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1

Pt-Ru adatom nanoparticles as anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of prototype direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) were constructed and operated under identical procedures and conditions except for the surface compositions of the anode electrocatalysts. The cathode electrocatalyst was Pt black (loading 2 mg/cm 2, specific surface area: ca. 27 m 2/g), the electrolyte membrane was Nafion™ 117, and the anode electrocatalysts were a series of Pt-Ru adatom (Pt-Ru ad) nanoparticles (loading 2 mg/cm 2, specific surface area: ca. 27 m 2/g) prepared by a direct surface reductive deposition of Ru ad onto Pt black. The optimum surface coverage of Pt by Ru ad was ca. 33% for DMFCs operating at 60 °C. The optimum ranged from ca. 30 to 60% at 90 °C. A DMFC using Pt-Ru ad nanoparticles supported on carbon (Vulcan XC-72™) as anode electrocatalyst was operated for 20 days at 8 h each day without loss of activity. These results, combined with those from an in situ cyclic voltammetry study, indicate that no significant Ru ad dissolution and/or redistribution occurred during fabrication and operation of the prototype DMFCs.

Cao, Dianxue; Bergens, Steven H.

2

Electrochemical oxidation of hydrolyzed poly oxymethylene-dimethyl ether by PtRu catalysts on Nb-doped SnO(2-?) supports for direct oxidation fuel cells.  

PubMed

We synthesized Pt and PtRu catalysts supported on Nb-doped SnO(2-?) (Pt/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?), PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?)) for direct oxidation fuel cells (DOFCs) using poly oxymethylene-dimethyl ether (POMMn, n = 2, 3) as a fuel. The onset potential for the oxidation of simulated fuels of POMMn (methanol-formaldehyde mixtures; n = 2, 3) for Pt/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?) and PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?) was less than 0.3 V vs RHE, which was much lower than those of two commercial catalysts (PtRu black and Pt2Ru3/carbon black). In particular, the onset potential of the oxidation reaction of simulated fuels of POMMn (n = 2, 3) for PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?) sintered at 800 °C in nitrogen atmosphere was less than 0.1 V vs RHE and is thus considered to be a promising anode catalyst for DOFCs. The mass activity (MA) of PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?) sintered at 800 °C was more than five times larger than those of the commercial catalysts in the measurement temperature range from 25 to 80 °C. Even though the MA for the methanol oxidation reaction was of the same order as those of the commercial catalysts, the MA for the formaldehyde oxidation reaction was more than five times larger than those of the commercial catalysts. Sn from the Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-?) support was found to have diffused into the Pt catalyst during the sintering process. The Sn on the top surface of the Pt catalyst accelerated the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a bifunctional mechanism, similar to that for Pt-Ru catalysts. PMID:25415540

Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Kim, In-Tae; Senoo, Yuichi; Yano, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

2014-12-24

3

Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 ? cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10-2 ? cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate.

Vunnam, S.; Ankireddy, K.; Kellar, J.; Cross, W.

2014-05-01

4

Kinetic analysis of carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation on high performance carbon-supported Pt–Ru electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation reactions on a high performance carbon-supported Pt–Ru electrocatalyst (HP 20% 1:1 Pt–Ru alloy on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black) have been studied using cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques in 0.50M H2SO4 and H2SO4 (0.06–0.92M)+CH3OH (0.10–1.00M) solutions at 25.0–45.0°C. CO oxidation showed an irreversible behaviour with an adsorption control giving

Amado Velázquez-Palenzuela; Francesc Centellas; José Antonio Garrido; Conchita Arias; Rosa María Rodríguez; Enric Brillas; Pere-Lluís Cabot

2011-01-01

5

Carbon-supported Pt–Ru catalysts prepared by the Nafion stabilized alcohol-reduction method for application in direct methanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nafion stabilized alcohol-reduction method has been used to prepare Pt–Ru catalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72. The particle size and morphology of catalysts are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Well-dispersed catalysts with particle sizes from 3 to 7nm are achieved. The catalytic activities of these catalysts towards methanol electro-oxidation are investigated at electrode potentials of interest

Loka Subramanyam Sarma; Tzu Dai Lin; Yin-Wen Tsai; Jium Ming Chen; Bing Joe Hwang

2005-01-01

6

PtRu nanofilm formation by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (E-ALD).  

PubMed

The high CO tolerance of PtRu electrocatalysis, compared with pure Pt and other Pt-based alloys, makes it interesting as an anode material in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). This report describes the formation of bimetallic PtRu nanofilms using the electrochemical form of atomic layer deposition (E-ALD). Metal nanofilm formation using E-ALD is facilitated by use of surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR), where an atomic layer (AL) of a sacrificial metal is first formed by UPD. The AL is then spontaneously exchanged for a more noble metal at the open-circuit potential (OCP). In the present study, PtRu nanofilms were formed using SLRR for Pt and Ru, and Pb UPD was used to form the sacrificial layers. The PtRu E-ALD cycle consisted of Pb UPD at -0.19 V, followed by replacement using Pt(IV) ions at OCP, rinsing with blank, then Pb UPD at -0.19 V, followed by replacement using Ru(III) ions at OCP. PtRu nanofilm thickness was controlled by the number of times the cycle was repeated. PtRu nanofilms with atomic proportions of 70/30, 82/18, and 50/50 Pt/Ru were formed on Au on glass slides using related E-ALD cycles. The charge for Pb UPD and changes in the OCP during replacement were monitored during the deposition process. The PtRu films were then characterized by CO adsorption and electrooxidation to determine their overpotentials. The 50/50 PtRu nanofilms displayed the lowest CO electrooxidation overpotentials as well as the highest currents, compared with the other alloy compositions, pure Pt, and pure Ru. In addition, CO electrooxidation studies of the terminating AL on the 50/50 PtRu nanostructured alloy were investigated by deposition of one or two SLRR of Pt, Ru, or PtRu on top. PMID:24568151

Jayaraju, Nagarajan; Banga, Dhego; Thambidurai, Chandru; Liang, Xuehai; Kim, Youn-Guen; Stickney, John L

2014-03-25

7

Carbon-supported Pt-Ru catalysts prepared by the Nafion stabilized alcohol-reduction method for application in direct methanol fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nafion stabilized alcohol-reduction method has been used to prepare Pt-Ru catalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72. The particle size and morphology of catalysts are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Well-dispersed catalysts with particle sizes from 3 to 7 nm are achieved. The catalytic activities of these catalysts towards methanol electro-oxidation are investigated at electrode potentials of interest for fuel cells. The addition of Nafion during catalyst preparation enhances the methanol electro-oxidation activity even for low methanol concentrations. The in-house prepared Pt-Ru/C catalysts (MEC-01 and MEC-03) in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 with 5% methanol at 40 °C display a higher catalytic activity than a standard Pt-Ru/C (E-TEK 40) catalyst. In 5% methanol, the impedance of the in-house catalyst is lower than that of the standard Pt-Ru/C (E-TEK 40) catalyst, viz., 26.18 mg ? versus 139.49 mg ?. The Structure of the in-house prepared MEC-01 catalyst is compared with that of commercial E-TEK 40 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of the MEC-01 catalyst at Pt L III-edge shows significant variation in white line intensity compared with that of the commercial E-TEK 40 catalyst.

Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Lin, Tzu Dai; Tsai, Yin-Wen; Chen, Jium Ming; Hwang, Bing Joe

8

Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For toxicity evaluation, cytokine production, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), were assessed after 48 and 336 hours under control and exposed conditions. A simple, direct-contact assay was developed to evaluate the toxicity of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM), without removing it from high volume filter collections and exposing collected PM by direct contact with the human epithelial (A549) cells in culture. The cell viability data revealed that the manufactured nanomaterials exhibit cytotoxic response for the murine alveolar and human macrophage cell line, but in particular to the human epithelial cell line. Assay results for the direct-contact of filter-collected carbonaceous nanoparticulate, showed toxicity for all PM, but with various natural gas combustion PM being the most toxic. Light optical microscopy examination of affected human epithelial cells confirmed quantitative results. These nanoparticulate soots also produced the most reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the A549 cell culture as well as along with the Fe2O3, MWCNT-N, and black carbon (BC). Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and concentration for the carbonaceous PM showed no PAH correlation with relative cell viability after 48 h. In addition, there was no correlation of cytotoxic response with specific surface area in the manufactured nanoparticulate materials. In conclusion, the manufactured as well as the anthropogenic nanomaterials were observed to generate large amounts of ROS and cytokines. This study suggests that the mechanism of toxicity is likely due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, the comparative assessments presented, should be viewed as a precaution when considering the inhalation of the corresponding nanoparticulate materials in concentrations approaching those identified to be dangerous for recognized pathogens such as silica, black carbon, and asbestos. Humans should avoid breathing these nanoparticulate materials, although there are anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials such as MWCNT agg

Soto, Karla Fabiola

9

First-principles study of the role of solvent in the dissociation of water over a Pt-Ru alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-consistent gradient-corrected periodic density functional theoretical calculations are used to examine the effects of an aqueous environment on the dissociation of water over a Pt-Ru alloy. This reaction is thought to be one of the rate-limiting steps in oxidative removal of CO from the anode surface of both the direct methanol and reformate fuel cells. The reaction leads to the

Sanket K. Desai; Matthew Neurock

2003-01-01

10

Collection and characterization of airborne nanoparticulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of a thermal precipitation device to collect representative, airborne nanoparticulates on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid supports and their characterization using a bright field (BF)–dark field (DF)–selected area electron diffraction (SAED)–energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis protocol. Two airborne nanoparticulate regimes are illustrated and compared: (1) general nanoparticulates, composed of nanocrystalline aggregates containing from 2 to

J. J. Bang; L. E. Murr; E. V Esquivel

2004-01-01

11

Supporting Information Monodisperse PtRu Nanoalloy on Carbon  

E-print Network

, and toluene. Catalyst Preparation: A suspension of colloidal PtRu nanoalloy (191.5 mg) and Vulcan carbon (191.5 mg, Vulcan XC-72R, Carbot) in 100 mL toluene was vigorously stirred at 45 °C for 10 h. After solvent of catalyst was dispersed ultrasonically in a mixed solution of a 200 µL diluted Nafion alcohol solution

Kwak, Juhyoun

12

Biological effects of nanoparticulate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of morphologically nanoparticulate materials including Ag, NiO, TiO2, multiwall carbon nanotubes, and chrysotile asbestos have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy. All but the TiO2 (anatase and rutile) were observed to exhibit some cytotoxicity at concentrations of 5 ?g\\/ml for a murine macrophage cell line as a respiratory response model. Silver exhibits interesting systemic differences for animal and

K. F. Soto; A. Carrasco; T. G. Powell; L. E. Murr; K. M. Garza

2006-01-01

13

Enhancement of ethanol oxidation at Pt and PtRu nanoparticles dispersed over hybrid zirconia-rhodium supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalytic material for electrooxidation of ethanol that utilizes PtRu nanoparticles dispersed over thin films of rhodium-free and rhodium-containing zirconia (ZrO2) supports is described here. The enhancement of electrocatalytic activity (particularly in the potential range as low as 0.25-0.5 V vs. RHE), that has been achieved by dispersing PtRu nanoparticles (loading, 100 ?g cm-2) over the hybrid Rh-ZrO2 support composed of nanostructured zirconia and metallic rhodium particles, is clearly evident from comparison of the respective voltammetric and chronoamperometric current densities recorded at room temperature (22 °C) in 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 containing 0.5 mol dm-3 ethanol. Porous ZrO2 nanostructures, that provide a large population of hydroxyl groups in acidic medium in the vicinity of PtRu sites, are expected to facilitate the ruthenium-induced removal of passivating CO adsorbates from platinum, as is apparent from the diagnostic experiments with a small organic molecule such as methanol. Although Rh itself does not show directly any activity toward ethanol oxidation, the metal is expected to facilitate C-C bond splitting in C2H5OH. It has also been found during parallel voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements that the hybrid Rh-ZrO2 support increases activity of the platinum component itself toward ethanol oxidation in the low potential range.

Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Koster, Margaretta D.; Blanchard, Gary J.; Kulesza, Pawel J.

2014-12-01

14

Interaction Between Nanoparticulate Anatase TiO 2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC1.1.1.27), Institute of Cancer Research region mice were injected with nanoparticulate\\u000a anatase TiO2 (5 nm) of various doses into the abdominal cavity daily for 14 days. We then examined LDH activity in vivo and in vitro and\\u000a direct evident for interaction between nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 and

Yanmei Duan; Na Li; Chao Liu; Huiting Liu; Yaling Cui; Han Wang; Fashui Hong

2010-01-01

15

Toxicological characteristics of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to examine liver injury, immune response, and other physiological effects in mice caused by intragastric administration of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide (5nm), we assessed T lymphocytes, B lymphocyte and NK lymphocyte counts, hematological indices, biochemical parameters of liver functions, and histopathological changes in nanoparticulate titanium dioxide -treated mice. Indeed, mice treated with higher dose nanoparticulate titanium dioxide

Yanmei Duan; Jie Liu; Linglan Ma; Na Li; Huiting Liu; Jue Wang; Lei Zheng; Chao Liu; Xuefeng Wang; Xiaoyang Zhao; Jingying Yan; Sisi Wang; Han Wang; Xueguang Zhang; Fashui Hong

2010-01-01

16

Multimodal nanoparticulate bioimaging contrast agents.  

PubMed

A wide variety of bioimaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography) are commonly employed for clinical diagnostics and scientific research. While all of these methods use a characteristic "energy-matter" interaction to provide specific details about biological processes, each modality differs from another in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, anatomical and molecular details, imaging depth, as well as the desirable material properties of contrast agents needed for augmented imaging. On many occasions, it is advantageous to apply multiple complimentary imaging modalities for faster and more accurate prognosis. Since most imaging modalities employ exogenous contrast agents to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the development and use of multimodal contrast agents is considered to be highly advantageous for obtaining improved imagery from sought-after imaging modalities. Multimodal contrast agents offer improvements in patient care, and at the same time can reduce costs and enhance safety by limiting the number of contrast agent administrations required for imaging purposes. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate-based multimodal contrast agent for noninvasive bioimaging using MRI, optical, and photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-imaging modalities. The synthesis of these agents is described using microemulsions, which enable facile integration of the desired diversity of contrast agents and material components into a single entity. PMID:20217589

Sharma, Parvesh; Singh, Amit; Brown, Scott C; Bengtsson, Niclas; Walter, Glenn A; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Scott, Edward W; Moudgil, Brij M

2010-01-01

17

Structure and Chemical Composition of a Supported Pt-Ru Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution electron microscopy and X-ray microchemical analysis were used to characterize the composition, size, distribution, and morphology of Pt-Ru particles with nominal Pt:Ru ratios of 1:1 and 3:1, supported on carbon black. The particles are predominantly single nanocrystals with diameters in the order of 2.0 to 2.5 nm. Occasionally, twinned particles are also observed. All investigated particles represent solid

V. Radmilovic; H. A. Gasteiger; P. N. Jr. Ross

1995-01-01

18

Structure of carbon-supported Pt–Ru nanoparticles and their electrocatalytic behavior for hydrogen oxidation reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) of a high performance carbon-supported Pt–Ru electrocatalyst (HP 20wt.% 1:1 Pt–Ru alloy on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black) has been studied using the thin-film rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique. The physical properties of the Pt–Ru nanoparticles in the electrocatalyst were previously determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, fast Fourier transform

Amado Velázquez; Francesc Centellas; José Antonio Garrido; Conchita Arias; Rosa María Rodríguez; Enric Brillas; Pere-Lluís Cabot

2010-01-01

19

Nanoparticulate drug delivery platforms for advancing bone infection therapies  

PubMed Central

Introduction The ongoing surge of resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotic therapies and the consistently aging median member of the human race signal an impending increase in the incidence of chronic bone infection. Nanotechnological platforms for local and sustained delivery of therapeutics hold the greatest potential for providing minimally invasive and maximally regenerative therapies for this rare but persistent condition. Areas covered Shortcomings of the clinically available treatment options, including poly(methyl methacrylate) beads and calcium sulfate cements, are discussed and their transcending using calcium-phosphate/polymeric nanoparticulate composites is foreseen. Bone is a composite wherein the weakness of each component alone is compensated for by the strength of its complement and an ideal bone substitute should be fundamentally the same. Expert opinion Discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessments is highlighted, alongside the inherent imperfectness of the former. Challenges entailing the cross-disciplinary nature of engineering a new generation of drug delivery vehicles are delineated and it is concluded that the future for the nanoparticulate therapeutic carriers belongs to multifunctional, synergistic and theranostic composites capable of simultaneously targeting, monitoring and treating internal organismic disturbances in a smart, feedback fashion and in direct response to the demands of the local environment. PMID:25109804

Uskokovi?, Vuk; Desai, Tejal A

2015-01-01

20

Extracellular stability of nanoparticulate drug carriers  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticulate (NP) drug carrier systems are attractive vehicles for selective drug delivery to solid tumors. Ideally, NPs should evade clearance by the reticuloendothelial system while maintaining the ability to interact with tumor cells and facilitate cellular uptake. Great effort has been made to fulfill these design criteria, yielding various types of functionalized NPs. Another important consideration in NP design is the physical and functional stability during circulation, which, if ignored, can significantly undermine the promise of intelligently designed NP drug carriers. This commentary reviews several NP examples with stability issues and their consequences, ending in a discussion of experimental methods for reliable prediction of NP stability. PMID:24214175

Liu, Karen C.; Yeo, Yoon

2014-01-01

21

In Vitro Dissolution Testing Strategies for Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems: Recent Developments and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticulate systems have emerged as prevalent drug delivery systems over the past few decades. These delivery systems (such as liposomes, emulsions, nanocrystals, and polymeric nanocarriers) have been extensively used to improve bioavailability, prolong pharmacological effects, achieve targeted drug delivery, as well as reduce side effects. Considering that any unanticipated change in product performance of such systems may result in toxicity and/or change in vivo efficacy, it is essential to develop suitable in vitro dissolution/release testing methods to ensure product quality and performance, and to assist in product development. The present review provides an overview of the current in vitro dissolution/release testing methods such as dialysis, sample and separate, as well as continuous flow methods. Challenges and future directions in the development of standardized and biorelevant in vitro dissolution/release testing methods for novel nanoparticulate systems are discussed. PMID:24069580

Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

2013-01-01

22

Preparation and characterization of PtRu nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped porous carbon for electrooxidation of methanol.  

PubMed

N-doped porous carbon nanospheres (PCNs) were prepared by chemical activation of nonporous carbon nanospheres (CNs), which were obtained via carbonization of polypyrrole nanospheres (PNs). The catalysts, PtRu and Pt nanoparticles supported on PCNs and Vulcan XC-72 carbon black, were prepared by ethylene glycol chemical reduction. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to characterize samples. It was found that PCNs containing N function groups possess a large number of micropores. Uniform and well-dispersed Pt and PtRu particles with narrow particle size distribution were observed. The electrooxidation of liquid methanol on these catalysts was investigated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that alloy catalyst (Pt(1)Ru(1)/PCN) possessed the highest catalytic activity and better CO tolerance than the other PtRu and Pt-only catalysts; PtRu nanoparticles supported on PCN showed a higher catalytic activity and more stable sustained current than on carbon black XC-72. Compared to commercial Alfa Aesar PtRu catalyst, Pt(1)Ru(1)/PCN reveals an enhanced and durable catalytic activity in methanol oxidation because of the high dispersion of small PtRu nanoparticles and the presence of N species of support PCNs. PMID:21919500

Liu, Zhaolin; Su, Fabing; Zhang, Xinhui; Tay, Siok Wei

2011-10-01

23

Formation of carbon supported PtRu alloys: an XRD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon supported PtRu alloys were prepared by impregnation of Pt and Ru precursors on a porous carbon support, followed by reduction of the metals with Na2S2O4. After reduction, the samples were thermal treated in argon up to 700°C. The samples were characterized by atomic absorption (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Before thermal treatment only carbon reflexions were visible in

E. Antolini; F. Cardellini

2001-01-01

24

Carbon nanotubes embedded with PtRu nanoparticles as methanol fuel cell electrocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the influence of Pt:Ru atomic ratio on the electrochemical activity of PtRu/carbon nanotube (CNT) catalysts in the electrooxidation of methanol. Bimetallic PtRu alloy nanoparticles were embedded onto the CNTs by chemical impregnation, followed by the refluxing of ethylene glycol. Four types of catalysts, namely Pt 100Ru 0, Pt 75Ru 25, Pt 50Ru 50, and Pt 25Ru 75, were synthesized for the investigation of the compositional effect. The crystalline size of PtRu nanocatalysts generally decreased with the Ru atomic ratio, i.e., from 4.34 to 2.77 nm. The measurement of electrooxidation of methanol was carried out in 1 M H 2SO 4 electrolyte containing 0.5 M CH 3OH with PtRu/CNT, catalysts using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV analysis revealed that the Pt 50Ru 50/CNT electrode had the highest electrochemical activity, owing to its lower onset potential and higher ratio of the forward to reverse anodic peak current. EIS combined with equivalent circuit reflected that after cycling, Pt 50Ru 50/CNT electrode has not only a much lower charge-transfer resistance, but also higher capacitance than Pt 100Ru 0/CNT. This enhancement of electrochemical activity can be ascribed to the presence of Pt-Ru atomic pair sites in the bimetallic alloys, which play an important role in regenerating the inactive Pt-CO ads sites, according to the bifunctional theory.

Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Jia-Yi; Yang, Shu-Ying

2009-01-01

25

Supporting PtRu catalysts on various types of carbon nanomaterials for fuel cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PtRu catalysts were supported on five types of carbon nanomaterials of various shapes, sizes, and graphitic properties and the catalyst supports evaluated. The carbon nanomaterial used included three types of nanoparticles: Arc Black (AcB), Vulcan XC-72 (Vulcan) and graphene oxide (GO), and two types of nanofibers: carbon nanocoil (CNC) and carbon nanotube (CNT). Pt and Ru were supported by the reduction method using sodium borohydride. The metal catalyst loading was confirmed by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and XRD revealed that the diameter of PtRu catalyst nanoparticles loaded on reduced GO (rGO) and AcB were ~2 nm and was the smallest among all the samples. Shifts in Pt (111) XRD peaks of CNC and CNT were larger than those of AcB, Vulcan, and rGO. These results suggest that the diameters of catalyst nanoparticles became smaller by loading on the carbon nanoparticles with a large surface area including rGO, AcB, and Vulcan. Loading onto the carbon nanofibers enhanced the degree of PtRu alloying.

Suda, Yoshiyuki; Ozaki, Masahiro; Tanoue, Hideto; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Ue, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Kazuki; Muramoto, Hirokazu

2013-04-01

26

Preparation and Organized Assembly of Nanoparticulate TiO 2–Stearate Alternating Langmuir–Blodgett Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticulate TiO2–stearate Langmuir–Blodgett-type monolayers and multilayers were directly obtained by using TiO2hydrosol as the subphase. The surface pressure-versus-surface area isotherms showed that the monolayer could be compressed to a mean molecular area of 0.25 nm2. The monolayer was transferred onto a CaF2or Si substrate at a dipping speed of 18 cm\\/min and surface pressure of 25 mN\\/m. It exhibited Y-type

Lin Song Li; Zheng Hui; Yongmei Chen; Xin Tong Zhang; Xiaogang Peng; Zhongfan Liu; Tie Jin Li

1997-01-01

27

Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes  

DOEpatents

Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

2009-12-01

28

Occupational health risk to nanoparticulate exposure.  

PubMed

The evolution of nanotechnology from laboratory research to full-scale production has led to the need to understand the health risk to workers in that industry from the dispersion of nanoparticles escaping from various aspects of the production process. Risk is a function of both the hazard imposed by a compound or material and the expected exposure level. Therefore, research to evaluate proper exposure assessment methods specific to nanoparticles in a workplace atmosphere, as well as research on the toxicological properties of nanoparticles, has been conducted to better understand methods for protecting the health of workers in this burgeoning industry. From an assessment standpoint, researchers are evaluating both the accuracy and validity of currently available instruments and the merits of each of the three metrics – mass, surface area, and count – as indicators of exposure that provide the most relevant indication of worker health risk. Likewise, toxicologists are employing both in vitro and in vivo methods to understand the potential hazard to workers who may inhale aerosolized nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of current research efforts in nanoparticle exposure assessment and toxicology with an emphasis on how information from both fields of study combine to provide guidance to minimize the health risk posed by nanoparticulate exposure in the workplace. PMID:24592427

O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T

2013-01-01

29

Ferroportin mediates the intestinal absorption of iron from a nanoparticulate ferritin core mimetic in mice  

PubMed Central

The ferritin core is composed of fine nanoparticulate Fe3+ oxohydroxide, and we have developed a synthetic mimetic, nanoparticulate Fe3+ polyoxohydroxide (nanoFe3+). The aim of this study was to determine how dietary iron derived in this fashion is absorbed in the duodenum. Following a 4 wk run-in on an Fe-deficient diet, mice with intestinal-specific disruption of the Fpn-1 gene (Fpn-KO), or littermate wild-type (WT) controls, were supplemented with Fe2+ sulfate (FeSO4), nanoFe3+, or no added Fe for a further 4 wk. A control group was Fe sufficient throughout. Direct intestinal absorption of nanoFe3+ was investigated using isolated duodenal loops. Our data show that FeSO4 and nanoFe3+ are equally bioavailable in WT mice, and at wk 8 the mean ± sem hemoglobin increase was 18 ± 7 g/L in the FeSO4 group and 30 ± 5 g/L in the nanoFe3+ group. Oral iron failed to be utilized by Fpn-KO mice and was retained in enterocytes, irrespective of the iron source. In summary, although nanoFe3+ is taken up directly by the duodenum its homeostasis is under the normal regulatory control of dietary iron absorption, namely via ferroportin-dependent efflux from enterocytes, and thus offers potential as a novel oral iron supplement.—Aslam, M. F., Frazer, D. M., Faria, N., Bruggraber, S. F. A., Wilkins, S. J., Mirciov, C., Powell, J. J., Anderson, G. J., Pereira, D. I. A. Ferroportin mediates the intestinal absorption of iron from a nanoparticulate ferritin core mimetic in mice. PMID:24776745

Aslam, Mohamad F.; Frazer, David M.; Faria, Nuno; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Mirciov, Cornel; Powell, Jonathan J.; Anderson, Greg J.; Pereira, Dora I. A.

2014-01-01

30

Anisotropy adjustment and thickness of thin layer doped by nanoparticules magnetic for the realization of phase matching between fundamental modes in monomode waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, research has been concentrated on the study of the magnetic nanoparticules for their use in the design of magneto-optical devices. The magneto-optical waveguides for example exploit the Faraday effect to obtain a rotation of polarization TE and TM independent of the propagation direction. In this work, we study isolating component whose operating principle is based on the minimization of

M. R. Lebbal; T. Boumaza; M. Bouchemat; A. Hocini; F. Hobar; A. Benghalia; J. J. Rosseau; F. Royer

2008-01-01

31

Rapid detection of cancer related DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and nanoparticles in whole blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to rapidly detect cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, cfc-RNA, exosomes and other nanoparticulate disease biomarkers as well as drug delivery nanoparticles directly in blood is a major challenge for nanomedicine. We now show that microarray and new high voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) devices can be used to rapidly isolate and detect cfc-DNA nanoparticulates and nanoparticles directly from whole blood and other high conductance samples (plasma, serum, urine, etc.). At DEP frequencies of 5kHz-10kHz both fluorescent-stained high molecular weight (hmw) DNA, cfc-DNA and fluorescent nanoparticles separate from the blood and become highly concentrated at specific DEP highfield regions over the microelectrodes, while blood cells move to the DEP low field-regions. The blood cells can then be removed by a simple fluidic wash while the DNA and nanoparticles remain highly concentrated. The hmw-DNA could be detected at a level of <260ng/ml and the nanoparticles at <9.5 x 109 particles/ml, detection levels that are well within the range for viable clinical diagnostics and drug nanoparticle monitoring. Disease specific cfc-DNA materials could also be detected directly in blood from patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and confirmed by PCR genotyping analysis.

Heller, Michael J.; Krishnan, Raj; Sonnenberg, Avery

2010-08-01

32

Nano-particulate coating on cotton fabric through DBD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma polymerization of fluorocarbon was processed through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A thin hydrophobic film packed with nano-particulate structure was obtained on cotton fabric surface. The contact angle of the water and 1-bromonaphthalene on coated cotton fabric was 133° and 124° separately. The surface morphology of the coating was observed through SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). It was found that cotton fabric surface was tightly adhered to a thin film packed by nano-particles from 10nm to 200nm. This process showed potential applications in continuous coating of textiles with functional nano-particulate polymers, but without changing their softness performance.

Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jinzhou; Zhou, Rongming; Yu, Jianyong

2008-02-01

33

Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

FLICI cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power appl i cations in view of their low weight. and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt\\/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air\\/02 electrodes

G. K. Suryaprakash; G. A. Olah; E. Vamos; H. Frank; G. Halpert; A. LaConti; J. Kosek; G. K. Surya Prakash

1994-01-01

34

Structure evolution of nanoparticulate Fe2O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic structure and properties of nanoparticulate Fe2O3 are characterized starting from its smallest Fe2O3 building unit through (Fe2O3)n clusters to nanometer-sized Fe2O3 particles. This is achieved by combining global structure optimizations at the density functional theory level, molecular dynamics simulations by employing tailored, ab initio parameterized interatomic potential functions and experiments. With the exception of nearly tetrahedral, adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 small (Fe2O3)n clusters assume compact, virtually amorphous structures with little or no symmetry. For n = 2-5 (Fe2O3)n clusters consist mainly of two- and three-membered Fe-O rings. Starting from n = 5 they increasingly assume tetrahedral shape with the adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 unit as the main building block. However, the small energy differences between different isomers of the same cluster-size make precise structural assignment for larger (Fe2O3)n clusters difficult. The tetrahedral morphology persists for Fe2O3 nanoparticles with up to 3 nm in diameter. Simulated crystallization of larger nanoparticles with diameters of about 5 nm demonstrates pronounced melting point depression and leads to formation of ?-Fe2O3 single crystals with hexagonal morphology. This finding is in excellent agreement with the results obtained for Fe2O3 nanopowders generated by laser vaporization and provides the first direct indication that ?-Fe2O3 may be thermodynamically the most stable phase in this size regime.The atomic structure and properties of nanoparticulate Fe2O3 are characterized starting from its smallest Fe2O3 building unit through (Fe2O3)n clusters to nanometer-sized Fe2O3 particles. This is achieved by combining global structure optimizations at the density functional theory level, molecular dynamics simulations by employing tailored, ab initio parameterized interatomic potential functions and experiments. With the exception of nearly tetrahedral, adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 small (Fe2O3)n clusters assume compact, virtually amorphous structures with little or no symmetry. For n = 2-5 (Fe2O3)n clusters consist mainly of two- and three-membered Fe-O rings. Starting from n = 5 they increasingly assume tetrahedral shape with the adamantane-like (Fe2O3)2 unit as the main building block. However, the small energy differences between different isomers of the same cluster-size make precise structural assignment for larger (Fe2O3)n clusters difficult. The tetrahedral morphology persists for Fe2O3 nanoparticles with up to 3 nm in diameter. Simulated crystallization of larger nanoparticles with diameters of about 5 nm demonstrates pronounced melting point depression and leads to formation of ?-Fe2O3 single crystals with hexagonal morphology. This finding is in excellent agreement with the results obtained for Fe2O3 nanopowders generated by laser vaporization and provides the first direct indication that ?-Fe2O3 may be thermodynamically the most stable phase in this size regime. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06989g

Erlebach, Andreas; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Müller, Frank A.; Sierka, Marek

2015-02-01

35

Multistrain influenza protection induced by a nanoparticulate mucosal immunotherapeutic  

Microsoft Academic Search

All commercial influenza vaccines elicit antibody responses that protect against seasonal infection, but this approach is limited by the need for annual vaccine reformulation that precludes efficient responses against epidemic and pandemic disease. In this study we describe a novel vaccination approach in which a nanoparticulate, liposome-based agent containing short, highly conserved influenza-derived peptides is delivered to the respiratory tract

W Tai; L Roberts; A Seryshev; J M Gubatan; C S Bland; R Zabriskie; S Kulkarni; L Soong; I Mbawuike; B Gilbert; F Kheradmand; D B Corry

2011-01-01

36

Redesign of downstream processing techniques for nanoparticulate bioproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much interest generated in the recov- ery of nanoparticulate (nanoparticle) bioproducts (Second generation of biotechnological products) such as plasmid DNA and viruses as putative gene therapy vectors, macromolecular assemblies as drug delivery vehicles and virus-like particles as vaccine compo- nents. Such product must be manufactured in advanced stages of purity, material definition and sophisticated formulation to rival

Mohsen Jahanshahi

2004-01-01

37

Design and development of oral nanoparticulated insulin in multiple emulsion.  

PubMed

The present research aimed at developing an injection-free nanoparticulated formulation in multiple emulsion form, for oral delivery of insulin, which otherwise undergoes degradation in the gastric environment if administered orally. Insulin-polymeric nanoparticles were prepared using layer by layer (LbL) adsorption method and incorporated into an emulsion to form a nanoparticulated multiple emulsion. Using 0.6 M sodium chloride, the insulin nanoaggregates of 300-400 nm size were obtained about a yield of 94%. The characteristics of a representative nanoparticle were as follows: particle size - 391.9±0.41 nm, polydispersity index -0.425, zeta potential- +20.6 mv, encapsulation efficiency- 86.7±1.42% and percentage entrapment efficiency of the insulin-polymeric nanoparticles in the inner aqueous phase of emulsion was 84.6%. The FT-IR analysis confirms that there were no drug interactions with the polymers. Stability analysis carried out for 3 months at 8-40 °C, showed only minor changes at the end period. The release kinetics of the nanoparticulated multiple emulsion at pH 7.4 followed first order kinetics and obeyed the Fickian law. However, at pH 2.0 the release kinetics from nanoparticulated multiple emulsion followed zero order kinetics without obeying to the Fickian law. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the nanoparticulated multiple emulsion formulation has good release characteristics and imparted a tolerable protection for insulin at different pH conditions, which may be exploited for oral administration. PMID:24730439

Siddhartha, T Venkata; Senthil, V; Kishan, Ilindra Sai; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V

2014-01-01

38

In vitro and in vivo equivalence testing of nanoparticulate intravenous formulations.  

PubMed

The topic of bioequivalence evaluation of nanoparticulate intravenous formulations is one that has been intensely debated in recent times since the release of the specific recommendations by many regulatory authorities worldwide. Product specific bioequivalence guidelines for many of the nanoparticulate systems where therapeutic molecules are directly coupled (human albumin bound paclitaxel nanosuspension), functionalized (iron- carbohydrate preparations) or entrapped/coated to a carrier (doxorubicin liposomal formulations), have been approved by the drug regulatory agencies. These current regulatory procedures include complete characterization of the generic formulation in terms of its physicochemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics disposition and/or non clinical testing with respect to the reference formulation. The concept of in vitro equivalency is emerging as a valuable tool in these guidances as generic product differing in in vitro parameters can result in a different biopharmaceutical profile with respect to pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Furthermore, in case of systems with entrapped drug, classical pharmacokinetic parameters alone may only ensure the equivalent clearance of test and reference product from systemic circulation but may fail to detect the extent to which the nanoparticles are taken up by different target organs and, consequently, the safety and efficacy effects. Hence, additional tissue distribution study in preclinical study models has reflected in recent guidances. Understanding and interpretation of these regulatory requirements thus presents most critical component of a generic product development cycle. This article reviews these current regulatory procedures with special emphasis on in vitro population bioequivalence (POP BE) and preclinical testing of generic formulations. PMID:24203084

Pathak, S M; Ruby, P K; Aggarwal, D

2014-04-01

39

Nanoparticulate magnetite thin films as electrode materials for the fabrication of electrochemical capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetite nanoparticles in stable colloidal suspension were prepared by the co-precipitation method. Nanoparticulate magnetite\\u000a thin films on supporting stainless steel plates were prepared by drop-coating followed by heat treatment under controlled\\u000a conditions. The effects of calcination temperature and atmosphere on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of\\u000a nanoparticulate magnetite thin films were investigated. Nanoparticulate magnetite thin films prepared under optimized conditions

Suh Cem Pang; Wai Hwa Khoh; Suk Fun Chin

2010-01-01

40

Highly Conductive Nanoparticulate Films Achieved at Low Sintering Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticulate Ag films have been produced by the laser ablation of microparticle aerosol (LAMA) deposition process. LAMA enables the production of thick, nanoparticulate films that are free of organics and offers the ability to control the degree of agglomeration and initial film density. The films were subsequently annealed at a range of temperatures from 100°C to 250°C to densify the films and increase conductivity. We show that, by reducing the degree of agglomeration in the films, sintering of LAMA-produced films occurs at low temperatures and results in near fully dense Ag films that exhibit an order of magnitude higher conductivity when compared to thick films produced by other techniques that are sintered at similar temperatures. Good agreement is observed between experiments and a sintering model that suggests that surface diffusion is dominant at temperatures below 150°C, and a combination of surface and grain boundary diffusion are responsible for sintering at slightly higher temperatures.

Nahar, Manuj; Keto, John W.; Becker, Michael F.; Kovar, Desiderio

2015-02-01

41

Solid-state chemical synthesis of nanoparticulate zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanically activated reaction of anhydrous chloride precursors with Li2O has been used to synthesise ultrafine powders of ZrO2, Mg–PSZ, and Y–TZP. In each case, milling of the reactant mixtures resulted in a combination of amorphisation and overall microstructural refinement. Chemical reaction, with the consequent formation of nanoparticulate zirconia and LiCl, only occurred during subsequent low temperature heat treatment. The mechanism

A. C Dodd; P. G McCormick

2001-01-01

42

Détection et caractérisation optiques d'une nanoparticule métallique isolée  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La détection optique d'une nanoparticule métallique unique par une nouvelle technique de microscopie par modulation spatiale est décrite. Dans le cas d'un nano-objet de métal noble, la mesure quantitative de son spectre d'absorption au voisinage de la résonance plasmon de surface et sa comparaison précise à un modèle théorique permettent une identification optique complète de l'objet étudié: taille, forme et orientation sur la surface sont déterminées.

Del Fatti, N.; Muskens, O.; Vallée, F.; Huntzinger, J. R.; Billaud, P.; Broyer, M.

