, biodistribution, clearance route, as well as long-term toxicity are investigated in detail after intravenous injection in a murine model, indicating the overall safety of PEG-UCNPs. Compared with previous lanthanide fluorides, our nanoprobes exhibit more advantages, such as facile construction process and nearly total excretion from the animal body within a month. Taken together, these results promise the use of PEG-UCNPs as a safe and efficient nanoparticulate contrast agent for potential application in multimodal imaging. PMID:24610806

  4. Revisiting the Fundamentals in the Design and Control of Nanoparticulate Colloids in the Frame of Soft Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2013-10-01

    This review presents thoughts on some of the fundamental features of conceptual models applied in the design of fine particles in the frames of colloid and soft chemistry. A special emphasis is placed on the limitations of these models, an acknowledgment of which is vital in improving their intricacy and effectiveness in predicting the outcomes of the corresponding experimental settings. Thermodynamics of self-assembly phenomena illustrated on the examples of protein assembly and micellization is analyzed in relation to the previously elaborated thesis that each self-assembly in reality presents a co-assembly, since it implies a mutual reorganization of the assembling system and its immediate environment. Parameters used in the design of fine particles by precipitation are discussed while referring to solubility product, various measures of supersaturation levels, induction time, nucleation and crystal growth rates, interfacial energies, and the Ostwald-Lussac law of phases. Again, the main drawbacks and inadequacies of using the aforementioned parameters in tailoring the materials properties in a soft and colloidal chemical setting were particularly emphasized. The basic and practical limitations of zeta-potential analyses, routinely used to stabilize colloidal dispersions and initiate specific interactions between soft chemical entities, were also outlined. The final section of the paper reiterates the unavoidable presence of practical qualitative models in the design and control of nanoparticulate colloids, which is supported by the overwhelming complexity of quantitative relationships that govern the processes of their formation and assembly. PMID:24490052

  5. Physicochemical characterization and toxicological evaluation of plant-based anionic polymers and their nanoparticulated system for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Deepa; Kumar, Prashant; Kuppusamy, Gowthamarajan; Gupta, Ankur; Kamble, Bhagyashree; Wadhwani, Ashish

    2014-12-01

    The water-soluble fractions of mucilages and gum from the seeds of fenugreek, isphagula and mango bark exudate were isolated, purified and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), maldi/GC-MS, elemental analysis, 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D (HMQC, COSY) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fenugreek mucilage was identified to be a galactomannan chain consisting of 4 units of galactose attached to the backbone of 6 mannose units in 1:1.5 ratio. The isphagula mucilage was identified to be an arabinoxylan polysaccharide chain consisting of 4 units of arabinofuranose attached to the backbone of 9 xylopyrannose units in 1:3 ratio. The mango gum showed the presence of amylose, α-arabinofuranosyl and β-galactopyranosyl, respectively. The characterized mucilages and gum were individually formulated into nanoparticulate system using their complementarily charged polymer chitosan. The particles were observed to be spherical in shape in the range of 61.5-90 nm having zetapotential between 31 and 34 mV and PDI of 0.097-0.241. The prepared nanoparticles were observed to be nonirritant and nontoxic in vitro and in vivo upto 2000 μg/ml. Therefore, these mucilages and gum can be the alternatives of anionic polymers for the ocular drug delivery system. PMID:23952497

  6. Thermal hysteresis kinetic effects of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems studied by FORC diagram method on an Ising-like model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.

  7. Spin-wave stiffness parameter in ferrimagnetic systems: Nanoparticulate powders of (Mg,Zn ) Fe2O4 mixed ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Pessoni, H. V. S.; Machado, F. L. A.

    2015-11-01

    We have evaluated the spin-wave stiffness parameter in nanoparticulate powders of Mg1 -xZnxFe2O4 ( 0.0 ≤x ≤0.6 ) mixed ferrites from magnetization data obtained at two different ranges of temperature: 5 -300 K and 300 -750 K . At the lower temperature range the T-dependence of the saturation magnetization, Ms, data could be fitted to the Bloch's law with T3 /2 . The spin-wave stiffness parameters D were determined from the coefficient of T3 /2 ; being ˜132 and ˜86 meVÅ for x = 0.0 and 0.6, respectively, with the corresponding exchange constant JAB of ˜1.10 and ˜0.72 meV , respectively. The values of D determined from the experimental Curie temperature Tc were ˜212 and ˜163 meVÅ2 for x = 0.0 and 0.6, respectively, with the corresponding exchange constant JAB of ˜1.77 and ˜1.30 meV . The difference in both JAB and D values obtained from the coefficient of T3 /2 and from Tc may be attributed to the fact that the magnetic measurements were performed at a different range of temperatures. The results are discussed in terms of the cation distribution among A- and B-sites of occupation on these spinel ferrites.

