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Sample records for nanoporous aluminum oxide

  1. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance. PMID:26393523

  2. Synthesis of nanoporous activated iridium oxide films by anodized aluminum oxide templated atomic layer deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, D. J.; Christensen, S. T.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.; Hersam, M. C.

    2010-08-01

    Iridium oxide (IrOx) has been widely studied due to its applications in electrochromic devices, pH sensing, and neural stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated that both Ir and IrOx films with porous morphologies prepared by sputtering exhibit significantly enhanced charge storage capacities. However, sputtering provides only limited control over film porosity. In this work, we demonstrate an alternative scheme for synthesizing nanoporous Ir and activated IrOx films (AIROFs). This scheme utilizes atomic layer deposition to deposit a thin conformal Ir film within a nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide template. The Ir film is then activated by potential cycling in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to form a nanoporous AIROF. The morphologies and electrochemical properties of the films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The resulting nanoporous AIROFs exhibit a nanoporous morphology and enhanced cathodal charge storage capacities as large as 311 mC/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing. PMID:23272786

  4. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Abolghasem; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Ghasemzadeh, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing. PMID:23272786

  5. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourmohammadi, Abolghasem; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Ghasemzadeh, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing.

  6. Cytotoxicity of cultured macrophages exposed to antimicrobial zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings on nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes

    PubMed Central

    Petrochenko, Peter E.; Skoog, Shelby A.; Zhang, Qin; Comstock, David J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Goering, Peter L.; Narayan, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a widely used commercial material that is finding use in wound healing applications due to its antimicrobial properties. Our study demonstrates a novel approach for coating ZnO with precise thickness control onto 20 nm and 100 nm pore diameter anodized aluminum oxide using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ZnO was deposited throughout the nanoporous structure of the anodized aluminum oxide membranes. An 8 nm-thick coating of ZnO, previously noted to have antimicrobial properties, was cytotoxic to cultured macrophages. After 48 h, ZnO-coated 20 nm and 100 nm pore anodized aluminum oxide significantly decreased cell viability by ≈65% and 54%, respectively, compared with cells grown on uncoated anodized aluminum oxide membranes and cells grown on tissue culture plates. Pore diameter (20–200 nm) did not influence cell viability. PMID:23881040

  7. Rayleigh instability in polymer thin films coated in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Chan; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2014-01-14

    We study the Rayleigh instability of polystyrene (PS) thin films coated in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. After thermal annealing, the surface of the PS thin films undulates and the nanostructures transform from nanotubes to Rayleigh-instability-induced nanostructures (short nanorods with encapsulated air bubbles). With longer annealing times, the nanostructures further transform to nanorods with longer lengths. PS samples with two different molecular weights (24 and 100 kg/mol) are used, and their instability transformation processes are compared. The morphology diagrams of the nanostructures at different stages are also constructed to elucidate the mechanism of the morphology transformation. PMID:24380368

  8. Impedance spectroscopy of highly ordered nano-porous electrodes based on Au-AAO (anodic aluminum oxide) structure.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaehwan; Cho, Sungbo; Min, Junhong

    2013-11-01

    Electrochemical measurements using the microelectrodes are increasingly utilized for the label-free detection of the small amount of biological materials such as DNA, protein, and cells. However, the interfacial electrode impedance increases and may hinder the detection of weak signals as the size of electrode decreases. To enhance the measurement sensitivity while reducing the electrode size, in this study, microelectrodes employing a nanoporous structure were fabricated and characterized by using electrical impedance spectroscopy. We made the highly ordered honeycomb nanoporous structure of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) by electrochemical anodizing and formed Au layer on the surface of AAO (Au/AAO) by electroless Au plating method. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated Au/AAO electrodes were evaluated by using de Levie's model derived for the pore electrodes. As a result, the interfacial electrode impedance of the fabricated Au/AAO electrodes was 2-3 order lower than the value of the planar electrodes at frequencies below 1 kHz. It implies this nanoporous electrode could be directly applied to label free detection of biomaterials. PMID:24245278

  9. Highly Transparent and Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators with Subwavelength-Architectured Polydimethylsiloxane by a Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template.

    PubMed

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-09-23

    Highly transparent and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) were fabricated using the subwavelength-architectured (SWA) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as a replica mold. The SWA PDMS could be utilized as a multifunctional film for a triboelectric layer, an antireflection coating, and a self-cleaning surface. The nanopore arrays of AAO were formed by a simple, fast, and cost-effective electrochemical oxidation process of aluminum, which is relatively impressive for fabrication of the TENG device. For electrical contacts, the SWA PDMS was laminated on the indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a bottom electrode, and the bare ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET) was used for the top electrode. Compared to the ITO/PET, the SWA PDMS on the ITO/PET improved the transmittance from 80.5 to 83% in the visible wavelength region and also had high transmittances of >85% at wavelengths of 430-455 nm. The SWA PDMS also exhibited the hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (θCA) of ∼115°, which can be useful for self-cleaning applications. The average transmittance (Tavg) of the entire TENG device was observed to be ∼70% over a broad wavelength range. At an external pushing frequency of 0.5 Hz, for the TENG device with the ITO top electrode, open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current (ISC) values of ∼3.8 V and ∼0.8 μA were obtained instantaneously, respectively, which were higher than those (i.e., VOC ≈ 2.2 V, and ISC ≈ 0.4 μA) of the TENG device with a gold top electrode. The effect of external pushing force and frequency on the output device performance of the TENGs was investigated, including the device robustness. A theoretical optical analysis of SWA PDMS was also performed. PMID:26301328

  10. Effect of Pore Size and Film Thickness on Gold-Coated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kassu, Aschalew; Farley, Carlton; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Wonkyu; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensor is demonstrated by using inexpensive gold-coated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates. To optimize the performance of the substrates for sensing by the Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the size of the nanopores is varied from 18 nm to 150 nm and the gold film thickness is varied from 30 nm to 120 nm. The sensitivity of gold-coated nanoporous surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor is characterized by detecting low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G laser dye molecules. The morphology of the SERS substrates is characterized by atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanoporous SERS substrates including transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance are also investigated. Relative signal enhancement is plotted for a range of substrate parameters and a detection limit of 10−6 M is established. PMID:26633402

  11. Large-scale fabrication of 2-D nanoporous graphene using a thin anodic aluminum oxide etching mask.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Yamujin; Heo, Keun; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Soon Hyung; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, Sung Woo; Whang, Dongmok

    2013-11-01

    A large-scale nanoporous graphene (NPG) fabrication method via a thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) etching mask is presented in this paper. A thin AAO film is successfully transferred onto a hydrophobic graphene surface under no external force. The AAO film is completely stacked on the graphene due to the van der Waals force. The neck width of the NPG can be controlled ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm with different AAO pore widening times. Extension of the NPG structure is demonstrated on a centimeter scale up to 2 cm2. AAO and NPG structures are characterized using optical microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A field effect transistor (FET) is realized by using NPG. Its electrical characteristics turn out to be different from that of pristine graphene, which is due to the periodic nanostructures. The proposed fabrication method could be adapted to a future graphene-based nano device. PMID:24245263

  12. Fabrication of canonical nanoporous templates by variational anodic oxidation of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ataur; Wallace, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    The interesting effects of quantum confinement critically depend on the shape and size of the nanocrystals. Preliminary results of an experimental study of production of templates with conical profiles are presented here. These templates will be ideal for fabrication of nanocrytals with the same profile. Templates were fabricated in aluminum with the anodic oxidation process by carefully controlling the anodization parameters to control the shape of the resulting templates. Different combinations of theses parameters such as electrolyte, pH of the solution, applied voltage, and current density were studied to ascertain the right condition of growth for conically porous templates. The most dominant parameter was the applied voltage and the voltage was continuously changed slowly during the process of growth. Attempt was made to control the pore diameter to a size less than 20 nm with an aspect ratio of about 1.0. Structural and morphological studies were done with AFM and SEM. The details of the results will be presented.