2006-10-01

43

Development of a polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The objective of this project was to develop an intravenously administrable poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticulate delivery system for Indocyanine Green (ICG), to enhance the potential for ICG use in tumor imaging and therapy. Methods. For this purpose PLGA nanoparticles entrapping ICG were engineered by spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. ICG entrapment in nanoparticles was determined and physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles was performed. The stability of ICG in nanoparticles formulation under various conditions was determined. The intracellular uptake of ICG in nanoparticles by B16-F10 and C-33A cancer cell lines was studied in comparison with the free ICG solution. Anti-proliferation studies against cancer cells were performed to prove the photodynamic activity of ICG in nanoparticles. Biodistribution of ICG when delivered through nanoparticles and solution were evaluated in mice after tail vein injection. Results. PLGA nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 350 nm and 74% ICG entrapment were obtained. The nanoparticles were nearly spherical in shape with zeta potential of -16 mV. The nanoparticles formulation provided overall stability to ICG with degradation half-lives of 2.5--3.5 days as compared to 10--20 hr of free ICG solutions. The intracellular uptake of ICG through nanoparticles was directly proportional to time and extracellular nanoparticle concentration. The intracellular uptake of ICG was enhanced about 100-fold by nanoparticles formulation as compared to the free ICG solution. Nanoparticles formulation showed significant photodynamic effect at nano-molar ICG concentrations and very low light dose (fluence: 0.22 W/cm2 and energy density: 1.1 J/cm2). In-vivo, the blood circulation-time and retention-time of ICG in various organs was enhanced 2--5 times by nanoparticles formulation as compared to the free ICG solution. Conclusions. A PLGA nanoparticlute delivery system was developed for ICG, which demonstrated its capability in enhancing the potential of ICG use in tumor diagnosis and anticancer therapy.

Saxena, Vishal

44

DEVELOPMENT OF FUNCTIONAL NANOPARTICULATE MATERIALS: Examination of the Functional and Structural Properties of Nanoparticulate Metal Complexes Prepared by Precipitation with Compressed Antisolvent Technology  

E-print Network

. The research described in this dissertation involves the development of nanomaterials that interact with NO. Molecule-based nanoparticulate metal complexes were prepared using precipitation with compressed antisolvent technology. Microscopy and powder x...

Nguyen, Joseph G.

2008-01-01

45

PtRu catalysts supported on heteropolyacid and chitosan functionalized carbon nanotubes for methanol oxidation reaction of fuel cells.  

PubMed

A simple self-assembly approach has been developed to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with chitosan (CS) and heteropolyacids (HPAs) of phosphomolybdic acid (H(3)PMo(12)O(40), HPMo) and phosphotungstic acid (H(3)PW(12)O(40), HPW). The non-covalent functionalization method, which introduces homogenous surface functional groups with no detrimental effect on graphene structures of CNTs, can be carried out at room temperature without the use of corrosive acids. The PtRu nanoparticles supported on HPAs-CS-CNTs have a uniform distribution and much smaller size as compared to those of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on conventional acid treated CNTs (PtRu/AO-CNTs). The onset and peak potentials for CO(ad) oxidation on PtRu/HPAs-CS-CNTs catalysts are more negative than those on PtRu/AO-CNTs, indicating that HPAs facilitate the electro-oxidation of CO. The PtRu/HPMo-CS-CNTs catalyst has a higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation and higher tolerance toward CO poisoning than PtRu/HPW-CS-CNTs. The better electrocatalytic enhancement of HPMo on the PtRu/HPAs-CS-CNTs catalyst is most likely related to the fact that molybdenum-containing HPAs such as HPMo have more labile terminal oxygen to provide additional active oxygen sites while accelerating the CO and methanol oxidation in a similar way to that of Ru in the PtRu binary alloy system. PMID:21842101

Cui, Zhiming; Li, Chang Ming; Jiang, San Ping

2011-09-28

46

ZnO Nanorod-TiO2-Nanoparticulate Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly dense ZnO nanorods were synthesized on TiO2-nanoparticulate coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the chemical vapor deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer has a thickness of ˜4 ?m on the TiO2-nanoparticulate layer with a wurtzite structures as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The DSSC fabricated with a ZnO nanorod/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode had an overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency ? of 3.7% with a short-circuit current density JSC of 8.12 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.76 V, and fill factor \\mathit{FF} of 0.59, whereas ZnO nanowire/TiO2-nanoparticulate-electrode-based DSSCs exhibited a low ? of 1.1% with JSC of 2.14 mA/cm2 and slightly high VOC of 0.79 V. It is expected that the enhanced photovoltaic performance of the ZnO nanorod/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode can be attributed to high dye loading and high light harvesting through large surface areas of ZnO nanorods incorporated with TiO2-nanoparticulate as compared with the ZnO nanowire/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode.

Akhtar, M. Shaheer; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hong; Yang, O-Bong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2009-12-01

47

ZnO Nanorod-TiO2-Nanoparticulate Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly dense ZnO nanorods were synthesized on TiO2-nanoparticulate coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the chemical vapor deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer has a thickness of ˜4 µm on the TiO2-nanoparticulate layer with a wurtzite structures as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The DSSC fabricated with a ZnO nanorod/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode had an overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency ? of 3.7% with a short-circuit current density JSC of 8.12 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.76 V, and fill factor FF of 0.59, whereas ZnO nanowire/TiO2-nanoparticulate-electrode-based DSSCs exhibited a low ? of 1.1% with JSC of 2.14 mA/cm2 and slightly high VOC of 0.79 V. It is expected that the enhanced photovoltaic performance of the ZnO nanorod/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode can be attributed to high dye loading and high light harvesting through large surface areas of ZnO nanorods incorporated with TiO2-nanoparticulate as compared with the ZnO nanowire/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode.

Shaheer Akhtar, M.; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hong; Yang, O.-Bong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2009-12-01

48

CO electrooxidation study on Pt and Pt-Ru in H3PO4 using MEA with PBI-H3PO4 membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO electrooxidation on Pt and Pt-Ru in H3PO4 was studied in the temperature range 120-180 °C using CO-N2-H2O gas mixtures of controlled composition. On Pt and Pt-Ru the voltammetry curves exhibited Tafel behavior in a wide potential range with a slope of 80-100 mV per decade. Replacement of Pt with Pt-Ru on the anode resulted mainly in a shift of CO electrooxidation voltammetry curves by approx. -0.3 V. Reaction order in respect to water vapor pressure was found close to unity with both electrocatalysts. Reaction order in respect to CO partial pressure was found negative, close to zero. Values of apparent activation energy of CO electrooxidation on these electrocatalysts were nearly equal, Ea app = 110 ± 15 kJ mol-1. The results were interpreted within the framework of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. An equation, which describes the observed features of CO electrooxidation on Pt and Pt-Ru, was suggested. Comparing results of the present study with results of earlier studies of CO tolerance of Pt and Pt-Ru electrocatalysts, it was concluded that CO electrooxidation can hardly play a significant role in CO tolerance of PEM FC with PBI-PA membranes.

Modestov, A. D.; Tarasevich, M. R.; Leykin, A. Y.

2011-03-01

49

ZnO Nanorod-TiO2-Nanoparticulate Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly dense ZnO nanorods were synthesized on TiO2-nanoparticulate coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the chemical vapor deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer has a thickness of ˜4 mum on the TiO2-nanoparticulate layer with a wurtzite structures as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The DSSC fabricated with a ZnO nanorod\\/TiO2-nanoparticulate electrode

M. Shaheer Akhtar; Jung-Hwan Hyung; Tae-Hong Kim; O-Bong Yang; Sang-Kwon Lee

2009-01-01

50

Anisotropy adjustment and thickness of thin layer doped by nanoparticules magnetic for the realization of phase matching between fundamental modes in monomode waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, research has been concentrated on the study of the magnetic nanoparticules for their use in the design of magneto-optical devices. The magneto-optical waveguides for example exploit the Faraday effect to obtain a rotation of polarization TE and TM independent of the propagation direction. In this work, we study isolating component whose operating principle is based on the minimization of the phase mismatch between TE and TM fundamental propagation modes. It appeared promising to use as a guiding film the thin layers doped by magnetic nanoparticules ?-Fe2O3 in order to carry out an adequate phase mismatch. This last can be adjusted by permanent linear birefringence resulting from the application of an external magnetic field during the gelation of the solution which constitutes the guiding film. Many studies were undertaken primarily to minimize the birefringence between TE and TM modes, for that this work represents a new potential means to reach the phase matching by acting on the anisotropy and the thin layer thickness. This condition can be realized in the waveguides with SiO2/TiO2 guiding thin layer doped by nanoparticules of maghemite ?-Fe2O3. The simulations carried out by the FMM method and MATLAB allowed to deduce the conditions to decrease the phase mismatch and increase the conversion ratio of TE/TM modes in order to ameliorate the isolation.

Lebbal, M. R.; Boumaza, T.; Bouchemat, M.; Hocini, A.; Hobar, F.; Benghalia, A.; Rosseau, J. J.; Royer, F.

2008-05-01

51

Pharmaceutical Properties of Nanoparticulate Formulation Composed of TPGS and PLGA for Controlled Delivery of Anticancer Drug  

E-print Network

A suitable management of the pharmaceutical property is needed and helpful to design a desired nanoparticulate delivery system, which includes the carrier nature, particle size and size distribution, morphology, surfactant ...

Mu, L.

52

X-ray absorption and electrochemical studies of direct methanol fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

In order for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to operate directly on methanol instead of hydrogen, methanol oxidation must be catalyzed in the acidic cell environment. Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru oxide are considered to be the most active catalysts for this purpose; Ru enhances the Pt activity for reasons not yet fully understood. XAS and electrochemical techniques were used to study this enhancement. Preliminary results indicate that Ru does effect the d-band occupancy of Pt, which in turn may effect the kinetics of the methanol oxidation reaction on this metal by altering the strength of the Pt-CO bond. Further research is needed.

Zurawski, D.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Baxter, S.F.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-12-31

53

Spleen injury and apoptotic pathway in mice caused by titanium dioxide nanoparticules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been demonstrated to decrease immunity of mice, but very little is known about the injury of spleen involved immunomodulation and its molecular mechanism. In order to understand the spleen injury induced by intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 nanoparticules (NPs) for consecutive 45 days, the spleen pathological changes, apoptosis, the expression levels of the apoptotic genes and

Na Li; Yanmei Duan; Mengmeng Hong; Lei Zheng; Min Fei; Xiaoyang Zhao; Jue Wang; Yaling Cui; Huiting Liu; Jingwei Cai; Songjie Gong; Han Wang; Fashui Hong

2010-01-01

54

Sol-Gel Process for Making Pt-Ru Fuel-Cell Catalysts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sol-gel process has been developed as a superior alternative to a prior process for making platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in fuel cells. The starting materials in the prior process are chloride salts of platinum and ruthenium. The process involves multiple steps, is time-consuming, and yields a Pt-Ru product that has relatively low specific surface area and contains some chloride residue. Low specific surface area translates to incomplete utilization of the catalytic activity that might otherwise be available, while chloride residue further reduces catalytic activity ("poisons" the catalyst). In contrast, the sol-gel process involves fewer steps and less time, does not leave chloride residue, and yields a product of greater specific area and, hence, greater catalytic activity. In this sol-gel process (see figure), the starting materials are platinum(II) acetylacetonate [Pt(C5H7O2)2, also denoted Pt-acac] and ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate [Ru(C5H7O2)3, also denoted Ru-acac]. First, Pt-acac and Ru-acac are dissolved in acetone at the desired concentrations (typically, 0.00338 moles of each salt per 100 mL of acetone) at a temperature of 50 C. A solution of 25 percent tetramethylammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4NOH, also denoted TMAH] in methanol is added to the Pt-acac/Ruacac/ acetone solution to act as a high-molecular-weight hydrolyzing agent. The addition of the TMAH counteracts the undesired tendency of Pt-acac and Ru-acac to precipitate as separate phases during the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, thereby helping to yield a desired homogeneous amorphous gel. The solution is stirred for 10 minutes, then the solvent is evaporated until the solution becomes viscous, eventually transforming into a gel. The viscous gel is dried in air at a temperature of 170 C for about 10 hours. The dried gel is crushed to make a powder that is the immediate precursor of the final catalytic product. The precursor powder is converted to the final product in a controlled-atmosphere heat treatment. Desirably, the final product is a phase-pure (Pt phase only) Pt-Ru powder with a high specific surface area. The conditions of the controlled- atmosphere heat are critical for obtaining the aforementioned desired properties. A typical heat treatment that yields best results for a catalytic alloy of equimolar amounts of Pt and Ru consists of at least two cycles of heating to a temperature of 300 C and holding at 300 C for several hours, all carried out in an atmosphere of 1 percent O2 and 99 percent N2. The resulting powder consists of crystallites with typical linear dimensions of <10 nm. Tests have shown that the powder is highly effective in catalyzing the electro-oxidation of methanol.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas; Kumta, Prashant; Kim, Y.

2005-01-01

55

Evidence of nonelectrochemical shift reaction on a CO-tolerant high-entropy state Pt-Ru anode catalyst for reliable and efficient residential fuel cell systems.  

PubMed

A randomly mixed monodispersed nanosized Pt-Ru catalyst, an ultimate catalyst for CO oxidation reaction, was prepared by the rapid quenching method. The mechanism of CO oxidation reaction on the Pt-Ru anode catalyst was elucidated by investigating the relation between the rate of CO oxidation reaction and the current density. The rate of CO oxidation reaction increased with an increase in unoccupied sites kinetically formed by hydrogen oxidation reaction, and the rate was independent of anode potential. Results of extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy showed the combination of N(Pt-Ru)/(N(Pt-Ru) + N(Pt-Pt)) ? M(Ru)/(M(Pt) + M(Ru)) and N(Ru-Pt)/(N(Ru-Pt) + N(Ru-Ru)) ? M(Pt)/(M(Ru) + M(Pt)), where N(Pt-Ru)(N(Ru-Pt)), N(Pt-Pt)(N(Ru-Ru)), M(Pt), and M(Ru) are the coordination numbers from Pt(Ru) to Ru(Pt) and Pt (Ru) to Pt (Ru) and the molar ratios of Pt and Ru, respectively. This indicates that Pt and Ru were mixed with a completely random distribution. A high-entropy state of dispersion of Pt and Ru could be maintained by rapid quenching from a high temperature. It is concluded that a nonelectrochemical shift reaction on a randomly mixed Pt-Ru catalyst is important to enhance the efficiency of residential fuel cell systems under operation conditions. PMID:22876851

Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Muhamad, Ernee Noryana; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueda, Wataru

2012-09-01

56

Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell  

E-print Network

-up of impurities such as carbon monoxide and sulfur compounds. In the meanwhile, the PEM-based direct methanol fuel®on solution and tape-casting, with unsupported Pt-Ru as an anode catalyst and carbon supported 40 wt.% Pt broken ®bers and cleavage-like defects generated during excessive compression of the cell. A maximum

57

Microstructures and Nanostructures for Environmental Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticulate Soots  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the microstructures and nanostructures for natural (mined) chrysotile asbestos nanotubes (Mg3 Si2O5 (OH)4) in comparison with commercial multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), utilizing scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Black carbon (BC) and a variety of specific soot particulate (aggregate) microstructures and nanostructures are also examined comparatively by SEM and TEM. A range of MWCNTs collected in the environment (both indoor and outdoor) are also examined and shown to be similar to some commercial MWCNTs but to exhibit a diversity of microstructures and nanostructures, including aggregation with other multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles. MWCNTs formed in the environment nucleate from special hemispherical graphene “caps” and there is evidence for preferential or energetically favorable chiralities, tube growth, and closing. The multiconcentric graphene tubes (?5 to 50 nm diameter) differentiate themselves from multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles and especially turbostratic BC and carbonaceous soot nanospherules (?8 to 80 nm diameter) because the latter are composed of curved graphene fragments intermixed or intercalated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isomers of varying molecular weights and mass concentrations; depending upon combustion conditions and sources. The functionalizing of these nanostructures and photoxidation and related photothermal phenomena, as these may influence the cytotoxicities of these nanoparticulate aggregates, will also be discussed in the context of nanostructures and nanostructure phenomena, and implications for respiratory health. PMID:19151426

Murr, L. E.

2008-01-01

58

Nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) for oral pharmaceutics and nutraceutics.  

PubMed

The introduction of nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) in the pharmaceutic and nutraceutic fields has changed the definitions of disease management and treatment, diagnosis, as well as the supply food chain in the agri-food sector. NPC composed of synthetic polymers, proteins or polysaccharides gather interesting properties to be used for oral administration of pharmaceutics and nutraceutics. Oral administration remains the most convenient way of delivering drugs (e.g. peptides, proteins and nucleic acids) since these suffer similar metabolic pathways as food supply. Recent advances in biotechnology have produced highly potent new molecules however with low oral bioavailability. A suitable and promising approach to overcome their sensitivity to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis as well as the poor cellular uptake, would be their entrapment within suitable gastrointestinal (GI) resistant NPC. Increasing attention has been paid to the potential use of NPC for peptides, proteins, antioxidants (carotenoids, omega fatty acids, coenzyme Q10), vitamins, probiotics, for oral administration. This review focuses on the most important materials to produce NPC for oral administration, and the most recent achievements in the production techniques and bioactives successfully delivered by these means. PMID:20225647

Lopes, C M; Martins-Lopes, P; Souto, E B

2010-02-01

59

Inactivation of harmful tumour-associated proteolysis by nanoparticulate system.  

PubMed

The primary aim in cancer therapy is to deliver anti-cancer drugs to their specific molecular targets in the tumour. Here we present a system composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles, cytokeratin specific monoclonal antibody and cystatin, a potent protease inhibitor, that can neutralize the excessive proteolytic activity associated with the invasive and metastatic potential of breast tumour cells. The antibody provides specific targeting of the delivery system to invasive breast epithelial cells and, additionally, prevents the generation of plasmin, a central extracellular protease involved in malignant progression. Polymeric nanoparticles rapidly enter the targeted cells and release the inhibitor cargo within the endosomes/lysosomes. The inhibitor is capable to inactivate lysosomal cysteine proteases, in particular cathepsin B, which is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix inside the tumour cells. Our approach, which combines nanoparticulate delivery system with the inhibitory potential against extracellular and intracellular proteases, may improve the efficacy of therapy in patients with breast tumours compared to the application of individual protease inhibitors. PMID:19422896

Kos, Janko; Obermajer, Natasa; Doljak, Bojan; Kocbek, Petra; Kristl, Julijana

2009-11-01

60

Nanoparticulate carriers for the treatment of coronary restenosis  

PubMed Central

The current treatment for coronary restenosis following balloon angioplasty involves the use of a mechanical or a drug-eluting stent. Despite the high usage of commercially-available drug-eluting stents in the cardiac field, there are a number of limitations. This review will present the background of restenosis, go briefly into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of restenosis, the use of mechanical stents in coronary restenosis, and will provide an overview of the drugs and genes tested to treat restenosis. The primary focus of this article is to present a comprehensive overview on the use of nanoparticulate delivery systems in the treatment of restenosis both in-vitro and in-vivo. Nanocarriers have been tested in a variety of animal models and in human clinical trials with favorable results. Polymer-based nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles will be discussed, in addition to the findings presented in the field of cardiovascular drug targeting. Nanocarrier-based delivery presents a viable alternative to the current stent based therapies. PMID:17722543

Brito, Luis; Amiji, Mansoor

2007-01-01

61

Structurally inhomogeneous nanoparticulate catalysts in cobalt-catalyzed carbon nanotube growth  

SciTech Connect

The structure of nanoparticulate catalysts involved in cobalt-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated by in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). In contrast to previous studies, the analyses of ETEM images showed that the nanoparticulate catalysts were structurally inhomogeneous during CNT growth in the source gas of acetylene at a rate of pressure increase of about 3?Pa/h and at 550?°C. The lattice fringes observed in the nanoparticulate catalysts can be accounted for by not a single crystalline structure but by several possible pairs of structures including pure Co and cobalt carbides. The inhomogeneous structures were unstable with time. The possible origin of the inhomogeneous structures is discussed.

Kohigashi, Y. [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yoshida, H.; Takeda, S., E-mail: takeda@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Homma, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

2014-08-18

62

Chemical components, pharmacological properties, and nanoparticulate delivery systems of Brucea javanica  

PubMed Central

Brucea javanica has demonstrated a variety of antitumoral, antimalarial, and anti- inflammatory properties. As a Chinese herbal medicine, Brucea javanica is mainly used in the treatment of lung and gastrointestinal cancers. Pharmacological research has identified the main antitumor components are tetracyclic triterpene quassinoids. However, most of these active components have poor water solubility and low bioavailability, which greatly limit their clinical application. Nanoparticulate delivery systems are urgently needed to improve the bioavailability of Brucea javanica. This paper mainly focuses on the chemical components in Brucea javanica and its pharmacological properties and nanoparticulate formulations, in an attempt to encourage further research on its active components and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems to expand its clinical applications. It is expected to improve the level of pharmaceutical research and provide a strong scientific foundation for further study on the medicinal properties of this plant. PMID:23319860

Chen, Meiwan; Chen, Ruie; Wang, Shengpeng; Tan, Wen; Hu, Yangyang; Peng, Xinsheng; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

63

Photo-enhanced activity of Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts towards the electro-oxidation of methanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocatalyst materials, consisting of Pt or Pt-Ru supported on carbon with and without TiO2, are evaluated for their activity towards the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in 1.0 M H2SO4 at 25 °C in the presence and absence of visible light irradiation. Electrochemical studies showed that enhanced MOR activity is achieved upon irradiation with visible light for each catalyst, in both the presence and absence of TiO2. Irradiation leads to no improvement in activity towards the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) indicating that irradiation aids in the removal of adsorbed intermediate species, such as CO, during MOR. While the presence of a TiO2 support does lead to an increase in activity upon irradiation, about 50% of the improvements arise solely from the irradiation of the metal-containing electrocatalysts themselves.

Arulmani, Dheevesh V.; Eastcott, Jennie I.; Mavilla, Stephanie G.; Easton, E. Bradley

2014-02-01

64

Combustion-Generated Nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: Their Comparative Characterization and Potential for Adverse Health Effects  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1) and ultrafine (PM0.1), or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM), tire particulate matter (TPM), wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC)) along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary) nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day) and longer term (2 week) in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined. PMID:16823077

Murr, L. E.; Soto, K. F.; Garza, K. M.; Guerrero, P. A.; Martinez, F.; Esquivel, E. V.; Ramirez, D. A.; Shi, Y.; Bang, J. J.; Venzor, J.

2006-01-01

65

XAFS Analysis of Pt and Pt-Ru Catalysts for PEFCs by In-Situ Measurements under Operating Conditions in the Fluorescence Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is one of powerful spectroscopic techniques to analyze valence state and chemical bonding in Pt and Pt-Ru electrocatalysts under fuel cell operating conditions. We measured Pt L3 and Ru K-XAFS of Pt and Pt-Ru electrocatalysts in fluorescence mode under different operation voltages using pure H2 or 97 ppm CO containing H2 as fuel gases that were fed to the anode. The radial structure functions that derived from the obtained XAFS spectra showed that the local structure around Pt and Ru atoms in the electrocatalysts changes depending on the operation voltage and shows difference with the existence of CO in the fuel gas.

Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshikatsu; Senoh, Hiroshi; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Nomura, Katsuhiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi

2007-02-01

66

Ultrahigh methanol electro-oxidation activity of PtRu nanoparticles prepared on TiO2-embedded carbon nanofiber support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A TiO2-embedded carbon nanofiber (TECNF) was proposed as a promising support of the PtRu nanocatalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction. The nanofiber support was prepared by the electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with TiO2 nanoparticles followed by carbonization and steam activation of the nanofiber, and lastly, the PtRu nanoparticles deposition. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed a significantly high MOR activity for the PtRu/TECNF compared to that of the PtRu nanoparticles deposited on different supports, i.e., carbon black (C), TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2), a mixture of these nanoparticles (C + TiO2) and carbon nanofiber (CNF). The MOR activity was high in the order of PtRu/TECNF > PtRu/CNF > PtRu/(C + TiO2) > PtRu/C >> PtRu/TiO2. The activity of PtRu/TECNF increased with an increase in the weight ratio of Ti/C for TECNF up to 1.0 and then decreased. The MOR mass activity of PtRu/TECNF at the optimum Ti/C ratio was 4 times higher than that of PtRu/C. The ultrahigh catalytic activity of PtRu/TECNF is attributed to the metal-support interaction, which efficiently occurs at the PtRu/TECNF structure. The ultrahigh catalytic activity was also confirmed by the two-times higher DMFC power output using PtRu/TECNF, in spite of quarter the PtRu loading on the electrode, compared to that using the commercial PtRu/C.

Ito, Yudai; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Abdelkareem, Mohammad Ali; Nakagawa, Nobuyoshi

2013-11-01

67

The inclusion of Mo, Nb and Ta in Pt and PtRu carbon supported electrocatalysts in the quest for improved CO tolerant PEMFC anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the inclusion of Mo, Nb and Ta in Pt and PtRu carbon supported anode electrocatalysts on CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and fuel cell tests. CO stripping voltammetry on binary PtxM\\/C (M: Mo, Nb, Ta) reveals partial oxidation of the CO adlayer at low potential, with PtMo

D. C Papageorgopoulos; M Keijzer; F. A de Bruijn

2002-01-01

68

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate Mercuric Sulfides  

E-print Network

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate in the environment is partly controlled by the bioavailability of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) to anaerobic matter to form chemical species that include organic-coated mercury sulfide nanoparticles as reaction

69

Nanoparticulate Iron Oxide Minerals in Soils and Sediments: Unique Properties and Contaminant Scavenging Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticulate goethite, akaganeite, hematite, ferrihydrite and schwertmannite are important constituents of soils, sediments and mine drainage outflows. These minerals have high sorption capacities for metal and anionic contaminants such as arsenic, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium. Contaminant sequestration is accomplished mainly by surface complexation, but aggregation of particles may encapsulate sorbed surface species into the multigrain interior interfaces, with significant

Glenn A. Waychunas; Christopher S. Kim; Jillian F. Banfield

2005-01-01

70

High performance direct methanol polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) using Pt-Ru electrocatalysts and perfluorosulfonic acid membranes provide high performances if operated above 100 C with optimized catalyst layers. A decal transfer method is used to apply thin-film catalyst\\/ionomer composite layers to Nafion{reg_sign} membranes. A Nafion 112 membrane\\/electrode assembly operating on 5 atm oxygen at 130 C yields a current of 670 mA\\/cm² at 0.5

Xiaoming Ren; M. S. Wilson; S. Gottesfeld

1996-01-01

71

X-ray phase computed tomography for nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutics: preliminary feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the scientific progress in cancer biology, pharmacology and biomedical engineering, the nano-biotechnology based imaging probes and therapeutical agents (namely probes/agents) - a form of theranostics - are among the strategic solutions bearing the hope for the cure of cancer. The key feature distinguishing the nanoparticulated probes/agents from their conventional counterparts is their targeting capability. A large surface-to-volume ratio in nanoparticulated probes/agents enables the accommodation of multiple targeting, imaging and therapeutic components to cope with the intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Most nanoparticulated probes/agents are synthesized with low atomic number materials and thus their x-ray attenuation are very similar to biological tissues. However, their microscopic structures are very different, which may result in significant differences in their refractive properties. Recently, the investigation in the x-ray grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) CT has demonstrated its advantages in differentiating low-atomic materials over the conventional attenuation-based CT. We believe that a synergy of x-ray grating-based DPC CT and nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutic agents may play a significant role in extensive preclinical and clinical applications, or even become a modality for molecular imaging. Hence, we propose to image the refractive property of nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutical agents using x-ray grating-based DPC CT. In this work, we conduct a preliminary feasibility study with a focus to characterize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast-detail behavior of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT. The obtained data may be instructive to the architecture design and performance optimization of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT for imaging biomarker-targeted imaging probes and therapeutic agents, and even informative to the translation of preclinical research in theranostics into clinical applications.

Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

2011-03-01

72

Particle-Level Modeling of the Charge-Discharge Behavior of Nanoparticulate Phase-Separating Li-Ion Battery Electrodes  

E-print Network

In nanoparticulate phase-separating electrodes, phase separation inside the particles can be hindered during their charge/discharge cycles even when a thermodynamic driving force for phase separation exists. In such cases, ...

Orvananos, Bernardo

73

Oxidative stress in the brain of mice caused by translocated nanoparticulate TiO 2 delivered to the abdominal cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the brain, ICR mice were injected with nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 (5nm) of various doses into the abdominal cavity daily for 14 days. We then examined the coefficient of the brain, the brain pathological changes and oxidative stress-mediated responses, and the accumulation of nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 and levels

Linglan Ma; Jie Liu; Na Li; Jue Wang; Yanmei Duan; Jinying Yan; Huiting Liu; Han Wang; Fashui Hong

2010-01-01

74

A Novel Method for Preparing Ordered SnO 2\\/TiO 2 Alternate Nanoparticulate Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method using LB films as precursors to prepare pure inorganic ordered film with periodic structure was developed. Surfactant-stabilized SnO2 nanoparticulate organosols and TiO2 nanoparticulate organosols were prepared and used as spreading solutions. Using LB technique, the good film-forming ability of the surfactant-stabilized SnO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by the determination of the ?–A isotherms. The surfactant-stabilized

Lixin Cao; Haibao Wan; Lihua Huo; Shiquan Xi

2001-01-01

75

P38-Nrf-2 Signaling Pathway of Oxidative Stress in Mice Caused by Nanoparticulate TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent studies have been previously suggested that nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) damaged liver function and decreased immunity of mice, but the spleen injury and its oxidative stress mechanism are still\\u000a unclear. To understand the spleen injury induced by intragastric administration of nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 for consecutive 30 days, the spleen pathological changes, the oxidative stress, and p38 and c-Jun N-terminal

Jue Wang; Na Li; Lei Zheng; Sisi Wang; Ying Wang; Xiaoyang Zhao; Yanmei Duan; Yaling Cui; Min Zhou; Jingwei Cai; Songjie Gong; Han Wang; Fashui Hong

2011-01-01

76

Potential-dependent infrared absorption spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of arc-melted single-phase Pt, PtRu, PtOs, PtRuOs, and Ru electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential- and coverage-dependent infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of linearly bound CO on single-phase polycrystalline arc-melted Pt, PtRu(1\\/1), PtRu(8\\/2), PtRuOs(8\\/1\\/1), PtRuOs(65\\/25\\/10), and Ru electrodes in 0.5 M HâSOâ are correlated with the potential-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the PtRu(1\\/1), PtOs(8.2), and PtRuOs(65\\/25\\/10) substrates. The CO stretching frequencies decrease as the mole fraction of Pt in the alloy is decreased.

Renxuan Liu; Hakim Iddir; Qinbai Fan; Gouyan Hou; Aili Bo; Kevin L. Ley; E. S. Smotkin; Y.-E. Sung; H. Kim; S. Thomas; A. Wieckowski

2000-01-01

77

High-resolution patterned nanoparticulate Ag electrodes toward all printed organic thin film transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution patterned nanoparticulate Ag electrode arrays and all printed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were demonstrated using a simple dip-casting and a photoresist-free, non-relief-pattern lithographic process. An octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer was deposited to provide low surface energy and patterned by deep ultraviolet light, resulting in reproducible periodic arrays of patterned hydrophilic domains separated from hydrophobic surroundings. Using a simple dip-casting

Sung Kyu Park; Yong-Hoon Kim; Jeong-In Han

2009-01-01

78

Seeded growth of robust SERS-active 2D Au@Ag nanoparticulate films  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate herein a novel and versatile solution-based methodology for fabricating self-organized two-dimensional (2D) Au nanoparticle arrays on glass using in situ nucleation at an aminosilane monolayer followed by seeded, electroless growth; subsequent deposition of Ag produced Au{at}Ag core-shell nanoparticulate films which proved highly promising as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms.

Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Zhu, Haoguo [ORNL; Bao, Lili [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2008-01-01

79

Nanoparticulate TiO 2-stearate alternating multilayers deposited through the LB method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable nanoparticulate TiO2-stearate (TiO2-St) monolayers can be obtained by using TiO2 (anatase-type) hydrosol as the subphase. The area extrapolated to ?= 0 is 0.25 nm2 per hydrocarbon chain of the monolayer. The “collapse” pressure is about 50 mN m?1. The monolayer can be transferred onto a solid substrate perfectly under certain pressure. The surface of the even-layer (odd-layer) of the

Linsong Li; Yongmei Chen; Shihai Kan; Xintong Zhang; Xiaogang Peng; Mingdeng Liu; Tiejin Li

1996-01-01

80

Effect of Particle Size on the Photocatalytic Activity of Nanoparticulate Zinc Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a three-stage process consisting of mechanical milling, heat treatment, and washing has been used to manufacture\\u000a nanoparticulate ZnO powders with a controlled particle size and minimal agglomeration. By varying the temperature of the post-milling\\u000a heat treatment, it was possible to control the average particle size over the range of 28–57 nm. The photocatalytic activity\\u000a of these powders was

A. C. Dodd; A. J. McKinley; M. Saunders; T. Tsuzuki

2006-01-01

81

Scanning tunneling microscopy\\/spectroscopy of titanium dioxide nanoparticulate film on Au( 1 1 1 ) surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)\\/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of titanium dioxide nanoparticulate film on Au(111) surface is carried out yielding topography, I–V, dI\\/dV versus V and normalized dI\\/dV versus V. Isolated nanoparticles were found to exhibit semiconducting behavior with a band gap which varies from 1 to >3.0eV depending on the nature of substrate\\/nanoparticle\\/tip junction formation. Increase in the particulate density

Suwarna Datar; P. Madhu Kumar; Murali Sastry; C. V Dharmadhikari

2004-01-01

82

Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) spectroscopy applied to nanoparticulate TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have probed the photophysics of nanoparticulate TiO2 using hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) spectroscopy. We find that despite its Wurtzite structure, the anatase particles we prepared are only weakly hyperpolarizable, which suggests that second harmonic generation may couple transitions which are: (a) only weakly allowed, i.e. indirect; or (b) associated with states, probably surface states, of low density. Addition of a

M. R. V. Sahyun

2002-01-01

83

Nanoparticulate-induced toxicity and related mechanism in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas, the quantity of exhaust particles from vehicle emissions is tremendous and has been regarded as the main contributor\\u000a to particulate matter (PM) pollution. Recently, the nano-sized PM on public health has begun to raise the attention. The increased\\u000a toxicity of nanoparticulate can be largely explained by their small size, high airborne concentration, extensive surface area\\u000a and high

Hye Won Kim; Eun-Kyung Ahn; Bo Keun Jee; Hyoung-Kyu Yoon; Kweon Haeng Lee; Young Lim

2009-01-01

84

Water-based nanoparticulate solar cells using a diketopyrrolopyrrole donor polymer.  

PubMed

Organic photovoltaic devices with either bulk heterojunction (BHJ) or nanoparticulate (NP) active layers have been prepared from a 1?:?2 blend of (poly{3,6-dithiophene-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-naphthalene}) (PDPP-TNT) and the fullerene acceptor, ([6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester) (PC70BM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate the morphology of the active layers of the two approaches. Mild thermal treatment of the NP film is required to promote initial joining of the NPs in order for the devices to function, however the NP structure is retained. Consequently, whereas gross phase segregation of the active layer occurs in the BHJ device spin cast from chloroform, the nanoparticulate approach retains control of the material domain sizes on the length scale of exciton diffusion in the materials. As a result, NP devices are found to generate more than twice the current density of BHJ devices and have a substantially greater overall efficiency. The use of aqueous nanoparticulate dispersions offers a promising approach to control the donor acceptor morphology on the nanoscale with the benefit of environmentally-friendly, solution-based fabrication. PMID:24382591

Vaughan, Ben; Williams, Evan L; Holmes, Natalie P; Sonar, Prashant; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Dastoor, Paul C; Belcher, Warwick J

2014-02-14

85

New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- sr¡pported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

Adzic, Radoslav

1998-08-01

86

Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

PubMed Central

PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2–5?nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31?A g?1 catalyst. PMID:24883406

Basri, S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Daud, W. R. W.; Yaakob, Z.; Kadhum, A. A. H.

2014-01-01

87

Fe isotope exchange between Fe(II) aq and nanoparticulate mackinawite (FeS m) during nanoparticle growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We detail the results of an experimental study on the kinetics of Fe isotope exchange between aqueous Fe(II) aq and nanoparticulate mackinawite (FeS m) at 25 °C and 2 °C over a one month period. The rate of isotopic exchange decreases synchronously with the growth of FeS m nanoparticles. 100% isotopic exchange between bulk FeS m and the solution is never reached and the extent of isotope exchange asymptotes to a maximum of ~ 75%. We demonstrate that particle growth driven by Ostwald ripening would produce much faster isotopic exchange than observed and would be limited by the extent of dissolution-recrystallisation. We show that Fe isotope exchange kinetics are consistent with i) FeS m nanoparticles that have a core-shell structure, in which Fe isotope mobility is restricted to exchange between the surface shell and the solution and ii) a nanoparticle growth via an aggregation-growth mechanism. We argue that because of the structure of FeS m nanoparticles, the approach to isotopic equilibrium is kinetically restricted at low temperatures. FeS m is a reactive component in diagenetic pyrite forming systems since FeS m dissolves and reacts to form pyrite. Isotopic mobility and potential equilibration between FeS m and Fe(II) aq thus have direct implications for the ultimate Fe isotope signature recorded in sedimentary pyrite.