  8. A nanosystem for water-insoluble drugs prepared by a new technology, nanoparticulation using a solid lipid and supercritical fluid.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Won; Yun, Jeong Min; Lee, Eun Seong; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Kab Sig; Oh, Young Taik; Oh, Kyung Teak

    2013-11-01

    While the number and diversity of lead compounds has increased with the development of science technologies, ca. 90 % of new chemical entities under development have shown low aqueous solubility, classified as class II or IV of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). The low aqueous solubility hinders their clinical translations due to low bioavailability and dissolution-limited absorption of orally-administered drugs. Several technologies have been employed to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. In this paper, a new method of nanoparticulation using fat and a supercritical fluid (NUFS) for the formulation of hydrophobic drugs was applied to solve the low solubility problem. A typical BCS class II drug, itraconazole, was selected and formulated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, emulsification, and anticoagulating agents for NUFS. The non-spherical itraconazole nanoparticles prepared by NUFS were ~300-500 nm in size with a ~15-fold improved dissolution rate compared to non-nanoparticles of itraconazole (i.e., raw itraconazole). In addition, a high drug content of ~46 % by weight and a drug loading efficiency greater than 85 % were achieved. Therefore, the new technology for nano-platforms could be a promising solution for solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs, resulting in improved bioavailability. PMID:23780798

  9. Revisiting the Fundamentals in the Design and Control of Nanoparticulate Colloids in the Frame of Soft Chemistry1

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    This review presents thoughts on some of the fundamental features of conceptual models applied in the design of fine particles in the frames of colloid and soft chemistry. A special emphasis is placed on the limitations of these models, an acknowledgment of which is vital in improving their intricacy and effectiveness in predicting the outcomes of the corresponding experimental settings. Thermodynamics of self-assembly phenomena illustrated on the examples of protein assembly and micellization is analyzed in relation to the previously elaborated thesis that each self-assembly in reality presents a co-assembly, since it implies a mutual reorganization of the assembling system and its immediate environment. Parameters used in the design of fine particles by precipitation are discussed while referring to solubility product, various measures of supersaturation levels, induction time, nucleation and crystal growth rates, interfacial energies, and the Ostwald–Lussac law of phases. Again, the main drawbacks and inadequacies of using the aforementioned parameters in tailoring the materials properties in a soft and colloidal chemical setting were particularly emphasized. The basic and practical limitations of zeta-potential analyses, routinely used to stabilize colloidal dispersions and initiate specific interactions between soft chemical entities, were also outlined. The final section of the paper reiterates the unavoidable presence of practical qualitative models in the design and control of nanoparticulate colloids, which is supported by the overwhelming complexity of quantitative relationships that govern the processes of their formation and assembly. PMID:24490052

  10. Nanoparticulate Mineralized Collagen Scaffolds and BMP-9 Induce a Long-Term Bone Cartilage Construct in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoyan; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Bischoff, David; Lewis, Michael S; Reid, Russell R; He, Tong-Chuan; Yamaguchi, Dean T; Miller, Timothy A; Harley, Brendan A C; Lee, Justine C

    2016-07-01

    Engineering the osteochondral junction requires fabrication of a microenvironment that supports both osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Multiphasic scaffold strategies utilizing a combination of soluble factors and extracellular matrix components are ideally suited for such applications. In this work, the contribution of an osteogenic nanoparticulate mineralized glycosaminoglycan scaffold (MC-GAG) and a dually chondrogenic and osteogenic growth factor, BMP-9, in the differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is evaluated. Although 2D cultures demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of hMSCs induced by BMP-9, MC-GAG scaffolds do not demonstrate significant differences in the collagen I expression, osteopontin expression, or mineralization. Instead, BMP-9 increases expression of collagen II, Sox9, aggrecan (ACAN), and cartilage oligomeric protein. However, the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker, collagen X, is not elevated with BMP-9 treatment. In addition, histologic analyses demonstrate that while BMP-9 does not increase mineralization, BMP-9 treatment results in an increase of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Thus, the combination of BMP-9 and MC-GAG stimulates chondrocytic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. PMID:27275929

  11. Vector theories in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito-Farese, Gilles; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-15

    This article provides a general study of the Hamiltonian stability and the hyperbolicity of vector field models involving both a general function of the Faraday tensor and its dual, f(F{sup 2},FF-tilde), as well as a Proca potential for the vector field, V(A{sup 2}). In particular it is demonstrated that theories involving only f(F{sup 2}) do not satisfy the hyperbolicity conditions. It is then shown that in this class of models, the cosmological dynamics always dilutes the vector field. In the case of a nonminimal coupling to gravity, it is established that theories involving Rf(A{sup 2}) or Rf(F{sup 2}) are generically pathologic. To finish, we exhibit a model where the vector field is not diluted during the cosmological evolution, because of a nonminimal vector field-curvature coupling which maintains second-order field equations. The relevance of such models for cosmology is discussed.

  12. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  13. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  14. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycely O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers. acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors, in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors. weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 1000 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium; applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  15. Line Integral of a Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  16. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  17. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  18. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6]/hv.

  19. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsooodi, S; Yi Pang.

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material is described which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6].

  20. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  1. Supramolecular polymerization: Living it up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würthner, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Protein fibril formation is involved in many human diseases and thus has been mechanistically elucidated in the context of understanding -- and in turn treating -- them. This biological phenomenon has now also inspired the design of a supramolecular system that undergoes living polymerization.