  13. Fabrication of Pd Micro-Membrane Supported on Nano-Porous Anodized Aluminum Oxide for Hydrogen Separation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taegyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, nano-porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a support of the Pd membrane. The AAO fabrication process consists of an electrochemical polishing, first/second anodizing, barrier layer dissolving and pores widening. The Pd membrane was deposited on the AAO support using an electroless plating with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a plating agent. The AAO had the regular pore structure with the maximum pore diameter of ~100 nm so it had a large opening area but a small free standing area. The 2 µm-thick Pd layer was obtained by the electroless plating for 3 hours. The Pd layer thickness increased with increasing the plating time. However, the thickness was limited to ~5 µm in maximum. The H2 permeation flux was 0.454 mol/m2-s when the pressure difference of 66.36 kPa0.5 was applied at the Pd membrane under 400 °C. PMID:26369167

  14. Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Membranes Coated with Atomic Layer Deposition-Grown Titanium Dioxide for Biomedical Applications: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amount of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BCA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. The results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants. PMID:26510320

  15. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes coated with atomic layer deposition-grown titanium dioxide for biomedical applications: An in vitro evaluation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin Fen; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L.; Narayan, Roger J.; Petrochenko, Peter E.

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amountmore » of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BOA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TOPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. In conclusion, the results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants.« less

  16. Ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film fabricated by citric acid-assisted hot-water-treatment of aluminum-palladium alloy film

    SciTech Connect

    Harumoto, Takashi; Tamura, Yohei; Ishiguro, Takashi

    2015-01-15

    Hot-water-treatment has been adapted to fabricate ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film from aluminum-palladium alloy film. Using citric acid as a chelating agent, a precipitation of boehmite (aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH) on the nanoporous palladium-aluminum film was suppressed. According to cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations, the ligament/pore sizes of the prepared nanoporous film were considerably small (on the order of 10 nm). Since this fabrication method only requires aluminum alloy film and hot-water with chelating agent, the ultrafine nanoporous film can be prepared simply and environmentally friendly.

  17. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    PubMed Central

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  18. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:24992278

  19. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes coated with atomic layer deposition-grown titanium dioxide for biomedical applications: An in vitro evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin Fen; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L.; Narayan, Roger J.

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amount of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BOA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TOPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. In conclusion, the results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous anodic oxide film on aluminum in H3PO4 + KMnO4 electrolyte mixture at different anodization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Naveen; Jindal, Jitender; Singh, Krishan Chander; Mari, Bernabe

    2016-04-01

    The micro structural properties of nanoporous anodic oxide film formed in H3PO4 were highly influenced by addition of a low concentration of KMnO4 (0.0005 M) in 1 M H3PO4 solution. The KMnO4 as additive enhanced the growth rate of oxide film formation as well as thickness of pore walls. Furthermore the growth rate was found increased with increase in applied current density. The increase in temperature and lack of stirring during anodization causes the thinness of pore wall which leads to increase in pore volume. With the decrease in concentration of H3PO4 in anodizing electrolyte from 1M to 0.3 M, keeping all other conditions constant, the decrease in porosity was observed. This might be due to the dissolution of aluminium oxide film in highly concentrated acidic solution.

  1. The influence of aluminum grain size on alumina nanoporous structure

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, A. F.; Costa, M. V. da; Amaral, L.; Teixeira, S. R.; Migowski, P.; Dupont, J.; Machado, G.; Peripolli, S. B.

    2010-01-15

    An approach to control the interpore distances and nanopore diameters of 150-nm-thick thin aluminum films is reported here. The Al thin films were grown by sputtering on p-type silicon substrate and anodized with a conventional anodization process in a phosphoric acid solution. It was found that interpore distance and pore diameter are related to the aluminum grain size and can be controlled by annealing. The grain contours limit the sizes of alumina cells. This mechanism is valid for grain sizes supporting only one alumina cell and consequently only one pore.

  2. Fabrication of anodic aluminum oxide with incorporated chromate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Bombalska, Aneta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2012-10-01

    The anodization of aluminum in 0.3 M chromic acid is studied. The influence of operating conditions (like anodizing voltage and electrolyte's temperature) on the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide geometry (including pore diameter, interpore distance, the oxide layer thickness and pores density) is thoroughly investigated. The results revealed typical correlations of the anodic alumina nanopore geometry with operating conditions, such as linear increase of pore diameter and interpore distance with anodizing voltage. The anodic aluminum oxide is characterized by a low pores arrangement, as determined by Fast Fourier transforms analyses of the FE-SEM images, which translates into a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, an optimal experimental condition where chromate ions are being successfully incorporated into the anodic alumina walls, have been determined: the higher oxide growth rate the more chromate ions are being trapped. The trapped chromate ions and a high concentration of oxygen vacancies make the anodic aluminum oxide a promising luminescent material.

  3. MTBE OXIDATION BY BIFUNCTIONAL ALUMINUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifunctional aluminum, prepared by sulfating zero-valent aluminum with sulfuric acid, has a dual functionality of simultaneously decomposing both reductively- and oxidatively-degradable contaminants. In this work, the use of bifunctional aluminum for the degradation of methyl te...

  4. Self-Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Templates Formed by Anodization of Aluminum in Oxalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida-Simiti, Ioan; Nemes, Dorel; Jumate, Nicolaie; Thalmaier, Gyorgy; Sechel, Niculina

    2012-10-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with highly ordered nanopores serve as ideal templates for the formation of various nanostructured materials. The procedure of the template preparation is based on a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum. In the current study, AAO templates were fabricated in 0.3 M oxalic acid under the anodizing potential range of 30-60 V at an electrolyte temperature of ~5°C. The AAO templates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The as obtained layers are amorphous; the mean pore size is between 40 nm and 75 nm and increases with the increase of the anodization potential. Well-defined pores across the whole aluminum template, a pore density of ~1010 pores/cm2, and a tendency to form a porous structure with hexagonal symmetry were observed.

  5. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with novel conjugated organic dye using aluminum oxide-coated nanoporous titanium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-03-01

    This work introduces the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface in the recombination and offers an interface treatment method using solution process for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Solution-processed ultra-thin metal oxides introduce to treat the surface of mesoporous TiO2 to reduce the defect density and improve the electronic quality. Among the metal oxides, an Al2O3 barrier is incorporated into DSSCs as a carrier-recombination blocking layer. In all instances, the short-circuit current density increase and the dark current is suppressed after Al2O3 deposition. The impact of the Al2O3 barriers is also studied in devices employing different dyes. To compare the behavior of metal-free organic dyes and Ru dyes when Al2O3 barrier layers are involved, the charge transfer between the dye and TiO2 electrodes, associated with interfacial electron injection, is investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The metal-free organic dye had a high molar extinction coefficient and better adsorption properties compare to Ru dye, which resulted in higher charge-collection efficiency. To verify the strategy, the DSSCs photovoltaic performances containing these dyes are compared using their current-voltage curves. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS), and Intensity Modulated photoVoltage Spectroscopy (IMVS) were used to further investigate the kinetics process of the TiO2 film electrodes.

  6. Hierarchical structural nanopore arrays fabricated by pre-patterning aluminum using nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinnan; Xu, Shuping; Cong, Ming; Li, Haibo; Gu, Yuejiao; Xu, Weiqing

    2012-04-10

    A highly ordered and hierarchical structural nanopore array is fabricated via anodizing a pre-patterned aluminum foil under an optimized voltage. A pre-patterned hexagonal nanoindentation array on an aluminum substrate is prepared via the nanosphere lithography method. This pattern leads to an elaborate nanochannel structure with seven nanopores in each nanoindentation after anodization treatment. The structure achieved in our study is new, interesting, and likely to be applied in photonic devices. PMID:22315204

  7. Charge-induced reversible bending in nanoporous alumina-aluminum composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuan; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2013-05-01

    Upon electrical charging, reversible bending was found in nanoporous anodic alumina-aluminum foil composites, as directly observed by an optical microscope and detected by in situ nanoindentation. The bending is thought to be the result of charge-induced surface stresses in the nanoporous alumina. The results suggest the possibility of a type of composite foil materials for applications as micro-scale actuators to transform electrical energy into mechanical energy.