Guilbaud, Romain; Butler, Ian B.; Ellam, Rob M.; Rickard, David

2010-11-01

88

Enhanced oral bioavailability of fenofibrate using polymeric nanoparticulated systems: physicochemical characterization and in vivo investigation  

PubMed Central

Background The intention of this research was to prepare and compare various solubility-enhancing nanoparticulated systems in order to select a nanoparticulated formulation with the most improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods The most appropriate excipients for different nanoparticulated preparations were selected by determining the drug solubility in 1% (w/v) aqueous solutions of each carrier. The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanospheres, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) nanocorpuscles, and gelatin nanocapsules were formulated as fenofibrate/PVP/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), fenofibrate/HP-?-CD, and fenofibrate/gelatin at the optimized weight ratios of 2.5:4.5:1, 1:4, and 1:8, respectively. The three solid-state products were achieved using the solvent-evaporation method through the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characterization of these nanoparticles was accomplished by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Their physicochemical properties, aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated in comparison with the drug powder. Results Among the tested carriers, PVP, HP-?-CD, gelatin, and SLS showed better solubility and were selected as the most appropriate constituents for various nanoparticulated systems. All of the formulations significantly improved the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate compared to the drug powder. The drug was present in the amorphous form in HP-?-CD nanocorpuscles; however, in other formulations, it existed in the crystalline state with a reduced intensity. The aqueous solubility and dissolution rates of the nanoparticles (after 30 minutes) were not significantly different from one another. Among the nanoparticulated systems tested in this study, the initial dissolution rates (up to 10 minutes) were higher with the PVP nanospheres and HP-?-CD nanocorpuscles; however, neither of them resulted in the highest oral bioavailability. Irrespective of relatively retarded dissolution rate, gelatin nanocapsules showed the highest apparent aqueous solubility and furnished the most improved oral bioavailability of the drug (~5.5-fold), owing to better wetting and diminution in crystallinity. Conclusion Fenofibrate-loaded gelatin nanocapsules prepared using the solvent-evaporation method through the spray-drying technique could be a potential oral pharmaceutical product for administering the poorly water-soluble fenofibrate with an enhanced bioavailability. PMID:25784807

Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

2015-01-01

89

Carbon nano-fiber interlayer that provides high catalyst utilization in direct methanol fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a carbon nano-fiber (CNF) interlayer to the interface between the carbon paper and the catalyst layer was investigated for providing a highly active catalyst layer with PtRu nano-particles on it for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode. A precipitation method was used for applying the CNF layer and the catalyst layer. The effects of the loadings

Masataka Okada; Yuri Konta; Nobuyoshi Nakagawa

2008-01-01

90

Dynamics of nanoparticules detected at 1 AU by S/WAVES onboard STEREO spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to interpret in detail the S/WAVES data on the interplanetary nanodust discovered by STEREO at 1 AU [Meyer-Vernet et al., 2009], we study the dynamics of nanoparticles in the inner interplanetary medium as well as the distribution of their velocities and directions of arrival, with a model based on [Czechowski and Mann, 2012]. We deduce the charges released by their impacts on the STEREO spacecraft at 1 AU and their dependence on the position of the spacecraft on their orbits. The model studies nanoparticles of size equal or smaller than about 70 nm, assumed to be created via collisional fragmentation of dust grains of larger size moving on keplerian orbits, and sublimation of dust, meteoroids and comets. The nanoparticles are released near the Sun with initial velocities close to keplerian, and mainly subjected to the Lorentz force calculated with a simple solar wind model. A part of the nanoparticles is accelerated to high speeds of the order of 300 km/s, thereby providing impact charges between 10(-14) and 10(-11) Cb [Belheouane, 2014] which enable them to be detected by S/WAVES, whereas another part is trapped within about 0.2 AU from the Sun. We discuss how the fluxes and direction of arrival at 1 AU are expected to change in function of the solar cycle. These results enable us to interpret in detail the STEREO/WAVES observations [Zaslavsky et al., 2012]; [Pantellini et al., 2013]; [Le Chat et al., 2013]. Belheouane, S. (2014). Nanoparticules dans le vent solaire, observations spatiales et theorie. PhD thesis, Pierre and Marie Curie University UPMC. Czechowski, A. and Mann, I. (2012). Nanodust Dynamics in Interplanetary Space, chapter Nanodust Dynamics in Interplanetary Space. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Le Chat, G., Zaslavsky, A., Meyer-Vernet, N., Issautier, K., Belheouane, S., Pantellini, F., Maksimovic, M., Zouganelis, I., Bale, S., and Kasper, J. (2013). Interplanetary Nanodust Detection by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/WAVES Low Frequency Receiver. Solar Physics, 286(2):549-559. Meyer-Vernet, N., Maksimovic, M., Czechowski, A., Mann, I., Zouganelis, I., Goetz, K., Kaiser, M., Cyr, O. S., Bougeret, J.-L., and Bale, S. (2009). Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO : Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind? Solar Phys, 256:463-474. Pantellini, F., Le Chat, G., Belheouane, S., Meyer-Vernet, N., and Zaslavsky, A. (2013). On the detection of nano dust using spacecraft based boom antennas. Solar Wind 13: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Solar Wind Conference, 1539:414-417. Zaslavsky, A., Meyer-Vernet, N., Mann, I., Czechowski, A., Issautier, K., Le Chat, G., Pantellini, F., Goetz, K., Maksimovic, M., Bale, S. D., and Kasper, J. K. (2012). Interplanetary dust detection by radio antennas: Mass calibration and fluxes measured by STEREO/WAVES. J. Geophys. Res., 117.

Belheouane, Soraya; Issautier, Karine; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Le Chat, Gaétan; Czechowski, Andrzej; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Zouganelis, Yannis; Mann, Ingrid

91

Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticulate WO3 films were prepared using microwave plasma synthesis and studied with respect to the electrical conductivity in dependence of ambient conditions. The WO3 films with a monoclinic structure were made from cluster-assembled nanoparticles (diameter 3 nm) by means of dispersion and spin-coating. Above 100 °C a thermally activated decrease of the electrical resistance due to oxygen vacancy donors is found. A reversible increase of the electrical resistance R due to oxygen uptake is observed. The decrease of R in response to reducing H2S in the ppm range is studied in dependence of temperature and pre-annealing conditions.

Sagmeister, M.; Postl, M.; Brossmann, U.; List, E. J. W.; Klug, A.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Szabó, D. V.; Würschum, R.

2011-08-01

92

Extreme enhancement and reduction of the dielectric response of polymer nanoparticulate composites via interphasial charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical solution is constructed for the homogenized (i.e., macroscopic) dielectric response of particulate composites comprising a random distribution of particles bonded to a matrix material through interphases of finite size that contain space charges. By accounting for interphasial charges, the solution is able to describe and explain both the extreme enhancement and the reduction of the dielectric response typically exhibited by emerging polymer nanoparticulate composites. More generally, the solution reveals that judicious manipulation of interphasial charges provides a promising path forward for the design of materials with exceptional dielectric properties.

Lopez-Pamies, Oscar; Goudarzi, Taha; Meddeb, Amira B.; Ounaies, Zoubeida

2014-06-01

93

Imbibition dynamics of nano-particulate ink-jet drops on micro-porous media  

E-print Network

-jet deposition of colloidal fluids on to absorbing surfaces such as micro-porous coated papers. As an ink drop strikes a surface with significant velocity, its subsequent deformation and radial expansion are initially driven by the impact inertia, and later... Imbibition dynamics of nano-particulate ink-jet drops on micro-porous media Hsiao, W.-K., Hoath, S. D., Martin, G. D., Hutchings, I. M., Chilton, N. B. and Jones, S., Proc Nanotech 2011 Conference, Boston, June 2011. Imbibition dynamics...

Hsiao, W.-K.; Hoath, S.D.; Martin, G.D.; Hutchings, I.M.; Chilton, N.B.; Jones, S.

94

Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper.

Izadifar, Mohammad; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kelly, Michael E.

2015-01-01

95

Electric relaxation processes in chemodynamics of aqueous metal complexes: from simple ligands to soft nanoparticulate complexants.  

PubMed

The chemodynamics of metal complexes with nanoparticulate complexants can differ significantly from that for simple ligands. The spatial confinement of charged sites and binding sites to the nanoparticulate body impacts on the time scales of various steps in the overall complex formation process. The greater the charge carried by the nanoparticle, the longer it takes to set up the counterion distribution equilibrium with the medium. A z+ metal ion (z > 1) in a 1:1 background electrolyte will accumulate in the counterionic atmosphere around negatively charged simple ions, as well as within/around the body of a soft nanoparticle with negative structural charge. The rate of accumulation is often governed by diffusion and proceeds until Boltzmann partition equilibrium between the charged entity and the ions in the medium is attained. The electrostatic accumulation proceeds simultaneously with outer-sphere and inner-sphere complex formation. The rate of the eventual inner-sphere complex formation is generally controlled by the rate constant of dehydration of the metal ion, k(w). For common transition metal ions with moderate to fast dehydration rates, e.g., Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+), it is shown that the ionic equilibration with the medium may be the slower step and thus rate-limiting in their overall complexation with nanoparticles. PMID:22126743

van Leeuwen, Herman P; Buffle, Jacques; Town, Raewyn M

2012-01-10

96

Nanoparticulate Transport of Oximes over an In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the use of organophosphates (OP) as pesticides and the availability of OP-type nerve agents, an effective medical treatment for OP poisonings is still a challenging problem. The acute toxicity of an OP poisoning is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). This results in an increase in the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disorder of numerous body functions up to death. The standard treatment of OP poisoning includes a combination of a muscarinic antagonist and an AChE reactivator (oxime). However, these oximes can not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) sufficiently. Therefore, new strategies are needed to transport oximes over the BBB. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we combined different oximes (obidoxime dichloride and two different HI 6 salts, HI 6 dichloride monohydrate and HI 6 dimethanesulfonate) with human serum albumin nanoparticles and could show an oxime transport over an in vitro BBB model. In general, the nanoparticulate transported oximes achieved a better reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE than free oximes. Conclusions/Significance With these nanoparticles, for the first time, a tool exists that could enable a transport of oximes over the BBB. This is very important for survival after severe OP intoxication. Therefore, these nanoparticulate formulations are promising formulations for the treatment of the peripheral and the CNS after OP poisoning. PMID:21151975

Wagner, Sylvia; Kufleitner, Jürgen; Zensi, Anja; Dadparvar, Miriam; Wien, Sascha; Bungert, Judith; Vogel, Tikva; Worek, Franz; Kreuter, Jörg; von Briesen, Hagen

2010-01-01

97

Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system  

SciTech Connect

We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550?°C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5?nm and 2.3–4?nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130?K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300?K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T?>?T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

Roy, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.roy@ua.pt, E-mail: aparnaroy15@gmail.com; Ferreira, J. M. F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); De Toro, J. A.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Amaral, V. S. [Department of Physics and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2014-02-21

98

Fabrication of an inkjet-printed seed pattern with silver nanoparticulate ink on a textured silicon solar cell wafer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the possibility of using inkjet printing in the fabrication of a conductive seed pattern on a textured silicon solar wafer is investigated. Firstly, solar cell wafers were coated with a hydrophobic solution. It was found that the surface texture of a solar cell wafer causes a slight increase in the contact angle of silver nanoparticulate ink by 7.5° due to a weak Cassie-Baxter wetting state. After selective laser ablation of the hydrophobic coating and the SiNx layer in preparation for the surface energy-patterned finger electrode regions, silver nanoparticulate ink was deposited with a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head. Because the threshold laser fluence for the ablation of the hydrophobic coating is lower than that for the SiNx layer, the effective width of a surface energy-patterned finger electrode region with the Gaussian laser beam profile was found to be wider than the actual width of the SiNx-ablated region. Although this initially results in a widened deposition of silver nanoparticulate ink, the subsequent drying of silver nanoparticulate ink is found to cause a reduction of line width of around 6% to 14%. Therefore, the final line width of the seed pattern is the outcome of two opposing phenomena. The physical and electrical characteristics of the seed pattern are as narrow as 58.5 ± 1.2 µm, as thick as 1.81 µm on average and as conductive as 2.72 µ? cm.

Shin, Dong-Youn

2010-12-01

99

Generation of Oxidants From the Reaction of Nanoparticulate Zero-Valent Iron and Oxygen for the use in Contaminant Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with oxygen can lead to the formation of oxidants, which may be used to transform recalcitrant contaminants including non-polar organics and certain metals. Nanoparticulate iron might provide a practical mechanism of remediating oxygen-containing groundwater and contaminated soil. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism and to quantify the yield of oxidants, experiments were performed with model organic compounds in the presence of nanoparticulate zero-valent iron and oxygen. At pH values below 5, ZVI nanoparticles were oxidized within 30 minutes with a stoichiometry of approximately two Fe0 oxidized per O2 consumed. Using the oxidation of methanol and ethanol to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively, we found that less than 2% of the consumed oxygen was converted to reactive oxidants under acidic conditions. The yield of aldehydes increased with pH up to pH 7, with maximum oxidant yields of around 5% relative to the mass of ZVI added. The increase of aldehyde yield with pH was attributable to changes in the processes responsible for oxidant production. At pH values below 5, the corrosion of ZVI by oxygen produces hydrogen peroxide, which subsequently reacts with ferrous iron [Fe(II)] via the Fenton reaction. At higher pH values, the aldehydes are produced when Fe(II), the initial product of ZVI oxidation, reacts with oxygen. The decrease in oxidant yield at pH values above 7 may be attributable to precipitation of Fe(II). The oxidation of benzoic acid and 2-propanol to para-hydroxybenzoic acid and acetone, respectively, followed a very different trend compared to the primary alcohols. In both cases, the highest product yields (approximately 2% with respect to ZVI added) were observed at pH 3. Yields decreased with increasing pH, with no oxidized product detected at neutral pH. These results suggest that two different oxidants may be produced by the system: hydroxyl radical (OH-·) at acidic pH and a more selective oxidant such as the ferryl ion [Fe(IV)] at neutral pH. This provides insight into the type of compounds that may be oxidized using the zero-valent iron and oxygen system. The addition of certain compounds such as oxalate and polyoxometalate (POM) may improve contaminant remediation efficiencies by enhancing oxidant yields. The introduction of 1 mM oxalate improved the formaldehyde yield by approximately 20% at neutral pH. Oxalate accelerates the Fenton reaction and limits the passivation of the ZVI surface by increasing iron solubility. The presence of excess POM greatly enhanced the yield of formaldehyde, with maximum yields of 60 and 35% with respect to ZVI added at pH 2 and 7, respectively. The mechanism of POM enhancement is a function of solution pH. At acidic pH, POM acts an electron shuttle by directly transferring electrons from ZVI to oxygen to increase the hydrogen peroxide production. At neutral pH, POM may act by forming soluble iron-complexes and preventing the build-up of an iron oxide layer on the ZVI surface.

Keenan, C. R.; Lee, C.; Sedlak, D. L.

2007-12-01

100

Net methylation of mercury in estuarine sediment microcosms amended with dissolved, nanoparticulate, and microparticulate mercuric sulfides.  

PubMed

The production of methylmercury (MeHg) by anaerobic microorganisms depends in part on the speciation and bioavailability of inorganic mercury to these organisms. Our previous work with pure cultures of methylating bacteria has demonstrated that the methylation potential of mercury decreased during the aging of mercuric sulfides (from dissolved to nanoparticulate and microcrystalline HgS). The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between mercury sulfide speciation and methylation potential in experiments that more closely simulate the complexity of sediment settings. The study involved sediment slurry microcosms that represented a spectrum of salinities in an estuary and were each amended with different forms of mercuric sulfides: dissolved Hg and sulfide, nanoparticulate HgS (3-4 nm in diameter), and microparticulate HgS (>500 nm). The results indicated that net MeHg production was influenced by both the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (roughly represented by the rate of sulfate loss) and the bioavailability of mercury. In the presence of abundant sulfate and carbon sources (supporting relatively high microbial activity), net MeHg production in the slurries amended with dissolved Hg was greater than in slurries amended with nano-HgS, similar to previous experiments with pure bacterial cultures. In microcosms with minimal microbial activity (indicated by low rates of sulfate loss), the addition of either dissolved Hg or nano-HgS resulted in similar amounts of net MeHg production. For all slurries receiving micro-HgS, MeHg production did not exceed abiotic controls. In slurries amended with dissolved and nano-HgS, mercury was mainly partitioned to bulk-scale mineral particles and colloids, indicating that Hg bioavailability was not simply related to dissolved Hg concentration or speciation. Overall, the results suggest that models for mercury methylation potential in the environment will need to balance the relative contributions of mercury speciation and activity of methylating microorganisms. PMID:25007388

Zhang, Tong; Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Kim, Bojeong; Deshusses, Marc A; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

2014-08-19

101

Active radar guides missile to its target: receptor-based targeted treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by nanoparticulate systems.  

PubMed

Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually present at advanced stages and do not benefit from surgical resection, so drug therapy should deserve a prominent place in unresectable HCC treatment. But chemotherapy agents, such as doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel, frequently encounter important problems such as low specificity and non-selective biodistribution. Recently, the development of nanotechnology led to significant breakthroughs to overcome these problems. Decorating the surfaces of nanoparticulate-based drug carriers with homing devices has demonstrated its potential in concentrating chemotherapy agents specifically to HCC cells. In this paper, we reviewed the current status of active targeting strategies for nanoparticulate systems based on various receptors such as asialoglycoprotein receptor, transferrin receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, folate receptor, integrin, and CD44, which are abundantly expressed on the surfaces of hepatocytes or liver cancer cells. Furthermore, we pointed out their merits and defects and provided theoretical references for further research. PMID:25424700

Yan, Jing-Jun; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Lin, Ju-Sheng; He, Xing-Xing

2015-01-01

102

Improved surface photovoltaic response of nanoparticulate TiO 2-pyridine derivative monolayer\\/n-Si(111) assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticulate TiO2-pyridine derivative monolayer\\/n-Si(111) assembly was fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique from 4-[4?-N,N-(didodecylamino) stryll pyridium (PII), and its photovoltaic conversion properties were investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. Sensitization effect of PII molecule as well as TiO2 nanoparticle on n-Si(111) is observed, and the photovoltaic response of this assembly is about 20 times as high as that of n-Si(111).

J.-H. Yang; W.-S. Yang; X.-D. Chai; Y.-M. Chen; L.-S. Li; Y.-A. Cao; Y.-B. Bai; D.-J. Wang; T.-J. Li

1997-01-01

103

RuO 2-wired high-rate nanoparticulate TiO 2 (anatase): Suppression of particle growth using silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the high-rate capability (up to 120C, 20A\\/g) of nanoparticulate TiO2 (anatase) formed by thermal treatment of protonated TiO2 nanotubes, we used two types of additives: RuO2 as an electron-conductive material [Y.-G. Guo, Y.-S. Hu, W. Sigle, J. Maier, Adv. Mater. 19 (2007) 2087] and silica as a suppressant of particle growth during heat treatment. We show systematically that

B. Erjavec; R. Dominko; P. Umek; S. Sturm; S. Pejovnik; M. Gaberscek; J. Jamnik

2008-01-01

104

Laser-induced enhancement of the surface hardness of nanoparticulate TiO 2 self-cleaning layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We here report that the abrasion resistance of nanoparticulate TiO2 self-cleaning layers can be highly enhanced without a considerable loss of photocatalytic capability. TiO2 coating layers solution-deposited onto the glass substrate were irradiated by a pulsed ultraviolet (UV) laser at 355nm, which modified the surface morphologies via laser-induced local melting of TiO2 nanoparticles. The surface hardness, measured by pencil scratch

Jonghyun Kim; Jinsoo Kim; Myeongkyu Lee

2010-01-01

105

Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts.  

PubMed

An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the observed enhancement of the catalytic activity of PtxRu100-x alloy NPs at x ? 50. Implications of so-established relationships between the atomic structure and catalytic activity of Pt-Ru alloy NPs on efforts aimed at improving further the latter by tuning-up the former are discussed and the usefulness of detailed NP structure studies to advancing science and technology of metallic NPs - exemplified. PMID:25874741

Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

2015-04-24

106

Low-Pt-Content Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combinatorial experiments have led to the discovery that a nanophase alloy of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Zr is effective as an anode catalyst material for direct methanol fuel cells. This discovery has practical significance in that the electronic current densities achievable by use of this alloy are comparable or larger than those obtained by use of prior Pt/Ru catalyst alloys containing greater amounts of Pt. Heretofore, the high cost of Pt has impeded the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. By making it possible to obtain a given level of performance at reduced Pt content (and, hence, lower cost), the discovery may lead to reduction of the economic impediment to commercialization.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, Jay

2008-01-01

107

Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

1993-01-01

108

The nanoparticulation by octaarginine-modified liposome improves ?-galactosylceramide-mediated antitumor therapy via systemic administration.  

PubMed

Alpha-galactosylceramide (?GC), a lipid antigen present on CD1d molecules, is predicted to have clinical applications as a new class of adjuvant, because ?GC strongly activates natural killer T (NKT) cells which produce large amounts of IFN-?. Here, we incorporated ?GC into stearylated octaarginine-modified liposomes (R8-Lip), our original delivery system developed for vaccines, and investigated the effect of nanoparticulation. Unexpectedly, the systemic administered R8-Lip incorporating ?GC (?GC/R8-Lip) failed to improve the immune responses mediated by ?GC compared with soluble ?GC in vivo, although ?GC/R8-Lip drastically enhanced ?GC presentation on CD1d in antigen presenting cells in vitro. Thus, we optimized the ?GC/R8-Lip in vivo to overcome this inverse correlation. In optimization in vivo, we found that size control of liposome and R8-modification were critical for enhancing the production of IFN-?. The optimization led to the accumulation of ?GC/R8-Lip in the spleen and a positive therapeutic effect against highly malignant B16 melanoma cells. The optimized ?GC/R8-Lip also enhanced ?GC presentation on CD1d in antigen presenting cells and resulted in an expansion in the population of NKT cells. Herein, we show that R8-Lip is a potent delivery system, and size control and R8-modification in liposomal construction are promising techniques for achieving systemic ?GC therapy. PMID:23860186

Nakamura, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daiki; Yamauchi, Jun; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2013-10-28

109

Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation.  

PubMed

Extreme dilutions, especially homeopathic remedies of 30c, 200c, and higher potencies, are prepared by a process of serial dilution of 1:100 per step. As a result, dilution factors of 10(60), 10(400), or even greater are achieved. Therefore, both the presence of any active ingredient and the therapeutic efficacy of these medicines have been contentious because the existence of even traces of the starting raw materials in them is inconceivable. However, physicochemical studies of these solutions have unequivocally established the presence of the starting raw materials in nanoparticulate form even in these extreme (super-Avogadro, >10(23)) dilutions. In this article, we propose and validate a hypothesis to explain how nanoparticles are retained even at such enormous dilution levels. We show that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold level of a few nanograms/milliliter (ng/mL), at the end of each dilution step, all of the nanoparticles levitate to the surface and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby forming an asymptotic concentration. Thus, all dilutions are only apparent and not real in terms of the concentrations of the starting raw materials. PMID:23083226

Chikramane, Prashant S; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Kane, Shantaram G; Bellare, Jayesh R

2012-11-13

110

Developing micro-/nanoparticulate drug delivery systems using “design of experiments”  

PubMed Central

Of late, micro and nanoparticluate drug delivery systems have been gaining immense importance primarily attributed to their improved drug release controlling and targeting efficiencies. Also, the small particle size and desirable surface charge associated with these delivery systems render them suitable for specific applications like lymphatic uptake, pulmonary uptake, tumor targeting, brain targeting, etc. For decades, micro and nanoparticulate systems have been prepared by the conventional “trial and error” approach of changing One Variable at a Time (OVAT). Using this methodology, the solution of a specific problematic formulation characteristic can certainly be achieved, but attainment of the true optimal composition is never guaranteed. Thus, the present manuscript provides an updated account of the systematic approach “Design of Experiments (DoE)” as applicable to formulation development of microparticles and nanostructured systems. Besides providing a bird's eye view of the various experimental designs and optimization techniques employed for DoE optimization of such systems, the present manuscript also presents a copilation of the major micro/nano-structuctred systems optimized through DoE till date. In a nutshell, the article will act both as a ready reckoner of DoE optimization of micro/nano drug delivery systems and a catalyst in providing an impetus to young pharmaceutical “nano & micro” researchers to venture into the rewarding field of systematic DoE optimization. PMID:23071925

Singh, Bhupinder; Bhatowa, Rahul; Tripathi, Chandra Bhushan; Kapil, Rishi

2011-01-01

111

Osteogenesis on nanoparticulate mineralized collagen scaffolds via autogenous activation of the canonical BMP receptor signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Skeletal regenerative medicine frequently incorporates deliverable growth factors to stimulate osteogenesis. However, the cost and side effects secondary to supraphysiologic dosages of growth factors warrant investigation of alternative methods of stimulating osteogenesis for clinical utilization. In this work, we describe growth factor independent osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on a novel nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffold (MC-GAG). hMSCs demonstrated elevated osteogenic gene expression and mineralization on MC-GAG with minimal to no effect upon addition of BMP-2 when compared to non-mineralized scaffolds (Col-GAG). To investigate the intracellular pathways responsible for the increase in osteogenesis, we examined the canonical and non-canonical pathways downstream from BMP receptor activation. Constitutive Smad1/5 phosphorylation with nuclear translocation occurred on MC-GAG independent of BMP-2, whereas Smad1/5 phosphorylation depended on BMP-2 stimulation on Col-GAG. When non-canonical BMPR signaling molecules were examined, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was found to be decreased in MC-GAG but elevated in Col-GAG. No differences in Smad2/3 or p38 activation were detected. Collectively, these results demonstrated that MC-GAG scaffolds induce osteogenesis without exogenous BMP-2 addition via endogenous activation of the canonical BMP receptor signaling pathway. PMID:25736501

Ren, Xiaoyan; Bischoff, David; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Lewis, Michael S; Tu, Victor; Yamaguchi, Dean T; Miller, Timothy A; Harley, Brendan A C; Lee, Justine C

2015-05-01

112

Transport of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in the proximity of silica and sand.  

PubMed

The contamination of the environment with traditional therapeutics due to metabolic excretion, improper disposal, and industrial waste has been well-recognized. However, knowledge of the environmental distribution and fate of emerging classes of nanomedicine is scarce. This work investigates the effect of surface chemistry of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (PNDDS) on their adsorption dynamics and transport in the vicinity of environmentally relevant surfaces for a concentration comparable with hospital and pharmaceutical manufacturing effluents. To this end, five different types of paclitaxel-based nanomedicine having different polymer stabilizers were employed. Their transport behavior was characterized via quartz crystal microbalance, sand column, spectrofluorometry, and dynamic light scattering techniques. PNDDS having positive zeta-potential displayed strong adsorption onto silica surfaces and no mobility in porous media of quartz sand, even in the presence of humic acid. The mobility of negatively charged PNDDS strongly depended on the amount and type of salt present in the aqueous media: Without any salt, such PNDDS demonstrated no adsorption on silica surfaces and high levels of mobility in sand columns. The presence of CaCl2 and CaSO4, even at low ionic strengths (i.e. 10 mM), induced PNDDS adsorption on silica surfaces and strongly limited the mobility of such PNDSS in sand columns. PMID:25695909

Chen, I-Cheng; Zhang, Ming; Teipel, Blake; de Araujo, Isa Silveira; Yegin, Yagmur; Akbulut, Mustafa

2015-03-17

113

Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.  

PubMed

The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting. PMID:24845560

Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

2014-01-01

114

Room temperature ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders prepared by combustion reaction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticulate powders of Eu-doped ZnO with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 at% Eu were synthesized by combustion reaction method using zinc nitrate, europium nitrate and urea as fuel without subsequent heat treatments. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of all samples showed broad peaks consistent with the ZnO wurtzite structure. The absence of extra reflections in the diffraction patterns ensures the phase purity, except for x=0.03 that exhibits small reflection corresponding to Eu2O3 phase. The average crystallite size determined from the most prominent (1 0 1) peak of the diffraction using Scherrer's equation was in good agreement with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); being ~26 nm. The magnetic properties measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in magnetic fields up to 2.0 kOe at room temperature. The hysteresis loops, typical of magnetic behaviors, indicating that the presence of an ordered magnetic structure can exist in the Eu-doped ZnO wurtzite structure at room temperature. The room temperature ferromagnetism behavior increases with the Eu3+ doping concentration. All samples exhibited the same Curie temperature (TC) around ~726 K, except for x=0.01; TC~643 K. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images revealed defects/strain in the lattice and grain boundaries of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders. The origin of room temperature ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders was discussed in terms of these defects, which increase with the Eu3+ doping concentration.

Franco, A.; Pessoni, H. V. S.; Soares, M. P.

2014-04-01

115

Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment  

PubMed Central

We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano-PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates. PMID:18441401

Soto, K. F.; Murr, L. E.; Garza, K. M.

2008-01-01

116

Cytotoxic responses and potential respiratory health effects of carbon and carbonaceous nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte airshed environment.  

PubMed

We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano- PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates. PMID:18441401

Soto, K F; Murr, L E; Garza, K M

2008-03-01

117

Recovery of visible-light photocatalytic efficiency of N-doped TiO 2 nanoparticulate films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bare TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 nanoparticulate films in anatase phase were prepared on glass substrates by laser ablation of titanium target in O2, N2\\/O2 and NH3\\/N2\\/O2 atmospheres, respectively. The nitrogen dopant concentration increased notably when a small amount of NH3 was added into the N2\\/O2 mixture. The film prepared in NH3\\/N2\\/O2 exhibited enhanced photoabsorption and photocatalytic ability in the visible-light

Lan Mi; Peng Xu; Hong Shen; Pei-Nan Wang

2008-01-01

118

Autogenic reactions for preparing carbon-encapsulated, nanoparticulate TiO 2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an anhydrous, autogenic technique for synthesizing electronically interconnected, carbon-encapsulated, nanoparticulate anatase anode materials (TiO2–C) for lithium-ion batteries. The TiO2–C nanoparticles provide a reversible capacity of ?200mAhg?1, which exceeds the theoretical capacity of the commercially attractive spinel anode, Li4Ti5O12 (175mAhg?1) and is competitive with the capacity reported for other TiO2 products. The processing method is extremely versatile and has

Vilas G. Pol; Sun-Ho Kang; Jose M. Calderon-Moreno; Christopher S. Johnson; Michael M. Thackeray

2010-01-01

119

Nanospray technology for an in situ gelling nanoparticulate powder as a wound dressing.  

PubMed

In the current study the feasibility of the novel nano spray drying technique for the production of stable nanoparticulate dry powder, able to gel when administered locally on a wound, is explored. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was loaded into alginate/pectin nanoparticles as highly soluble (hygroscopic) model drug with wide range antibacterial agent for wound dressing. The influence of process variables, mainly spray mesh size and feed concentration, on particle size and morphology, powder wound fluid uptake ability and gelling rate, as well as hydrogel water vapour transmission at wound site were studied. Particles morphology was spherical with few exceptions as slightly corrugated particles when the larger nozzle was used. Production of spherical nanoparticles (d50 ? 350 nm) in good yield (82-92%) required 4 ?m spray mesh whereas 7 ?m mesh produced larger wrinkled particles. Nano spray-dried particles showed high encapsulation efficiency (? 80%), good flowability, high fluid uptake, fast gel formation (15 min) and proper adhesiveness to fill the wound site and to remove easily the formulation after use. Moreover, moisture transmission of the in situ formed hydrogel was between 95 and 90 g/m(2)/h, an optimum range to avoid wound dehydration or occlusion phenomena. Release of the encapsulated GS, monitored as permeation rate using Franz cells in simulated wound fluid (SWF) was related to particle size and gelling rate. Sustained permeation profiles were obtained achieving total permeation of the drug between 3 and 6 days. However, all nano spray-dried formulations presented a burst effect, suitable to prevent infection spreading at the beginning of the therapy. Antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed stronger and prolonged antimicrobial effect of the nanoparticles compared to pure GS both shortly after administration and over time (till 12 days). PMID:24979533

De Cicco, Felicetta; Porta, Amalia; Sansone, Francesca; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

2014-10-01

120

Microparticulated and nanoparticulated zirconium oxide added to calcium silicate cement: Evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties.  

PubMed

The physicochemical and biological properties of calcium silicate-based cement (CS) associated to microparticulated (micro) or nanoparticulated (nano) zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) were compared with CS and bismuth oxide (BO) with CS. The pH, release of calcium ions, radiopacity, setting time, and compression strength of the materials were evaluated. The tissue reaction promoted by these materials in the subcutaneous was also investigated by morphological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. For this purpose, polyethylene tubes filled with materials were implanted into rat subcutaneous. After 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, the tubes surrounded by capsules were fixed and embedded in paraffin. In the H&E-stained sections, the number of inflammatory cells (ICs) in the capsule was obtained. Moreover, detection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by immunohistochemistry and number of IL-6 immunolabeled cells were carried out. von Kossa method was also performed. The differences among the groups were subjected to Tukey test (p???0.05). The solutions containing the materials presented an alkaline pH and released calcium ions. The addition of radiopacifiers increased setting time and radiopacity of CS. A higher compressive strength in the CS?+?ZrO2 (micro and nano) was found compared with CS?+?BO. The number of IC and IL-6 positive cells in the materials with ZrO2 was significantly reduced in comparison with CS?+?BO. von Kossa-positive structures were observed adjacent to implanted materials. The ZrO2 associated to the CS provides satisfactory physicochemical properties and better biological response than BO. Thus, ZrO2 may be a good alternative for use as radiopacifying agent in substitution to BO. PMID:24497271

Silva, Guilherme F; Bosso, Roberta; Ferino, Rafael V; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Bernardi, Maria I B; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Cerri, Paulo S

2014-12-01

121

Methylation of mercury by bacteria exposed to dissolved, nanoparticulate, and microparticulate mercuric sulfides.  

PubMed

The production of the neurotoxic methylmercury in the environment is partly controlled by the bioavailability of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) to anaerobic bacteria that methylate Hg(II). In sediment porewater, Hg(II) associates with sulfides and natural organic matter to form chemical species that include organic-coated mercury sulfide nanoparticles as reaction intermediates of heterogeneous mineral precipitation. Here, we exposed two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria to three forms of inorganic mercury: dissolved Hg and sulfide, nanoparticulate HgS, and microparticulate HgS. The bacteria cultures exposed to HgS nanoparticles methylated mercury at a rate slower than cultures exposed to dissolved forms of mercury. However, net methylmercury production in cultures exposed to nanoparticles was 6 times greater than in cultures treated with microscale particles, even when normalized to specific surface area. Furthermore, the methylation potential of HgS nanoparticles decreased with storage time of the nanoparticles in their original stock solution. In bacteria cultures amended with nano-HgS from a 16 h-old nanoparticle stock, 6-10% of total mercury was converted to methylmercury after one day. In contrast, 2-4% was methylated in cultures amended with nano-HgS that was aged for 3 days or 1 week. The methylation of mercury derived from nanoparticles (in contrast to the larger particles) would not be predicted by equilibrium speciation of mercury in the aqueous phase (<0.2 ?m) and was possibly caused by the disordered structure of nanoparticles that facilitated release of chemically labile mercury species immediately adjacent to cell surfaces. Our results add new dimensions to the mechanistic understanding of mercury methylation potential by demonstrating that bioavailability is related to the geochemical intermediates of rate-limited mercury sulfide precipitation reactions. These findings could help explain observations that the "aging" of mercury in sediments reduces its methylation potential and provide a basis for assessing and remediating methylmercury hotspots in the environment. PMID:22145980

Zhang, Tong; Kim, Bojeong; Levard, Clément; Reinsch, Brian C; Lowry, Gregory V; Deshusses, Marc A; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

2012-07-01

122

Development and characterization of polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for hydrophillic drug: Gemcitabine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue, used in various carcinomas such as non small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer. The major setbacks to the conventional therapy with gemcitabine include its short half-life and highly hydrophilic nature. The objectives of this investigation were to develop and evaluate the physiochemical properties, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of polymeric nano-particulate formulations containing gemcitabine hydrochloride. The study also entailed development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the analysis of gemcitabine hydrochloride. A reverse phase HPLC method using a C18 Luna column was developed and validated. Alginate and Poly lactide co glycolide/Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PLGA:PCL 80:20) nanoparticles were prepared by multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation methodology. An aqueous solution of low viscosity alginate containing gemcitabine was emulsified into 10% solution of dioctyl-sulfosuccinate in dichloro methane (DCM) by sonication. The primary emulsion was then emulsified in 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Calcium chloride solution (60% w/v) was used to cause cross linking of the polymer. For PLGA:PCL system, the polymer mix was dissolved in dichloromethane (DCM) and an aqueous gemcitabine (with and without sodium chloride) was emulsified under ultrasonic conditions (12-watts; 1-min). This primary emulsion was further emulsified in 2% (w/v) PVA under ultrasonic conditions (24-watts; 3-min) to prepare a multiple-emulsion (w/o/w). In both cases DCM, the organic solvent was evaporated (20- hours, magnetic-stirrer) prior to ultracentrifugation (10000-rpm for PLGA:PCL; 25000-rpm for alginate). The pellet obtained was washed thrice with de-ionized water to remove PVA and any free drug and re-centrifuged. The particles were re-suspended in de-ionized water and then lyophilized to obtain the dried powdered delivery formulation. Particle size and surface charge of the nano-particles were measured using zeta-sizer. The surface morphology and microstructure were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy The drug loading and entrapment efficiencies were evaluated by a HPLC method (Luna C18 column (4.6 X 250 mm), 95/5 (v/v) 0.04M ammonium acetate/acetonitrile mobile phase (pH 5.5), 1.0 ml/min flow rate and 268 nm UV detection). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the physical state of gemcitabine in the nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3) was evaluated by MTT assay. The cellular uptake of gemcitabine solution and gemcitabine loaded alginate nano-particle suspension in BxPC-3 cells was determined for 15, 30 and 60 minutes. The particle-size and surface-charge was 564.7+/-56.5nm and -25.65+/-1.94mV for PLGA:PCL and 210.6+/-6.90nm and -33.21+/-1.63mV for alginate. Both the nano-particles were distinctly spherical and non-porous. The drug load was 5.14% for PLGA:PCL and 6.87% for alginate-particles, and the practical entrapment efficiency was found to be 54.1 % and 22.4% respectively. However, in case of PLGA:PCL particles, a two-fold increase in the entrapment efficiency was observed with the addition of sodium-chloride. The absence of endothermic melting peak of the drug in the DSC thermogram was an indication of the non-crystalline state of gemcitabine in the nanoparticles. In addition, there was no cytotoxicity associated with nanoparticle concentrations at-or-below 5 mg/mL. The uptake of nano-particles was around 4 times higher than the solution with treatment for 15 minutes and increased to almost 7 times following treatment for 60 minutes. Gemcitabine hydrochloride could be successfully formulated into a sustained release nano-particulate formulation using calcium cross-linked alginate and dioctyl sulfo succinate system. The nano-particulate delivery system exhibited better cytotoxic activity and also significantly enhanced the accumulation of the drug in BxPC-3 cell monolayers.

Khurana, Jatin

123

Effect of adsorbed extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on colloidal mobility of nanoparticulate iron oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubility and transport of nutrients and pollutants is affected by the presence of colloidal nanoparticles (CNP) which may act as mobile geosorbents. In soils and aquifers, pure and organically modified Fe- and Mn-oxy-hydroxides are of particular importance due to their ubiquitous presence and also due to their progressive use for environmental cleanup. Stability and aggregation behavior control the mobility of CNP and depend on pH, ionic strength, and the presence of monovalent or divalent anions. In natural environments, however, iron oxides are usually covered by organic matter. Such coverage will completely change the colloidal surface properties and impose additional control on the colloidal mobility. Important sources for natural organic coatings are extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), i.e., complex mixtures of biopolymers consisting of polysaccharides and proteins and variable amounts of lipids and nucleic acids. The objective of our study was to quantify the effect of EPS coatings on the colloidal stability, mobility and reactivity of hematite by column experiments. Columns (10 cm × 5 cm) were filled with glass beads (0.25 mm ø) as porous medium and operated in sterile closed flow conditions. Nanoparticulate hematite was coated to different degrees by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from, liquid cultures of Bacillus subtillis. The pH was kept constant at 7. The hematite particles exhibited increasing colloidal stability with increasing amounts of EPS. Critical colloidal concentration (CCC) of the particles increased from 95 mM NaCl for uncoated particles to 250 mM NaCl for coated particles. EPS coated hematite did not react with the porous medium and stayed mobile while the uncoated hematite was immobile due to adsorption to the glass beads. Also colloidally unstable hematite particles did not show any mobility. Thus the organic coatings enhanced the colloidal stability, which consecutively increased the mobility of the particles. Also, the reactivity of these particles to the porous medium is reduced due to the masking of the reactive hematite surface sites with EPS. EPS coated CNP may define the major part of mobile material in natural environments like soils, sediments and aquifers.