  2. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  3. The absorption of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řídký, R.; Popovič, M.; Rolc, S.; Drdlová, M.; Krátký, J.

    2016-06-01

    An absorption capacity of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates is important for wide range of practical applications. Nowadays there are many variants of numerical models suitable for this kind of analysis. The main difficulty is in selection of the most realistic numerical model and a correct setup of many unknown material constants. Cooperation between theoretical simulations and real testing is next crucial point in the investigation process. Standard open source material database offer material properties valid for strain rates less than 250 s-1. There are experiments suitable for analysis of material properties with strain rates close to 2000 s-1. The high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous blast energy absorbing material measured by modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is presented in this study. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. One of the possible solution leads to complex and frequency depended Young modulus of testing bars material. This testing technique was applied to materials composed of porous glass/ceramic filler and polymeric binder, with density of 125 - 300 kg/m3 and particle size in range of 50 µm - 2 mm. The achieved material model was verified in practical application of sandwich structure includes polymeric composites under a blast test.

  4. Low vibration polymeric composite engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, David P.; Muench, Rolf K.

    1994-12-01

    An internal combustion engine is constructed with metallic parts in its regions which are subjected to high stress (temperature, pressure) during combustion and polymeric materials in its regions which are subjected to relatively lower stresses. The integrated construction helps realize increased power densities and reductions on engine noise without compromising engine performance. V-configuration Diesel engines particularly benefit from this construction.

  5. POLYMERIC INTERFACES FOR STACK MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been performed on the use of polymeric interfaces for in situ continuous stack monitoring of gaseous pollutants. Permeabilities of candidate interface materials to SO2 were measured at temperatures from ambient to 200C, and the results were used to design interfaces ...

  6. The neurotoxicity of gene vectors and its amelioration by packaging with collagen hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Newland, Ben; Moloney, Teresa C; Fontana, Gianluca; Browne, Shane; Abu-Rub, Mohammad T; Dowd, Eilís; Pandit, Abhay S

    2013-03-01

    Over the last twenty years there have been several reports on the use of nonviral vectors to facilitate gene transfer in the mammalian brain. Whilst a large emphasis has been placed on vector transfection efficiency, the study of the adverse effects upon the brain, caused by the vectors themselves, remains completely overshadowed. To this end, a study was undertaken to study the tissue response to three commercially available transfection agents in the brain of adult Sprague Dawley rats. The response to these transfection agents was compared to adeno-associated viral vector (AAV), PBS and naked DNA. Furthermore, the use of a collagen hollow sphere (CHS) sustained delivery system was analysed for its ability to reduce striatal toxicity of the most predominantly studied polymer vector, polyethyleneimine (PEI). The size of the gross tissue loss at the injection site was analysed after immunohistochemical staining and was used as an indication of acute toxicity. Polymeric vectors showed similar levels of acute brain toxicity as seen with AAV, and CHS were able to significantly reduce the toxicity of the PEI vector. In addition; the host response to the vectors was measured in terms of reactive astrocytes and microglial cell recruitment. To understand whether this gross tissue loss was caused by the direct toxicity of the vectors themselves an in vitro study on primary astrocytes was conducted. All vectors reduced the viability of the cells which is brought about by direct necrosis and apoptosis. The CHS delivery system reduced cell necrosis in the early stages of post administration. In conclusion, whilst polymeric gene vectors cause acute necrosis, administration in the brain causes adverse effects no worse than that of an AAV vector. Furthermore, packaging the PEI vector with CHS reduces surface charge and direct toxicity without elevating the host response. PMID:23245921

  7. Chondroitin sulphate decorated nanoparticulate carriers of 5-fluorouracil: development and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awesh K; Agarwal, Abhinav; Jain, Sanyog; Mishra, Anil K; Bid, Hemant; Rai, Gopal; Agrawal, Hirnanshu; Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-08-01

    The present study investigates prospective of tailored nanoparticles as vectors to provide improved therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated anti-cancer drug 5-FU. Condritin Sulphate (CS) conjugated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using PEG-bis-amine and adipic dihydrazide as spacers and loaded with an anti-cancer drug 5-FU (CS-PEG-PLGA-FU and CS-ADH-PLGA-FU). The formulations were then compared with non CS-anchored monomethoxy(polyethylene glycol) (MPEG-PLGA-FU) nanoparticles. Nanoparticlulate systems were further characterized by FTIR, NMR, TEM studies and particle size/polydispersity index (PDI) analysis. DSC and XRD were also performed to assess the nature of 5-FU inside the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles prepared using amphiphilic block copolymer CS-PEG-PLGA were able to sustain the release of 5-FU up to 48 h whereas those of CS-ADH-PLGA and MPEG-PLGA released the drug up to 24 h. The CS-PEG-PLGA-FU nanoparticles were found to be least haemolytic when compared to free drug, CS-ADH-PLGA-FU and MPEG-PLGA-FU nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies were performed on MCF-7/MDA-MD 231 breast cancer cells. PLGA nanoparticles exhibited more potent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7/MDA-MD 231 cells than free doxorubicin. Further, enhanced cytotoxicity and lower hemolytic potential of CS-PEG-PLGA-FU nanoparticles suggest a potential application in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21323107