  8. Engineered therapeutic-releasing nanoporous anodic alumina-aluminum wires with extended release of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel; Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan

    2015-02-18

    In this study, we present a nanoengineered therapeutic-releasing system based on aluminum wires featuring nanoporous anodic alumina layers and chitosan coatings. Nanoporous anodic alumina layers are produced on the surface of aluminum wires by electrochemical anodization. These nanoporous layers with precisely engineered nanopore geometry are used as nanocontainers for bovine serum albumin molecules labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC), which is selected as a model drug. The surface of these therapeutic-releasing implants is coated with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan, in order to achieve a sustained release of protein over extended periods of time. The performance of this therapeutic-releasing device is systematically assessed through a series of experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions. In these experiments, the effect of such parameters as the number of layers of chitosan coating and the temperature and pH of the eluting medium is established. The obtained results reveal that the proposed therapeutic-releasing system based on nanoporous aluminum wires can be engineered with sustained release performance for up to 6.5 weeks, which is a critical factor for medical treatments using sensitive therapeutics such as proteins and genes when a localized delivery is desired. PMID:25625878

  9. Angle selective light management in photovoltaics using self-assembled anodized aluminum oxide nanopatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Brian; Ku, P.-C.

    2015-03-01

    Semitransparent photovoltaics are of interest for building integration and window coatings, though demonstrate an intrinsic tradeoff between transparency and absorption / efficiency. We propose alleviating this tradeoff using light management nanostructures which selectively scatter light based on incident wavelength and angle, allowing transmission of normally incident light for window visibility and absorption of light at elevated angles. Two structures of interest are proposed and described: metal nanorods which scatter light via their localized surface plasmon resonance properties, and arrays of subwavelength nanopores in a dielectric which demonstrate coherent multiple scattering. Both structures can potentially be patterned over large areas by electrochemical oxidation of aluminum into self assembled nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) films.

  10. Modeling the specular spectral reflectance of partially ordered alumina nanopores on an aluminum substrate.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Dengfeng; Charrière, Renée; Matsapey, Natalia; Flury, Manuel; Faucheu, Jenny; Chavel, Pierre

    2015-02-23

    Anodizing of aluminum generates a porous alumina layer comprising cylindrical nanopores (300 nm diameter) extending essentially perpendicular to the substrate. The pore distribution over the surface exhibits a short-distance order close to hexagonal arrangement. On the contrary, long-distance order cannot be defined: the arrangement is not periodic. Visual observation of such nanoporous layers shows a reddish specular reflectance consistent with reflectance spectrum measurements. This work is a parametric study aiming at demonstrating that color effects are caused by the presence of disorder illustrated by the deviations from periodicity in terms of nanopore location and nanopore radius. Using the method of Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), the reflectance spectrum has been simulated. Although our calculations were done using a simple one-dimensional (1D) model, a fair fit with experimental results is found. PMID:25836487

  11. Slow DNA Transport through Nanopores in Hafnium Oxide Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Wanunu, Meni

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of double- and single-stranded DNA transport through nanopores fabricated in ultrathin (2–7 nm thick) free-standing hafnium oxide (HfO2) membranes. The high chemical stability of ultrathin HfO2 enables long-lived experiments with <2 nm diameter pores that last several hours, in which we observe >50 000 DNA translocations with no detectable pore expansion. Mean DNA velocities are slower than velocities through comparable silicon nitride pores, providing evidence that HfO2 nanopores have favorable physicochemical interactions with nucleic acids that can be leveraged to slow down DNA in a nanopore. PMID:24083444

  12. Anodization of nanoporous alumina on impurity-induced hemisphere curved surface of aluminum at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous alumina which was produced by a conventional direct current anodization [DCA] process at low temperatures has received much attention in various applications such as nanomaterial synthesis, sensors, and photonics. In this article, we employed a newly developed hybrid pulse anodization [HPA] method to fabricate the nanoporous alumina on a flat and curved surface of an aluminum [Al] foil at room temperature [RT]. We fabricate the nanopores to grow on a hemisphere curved surface and characterize their behavior along the normal vectors of the hemisphere curve. In a conventional DCA approach, the structures of branched nanopores were grown on a photolithography-and-etched low-curvature curved surface with large interpore distances. However, a high-curvature hemisphere curved surface can be obtained by the HPA technique. Such a curved surface by HPA is intrinsically induced by the high-resistivity impurities in the aluminum foil and leads to branching and bending of nanopore growth via the electric field mechanism rather than the interpore distance in conventional approaches. It is noted that by the HPA technique, the Joule heat during the RT process has been significantly suppressed globally on the material, and nanopores have been grown along the normal vectors of a hemisphere curve. The curvature is much larger than that in other literatures due to different fabrication methods. In theory, the number of nanopores on the hemisphere surface is two times of the conventional flat plane, which is potentially useful for photocatalyst or other applications. PACS: 81.05.Rm; 81.07.-b; 82.45.Cc. PMID:22087646

  13. Synthesis of Nanoporous Metals, Oxides, Carbides, and Sulfides: Beyond Nanocasting.

    PubMed

    Luc, Wesley; Jiao, Feng

    2016-07-19

    Nanoporous metal-based solids are of particular interest because they combine a large quantity of surface metal sites, interconnected porous networks, and nanosized crystalline walls, thus exhibiting unique physical and chemical properties compared to other nanostructures and bulk counterparts. Among all of the synthetic approaches, nanocasting has proven to be a highly effective method for the syntheses of metal oxides with three-dimensionally ordered porous structures and crystalline walls. A typical procedure involves a thermal annealing process of a porous silica template filled with an inorganic precursor (often a metal nitrate salt), which converts the precursor into a desired phase within the silica pores. The final step is the selective removal of the silica template in either a strong base or a hydrofluoric acid solution. In the past decade, nanocasting has become a popular synthetic approach and has enabled the syntheses of a variety of nanoporous metal oxides. However, there is still a lack of synthetic methods to fabricate nanoporous materials beyond simple metal oxides. Therefore, the development of new synthetic strategies beyond nanocasting has become an important direction. This Account describes new progress in the preparation of novel nanoporous metal-based solids for heterogeneous catalysis. The discussion begins with a method called dealloying, an effective method to synthesize nanoporous metals. The starting material is a metallic alloy containing two or more elements followed by a selective chemical or electrochemical leaching process that removes one of the preferential elements, resulting in a highly porous structure. Nanoporous metals, such as Cu, Ag, and CuTi, exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic properties in carbon dioxide reduction, oxygen reduction, and hydrogen evolution reactions. In addition, the syntheses of metal oxides with hierarchical porous structures are also discussed. On the basis of the choice of hard template, nanoporous

  14. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of biospecies on anodized aluminum oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Smirnov, A. I.; Hahn, D.; Grebel, H.

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, aluminum and anodized aluminum oxide films (AAO) are not the platforms of choice for surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) experiments despite of the aluminum's large negative permittivity value. Here we examine the usefulness of aluminum and nanoporous alumina platforms for detecting soft biospecies ranging from bacterial spores to protein markers. We used these flat platforms to examine SERS of a model protein (cytochrome c from bovine heart tissue) and bacterial cells (spores of Bacillus subtilis ATCC13933 used as Anthrax simulant) and demonstrated clear Raman amplification.

  15. Unveiling the Hard Anodization Regime of Aluminum: Insight into Nanopores Self-Organization and Growth Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vega, Víctor; García, Javier; Montero-Moreno, Josep M; Hernando, Blanca; Bachmann, Julien; Prida, Víctor M; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2015-12-30

    Pores growth mechanism and their self-ordering conditions are investigated for nanoporous alumina membranes synthesized by hard anodization (HA) of Al in a broad range of anodic conditions, covering oxalic acid electrolytes with concentrations from 0.300 M down to 0.075 M and potentiostatic anodization voltages between 120 and 225 V. The use of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with image analysis techniques allow one to characterize the intrinsic nature of the HA regime. HA of aluminum is explained on the basis of a phenomenological model taking into account the role of oxalate ions and their limited diffusion through alumina nanochannels from a bulk electrolyte. The depletion of oxalate ions at the bottom of the pores causes an increased growth of the alumina barrier layer at the oxide/electrolyte interface. Furthermore, an innovative method has been developed for the determination of the HA conditions leading to self-ordered pore growth in any given electrolyte, thus allowing one to extend the available range of interpore distances of the highly ordered hexagonal pore arrangement in a wide range of 240-507 nm, while keeping small pore diameters of 50-60 nm. PMID:26646814

  16. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Michael L.; Sohn, H. Y.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    2013-11-01

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB2) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB2 in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB2 beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB2 and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB2 exhibited O2-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O2 than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB2 suggested that Al2O3-B2O3 interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al2O3 on aluminum particles into a Al4B2O9 shell, while the same Al4B2O9 developed a needle-like morphology in AlB2 that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB2, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments.