Pradip Narvekar, Sneha; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2013-04-01

124

Nanoparticulate flurbiprofen reduces amyloid-?42 generation in an in vitro blood–brain barrier model  

PubMed Central

Introduction The amyloid-?42 (A?42) peptide plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly. Over the past years, several approaches and compounds developed for the treatment of AD have failed in clinical studies, likely in part due to their low penetration of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Since nanotechnology-based strategies offer new possibilities for the delivery of drugs to the brain, this technique is studied intensively for the treatment of AD and other neurological disorders. Methods The A?42 lowering drug flurbiprofen was embedded in polylactide (PLA) nanoparticles by emulsification-diffusion technique and their potential as drug carriers in an in vitro BBB model was examined. First, the cytotoxic potential of the PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles on endothelial cells and the cellular binding and uptake by endothelial cells was studied. Furthermore, the biological activity of the nanoparticulate flurbiprofen on ?-secretase modulation as well as its in vitro release was examined. Furthermore, the protein corona of the nanoparticles was studied as well as their ability to transport flurbiprofen across an in vitro BBB model. Results PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles were endocytosed by endothelial cells and neither affected the vitality nor barrier function of the endothelial cell monolayer. The exposure of the PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles to human plasma occurred in a rapid protein corona formation, resulting in their decoration with bioactive proteins, including apolipoprotein E. Furthermore, luminally administered PLA-flurbiprofen nanoparticles in contrast to free flurbiprofen were able to modulate ?-secretase activity by selectively decreasing A?42 levels in the abluminal compartment of the BBB model. Conclusions In this study, we were able to show that flurbiprofen can be transported by PLA nanoparticles across an in vitro BBB model and most importantly, the transported flurbiprofen modulated ?-secretase activity by selectively decreasing A?42 levels. These results demonstrate that the modification of drugs via embedding in nanoparticles is a promising tool to facilitate drug delivery to the brain, which enables future development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like AD. PMID:24280275

2013-01-01

125

Particulate Emissions from the Combustion of Diesel Fuel with a Fuel-Borne Nanoparticulate Cerium Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address the adverse impacts on health and climate from the use of diesel-fueled vehicles, a number of technological solutions have been developed for reducing diesel soot emissions and to improve fuel economy. One such solution is the use fuel-borne metal oxide catalysts. Of current interest are commercially-available fuel additives consisting of nanoparticulate cerium oxide (CeO2). In response to the possible use of CeO2-containing fuels in on-road vehicles in the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency is conducting research to address the potential toxicity and environmental effects of particulate CeO2 emitted with diesel soot. In this study, emissions from a diesel-fueled electric generator were size-segregated on polished silicon wafers in a nanoparticle cascade impactor. The diesel fuel contained 10 ppm Ce by weight in the form of crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles 4 nm to 7.5 nm in size. Primary CeO2 nanoparticles were observed in the diesel emissions as well as CeO2 aggregates encompassing a broad range of sizes up to at least 200 nm. We report the characterization of individual particles from the size-resolved samples with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results show a dependency between the impactor size range and CeO2 agglomeration state: in the larger size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 560 nm to 1000 nm) CeO2 nanoparticles were predominantly attached to soot particles. In the smaller size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 100 nm to 320 nm), CeO2 aggregates tended to be larger and unattached to soot. The result is important because the deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles attached to soot particles in the lung or on environmental surfaces such as plant tissue will likely present different consequences than the deposition of unagglomerated CeO2 particles. Disclaimer The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded and collaborated in the research described here under Interagency Agreement DW-13-92339401 to National Institute of Standards and Technology. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.

Conny, J. M.; Willis, R. D.; Weinstein, J. P.; Krantz, T.; King, C.

2013-12-01

126

Segmented Pt/Ru, Pt/Ni, and Pt/RuNi nanorods as model bifunctional catalysts for methanol oxidation.  

PubMed

Five-segment (Pt-Ru-Pt-Ru-Pt, Pt-Ni-Pt-Ni-Pt, and Pt-RuNi-Pt-RuNi-Pt) nanorods with the same overall rod length and the same total Pt segment length were prepared by sequential electrodeposition of the metals into the pores of commercially available anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the nanorods were about 210 nm in diameter and about 1.5 microm in length. The alternating Pt and oxophilic metal(s) segments could be easily differentiated in backscattered-electron images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanorods indicated that Pt and Ni were polycrystalline with fcc structures, Ru was hcp, and the co-deposited RuNi adopted the nickel fcc structure with some negative shifts in the Bragg angles. The chemical states of Pt, Ru, and Ni on the nanorod surface were assayed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the presence of Pt(0), Pt(II), Pt(IV), Ru(0), Ru(VI), Ni(0), and Ni(II) was observed. The nanorods were catalytically active for the room-temperature electrooxidation of methanol in acidic solutions. The relative rates of reaction showed the Pt-RuNi pair sites as having the lowest overpotential to dissociate water, the highest catalytic activity in methanol oxidation, and the strongest CO-tolerance in the potential window employed. The use of segmented nanorods with identifiable Pt-oxophilic metal(s) interfaces removes many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of experimental data from conventional alloy catalysts, thereby enabling a direct comparison of the activities of various types of pair sites in methanol oxidation. PMID:17193567

Liu, Fang; Lee, Jim Yang; Zhou, Wei Jiang

2006-01-01

127

Absence of systemic toxicity in mouse model towards BaTiO3 nanoparticulate based eluate treatment.  

PubMed

One of the existing issues in implant failure of orthopedic biomaterials is the toxicity induced by the fine particles released during long term use in vivo, leading to acute inflammatory response. In developing a new class of piezobiocomposite to mimic the integrated electrical and mechanical properties of bone, bone-mimicking physical properties as well as in vitro cytocompatibility properties have been achieved with spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite (HA)-barium titanate (BaTiO3) composites. However, the presence of BaTiO3 remains a concern towards the potential toxicity effect. To address this issue, present work reports the first result to conclusively confirm the non-toxic effect of HA-BaTiO3 piezobiocomposite nanoparticulates, in vivo. Twenty BALB/c mice were intra-articularly injected at their right knee joints with different concentrations of HA-BaTiO3 composite of up to 25 mg/ml. The histopathological examination confirmed the absence of any trace of injected particles or any sign of inflammatory reaction in the vital organs, such as heart, spleen, kidney and liver at 7 days post-exposure period. Rather, the injected nanoparticulates were found to be agglomerated in the vicinity of the knee joint, surrounded by macrophages. Importantly, the absence of any systemic toxicity response in any of the vital organs in the treated mouse model, other than a mild local response at the site of delivery, was recorded. The serum biochemical analyses using proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) also complimented to the non-immunogenic response to injected particulates. Altogether, the absence of any inflammatory/adverse reaction will open up myriad of opportunities for BaTiO3 based piezoelectric implantable devices in biomedical applications. PMID:25655497

Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Thrivikraman, Greeshma; Basu, Bikramjit

2015-02-01

128

Synthesis, morphology and antifungal activity of nano-particulated amphotericin-B, ketoconazole and thymoquinone against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm.  

PubMed

In the current study, nano-particulated drugs-Amphotericin-B, Ketoconazole and Thymoquinone (an active ingredient of Nigella sativa)-were prepared using the ball milling technique, and their particle sizes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and using a particle size analyzer. The grain sizes of the prepared compounds were found in between 5 to 20 nm, and exhibited quasi-spherical morphology. The antifungal activity of each nano-particulated drug was investigated in vitro against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm, and compared with their micro-structured conventional forms. Nano-sized drugs were found to be two to four times more effective in disinfecting both the Candida yeasts and Candida biofilm. The study is a first of its kind as nano-forms of drugs have not been studied against Candida and Candida biofilm before. Further investigations are required for the determination of the clinical significance of the nano-formulation of antifungal substances. PMID:25560257

Randhawa, Mohammad A; Gondal, Mohammed A; Al-Zahrani, Al-Hosain J; Rashid, Siddique G; Ali, Ashraf

2015-01-01

129

Preparation of well-crystallized Pd 20Te 7 alloy nanoparticulate catalysts with uniform structure and composition in liquid-phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis system of uniform and well-crystallized alloy nanoparticulate catalysts has been studied based on the calculation of pH dependent metal complex concentrations in an aqueous solution. Results of both the prediction based on calculation and EXAFS analysis clearly demonstrated that [Pd2+(EDTA)] and Te-citric acid complex species were generated independently in the solution. Since the formations of metal complexes are

Hideyuki Takahashi; Norikazu Konishi; Hironobu Ohno; Kazunari Takahashi; Yuichiro Koike; Kiyotaka Asakura; Atsushi Muramatsu

2011-01-01

130

Effects of particle dispersion on photocatalysis probed by the effect of platinum on dichloroacetic acid oxidation by P25 and nanoparticulate rutile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of dichloracetic acid (DCA) by two titanium dioxide catalysts (P25 and a nanoparticulate rutile (NR)) was measured at pH 3 and the results compared with parallel measurements on the same TiO2s modified by deposition of platinum.Although the platinum loading corresponded to less than one platinum crystallite for each TiO2 crystal, platinization significantly increased photocatalytic activity – 30-fold in the

Terry A. Egerton; John A. Mattinson

2010-01-01

131

Laser welding of nanoparticulate TiO2 and transparent conducting oxide electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor interfacial contact is often encountered in nanoparticulate film-based devices. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a representative case in which a nanoporous TiO2 electrode needs to be prepared on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate. In this study, we demonstrate that the inter-electrode contact resistance accounts for a considerable portion of the total resistance of a DSSC and

Jinsoo Kim; Jonghyun Kim; Myeongkyu Lee

2010-01-01

132

Systematic Modulation of Quantum (Electron) Tunneling Behavior by Atomic Layer Deposition on Nanoparticulate SnO2 and TiO2  

E-print Network

on Nanoparticulate SnO2 and TiO2 Photoanodes Chaiya Prasittichai,,§, Jason R. Avila,, Omar K. Farha,*, and Joseph T, Illinois 60439, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Ultrathin films of TiO2, ZrO2, and Al2O3 were conformally created on SnO2 and TiO2 photo- electrodes via atomic layer deposition (ALD

133

Electronic properties of the interface between p-CuI and anatase-phase n-TiO2 single crystal and nanoparticulate surfaces: A photoemission study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the growth of the p-type inorganic semiconductor CuI on n-type TiO2 anatase single crystal (101) surfaces and on nanoparticulate anatase surfaces using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. Core level photoemission data obtained using synchrotron radiation reveal that both the substrate (TiO2) and the overlayer (CuI) core levels shift to a lower binding energy to different degrees

A. R. Kumarasinghe; W. R. Flavell; A. G. Thomas; A. K. Mallick; D. Tsoutsou; C. Chatwin; S. Rayner; P. Kirkham; S. Warren; S. Patel; P. Christian; P. O'Brien; M. Grätzel; R. Hengerer

2007-01-01

134

Toxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO, Al 2O 3 and TiO 2 to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information is available on the environmental behavior and associated potential risk of manufactured oxide nanoparticles (NPs). In this research, toxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2 were examined to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with Escherichia coli as a food source. Parallel experiments with dissolved metal ions from NPs were also conducted. The 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50)

Huanhua Wang; Robert L. Wick; Baoshan Xing

2009-01-01

135

Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

2000-01-01

136

Anti-biofouling polymer-decorated lutetium-based nanoparticulate contrast agents for in vivo high-resolution trimodal imaging.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials have gained considerable attention and interest in the development of novel and high-resolution contrast agents for medical diagnosis and prognosis in clinic. A classical urea-based homogeneous precipitation route that combines the merits of in situ thermal decomposition and surface modification is introduced to construct polyethylene glycol molecule (PEG)-decorated hybrid lutetium oxide nanoparticles (PEG-UCNPs). By utilizing the admirable optical and magnetic properties of the yielded PEG-UCNPs, in vivo up-conversion luminescence and T1 -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of small animals are conducted, revealing obvious signals after subcutaneous and intravenous injection, respectively. Due to the strong X-ray absorption and high atomic number of lanthanide elements, X-ray computed-tomography imaging based on PEG-UCNPs is then designed and carried out, achieving excellent imaging outcome in animal experiments. This is the first example of the usage of hybrid lutetium oxide nanoparticles as effective nanoprobes. Furthermore, biodistribution, clearance route, as well as long-term toxicity are investigated in detail after intravenous injection in a murine model, indicating the overall safety of PEG-UCNPs. Compared with previous lanthanide fluorides, our nanoprobes exhibit more advantages, such as facile construction process and nearly total excretion from the animal body within a month. Taken together, these results promise the use of PEG-UCNPs as a safe and efficient nanoparticulate contrast agent for potential application in multimodal imaging. PMID:24610806

Liu, Zhen; Dong, Kai; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Xueli; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2014-06-25

137

Physicochemical characterization and toxicological evaluation of plant-based anionic polymers and their nanoparticulated system for ocular delivery.  

PubMed

The water-soluble fractions of mucilages and gum from the seeds of fenugreek, isphagula and mango bark exudate were isolated, purified and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), maldi/GC-MS, elemental analysis, 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D (HMQC, COSY) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fenugreek mucilage was identified to be a galactomannan chain consisting of 4 units of galactose attached to the backbone of 6 mannose units in 1:1.5 ratio. The isphagula mucilage was identified to be an arabinoxylan polysaccharide chain consisting of 4 units of arabinofuranose attached to the backbone of 9 xylopyrannose units in 1:3 ratio. The mango gum showed the presence of amylose, ?-arabinofuranosyl and ?-galactopyranosyl, respectively. The characterized mucilages and gum were individually formulated into nanoparticulate system using their complementarily charged polymer chitosan. The particles were observed to be spherical in shape in the range of 61.5-90 nm having zetapotential between 31 and 34 mV and PDI of 0.097-0.241. The prepared nanoparticles were observed to be nonirritant and nontoxic in vitro and in vivo upto 2000 ?g/ml. Therefore, these mucilages and gum can be the alternatives of anionic polymers for the ocular drug delivery system. PMID:23952497

Pathak, Deepa; Kumar, Prashant; Kuppusamy, Gowthamarajan; Gupta, Ankur; Kamble, Bhagyashree; Wadhwani, Ashish

2014-12-01

138

Revisiting the Fundamentals in the Design and Control of Nanoparticulate Colloids in the Frame of Soft Chemistry1  

PubMed Central

This review presents thoughts on some of the fundamental features of conceptual models applied in the design of fine particles in the frames of colloid and soft chemistry. A special emphasis is placed on the limitations of these models, an acknowledgment of which is vital in improving their intricacy and effectiveness in predicting the outcomes of the corresponding experimental settings. Thermodynamics of self-assembly phenomena illustrated on the examples of protein assembly and micellization is analyzed in relation to the previously elaborated thesis that each self-assembly in reality presents a co-assembly, since it implies a mutual reorganization of the assembling system and its immediate environment. Parameters used in the design of fine particles by precipitation are discussed while referring to solubility product, various measures of supersaturation levels, induction time, nucleation and crystal growth rates, interfacial energies, and the Ostwald–Lussac law of phases. Again, the main drawbacks and inadequacies of using the aforementioned parameters in tailoring the materials properties in a soft and colloidal chemical setting were particularly emphasized. The basic and practical limitations of zeta-potential analyses, routinely used to stabilize colloidal dispersions and initiate specific interactions between soft chemical entities, were also outlined. The final section of the paper reiterates the unavoidable presence of practical qualitative models in the design and control of nanoparticulate colloids, which is supported by the overwhelming complexity of quantitative relationships that govern the processes of their formation and assembly. PMID:24490052

Uskokovi?, Vuk

2013-01-01

139

Adsorption and photoactivity of tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP) on nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP) adsorbs strongly onto nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} and serves as an efficient photosensitizer for solar-energy conversion by TCPP-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} electrodes were prepared from Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} powder in the standard manner for a Graetzel cell. Adsorption studies of TCPP onto these sintered TiO{sub 2} electrodes gave a saturation surface coverage of 47 {micro}mol/g. Adsorption studies of TCPP onto colloidal dispersions of Degussa P25 in ethanol gave a saturation surface coverage of 77 {micro}mol/g. The difference between the saturation coverages is attributed to the reduction of the available surface area in the TiO{sub 2} films after sintering, from 55 m{sup 2}/g as a free colloid to about 34 m{sup 2}/g as a sintered electrode. The nature of the binding of TCPP onto the TiO{sub 2} electrodes was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS). In the XPS spectra of TiO{sub 2} with adsorbed TCPP, the O (1s) and Ti (2p{sub 3/2}) peaks of TiO{sub 2} were shifted to a higher binding energy value, by about 0.3 eV, and the O (1s) and N (1s) peaks of TCPP were shifted to a higher binding energy, by about 0.7 eV. Upon adsorption of TCPP, one of the Ti (2p{sub 3/2}) peaks of TiO{sub 2} disappeared, suggesting complexation and removal of surface states. The RRS results indicated that for cases in which TCPP was adsorbed onto TiO{sub 2} films from ethanolic solutions of about 1 {micro}M concentration, the porphyrin spectrum showed distinctive interactions with the surface, but for cases in which it was adsorbed from higher concentrations, the RRS spectra were similar to spectra of TCPP powder, indicating the dominance of porphyrin-porphyrin interactions. The authors conclude that lateral interactions between adsorbed TCPP are significant upon adsorption from all but the lowest (micromolar) initial concentrations. Photovoltaic cells with TCPP-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes gave good solar-energy conversion efficiencies. At light simulating one sun (AM 1.5), a cell sensitized by TCPP gives a short-circuit photocurrent of about 6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit photopotential of 485 mV. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency was 55% at the Soret peak and 25--45% at the Q-band peaks; the cells have a fill factor of 60--70% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of about 3%.

Cherian, S.; Wamser, C.C.

2000-04-20

140

Formulation, stability and pharmacokinetics of sugar-based salmon calcitonin-loaded nanoporous/nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) for inhalation.  

PubMed

A challenge exists to produce dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations with appropriate formulation stability, biological activity and suitable physicochemical and aerosolisation characteristics that provide a viable alternative to parenteral formulations. The present study aimed to produce sugar-based nanoporous/nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) loaded with a therapeutic peptide - salmon calcitonin (sCT). The physicochemical properties of the powders and their suitability for pulmonary delivery of sCT were determined. Production of powders composed of sCT loaded into raffinose or trehalose with or without hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin was carried out using a laboratory scale spray dryer. Spray dried microparticles were spherical, porous and of small geometric size (?2?m). Aerodynamic assessment showed that the fine particle fraction (FPF) less than 5?m ranged from 45 to 86%, depending on the formulation. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) varied between 1.9 and 4.7?m. Compared to unprocessed sCT, sCT:raffinose composite systems presented a bioactivity of approximately 100% and sCT:trehalose composite systems between 70-90% after spray drying. Storage stability studies demonstrated composite systems with raffinose to be more stable than those containing trehalose. These sugar-based salmon calcitonin-loaded NPMPs retain reasonable sCT bioactivity and have micromeritic and physicochemical properties which indicate their suitability for pulmonary delivery. Formulations presented a similar pharmacokinetic profile to sCT solution. Hence the advantage of a dry powder formulation is its non-invasive delivery route and ease of administration of the sCT. PMID:25660067

Amaro, Maria Inês; Tewes, Frederic; Gobbo, Oliviero; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

2015-04-10

141

High pinning performance of YBa2Cu3O7?x films added with Y2O3 nanoparticulate defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the epitaxial growth and superconducting properties of Y2O3-added YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) films grown on SrTiO3-buffered MgO substrates by pulsed-laser deposition using surface-modified YBCO targets. Areas of Y2O3 sectors on the YBCO target were increased to 5.44% and 9.22% of the total YBCO pellet in order to find a correlation between the Y2O3 content, morphology, and the pinning properties of YBCO + Y2O3 mixed films. The maximum global pinning forces, FP, at 77 K were 14.3 GN m?3 and 1.15 GN m?3 for the Y2O3 5.44A% and 9.22A%, respectively. The 5.44A% Y2O3-added sample presents a very high value of pinning force at 77 K, approaching the value obtained in YBCO films with added BaZrO3 nanorods, but with less depression in the superconducting critical temperature, Tc. In accordance with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) observations, both films present nanoparticulate Y2O3 dispersed in a YBCO matrix where Y2Ba4Cu8O16 (Y248) intergrowths were also observed. Consistent with the strong pinning theory, the size and distribution of randomly dispersed Y2O3 particles are optimal for the flux pinning of a 5.44A% Y2O3-YBCO film, while in the case of a 9.22A% film, the YBCO matrix is degraded by jam-packed Y248 intergrowth, which leads to a comparatively poor pinning performance. We further used the single-vortex dynamics model to account for vortex pinning in the samples. The 5.44A% Y2O3-YBCO film result shows good agreement with the model fit up to 4 T of the applied magnetic field.

Mele, Paolo; Guzman, Roger; Gazquez, Jaume; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier; Saini, Shrikant; Yoshida, Yutaka; Mukaida, Masashi; Ichinose, Ataru; Matsumoto, Kaname; Idries Adam, Malik

2015-02-01

142

Nanoparticulate TiO2 Protection of Midgut Damage in the Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Following Phoxim Exposure.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori (B. mori) is often subjected to phoxim poisoning in China due to phoxim exposure, which leads to a decrease in silk production. Nanoparticulate (NP) titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been shown to attenuate damages in B. mori caused by phoxim exposure. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of midgut injury due to organophosphorus insecticide exposure and its repair by nano-TiO2 pretreatment. In this study, phoxim exposure for 36 h led to significant decreases in body weight and survival and increased oxidative stress and midgut injury. Pretreatment with nano-TiO2 attenuated the phoxim-induced midgut injury, increased body weight and survival, and decreased oxidative stress in the midgut of B. mori. Digital gene-expression data showed that exposure to phoxim results in significant changes in the expression of 254 genes in the phoxim-exposed midgut and 303 genes in phoxim + nano-TiO2-exposed midgut. Specifically, phoxim exposure led to upregulation of Tpx, ?-amylase, trypsin, and glycoside hydrolase genes involved in digestion and absorption. Phoxim exposure also led to the downregulation of Cyp450 and Cyp4C1 genes involved in an antioxidant capacity. In contrast, a combination of both phoxim and nano-TiO2 treatment significantly decreased the change in ?-amylase, trypsin, and glycoside hydrolases (GHs), which are involved in digestion and absorption. These results indicated that Tpx, ?-amylase, trypsin, GHs, Cyp450, and Cyp4C1 may be potential biomarkers of midgut toxicity caused by phoxim exposure and the attenuation of these toxic impacts by nano-TiO2. PMID:25552327

Wang, Ling; Su, Mingyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hong, Jie; Yu, Xiaohong; Xu, Bingqing; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing; Hong, Fashui

2015-04-01

143

Chemodynamics of soft nanoparticulate complexes: Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with fulvic acids and aquatic humic acids.  

PubMed

The dynamics of metal complexation by small humic substances (fulvic acid and aquatic humic acid, collectively denoted as “fulvic-like substance”, FS) are explored within the framework of concepts recently developed for soft nanoparticulate complexants. From a comprehensive collection of published equilibrium and dissociation rate constants for CuFS and NiFS complexes, the association rate constant, ka, is determined as a function of the degree of complexing site occupation, ?. From this large data set, it is shown for the first time that ka is independent of ?. This result has important consequences for finding the nature of the rate limiting step in the association process. The influence of electric effects on the rate of the association process is described, namely (i) the accelerating effect of the negatively charged electrostatic field of FS on the diffusion of metal ions toward it, and (ii) the extent to which metal ions electrostatically accumulate in the counterionic atmosphere of FS. These processes are discussed qualitatively in relation to the derived values of ka. For slowly dehydrating metal ions such as Ni(H2O)6 2+ (dehydration rate constant, kw), ka is expected to derive straight from kw. In contrast, for rapidly dehydrating metal ions such as Cu(H2O)6 2+, transport limitations and electric effects involved in the formation of the precursor outer-sphere associate appear to be important overall rate-limiting factors. This is of great significance for understanding the chemodynamics of humic complexes in the sense that inner-sphere complex formation would not always be the (sole) rate limiting step. PMID:22934531

Town, Raewyn M; van Leeuwen, Herman P; Buffle, Jacques

2012-10-01

144

A Nanoparticulate Ferritin-Core Mimetic Is Well Taken Up by HuTu 80 Duodenal Cells and Its Absorption in Mice Is Regulated by Body Iron12  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron (Fe) deficiency anemia remains the largest nutritional deficiency disorder worldwide. How the gut acquires iron from nano Fe(III), especially at the apical surface, is incompletely understood. Objective: We developed a novel Fe supplement consisting of nanoparticulate tartrate-modified Fe(III) poly oxo-hydroxide [here termed nano Fe(III)], which mimics the Fe oxide core of ferritin and effectively treats iron deficiency anemia in rats. Methods: We determined transfer to the systemic circulation of nano Fe(III) in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient outbread Swiss mouse strain (CD1) mice with use of 59Fe-labeled material. Iron deficiency was induced before starting the Fe-supplementation period through reduction of Fe concentrations in the rodent diet. A control group of iron-sufficient mice were fed a diet with adequate Fe concentrations throughout the study. Furthermore, we conducted a hemoglobin repletion study in which iron-deficient CD1 mice were fed for 7 d a diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) or nano Fe(III). Finally, we further probed the mechanism of cellular acquisition of nano Fe(III) by assessing ferritin formation, as a measure of Fe uptake and utilization, in HuTu 80 duodenal cancer cells with targeted inhibition of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB) before exposure to the supplemented iron sources. Differences in gene expression were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Absorption (means ± SEMs) of nano Fe(III) was significantly increased in iron-deficient mice (58 ± 19%) compared to iron-sufficient mice (18 ± 17%) (P = 0.0001). Supplementation of the diet with nano Fe(III) or FeSO4 significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations in iron-deficient mice (170 ± 20 g/L, P = 0.01 and 180 ± 20 g/L, P = 0.002, respectively). Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression reflected the nonheme-iron concentrations of the liver and was also comparable for both nano Fe(III)– and FeSO4-supplemented groups, as were iron concentrations in the spleen and duodenum. Silencing of the solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporter), member 2 (Slc11a2) gene (DMT1) significantly inhibited ferritin formation from FeSO4 (P = 0.005) but had no effect on uptake and utilization of nano Fe(III). Inhibiting DCYTB with an antibody also had no effect on uptake and utilization of nano Fe(III) but significantly inhibited ferritin formation from ferric nitrilotriacetate chelate (Fe-NTA) (P = 0.04). Similarly, cellular ferritin formation from nano Fe(III) was unaffected by the Fe(II) chelator ferrozine, which significantly inhibited uptake and utilization from FeSO4 (P = 0.009) and Fe-NTA (P = 0.005). Conclusions: Our data strongly support direct nano Fe(III) uptake by enterocytes as an efficient mechanism of dietary iron acquisition, which may complement the known Fe(II)/DMT1 uptake pathway. PMID:25342699

Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Pereira, Dora IA; Tempest, Bethan; Ilyas, Hibah; Flynn, Angela C; Aslam, Mohamad F; Simpson, Robert J; Powell, Jonathan J

2014-01-01

145

Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from general metal toxicity. PMID:22479561

Rousk, Johannes; Ackermann, Kathrin; Curling, Simon F.; Jones, Davey L.

2012-01-01

146

Photosensitization of nanoparticulate TiO2 using a Re(I)-polypyridyl complex: studies on interfacial electron transfer in the ultrafast time domain.  

PubMed

We have synthesized a new photoactive rhenium(i)-complex having a pendant catechol functionality [Re(CO)(3)Cl(L)] (1) (L is 4-[2-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinyl-4-yl)vinyl]benzene-1,2-diol) for studying the dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between nanoparticulate TiO(2) and the photoexcited states of this Re(i)-complex using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Our steady state absorption studies revealed that complex 1 can bind strongly to TiO(2) surfaces through the catechol functionality with the formation of a charge transfer (CT) complex, which has been confirmed by the appearance of a new red-shifted CT band. The longer wavelength absorption band for 1, bound to TiO(2) through the proposed catecholate functionality, could also be explained based on the DFT calculations. Dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between 1 and TiO(2) nanoparticles was investigated by studying kinetics at various wavelengths in the visible and near infrared regions. Electron injection into the conduction band of the nanoparticulate TiO(2) was confirmed by detection of the conduction band electron in TiO(2) ([e(-)](TiO(2)(CB))) and the cation radical of the adsorbed dye (1?(+)) in real time as monitored by transient absorption spectroscopy. A single exponential and pulse-width limited (<100 fs) electron injection was observed. Back electron transfer dynamics was determined by monitoring the decay kinetics of 1?(+) and . PMID:22549294

Kar, Prasenjit; Banerjee, Tanmay; Verma, Sandeep; Sen, Anik; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Hirendra N

2012-06-14

147

Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells  

DOEpatents

Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Davey, John (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Sharon C. (Vancouver, CA)

2004-02-24

148

Use of carbon nanocoil as a catalyst support in direct methanol fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When carbon nanocoils (CNCs) are used in fuel cell electrodes, the diffusion of fuel and gas, and the removal of reaction products, becomes considerably smoother. In this paper, we used CNC as an anode or cathode catalyst support material in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Other carbon nanoparticles, Arc-Black (AcB) and Vulcan, were also used as catalyst supports to compare with the CNCs. Catalysts were loaded onto nanocarbon materials using the polyol method. We measured the methanol oxidation current of PtRu catalysts loaded on the carbon nanomaterials and the catalyst on CNC showed the highest current. Compared with the catalyst layers of AcB and Vulcan, the catalyst layer of CNCs was confirmed to have several voids. As for the cathode catalysts, the power density of Pt/CNC was 1.2 times higher than that of Pt/Vulcan and 1.6 times higher than that of Pt/AcB.

Suda, Yoshiyuki; Kaida, Shota; Ozaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Yuta; Tanoue, Hideto; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Ue, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Kazuki

2014-02-01

149

Polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cells: an option for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

PEFCs most frequently considered for electric vehicles have been based on either hydrogen carried aboard, or steam-reforming of methanol on board to produce H2 + CO2. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), which use a liquid methanol fuel feed, completely avoid the complexity and weight penalties of the reformer, but have not been considered a serious option until recently, because of much lower power densities. Recent advances in DMFCs have been dramatic, however, with the DMFC reaching power densities which are significant fractions of those provided by reformate/air fuel cells. Use of established Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts and Pt cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in enhanced DMFC performance, particularly when operated above 100 C and when catalyst layer composition and structure are optimized. The higher DMFC power densities recently achieved provide a new basis for considering DMFCs for transportation applications.

Gottesfeld, S.; Cleghorn, S.J.C.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

1996-10-01

150

Brain targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery system of rasagiline via intranasal route.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a rasagiline-loaded chitosan glutamate nanoparticles (RAS-CG-NPs) by ionic gelation of CG with tripolyphosphate anions (TPP). RAS-loaded CG-NPs were characterized for particle size, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. The mean particles size, polydispersity index (PDI) and encapsulation efficiency was found to be 151.1?±?10.31, 0.380?±?0.01 and 96.43?±?4.23, respectively. Biodistribution of RAS formulations in the brain and blood of mice following intranasal (i.n.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration was performed using HPLC analytical method. The drug concentrations in brain following the i.n. of CG-NPs were found to be significantly higher at all the time points compared to both drug (i.n.) and drug CG-NPs (i.v.). The Cmax (999.25?ng/ml) and AUC (2086.60?ng?h/ml) of formulation CG-NPs (i.n) were found to be significantly higher than CG-NPs (i.v.) and RAS solution (i.n.). The direct transport percentage (DTP%) values of RAS-loaded CG-NPs (i.n.) as compared to drug solution (i.n.) increased from 66.27?±?1.8 to 69.27?±?2.1%. The results showed significant enhancement of bioavailability in brain, after administration of the RAS-loaded CG-NPs which could be a substantial achievement of direct nose to brain targeting in Parkinson's disease therapy. PMID:24786489

Mittal, Deepti; Md, Shadab; Hasan, Quamrul; Fazil, Mohammad; Ali, Asgar; Baboota, Sanjula; Ali, Javed

2014-04-30

151

Synthese de nanoparticules plasmoniques par laser femtoseconde en milieu liquide pour des applications biomedicales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The femtosecond laser synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Cu, AuAg, AuCu) is described. The approach relies on the fs laser ablation of a target immersed in a liquid, followed by the laser-induced fragmentation and growth of nanoparticles in solution. This two-step methodology significantly enhances the production rate, the reproducibility and the size control of nanoparticles in comparison to the direct laser ablation based technique. For gold, the laser-induced growth of nanometric seeds initially formed by laser ablation in the presence of a stabilizing agent allows the synthesis of functionalized nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 3-76 nm and coefficients of variation (COV) varying between 15-30%. In comparison to the direct laser ablation, the size control is much simpler, as it uniquely depends on the gold to stabilizing agent molecular concentration ratio. The approach has been described for dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but can be extended to all stabilizing agents and open new avenues in the formation of various novel bioconjugates. The fs laser ablation and fragmentation also allow the synthesis of stable and low dispersed Au nanoparticles in pure water. These nanoparticles are unique for sensing applications with high sensitivity based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), since they greatly reduce the noise associated with surface contaminants and byproducts found in solution. The formation of various nanospheres with predetermined size, shape and composition (AuxAg(1-x), AuxCu(1-x) ) is also reported by the use of a fs irradiation of a mixture of two pure metallic ix colloidal solutions in a very simple chemical environment, e.g. water and a stabilizing agent. From a chemical point of view, oxidation of silver nanoparticles is significantly reduced by the incorporation of a small amount of gold and is completely inhibited for a gold atomic fraction larger than 0.4-0.5. The bifunctional nature related to the partial oxidation of the gold nanoparticle surface allows a wide range of stabilization mechanisms. The stabilization by hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction, by hydrogen bonds formation, by chemisorptions of thiols and by electrostatic interactions is evaluated. A new class of stabilizing agents, biopolymers, is also introduced. The addition of these polymers during the laser ablation, fragmentation or growth process enables in situ surface functionalization and efficient size control. The biocompatibility of these stabilizers also allows the direct introduction of nanoparticles in in vitro or in vivo applications without further purification. Significant efforts have also been undertaken to check the possible degradation of the polymers used during the laser process. These studies demonstrate a low degradation via an oxidation mechanism, involving the production of free radicals and oxidizing species by dissociation of water molecules during the laser process. Finally, the mechanisms of laser ablation in liquids and a growth model for the nanoparticles are proposed based on experimental results from literature and this thesis. The formation of nanoparticles is described by three distinct phases. First, a fast nucleation and condensation of the ejected species occur in the plasma and are caused by extremely high cooling rates, which lead to a strong supersaturation. This short nucleation and condensation phase is followed by a marked growth of the liquid (and still hot) nuclei by coalescence. After solidification, these nuclei should have sizes below 2 nm and be mostly condensed at the liquid-vapor interface of the growing cavitation bubble. Without the presence of stabilizing agent, growth by atomic diffusion and coalescence continue inside the cavitation bubble and should be accelerated following its collapse. Nanoparticles and unreacted monomers are then propelled out of the ablation zone by the secondary shock wave associated with the collapse of the cavitation bubble and further grow in solution. This cycle is repeated for each laser pulse and interaction between species

Besner, Sebastien

152

Mecanismes de deformation de nanoparticules d'Au par irradiation ionique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present thesis, we study the anisotropic deformation of gold nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica or crystalline aluminum arsenide, under ion bombardment. We try to comprehend the mechanism responsible for this deformation and to remove any ambiguity related to the explanation of this phenomenon. A hybrid process combining sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate Au/SiO2 layers on fused silica substrates. Structures with single and multilayer were obtained. Heating during or after deposition activates the Au atom agglomeration and favours the growth of the nanoparticles. Also, a Au/AlAs nanocomposite was obtained by ion implantation of AlAs films, followed by rapid thermal annealing. The samples of the two nanocomposites, cooled with liquid nitrogen, were irradiated with 2 to 40 MeV Cu, Si, Au or In ion beams, at fluences ranging from 1x10 13 to 4x1015 ions/cm2, using a Tandem or Tandetron accelerator. The structural and morphological properties of the Au/SiO2 nanocomposite were extracted by optical means; the frequency and the width of surface plasmon resonance band depend on the nanoparticle shape and size, their concentration, the inter-particle distance and the dielectric properties of material in which the particles are embedded. The aluminum arsenide crystallinity was studied by two techniques: Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS/ channelling). The Au concentration in the nanocomposite layers was deducted from RBS results. The size distribution and metallic nanoparticles shape transformation in both nanocomposites were observed by electronic transmission microscopy. The results obtained within the framework of this work are the subject of three journal papers. The first publication shows the possibility of manipulating the width and spectral position of the gold nanoparticle absorption band in Au/SiO2 nanocomposites by modifying their structure (form, size and inter-particle distance). The obtained Au nanoparticles are nearly spherical. The surface plasmon (PS) absorption band corresponding to the distant particles is located at 520 nm. After ion irradiation, the spherical nanoparticles transform into ellipsoids aligned along the ion beam. The absorption band splits into two bands: transversal and longitudinal. The band corresponding to the ellipsoids small axis (transversal) is blue-shifted and that corresponding to the long axis (longitudinal) is red-shifted indicating the elongation of particles in the beam direction. The second paper is consecrated to the crucial role of the plastic deformation of the matrix and to the importance of the metal atomic mobility in the anisotropic nanoparticles deformation in Au/SiO 2 nanocomposites. Our measurements show that a threshold value of 2 keV/nm (electronic stopping power) is necessary for the deformation of Au nanoparticles. This value is close to that required for silica deformation. Mobility of the Au atoms at the time of the ion passage is confirmed by temperature calculation within the ionic track. The third paper treats the attempt of formation and deformation of Au nanoparticles in crystalline aluminum arsenide matrix known by its high resistance to amorphisation and deformation under ionic bombardment. The principal result of the last article confirms the essential role of the matrix. It proves that the anisotropic deformation of surrounding material is indispensable for gold nanoparticles deformation. The experimental results mentioned above and temperature calculations within ionic tracks allowed us to propose the following anisotropic deformation scenario of Au nanoparticles embedded in Au/SiO2 nanocomposite: (1) Each ion crossing the silica melts (very briefly) a narrow cylinder around its trajectory forming thus a latent track. This is consistent with the observed threshold value in the electronic stopping power. (2) The cumulative effect of many separate ion impacts leads to the anisotropic growth of the silica matrix which contracts in the direct

Harkati Kerbouah, Chahineze

2011-12-01

153

Occurrence and behaviour of dissolved, nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron in waste waters and treatment systems: new insights from electrochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Cyclic-, Differential Pulse- and Steady-state Microdisc Voltammetry (CV, DPV, SMV) techniques have been used to quantify the occurrence and fate of dissolved Fe(ii)/Fe(iii), nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron over a 12 month period in a series of net-acidic and net-alkaline coal mine drainages and passive treatment systems. Total iron in the mine waters is typically 10-100 mg L(-1), with values up to 2100 mg L(-1). Between 30 and 80% of the total iron occurs as solid phase, of which 20 to 80% is nano-particulate. Nano-particulate iron comprises 20 to 70% of the nominally "dissolved" (i.e. <0.45 ?m) iron. Since coagulation and sedimentation are the only processes required to remove solid phase iron, these data have important implications for the generation or consumption of acidity during water treatment. In most waters, the majority of truly dissolved iron occurs as Fe(ii) (average 64 ± 22%). Activities of Fe(ii) do not correlate with pH and geochemical modelling shows that no Fe(ii) mineral is supersaturated. Removal of Fe(ii) must proceed via oxidation and hydrolysis. Except in waters with pH < 4.4, activities of Fe(iii) are strongly and negatively correlated with pH. Geochemical modelling suggests that the activity of Fe(iii) is controlled by the solubility of hydrous ferric oxides and oxyhydroxysulfates, supported by scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of solids. Nevertheless, the waters are generally supersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite and schwertmannite, and are not at redox equilibrium, indicating the key role of oxidation and hydrolysis kinetics on water treatment. Typically 70-100% of iron is retained in the treatment systems. Oxidation, hydrolysis, precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation occur in all treatment systems and - independent of water chemistry and the type of treatment system - hydroxides and oxyhydroxysulfates are the main iron sinks. The electrochemical data thus reveal the rationale for incomplete iron retention in individual systems and can thus inform future design criteria. The successful application of this low cost and rapid electrochemical method demonstrates its significant potential for real-time, on-site monitoring of iron-enriched waters and may in future substitute traditional analytical methods. PMID:22370608

Matthies, R; Aplin, A C; Horrocks, B R; Mudashiru, L K

2012-04-01

154

Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticulate LiMgxMn1-xPO4 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) Carbon Composites  

SciTech Connect

A combustion synthesis technique was used to prepare nanoparticulate LiMgxMn1-xPO4 (x=0, 0.1,0.2)/carbon composites. Powders consisted of carbon-coated particles about 30 nm in diameter, which were partly agglomerated into larger secondary particles. The utilization of the active materials in lithium cells depended most strongly upon the post-treatment and the Mg content, and was not influenced by the amount of carbon. Best results were achieved with a hydrothermally treated LiMg0.2Mn0.8PO4/C composite, which exhibited close to 50percent utilization of the theoretical capacity at a C/2 discharge rate.