  8. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  9. Fractal vector optical fields.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field. PMID:27420485

  10. Understanding Vector Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  11. Bloch vector projection noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

  12. Poynting-vector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.

    2011-08-02

    A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

  13. Combustion-generated nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: their comparative characterization and potential for adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Soto, K F; Garza, K M; Guerrero, P A; Martinez, F; Esquivel, E V; Ramirez, D A; Shi, Y; Bang, J J; Venzor, J

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1) and ultrafine (PM0.1), or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM), tire particulate matter (TPM), wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC)) along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary) nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day) and longer term (2 week) in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined. PMID:16823077

  14. Combustion-Generated Nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: Their Comparative Characterization and Potential for Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Murr, L. E.; Soto, K. F.; Garza, K. M.; Guerrero, P. A.; Martinez, F.; Esquivel, E. V.; Ramirez, D. A.; Shi, Y.; Bang, J. J.; Venzor, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1) and ultrafine (PM0.1), or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM), tire particulate matter (TPM), wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC)) along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary) nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day) and longer term (2 week) in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined. PMID:16823077

  15. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO{sub 2} layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D.; Kasinadhuni, U.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thin TiO{sub 2} layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO{sub 2} nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO{sub 2} particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO{sub 2} passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO{sub 2} compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO{sub 2} layer in between the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons.

  16. Generation of Oxidants From the Reaction of Nanoparticulate Zero-Valent Iron and Oxygen for the use in Contaminant Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, C. R.; Lee, C.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    The reaction of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with oxygen can lead to the formation of oxidants, which may be used to transform recalcitrant contaminants including non-polar organics and certain metals. Nanoparticulate iron might provide a practical mechanism of remediating oxygen-containing groundwater and contaminated soil. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism and to quantify the yield of oxidants, experiments were performed with model organic compounds in the presence of nanoparticulate zero-valent iron and oxygen. At pH values below 5, ZVI nanoparticles were oxidized within 30 minutes with a stoichiometry of approximately two Fe0 oxidized per O2 consumed. Using the oxidation of methanol and ethanol to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively, we found that less than 2% of the consumed oxygen was converted to reactive oxidants under acidic conditions. The yield of aldehydes increased with pH up to pH 7, with maximum oxidant yields of around 5% relative to the mass of ZVI added. The increase of aldehyde yield with pH was attributable to changes in the processes responsible for oxidant production. At pH values below 5, the corrosion of ZVI by oxygen produces hydrogen peroxide, which subsequently reacts with ferrous iron [Fe(II)] via the Fenton reaction. At higher pH values, the aldehydes are produced when Fe(II), the initial product of ZVI oxidation, reacts with oxygen. The decrease in oxidant yield at pH values above 7 may be attributable to precipitation of Fe(II). The oxidation of benzoic acid and 2-propanol to para-hydroxybenzoic acid and acetone, respectively, followed a very different trend compared to the primary alcohols. In both cases, the highest product yields (approximately 2% with respect to ZVI added) were observed at pH 3. Yields decreased with increasing pH, with no oxidized product detected at neutral pH. These results suggest that two different oxidants may be produced by the system: hydroxyl radical (OH-·) at acidic pH and a more selective

  17. The Production and Export of Bioavailable Iron from Ice Sheets - the Importance of Colloidal and Nanoparticulate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkings, J.; Wadham, J. L.; Tranter, M.; Raiswell, R.; Benning, L. G.; Statham, P. J.; Tedstone, A.; Nienow, P. W.; Telling, J.; Bagshaw, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers cover approximately 10% of the world's land surface at present, but our knowledge of biogeochemical processes occurring beneath them is still limited, as is our understanding of their impact on downstream ecosystems via the export of nutrients in runoff. Recent work has suggested that glaciers are a primary source of nutrients to near coastal areas(1). For example, macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and micronutrients, such as iron, may support primary production(2,3). Nutrient limitation of primary producers is known to be prevalent in large sectors of the world's oceans and iron is a significant limiting nutrient in Polar waters(4,5). Significantly, large oceanic algal blooms have been observed in polar areas where glacial influence is large(6,7). Our knowledge of iron speciation, concentrations and export dynamics in glacial meltwater is limited due, in part, to problems associated with collecting trace measurements in remote field locations. For example, recent work has indicated large uncertainty in 'dissolved' meltwater iron concentrations (0.2 - 4000 μM(8,9)). There is currently a dearth of information about labile nanoparticulate iron in glacial meltwaters, as well as export dynamics from large ice sheet catchments. Existing research has focused on small catchment examples(8,10), which behave differently to larger catchments(11). Presented here is the first time series of daily variations in meltwater iron concentrations (dissolved, filterable colloidal/nanoparticulate and bioavailable suspended sediment bound) from two large contrasting glacial catchments in Greenland over the 2012 and 2013 summer melt seasons. We also present the first estimates of iron concentrations in Greenlandic icebergs, which have been identified as hot spots of biological activity in the open ocean(12,13). Budgets for ice sheets based on our data demonstrate the importance of glaciers in global nutrient cycles, and reveal a large and previously under