  17. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  18. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a "nanoreactor" for oxidation.

  19. Reactively Deposited Aluminum Oxide and Fluoropolymer Filled Aluminum Oxide Protective Coatings for Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Hunt, Jason

    1995-01-01

    Reactive ion beam sputter deposition of aluminum simultaneous with low energy arrival of oxygen ions at the deposition surface enables the formation of highly transparent aluminum oxide films. Thick (12 200 A), adherent, low stress, reactively deposited aluminum oxide films were found to provide some abrasion resistance to polycarbonate substrates. The reactively deposited aluminum oxide films are also slightly more hydrophobic and more transmitting in the UV than aluminum oxide deposited from an aluminum oxide target. Simultaneous reactive sputter deposition of aluminum along with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) produces fluoropolymer-filled aluminum oxide films which are lower in stress, about the same in transmittance, but more wetting than reactively deposited aluminum oxide films. Deposition properties, processes and potential applications for these coatings will be discussed.

  20. Biomimetic novel nanoporous niobium oxide coating for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauline, S. Anne; Rajendran, N.

    2014-01-01

    Niobium oxide was synthesized by sol-gel methodology and a crystalline, nanoporous and adherent coating of Nb2O5 was deposited on 316L SS using the spin coating technique and heat treatment. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a nanoporous morphology. The coating was characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the formation of crystalline Nb2O5 coating with nanoporous morphology was confirmed. Mechanical studies confirmed that the coating has excellent adherence to the substrate and the hardness value of the coating was excellent. Contact angle analysis showed increased hydrophilicity for the coated substrate. In vitro bioactivity test confirmed that the Nb2O5 coating with nanoporous morphology facilitated the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp). This was further confirmed by the solution analysis test where increased uptake of calcium and phosphorous ions from simulated body fluid (SBF) was observed. Electrochemical evaluation of the coating confirmed that the crystalline coating is insulative and protective in nature and offered excellent corrosion protection to 316L SS. Thus, this study confirmed that the nanoporous crystalline Nb2O5 coating conferred bioactivity and enhanced corrosion resistance on 316L SS.

  1. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Michael L.; Sohn, H.Y.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    2013-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time

  2. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  3. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  4. Oxidation and melting of aluminum nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Trunov, Mikhaylo A; Umbrajkar, Swati M; Schoenitz, Mirko; Mang, Joseph T; Dreizin, Edward L

    2006-07-01

    Recently, nanometer-sized aluminum powders became available commercially, and their use as potential additives to propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics has attracted significant interest. It has been suggested that very low melting temperatures are expected for nanosized aluminum powders and that such low melting temperatures could accelerate oxidation and trigger ignition much earlier than for regular, micron-sized aluminum powders. The objective of this work was to investigate experimentally the melting and oxidation behavior of nanosized aluminum powders. Powder samples with three different nominal sizes of 44, 80, and 121 nm were provided by Nanotechnologies Inc. The particle size distributions were measured using small-angle X-ray scattering. Melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry where the powders were heated from room temperature to 750 degrees C in an argon environment. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to measure the mass increase indicative of oxidation while the powders were heated in an oxygen-argon gas mixture. The measured melting curves were compared to those computed using the experimental particle size distributions and thermodynamic models describing the melting temperature and enthalpy as functions of the particle size. The melting behavior predicted by different models correlated with the experimental observations only qualitatively. Characteristic stepwise oxidation was observed for all studied nanopowders. The observed oxidation behavior was well interpreted considering the recently established kinetics of oxidation of micron-sized aluminum powders. No correlation was found between the melting and oxidation of aluminum nanopowders. PMID:16805619

  5. Oxidatively Stable Nanoporous Silicon Photocathodes for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, Nathan R.; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai; Oh, Jihun; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.

    2014-06-02

    Stable and high-performance nanoporous 'black silicon' photoelectrodes with electrolessly deposited Pt nanoparticle (NP) catalysts are made with two metal-assisted etching steps. Doubly etched samples exhibit >20 mA/cm2 photocurrent density at +0.2 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution under 1 sun illumination. We find that the photocurrent onset voltage of black Si photocathodes prepared from single-crystal planar Si wafers increases in oxidative environments (e.g., aqueous electrolyte) owing to a positive flat-band potential shift caused by surface oxidation. However, this beneficial oxide layer becomes a kinetic barrier to proton reduction that inhibits hydrogen production after just 24 h. To mitigate this problem, we developed a novel second Pt-assisted etch process that buries the Pt NPs deeper into the nanoporous Si surface. This second etch shifts the onset voltage positively, from +0.25 V to +0.4 V vs. RHE, and reduces the charge-transfer resistance with no performance decrease seen for at least two months.

  6. Omnidirectional excitation of sidewall gap-plasmons in a hybrid gold-nanoparticle/aluminum-nanopore structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Kik, Pieter G.

    2016-06-01

    The gap-plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle inside a nanopore in an aluminum film is investigated in polarization dependent single particle microscopy and spectroscopy. Scattering and transmission measurements reveal that gap-plasmons of this structure can be excited and observed under normal incidence excitation and collection, in contrast to the more common particle-on-a-mirror structure. Correlation of numerical simulations with optical spectroscopy suggests that a local electric field enhancement factor in excess of 50 is achieved under normal incidence excitation, with a hot-spot located near the top surface of the structure. It is shown that the strong field enhancement from this sidewall gap-plasmon mode can be efficiently excited over a broad angular range. The presented plasmonic structure lends itself to implementation in low-cost, chemically stable, easily addressable biochemical sensor arrays providing large optical field enhancement factors.

  7. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Xingmao; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Liu, Nanguo; Xu, Huifang; Rathod, Shailendra; Shah, Pratik; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Ceriumore » m (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0 × 10 − 14  m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5 × 10 − 13  m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.« less

  8. Nanoporous metal/oxide hybrid electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xingyou; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2011-04-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors can deliver high levels of electrical power and offer long operating lifetimes, but their energy storage density is too low for many important applications. Pseudocapacitive transition-metal oxides such as MnO(2) could be used to make electrodes in such supercapacitors, because they are predicted to have a high capacitance for storing electrical charge while also being inexpensive and not harmful to the environment. However, the poor conductivity of MnO(2) (10(-5)-10(-6) S cm(-1)) limits the charge/discharge rate for high-power applications. Here, we show that hybrid structures made of nanoporous gold and nanocrystalline MnO(2) have enhanced conductivity, resulting in a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO(2) (~1,145 F g(-1)) that is close to the theoretical value. The nanoporous gold allows electron transport through the MnO(2), and facilitates fast ion diffusion between the MnO(2) and the electrolytes while also acting as a double-layer capacitor. The high specific capacitances and charge/discharge rates offered by such hybrid structures make them promising candidates as electrodes in supercapacitors, combining high-energy storage densities with high levels of power delivery. PMID:21336267

  9. Nanoporous metal/oxide hybrid electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xingyou; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2011-04-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors can deliver high levels of electrical power and offer long operating lifetimes, but their energy storage density is too low for many important applications. Pseudocapacitive transition-metal oxides such as MnO2 could be used to make electrodes in such supercapacitors, because they are predicted to have a high capacitance for storing electrical charge while also being inexpensive and not harmful to the environment. However, the poor conductivity of MnO2 (10-5-10-6 S cm-1) limits the charge/discharge rate for high-power applications. Here, we show that hybrid structures made of nanoporous gold and nanocrystalline MnO2 have enhanced conductivity, resulting in a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 (~1,145 F g-1) that is close to the theoretical value. The nanoporous gold allows electron transport through the MnO2, and facilitates fast ion diffusion between the MnO2 and the electrolytes while also acting as a double-layer capacitor. The high specific capacitances and charge/discharge rates offered by such hybrid structures make them promising candidates as electrodes in supercapacitors, combining high-energy storage densities with high levels of power delivery.