Doeff, Marca M; Chen, Jiajun; Conry, Thomas E.; Wang, Ruigang; Wilcox, James; Aumentado, Albert

2009-12-14

155

Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

Barbu, Eugen; Verestiuc, Liliana; Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca; Lungu, Adriana; Tsibouklis, John

2009-06-01

156

Development of acetazolamide-loaded, pH-triggered polymeric nanoparticulate in situ gel for sustained ocular delivery: in vitro. ex vivo evaluation and pharmacodynamic study.  

PubMed

The objective of research was to develop a novel pH-triggered polymeric nanoparticulate in situ gel (NP-ISG) for ophthalmic delivery of acetazolamide (ACZ) to enhance the conjunctival permeation and precorneal residence time of the formulation by overcoming the limitations of protective ocular barriers. Nanoparticles (NP1--NP12) were developed by nanoprecipitation method and evaluated for pharmacotechnical characteristics including transmission electron microscopy. The optimized formulation, NP10 was dispersed in carbopol 934?P to form nanoparticulate in situ gels (NP-ISG1--NP-ISG5). NP-ISG5 was selected as optimized formulation on the basis of gelation ability and residence time. Ex vivo transcorneal permeation study exhibited significantly higher ACZ permeation from NP-ISG5 (74.50?±?2.20?mg/cm(2)) and NP10 (93.5?±?2.25?mg/cm(2)) than eye drops (20.08?±?3.12?mg/cm(2)) and ACZ suspension (16.03?±?2.14). Modified Draize test with zero score indicated nonirritant property of NP-ISG5. Corneal toxicity study revealed no visual signs of tissue damage. Further, NP-ISG5 when tested for hypotensive effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbits revealed that NP-ISG5 caused significant decrease in IOP (p?

Singh, Jyotsana; Chhabra, Gulshan; Pathak, Kamla

2014-09-01

157

SiO2 Nanoparticule-induced size-dependent genotoxicity - an in vitro study using sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus and comet assay.  

PubMed

Abstract Fine particles with a characteristic size smaller than 100?nm (i.e. nanoparticlesspread out in nowadays life. Silicon or Si, is one of the most abundant chemical elements found on the Earth. Its oxide forms, such as silicate (SiO4) and silicon dioxide, also known as silica (SiO2), are the main constituents of sand and quartz contributing to 90% of the Earth's crust. In this work, three genotoxicity systems "sister chromatid exchange, cytokinesis block micronucleus test and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay" were employed to provide further insight into the cytotoxic and mutagenic/genotoxic potential of SiO2 nanoparticules (particle size 6?nm, 20?nm, 50?nm) in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes as in vitro. It was observed that there is a significant decrease in Mitotic index (MI), Cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI), proliferation index (PRI) values expressed as Cell Kinetic parameters compared with negative control (p?nanoparticules is dependent to particule size. PMID:24960636

Battal, Dilek; Celik, Ayla; Güler, Gizem; Akta?, Ayça; Yildirimcan, Saadet; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Cömeleko?lu, Ulkü

2014-06-24

158

Photophysics of all- trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) chemisorbed to nanoparticulate TiO 2: Evidence for TiO 2* to ATRA energy transfer and reverse electron transfer sensitisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photophysics of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in methanol solution and of the system comprising ATRA chemisorbed to nanoparticulate TiO2 have been examined in methanol solution and in aqueous dispersion (pH = 7), respectively. We found evidence for two closely spaced singlet excited states of ATRA, tentatively assigned as n??* and ???*, with the former primarily responsible for ATRA fluorescence. The

M. R. V. Sahyun; N. Serpone

1998-01-01

159

Performance of a passive direct ethanol fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethanol emerges as an attractive fuel since it is less toxic and has higher energy density than methanol and can be produced from biomass. Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) appear as a good choice for producing sustainable energy for portable applications. However, they are still far from attaining acceptable levels of power output, since their performance is affected by the slow electrochemical ethanol oxidation and water and ethanol crossover. In the present work, an experimental study on the performance of a passive DEFC is described. Tailored MEAs (membrane electrode assembly) with different catalyst loadings, anode diffusion layers and membranes were tested in order to select optimal working conditions at high ethanol concentrations and low ethanol crossover. The performance increased with an increase of membrane and anode diffusion layer thicknesses and anode catalyst loading. A maximum power density of 1.33 mW cm-2, was obtained using a Nafion 117 membrane, 4 mg cm-2 of Pt-Ru and 2 mg cm-2 of Pt on the anode and cathode catalyst layers, ELAT as anode diffusion layer, carbon cloth as cathode diffusion layer and an ethanol concentration of 2 M. As far as the authors are aware this is the first work reporting an experimental optimization of passive DEFCs.

Pereira, J. P.; Falcão, D. S.; Oliveira, V. B.; Pinto, A. M. F. R.

2014-06-01

160

Direct electro-oxidation of dimethoxymethane, trimethoxymethane, and trioxane and their application in fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Significant advantages in weight, volume, and overall system performance of fuel cells would result if high-energy organic substances such as methane and its derivatives can be made to undergo direct electro-oxidation at the electrodes of the fuel cell without having to be converted by some catalytic process to hydrogen. This study demonstrates three novel fuels for direct-oxidation-type fuel cells. These new fuels are dimethoxymethane (DMM, dimethyl orthoformate), trimethoxymethane (TMM, trimethyl orthoformate), and trioxane (1,3,5-trioxane). The electro-oxidation and electrosorption characteristics of these new fuels at Pt, Pt-Sn, and Pt-Ru electrodes and the performance of these fuels in direct-oxidation fuel cells is described. Sustained direct electrochemical oxidation of aqueous solutions of DMM, TMM, and trioxane at high current densities has been demonstrated for the first time in half-cells and liquid-feed polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The oxidation of these fuels leads to the formation of methanol and ultimately carbon dioxide. Cyclic voltammetry and steady-state studies suggest that the electro-oxidation processes occur by chemisorption steps followed by surface reactions of adsorbed intermediates. The electro-oxidation of trioxane is preceded by an acid-catalyzed hydrolysis step on Nafion and in sulfuric acid solutions. These new fuels are best used without further processing in direct liquid-feed polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

Narayanan, S.R.; Vamos, E.; Surampudi, S. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.] [and others

1997-12-01

161

Initial in vitro screening approach to investigate the potential health and environmental hazards of Envirox™ – a nanoparticulate cerium oxide diesel fuel additive  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of the 21st Century as the various processes lead to radical improvements in medicine, manufacturing, energy production, land remediation, information technology and many other everyday products and applications. With this revolution however, there are undoubted concerns for health, safety and the environment which arise from the unique nature of materials and processes at the nanometre scale. The in vitro assays used in the screening strategy are all validated, internationally accepted protocols and provide a useful indication of potential toxicity of a chemical as a result of effects on various toxicological endpoints such as local site of contact (dermal) irritation, general cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The initial in vitro screening strategy described in this paper to investigate the potential health implications, if any, which may arise following exposure to one specific application of nanoparticulate cerium oxide used as a diesel fuel borne catalyst, reflects a precautionary approach and the results will inform judgement on how best to proceed to ensure safe use. PMID:18053256

Park, Barry; Martin, Patricia; Harris, Chris; Guest, Robert; Whittingham, Andrew; Jenkinson, Peter; Handley, John

2007-01-01

162

Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972

Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

2013-01-01

163

Initial in vitro screening approach to investigate the potential health and environmental hazards of Enviroxtrade mark - a nanoparticulate cerium oxide diesel fuel additive.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of the 21st Century as the various processes lead to radical improvements in medicine, manufacturing, energy production, land remediation, information technology and many other everyday products and applications. With this revolution however, there are undoubted concerns for health, safety and the environment which arise from the unique nature of materials and processes at the nanometre scale.The in vitro assays used in the screening strategy are all validated, internationally accepted protocols and provide a useful indication of potential toxicity of a chemical as a result of effects on various toxicological endpoints such as local site of contact (dermal) irritation, general cytotoxicity and mutagenicity.The initial in vitro screening strategy described in this paper to investigate the potential health implications, if any, which may arise following exposure to one specific application of nanoparticulate cerium oxide used as a diesel fuel borne catalyst, reflects a precautionary approach and the results will inform judgement on how best to proceed to ensure safe use. PMID:18053256

Park, Barry; Martin, Patricia; Harris, Chris; Guest, Robert; Whittingham, Andrew; Jenkinson, Peter; Handley, John

2007-01-01

164

Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ?500?nm to 2.0??m. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4??m for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

2014-01-01

165

Polyoxometalate-Enhanced Oxidation of Organic Compounds by Nanoparticulate Zero-Valent Iron and Ferrous Ion in the Presence of Oxygen  

PubMed Central

In the presence of oxygen, organic compounds can be oxidized by zero-valent iron or dissolved Fe(II). However, this process is not a very effective means of degrading contaminants because the yields of oxidants are usually low (i.e., typically less than 5% of the iron added is converted into oxidants capable of transforming organic compounds). The addition of polyoxometalate (POM) greatly increases the yield of oxidants in both systems. The mechanism of POM enhancement depends on solution pH. Under acidic conditions, POM-mediates the electron transfer from nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI) or Fe(II) to oxygen, increasing the production of hydrogen peroxide, which is subsequently converted to hydroxyl radical through the Fenton reaction. At neutral pH values, iron forms a complex with POM, preventing iron precipitation on the nZVI surface and in bulk solution. At pH 7, the yield of oxidant approaches the theoretical maximum in the nZVI/O2 and the Fe(II)/O2 systems when POM is present, suggesting that coordination of iron by POM alters the mechanism of the Fenton reaction by converting the active oxidant from ferryl ion to hydroxyl radical. Comparable enhancements in oxidant yields are also observed when nZVI or Fe(II) are exposed to oxygen in the presence of silica-immobilized POM. PMID:18678027

Lee, Changha; Keenan, Christina R.; Sedlak, David L.

2008-01-01

166

Nanoparticulate Mn3O4/VGCF composite conversion-anode material with extraordinarily high capacity and excellent rate capability for lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

In this work, highly conductive vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) was applied as an electrically conductive agent for facile synthesis of a nanoparticulate Mn3O4/VGCF composite material. This material exhibits super high specific capacity and excellent rate capability as a conversion-anode for lithium ion batteries. Rate performance test result demonstrates that at the discharge/charge current density of 0.2 A g(-1) a reversible capacity of ca. 950 mAh g(-1) is delivered, and when the current rate is increased to a high current density of 5 A g(-1), a reversible capacity of ca. 390 mAh g(-1) is retained. Cyclic performance examination conducted at the current density of 0.5 A g(-1) reveals that in the initial 20 cycles the reversible capacity decreases gradually from 855 to 747 mAh g(-1). However, since then, it increases gradually with cycle number increasing, and after 200 cycles an extraordinarily high reversible capacity of 1391 mAh g(-1) is achieved. PMID:25247688

Ma, Feng; Yuan, Anbao; Xu, Jiaqiang

2014-10-22

167

Pt–WO 3 supported on carbon nanotubes as possible anodes for direct methanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesised by the template carbonisation of polypyrrole on alumina membrane has been used as the support for Pt–WO3, Pt–Ru, and Pt. These materials have been used as the electrodes for methanol oxidation in acid medium in comparison with E-TEK 20wt% Pt and Pt–Ru on Vulcan XC72R carbon. The higher electrochemical surface of the carbon nanotube (as

B Rajesh; V Karthik; S Karthikeyan; K Ravindranathan Thampi; J.-M Bonard; B Viswanathan

2002-01-01

168

Novel silicon and tin alloy nano-particulate materials via spark erosion for high performance and high capacity anodes in lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent and popularity of portable electronics, as well as the need to reduce carbon-based fuel dependence for environmental and economic reasons, has led to the search for higher energy density portable power storage methods. Lithium ion batteries offer the highest energy density of any portable energy storage technology, but their potential is limited by the currently used materials. Theoretical capacities of silicon (3580 mAh/g) and tin (990 mAh/g) are significantly higher than existing graphitic anodes (372 mAh/g). However, silicon and tin must be scaled down to the nano-level to mitigate the pulverization from drastic volume changes in the anode structure during lithium ion insertion/extraction. The available synthesis techniques for silicon and tin nano-particles are complicated and scale-up is costly. A unique one-step process for synthesizing Si-Sn alloy and Sn nano-particles via spark plasma erosion has been developed to achieve the ideal nano-particulate size and carbon coating architecture. Spark erosion produces crystalline and amorphous spherical nano-particles, averaging 5-500nm in diameter. Several tin and silicon alloys have been spark eroded and thoroughly characterized using SEM, TEM, EDS, XPS, Auger spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and TGA. The resulting nano-particles show improved performance as anodes over commercialized materials. In particular, pure sparked Sn particles show stable reversible capacity at ˜460 mAh/g with >99.5% coulombic efficiency for over 100 cycles. These particles are drop-in ready for existing commercial anode processing techniques and by only adding 10% of the sparked Sn particles the total current cell capacity will increase by ˜13%.

White, Emma Marie Hamilton

169

Choose your models wisely: how different murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell protocols influence the success of nanoparticulate vaccines in vitro.  

PubMed

Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccination has shown great potential in cancer immunotherapy. As a result, novel nanoparticles aiming to load DCs with tumor antigens are being developed and evaluated in vitro. For this, murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) are most commonly used as model DCs. However, many different protocols exist to generate these cells. Therefore, we investigated to what extent different BM-DC culture protocols impact on the immunobiology of the cells, as well as their response to particulate antigens. We evaluated 4 different BM-DC protocols with 2 main variables: bovine serum and cytokine combinations. Our results show distinct differences in yield, phenotypical maturation status and the production of immune stimulatory and immune suppressive cytokines by the different BM-DCs. Importantly, we demonstrate that the antigen-loading of these different BM-DCs via transfection with mRNA lipoplexes results in large differences in transfection efficiency as well as in the capacity of mRNA-transfected BM-DCs to stimulate antigen-specific T cells. Thus, it is clear that the BM-DC model can have significant confounding effects on the evaluation of novel nanoparticulate vaccines. To take this into account when testing novel particulate antigen-delivery systems in BM-DC models, we propose to (1) perform a thorough immunological characterization of the BM-DCs and to (2) not only judge a particle's potential for cancer vaccination based on transfection efficiency, but also to include an evaluation of functional end-points such as T cell activation. PMID:24960224

Dewitte, Heleen; Verbeke, Rein; Breckpot, Karine; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Libert, Claude; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Lentacker, Ine

2014-12-10

170

Organic-coated nanoparticulate zero valent iron for remediation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved metals from tropical landfill leachate.  

PubMed

The use of nanoparticulate zero valent iron (NZVI) in the treatment of inorganic contaminants in landfill leachate and polluted plumes has been the subject of many studies, especially in temperate, developed countries. However, NZVI's potential for reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and treatment of metal ion mixtures has not been explored in detail. We investigated the efficiency of NZVI synthesized in the presence of starch, mercaptoacetic, mercaptosuccinic, or mercaptopropenoic acid for the reduction of COD, nutrients, and metal ions from landfill leachate in tropical Sri Lanka. Synthesized NZVI were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Of the samples tested, Starch-NZVI (S-NZVI) and mercaptoacetic-NZVI (MA-NZVI) performed well for treatment both COD and metal mixture. The removal percentages for COD, nitrate-nitrogen, and phosphate from S-NZVI were 50, 88, and 99 %, respectively. Heavy metal removal was higher in S-NZVI (>95 %) than others. MA-NZVI, its oxidation products, and functional groups of its coating showed the maximum removal amounts for both Cu (56.27 mg g(-1)) and Zn (28.38 mg g(-1)). All mercapto-NZVI showed well-stabilized nature under FTIR and XRD investigations. Therefore, we suggest mercapto acids as better agents to enhance the air stability for NZVI since chemically bonded thiol and carbonyl groups actively participation for stabilization process. PMID:24535668

Wijesekara, S S R M D H R; Basnayake, B F A; Vithanage, Meththika

2014-06-01

171

Osteogenic and Antimicrobial Nanoparticulate Calcium Phosphate and Poly-(D, L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) Powders for the Treatment of Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Development of a material for simultaneous sustained and localized delivery of antibiotics and induction of spontaneous regeneration of hard tissues affected by osteomyelitis stands for an important clinical need. In this work, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and osteoblastic cell response to two different nanoparticulate carriers of clindamycin, an antibiotic commonly prescribed in the treatment of bone infection, one composed of calcium phosphate and the other comprising poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-coated calcium phosphate, was carried out. Three different non-cytotoxic phases of calcium phosphate, exhibiting dissolution and drug release profiles in the range of one week to two months to one year, respectively, were included in the analysis: monetite, amorphous calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Spherical morphologies and narrow size distribution of both types of nanopowders were confirmed in transmission and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The antibiotic-containing powders exhibited sustained drug release contingent upon the degradation rate of the carrier. Assessment of the antibacterial performance of the antibiotic-encapsulated powders against Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen isolated from infected bone, yielded satisfactory results both in broths and on blood agar plates for all the analyzed powders. In contrast, no cytotoxic behavior was detected upon the incubation of the antibiotic powders with the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line for up to three weeks. The cells were shown to engage in a close contact with the antibiotic-containing particles, irrespective of their internal or surface phase composition, polymeric or mineral. At the same time, both types of particles upregulated the expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runx2 and protocollagen type I, suggesting their ability to promote osteogenesis and enhance remineralization of the infected site in addition to eliminating the bacterial source of infection. PMID:23706222

Uskokovi?, Vuk; Hoover, Charles; Vukomanovi?, Marija; Uskokovi?, Dragan P.; Desai, Tejal A.

2013-01-01

172

Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

Narayanan, S. R.

1995-01-01

173

Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

2015-02-01

174

Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane and direct methanol fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are attractive power sources as they offer high conversion efficiencies with low or no pollution. However, the most commonly used platinum electrocatalyst is expensive and the world supply of Pt is limited. In addition, the slow oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation kinetics as well as the poisoning of the Pt catalyst at the cathode resulting from methanol permeation from the anode through the Nafion membrane to the cathode lead to significant performance loss. Also, the electrocatalyst utilization in the electrodes also needs to be improved to reduce the overall cost of the electrocatalysts and improve the fuel cell performance. This dissertation explores nanostructured Pt alloys with lower cost and higher catalytic activity than Pt for oxygen reduction in PEMFC to understand the effect of synthesis and structure on the catalytic activity, methanol tolerant Pt/TiOx nanocomposites for oxygen reduction in DMFC, nanostructured Pt-Ru alloys for methanol oxidation in DMFC, and improvement in the utilization of Pt by optimizing the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication. From a systematic investigation of a series of Pt-M alloys (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu), the catalytic activity of Pt-M alloys is correlated with the extent of atomic ordering. More ordered Pt alloys exhibit higher catalytic activity than disordered Pt alloys. The higher activity of the ordered Pt alloys is found to relate to various factors including the Pt-Pt distance, Pt: 5d orbital vacancy, {100} planar density and surface atomic configuration. The catalytic activity of the Pt alloys is also influenced by the synthesis method. Low temperature solution methods usually result in smaller particle size and higher surface area, while high temperature routes result in larger particle size and lower surface area but with a greater extent of alloying. Pt/TiOx/C nanocomposites exhibit higher performance than Pt for oxygen reduction in DMFC. The nanocomposites show higher electrchochemical surface area, lower charge transfer resistance, and higher methanol tolerance than Pt. Pt-Ru alloy synthesized by a reverse microemulsion method exhibits higher catalytic surface area than the commercial Pt-Ru. The higher catalytic activity is attributed to a better control of the particle size, crystallinity, and microstructure. Membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) fabricated by a modified thin film method exhibit much higher electrocatalyst utilization efficiency and performance than the conventional MEAs in PEMFC. Power densities of 715 and 610 mW/cm2 are obtained at a Pt loading of, respectively, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/cm2 and 90°C. The higher electrocatalyst utilization is attributed to the thin catalyst layer and a better continuity of the membrane/catalysts layer interface compared to that in the conventional MEAs.

Xiong, Liufeng

175

In Vitro Analysis of Nanoparticulate Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Composites as Potential Drug Delivery Platforms for the Sustained Release of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticulate composites of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and chitosan were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted sequential precipitation and characterized for their microstructure at the atomic scale, surface charge, drug release properties, and combined antibacterial and osteogenic response. Crystallinity of HAp nanoparticles was reduced because of the interference of the surface layers of chitosan with the dissolution/reprecipitation-mediated recrystallization mechanism that conditions the transition from the as-precipitated amorphous calcium phosphate phase to the most thermodynamically stable one—HAp. Embedment of 5–10 nm sized, narrowly dispersed HAp nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix mitigated the burst release of the small molecule model drug, fluorescein, bound to HAp by physisorption, and promoted sustained-release kinetics throughout the 3 weeks of release time. The addition of chitosan to the particulate drug carrier formulation, however, reduced the antibacterial efficacy against S aureus. Excellent cell spreading and proliferation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells evidenced on microscopic conglomerates of HAp nanoparticles in vitro also markedly diminished on HAp/chitosan composites. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity exhibited normal values only for HAp/chitosan particle concentrations of up to 2 mg/cm2 and significantly dropped, by about 50%, at higher particle concentrations (4 and 8 mg/cm2). The gene expression of osteocalcin, a mineralization inductor, and the transcription factor Runx2 was downregulated in cells incubated in the presence of 3 mg/cm2 HAp/chitosan composite particles, whereas the expression of osteopontin, a potent mineralization inhibitor, was upregulated, further demonstrating the partially unfavorable osteoblastic cell response to the given particles. The peak in the expression of osteogenic markers paralleling the osteoblastic differentiation was also delayed most for the cell population incubated with HAp/chitosan particles. Overall, the positive effect of chitosan coating on the drug elution profile of HAp nanoparticles as carriers for the controlled delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis was compensated for by the lower bacteriostatic efficiency and the comparatively unviable cell response to the composite material, especially at higher dosages. PMID:24382825

USKOKOVI?, VUK; DESAI, TEJAL A.

2014-01-01

176

Nanoparticulate iron(III) oxo-hydroxide delivers safe iron that is well absorbed and utilised in humans  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide with substantial impact on health and economy. Current treatments predominantly rely on soluble iron which adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. We have developed organic acid-modified Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide nanomaterials, here termed nano Fe(III), as alternative safe iron delivery agents. Nano Fe(III) absorption in humans correlated with serum iron increase (P < 0.0001) and direct in vitro cellular uptake (P = 0.001), but not with gastric solubility. The most promising preparation (iron hydroxide adipate tartrate: IHAT) showed ~80% relative bioavailability to Fe(II) sulfate in humans and, in a rodent model, IHAT was equivalent to Fe(II) sulfate at repleting haemoglobin. Furthermore, IHAT did not accumulate in the intestinal mucosa and, unlike Fe(II) sulfate, promoted a beneficial microbiota. In cellular models, IHAT was 14-fold less toxic than Fe(II) sulfate/ascorbate. Nano Fe(III) manifests minimal acute intestinal toxicity in cellular and murine models and shows efficacy at treating iron deficiency anaemia. From the Clinical Editor This paper reports the development of novel nano-Fe(III) formulations, with the goal of achieving a magnitude less intestinal toxicity and excellent bioavailability in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Out of the tested preparations, iron hydroxide adipate tartrate met the above criteria, and may become an important tool in addressing this common condition. PMID:24983890

Pereira, Dora I.A.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F.A.; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K.; Tagmount, Mani A.; Aslam, Mohamad F.; Frazer, David M.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Powell, Jonathan J.

2014-01-01

177

Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell  

PubMed Central

Mastery over the structure of nanomaterials enables control of their properties to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design and fabrication of Pt-based nanomaterials with enhanced catalytic activity and superior selectivity toward the reactions in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) upon the deep understanding of the mechanisms of these electrochemical reactions. In particular, the ternary Au@Ag2S-Pt nanocomposites display superior methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) selectivity due to the electronic coupling effect among different domains of the nanocomposites, while the cage-bell structured Pt-Ru nanoparticles exhibit excellent methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode because of the differential diffusion of methanol and oxygen in the porous Ru shell of the cage-bell nanoparticles. The good catalytic selectivity of these Pt-based nanomaterials via structural construction enables a DMFC to be built without a proton exchange membrane between the fuel electrode and the oxygen electrode. PMID:24448514

Feng, Yan; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

2014-01-01

178

Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell.  

PubMed

Mastery over the structure of nanomaterials enables control of their properties to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design and fabrication of Pt-based nanomaterials with enhanced catalytic activity and superior selectivity toward the reactions in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) upon the deep understanding of the mechanisms of these electrochemical reactions. In particular, the ternary Au@Ag2S-Pt nanocomposites display superior methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) selectivity due to the electronic coupling effect among different domains of the nanocomposites, while the cage-bell structured Pt-Ru nanoparticles exhibit excellent methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode because of the differential diffusion of methanol and oxygen in the porous Ru shell of the cage-bell nanoparticles. The good catalytic selectivity of these Pt-based nanomaterials via structural construction enables a DMFC to be built without a proton exchange membrane between the fuel electrode and the oxygen electrode. PMID:24448514

Feng, Yan; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

2014-01-01

179

Single wall carbon nanotube supports for portable direct methanol fuel cells.  

PubMed

Single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes are employed as carbon supports in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The morphology and electrochemical activity of single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes obtained from different sources have been examined to probe the influence of carbon support on the overall performance of DMFC. The improved activity of the Pt-Ru catalyst dispersed on carbon nanotubes toward methanol oxidation is reflected as a shift in the onset potential and a lower charge transfer resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The evaluation of carbon supports in a passive air breathing DMFC indicates that the observed power density depends on the nature and source of carbon nanostructures. The intrinsic property of the nanotubes, dispersion of the electrocatalyst and the electrochemically active surface area collectively influence the performance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). As compared to the commercial carbon black support, single wall carbon nanotubes when employed as the support for anchoring the electrocatalyst particles in the anode and cathode sides of MEA exhibited a approximately 30% enhancement in the power density of a single stack DMFC operating at 70 degrees C. PMID:16471506

Girishkumar, G; Hall, Timothy D; Vinodgopal, K; Kamat, Prashant V

2006-01-12

180

Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory

2013-09-26

181

Investigation of nano Pt and Pt-based alloys electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells and their properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrocatalysts used in micro direct methanol fuel cell (?DMFC), such as Pt/C and Pt alloy/C, prepared by liquid-phase NaBH4 reduction method have been investigated. XC-72 (Cobalt corp. Company, U.S.A) is chosen as the activated carrier for the electrocatalysts to keep the catalysts powder in the range of several nanometers. The XRD, SEM, EDX analyses indicated that the catalysts had small particle size in several nanometers, in excellent dispersed phase and the molar ratio of the precious metals was found to be optimal. The performances of the DMFCs using cathodic catalyst with Pt percentage of 30wt% and different anodic catalysts (Pt-Ru, Pt-Ru-Mo) were tested. The polarization curves and power density curves of the cells were measured to determine the optimal alloy composition and condition for the electrocatalysts. The results showed that the micro direct methanol fuel cell with 30wt% Pt/C as the cathodic catalyst and n(Pt):n(Ru):n(Mo) = 3:2:2 PtRuMo/C as the anodic catalyst at room temperature using 2.0mol/L methanol solution has the best performances.

Suo, Chunguang; Zhang, Wenbin; Shi, Xinghua; Ma, Chuxia

2014-03-01

182

Study of catalysis for solid oxide fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells offer the enticing promise of cleaner electricity with lower environmental impact than traditional energy conversion technologies. Driven by the interest in power sources for portable electronics, and distributed generation and automotive propulsion markets, active development efforts in the technologies of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices have achieved significant progress. However, current catalysts for fuel cells are either of low catalytic activity or extremely expensive, presenting a key barrier toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cell devices. In this thesis work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a novel thin film deposition technique, was employed to apply catalytic Pt to SOFC, and investigate both Pt skin catalysts and Pt-Ru catalysts for methanol oxidation, a very important reaction for DMFC, to increase the activity and utilization levels of the catalysts while simultaneously reducing the catalyst loading. For SOFCs, we explored the use of ALD for the fabrication of electrode components, including an ultra-thin Pt film for use as the electrocatalyst, and a Pt mesh structure for a current collector for SOFCs, aiming for precise control over the catalyst loading and catalyst geometry, and enhancement in the current collect efficiency. We choose Pt since it has high chemical stability and excellent catalytic activity for the O2 reduction reaction and the H2 oxidation reaction even at low operating temperatures. Working SOFC fuel cells were fabricated with ALD-deposited Pt thin films as an electrode/catalyst layer. The measured fuel cell performance reveals that comparable peak power densities were achieved for ALD-deposited Pt anodes with only one-fifth of the Pt loading relative to a DC-sputtered counterpart. In addition to the continuous electrocatalyst layer, a micro-patterned Pt structure was developed via the technique of area selective ALD. By coating yttria-stabilized zirconia, a typical solid oxide electrolyte, with patterned (octadecyltrichlorosilane) ODTS self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), Pt thin films were grown selectively on the SAM-free surface regions. Features with sizes as small as 2 mum were deposited by this combined ALD-muCP method. The micro-patterned Pt structure deposited by area selective ALD was applied to SOFCs as a current collector grid/patterned catalyst. An improvement in the fuel cell performance by a factor of 10 was observed using the Pt current collector grids/patterned catalyst integrated onto cathodic La0.6Sr 0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta. For possible catalytic anodes in DMFCs employing a 1:1 stoichiometric methanol-water reforming mixture, two strategies were employed in this thesis. One approach is to fabricate skin catalysts, where ALD Pt films of various thicknesses were used to coat sputtered Ru films forming Pt skin catalysts for study of methanol oxidation. Another strategy is to replace or alloy Pt with Ru; for this effort, both dc-sputtering and atomic layer deposition were employed to fabricate Pt-Ru catalysts of various Ru contents. The electrochemical behavior of all of the Pt skin catalysts, the DC co-sputtered Pt-Ru catalysts and the ALD co-deposited Pt-Ru catalysts were evaluated at room temperature for methanol oxidation using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in highly concentrated 16.6 M MeOH, which corresponds to the stoichiometric fuel that will be employed in next generation DMFCs that are designed to minimize or eliminate methanol crossover. The catalytic activity of sputtered Ru catalysts toward methanol oxidation is strongly enhanced by the ALD Pt overlayer, with such skin layer catalysts displaying superior catalytic activity over pure Pt. For both the DC co-sputtered catalysts and ALD co-deposited catalysts, the electrochemical studies illustrate that the optimal stoichiometry ratio for Pt to Ru is approximately 1:1, which is in good agreement with most literature.

Jiang, Xirong

183

Novel O2-enhanced methanol oxidation performance at Pt-Ru-C sputtered anode in direct methanol fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel anode catalyst for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A Pt-Ru-C electrode was prepared by a co-sputtering technique and compared with Pt and Pt-Ru sputtered electrodes for the methanol electro-oxidation reaction. The prepared Pt-Ru-C electrode with a specific atomic ratio showed a remarkable O2-enhanced methanol oxidation performance by O2 addition to methanol as a fuel. For practical utilization, the relationship between the O2-enhanced methanol oxidation activity and the thermal stability of the Pt-Ru-C sputtered electrode was evaluated using a post-annealing treatment. It is found that the O2-enhanced methanol oxidation activity of the Pt-Ru-C electrodes is retained if the annealing temperature is less than or equal to 100 °C. Finally, the DMFC performance was assessed using a single DMFC cell incorporating a membrane electrode assembly with Pt-Ru-C which was hot-pressed at 100 °C. The O2-enhanced methanol oxidation was observed at a single DMFC cell also. Moreover, the enhanced reaction was recognized in DMFC power generation by feeding methanol and oxygen to the anode and oxygen to the cathode.

Shironita, Sayoko; Ueda, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Umeda, Minoru

2013-12-01

184

Electrical enhancement of direct methanol fuel cells by metal-plasma ion implantation Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts.  

PubMed

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have been widely studied owing to their simple cell configuration, high volume energy density, short start-up time, high operational reliability and other favorable characteristics. However, major limitations include high production cost, poisoning of the catalyst and methanol crossover. This study adopts a simple technique for preparing Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts, including magnetron sputtering (MS) and metal-plasma ion implantation (MPII). The Pt catalysts were sputtered onto the gas diffusion layer (GDL), followed by the implantation of Ru catalysts using MPII (at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV and an implantation dose of 1 x 10(16) ions/cm2). Pt-Ru is repeatedly processed to prepare Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts. The catalyst film structure and microstructure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), respectively. The cell performance was tested using a potential stat/galvano-stat. The results reveal that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of four multilayer structures enhances the cell performance of DMFC. The measured power density is 2.2 mW/cm2 at a methanol concentration of 2 M, with an OCV of 0.493 V. PMID:19441400

Weng, Ko-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chen, Ya-Chi; Lin, Tai-Nan

2009-02-01

185

Preparation and evaluation of nanoparticles for directed tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Herein we describe the preparation of a nanoparticulate system formed from an RGD-functionalized chitosan derivative by complexation with chondroitin sulfate. These bioactive complexes were developed to promote wound healing by inducing adhesion and subsequently migration of skin cells. The particles were characterized for their size, surface charge, stability and shape. Briefly, the nanoparticles were found to be stable up to 7 days in water at a diameter of 150-200 nm and a positive charge of 20 mV. In physiological media the particles swell significantly but remain intact. Tested in an in vitro cell model of human dermal fibroblasts, the particles were shown to promote cell adhesion and induce spreading in human dermal fibroblasts. The mean surface area per cell was found to be increased by three-fold (n=3 assays, p<0.01), for the cells plated on particles exposing RGD-peptides when compared to cells on control particles. This indicates a stimulation of the cells due to the exposure of the bioactive RGD-moieties and an enhanced cell-biomaterial interaction. Using nanoparticles is a novel approach to direct cellular behavior with numerous possible applications in tissue engineering such as substrate for dermal and epithelial cells, injectable suspensions or as building blocks to form scaffolds. PMID:23046666

Hansson, Annasara; Di Francesco, Tiziana; Falson, Françoise; Rousselle, Patricia; Jordan, Olivier; Borchard, Gerrit

2012-12-15

186

Direct Variation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Regents Prep Exam Center introduces the topic of direct variation equations. The material includes a lesson plan, practice problems and a teacher's guide. Students will learn the basics of what a direct variation equation is and the formula for direct variation.

2012-01-01

187

Improved Anode for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified chemical composition has been devised to improve the performance of the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell. The main feature of the modified composition is the incorporation of hydrous ruthenium oxide into the anode structure. This modification can reduce the internal electrical resistance of the cell and increase the degree of utilization of the anode catalyst. As a result, a higher anode current density can be sustained with a smaller amount of anode catalyst. These improvements can translate into a smaller fuel-cell system and higher efficiency of conversion. Some background information is helpful for understanding the benefit afforded by the addition of hydrous ruthenium oxide. The anode of a direct methanol fuel cell sustains the electro-oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide in the reaction CH3OH + H2O--->CO2 + 6H(+) + 6e(-). An electrocatalyst is needed to enable this reaction to occur. The catalyst that offers the highest activity is an alloy of approximately equal numbers of atoms of the noble metals platinum and ruthenium. The anode is made of a composite material that includes high-surface-area Pt/Ru alloy particles and a proton-conducting ionomeric material. This composite is usually deposited onto a polymer-electrolyte (proton-conducting) membrane and onto an anode gas-diffusion/current-collector sheet that is subsequently bonded to the proton-conducting membrane by hot pressing. Heretofore, the areal density of noble-metal catalyst typically needed for high performance has been about 8 mg/cm2. However, not all of the catalyst has been utilized in the catalyzed electro-oxidation reaction. Increasing the degree of utilization of the catalyst would make it possible to improve the performance of the cell for a given catalyst loading and/or reduce the catalyst loading (thereby reducing the cost of the cell). The use of carbon and possibly other electronic conductors in the catalyst layer has been proposed for increasing the utilization of the catalyst by increasing electrical connectivity between catalyst particles. However, the relatively low density of carbon results in thick catalyst layers that impede the mass transport of methanol to the catalytic sites. Also, the electrical conductivity of carbon is less than 1/300th of typical metals. Furthermore, the polymer-electrolyte membrane material is acidic and most metals are not chemically stable in contact with it. Finally, a material that conducts electrons (but not protons) does not contribute to the needed transport of protons produced in the electro-oxidation reaction.

Valdez, Thomas; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

2005-01-01

188

Journal of Power Sources 185 (2008) 166170 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

methanol fuel cell (DMFC) Methanol oxidation reaction Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). In this work, we prepared an Au-modified PtRu catalyst (Au rights reserved. 1. Introduction Over the past decade, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC

Zhao, Tianshou

2008-01-01

189

Advance directives  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

2015-01-01

190

Directing 101.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

Pintoff, Ernest

191

Tech Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tech Directions is a company which offers a wide array of titles in the fields of technology, career and technical education and related industrial fields. The company offers books, project kits, posters and more for use in the classroom.

192

Advance Directives  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about advance directives, which are legal documents that allow people to communicate their decisions about medical care to family, friends, and health care professionals in the event that they are unable to make those decisions themselves.