  18. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  19. Nanoparticulate TiO2 protection of midgut damage in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) following phoxim exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Su, Mingyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hong, Jie; Yu, Xiaohong; Xu, Bingqing; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing; Hong, Fashui

    2015-04-01

    Bombyx mori (B. mori) is often subjected to phoxim poisoning in China due to phoxim exposure, which leads to a decrease in silk production. Nanoparticulate (NP) titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been shown to attenuate damages in B. mori caused by phoxim exposure. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of midgut injury due to organophosphorus insecticide exposure and its repair by nano-TiO2 pretreatment. In this study, phoxim exposure for 36 h led to significant decreases in body weight and survival and increased oxidative stress and midgut injury. Pretreatment with nano-TiO2 attenuated the phoxim-induced midgut injury, increased body weight and survival, and decreased oxidative stress in the midgut of B. mori. Digital gene-expression data showed that exposure to phoxim results in significant changes in the expression of 254 genes in the phoxim-exposed midgut and 303 genes in phoxim + nano-TiO2-exposed midgut. Specifically, phoxim exposure led to upregulation of Tpx, α-amylase, trypsin, and glycoside hydrolase genes involved in digestion and absorption. Phoxim exposure also led to the downregulation of Cyp450 and Cyp4C1 genes involved in an antioxidant capacity. In contrast, a combination of both phoxim and nano-TiO2 treatment significantly decreased the change in α-amylase, trypsin, and glycoside hydrolases (GHs), which are involved in digestion and absorption. These results indicated that Tpx, α-amylase, trypsin, GHs, Cyp450, and Cyp4C1 may be potential biomarkers of midgut toxicity caused by phoxim exposure and the attenuation of these toxic impacts by nano-TiO2. PMID:25552327

  20. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  1. Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Rebecca L.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed. PMID:21699434

  2. Concurrent Covalent and Supramolecular Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Zhou, Yu; Xie, Zhuang; Alngadh, Ahmed; Keane, Denis T; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Mirkin, Chad A; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-08-22

    Covalent and supramolecular polymerizations, both of which offer their own unique advantages, have emerged as popular strategies for making artificial materials. Herein, we describe a concurrent covalent and supramolecular polymerization strategy-namely, one which utilizes 1) a bis-azide-functionalized diazaperopyrenium dication that undergoes polymeriation covalently with a bis-alkyne-functionalized biphenyl derivative in one dimension as a result of a rapid and efficient β-cyclodextrin(CD)-accelerated, cucurbit[6]uril(CB)-templated azide-alkyne cycloaddition, while 2) the aromatic core of the dication is able to dimerize in a criss-cross fashion by dint of π-π interactions, enabling simultaneous supramolecular assembly, resulting in an extended polymer network in an orthogonal dimension. PMID:27338246

  3. Polymeric cationic substituted acrylamide surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1983-11-15

    A new composition of matter comprises a copolymer of a surface active quaternary ammonium monomer salt and from 50 to 97% by wt of acrylamide. The new copolymers can have molecular weights substantially greater than 10,000 and still remain water soluble and surface active. Copolymers are prepared by polymerization techniques known in the art. The quaternary ammonium monomer is dispersed under inert atmosphere in aqueous solution which may additionally contain dissolved therein a low molecular weight alcohol such as ethanol, isopropanol, and the like. Acidic polymerization initiator such as the azo initiators, organic peroxides, or redox initiators such as the sulfite- persulfate system is then added in an amount calculated to yield a polymer product of desired molecular weight. (14 claims.

  4. Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, T.; Hunter, M.; Yang, X.Q.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole and 3-(6-ferrocenyl-6-hydroxyhexyl)pyrrole (P-Fc) yields a ferrocene functionalized polypyrrole with a controlled amount of ferrocene functionalization. Similarly, copolymers of pyrrole and 3-(4-(2,5- dimethoxyphenyl)butyl)pyrrole (P-MP) can be made by electrochemical polymerization and converted to the copolymers containing pH dependent electroactive hydroquinone moieties. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  6. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  7. Alcohol polymerization using electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroshi; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Fujiwara, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    We report a means of instantaneous alcohol polymerization using electron emission at room temperature. We selected 1-butanol as a source of alcohol polymer. A 1-butanol molecule has a simple molecular structure and is a good candidate for analyzing reaction mechanisms. Direct electron emission onto the surface of volatile 1-butanol prevented intense discharge and gently composed 1-butanol-polymer at room temperature in air. The strategy enabled exciting liquids and instantaneously composing new materials at room temperature.

  8. Two Photon Polymerization of Ormosils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Jipa, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, 3D structures of hybrid polymers—ORMOSILS (organically modified silicates) were produced via Two Photon Polymerization (2PP) of hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates. Synthetic routes have been used to obtain series of hybrid monomers, their structure and purity being checked by NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Two photon polymerization method (a relatively new technology which allows fast micro and nano processing of three-dimensional structures with application in medical devices, tissue scaffolds, photonic crystals etc) was used for monomers processing. As laser a Ti: Sapphire laser was used, with 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, emitting at 775 nm. A parametric study on the influence of the processing parameters (laser fluence, laser scanning velocity, photo initiator) on the written structures was carried out. The as prepared polymeric scaffolds were tested in mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts cell cultures, with the aim of further obtaining bone and dermal grafts. Cells morphology, proliferation, adhesion and alignment were analyzed for different experimental conditions.