  10. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  11. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  12. Influence of Anodic Conditions on Self-ordered Growth of Highly Aligned Titanium Oxide Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Self-aligned nanoporous TiO2templates synthesized via dc current electrochemical anodization have been carefully analyzed. The influence of environmental temperature during the anodization, ranging from 2 °C to ambient, on the structure and morphology of the nanoporous oxide formation has been investigated, as well as that of the HF electrolyte chemical composition, its concentration and their mixtures with other acids employed for the anodization. Arrays of self-assembled titania nanopores with inner pores diameter ranging between 50 and 100 nm, wall thickness around 20–60 nm and 300 nm in length, are grown in amorphous phase, vertical to the Ti substrate, parallel aligned to each other and uniformly disordering distributed over all the sample surface. Additional remarks about the photoluminiscence properties of the titania nanoporous templates and the magnetic behavior of the Ni filled nanoporous semiconductor Ti oxide template are also included.

  13. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Glazkova, Elena A. Svarovskaya, Natalia V. Bakina, Olga V. Kazantsev, Sergey O. Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-27

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  14. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Glazkova, Elena A.; Svarovskaya, Natalia V.; Bakina, Olga V.; Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy; Kramer, Keith; Liu, Xinye

    2000-01-01

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  16. Laser reflection from oxide-coated aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of reflection from an oxide-coated metal is combined with experimentally measured parameters of aluminum to produce useful amplitude and phase shift information applicable to the concentration and direction of laser light. Amplitude and phase are plotted vs angle of incidence for several important laser wavelengths in the near UV, visible, and IR spectral regions.

  17. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  3. Ultrasensitive food toxin biosensor using frequency based signals of silicon oxide nanoporous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, H.; RoyChaudhuri, C.

    2013-06-01

    We report an electrochemically fabricated silicon oxide nanoporous structure for ultrasensitive detection of AfB1 in food by shift in peak frequency corresponding to maximum sensitivity. It has been observed that the impedance sensitivity changes from 19% to 40% (which is only twice) where as the peak frequency shifts from 500 Hz to 50 kHz, for a change in concentration from 1 fg/ml to 1 pg/ml. This has been attributed to the combined effect of the significant pore narrowing with increasing AfB1 concentration and the opposing nature of impedance change within the nanopores and the conducting substrate immediately below the nanoporous layer.

  4. Optical characteristics of wet-thermally oxidized bulk and nanoporous GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sinjae; Kadam, Mahadev; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2016-07-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films deposited on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were successfully transformed into bulk and nanoporous gallium oxide (Ga2O3) using a wet thermal oxidation technique. Oxidation depth measurements confirmed that the oxide growth appeared to be faster in the case of nanoporous GaN than that of bulk GaN. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to evaluate and compare the optical properties of nanoporous and bulk Ga2O3 films, such as refractive index and extinction coefficient, which revealed improved optical properties for nanoporous Ga2O3 compared to the bulk. The simulations conducted on the ellipsometric spectra for bulk and nanoporous Ga2O3 using the Forouhi-Bloomer model and the Bruggeman effective medium approximation revealed the best fit with a low mean square error value. In the case of nanoporous Ga2O3, zero absorption was observed in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 840 nm, supporting the use of this material as a transparent coating in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Heterogeneous reaction of ozone with aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    Rates and collision efficiencies for ozone decomposition on aluminum oxide surfaces were determined. Samples were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, particle size, and chemical analysis. Collision efficiencies were found to be between 2 times 10 to the -10 power and 2 times 10 to the -9 power. This is many orders of magnitude below the value of 0.000001 to 0.00001 needed for appreciable long-term ozone loss in the stratosphere. An activation energy of 7.2 kcal/mole was found for the heterogeneous reaction between -40 C and 40 C. Effects of pore diffusion, outgassing and treatment of the aluminum oxide with several chemical species were also investigated.

  6. Microfluidic anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; Kisner, Alexandre; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Summary Solid state nanoporous membranes show great potential as support structures for biointerfaces. In this paper, we present a technique for fabricating nanoporous alumina membranes under constant-flow conditions in a microfluidic environment. This approach allows the direct integration of the fabrication process into a microfluidic setup for performing biological experiments without the need to transfer the brittle nanoporous material. We demonstrate this technique by using the same microfluidic system for membrane fabrication and subsequent liposome fusion onto the nanoporous support structure. The resulting bilayer formation is monitored by impedance spectroscopy across the nanoporous alumina membrane in real-time. Our approach offers a simple and efficient methodology to investigate the activity of transmembrane proteins or ion diffusion across membrane bilayers. PMID:21977420

  7. Simulated Desorption of Aluminum and Oxide Covered Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvajian, Henry

    1998-03-01

    There is evidence that laser or electron stimulated nonthermal desorption from aluminum can proceed through plasmon excitation processes. Arakawa et al. observed this phenomenon with Al films and Kim et al. observed it with direct laser irradiation. (E.T. Arakawa, I. Lee and T.A. Callcott in Laser Ablation, J.C. Miller and R.F. Haglund Eds., Springer-Verlag, NY, 82 (1991).; H. S. Kim and H. Helvjian, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6623 (1991).) Dreyfus et al. found nonthermal Al neutral species from laser irradiation of Al_2O_3, Schildbach et al. measured nonthermal Al ions from a well characterized sapphire (1120) sample, and Pedraza et al. showed that for laser irradiation of both alumina and sapphire there is a change in the degree of oxidation of the surface Al.(R.W. Dreyfus, R. Kelly and R.E. Walkup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1478 (1986);M.A. Schildbach and A.V. Hamza, Phys. Rev. B. 45, 6197 (1992); Pedraza et al., AIP Proc., Vol. 288 (1993) pg. 329.) These experiments show that oxygen on Al does not quench the nonthermal desorption. We will present measurements of the Al yield and K. E. w.r.t. oxygen coverage and laser fluence. This stimulated desorption work has environmental relevance to the storage of oxidized Al clad nuclear fuel rods.

  8. Synthesis of self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, F.; Wen, Y.; Chan, K.C.; Yue, T.M.; Zhou, Y.Z.; Zhu, S.L.; Yang, X.J.

    2015-09-15

    In this study, self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide was synthesized for the first time by ultrafast anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte containing 10% HNO{sub 3}. The nanoporous oxide has through-holes with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. The as-formed oxides are amorphous, and were transformed to crystalline structures by annealing. The performance of a dye sensitized solar cell using nanoporpous Ti–10Zr oxide (TZ10) was further studied. It was found that the TZ10 film could increase both the short-circuit current and the open-circuit photovoltage of the solar cell. The overall efficiency of the solar cell was 6.99%, an increase of 20.7% as compared to that using a pure TiO{sub 2} (P25) film. - Graphical abstract: The nanoporous Ti–xZr(x=10, 30) oxide layers are fabricated by anodizing in a dilute nitric acid solvent. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC by a covering of a Ti–10Zr thin film is increased by 20.7%, with an η of 7.69% , a short circuit current of 12.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a open circuit voltage of 0.833 V, and a fill factor of 0.679. - Highlights: • Self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal (TiZr) oxide was synthesized. • The TiZr oxides have through-hole nanopores with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. • The nanoporous Ti–10Zr oxide can improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSSC.

  9. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  10. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  11. Supercapacitive properties of nanoporous oxide layer formed on 304 type stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A A; Lokhande, A C; Kim, J H; Lokhande, C D

    2016-07-01

    The nanoporous oxide layer is formed on the surface of 304 type stainless steel (SS) by chemical oxidation method. The characterization of the oxide layer is carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The supercapacitive properties of oxide layer are studied using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. PMID:27042821

  12. Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Y.; Talebian, A.

    1988-03-01

    A plasma deposition technique for amorphous aluminum oxide films is discussed. A 450 kHz or 13.56 MHz power supply was used to generate the plasma and the deposition of the film was achieved at low plasma power using trimethyl-aluminum and carbon dioxide reactant sources. It has been found that for the low frequency plasma the growth is strongly dependent upon TMA concentration, indicating that the growth process is mass transport limited. On the other hand using the 13.56 MHz discharge results in a surface controlled growth rate. An increase in the deposition temperature up to 300° C makes the films more dense and lowers their etching rate. FTIR and ESCA measurements showed that oxidation is only completed with high CO2 concentrations and a deposition temperature above 250° C. The dielectric films were found to have a dielectric constant in the range 7.3=2-9 and a refractive index between 1.5 1.8 depending upon deposition conditions.