193

Recent advances in direct methanol fuel cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent advances in the science and technology of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) made at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The effort on DMFCs at LANL includes work devoted to portable power applications, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), and work devoted to potential transport applications, funded by the US DOE. We describe recent results with a new type of DMFC stack hardware that allows to lower the pitch per cell to 2 mm while allowing low air flow and air pressure drops. Such stack technology lends itself to both portable power and potential transport applications. Power densities of 300 W/l and 1 kW/l seem achievable under conditions applicable to portable power and transport applications, respectively. DMFC power system analysis based on the performance of this stack, under conditions applying to transport applications (joint effort with U.C. Davis), has shown that, in terms of overall system efficiency and system packaging requirements, a power source for a passenger vehicle based on a DMFC could compete favorably with a hydrogen-fueled fuel cell system, as well as with fuel cell systems based on fuel processing on board. As part of more fundamental studies performed, we describe optimization of anode catalyst layers in terms of PtRu catalyst nature, loading and catalyst layer composition and structure. We specifically show that, optimized content of recast ionic conductor added to the catalyst layer is a sensitive function of the nature of the catalyst. Other elements of membrane/electrode assembly (MEA) optimization efforts are also described, highlighting our ability to resolve, to a large degree, a well-documented problem of polymer electrolyte DMFCs, namely "methanol crossover". This was achieved by appropriate cell design, enabling fuel utilization as high as 90% in highly performing DMFCs.

Ren, Xiaoming; Zelenay, Piotr; Thomas, Sharon; Davey, John; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

194

Improved Cathode Structure for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved cathode structure on a membrane/electrode assembly has been developed for a direct methanol fuel cell, in a continuing effort to realize practical power systems containing such fuel cells. This cathode structure is intended particularly to afford better cell performance at a low airflow rate. A membrane/electrode assembly of the type for which the improved cathode structure was developed (see Figure 1) is fabricated in a process that includes brush painting and spray coating of catalyst layers onto a polymer-electrolyte membrane and onto gas-diffusion backings that also act as current collectors. The aforementioned layers are then dried and hot-pressed together. When completed, the membrane/electrode assembly contains (1) an anode containing a fine metal black of Pt/Ru alloy, (2) a membrane made of Nafion 117 or equivalent (a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, proton-conducting ion-exchange polymer), (3) a cathode structure (in the present case, the improved cathode structure described below), and (4) the electrically conductive gas-diffusion backing layers, which are made of Toray 060(TradeMark)(or equivalent) carbon paper containing between 5 and 6 weight percent of poly(tetrafluoroethylene). The need for an improved cathode structure arises for the following reasons: In the design and operation of a fuel-cell power system, the airflow rate is a critical parameter that determines the overall efficiency, cell voltage, and power density. It is desirable to operate at a low airflow rate in order to obtain thermal and water balance and to minimize the size and mass of the system. The performances of membrane/electrode assemblies of prior design are limited at low airflow rates. Methanol crossover increases the required airflow rate. Hence, one way to reduce the required airflow rate is to reduce the effect of methanol crossover. Improvement of the cathode structure - in particular, addition of hydrophobic particles to the cathode - has been demonstrated to mitigate the effects of crossover and decrease the airflow required.

Valdez, Thomas; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

2005-01-01

195

Nanostructured self-assembly materials from neat and aqueous solutions of C18 lipid pro-drug analogues of Capecitabine?a chemotherapy agent. Focus on nanoparticulate cubosomes? of the oleyl analogue  

SciTech Connect

A series of prodrug analogues based on the established chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil, have been prepared and characterized. C18 alkyl and alkenyl chains with increasing degree of unsaturation were attached to the N{sup 4} position of the 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) base via a carbamate bond. Physicochemical characterization of the prodrug analogues was carried out using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, cross-polarized optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering. The presence of a monounsaturated oleyl chain was found to promote lyotropic liquid crystalline phase formation in excess water with a fluid lamellar phase observed at room temperature and one or more bicontinuous cubic phases at 37 C. The bulk phase was successfully dispersed into liposomes or cubosomes at room and physiological temperature respectively. In vitro toxicity of the nanoparticulate 5-FCOle dispersions was evaluated against several normal and cancer cell types over a 48 h period and exhibited an IC{sub 50} of 100 {micro}M against all cell types. The in vivo efficacy of 5-FCOle cubosomes was assessed against the highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast cancer model and compared to Capecitabine (a water-soluble commercially available 5-FU prodrug) delivered at the same dosages. After 21 days of treatment, the 0.5 mmol 5-FCOle treatment group exhibited a significantly smaller average tumour volume than all other treatment groups including Capecitabine at similar dosage. These results exemplify the potential of self-assembled amphiphile prodrugs for delivery of bioactives in vivo.

Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Mulet, Xavier; Danon, Stephen J.; Waddington, Lynne J.; Drummond, Calum J.

2014-09-24

196

Direct solvers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first discuss algorithms and software for the solution of full linear systems. In particular, we discuss work which aims to capitalize on recent advances in machine architectures while at the same time maintaining portability through the use of computational kernels. We then examine how this can be extended to the sparse case and consider several approaches for the direct solution of sparse linear equations including general methods based on Markowitz pivoting, frontal methods, and multifrontal methods.

Duff, Iain S.

1989-11-01

197

Dicey Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners are stuck in a right turn only world! Learners take turns rolling a die and moving their game pieces along the lines of a grid to get "home," by only making right turns. This activity provides learners with an opportunity to think about the relative nature of directional terms such as right and left. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Children's Museum of Houston

2014-09-19

198

Multilayered gold/silica nanoparticulate bilayer devices using layer-by-layer self organisation for flexible bending and pressure sensing applications  

SciTech Connect

A pressure and bending sensor was fabricated using multilayer thin films fabricated on a flexible substrate based on layer-by-layer self-organization of 18?nm gold nanoparticles separated by a dielectric layer of 30?nm silica nanoparticles. 50, 75, and 100 gold-silica bi-layered films were deposited and the device characteristics were studied. A threshold voltage was required for electron conduction which increases from 2.4?V for 50 bi-layers to 3.3?V for 100 bi-layers. Upon bending of the device up to about 52°, the threshold voltage and slope of the I-V curves change linearly. Electrical characterization of the multilayer films was carried out under ambient conditions with different pressures and bending angles in the direct current mode. This study demonstrates that the developed multilayer thin films can be used as pressure as well as bending sensing applications.

Shah Alam, Md. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Mohammed, Waleed S., E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th [Center of Research in Optoelectronics, Communication and Control System (BU-CROCCS), School of Engineering, Bangkok University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al Khoud 123 (Oman)

2014-02-17

199

Future direction of direct writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and

Nam-Soo Kim; Kenneth N. Han

2010-01-01

200

Light, Directly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the concept of direct versus indirect sunlight. Learners construct and use a sun angle analyzer to investigate the effect of angle on area illuminated. The fraction of light on each square of the analyzer is then calculated and compared. A discussion at the end relates the results to the amount of sunlight falling on different parts of the Earth and the effect this has on temperature and seasons. Reprinted with permission from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS).

201

Future direction of direct writing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

2010-11-01

202

Detection de nanoparticules dans le milieu interplantaire  

E-print Network

wideRed blood cells: 7µ interaction with plasma, magnetic fields, solar wind ions Lorentz force ? Nanodiamonds [Jones & d'Hendecourt 2000, Chang et al. 2006] ? Nanosilicon [Li 2004] ? Indirect: photoelectric

Demoulin, Pascal

203

Homeland Security Presidential Directive  

E-print Network

Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-12 PIV-1 Implementation And Suitability Processing Presidential Directive 12 (HSPD-12), "Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees requirements for a Federal Personal Identification Verification (PIV) system. HSPD-12 directs

204

Advance Directives (Psychiatric)  

MedlinePLUS

... in Minnesota in 1991. Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Maine, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas and ... the state laws authorizing psychiatric advance directives except Maine specify that declarants may use these directives to ...

205

DIRECT INTERNET DATA Troubleshooting  

E-print Network

DIRECT INTERNET DATA Troubleshooting Iridium Satellite LLC Rev. 2; June 15, 2001 #12;DIRECT INTERNET DATA intend to use prior to using them over Iridium (e.g., Internet browser). Cannot register with the Iridium

Ashley, Michael C. B.

206

A DIRECT ADVANCE ON ADVANCE DIRECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTAdvance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as ‘living wills’, are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what

DAVID SHAW

2012-01-01

207

Direct bonding and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a number of recent evaluations of direct bonding, a glueless bonding technology, performed under ambient conditions. If combined with bond-strengthening, this geometry-conserving technology is well suited for an application in far ultraviolet immersion lithography. Our term beyond direct bonding refers to taking at least one additional technological step beyond direct bonding, involving chemical interface engineering, advanced silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, whereby the unwanted influence of dilatation mismatch is obviated. The combination of successive direct bonding, nanopillar lattice structures and silicon-technological engineering makes it possible for us to arrange quantum dots, wires, and planes in a transversal cascade. We also address the interrelationship between direct bonding and elasticity, as well as plasticity; the latter is in relation to direct bonded glass wafers that are thermally treated to create the geometric shape, e.g., required for specific lab-on-a-chip components with a three-dimensional overall configuration.

Haisma, Jan; Hattu, Nico; (Dook) Pulles, J. T. C. M.; Steding, Esther; Vervest, Jan C. G.

2007-09-01

208

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-print Network

A brief overview of direct-photon measurements in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. Direct-photon yields for pT > 4 GeV/c and photon-hadron azimuthal correlations were determined with the aid of an electromagnetic calorimeter. By detecting e+e- pairs from the internal conversion of virtual photons direct-photon yields were measured between 1 photons from a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are expected to contribute significantly to the total direct-photon yield in this range.

Klaus Reygers; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2009-08-17

209

Direct Instruction News, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three issues of a newsletter offer diverse kinds of information deemed to be of interest to Association for Direct Instruction (ADI) members--stories of successful implementations in different settings, write-ups of ADI awards, tips on "how to" deliver direct instruction (DI) more effectively, topical articles focused on particular types of…

Tarver, Sara, Ed.

2001-01-01

210

Direct current transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

1979-01-01

211

Modelling directional solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long range goal of this program is to develop an improved understanding of phenomena of importance to directional solidification and to enable explanation and prediction of differences in behavior between solidification on Earth and in space. Current emphasis is on determining the influence of perturbations on directional solidification.

Wilcox, William R.

1991-01-01

212

Direct Conversion of Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

Corliss, William R.

213

Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

2012-01-01

214

Psychometrics of Direct Observation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct observation plays an important role in the assessment practices of school psychologists and in the development of evidence-based practices in general and special education. The defining psychometric features of direct observation are presented, the contributions to assessment practice reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for…

Hintze, John M.

2005-01-01

215

Self-Directed Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supports teaching self-directed learning (SDL) and becoming a self-directed person. It supports home-schooling, experiential education, open schooling and life-long learning. Keeping a journal, setting goals, planning and taking action are key tools. Self-improvement, personal development and the development of character are central themes of SDL.

Maurice Gibbons (Personal Power Press)

2008-01-01

216

Contemporary Direct Practice Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model of direct social work practice including four categories of roles. Provides results of survey of schools of social work (N=40) and an examination of actual practice in one state which indicated that important roles are not taught to all direct practice students. Discusses need for research on the nondirect client intervention roles.…

Lister, Larry

1987-01-01

217

GNSS Direction Finding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNSS receivers provide position information in a convenient way. However, additional orientation information cannot be fulfilled directly by a single antenna receiver up to now. This paper describes an approach for determining the orientation by a single GNSS receiver based only on its own static observations. As estimable base quantity, satellite positions are used as a reference in the moment of measuring. For that purpose the direction of each satellite's signal has to be known in relation to the antenna. In order to obtain this information, the signal strength of each satellite is measured. A systematical modulation of the signal, realized by rotating shading, is able to provide the required direction information approximately.

Grimm, David

2008-09-01

218

Directed Graphs digraph search  

E-print Network

1 Directed Graphs digraph search transitive closure topological sort strong components References (digraphs) Set of objects with oriented pairwise connections. Page ranks with histogram for a larger example;3 Digraph applications digraph vertex edge financial stock, currency transaction transportation street

Sedgewick, Robert

219

The Directed Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many instructors think that by incorporating case study analysis into the science classroom they will sacrifice course content. The directed case method, however, is a proven strategy for deepening and solidifying understanding of facts and concepts when

Leslie Nesbitt Curtin

2000-09-01

220

HUMAN SERVICES Direct Care  

E-print Network

Services Physical Health and Wellness Crisis Work Art Therapy Music Therapy Administration: AdvocacyPSYCHOLOGY HUMAN SERVICES Direct Care: Counseling Psychotherapy Case Management Mental Health specialties exist at the graduate level, for example school counseling, mental health counseling, counseling

Mountziaris, T. J.

221

BIOCHEMISTRY: Directing Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Genetic engineering is revealing biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of small molecules and avenues toward cheaper syntheses. Projects aiming to direct the biosynthesis of small molecules may seek to make new compounds, make natural compounds in unnatural organisms, or alter the metabolic flux through a particular biosynthetic pathway. This Perspective presents three examples that illustrate the state of directed biosynthesis and highlight its future prospects.

Michael A. Fischbach (Harvard Medical School; Harvard University; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; HHMI and the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology)

2006-10-27

222

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11

223

New Directions in Direct Dark Matter Searches  

E-print Network

I present the status of direct dark matter detection with specific attention to the experimental results and their phenomenological interpretation in terms of dark matter interactions. In particular I review a new and more general approach to study signals in this field based on non-relativistic operators which parametrize more efficiently the dark matter-nucleus interactions in terms of a very limited number of relevant degrees of freedom. Then I list the major experimental results, pointing out the main uncertainties that affect the theoretical interpretation of the data. Finally, since the underlying theory that describes both the dark matter and the standard model fields is unknown, I address the uncertainties coming from the nature of the interaction. In particular, the phenomenology of a class of models in which the interaction between dark matter particles and target nuclei is of a long-range type is discussed.

Panci, Paolo

2014-01-01

224

Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing.  

PubMed

The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct-writing technique can be used to print solid/liquid straight/serpentine nanofibers onto a large-area substrate, in a direct, continuous, and controllable manner. It is a high-efficiency and cost-effective solution-processable technique to satisfy increasing demands of large-area micro/nano-manufacturing. It is ground-breaking to direct-write sub-100 nm fibers on a rigid/flexible substrate using organic materials. A comprehensive review is presented on the research and developments related to the EHD direct-writing technique and print heads. Many developments have been presented to improve the controllability of the electrospun fibers to form high-resolution patterns and devices. EHD direct-writing is characterized by its non-contact, additive and reproducible processing, high resolution, and compatibility with organic materials. It combines dip-pen, inkjet, and electrospinning by providing the feasibility of controllable electrospinning for sub-100 nm nanofabrication, and overcomes the drawbacks of conventional electron-beam lithography, which is relatively slow, complicated and expensive. PMID:24057297

Huang, YongAn; Bu, Ningbin; Duan, Yongqing; Pan, Yanqiao; Liu, Huimin; Yin, Zhouping; Xiong, Youlun

2013-12-21

225

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-print Network

Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum ($p_T$) range. The $p$ + $p$ measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high $p_T$ direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring "almost real" virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass $e^+e^-$ pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

G. David; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2008-10-21

226

Direct Photons at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

Gabor,D.

2008-07-29

227

A direct advance on advance directives.  

PubMed

Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity. PMID:21133977

Shaw, David

2012-06-01

228

Directed and multi-directed animals on the King's lattice  

E-print Network

Directed and multi-directed animals on the King's lattice Axel Bacher LIPN, Universit´e Paris Nord directed animals on this lattice using a bijection with Viennot's heaps of pieces. We also define and enumerate a superclass of directed animals, the elements of which are called multi-directed animals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Direct conversion technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

1989-01-01

230

Direct conversion technology  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

1992-01-07

231

Direct Conversion Technology  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

1992-07-01

232

Microsegregation during directional solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the directional solidification of alloys, solute inhomogeneities transverse to the growth direction arise due to morphological instabilities (leading to cellular or dendritic growth) and/or due to convection in the melt. In the absence of convection, the conditions for the onset of morphological instability are given by the linear stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka. For ordinary solidification rates, the predictions of linear stability analysis are similar to the constitutional supercooling criterion. However, at very rapid solidification rates, linear stability analysis predicts a vast increase in stabilization in comparison to constitutional supercooling.

Coriell, S. R.; Mcfadden, G. B.

1984-01-01

233

Directed flux motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2011-01-01

234

The Directed Case Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an example of a directed case on human anatomy and physiology. Uses brief real life newspaper articles and clinical descriptions of medical reference texts to describe an actual, fictitious, or composite event. Includes interrelated human anatomy and physiology topics in the scenario. (YDS)

Cliff, William H.; Curtin, Leslie Nesbitt

2000-01-01

235

Direction Sensitive Doppler Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple double-doppler device is described which makes it possible to determine the direction of motion in addition to measuring velocity. The same principle can be employed to measure distances, temperature, or small frequency differences. In addition an application of the device for moving-target indication is described.

H. P. Kalmus

1955-01-01

236

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This sheet provides information about direct methanol fuel cells. Details on the chemistry involved are included in graphic form along with several notes on these fuel cells. This material would be most appropriate for upper level students who already have a basic understanding of fuel cell technology and chemistry. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

237

Syntax-Directed Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transduction is a mapping from one set of sequences to another. A syntax-directed transduction is a particular type of transduction which is defined on the grammar of a context-free language and which is meant to be a model of part of the translation process used in many compilers. The transduction is considered from an automata theory viewpoint as specifying

Philip M. Lewis II; Richard Edwin Stearns

1968-01-01

238

Syntax Directed Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transduction is a mapping from one set of sequences to another. A syntax directed transduction is a particular type of transduction which is defined on the grammar of a context free language and which is meant to be a model of part of the translation process used in many compilers. The transduction is considered from an automata theory viewpoint

Philip M. Lewis II; Richard Edwin Stearns

1966-01-01

239

Direct Multizone System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Lennox indoor direct multizone equipment and controls. The following areas are covered--(1) unit features, (2) controls and operations, (3) approvals, (4) air patterns, (5) typical applications, (6) specifications and ratings, (7) dimensioned drawings of a typical unit, (8) mixing boxes, (9) blower data, (10) water valve selection and…

Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

240

Dragonfly directional sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the concept and hardware development of an all fiber-based, solid state, coherent array directional sensor that can locate and track bright objects against a darker background. This sensor is not an imager. It relies on the inherent structure of the global fiber distribution. Methods for characterizing and calibrating hardware embodiments are also presented.

Geary, Joe; Blackwell, Lisa; Edwards, Tim; Dargie, Mike

2013-02-01

241

Direct Memory Access Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Memory Access Translation (DMTRANS) is a the­ ory of translation developed at CMT of CMU in which translation is viewd as an integrated part of cognitive pro­ cessing. In this paradigm, understanding in source lan­ guage is a recognition of input in terms of existing knowl­ edge in memory and integration of the input into the mem­ ory. Context

Hideto Tomabechi

1987-01-01

242

Conclusions and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Benchmarking, when done properly, offers a lot of promise for higher education units that want to improve how they do business. It is clear that much is known, but still more needs to be learned before it reaches its full potential as a useful tool. Readers of this issue of "New Directions for Institutional Research" have been treated to useful…

Lillibridge, Fred

2012-01-01

243

Apparatus for directional solidification  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description of the cosntruction of an apparatus for the directional solidification of materials under controlled conditions is given. The use of a ball screw, block clamps, and computer driven stepping motor has essentially eliminated adverse frictional and alignment effects of previous designs. The computer interfacing and programming is described.

Mason, J.T.

1982-11-01

244

Direct fired heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01

245

Directional gamma detector  

DOEpatents

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

246

[Direct laryngotracheobraonchoscopy (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The place of direct laryngotracheobronchoscopy since its introduction 80 years ago, and the necessary anaesthetic methods, lighting systems, magnification and recent use of flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopes are discussed and appraised. Its further development is dependent upon that of modern optical instruments, whilst the basic principles of its use diagnostically and therapeutically remain little changed. PMID:893148

Minnigerode, B

1977-07-01

247

Directive Type General Order  

E-print Network

in the field: · A high incidence of underage consumption of alcoholic beverages (by students and guests of the College of Charleston community. The Crime Prevention Coordinator will report directly to the Deputy," with an emphasis on positive and professional relationships with students, faculty and staff and visitors. While

Kasman, Alex

248

WIMP direct detection overview  

E-print Network

This review on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter direct detection focuses on experimental approaches and the corresponding physics basics. The presentation is intended to provide a quick and concise introduction for non-specialists to this fast evolving topic of astroparticle physics.

Y. Ramachers

2002-11-22

249

CGH Future Directions  

Cancer.gov

Looking ahead, we have three major future directions that we believe will help us push forward in achieving NCI’s goal of advancing global cancer research, building expertise, and leveraging resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide.

250

DIRECT INTERNET DATA User's Guide  

E-print Network

DIRECT INTERNET DATA User's Guide Iridium Satellite LLC Rev. 2; June 15, 2001 #12;DIRECT INTERNET OF CONTENTS 1 Direct Internet Data Overview ................................................................................ 32 5 Connecting to the Internet

Ashley, Michael C. B.

251

Direct thermal neutron capture  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the direct-capture theory pertaining to primary electric dipole (E1) transitions following slow-neutron capture. For light nuclides that we have studied (including /sup 9/Be, /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 25/Mg, /sup 26/Mg, /sup 32/S, /sup 33/S, /sup 34/S, /sup 40/Ca, and /sup 44/Ca), estimates of direct-capture cross sections using optical-model potentials with physically realistic parameters, are in reasonable agreement with the data. Minor disagreements that exist are consistent with extrapolations to light nuclides of generally accepted formulations of compound-nucleus capture. We also discuss the channel-capture approximation which is, in general, a good representation of these cross sections in heavier nuclei particularly if the scattering lengths are not different from the corresponding potential radii. We also draw attention to cases where the use of this formula leads to inaccurate predictions. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab.

Raman, S.; Kahane, S.; Lynn, J.E.

1987-01-01

252

Modelling directional solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved understanding of the phenomena of importance to directional solidification is attempted to enable explanation and prediction of differences in behavior between solidification on Earth and in space. Emphasis is now on experimentally determining the influence of convection and freezing rate fluctuations on compositional homogeneity and crystalline perfection. A correlation is sought between heater temperature profiles, buoyancy-driven convection, and doping inhomogeneities using naphthalene doped with anthracene. The influence of spin-up/spin-down is determined on compositional homogeneity and microstructure of indium gallium antimonide. The effect is determined of imposed melting - freezing cycles on indium gallium antimonide. The mechanism behind the increase of grain size caused by using spin-up/spin-down in directional solidification of mercury cadimum telluride is sought.

Wilcox, William R.

1987-01-01

253

Propulsion by directional adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rough, hairy integument of water-walking arthropods is well known to be responsible for their water-repellency; we here consider its additional propulsive role. We demonstrate that the tilted flexible leg hairs of water-walking arthropods render the leg cuticle directionally anisotropic: contact lines advance most readily towards the leg tips. The dynamical role of the resulting unidirectional adhesion is explored, and yields new insight into the manner in which water-walking arthropods generate thrust, glide and leap from the free surface. We thus provide new rationale for the fundamental topological difference in the roughness on plants and insects, and suggest novel directions for biomimetic design of smart, hydrophobic surfaces.

Bush, John; Prakash, Manu

2008-03-01

254

[Direct biosynthesis of ethylene].  

PubMed

Ethylene is the most widely used petrochemical feedstock globally. The development of bio-ethylene is essential due to limited fossil fuels and rising oil prices. Bio-ethylene is produced primarily by the dehydration of ethanol, but can alternatively be directly produced from ethylene biosynthesis pathways in plants, algae, or microorganisms by using cheap and renewable substrates. This review addressed the biosynthesis of ethylene in plants and microorganisms, the characterization of key enzymes, genetic engineering strategies for ethylene biosynthesis in microorganisms, and evaluated its perspective and successful cases toward the industrial application. The direct production of bio-ethylene from a biological process in situ is promising to supplement and even replace the petrochemical ethylene production. PMID:24432658

Sun, Zhilan; Chen, Yifeng

2013-10-01

255

Future directions for QCD  

SciTech Connect

New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC.

Bjorken, J.D.

1996-10-01

256

Modelling direction solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of this program is to develop an improved understanding of some phenomena of importance to directional solidification. The aim of this research is also to help predict differences in behavior between solidification on Earth and solidification in space. In this report, the validity of the Burton-Primslichter equation is explored. The influence of operating variables on grain and twin generation and propagation in single crystals of In sub (x) Ga sub (1-x) Sb is also investigated.

Wilcox, W. R.

1986-01-01

257

Directed Triangles in Digraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let c be the smallest possible value such that every digraph on n vertices withminimum outdegree at least cn contains a directed triangle. It was conjectured byCaccetta and Haggkvist in 1978 that c = 1=3: Recently Bondy showed that c (2p6 \\\\Gamma 3)=5 = 0:3797 \\\\Delta \\\\Delta \\\\Delta by using some counting arguments. In this note, we provethat c 3

Jian Shen

1998-01-01

258

Direct and Inverse Variation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Lesson 1 of two lessons teaches students about direct variation by allowing them to explore a simulated oil spill using toilet paper tissues (to represent land) and drops of vegetable oil (to simulate a volume of oil). Lesson 2 teaches students about inverse variation by exploring the relationship between the heights of a fixed amount of water poured into cylindrical containers of different sizes as compared to the area of the containers' bases." from Insights into Algebra 1 - Annenberg Foundation.

Annenberg Media

2009-12-23

259

Piezoelectric direct drive servovalve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-stage servovalve using direct piezoelectric actuator drive is described. The single-stage servovalve design offers higher bandwidth than conventional two-stage valves. It takes advantage of the high energy density in piezoelectric materials while addressing the need for internal amplification of stroke. When used alone, the valve can regulate pressure, and when used in combination with a hydraulic output device it

Jason E. Lindler; Eric H. Anderson

2002-01-01

260

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

2006-10-10

261

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

2007-02-27

262

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

2006-09-19

263

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

2006-07-11

264

Directional Spherical Cherenkov Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed radiation-detecting apparatus would provide information on the kinetic energies, directions, and electric charges of highly energetic incident subatomic particles. The apparatus was originally intended for use in measuring properties of cosmic rays in outer space, but could also be adapted to terrestrial uses -- for example, radiation dosimetry aboard high-altitude aircraft and in proton radiation therapy for treatment of tumors.

Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

2010-01-01

265

Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells  

DOEpatents

The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

2010-05-04

266

Directional Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

1989-01-01

267

Direct conversion technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

1988-01-01

268

Direct imaging of exoplanets.  

PubMed

Most of the exoplanets known today have been discovered by indirect techniques, based on the study of the host star radial velocity or photometric temporal variations. These detections allowed the study of the planet populations in the first 5-8?AU from the central stars and have provided precious information on the way planets form and evolve at such separations. Direct imaging on 8-10?m class telescopes allows the detection of giant planets at larger separations (currently typically more than 5-10?AU) complementing the indirect techniques. So far, only a few planets have been imaged around young stars, but each of them provides an opportunity for unique dedicated studies of their orbital, physical and atmospheric properties and sometimes also on the interaction with the 'second-generation', debris discs. These few detections already challenge formation theories. In this paper, I present the results of direct imaging surveys obtained so far, and what they already tell us about giant planet (GP) formation and evolution. Individual and emblematic cases are detailed; they illustrate what future instruments will routinely deliver for a much larger number of stars. I also point out the limitations of this approach, as well as the needs for further work in terms of planet formation modelling. I finally present the progress expected in direct imaging in the near future, thanks in particular to forthcoming planet imagers on 8-10?m class telescopes. PMID:24664924

Lagrange, Anne-Marie

2014-04-28

269

Do Spins Have Directions?  

E-print Network

The standard Bloch sphere representation was recently generalized to the 'extended Bloch representation' describing not only systems of arbitrary dimension, but also their measurements. This model solves the measurement problem and is based on the 'hidden-measurement interpretation', according to which the Born rule results from our lack of knowledge about the interaction between measuring apparatus and the measured entity. We present here the extended Bloch model and use it to investigate the nature of quantum spin and its relation to our Euclidean space. We show that spin eigenstates cannot generally be associated with directions in the Euclidean space, but only with generalized directions in the Blochean space, which generally is a space of higher dimension. Hence, spin entities have to be considered as genuine non-spatial entities. We also show, however, that specific vectors can be identified in the Blochean theater that are isomorphic to the Euclidean space directions, and therefore representative of them, and that spin eigenstates always have a predetermined orientation with respect to them. We use the details of our results to put forward a new view of realism, that we call 'multiplex realism', providing a specific framework with which to interpret the human observations and understanding of the component parts of the world. Elements of reality can be represented in different theaters, one being our customary Euclidean space, and another one the quantum realm, revealed to us through our sophisticated experiments, whose elements of reality, in the quantum jargon, are the eigenvalues and eigenstates. Our understanding of the component parts of the world can then be guided by looking for the possible connections, in the form of partial morphisms, between the different representations, which is precisely what we do in this article with regard to spin entities.

Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi

2015-01-04

270

Roaming Robot: Give Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate angles and rotation as they act out a set of commands involving going forward, backward, and making left and right turns. The "Finder" leaves the room while others hide an object. The "Finder" returns, and learners take turns choosing “commands” to lead the "Finder" to the hidden object. The activity comes with “command” sheets at three different levels of difficulty, ranging from simple directions (e.g. take 1 step backwards) to variables (e.g. take __ steps backwards). Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

2012-06-26

271

Omni-directional railguns  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a device for electromagetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

Shahinpoor, M.

1994-12-31

272

Omni-directional railguns  

DOEpatents

A device is disclosed for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire. 4 figs.

Shahinpoor, M.

1995-07-25

273

Omni-directional railguns  

DOEpatents

A device for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

Shahinpoor, Mohsen (9521 Avenida Del Oso NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1995-01-01

274

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation. Using these two reactivity descriptors, a surface PtCu3 alloy is proposed to have the best catalytic properties of the Pt–Cu model catalysts tested, similar to those of a Pt–Ru bulk alloy. To validate the model, experiments on a Pt(111) surface modified with different amounts of Cu adatoms are performed. Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts.

Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter A.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Koh, Shirlaine; Bae, Sang Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.; Strasser, Peter; Mavrikakis, Manos

2012-06-13

275

Growth directions of microstructures in directional solidification of crystalline materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In directional solidification, as the solidification velocity increases, the growth direction of cells or dendrites rotates from the direction of the thermal gradient to that of a preferred cristalline orientation. Meanwhile, their morphology varies with important implications for microsegregation. Here, we experimentally document the growth directions of these microstructures in a succinonitrile alloy in the whole accessible range of directions, velocities, and spacings. For this, we use a thin sample made of a single crystal on which the direction of the thermal gradient can be changed. This allows a fine monitoring of the misorientation angle between thermal gradient and preferred crystalline orientation. Data analysis shows evidence of an internal symmetry which traces back to a scale invariance of growth directions with respect to a Péclet number. This enables the identification of the relationship between growth directions and relevant variables, in fair agreement with experiment. Noticeable variations of growth directions with misorientation angles are evidenced and linked to a single parameter.

Deschamps, J.; Georgelin, M.; Pocheau, A.

2008-07-01

276

Growth directions of microstructures in directional solidification of crystalline materials.  

PubMed

In directional solidification, as the solidification velocity increases, the growth direction of cells or dendrites rotates from the direction of the thermal gradient to that of a preferred cristalline orientation. Meanwhile, their morphology varies with important implications for microsegregation. Here, we experimentally document the growth directions of these microstructures in a succinonitrile alloy in the whole accessible range of directions, velocities, and spacings. For this, we use a thin sample made of a single crystal on which the direction of the thermal gradient can be changed. This allows a fine monitoring of the misorientation angle between thermal gradient and preferred crystalline orientation. Data analysis shows evidence of an internal symmetry which traces back to a scale invariance of growth directions with respect to a Péclet number. This enables the identification of the relationship between growth directions and relevant variables, in fair agreement with experiment. Noticeable variations of growth directions with misorientation angles are evidenced and linked to a single parameter. PMID:18763966

Deschamps, J; Georgelin, M; Pocheau, A

2008-07-01

277

Direct dark matter detection: The diurnal variation in directional experiments  

E-print Network

We present some theoretical results relevant to the direct dark matter detection experiments, paying particular attention to directional experiments, i.e. experiments in which, not only the energy but the direction of the recoiling nucleus is observed. In directional experiments the detection rate depends on the angle between the line observation and the sun's direction of motion. Since, however, the direction of observation is fixed with respect the earth, while the Earth is rotating around its axis, in a directional experiment the angle between the direction of observation and the Sun's direction of motion will change during the day. So the observed signal in such experiments will exhibit a very interesting and characteristic periodic diurnal variation.

Vergados, J D

2010-01-01

278

Remote direct memory access  

DOEpatents

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

279

Piezoelectric direct drive servovalve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-stage servovalve using direct piezoelectric actuator drive is described. The single-stage servovalve design offers higher bandwidth than conventional two-stage valves. It takes advantage of the high energy density in piezoelectric materials while addressing the need for internal amplification of stroke. When used alone, the valve can regulate pressure, and when used in combination with a hydraulic output device it forms part of an effective servohydraulic actuator. Development of a direct drive prototype valve is described. Discussion includes design issues related to low stroke smart material actuators such as piezoelectrics. Component and subsystem testing and results are reviewed. Electronic drive and control of the piezoelectric and overall device along with performance in the control of fluid flow is discussed. The value of the new servovalve is shown in the combination of the valve with a hydraulic output device. Data are supplied for this servohydraulic actuator. The new actuator shows promise for a motion simulator application and more generally for motion control at higher bandwidth than is possible with currently available servohydraulics.

Lindler, Jason E.; Anderson, Eric H.

2002-07-01

280

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

281

NON-DIRECTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY  

PubMed Central

Psychotherapy is a word to describe an age-old process. It would be better not to speak of psychotherapy, but of psychotherapies. Specialists are not the only ones who act as psychotherapists, since every human being fills this role at one time or another. Besides this, no two persons follow an identical approach. Finally, all therapists change technique constantly. The kinds of psychotherapy must therefore approach infinity. Some physicians appear to assume that only one type of psychotherapy may claim a scientific basis. Although Freud first put psychotherapy on a scientific path, there is no reason to say that Freud must be the last in this field. Over the past few years a new trend has started in psychotherapy which deserves close study. This new trend challenges some old beliefs and gives a new tool to help patients of some types. It is called non-directive or client-centered psychotherapy. This therapy does not try to solve the patient's problems for him, but rather establishes the conditions under which a patient can work out his own salvation. Each year non-directive psychotherapy grows in importance. Much can be learned from the method. PMID:14778014

Smith, Lloyd F.

1950-01-01

282

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

2008-01-15

283

Performance of Methanol Oxidation Catalysts with Varying Pt:Ru Ratio as a Function of Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effects of varying the Pt to Ru ratio in carbon-supported catalysts for methanol oxidation as a function of temperature. Previously these effects were studied in isolation, but now it is shown that the composition of a given catalyst as a function of temperature is extremely important for its activity towards methanol oxidation. Platinum rich 3:2 atomic

A. J. Dickinson; L. P. L. Carrette; J. A. Collins; K. A. Friedrich; U. Stimming

2004-01-01

284

Carbon Support Effects on Bimetallic Pt-Ru Nanoparticles Formed from Molecular Precursors  

E-print Network

supported on several carbons (carbon black, fullerene soot, and desulfurized carbon black). The bimetallic on the fullerene soot support. Interactions between Ru and low-Z atoms are revealed through XANES, which, taken bimetallic particle catalysts. The control of the particle size distribution obtained in this way is quite

Frenkel, Anatoly

285

Directed Polymerase Evolution  

PubMed Central

Polymerases evolved in nature to synthesize DNA and RNA, and they underlie the storage and flow of genetic information in all cells. The availability of these enzymes for use at the bench has driven a revolution in biotechnology and medicinal research; however, polymerases did not evolve to function efficiently under the conditions required for some applications and their high substrate fidelity precludes their use for most applications that involve modified substrates. To circumvent these limitations, researchers have turned to directed evolution to tailor the properties and/or substrate repertoire of polymerases for different applications, and several systems have been developed for this purpose. These systems draw on different methods of creating a pool of randomly mutated polymerases and are differentiated by the process used to isolate the most fit members. A variety of polymerases have been evolved, providing new or improved functionality, as well as interesting new insight into the factors governing activity. PMID:24211837

Chen, Tingjian; Romesberg, Floyd E.

2014-01-01

286

Modelling directional solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long range goal is to develop an improved understanding of phenomena of importance to directional solidification, to enable explanation and prediction of differences in behavior between solidification on Earth and in space. Emphasis during the period of this grant was on experimentally determining the influence of convection and freezing rate fluctuations on compositional homogeneity and crystalline perfection in the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. Heater temperature profiles, buoyancy-driven convection, and doping inhomogeneties were correlated using naphthalene doped with azulene. In addition the influence of spin-up/spin-down on compositional homogeneity and microstructure of indium gallium antimonide and the effect of imposed melting-freezing cycles on indium gallium antimonide are discussed.

Wilcox, William R.

1990-01-01

287

Site directed recombination  

DOEpatents

Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

Jurka, Jerzy W. (Los Altos, CA)

1997-01-01

288

Advance directives and dementia.  

PubMed

Since the 1990 Patient Self-Determination Act, increasing numbers of adults are completing advance directives (ADs), but unfortunately many adults seen in a dementia evaluation program have not completed an AD. This article discusses the issue of individuals with dementia completing ADs. Situational factors that frame this issue are the stage of dementia, degree of certainty of an individual's wishes for end-of-life care, the decision-making act required by care providers, and the degree of contentment or distress experienced by an individual with dementia. Several investigators have demonstrated successful completion of ADs by individuals with mild and moderate dementia. A nurse's knowledge about the stages of dementia is essential to helping an individual through the AD decision-making process. Nurses caring for individuals with dementia should assess decision-making context; recognize the emotions of family, friends, and staff; understand the substance and logic of AD requests; and support individuals and their decisions. PMID:11883496

Rempusheski, V F; Hurley, A C

2000-10-01

289

Directional Antineutrino Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the first event-by-event directional antineutrino detector using inverse beta decay (IBD) interactions on hydrogen, with potential applications including monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation, spatially mapping geoneutrinos, characterizing the diffuse supernova neutrino background and searching for new physics in the neutrino sector. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and capture scintillator planes. IBD events take place in the target layers, which are thin enough to allow the neutrons to escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker boron-loaded capture layers. The location of the IBD event and the momentum of the positron are determined by tracking the positron's trajectory through the detector. Our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could be built with existing technology.

Safdi, Benjamin R.; Suerfu, Burkhant

2015-02-01

290

Directional Antineutrino Detection  

E-print Network

We propose the first truly directional antineutrino detector for antineutrinos above the hydrogen inverse beta decay (IBD) threshold, with potential applications including monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation, spatially mapping geo-neutrinos, characterizing the diffuse supernova neutrino background, and searching for new physics in the neutrino sector. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and capture scintillator planes. IBD events take place in the target layers, which are thin enough to allow the neutrons to escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker, boron-loaded capture layers. The location of the IBD event and the momentum of the positron are determined by tracking the positron's trajectory through the detector. Our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could be built with existing technology.

Benjamin R. Safdi; Burkhant Suerfu

2014-10-30

291

Directional antineutrino detection.  