  9. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload. PMID:26486348

  10. Polymerization rate and mechanism of ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yongqin; Xu, Xi; Baxter, Steven M; Slone, Robert V; Wu, Shuguang; Swift, Graham; Westmoreland, David G

    2002-07-01

    The factors affecting the induction period and polymerization rate in ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA) were investigated. The induction period takes only an instant in ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of BA without any added initiator by enhancing the N2 flow rate. Increasing temperature, power output and SDS concentration, decreasing the monomer concentration results in further decreasing induction period and enhanced polymerization rate. Under optimized reaction conditions the conversion of BA reaches 92% in 11 min. The polymerization rate can be controlled by varying reaction parameters. The apparatus of ultrasonically initiated semi-continuous and continuous emulsion polymerization were set up and the feasibility was first studied. Based on the experimental results, a free radical polymerization mechanism for ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization was proposed, including the sources of the radicals, the process of radical formation, the locus of polymerization and the polymerization process. Compared with conventional emulsion polymerization, where the radicals come from thermal decomposition of a chemical initiator, ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization has attractive features such as no need for a chemical initiator, lower reaction temperature, faster polymerization rate, and higher molecular weight of the polymer prepared. PMID:12154689

  11. Self-assembled polymeric nanocarriers for the targeted delivery of retinoic acid to the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Lapteva, Maria; Möller, Michael; Gurny, Robert; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2015-11-28

    Acne vulgaris is a highly prevalent dermatological disease of the pilosebaceous unit (PSU). An inability to target drug delivery to the PSU results in poor treatment efficacy and the incidence of local side-effects. Cutaneous application of nanoparticulate systems is reported to induce preferential accumulation in appendageal structures. The aim of this work was to prepare stable polymeric micelles containing retinoic acid (RA) using a biodegradable and biocompatible diblock methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(hexylsubstituted lactic acid) copolymer (MPEG-dihexPLA) and to evaluate their ability to deliver RA to skin. An innovative punch biopsy sample preparation method was developed to selectively quantify follicular delivery; the amounts of RA present were compared to those in bulk skin, (i.e. without PSU), which served as the control. RA was successfully incorporated into micelle nanocarriers and protected from photoisomerization by inclusion of Quinoline Yellow. Incorporation into the spherical, homogeneous and nanometer-scale micelles (dn < 20 nm) increased the aqueous solubility of RA by >400-fold. Drug delivery experiments in vitro showed that micelles were able to deliver RA to porcine and human skins more efficiently than Retin-A(®) Micro (0.04%), a marketed gel containing RA loaded microspheres, (7.1 ± 1.1% vs. 0.4 ± 0.1% and 7.5 ± 0.8% vs. 0.8 ± 0.1% of the applied dose, respectively). In contrast to a non-colloidal RA solution, Effederm(®) (0.05%), both the RA loaded MPEG-dihexPLA polymeric micelles (0.005%) and Retin-A(®) Micro (0.04%) displayed selectivity for delivery to the PSU with 2-fold higher delivery to PSU containing samples than to control samples. Moreover, the micelle formulation outperformed Retin-A(®) Micro in terms of delivery efficiency to PSU presenting human skin (10.4 ± 3.2% vs. 0.6 ± 0.2%, respectively). The results indicate that the polymeric micelle formulation enabled an increased and targeted delivery of RA to the PSU

  12. Vector WIMP miracle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

  13. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  14. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  15. 1-(3'-Amino)propylsilatrane derivatives as covalent surface linkers to nanoparticulate metal oxide films for use in photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bradley J; Keirstead, Amy E; Liddell, Paul A; Vail, Sean A; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

    2009-12-16

    A triethanolamine-protected silane, 1-(3'-amino)propylsilatrane, was incorporated into the structure of porphyrin- and ruthenium-based dyes and used to link them to transparent semiconductor nanoparticulate metal oxide films. Silatrane reacts with the metal oxide to form strong, covalent silyl ether bonds. In this study, silatrane-functionalized dyes and analogous carboxylate-functionalized dyes were used as visible light sensitizers for porous nanoparticulate SnO(2) photoanodes. The performance of the dyes was compared in photoelectrochemical cells incorporating either non-regenerative or regenerative redox components. The non-regenerative cell used NADH (beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) as a sacrificial electron donor and Hg(2)SO(4)/Hg as a sacrificial cathode, whereas the regenerative cell used the iodide/triiodide redox couple. Experiments showed that the silyl ether bonding gave the electrodes increased stability toward sensitizer desorption compared to carboxylate surface linkages. Porphyrin-silatrane dyes also demonstrated similar or better performance than their carboxylate analogs in photoelectrochemical cells. The improvement correlates with the results from transient absorbance spectroscopy, which show that the longer linker on the silatrane porphyrins slows charge recombination between oxidized porphyrin and the electrode surface. The improved photoelectrochemical cell efficiency and stability of the silatrane-based dyes compared to carboxylates demonstrate that silatranes are promising agents for bonding organic molecules to metal oxide surfaces. PMID:19923652

  16. Effects of Chemical Conjugation of l-Leucine to Chitosan on Dispersibility and Controlled Release of Drug from a Nanoparticulate Dry Powder Inhaler Formulation.