  13. Preparation and analysis of anodic aluminum oxide films with continuously tunable interpore distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiufang; Zhang, Jinqiong; Meng, Xiaojuan; Deng, Chenhua; Zhang, Lifang; Ding, Guqiao; Zeng, Hao; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides are often used as templates for preparation of nanostructures such as nanodot, nanowire and nanotube arrays. The interpore distance of anodic aluminum oxide is the most important parameter in controlling the periodicity of these nanostructures. Herein we demonstrate a simple and yet powerful method to fabricate ordered anodic aluminum oxides with continuously tunable interpore distances. By using mixed solution of citric and oxalic acids with different molar ratio, the range of anodizing voltages within which self-ordered films can be formed were extended to between 40 and 300 V, resulting in the interpore distances change from 100 to 750 nm. Our work realized very broad range of interpore distances in a continuously tunable fashion and the experiment processes are easily controllable and reproducible. The dependence of the interpore distances on acid ratios in mixed solutions was discussed through analysis of anodizing current and it was found that the effective dissociation constant of the mixed acids is of great importance. The interpore distances achieved are comparable to wavelengths ranging from UV to near IR, and may have potential applications in optical meta-materials for photovoltaics and optical sensing.

  14. Depression of melting point for protective aluminum oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreizin, E. L.; Allen, D. J.; Glumac, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The protective aluminum oxide film naturally formed on a surface of aluminum has a thickness in the range of 3-5 nm. Its melting causes loss of its continuity, which may significantly affect the ignition and combustion processes and their relative time scales. Melting of the alumina film also plays an important role when aluminum powders are used to prepare composites and/or being sintered. This letter quantifies depression of the melting point of an alumina film based on its nano-meter thickness. A theoretical estimate is supported by experiments relying on a detected change in the optical properties of naturally oxidized aluminum particles heated in an inert environment.

  15. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55{degrees}C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30{degrees}C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 {mu}m {plus minus} 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 {mu}m {plus minus} 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96{degrees}C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600{degrees}C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values.

  16. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55{degrees}C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30{degrees}C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 {mu}m {plus_minus} 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 {mu}m {plus_minus} 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96{degrees}C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600{degrees}C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values.

  17. Integrated Nanopore Detectors in a Standard Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Ashfaque; Chen, Chin-Hsuan; Yemenicioglu, Sukru; Milaninia, Kaveh; Corigliano, Ellie; Varma, Madoo; Theogarajan, Luke

    2012-02-01

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the development of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial CMOS potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor's 0.5 micron technology. By using post-CMOS micromachining, a free-standing oxide membrane and electrodes are fabricated utilizing the N+ polysilicon/oxide/N+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores with sub-5 nm diameter are drilled in the membrane using a Transmission Electron Microscope. The integrity of pores is validated by measuring current-voltage and noise characteristics. DNA translocation experiments are also performed utilizing these on-chip pores. In addition, electrical tests performed on the CMOS potentiostat circuitry show that the post-CMOS micromachining process does not have any detrimental effect on the CMOS circuitry.

  18. Nanoporous gold catalysts for selective gas-phase oxidative coupling of methanol at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Wittstock, A; Zielasek, V; Biener, J; Friend, C M; Bäumer, M

    2010-01-15

    Gold (Au) is an interesting catalytic material because of its ability to catalyze reactions, such as partial oxidations, with high selectivities at low temperatures; but limitations arise from the low O2 dissociation probability on Au. This problem can be overcome by using Au nanoparticles supported on suitable oxides which, however, are prone to sintering. Nanoporous Au, prepared by the dealloying of AuAg alloys, is a new catalyst with a stable structure that is active without any support. It catalyzes the selective oxidative coupling of methanol to methyl formate with selectivities above 97% and high turnover frequencies at temperatures below 80 degrees C. Because the overall catalytic characteristics of nanoporous Au are in agreement with studies on Au single crystals, we deduced that the selective surface chemistry of Au is unaltered but that O2 can be readily activated with this material. Residual silver is shown to regulate the availability of reactive oxygen. PMID:20075249

  19. Preparation and electrochemical performances of nanoporous/cracked cobalt oxide layer for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobal, Fereydoon; Faraji, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Nanoporous/cracked structures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) electrodes were successfully fabricated by electroplating of zinc-cobalt onto previously formed TiO2 nanotubes by anodizing of titanium, leaching of zinc in a concentrated alkaline solution and followed by drying and annealing at 400 °C. The structure and morphology of the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were composed of the nanoporous/cracked structures with an average pore size of about 100 nm. The electrochemical capacitive behaviors of the nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M NaOH solution. The electrochemical data demonstrated that the electrodes display good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 430 F g-1 at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 and specific capacitance retention of ca. 80 % after 10 days of being used in electrochemical experiments, indicating to be promising electroactive materials for supercapacitors. Furthermore, in comparison with electrodes prepared by simple cathodic deposition of cobalt onto TiO2 nanotubes(without dealloying procedure), the impedance studies showed improved performances likely due to nanoporous/cracked structures of electrodes fabricated by dealloying of zinc, which provide fast ion and electron transfer routes and large reaction surface area with the ensued fast reaction kinetics.

  20. Enhanced electrochemical supercapacitance of binder-free nanoporous ternary metal oxides/metal electrode.

    PubMed

    Gao, J J; Qiu, H-J; Wen, Y R; Chiang, F-K; Wang, Y

    2016-07-15

    Free-standing nanoporous Ni-Cu-Mn mixed metal oxides on metal with a high surface area was fabricated by chemically dealloying a Ni8Cu12Mn80 single-phase precursor, followed by electrochemical oxidation in an alkaline solution. Electrochemical analysis shows that first Cu and Mn-based metal oxides formed by the electrochemical oxidation. Ni-based oxides grow later with the increase of electrochemical CV cycles and mix with the Cu/Mn oxides, forming a relatively stable mixed metal oxides thin film on metal ligament network. Due to the different electrochemical properties of each metal and the synergetic effect between them, the mixed ternary metal oxides formed on metal nano-ligament can operate stably between a wide potential window (1.5V) in 1.0M KOH aqueous solution when tested as a free-standing supercapacitor electrode. Due to the high volumetric surface area, wide operating potential window and excellent conductivity, the nanoporous metal oxides@metal composite exhibits a high volumetric capacitance (∼500Fcm(-3)), high energy density (∼38mWhcm(-3)) and good cycling stability. PMID:27089016

  1. Tunable nanoporous silicon oxide templates by swift heavy ion tracks technology.

    PubMed

    Kaniukov, E Yu; Ustarroz, J; Yakimchuk, D V; Petrova, M; Terryn, H; Sivakov, V; Petrov, A V

    2016-03-18

    Nanoporous silicon oxide templates formed by swift heavy ion tracks technology have been investigated. The influence of the heavy ion characteristics, such as type of ion, energy, stopping power and irradiation fluence on the pore properties of the silicon oxide templates, has been studied. Furthermore, the process of pore formation by chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid has been thoroughly investigated by assessing the effect of etchant concentration and etching time. The outcome of this investigation enables us to have precise control over the resulting geometry of nanopores arrays. As a result, guidelines for the creation of a-SiO2/Si templates with tunable parameters and general recommendations for their further application are presented. PMID:26878691

  2. Tunable nanoporous silicon oxide templates by swift heavy ion tracks technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniukov, E. Yu; Ustarroz, J.; Yakimchuk, D. V.; Petrova, M.; Terryn, H.; Sivakov, V.; Petrov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous silicon oxide templates formed by swift heavy ion tracks technology have been investigated. The influence of the heavy ion characteristics, such as type of ion, energy, stopping power and irradiation fluence on the pore properties of the silicon oxide templates, has been studied. Furthermore, the process of pore formation by chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid has been thoroughly investigated by assessing the effect of etchant concentration and etching time. The outcome of this investigation enables us to have precise control over the resulting geometry of nanopores arrays. As a result, guidelines for the creation of a-SiO2/Si templates with tunable parameters and general recommendations for their further application are presented.