PubMed

We propose the first event-by-event directional antineutrino detector using inverse beta decay (IBD) interactions on hydrogen, with potential applications including monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation, spatially mapping geoneutrinos, characterizing the diffuse supernova neutrino background and searching for new physics in the neutrino sector. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and capture scintillator planes. IBD events take place in the target layers, which are thin enough to allow the neutrons to escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker boron-loaded capture layers. The location of the IBD event and the momentum of the positron are determined by tracking the positron's trajectory through the detector. Our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could be built with existing technology. PMID:25763953

Safdi, Benjamin R; Suerfu, Burkhant

2015-02-20

292

Speech research directions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the current activities in speech research. The authors discuss the state of the art in speech coding, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition. In the speech coding area, current algorithms perform well at bit rates down to 9.6 kb/s, and the research is directed at bringing the rate for high-quality speech coding down to 2.4 kb/s. In text-to-speech synthesis, what we currently are able to produce is very intelligible but not yet completely natural. Current research aims at providing higher quality and intelligibility to the synthetic speech that these systems produce. Finally, today's systems for speech and speaker recognition provide excellent performance on limited tasks; i.e., limited vocabulary, modest syntax, small talker populations, constrained inputs, etc.

Atal, B.S.; Rabiner, L.R.

1986-09-01

293

Fiber optic TV direct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the operational television (OTV) technology was to develop a multiple camera system (up to 256 cameras) for NASA Kennedy installations where camera video, synchronization, control, and status data are transmitted bidirectionally via a single fiber cable at distances in excess of five miles. It is shown that the benefits (such as improved video performance, immunity from electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference, elimination of repeater stations, and more system configuration flexibility) can be realized if application of the proven fiber optic transmission concept is used. The control system will marry the lens, pan and tilt, and camera control functions into a modular based Local Area Network (LAN) control network. Such a system does not exist commercially at present since the Television Broadcast Industry's current practice is to divorce the positional controls from the camera control system. The application software developed for this system will have direct applicability to similar systems in industry using LAN based control systems.

Kassak, John E.

1991-01-01

294

Direct Georeferencing of Uavs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UAV systems have become an attractive data acquisition platform in emerging applications. As measuring instrument they extend the lineup of possible surveying methods in the field of geomatics. However, most of UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as GPS or INS, allowing a positioning accuracy of 3 to 5 m. As a result the acquired position- and orientation data fea- tures a low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level (e.g. direct georeferencing). In this paper we will analyze the potential of differential post-processing of GPS data from UAV in order to im- prove the positioning accuracy for applications basing on direct georeferencing. Subsequently, the obtained results are compared and verified with a track of the octocopter carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GPS data acquisition. The results show that the differential post-processing essentially improved the accuracy of the Falcon position data. Thereby the average offset be- tween the data sets (GPS data, track) and the corresponding standard deviation is 0.82 m and 0.45 m, respectively. However, under ideal conditions it is even possible to improve this positioning accuracy to the cm-range. Furthermore, there are still several sources of error such as the offset between the GPS antenna of the Falcon 8 and the prism which is used for the track. Considering this fact there is further room for improvement regarding the here discussed positioning method.

Bláha, M.; Eisenbeiss, H.; Grimm, D.; Limpach, P.

2011-09-01

295

Rank and directional entropy Rank and directional entropy  

E-print Network

Rank and directional entropy Rank and directional entropy E. Arthur (Robbie) Robinson (Joint work with Ayse Sahin) The George Washington University Talk at KIAS, Seoul, Korea. September 27, 2010 #12;Rank and directional entropy Outline 1 Introduction 2 Finite rank, Z case 3 The formal definition 4 The Z2 case 5

Robinson Jr., E. Arthur (Robbie)

296

Cognitively-inspired direction giving  

E-print Network

Online mapping services and portable GPS units make it easy to get very detailed driving directions. While these directions are sufficient for an automaton to follow, they do not present a big picture description of the ...

Look, Gary Wai Keung, 1978-

2008-01-01

297

Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started  

MedlinePLUS

... Getting Started State by State Info FAQs Educational Webcasts Links Current Research In the News Legal Issues ... How to write a Psychiatric Advance Directive?" View webcast (15:04) What are Psychiatric Advance Directives? View ...

298

Nanoparticulate Cellular Patches for Cell-Mediated Tumoritropic Delivery  

E-print Network

The targeted delivery of therapeutics to tumors remains an important challenge in cancer nanomedicine. Attaching nanoparticles to cells that have tumoritropic migratory properties is a promising modality to address this ...

Cheng, Hao

299

Hydrogen electrocatalysts from microwave-synthesised nanoparticulate carbides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is presented of the electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide synthesised using microwave carburisation with that synthesised by furnace heating. Based on the resulting particle size, phase composition, passivity against corrosion and electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions, microwave synthesis appears to be a simple heating procedure which can be carried out more rapidly than conventional

E. J. Rees; K. Essaki; C. D. A. Brady; G. T. Burstein

2009-01-01

300

Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective.  

PubMed

Homeopathy is controversial because medicines in high potencies such as 30c and 200c involve huge dilution factors (10?? and 10??? respectively) which are many orders of magnitude greater than Avogadro's number, so that theoretically there should be no measurable remnants of the starting materials. No hypothesis which predicts the retention of properties of starting materials has been proposed nor has any physical entity been shown to exist in these high potency medicines. Using market samples of metal-derived medicines from reputable manufacturers, we have demonstrated for the first time by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), the presence of physical entities in these extreme dilutions, in the form of nanoparticles of the starting metals and their aggregates. PMID:20970092

Chikramane, Prashant Satish; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Bellare, Jayesh Ramesh; Kane, Shantaram Govind

2010-10-01

301

SEM evaluation of nanoparticulate silver penetration into dentine collagen matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study a novel approach to caries management based on the application of nanoparticles of different nature to increase the mineral phase of demineralized dentin has been developed. Silver nanoparticles have been tested as a material for dentine matrix infiltration. Research findings clearly show that collagen fibers of demineralized dentine could be considered as a scaffold for mineral component delivery and the place where mineral growth can occur.

Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Venig, Sergey B.

2014-01-01

302

Paclitaxel loaded PEGylated gleceryl monooleate based nanoparticulate carriers in chemotherapy.  

PubMed

A PEGylated drug delivery system of paclitaxel (PTX), based on glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was prepared by optimizing various parameters to explore its potential in anticancer therapy. The prepared system was characterized through polarized light microscopy, TEM, AFM and SAXS to reveal its liquid crystalline nature. As GMO based LCNPs exhibit high hemolytic toxicity and faster release of entrapped drug (66.2 ± 2.5% in 24 h), PEGylation strategy was utilized to increase the hemocompatibility (reduction in hemolysis from 60.3 ± 10.2 to 4.4 ± 1.3%) and control the release of PTX (43.6 ± 3.2% released in 24 h). The cytotoxic potential and cellular uptake was assessed in MCF-7 cell lines. Further, biodistribution studies were carried out in EAT (Ehrlich Ascites tumor) bearing mice using (99m)Tc-(Technetium radionuclide) labeled formulations and an enhanced circulation time and tumor accumulation (14 and 8 times, respectively) were observed with PEGylated carriers over plain ones, at 24 h. Finally, tumor growth inhibition experiment was performed and after 15 days, control group exhibited 15 times enhancement in tumor volume, while plain and PEGylated systems exhibited only 8 and 4 times enhancement, respectively, as compared to initial tumor volume. The results suggest that PEGylation enhances the hemocompatibility and efficacy of GMO based system that may serve as an efficient i.v. delivery vehicle for paclitaxel. PMID:22809646

Jain, Vikas; Swarnakar, Nitin K; Mishra, Prabhat R; Verma, Ashwni; Kaul, Ankur; Mishra, Anil K; Jain, Narendra K

2012-10-01

303

Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al(4)C(3)) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al(4)C(3). Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al(4)C(3) also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials. PMID:22571898

Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

2012-06-01

304

Photoproduction of iodine with nanoparticulate semiconductors and insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structures of different forms of TiO2 and those of BaTiO3, ZnO, SnO2, WO3, CuO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, ZrO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles have been deduced by powder X-ray diffraction. Their optical edges have been obtained by UV-visible diffuse\\u000a reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activities of these oxides and also those of SiO2 and SiO2 porous to oxidize iodide ion have been

Chockalingam Karunakaran; Premkumar Anilkumar; Paramasivan Gomathisankar

2011-01-01

305

Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially

Karla Fabiola Soto

2007-01-01

306

Photodegradation of Lecithin Liposomes by Nanoparticulate Titanium Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecithin liposomes were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected?area electron diffraction (SAED), IR, and GC?MS. Results indicate that titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles can gain access into lecithin liposomes during sonication and the lecithin liposomes can be effectively decomposed upon illumination with near?UV light.

Aihua Zou; Qiang Gu; Jing Wang; Chunwei Yuan; Rong Guo

2003-01-01

307

Thick film magnetic nanoparticulate composites and method of manufacture thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thick film magnetic/insulating nanocomposite materials, with significantly reduced core loss, and their manufacture are described. The insulator coated magnetic nanocomposite comprises one or more magnetic components, and an insulating component. The magnetic component comprises nanometer scale particles (about 1 to about 100 nanometers) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase. While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase provides the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides high resistivity, which reduces eddy current loss.

Ma, Xinqing (Inventor); Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Ge, Shihui (Inventor); Zhang, Zongtao (Inventor); Yan, Dajing (Inventor); Xiao, Danny T. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

308

Photoproduction of iodine with nanoparticulate semiconductors and insulators  

PubMed Central

The crystal structures of different forms of TiO2 and those of BaTiO3, ZnO, SnO2, WO3, CuO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, ZrO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles have been deduced by powder X-ray diffraction. Their optical edges have been obtained by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activities of these oxides and also those of SiO2 and SiO2 porous to oxidize iodide ion have been determined and compared. The relationships between the photocatalytic activities of the studied oxides and the illumination time, wavelength of illumination, concentration of iodide ion, airflow rate, photon flux, pH, etc., have been obtained. Use of acetonitrile as medium favors the photogeneration of iodine. PMID:21679411

2011-01-01

309

NOVEL NANOPARTICULATE CATALYSTS FOR IMPROVED VOC TREATMENT DEVICES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Catalytic oxidation of VOCs is increasingly used for treatment of large-volume emissions at relatively dilute VOC levels. The best performing catalytic oxidation devices for attainment of very high VOC destruction levels employ precious metal catalysts, the costs of which a...

310

Californidfsdfsdfsdfa OMNI-DIRECTIONAL LED  

E-print Network

Californidfsdfsdfsdfa OMNI-DIRECTIONAL LED REPLACEMENT LAMP PERFORMANCE TESTING FINAL REPORT #12 .....................................................................................................................................................9 A-LAMP LED MARKET EVALUATION

California at Davis, University of

311

Magnetostrictive direct drive motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1991-01-01

312

Diffusion and Directed Movement  

PubMed Central

Fission yeast Pkl1 is a kinesin-14A family member that is known to be localized at the cellular spindle and is capable of hydrolyzing ATP. However, its motility has not been detected. Here, we show that Pkl1 is a slow, minus end-directed microtubule motor with a maximum velocity of 33 ± 9 nm/s. The Km,MT value of steady-state ATPase activity of Pkl1 was as low as 6.4 ± 1.1 nm, which is 20–30 times smaller than that of kinesin-1 and another kinesin-14A family member, Ncd, indicating a high affinity of Pkl1 for microtubules. However, the duty ratio of 0.05 indicates that Pkl1 spends only a small fraction of the ATPase cycle strongly associated with a microtubule. By using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that single molecules of Pkl1 were not highly processive but only exhibited biased one-dimensional diffusion along microtubules, whereas several molecules of Pkl1, probably fewer than 10 molecules, cooperatively moved along microtubules and substantially reduced the diffusive component in the movement. Our results suggest that Pkl1 molecules work in groups to move and generate forces in a cooperative manner for their mitotic functions. PMID:18984586

Furuta, Ken'ya; Edamatsu, Masaki; Maeda, Yurina; Toyoshima, Yoko Y.

2008-01-01

313

New Directions in Biotechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

2003-01-01

314

Multiple direction vibration fixture  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis. 1 fig.

Cericola, F.; Doggett, J.W.; Ernest, T.L.; Priddy, T.G.

1990-03-21

315

Coatings for directional eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

1976-01-01

316

Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

2011-01-01

317

Multiple direction vibration fixture  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

Cericola, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Doggett, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Ernest, Terry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Rockville, MD)

1991-01-01

318

Social entrepreneurship and direct marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To assist the social entrepreneur with direct marketing decision, the authors examine the relationship between the risks and costs associated with direct marketing for non-profit organizations. This is done by developing and presenting a framework centered on two uncertainty factors – the cost to implement a direct marketing solution and control over (e.g. ability to manage) resources. A

Michael L. Mallin; Todd A. Finkle

2007-01-01

319

Directed vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the invention, design, construction, experimental evaluation and modeling of a new physical vapor deposition technique (U.S. Patent #5,534,314) for high rate, efficient deposition of refractory elements, alloys, and compounds onto flat or curved surfaces. The new Directed Vapor Deposition (DVD) technique examined in this dissertation was distinct from previous physical vapor deposition techniques because it used low vacuum electron beam (e-beam) evaporation in combination with a carrier gas stream to transport and vapor spray deposit metals, ceramics, and semiconducting materials. Because of the system's unique approach to vapor phase materials processing, detailed analyses of critical concepts (e.g. the e-beam accelerating voltage and power required for evaporation, the vacuum pumping capacity necessary to generate specific gas flow velocities exiting a nozzle) were used to reduce to practice a functioning materials synthesis tool. After construction, the ability to create low contamination films of pure metals, semi-conducting materials, and compounds via this new method was demonstrated, and oxide deposition using an oxygen-doped gas stream in combination with a pure metal evaporant source was shown to be feasible. DVD vapor transport characteristics were experimentally investigated with deposition chamber pressure, carrier gas type, and e-beam power being identified as major processing parameters which affected vapor atom trajectories. The low vacuum carrier gas streams employed in DVD showed a dramatic ability to focus the vapor stream during transport to the substrate and thereby enhance material deposition rates and efficiencies significantly under certain process conditions. Conditions for maximum deposition efficiency onto flat substrates and continuous fibers were experimentally identified by varying chamber pressure, carrier gas velocity (Mach number), and e-beam power. Deposition efficiencies peaked at about 0.5 Torr when coating flat or fibrous substrates. Higher Mach numbers led to higher efficiencies below the efficiency peak, but above the peak this Mach number trend reversed. Increasing e-beam power decreased the magnitude of the deposition efficiency peak and shifted it to higher chamber pressures. Fiber coating experiments revealed a maximum deposition efficiency over twice the level expected for pure line-of-sight deposition, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that, for conditions of maximum efficiency, vapor was depositing simultaneously on the front of the fiber facing the incoming vapor and on the fiber's sides and back. The vapor transport and deposition trends appeared to result from vapor atom collisions with gas atoms in the carrier flow, collisions which affected vapor atom form (single atom or clusters), location in the flow, and interaction with the substrate (leading to line and non-line-of-sight coating). Atomic vapor transport in DVD was investigated using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods and biatomic collision theory (BCT). For atoms transported to a flat surface perpendicular to the vapor-laden carrier gas stream, the velocity vector during transport and impact location were calculated, making possible determination of adatom deposition efficiency, spatial distribution, impact energy, and incident angle with the substrate. Model results compared favorably with random walk predictions, independent experimental data of sputter atom energy loss, and low e-beam power experimental results. The model suggested that the atoms deposited in a DVD process had a low impact energy (< 0.1 eV) and a broad incident angular distribution with the substrate. The DSMC and BCT models were used to design an improved DVD system with significantly enhanced deposition efficiency.

Groves, James Frederick

320

78 FR 32533 - Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit, Go Direct, and Direct Express Sign-Up Forms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection of Information: Direct Deposit, Go Direct, and Direct Express Sign-Up Forms...Deposit Sign-Up Form'', Form 1200 ``Go Direct Sign-Up Form for Direct Deposit...Title: Direct Deposit Sign-Up Form, and Go Direct Sign-Up Form, and Direct...

2013-05-30

321

NeoModus: Direct Connect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Direct Connect is an online file-sharing community. The important feature in Direct Connect is that there is no main data center or master server. The users themselves provide the network architecture. Direct Connect software has two modules - the client and the hub. You can use the Direct Connect client to download files from other users in the Direct Connect network. The hub allows you to share multiple directories from your local and mapped directories with other users. Direct Connect has a user-friendly interface which provides integrated searching, graphical navigation of files, and public and private chatting. It can also be set to shut down automatically after all transfers have been completed. Direct Connect client and hub are available for download from the site. Please note that this program is advertiser supported and some non-personally identifiable information is collected. Concerned users should consult the site's privacy policy.

322

New directions at NSF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission and scope of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and lightwave technology will be very briefly discussed. The focus of the presentation will be directed toward changes in research support that are taking place and the opportunities we have for aiming our research to meet the challenges and needs that face the nation. In the USA it is very clear that defense oriented research is downsizing and is being redirected into economy driven aresas, such as manufacturing, business, and industry. For those researchers who are willing to move into these areas and find a niche, the rewards may be very great. Industrial research partners should also seize these opportunities to enhance their resources in an otherwise bleak future for industrial support of basic research in lightwave technology and many other reserach disciplines. These activities of bringing together industry and academia will have the value added benefit of providing increased job opportunities for students. An outline of some of these opportunities and incentives will be presented. On the international front, there has never been a better time for the encouragement of joint research and collaboration across borders. The economic potential for involvement in Eastern Europe and Asia are enormous. Agencies like ourselves are open to help support of visiting scientist/engineer exchange, international conferences and forums and support of innovative ideas to help further enhance economic developemnt of the world and hence the quality of life. The presence of the Russian delegation here at these SPIE meetings in in part the result of NSF support. Concomitant with these changes is a growing interest in education. Academia is gradually realizing that education includes training for students to acquire jobs and hence we complete the cycle of the importance of interacting with industry. At the NSF a major new initiative is being introduced in Optical Science and Engineering (OSE). This effort has been created as an outgrowth of the NRC study being conducted in parallel under the same name. OSE is based on the fact that optics is a very interdisciplinary area and special emphasis on the interface between the relevant areas is where the action is. Lightwave technology and the implementation of organic materials to optoelectronic applications is clearly an area which has tremendous potential for economic impact and it fits the criteria for the OSE initiative. It is also exciting, challenging, and personally rewarding. But organic materials have been promising for quite some time and some are getting impatient. To provide credibility to those who support this research (governement, idustry, etc.), we must turn our attention to ways in which we can accelerate the transition from the laboratory discovery to the consumer. In this way everyone will become a winner.

Harvey, Albert B.

1995-10-01

323

Electrochemical and XRD characterization of platinum-ruthenium blacks for DMFC anodes.  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that Pt-Ru alloy catalysts with an atomic Pt-to-Ru ratio of 1:1 generate the best anode perform'ance in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFG). However, at near-ambient cell operating temperatures, Gasteiger et al. reported that a catalyst with significantly lower Ru content, {approx} 10 at %, offers the highest activity towards methanol. Recently, Dinh et al. demonstrated that the activity of different Pt-Ru catalysts with the same Pt-to-Ru atomic ratio in the bulk might vary depending on the actual surface composition, which is often significantly different from that in the bulk phase, In this work, we study several experimental Pt-Ru catalysts (Johnson Matthey) with Pt-to-Ru atomic ratio ranging from 9: 1 to 1 :2. Electrocatalytic activity of these catalysts in methanol oxidation reaction is investigated in a regular DMFC 'and probed using voltammetric stripping of surhce CO.

Eickes, C. (Christian); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Purdy, G. M. (Geraldine M.); Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Morita, T. (Takanari); Thompsett, D. (David)

2002-01-01

324

The Influence of Directional Associations on Directed Forgetting and Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined how cross-list directional associations influenced list-method directed forgetting and the degree of interference observed on each list. Each List 1 item had a (a) bidirectionally related item on List 2 (chip ?? potato), (b) forward association with an item on List 2 (chip ? wood), (c) backward association from an item on…

Sahakyan, Lili; Goodmon, Leilani B.

2007-01-01

325

Introduction Direct seeding, also known as direct sowing, is  

E-print Network

woodland creation (I. Willoughby, R.L. Jinks, G., Kerr and P.G. Gosling, unpublished). It was con- cluded, Willoughby (2002) suggests total overall herbicide inputs may be lower in direct seeded woodland due of broadleaved species used for direct seeding IAN WILLOUGHBY1, DAVID CLAY2 AND FIONA DIXON2 1 Forest Research

326

Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal  

SciTech Connect

Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.

Green, Anne M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ben [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

327

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOEpatents

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14

328

Directed Discovery of Crystal Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

David Mogk and Kent Ratajeski Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT Published Jan. 25, 2005 Description This contribution is modified from a published exercise "Directed ...

329

Epidemic threshold in directed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ? as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold ?c for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/?1 in directed networks, where ?1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ?. The effect of ? on the spectral radius ?1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (?1-?2), and algebraic connectivity ?N-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius ?1 decreases with the directionality ?, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ?. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ?D. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

2013-12-01

330

Directional drilling azimuth control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downhole anchor assembly is described for absorbing reaction torque from a downhole mud motor in a directional drill string so as to minimize azimuthal deviation from such reaction torque, the anchor assembly comprising: an elongated, generally cylindrical housing having upper and lower ends with tool joints thereon for coupling the body into a directional drill string and having a

Cheek

1986-01-01

331

Direct Adaptive Generalized Predictive Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the direct approach of adaptive generalized predictive control. An implicit model With control law parameters is developed. A direct adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm and an improved variant are suggested. Global convergence of the algorithms is analyzed under some assumptions.

Wei Wang; Rolf Henriksen

1992-01-01

332

Solution Directed Backjumping for QCSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present new techniques for improving backtracking based Quantified Constraint Satisfaction Problem (QCSP) solvers. QCSP is a generalization of CSP in which variables are either universally or existentia lly quantified and these quantifiers can be alternated in arbitrary ways. Our m ain new technique is solution directed backjumping (SBJ). In analogue to confl ict directed backjumping, SBJ

Fahiem Bacchus; Kostas Stergiou

2007-01-01

333

Direct Marketing Goes to College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The only form of marketing important to an admissions department, direct marketing, whose principal vehicle is direct mail, is identified as an organized method for sharing and distributing information to prospective students. Target audiences, marketing administration, and effective mailings are discussed. (MLW)

Merante, Joseph A.

1980-01-01

334

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

Directional Transmission for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication on Mobile Sys- tems Hasan Huseyin DumanliRICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ON MOBILE SYSTEMS by Hasan Huseyin Dumanli A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS

Zhong, Lin

335

Statically balanced direct drive manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical architecture, using a four-bar-linkage, is cgnsidered for the University of Minnesota direct drive robot (8). This statically- balanced direct drive robot has been constructed for stability analysis of the robot in constrained manipulation (5 -7). As a result of the elimination of the gravity forces (without any counter weights), smaller actuators and consequently smaller amplifiers were chosen. The

H. Kazerooni; S. Kim

1989-01-01

336

Optically broadcasting wind direction indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optically broadcasting wind direction indicator generates flashes of light which are separated by a time interval that is directly proportional to the angle of the wind direction relative to a fixed direction, such as north. An angle/voltage transducer generates a voltage that is proportional to the wind direction relative to the fixed direction, and this voltage is employed by timing circuitry or a microprocessor that generates pulses for actuating a light source trigger circuit first at the start of the time interval, and then at the end of the time interval. To aid an observer in distinguishing between the beginning and end of the interval, two stop flashes can be provided in quick succession. The time scale is preferably chosen so that each second of the time interval corresponds to 30 deg of direction relative to north. In this manner, an observer can easily correlate the measured time interval to the wind direction by visualizing the numbers on a conventional clock face, each of which correspond to one second of time and 30 deg of angle.

Zysko, Jan A. (inventor)

1994-01-01

337

Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct

Thaheem, A. B.

2005-01-01

338

Directivity function of muon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new concept of directivity function (DF) to describe directional sensitivity of a particle detector. DF is ? 3D function, describing the sensitivity of a detector to asymptotic directions of primary protons. It defines the contribution of primary protons, arriving from different asymptotic directions to the count rate of the detector. We develop the approach for computing the DF and derive it in particular case of SEVAN muon detector, located at mount Aragats, Armenia. Obtained data enable one to outline the region of solid angles, inside of which the arriving protons contribute a given percentage of count rate. In general, the DF can have the multi peak shape. It provides the most detailed and accurate description of directional sensitivity of a particle detector and we suggest that it is used in space research based on neutron and muon detectors.

Karapetyan, G. G.

2015-02-01

339

Direct catastrophic injury in sports.  

PubMed

Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes. PMID:16272269

Boden, Barry P

2005-11-01

340

Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas  

SciTech Connect

Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-20

341

Comparison of Principal Diffusion Directions Using Directional Statistics  

E-print Network

differences in mean direction were found, at FDR = 0.2, at the anterior confluence of the corona radiata, the corona radiata extends more anteriorly than in controls ­ may relate to gross white matter differences

Dougherty, Bob

342

Potential Theory for Directed Networks  

PubMed Central

Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii) We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation. PMID:23408979

Zhang, Qian-Ming; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Tao

2013-01-01

343

Directional fast-neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

344

2008 world direct reduction statistics  

SciTech Connect

This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

NONE

2009-07-01

345

Offshoring and Directed Technical Change  

E-print Network

To study the short-run and long-run implications on wage inequality, we introduce directed technical change into a Ricardian model of offshoring. A unique final good is produced by combining a skilled and an unskilled ...

Acemoglu, Daron

2012-11-24

346

Direct Detectors for Electron Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is interest in improving the detectors used to capture images in transmission electron microscopy. Detectors with an improved modulation transfer function at high spatial frequencies allow for higher resolution in images at lower magnification, which leads to an increased effective field of view. Detectors with improved detective quantum efficiency are important for low dose applications. One way in which these performance enhancements can be achieved is through direct detection, where primary electrons are converted directly into suitable electrical signals by the detector rather than relying on an indirect electron to photon conversion before detection. In this paper we present the characterisation of detector performance for a number of different direct detection technologies, and compare these technologies to traditional indirect detectors. Overall our results show that direct detection enables a significant improvement in all aspects of detector performance.

Clough, R. N.; Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A. I.

2014-06-01

347

Directional impedance of geared transmissions  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to develop a design tool for geared actuation systems that experience bidirectional exchange of energy with the environment. Despite the asymmetry of efficiency depending on the direction ...

Wang, Albert Duan

2012-01-01

348

THE DIRECTION OF LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUMIJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previous paper (LANGLEY, TOBARI and KOJIMA 1974) reports that the directional linkage disequilibria, D = P,,PUb -P,,,bPaB, tend to be negative for data between allozymes and linked to inversions. A and B stand for the two alleles with the greatest frequency in the population. In this paper we show that linkage disequilibrium in this direction is produced at equilibrium

CHARLES H. LANGLEY; JAMES F. CROW

349

Direct nuclear-powered lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

Jalufka, N. W.

1983-01-01

350

Directional microwave applicator and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

351

Nuclear astrophysics from direct reactions  

E-print Network

Accurate nuclear reaction rates are needed for primordial nucleosynthesis and hydrostatic burning in stars. The relevant reactions are extremely difficult to measure directly in the laboratory at the small astrophysical energies. In recent years direct reactions have been developed and applied to extract low-energy astrophysical S-factors. These methods require a combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical efforts, which are the subject of this presentation.

C. A. Bertulani

2009-01-22

352

Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets  

SciTech Connect

Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

Agapov, Rebecca L [ORNL] [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL] [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL] [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL] [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

353

The underachieving advance directive: recommendations for increasing advance directive completion.  

PubMed

Advance directives have failed to achieve a substantial completion rate nationwide despite prior efforts. We hypothesize that the continued low completion rate itself inhibits their utility and application. In this commentary we recommend linking the completion of advance directives to the time when health insurance is initiated or renewed by amending the Patient Self Determination Act. This would relocate the time and locus of their completion from the emotional turmoil of hospital admission and acute illness to a more equanimous time when family and others can be consulted and involved. Moreover actuating increased utilization may require non-coercive incentives as well as education. Amending the Patient Self Determination Act to require providing advance directive forms at the initiation of healthcare insurance in conjunction with educational and/or incentives could be more effective than the current arrangements. PMID:12861997

Eiser, A R; Weiss, M D

2001-01-01

354

Numerical analysis of dynamic direct tension and direct compression tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive numerical analysis of direct tension and direct compression tests of plain concrete performed at strain rates between 1 and 10 to the 2nd power on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). The objective of this study was to investigate failure mechanisms in plain concrete specimens at high strain rates. Both an elastic and inelastic concrete material model were employed in all numerical analyses. The modes of failure predicted by the numerical analyses are consistent with those observed in experimental studies. In all instances, the mode of failure was significantly influenced by the rate of loading.

Tedesco, Joseph W.; Hughes, Mary L.; Oneil, Brian P.

1993-01-01

355

"Let Me Be Direct": Using Direct Assessments with Student Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary goal of assessment is to deliver truthful and clear information that can be used to inform and improve outcomes. Although there are multiple ways to achieve this goal, common approaches can be broken down into two major categories: (1) direct assessment; and (2) indirect assessment. Indirect assessment typically relies on general…

Lindsay, Nathan; Hourigan, Aimee; Smist, Jennifer; Wray, Larry

2013-01-01

356

The AISI direct steelmaking program  

SciTech Connect

After six months of operation of the pilot plant, the viability of in-bath smelting combined with a high level of post combustion has been demonstrated, and the opportunity exists for an early commercialization of the direct ironmaking part of the process while we continue to research direct steelmaking. The program should be of equal interest to integrated and electric furnace producers. Smelting of ore provides virgin iron units. Additionally, the process has the flexibility of melting scrap and varying the ore-to-scrap ratio over wide ranges. This process does not require coke, thus eliminating the cokemaking operation, a major source of environmental concern.

Aukrust, E. (LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Downing, K.B. (Inland Steel Flat Products Co. (United States))

1991-01-01

357

Fast Generators of Direct Photons  

E-print Network

Three fast generators of direct photons in the central rapidity region of high-energy heavy-ion collisions have been presented The generator of prompt photons is based on a tabulation of $p+p(\\bar p)$ data and binary scaling. Two generators of thermal direct photons, for hot hadron gas (HHG) and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) scenarios, assume the 1+1 Bjorken hydrodynamics. SPS and RHIC data can be fitted better by scenario with QGP. Predictions for the LHC energy have been made. The generators have been realized as macros for the ROOT analysis package.

S. M. Kiselev

2008-11-17

358

Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for financial aid counselors, this document provides guidelines to the Federal Direct Consolidation Loan Program for borrowers who are in school, as well as those in repayment, or in default. An introductory section explains the basics of the consolidated loan program, loan categories, and interest rates. Next, standards for borrower…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

359

Direct from CDC Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Direct from CDC Environmental Health Services Branch HilaryHeishman,M.P.H. CAPTAndrew-date and relevant information on envi ronmental health and to build partnerships in the profession. In pursuit of these goals, we feature a column from the Environmen tal Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers

360

Direct from CDC Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Direct from CDC Environmental Health Services Branch JeffreyS.Neistadt,M.S.,R.S. TimothyJ.Murphy,Ph.D.,R.E.H.S. Are We Really Saving Resources with Current Hiring Practices at Local Health Departments? Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up-to-date and relevant information on environmental health and to build

361

Direct from CDC Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Direct from CDC Environmental Health Services Branch KateWright,M.P.H.,Ed.D. Environmental Public Health Leadership Development Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up-to-date and relevant information on environmental health and to build part nerships in the profession. In pursuit of these goals, we feature

362

Direct from CDC Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Direct from CDC Environmental Health Services Branch Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up-to-date and relevant information on environmental health and to build part nerships in the profession. In pursuit of these goals, we feature a column from the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers

363

Direct view Holographic Autostereoscopic Displays  

E-print Network

@augustin.demon.co.uk We describe a new autostereoscopic display technology based on direct view Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). The display uses a composite HOE to control interlaced spatially multiplexed stereo images displayed on the LCD to provide an easy to viewed

Bowden, Richard

364

Direct photon results from CDF  

SciTech Connect

Results using isolated direct photons measured with the CDF detector during the 1992--1993 run of the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. Photon detection and background subtraction are described. Measurement of the inclusive photon cross section as well as photon-jet cross sections are discussed and compared to next-to-leading order QCD predictions.

CDF Collaboration

1993-08-01

365

Direct Measurement of Light Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic field of visible light performs ~1015 oscillations per second. Although many instruments are sensitive to the amplitude and frequency (or wavelength) of these oscillations, they cannot access the light field itself. We directly observed how the field built up and disappeared in a short, few-cycle pulse of visible laser light by probing the variation of the field strength

E. Goulielmakis; M. Uiberacker; R. Kienberger; A. Baltuska; V. Yakovlev; A. Scrinzi; Th. Westerwalbesloh; U. Kleineberg; U. Heinzmann; M. Drescher; F. Krausz

2004-01-01

366

Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

Larsen, Ronald L.

1998-01-01

367

Direction Cryptography in Quantum Communications  

E-print Network

We examine a situation in which an information-carrying signal is sent from two sources to a common receiver. The radiation travels through free space in the presence of noise. The information resides in a relationship between the two beams. We inquire into whether itis possible, in principle, that the locations of the transmitters can be concealed from a party who receives the radiation and decodes the information. Direction finding entails making a set of measurements on asignal and constructing an analytic continuation of the time dependent fields from the results. The fact that this process is generally different in quantum mechanics and in classical electrodynamics is the basis in this investigation. We develop a model based upon encoding information into a microscopic, transverse, non-local quantum image (whose dimensions are of the order of a few wavelengths) and using a detector of a type recently proposed by Strekalov et al. The optical system, which uses SPDC (Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion), functions like a Heisenberg microscope: the transverse length, which encodes the signal information, is conjugate to the transverse momentum of the light. In the model, reading the signal information spoils the directional resolution of the detector, while determining the directions to the sources spoils the information content. Each beam, when examined in isolation, is random and indistinguishable from the background noise. We conclude that quantum communications can, in principle, be made secure against direction-finding, even from the party receiving the communication.

Walter Simmons; Sandip Pakvasa

2003-02-28

368

Axiom directed Focusing long version  

E-print Network

Axiom directed Focusing long version Cl´ement Houtmann Universit´e Henri Poincar´e Nancy 1 & LORIA of computational and reasoning axioms. Although soundness is ensured, using superdeduction and deduction modulo that some hypotheses on the synchrony of reasoning axioms are verified. It implies that cut- elimination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

Oriented matrix promotes directional tubulogenesis.  

PubMed

Detailed control over the structural organization of scaffolds and engineered tissue constructs is a critical need in the quest to engineer functional tissues using biomaterials. This work presents a new approach to spatially direct endothelial tubulogenesis. Micropatterned fibronectin substrates were used to control lung fibroblast adhesion and growth and the subsequent deposition of fibroblast-derived matrix during culture. The fibroblast-derived matrix produced on the micropatterned substrates was tightly oriented by these patterns, with an average variation of only 8.5°. Further, regions of this oriented extracellular matrix provided directional control of developing endothelial tubes to within 10° of the original micropatterned substrate design. Endothelial cells seeded directly onto the micropatterned substrate did not form tubes. A metric for matrix anisotropy showed a relationship between the fibroblast-derived matrix and the endothelial tubes that were subsequently developed on the same micropatterns with a resulting aspect ratio over 1.5 for endothelial tubulogenesis. Micropatterns in "L" and "Y" shapes were used to direct endothelial tubes to turn and branch with the same level of precision. These data demonstrate that anisotropic fibroblast-derived matrices instruct the alignment and shape of endothelial tube networks, thereby introducing an approach that could be adapted for future design of microvascular implants featuring organ-specific natural matrix that patterns microvascular growth. PMID:25219769

Soucy, Patricia A; Hoh, Maria; Heinz, Will; Hoh, Jan; Romer, Lewis

2015-01-01

370

Competition for foreign direct investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models international competition for foreign direct investment as a common agency problem using the theory of menu auctions developed by Bernheim and Whinston. In the model, national governments act as principals and a multinational corporation as the single agent. Governments are assumed to maximize the net wage income generated by the corporation's investment. It is shown that in

Pertti Haaparanta

1996-01-01

371

Corruption and Foreign Direct Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI). First, the level of corruption in the host country is analyzed. Second, the absolute difference in the corruption level between the host and home country is examined. The analysis provides support for the negative impacts of both. The results suggest that foreign investors generally avoid corruption because it

Mohsin Habib; Leon Zurawicki

2002-01-01

372

Emacspeak—direct speech access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emacspeak is a full-fledged speech output inter- face to Emacs, and is being used to provide direct speech access to a UNIX workstation. The kind of speech access provided by Emacspeak is qual- itatively different from what conventional screen- readers provide —emacspeak makes applications speak— as opposed to speaking the screen. Emacspeak is the first full-fledged speech output system that

T. V. Raman

1996-01-01

373

Self directed and lifelong learning.  

PubMed

Given the many changes that occur in medicine, health care and information technologies we need to prepare all our students to engage in self directed and life long learning. There is considerable opportunity for self-directed and lifelong learning in health informatics bringing together students in exciting global learning environments, where they have much greater freedom and flexibility in their studies and potentially a wider variety of resources available to them. Self-directed learning focuses on the process by which adults take control of their own learning, in particular how they set their own learning goals, locate appropriate resources, decide on which learning methods to use and evaluate their progress. Lifelong learning happens in a variety of formal and informal settings building on both intentional and incidental learning experiences. In a lifelong learning situation the tutor must relinquish the role of expert and assume the role of facilitator, guiding learners to uncover their own knowledge. Against a back drop of rapid advances in technology which can be used to both deliver course materials and provide enhanced learning opportunities, this chapter outlines the pedagogic principles and practices which underpin self-directed and lifelong learning. PMID:15718681

Alexander, Sylvia; Kernohan, George; McCullagh, Paul

2004-01-01

374

The Internet: Trends and Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines current trends and directions in information technology and telecommunications. Discusses legislation; mergers and acquisitions; Internet service providers; fiscal control in libraries and the pooling of electronic information access through consortiums; demand for more bandwidth; technology selection; Internet usage patterns; the…

Anderson, Byron

1996-01-01

375

Laser Direct Drive: Scientific Advances,  

E-print Network

by Chris Ebbers Thursday PM Mercury DPPSL Laser (LLNL) = 351 nm (tripled) Solid State Laser #12;6 We, medical applications) Gas laser medium is easy to cool (tough to break gas) Nike single beam focus #121 Laser Direct Drive: Scientific Advances, Technical Achievements, and the Road To Fusion Energy

376

EMPLOYEE PAYROLL DIRECT DEPOSIT AUTHORIZATION  

E-print Network

) University ID Number NAME (LAST,FIRST,MIDDLE) TELEPHONE NUMBERS Home: ( ) Work: ( ) 2. ENTER BANKING INFORMATION (Please complete fully) BANK NAME BRANCH ADDRESS CITY STATE ZIPCODE ACTION (Check one) TYPE and my net pay amount each payday directly to my account at the financial institution specified. I agree

377

Trail-Directed Model Checking  

E-print Network

HSF-SPIN is a Promela model checker based on heuristic search strategies. It utilizes heuristic estimates in order to direct the search for finding software bugs in concurrent systems. As a consequence, HSF-SPIN is able to find shorter trails than blind depth-first search.