    PubMed

    Muhsin, Mohammad D A; George, Graeme; Beagley, Kenneth; Ferro, Vito; Wang, Hui; Islam, Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated l-leucine-conjugated chitosan as a drug delivery vehicle in terms of dispersibility and controlled release from a nanoparticulate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for pulmonary delivery using diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) as the model drug. DH-loaded nanoparticles of chitosan and conjugate were prepared by water-in-oil emulsification followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering for particle size, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface composition, and twin stage impinger for drug dispersibility. The controlled release of DH was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.3 ± 0.2, 37 °C) using UV spectrophotometry. The fine particle fractions of conjugated chitosan with and without drug were higher than those of nonconjugated chitosan nanoparticles. The conjugate nanoparticles were superior to those of unmodified chitosan in drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and controlled release profile. The higher dispersibility was attributed to the amphiphilic environment of the l-leucine conjugate and hydrophobic cross-links, and the release profile reflects the greater swelling. The conjugated chitosan nanoparticles could be useful, after appropriate testing for biodegradability and toxicity, as an alternative carrier for lung drug delivery with enhanced aerosolization and prolonged drug release from nanoparticulate DPI formulations. PMID:26998555

  17. Application of x-ray nano-particulate markers for the visualization of intermediate layers and interfaces using scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.

    2012-03-01

    In this study the methodology of biological sample preparation for dental research using SEM/EDX has been elaborated. (1)The original cutting equipment supplied with 3D user-controlled sample fixation and an adjustable cooling system has been designed and evaluated. (2) A new approach to the root dentine drying procedure has been developed to preserve structure peculiarities of root dentine. (3) A novel adhesive system with embedded X-Ray nanoparticulate markers has been designed. (4)The technique allowing for visualization of bonding resins, interfaces and intermediate layers between tooth hard tissues and restorative materials of endodontically treated teeth using the X-ray nano-particulate markers has been developed and approved. These methods and approaches were used to compare the objective depth of penetration of adhesive systems of different generations in root dentine. It has been shown that the depth of penetration in dentine is less for adhesive systems of generation VI in comparison with bonding resins of generation V, which is in agreement with theoretical evidence. The depth of penetration depends on the correlation between the direction of dentinal tubules, bonding resin delivery and gravity.

  18. Application of x-ray nano-particulate markers for the visualization of intermediate layers and interfaces using scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.

    2011-10-01

    In this study the methodology of biological sample preparation for dental research using SEM/EDX has been elaborated. (1)The original cutting equipment supplied with 3D user-controlled sample fixation and an adjustable cooling system has been designed and evaluated. (2) A new approach to the root dentine drying procedure has been developed to preserve structure peculiarities of root dentine. (3) A novel adhesive system with embedded X-Ray nanoparticulate markers has been designed. (4)The technique allowing for visualization of bonding resins, interfaces and intermediate layers between tooth hard tissues and restorative materials of endodontically treated teeth using the X-ray nano-particulate markers has been developed and approved. These methods and approaches were used to compare the objective depth of penetration of adhesive systems of different generations in root dentine. It has been shown that the depth of penetration in dentine is less for adhesive systems of generation VI in comparison with bonding resins of generation V, which is in agreement with theoretical evidence. The depth of penetration depends on the correlation between the direction of dentinal tubules, bonding resin delivery and gravity.

  19. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  20. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  1. Ketoprofen as a photoinitiator for anionic polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Wan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A new photoinitiating system for anionic polymerization of acrylates based on the efficient photodecarboxylation of Ketoprofen (1) and the related derivatives 3 and 4 that generate the corresponding carbanion intermediates is presented. Carbanion intermediates are confirmed by deuterium incorporation in the trapped Michael adducts and by spectroscopic detection using laser flash photolysis (LFP). This novel anionic initiating system features excitation in the near UV and visible regions, potential characteristics of photocontrolled living polymerization, and metal-free photoinitiators generated from photoexcitation, different from typical anionic polymerization where the polymerizations are initiated by heat and strong base containing alkali metals. PMID:25917384

  2. Anionic polymerization of azo substituted methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, D.K.; Dalton, L.R.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The anionic polymerization of 4-phenylazophenyl methacrylate (PAM) and 6-(4-phenylazophenoxy)-hexyl methacrylate (PAHM) initiated by {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} PMMA with lithium counterion was studied in THF at {minus}78{degrees}C. The polymerization of PAM was prevented by a side termination reaction. The polymerization of PAHM proceeded smoothly to furnish PMMA/azopolymer block copolymers. The process showed features typical of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} anionic polymerization. No phase transitions could be detected by DSC to prove liquid crystalline mesophase formation by the block copolymers.