  3. Modeling the Shock Ignition of a Copper Oxide Aluminum Thermite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kibaek; Stewart, D. Scott; Clemenson, Michael; Glumac, Nick; Murzyn, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    An experimental ``striker confinement'' shock compression test was developed in the Glumac-group at the University of Illinois to study ignition and reaction in composite reactive materials. These include thermitic and intermetallic reactive powders. The test places a sample of materials such as a thermite mixture of copper oxide and aluminum powders that are initially compressed to about 80 percent full density. Two RP-80 detonators simultaneously push steel bars into reactive material and the resulting compression causes shock compaction of the material and rapid heating. At that point one observes significant reaction and propagation of fronts. But the fronts are peculiar in that they are comprised of reactive events that can be traced to the reaction/diffusion of the initially separated reactants of copper oxide and aluminum that react at their mutual interfaces that nominally make copper liquid and aluminum oxide products. We discuss our model of the shock ignition of the copper oxide aluminum thermite in the context of the striker experiment and how a Gibbs formulation model, that includes multi-components for liquid and solid phases of aluminum, copper oxide, copper and aluminum oxide can predict the events observed at the particle scale in the experiments. Supported by HDTRA1-10-1-0020 (DTRA), N000014-12-1-0555 (ONR).

  4. Formation of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina by Anodization of Aluminum Films on Glass Substrates.

    PubMed

    Lebyedyeva, Tetyana; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro; Skoryk, Mykola; Shpylovyy, Pavlo

    2016-12-01

    Our research was aimed at the study of aluminum films and porous anodic alumina (PAA) films in thin-film РАА/Al structures for optical sensors, based on metal-clad waveguides (MCWG). The results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the structure of Al films, deposited by DC magnetron sputtering, and of PAA films, formed on them, are presented in this work.The study showed that the structure of the Al films is defined by the deposition rate of aluminum and the thickness of the film. We saw that under anodization in 0.3 M aqueous oxalic acid solution at a voltage of 40 V, the PAA film with a disordered array of pores was formed on aluminum films 200-600 nm thick, which were deposited on glass substrates with an ultra-thin adhesive Nb layer. The research revealed the formation of two differently sized types of pores. The first type of pores is formed on the grain boundaries of aluminum film, and the pores are directed perpendicularly to the surface of aluminum. The second type of pores is formed directly on the grains of aluminum. They are directed perpendicularly to the grain plains. There is a clear tendency to self-ordering in this type of pores. PMID:27083584

  5. A Highly Controllable Electrochemical Anodization Process to Fabricate Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuanjing; Lin, Qingfeng; Liu, Xue; Gao, Yuan; He, Jin; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Due to the broad applications of porous alumina nanostructures, research on fabrication of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with nanoporous structure has triggered enormous attention. While fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous AAO with tunable geometric features has been widely reported, it is known that its growth rate can be easily affected by the fluctuation of process conditions such as acid concentration and temperature during electrochemical anodization process. To fabricate AAO with various geometric parameters, particularly, to realize precise control over pore depth for scientific research and commercial applications, a controllable fabrication process is essential. In this work, we revealed a linear correlation between the integrated electric charge flow throughout the circuit in the stable anodization process and the growth thickness of AAO membranes. With this understanding, we developed a facile approach to precisely control the growth process of the membranes. It was found that this approach is applicable in a large voltage range, and it may be extended to anodization of other metal materials such as Ti as well.

  6. A Highly Controllable Electrochemical Anodization Process to Fabricate Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjing; Lin, Qingfeng; Liu, Xue; Gao, Yuan; He, Jin; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Due to the broad applications of porous alumina nanostructures, research on fabrication of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with nanoporous structure has triggered enormous attention. While fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous AAO with tunable geometric features has been widely reported, it is known that its growth rate can be easily affected by the fluctuation of process conditions such as acid concentration and temperature during electrochemical anodization process. To fabricate AAO with various geometric parameters, particularly, to realize precise control over pore depth for scientific research and commercial applications, a controllable fabrication process is essential. In this work, we revealed a linear correlation between the integrated electric charge flow throughout the circuit in the stable anodization process and the growth thickness of AAO membranes. With this understanding, we developed a facile approach to precisely control the growth process of the membranes. It was found that this approach is applicable in a large voltage range, and it may be extended to anodization of other metal materials such as Ti as well. PMID:26706687

  7. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  8. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials. PMID:26831759

  9. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials. PMID:26831759

  10. Optical Studies of Defects in Aluminum Oxide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Floyd Jasper

    Defects in aluminum oxide single crystals were studied using optical absorption, photoluminescence, and thermally stimulated luminescence. The primary defect in Al(,2)O(,3) is the oxygen vacancy. A vacancy trapping 2 electrons, the F center, absorbs at 6.0 eV, and the F('+) center, trapping 1 electron, absorbs at 4.8 eV, 5.4 eV, and possibly 6.1 eV. Neutron bombardment produces F and F('+) centers, while electron bombardment or treatment by growth in a reducing atmosphere makes predominantly F centers. Isochronal and isothermal anneals of neutron-irradiated material show no discrete stages in the annealing of the oxygen vacancy, as monitored by the decrease in optical absorption of the F center, and so no activation energy for the process could be determined. Photoluminescence studies of neutron-irradiated, additively colored, electron irradiated, and growth colored crystals shows the mainly the 6.0 eV - 3.0 eV F center absorption-emission pair, while bombarded samples show reduced F emission, and also F('+) emissions, including the dominant 4.8 - 3.2 eV peak. By using computer controlled excitation and analyzing monochromators, luminescence peak detection was improved, and several new absorption-emission pairs were found. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) was conducted from 77 K to room temperature on growth-colored and non growth-colored samples, using ultraviolet light as the exciting agent. The common 260 K TSL peak is largest at 6.0 eV in exciting wavelength, and shows emission similar to that of the F center. This was not seen in a crystal not containing F centers. Also, a peak at 230 K can be produced in growth-colored crystals by bleaching at about 200 K.

  11. Low-cost photoelectrocatalyst based on a nanoporous oxide layer of low-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangaraju, Raghu R.; Raja, K. S.; Panday, A.; Misra, M.

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbon steel is a commonly used structural material in a wide variety of applications. An anodic oxide layer of this inexpensive alloy has been noted to have interesting photoelectrochemical behaviour similar to that of α-Fe2O3 prepared using other expensive starting materials. An ordered nanoporous oxide layer has been grown on to the low-carbon steel surface by a simple electrochemical anodization process in different electrolytes such as ethylene glycol containing 0.05M NH4F and 3-10 vol% water and 0.5M phosphoric acid solution containing 0.05M NH4F. After anodization, the nanoporous anodic oxide layer has been transformed to α-Fe2O3 by a low-temperature annealing process. Photoelectrochemical characterization of the anodic iron oxide materials has been carried out in 1M KOH electrolyte under a solar simulated illumination using Air Mass (AM) 1.5. The ordered nanoporous oxide layer prepared in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte showed a photocurrent density of about 85 µA cm-2 at 0.4 VAg/AgCl. Whereas the anodic iron oxide prepared by anodization of the low-carbon steel in 0.5M H3PO4 + 0.05M NaF solution showed a photocurrent density of 800 µA cm-2 at 0.4 VAg/AgCl. The improved photoactivity of the phosphate-modified oxide layer could be attributed to the high charge carrier concentration, low charge transfer resistance and better ability to expend holes in the oxygen evolution reaction.

  12. Ion-induced oxidation of aluminum during reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiter, Oliver; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Corbella, Carles; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Particle beam experiments were conducted in an ultra-high-vacuum vessel to mimic target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering of aluminum. Aluminum targets were exposed to quantified beams of argon ions, oxygen atoms and molecules, and aluminum vapour. The growth and etch rates were measured in situ by means of an Al-coated quartz crystal microbalance. The chemical state of the target surface was monitored in-situ by real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface processes were modelled through a set of balance equations providing sputter yields and sticking coefficients. The results indicate that the oxygen uptake of the aluminum surface is enhanced by a factor 1 to 2 by knock-on implantation and that the deposition of aluminum is not affected by the oxidation state of the surface.