Stefan Edelkamp; Alberto Lluch-lafuente; Stefan Leue

2001-01-01

378

Direct expanded snacks from sorghum  

E-print Network

Food type white sorghum (ATx631xRTx436) grown in College Station, 2001 was used to produce direct expanded snacks. Corn meal was used as reference. Sorghum grains were analyzed for their density, hardness, weight, and size. Sorghum was decorticated...

Maranphal, Nitit

2003-01-01

379

Color Demosaicking Using Directional Weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital cameras usually use color filter array (CFA) to sample red, green, and blue colors, only capturing a color sample at a pixel location. The full resolution image is obtained by interpolating or demosaicking the subsampled colors. In this paper, a new demosaicking algorithm is proposed using the directional weighting technique. Our algorithm can effectively suppress the common zipper-effect and

Zhou Dengwen; Shen Xiaoliu

2009-01-01

380

NOAA Fisheries Policy Directive System  

E-print Network

of Policy June 12, 2013 #12;Goal U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and AtmosphericNOAA Fisheries Policy Directive System 2013 Annual Review Status Update NOAA Fisheries Office, and increase all staff's policy literacy in the process. #12;Status of 2013 Review U.S. Department of Commerce

381

NOAA Fisheries Policy Directive System  

E-print Network

Policy #12;U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA FisheriesNOAA Fisheries Policy Directive System Introduction and Purpose 2013 Annual Review Mark Holliday, PhD Director, NOAA Fisheries Office of Policy January 9, 2013 #12;Presentation Outline I. Define

382

Bulk Hydrogen Strategic Directions for  

E-print Network

Bulk Hydrogen Storage Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7-8, 2003 Crystal City, Virginia #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage Main Themes/Caveats Bulk Storage = Anything storage is an economic solution to address supply/demand imbalance #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen

383

Does Direct Instruction Cause Delinquency?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Takes issue with the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation report (Schweinhart, Weikart and Larner, 1986) indicating that preschoolers taught by direct instruction end up with twice the rate of delinquency of children who participated in High/Scope's own kind of preschool education. Argues that self-report methodology invalidates High/Scope…

Bereiter, Carl

1986-01-01

384

Direct flow crystal growth system  

DOEpatents

A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

Montgomery, Kenneth E. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

1992-01-01

385

Reflections, Perceptions, and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This response by the original author to critiques of his review of his own work in gifted education suggests possible new directions for the field. These include: the relationship between general and gifted education, the under representation of minority students as the "time bomb" of gifted education, achieving a balance between curricular…

Renzulli, Joseph S.

1999-01-01

386

Training of Direct Service Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue features articles on training of direct service staff working with persons with developmental disabilities in employment, education, and residential settings. The articles examine job training, delivery systems, training models, and implications of current approaches. The newsletter includes three articles presenting…

Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

1992-01-01

387

Entrance Counseling Guide for Direct Loan Borrowers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the four types of loans offered by the Direct Loan Program[SM]: (1) Direct Subsidized Loans; (2) Direct Unsubsidized Loans; (3) Direct PLUS Loans; and (4) Direct Consolidation Loans. Among the topics covered in the guide are: Use of Your Loan Money, The Master Promissory Note, How Your Loans Will Be Disbursed (Paid Out),…

Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

388

Nonsymmetric Search Directions for Semidefinite Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nonsymmetric search directions for semidefinite programming, the XZ and ZXsearch directions, are proposed. They are derived from a nonsymmetric formulationof the semidefinite programming problem. The XZ direction corresponds to the directlinearization of the central path equation XZ = I ; while the ZX direction correspondsto ZX = I . The XZ and ZX directions are well defined if both

Florian A. Potra; Rongqin Sheng

1997-01-01

389

Duplex Direct Data Distribution System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing and demonstrating communications and network technologies that are helping to enable the near-Earth space Internet. GRC envisions several service categories. The first of these categories is direct data distribution or D3 (pronounced "D-cubed"). Commercially provided D3 will make it possible to download a data set from a spacecraft, like the International Space Station. as easily as one can extract a file from a remote server today, using a file transfer protocol. In a second category, NASA spacecraft will make use of commercial satellite communication (SATCOM) systems. Some of those services will come from purchasing time on unused transponders that cover landmasses. While it is likely there will be gaps in service coverage, Internet services should be available using these systems. This report addresses alternative methods of implementing a full duplex enhancement of the GRC developed experimental Ka-Band Direct Data Distribution (D3) space-to-ground communication link. The resulting duplex version is called the Duplex Direct Data Distribution (D4) system. The D4 system is intended to provide high-data-rate commercial direct or internet-based communications service between the NASA spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO) and the respective principal investigators associated with these spacecraft. Candidate commercial services were assessed regarding their near-term potential to meet NASA requirements. Candidates included Ka-band and V-band geostationary orbit and non-geostationary orbit satellite relay services and direct downlink ("LEO teleport") services. End-to-end systems concepts were examined and characterized in terms of alternative link layer architectures. Alternatives included a Direct Link, a Relay Link, a Hybrid Link, and a Dual Mode Link. The direct link assessment examined sample ground terminal placements and antenna angle issues. The SATCOM-based alternatives examined existing or proposed commercial SATCOM services that could be available in the 2005 time frame. The alternatives were evaluated and compared in terms of average daily system throughput and cost per bit. Throughput was estimated based on hypothetical scenarios supporting the International Space Station and polar orbiting missions. The feasibility of using standard TCP and a modified TCP was evaluated and risks were identified. An estimate of the TCP acknowledgment data rate required to support a return channel rate of 622 Mbps was developed using OPNET.

Greenfield, Israel (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

390

Sampling properties of directed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many real-world networks only a small “sampled” version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties is all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage can make to the structural properties of sampled versions of these seven networks. Most notably, we find that sampling method and coverage affect both the bow-tie structure and the number and structure of strongly connected components in sampled networks. In addition, at a low sampling coverage (i.e., less than 40%), the values of average degree, variance of out-degree, degree autocorrelation, and link reciprocity are overestimated by 30% or more in BFS-sampled networks and only attain values within 10% of the corresponding values in the complete networks when sampling coverage is in excess of 65%. These results may cause us to rethink what we know about the structure, function, and evolution of real-world directed networks.

Son, S.-W.; Christensen, C.; Bizhani, G.; Foster, D. V.; Grassberger, P.; Paczuski, M.

2012-10-01

391

Sampling properties of directed networks.  

PubMed

For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties is all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage can make to the structural properties of sampled versions of these seven networks. Most notably, we find that sampling method and coverage affect both the bow-tie structure and the number and structure of strongly connected components in sampled networks. In addition, at a low sampling coverage (i.e., less than 40%), the values of average degree, variance of out-degree, degree autocorrelation, and link reciprocity are overestimated by 30% or more in BFS-sampled networks and only attain values within 10% of the corresponding values in the complete networks when sampling coverage is in excess of 65%. These results may cause us to rethink what we know about the structure, function, and evolution of real-world directed networks. PMID:23214649

Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Bizhani, G; Foster, D V; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M

2012-10-01

392

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

393

Direct N-body Simulations  

E-print Network

Special high-accuracy direct force summation N-body algorithms and their relevance for the simulation of the dynamical evolution of star clusters and other gravitating N-body systems in astrophysics are presented, explained and compared with other methods. Other methods means here approximate physical models based on the Fokker-Planck equation as well as other, approximate algorithms to compute the gravitational potential in N-body systems. Questions regarding the parallel implementation of direct ``brute force'' N-body codes are discussed. The astrophysical application of the models to the theory of relaxing rotating and non-rotating collisional star clusters is presented, briefly mentioning the questions of the validity of the Fokker-Planck approximation, the existence of gravothermal oscillations and of rotation and primordial binaries.

R. Spurzem

1999-06-08

394

Directional drilling azimuth control system  

SciTech Connect

A downhole anchor assembly is described for absorbing reaction torque from a downhole mud motor in a directional drill string so as to minimize azimuthal deviation from such reaction torque, the anchor assembly comprising: an elongated, generally cylindrical housing having upper and lower ends with tool joints thereon for coupling the body into a directional drill string and having a drilling fluid passage extending longitudinally through its length; at least one elongated chain support body longitudinally mounted in the housing; an elongated, endless anchor chain supported on the body, the chain having an elongated portion thereof longitudinally arranged and generally radially exposed externally of the body, the exposed chain portion being freely longitudinally movable along the body; the body being generally radially shiftable between a retracted position in which the exposed chain portion is substantially recessed in the housing; and actuating means in the housing engageable with the body for shifting the body from the retracted position to its extended position.

Cheek, A.E.

1986-09-23

395

Nanoscale simulations of directional locking  

E-print Network

When particles suspended in a fluid are driven through a regular lattice of cylindrical obstacles, the particle motion is usually not simply in the direction of the force, and in the high Peclet number limit particle trajectories tend to lock along certain lattice directions. By means of molecular dynamics simulations we show that this effect persists in the presence of molecular diffusion for nanoparticle flows, provided the Peclet number is not too small. We examine the effects of varying particle and obstacle size, the method of forcing, solid roughness, and particle concentration. While we observe trajectory locking in all cases, the degree of locking varies with particle size and these flows may have application as a separation technique.

J. Koplik; G. Drazer

2009-11-24

396

Setting a personal career direction.  

PubMed

In summary, we believe that both you and your organization should have a set of core values, a well-defined mission (core purpose), and a vision of the future. Ideally, your projects and activities should be congruent with your mission and values, you should be pursuing your vision, and all of this should be congruent with the organization mission and values. Practically speaking, most individuals we have worked with over the years find themselves in two different groups at this point in the exercise. The minority find that their personal mission is not at all similar to the mission of their current organization and they find it necessary to seriously reevaluate their personal career direction. Sometimes, this results in them finding some other place to work. On the other hand, the majority discover their personal mission is in reasonable agreement with that of their organization. For both, this exercise has helped them clarify and better manage their personal career direction. PMID:12690951

McCurdy, Fredrick A; Marcdante, Karen

2003-01-01

397

Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases  

PubMed Central

Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution. PMID:21966249

Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

2011-01-01

398

Directed Mizoroki-Heck Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mizoroki-Heck reaction is one of the key C-C bond-forming processes in organic synthesis. A prominent variant, which has found broadest application in targeted complex molecule synthesis, is the asymmetric intramolecular Mizoroki-Heck reaction. This methodology has outshone another powerful facet of Mizoroki-Heck chemistry, which has been prospering in recent years, namely directed Mizoroki-Heck reactions. Initially designed to achieve high regiocontrol in intermolecular reactions, this technique has recently been extended to highly diastereoselective and even enantioselective substrate-directed inter- as well as intramolecular Mizoroki-Heck reactions. This summary delineates the evolution of this chemistry from regio- to diastereo- and finally, enantioselective transformations.

Oestreich, Martin

399

OM300 Direction Drilling Module  

SciTech Connect

OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

MacGugan, Doug

2013-08-22

400

Ultra-wideband directional sampler  

DOEpatents

The Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Directional Sampler is a four port device that combines the function of a directional coupler with a high speed sampler. Two of the four ports operate at a high sub-nanosecond speed, in ``real time``, and the other two ports operate at a slow millisecond-speed, in ``equivalent time``. A signal flowing inbound to either of the high speed ports is sampled and coupled, in equivalent time, to the adjacent equivalent time port while being isolated from the opposite equivalent time port. A primary application is for a time domain reflectometry (TDR) situation where the reflected pulse returns while the outbound pulse is still being transmitted, such as when the reflecting discontinuity is very close to the TDR apparatus. 3 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-05-14

401

Direct absorption receiver control studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a solar central receiver system Direct Absorption Receiver (DAR), the heat absorbing fluid (a blackened molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down a vertical panel (rather than through tubes as in conventional receiver designs) and absorbs the concentrated solar flux directly. This unique flow system presents different control requirements from other receiver systems. These requirements are discussed, including analyses of multiple control zones for various receiver geometries and steady-state flux patterns. The results show that as few as 9 to 13 control zones can provide adequate operation of the receiver under nearly all conditions. Also discussed is the simple outlet-temperature feedback-control algorithm developed to control the DAR during cloud transients and present system thermal/hydraulic responses to various transient conditions.

Tyner, C. E.; Kolb, G. J.

1987-09-01

402

Direct Passive n'avigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how to recover the motion of an observer relative to a planar surface directly from image brightness derivatives. We do not con~pute the optical flow as an intermediate step. We derive a set of nine non-linear equations using a least-squares formulation. A simple iterative scheme allows us to find either of two possible solutions of

Shahriar Negahdaripour; Berthold K. P. Horn

1985-01-01

403

Direct search for dark matter  

SciTech Connect

Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

2009-12-01

404

Dopamine Directly Modulates GABAA Receptors.  

PubMed

Dopamine is a critical neuromodulator that activates GPCRs in mammals or ligand-gated ion channels in invertebrates. The present study demonstrates that dopamine (0.1-10 mm) exerts novel, opposing effects on different populations of mammalian (rat) GABAA receptors. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we observed direct dopamine-mediated inhibition of tonic-level (1 ?m) GABA-evoked currents in untransfected striatal neurons that could be recapitulated in HEK293 cells containing ?1?3 or ?1?2?2 subunits. Surprisingly, direct activation by dopamine was seen in the absence of GABA with ?1?2?2, ?5?3?2, or ?1?3?2 transfections. This activity was also present in ?1?3?2 receptors containing a mutant ?3 subunit (H267A [(Z)?3]) insensitive to trace levels of inhibitory Zn(2+). Dopamine activation required ? and ? subunits but not ? subunits ((Z)?3?2 EC50 value, 660 ?m). Dopamine activity was fully blocked by picrotoxin but not GABAA competitive antagonists, and was strongly correlated with spontaneous receptor activity. We also report opposing effects of bicuculline and gabazine, such that bicuculline surprisingly activated non-?-containing (?3?2) GABAA receptors, whereas gabazine suppressed spontaneous activity in these receptors. Our results suggest that dopamine may directly inhibit GABAA receptors that are both immediately adjacent to dopamine release sites in the striatum and activated by tonic GABA. Furthermore, synaptic/phasic release of dopamine may directly enhance signaling at some spontaneously active noncanonical GABAA receptors that lack ? subunits. PMID:25716851

Hoerbelt, Paul; Lindsley, Tara A; Fleck, Mark W

2015-02-25

405

Relativistic propulsion using directed energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a directed energy orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the evaporation point as a futuristic but feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. The system is based on recent advances in high efficiency photonic systems. The system could also be used for propulsion of kinetic or nuclear tipped asteroid interceptors or other interplanetary spacecraft. A photon drive is possible using direct photon pressure on a spacecraft similar to a solar sail. Given a laser power of 70GW, a 100 kg craft can be propelled to 1AU in approximately 3 days achieving a speed of 0.4% the speed of light, and a 10,000 kg craft in approximately 30 days. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of solid-state lasers, powered by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight. The system is scalable and completely modular so that sub elements can be built and tested as the technology matures. The sub elements can be immediately utilized for testing as well as other applications including space debris mitigation. The ultimate objective of DE-STAR would be to begin direct asteroid vaporization and orbital modification starting at distances beyond 1 AU. Using phased array technology to focus the beam, the surface spot temperature on the asteroid can be raised to more than 3000K, allowing evaporation of all known substances. Additional scientific uses of DE-STAR are also possible.

Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip M.

2013-09-01

406

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

DOEpatents

A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

Andreas, Ronald D. (Albuquerque, NM); Heck, G. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Watts, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01

407

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

DOEpatents

A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

1982-09-08

408

Combination of earthquake direction effects  

SciTech Connect

The correct application of the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) rule is presented for obtaining the combined responses of a subsystem to seismic excitations given by orthogonal earthquake components represented by system response spectra. Alternate methods of applying the SRSS, which are sometimes used either for simplicity or due to different interpretation, are evaluated and compared with the correct method. The evaluations consider the following four cases: (1) the correct method which combines the responses in a particular direction given by each earthquake component as a last step, (2) a generally unconservative method whereby both the system response spectra and the resulting subsystem responses are combined by the SRSS, (3) a method which can be unconservative for unequal earthquake components where the system response spectra are combined by the absolute sum and the resulting responses by the SRSS, and (4) a conservative method which combines the system response spectra by the SRSS but adds the resulting responses absolutely. In addition, three conditions of directional coupling are considered for all cases. These are full directional coupling, only the system coupled, and no coupling. A comparison of the subsystem combined responses with the various SRSS methods is presented in tabular form which gives the applicable equations for each case and coupling condition.

Morrone, A.

1983-01-01

409

BNL Direct Wind Superconducting Magnets  

SciTech Connect

BNL developed Direct Wind magnet technology is used to create a variety of complex multi-functional multi-layer superconducting coil structures without the need for creating custom production tooling and fixturing for each new project. Our Direct Wind process naturally integrates prestress into the coil structure so external coil collars and yokes are not needed; the final coil package transverse size can then be very compact. Direct Wind magnets are produced with very good field quality via corrections applied during the course of coil winding. The HERA-II and BEPC-II Interaction Region (IR) magnet, J-PARC corrector and Alpha antihydrogen magnetic trap magnets and our BTeV corrector magnet design are discussed here along with a full length ILC IR prototype magnet presently in production and the coils that were wound for an ATF2 upgrade at KEK. A new IR septum magnet design concept for a 6.2 T combined-function IR magnet for eRHIC, a future RHIC upgrade, is introduced here.

Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ghosh, A.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Muratore, A.; Wanderer, P.

2011-09-12

410

Direct approach to modeling epistasis.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have recently been conducted in humans and domesticated animals and plants to locate and identify chromosomal regions or genes (quantitative trait loci or QTLs) to select individuals with superior performance and qualities. QTL or genetic effects, including epistatic effects, can be defined at the genotypic (functional) and gene (statistical) levels. In the past, the functional or statistical genetic effects have been defined indirectly, and genotypic values were expressed as linear functions of additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic effects. In this chapter, we propose to reverse the thinking and define genetic effects as linear functions of genotypic values. The direct definition of functional genetic effects is straightforward for well-known gene action models [e.g., unweighted (UW), F2, and F? models]. However, the direct definition of statistical genetic effects is based on Fisher's concept of average excess, which is closely related to the well-known concept of the average effect of a gene substitution. These definitions can be easily extended to cases of two or more loci as long as the loci are independent of each other. Two numerical examples are used to illustrate the properties of the direct approach. PMID:25403532

Yang, Rong-Cai

2015-01-01

411

Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Methods Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: ? = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Results Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Conclusions Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time. PMID:24267049

2013-01-01

412

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and annular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

1991-01-29

413

Current Developments in Self-Directed Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers examining current developments in self-directed learning: "Self-Directed Learning: Challenges and Opportunities" (Huey B. Long); "Examination of Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Selected Demographic Variables of Top Female Executives" (Lucy M. Guglielmino); "Enhancing Self-Directed Learning in the…

Long, Huey B.; And Others

414

Directed Discovery of Crystal Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This contribution is modified from a published exercise "Directed Discovery of Crystal Structures Using Ball-and-Stick Models" [Mogk, 1997] . While the published exercise is based on student exploration of traditional ball-and-stick models of crystal structures, this modified version uses a similar "discovery-based" approach and the latest online crystallographic information and visualization software to teach the spatial relationships and crystal-chemical rules that govern the crystal structures of common minerals and crystalline solids. A few changes in the content have been made from the published exercise, mainly to accommodate the new digital media.

Dave Mogk

415

Fatness and fertility: which direction?  

PubMed Central

Metabolic status has long been thought to determine reproductive status, with abnormal metabolic phenotypes altering reproductive cascades, such as the onset of puberty. In this issue of the JCI, Tolson and colleagues provide evidence that kisspeptin, a hormone that promotes sexual maturation, regulates metabolism. Female mice lacking the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) gained more weight than control animals, and this weight gain was caused not by increased food consumption, but by an overall decrease in energy and metabolism. While this study provides a direct link between the kisspeptin pathway and metabolic output, more work will need to be done to determine whether alterations in this pathway contribute to human obesity. PMID:24937420

Seminara, Stephanie B.

2014-01-01

416

Direct application of geothermal energy  

SciTech Connect

An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

Reistad, G.M.

1980-01-01

417

A metamaterial for directive emission.  

PubMed

In this paper we present the first results on emission in metamaterial. We show how the specific properties of metallic composite material can modify the emission of an embedded source. We show that under proper conditions the energy radiated by a source embedded in a slab of metamaterial will be concentrated in a narrow cone in the surrounding media. An experimental demonstration of this effect is given in the microwave domain, and the constructed antenna has a directivity equivalent to the best reported results with photonic-crystal-based antennas but using a completely different physical principle [B. Temelkuaran, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 603 (2000)

Enoch, Stefan; Tayeb, Gérard; Sabouroux, Pierre; Guérin, Nicolas; Vincent, Patrick

2002-11-18

418

Future direction in airline marketing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

Colussy, D. A.

1972-01-01

419

Direct Arthroscopic Distal Clavicle Resection  

PubMed Central

Degenerative change involving the acromioclavicular (AC) is frequently seen as part of a normal aging process. Occasionally, this results in a painful clinical condition. Although AC joint symptoms commonly occur in conjunction with other shoulder pathology, they may occur in isolation. Treatment of isolated AC joint osteoarthritis is initially non-surgical. When such treatment fails to provide lasting relief, surgical treatment is warranted. Direct (superior) arthroscopic resection of the distal (lateral) end of the clavicle is a successful method of treating the condition, as well as other isolated conditions of the AC joint. The following article reviews appropriate patient evaluation, surgical indications and technique. PMID:16089089

Lervick, Gregory N

2005-01-01

420

Nerve lesioning with direct current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

2011-02-01

421

Radial lean direct injection burner  

DOEpatents

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04

422

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOEpatents

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01

423

Urologic robots and future directions  

E-print Network

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology has gained immense popularity with the daVinci system, but a lot of research teams are working on new robots. The purpose of this study is to review current urologic robots and present future development directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Future systems are expected to advance in two directions: improvements of remote manipulation robots and developments of image-guided robots. SUMMARY: The final goal of robots is to allow safer and more homogeneous outcomes with less variability of surgeon performance, as well as new tools to perform tasks on the basis of medical transcutaneous imaging, in a less invasive way, at lower costs. It is expected that improvements for a remote system could be augmented in reality, with haptic feedback, size reduction, and development of new tools for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery. The paradigm of image-guided robots is close to clinical availability and the most advanced robots are presented with end-use...

Mozer, Pierre; Stoianovici, Dan; 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32831cc1ba

2008-01-01

424

Direct visualization of magnetoelectric domains.  

PubMed

The coupling between the magnetic and electric dipoles in multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials holds promise for conceptually novel electronic devices. This calls for the development of local probes of the magnetoelectric response, which is strongly affected by defects in magnetic and ferroelectric ground states. For example, multiferroic hexagonal rare earth manganites exhibit a dense network of boundaries between six degenerate states of their crystal lattice, which are locked to both ferroelectric and magnetic domain walls. Here we present the application of a magnetoelectric force microscopy technique that combines magnetic force microscopy with in situ modulating high electric fields. This method allows us to image the magnetoelectric response of the domain patterns in hexagonal manganites directly. We find that this response changes sign at each structural domain wall, a result that is corroborated by symmetry analysis and phenomenological modelling, and provides compelling evidence for a lattice-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The direct visualization of magnetoelectric domains at mesoscopic scales opens up explorations of emergent phenomena in multifunctional materials with multiple coupled orders. PMID:24292421

Geng, Yanan; Das, Hena; Wysocki, Aleksander L; Wang, Xueyun; Cheong, S-W; Mostovoy, M; Fennie, Craig J; Wu, Weida

2014-02-01

425

In vivo continuous directed evolution.  

PubMed

The development and application of methods for the laboratory evolution of biomolecules has rapidly progressed over the last few decades. Advancements in continuous microbe culturing and selection design have facilitated the development of new technologies that enable the continuous directed evolution of proteins and nucleic acids. These technologies have the potential to support the extremely rapid evolution of biomolecules with tailor-made functional properties. Continuous evolution methods must support all of the key steps of laboratory evolution - translation of genes into gene products, selection or screening, replication of genes encoding the most fit gene products, and mutation of surviving genes - in a self-sustaining manner that requires little or no researcher intervention. Continuous laboratory evolution has been historically used to study problems including antibiotic resistance, organismal adaptation, phylogenetic reconstruction, and host-pathogen interactions, with more recent applications focusing on the rapid generation of proteins and nucleic acids with useful, tailor-made properties. The advent of increasingly general methods for continuous directed evolution should enable researchers to address increasingly complex questions and to access biomolecules with more novel or even unprecedented properties. PMID:25461718

Badran, Ahmed H; Liu, David R

2015-02-01

426

Human promoters are intrinsically directional.  

PubMed

Divergent transcription, in which reverse-oriented transcripts occur upstream of eukaryotic promoters in regions devoid of annotated genes, has been suggested to be a general property of active promoters. Here we show that the human basal RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and core promoter are inherently unidirectional and that reverse-oriented transcripts originate from their own cognate reverse-directed core promoters. In vitro transcription analysis and mapping of nascent transcripts in HeLa cells revealed that sequences at reverse start sites are similar to those of their forward counterparts. The use of DNase I accessibility to define proximal promoter borders revealed that about half of promoters are unidirectional and that unidirectional promoters are depleted at their upstream edges of reverse core promoter sequences and their associated chromatin features. Divergent transcription is thus not an inherent property of the transcription process but rather the consequence of the presence of both forward- and reverse-directed core promoters. PMID:25639469

Duttke, Sascha H C; Lacadie, Scott A; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M; Glass, Christopher K; Corcoran, David L; Benner, Christopher; Heinz, Sven; Kadonaga, James T; Ohler, Uwe

2015-02-19

427

Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction. We also elucidate the relation between thermodynamic entropy, which pertains to the extent of energy spreading and sharing within inanimate matter, and evolutionary entropy, which refers to the rate of energy appropriation from the environment and allocation within living systems. We show that the entropic principle of thermodynamics is the limit as R?0, M??, (where R denote the resource production rate, and M denote population size) of the entropic principle of evolution. We exploit this relation between the thermodynamic and evolutionary tenets to propose a physico-chemical model of the transition from inanimate matter which is under thermodynamic selection, to living systems which are subject to evolutionary selection. Life history variation and the evolution of senescence The evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction Evolutionary trends in body size. The origin of sporadic forms of cancer and neurological diseases, and the evolution of cooperation are important recent applications of directionality theory. These applications, which draw from the medical sciences and sociobiology, appeal to methods which lie outside the formalism described in this report. A companion review, Demetrius and Gundlach (submitted for publication), gives an account of these applications.An important aspect of this report pertains to the connection between statistical mechanics and evolutionary theory and its implications towards understanding the processes which underlie the emergence of living systems from inanimate matter-a problem which has recently attracted considerable attention, Morowitz (1992), Eigen (1992), Dyson (2000), Pross (2012).The connection between the two disciplines can be addressed by appealing to certain extremal principles which are considered the mainstay of the respective theories.The extremal principle in statistical mechanics can be stated as follows:

Demetrius, Lloyd A.

2013-09-01

428

Theory of directional pulse propagation  

SciTech Connect

We construct combined electric and magnetic field variables which independently represent energy flows in the forward and backward directions, respectively, and use these to reformulate Maxwell's equations. These variables enable us to not only judge the effect and significance of backward-traveling field components, but also to discard them when appropriate. They thereby have the potential to simplify numerical simulations, leading to potential speed gains of up to 100% over standard finite difference time-domain (FDTD) or pseudospectral spatial-domain (PSSD) simulations. We present results for various illustrative situations, including an example application to second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate. These field variables are also used to derive both envelope equations useful for narrow-band pulse propagation, and a second order wave equation. Alternative definitions are also presented.

Kinsler, P.; Radnor, S. B. P.; New, G. H. C. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

429

Direct writing of conducting polymers.  

PubMed

Described herein is a new printing method-direct writing of conducting polymers (CPs)-based on pipette-tip localized continuous electrochemical growth. A single barrel micropipette containing a metal wire (Pt) is filled with a mixture of monomer, supporting electrolyte, and an appropriate solvent. A droplet at the tip of the pipette contacts the substrate, which becomes the working electrode of a micro-electrochemical cell confined to the tip droplet and the pipette. The metallic wire in the pipette acts as both counter and reference electrode. Electropolymerization forms the CP on the working electrode in a pattern controlled by the movement of the pipette. In this study, various width poly(pyrrole) 2D and 3D structures are extruded and characterized in terms of microcyclic voltammetry, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23857715

Aydemir, Nihan; Parcell, James; Laslau, Cosmin; Nieuwoudt, Michel; Williams, David E; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

2013-08-01

430

Laboratory directed research and development  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

Not Available

1991-11-15

431

Direct Reconstruction of Dark Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z?1 using just SNAP-quality data.

Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

2010-05-01

432

Direct laser initiation of PETN  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1970s Yang and Menichelli demonstrated that direct laser illumination of low-density secondary explosive prr:ssings through a transparent window could produce detonation. 'The energy requirement for threshold initiation of detonation was reduced when a thin metal coating of metal covered the side of the window against which the low-density explosive was pressed. We have obtained experimental results that are in general agreement with the results of Renllund, Stanton and Trott (1 989) and recent: work by Nagayama, hou and Nakahara (2001). We report exploration of the effects of laser beam diameter, PEiTN density and specific surface area, and thickness of a titanium coating on the window.

Early, J. W. (James W.); Kennedy, J. E. (James E.)

2001-01-01

433

Multi-directional local search  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces multi-directional local search, a metaheuristic for multi-objective optimization. We first motivate the method and present an algorithmic framework for it. We then apply it to several known multi-objective problems such as the multi-objective multi-dimensional knapsack problem, the bi-objective set packing problem and the bi-objective orienteering problem. Experimental results show that our method systematically provides solution sets of comparable quality with state-of-the-art methods applied to benchmark instances of these problems, within reasonable CPU effort. We conclude that the proposed algorithmic framework is a viable option when solving multi-objective optimization problems. PMID:25140071

Tricoire, Fabien

2012-01-01

434

Direct Measurement of Neutrino Mass  

E-print Network

The sum of the masses of the three neutrino mass eigenstates is now constrained both from above and below, and lies between 55 and 6900 meV. The lower limit is set by neutrino oscillations and the fact that masses are non-negative. The upper limit is set by laboratory measurements on the beta decay of tritium. These determinations share a common characteristic of being essentially model independent, or "direct." The clustering on large scales in the universe depends on this quantity, and, within the framework of Lambda-CDM cosmology, favors a mass sum below about 600 meV. In this article, the laboratory approach to neutrino mass via beta decay is emphasized, particularly an experiment now under construction, KATRIN, on the beta decay of tritium. Another candidate beta-active nuclide, Re-187, offers an advantage in phase space but calls for a very different experimental approach.

R. G. Hamish Robertson

2008-07-26

435

Direct reconstruction of dark energy.  

PubMed

An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z?1 using just SNAP-quality data. PMID:20867085

Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

2010-05-28

436

Direct synthesis of calcium borohydride  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for directly preparing an alkaline earth metal borohydride, i.e. Ca(BH.sub.4).sub.2, from the alkaline earth metal hydride and the alkaline earth metal boride. The borohydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a metal chloride catalyst compound, such as RuCl.sub.3, TiCl.sub.3, or a mixture of TiCl.sub.3 and palladium metal. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen at about 70 MPa while heating the mixture to about 400.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

Ronnebro, Ewa Carin Ellinor (Dublin, CA); Majzoub, Eric H. (Pleasanton, CA)

2009-10-27

437

Direct synthesis of magnesium borohydride  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for directly preparing an alkaline earth metal borohydride, i.e. Mg(BH.sub.4).sub.2, from the alkaline earth metal boride MgB.sub.2 by hydrogenating the MgB.sub.2 at an elevated temperature and pressure. The boride may also be doped with small amounts of a metal chloride catalyst such as TiCl.sub.3 and/or NiCl.sub.2. The process provides for charging MgB.sub.2 with high pressure hydrogen above at least 70 MPa while simultaneously heating the material to about 350.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides a reversible hydride compound having a hydrogen capacity of at least 11 wt %.

Ronnebro, Ewa Carin Ellinor (Kennewick, WA); Severa, Godwin (Honolulu, HI); Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI)

2012-04-03

438

Method for directional hydraulic fracturing  

DOEpatents

A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

1994-01-01

439

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

440

Directed Therapy for Exfoliation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disorder of the extracellular matrix that leads the production of abnormal fibrillar material that leads to elevated intraocular pressure and a relatively severe glaucoma. Exfoliation material is deposited in numerous ocular tissues and extraocular organs. XFS is associated with ocular ischemia, cerebrovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease and cardiovascular disease. Current modalities of treatment include intraocular pressure lowering with topical antihypertensives, laser trabeculoplasty and filtration surgery. The disease paradigm for XFS should be expanded to include directed therapy designed specifically to target the underlying disease process. Potential targets include preventing the formation or promoting the depolymerization of exfoliation material. Novel therapies targeting trabecular meshwork may prove particularly useful in the care of exfoliative glaucoma. The systemic and ocular associations of XFS underscore the need for a comprehensive search for neuroprotective agents in its treatment. PMID:19888433

Angelilli, Allison; Ritch, Robert

2009-01-01

441

Direct electrochemistry of pentachlorophenol hydroxylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct electrochemistry of flavin-containing monooxygenase, pentachlorophenol hydroxlase (PCPH), has been investigated under a variety of conditions. PCPH underwent a two-electron process on the electrodes, which correspond to the reduction/oxidation of FAD/FADH2 within the enzyme. The electrochemical response of PCPH relies on the interface of the electrode and the enzyme solution. Three types of interaction of the enzyme molecule with the electrodes were observed: at a bare edge-plane graphite electrode, diffusion-controlled process was observed, suggesting the interaction is weak. In the presence of the cations, the interaction became stronger, so that the voltammetric response changed from a diffusion control to an adsorption control An intermediate case was observed at a poly(L- lysine) modified EPG electrode.

Xie, Wei-hong; Allen, H.; Hill, O.; Wong, Luet L.

2001-09-01

442

Effect of the electrode structure on the electrocatalytic oxidation of low-weight alcohols. Applications to the direct alcohol fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

The use of an electron conducting polymer, such as polyaniline (PAni), as a catalyst support, is a very convenient way to obtain highly dispersed electrodes for the electrooxidation of low-weight alcohols (methanol and ethanol). Such electrodes, containing very low amounts of platinum, can be modified by adding a second metal in order to promote the electrocatalytic activity of pure platinum. With Pt-Ru or Pt-Sn/PAni modified electrodes, a relative large negative shift of the oxidation potential was observed, particularly with ethanol, for which the electrooxidation starts at potentials as low as 0.2 V/RHE. Moreover a significant decrease of the poisoning phenomena was also observed. The nature of the adsorbed species and reaction products was also investigated by on-line liquid chromatography and in situ IR Reflectance Spectroscopy.

Laborde, H.; Rezzouk, A.; Leger, J.M.; Lamy, C. [Univ. de Poitiers (France)

1994-12-31

443

Direct Deposit _Job Aid March 2012 Page 1 of 7 Direct Deposit Online Instructions Job Aid  

E-print Network

. STEP . . . ACTION . . . RESULT . . . Access Direct Deposit 1. Navigate to myColumbia portal @ https. 5. Click "View Your Direct Deposit Information" within the Self-Service section. You accessed Direct Existing Direct Deposit Information ­ Access Direct Deposit 1. Navigate to myColumbia portal @ https

Grishok, Alla

444

Creating New Broadleaved Woodland by Direct Seeding  

E-print Network

by Direct Seeding Ian Willoughby, Richard Jinks, Peter Gosling and Gary Kerr Forestry Commission: Edinburgh WILLOUGHBY, I. et al. (2004). Creating new broadleaved woodland by direct seeding. Forestry Commission

445

16 CFR 1000.13 - Directives System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

The Commission maintains a Directives System which contains delegations of authority and descriptions of Commission programs, policies, and procedures. A complete set of directives is available for inspection in the public reading room at Commission...

2014-01-01

446

VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSIS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatographic environmental analysis by direct aqueous injection (DAI) was studied for 24 volatile organic analytes (VOAs). Internal standardization was used to determine the precision of analyzing these compounds by DAI. Aequous samples were directly introduced to a gas ch...

447

47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL...of official documents of a referential nature. The documents include NCS Directives...policies and procedures of a continuing nature. The Directives are issued by...

2014-10-01

448

47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL...of official documents of a referential nature. The documents include NCS Directives...policies and procedures of a continuing nature. The Directives are issued by...

2012-10-01

449

47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL...of official documents of a referential nature. The documents include NCS Directives...policies and procedures of a continuing nature. The Directives are issued by...

2011-10-01

450

47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL...of official documents of a referential nature. The documents include NCS Directives...policies and procedures of a continuing nature. The Directives are issued by...

2013-10-01

451

47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL...of official documents of a referential nature. The documents include NCS Directives...policies and procedures of a continuing nature. The Directives are issued by...

2010-10-01

452

Outrunning Nature: Directed Evolution of Superior Biocatalysts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of enzymes as biocatalysts for industrial use and the emergence of directed evolution in the invention of advanced biocatalysts are discussed and illustrated. Thus, directed evolution has bridged the functional gap between natural and specially designed biocatalysts.

Woodyer, Ryan; Chen, Wilfred; Zhao, Huimin

2004-01-01

453

78 FR 69594 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...aviation authority for France, issued French Airworthiness Directive 2001-545(B...above documents and integrated into this [French] Airworthiness Directive (AD). In addition, this [French] AD restates the life limits...

2013-11-20

454

47 CFR 69.401 - Direct expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Direct expenses. 69.401 ...CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Expenses § 69.401 Direct expenses. (a) Plant...category and appropriate access elements on the...

2014-10-01

455

47 CFR 69.401 - Direct expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Direct expenses. 69.401 ...CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Expenses § 69.401 Direct expenses. (a) Plant...category and appropriate access elements on the...

2012-10-01

456

Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe methods for directional coupling of light output from whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers. Patterned asymmetries in the shape of microdisk resonators provide control of both direction and intensity of light output without dramatically increasing laser thresholds.

A. F. J. Levi; R. E. Slusher; S. L. McCall; J. L. Glass; S. J. Pearton; R. A. Logan

1993-01-01

457

33 CFR 86.07 - Directional properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Directional properties. 86.07 Section 86.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Whistles § 86.07 Directional properties. The sound pressure...

2011-07-01

458

33 CFR 86.07 - Directional properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Directional properties. 86.07 Section 86.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Whistles § 86.07 Directional properties. The sound pressure...

2013-07-01

459

33 CFR 86.07 - Directional properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional properties. 86.07 Section 86.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Whistles § 86.07 Directional properties. The sound pressure...

2010-07-01

460

33 CFR 86.07 - Directional properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Directional properties. 86.07 Section 86.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Whistles § 86.07 Directional properties. The sound pressure...

2012-07-01