  3. Marketing NASA Langley Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    A marketing tool was created to expand the knowledge of LaRC developed polymeric materials, in order to facilitate the technology transfer process and increase technology commercialization awareness among a non-technical audience. The created brochure features four materials, LaRC-CP, LaRC-RP46, LaRC-SI, and LaRC-IA, and highlights their competitive strengths in potential commercial applications. Excellent opportunities exist in the $40 million per year microelectronics market and the $6 billion adhesives market. It is hoped that the created brochure will generate inquiries regarding the use of the above materials in markets such as these.

  4. Computational studies of polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.

    Polymeric systems involving polyelectrolytes in surfaces and interfaces, semiflexible polyelectrolytes and biopolymers in solution, complex polymeric systems that had applications in nanotechnology were modeled using coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. In the area of polyelectrolytes in surfaces and interfaces, the phenomena of polyelectrolyte adsorption at oppositely charge surface was investigated. Simulations found that short range van der Waals interaction was a major factor in determining morphology and thickness of the adsorbed layer. Hydrophobic polyelectrolytes adsorbed in hydrophobic surfaces tend to be the most effective in forming multi-layers because short range attraction enhances the adsorption process. Adsorbed polyelectrolytes could move freely along the surface which was in contrast to polyelectrolyte brushes. The morphologies of hydrophobic polyelectrolyte brushes were investigated and simulations found that brushes had different morphologies depending on the strength of the short range monomer-monomer attraction, electrostatic interaction and counterion condensation. Planar polyelectrolyte brushes formed: (1) vertically oriented cylindrical aggregates, (2) maze-like aggregate structures, or (3) thin polymeric layer covering a substrate. While, the spherical polyelectrolyte brushes could be in any of the previous morphologies or be in a micelle-like conformation with a dense core and charged corona. In the area of biopolymers and semiflexible polyelectrolytes in solution, simulations demonstrated that the bending rigidity of these polymers was scale-dependent. The bond-bond correlation function describing a chain's orientational memory could be approximated by a sum of two exponential functions manifesting the existence of the two characteristic length scales. The existence of the two length scales challenged the current practice of describing chain stretching experiments using a single length scale. In the field of nanotechnology

  5. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  6. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  7. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  8. Polymerized nanotube structures new zeolites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernozatonskii, Leonid A.

    1998-11-01

    Polymers of single-wall carbon nanotubes - possible new zeolites - are modeled by molecular mechanics (MM2 calculation method). The polymerization at issue occurs by bonding of 6 sp 3 atomic pairs in each nanotube unit cell with similar atomic pairs located on 6 neighboring tubes like 2+2 cycloaddition in a rhombic two-dimensional C 60 polymer. It is shown these bonding in armchair ( n, n) SWNT ropes ( n=6, 8, 10, 12) changes positive radial curvature of tube segments to a negative one.

  9. Molecularly Regulated Reversible DNA Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Niancao; Shi, Xuechen; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Natural polymers are synthesized and decomposed under physiological conditions. However, it is challenging to develop synthetic polymers whose formation and reversibility can be both controlled under physiological conditions. Here we show that both linear and branched DNA polymers can be synthesized via molecular hybridization in aqueous solutions, on the particle surface, and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) without the involvement of any harsh conditions. More importantly, these polymers can be effectively reversed to dissociate under the control of molecular triggers. Since nucleic acids can be conjugated with various molecules or materials, we anticipate that molecularly regulated reversible DNA polymerization holds potential for broad biological and biomedical applications. PMID:27100911

  10. Nanoparticulate flurbiprofen reduces amyloid-β42 generation in an in vitro blood–brain barrier model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly. Over the past years, several approaches and compounds developed for the treatment of AD have failed in clinical studies, likely in part due to their low penetration of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Since nanotechnology-based strategies offer new possibilities for the delivery of drugs to the brain, this technique is studied intensively for the treatment of AD and other neurological disorders. Methods The Aβ42 lowering drug flurbiprofen was embedded in polylactide (PLA) nanoparticles by emulsification-diffusion technique and their potential as drug carriers in an in vitro BBB model was examined. First, the cytotoxic potential of the PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles on endothelial cells and the cellular binding and uptake by endothelial cells was studied. Furthermore, the biological activity of the nanoparticulate flurbiprofen on γ-secretase modulation as well as its in vitro release was examined. Furthermore, the protein corona of the nanoparticles was studied as well as their ability to transport flurbiprofen across an in vitro BBB model. Results PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles were endocytosed by endothelial cells and neither affected the vitality nor barrier function of the endothelial cell monolayer. The exposure of the PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles to human plasma occurred in a rapid protein corona formation, resulting in their decoration with bioactive proteins, including apolipoprotein E. Furthermore, luminally administered PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles in contrast to free flurbiprofen were able to modulate γ-secretase activity by selectively decreasing Aβ42 levels in the abluminal compartment of the BBB model. Conclusions In this study, we were able to show that flurbiprofen can be transported by PLA nanoparticles across an in vitro BBB model and most importantly, the