  13. Atomistic understandings of reduced graphene oxide as an ultrathin-film nanoporous membrane for separations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic defects in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) formed during reduction processes can act as nanopores, making rGO a promising ultrathin-film membrane candidate for separations. To assess the potential of rGO for such applications, molecular dynamics techniques are employed to understand the defect formation in rGO and their separation performance in water desalination and natural gas purification. We establish the relationship between rGO synthesis parameters and defect sizes, resulting in a potential means to control the size of nanopores in rGO. Furthermore, our results show that rGO membranes obtained under properly chosen synthesis conditions can achieve effective separations and provide significantly higher permeate fluxes than currently available membranes. PMID:26395422

  14. Atomistic understandings of reduced graphene oxide as an ultrathin-film nanoporous membrane for separations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic defects in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) formed during reduction processes can act as nanopores, making rGO a promising ultrathin-film membrane candidate for separations. To assess the potential of rGO for such applications, molecular dynamics techniques are employed to understand the defect formation in rGO and their separation performance in water desalination and natural gas purification. We establish the relationship between rGO synthesis parameters and defect sizes, resulting in a potential means to control the size of nanopores in rGO. Furthermore, our results show that rGO membranes obtained under properly chosen synthesis conditions can achieve effective separations and provide significantly higher permeate fluxes than currently available membranes. PMID:26395422

  15. Cholesterol biosensor based on rf sputtered zinc oxide nanoporous thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. P.; Arya, Sunil K.; Pandey, Pratibha; Malhotra, B. D.; Saha, Shibu; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2007-08-06

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized onto zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoporous thin films grown on gold surface. A preferred c-axis oriented ZnO thin film with porous surface morphology has been fabricated by rf sputtering under high pressure. Optical studies and cyclic voltammetric measurements show that the ChOx/ZnO/Au bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of cholesterol in 25-400 mg/dl range. A relatively low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant) {approx}2.1 mM indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of ChOx to cholesterol. The observed results show promising application of nanoporous ZnO thin film for biosensing application without any functionalization.

  16. Resistive switching of aluminum oxide for flexible memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sungho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2008-06-02

    The unipolar resistive switching of the Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al structure is investigated for nonvolatile memory. Following the production of aluminum oxide film (Al{sub x}O{sub y}) by plasma oxidation, a high ratio of on-state and off-state currents ({>=}10{sup 4}) is achieved, and characteristics of switching endurance are reported. Due to the good ductility of aluminum, the performance of resistive switching on a flexible substrate is not degraded by severe substrate bending. The low process temperature of the plasma oxidation process is advantageous for the fabrication of flexible electronic devices and modern interconnection processes.

  17. Transition-Metal Doped Ceria Microspheres with Nanoporous Structures for CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Ze; Chen, Zhuwen; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Rongshu; Liang, Yongye; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great importance in many different fields of industry. Until now it still remains challenging to use non-noble metal based catalysts to oxidize CO at low temperature. Herein, we report a new class of nanoporous, uniform, and transition metal-doped cerium (IV) oxide (ceria, CeO2) microsphere for CO oxidation catalysis. The porous and uniform microsphere is generated by sacrificed polymer template. Transition-metals, like Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe, were doped into CeO2 microspheres. The combination of hierarchical structure and metal doping afford superior catalytic activities of the doped ceria microspheres, which could pave a new way to advanced non-precious metal based catalysts for CO oxidation. PMID:27030159

  18. Transition-Metal Doped Ceria Microspheres with Nanoporous Structures for CO Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Ze; Chen, Zhuwen; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Rongshu; Liang, Yongye; Zhao, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great importance in many different fields of industry. Until now it still remains challenging to use non-noble metal based catalysts to oxidize CO at low temperature. Herein, we report a new class of nanoporous, uniform, and transition metal-doped cerium (IV) oxide (ceria, CeO2) microsphere for CO oxidation catalysis. The porous and uniform microsphere is generated by sacrificed polymer template. Transition-metals, like Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe, were doped into CeO2 microspheres. The combination of hierarchical structure and metal doping afford superior catalytic activities of the doped ceria microspheres, which could pave a new way to advanced non-precious metal based catalysts for CO oxidation.

  19. Transition-Metal Doped Ceria Microspheres with Nanoporous Structures for CO Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Ze; Chen, Zhuwen; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Rongshu; Liang, Yongye; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great importance in many different fields of industry. Until now it still remains challenging to use non-noble metal based catalysts to oxidize CO at low temperature. Herein, we report a new class of nanoporous, uniform, and transition metal-doped cerium (IV) oxide (ceria, CeO2) microsphere for CO oxidation catalysis. The porous and uniform microsphere is generated by sacrificed polymer template. Transition-metals, like Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe, were doped into CeO2 microspheres. The combination of hierarchical structure and metal doping afford superior catalytic activities of the doped ceria microspheres, which could pave a new way to advanced non-precious metal based catalysts for CO oxidation. PMID:27030159

  20. Bottom-Up Preparation of Ultrathin 2D Aluminum Oxide Nanosheets by Duplicating Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhifeng; Zhou, Anan; Wu, Jifeng; Chen, Yunqiang; Lan, Xiaoli; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-02-24

    2D ultrathin aluminum oxide (2D-Al2O3) nanosheets are prepared by duplicating graphene oxide. An amorphous precursor of the hydroxide of aluminum is first deposited onto graphene oxide sheets, which are then converted into 2D-Al2 O3 nanosheets by calcination, while the graphene oxide is removed. The 2D-Al2O3 nanosheets have a large specific surface area and a superior adsorption capacity to fluoride ions. PMID:26678843

  1. Oxidation of aluminum particles in the presence of water.

    PubMed

    Schoenitz, Mirko; Chen, Chi-Mon; Dreizin, Edward L

    2009-04-16

    Oxidation of spherical aluminum powder was investigated in mixed argon-oxygen-steam atmospheres by thermogravimetric measurements at heating rates between 1 and 20 K/min and up to 1100 degrees C. The observed oxidation behavior in the presence of steam differs markedly from oxidation in dry oxygen. Oxidation in steam is complete near 1000 degrees C vs 1500 degrees C in dry oxygen. Furthermore, in steam, a stepwise weight change is observed at the melting point of aluminum, while no such step can be distinguished in dry oxygen. The complete oxidation observed at a lower temperature in steam as compared to dry oxygen is explained by the stabilization of the gamma polymorph of the surface oxide in the presence of water so that a denser and slower growing alpha-alumina does not form until higher temperatures. Experiments in mixed oxygen/steam oxidizers showed that the size of the oxidation step observed upon aluminum melting only correlates with the concentration of steam in the atmosphere. This may be interpreted as the effect of transient porosity, the degree of which is controlled by the steam concentration, or the surface oxide stressed by the expanding melting metal core may behave as a semipermeable membrane where hydrous species have significantly higher diffusion rates than oxygen. A clear distinction cannot be drawn, and further research is warranted. Preliminary results on isoconversion processing of the oxidation kinetics are presented. PMID:19309144

  2. Formation of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina by Anodization of Aluminum Films on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebyedyeva, Tetyana; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro; Skoryk, Mykola; Shpylovyy, Pavlo

    2016-04-01

    Our research was aimed at the study of aluminum films and porous anodic alumina (PAA) films in thin-film PAA/Al structures for optical sensors, based on metal-clad waveguides (MCWG). The results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the structure of Al films, deposited by DC magnetron sputtering, and of PAA films, formed on them, are presented in this work.

  3. Nanoporous gold supported cobalt oxide microelectrodes as high-performance electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xing-You; Fu, Hong-Ying; Hou, Chao; Han, Gao-Feng; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous demands for electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity and reliability, fast response and excellent selectivity have stimulated intensive research on developing versatile materials with ultrahigh electrocatalytic activity. Here we report flexible and self-supported microelectrodes with a seamless solid/nanoporous gold/cobalt oxide hybrid structure for electrochemical nonenzymatic glucose biosensors. As a result of synergistic electrocatalytic activity of the gold skeleton and cobalt oxide nanoparticles towards glucose oxidation, amperometric glucose biosensors based on the hybrid microelectrodes exhibit multi-linear detection ranges with ultrahigh sensitivities at a low potential of 0.26 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The sensitivity up to 12.5 mA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² with a short response time of less than 1 s gives rise to ultralow detection limit of 5 nM. The outstanding performance originates from a novel nanoarchitecture in which the cobalt oxide nanoparticles are incorporated into pore channels of the seamless solid/nanoporous Au microwires, providing excellent electronic/ionic conductivity and mass transport for the enhanced electrocatalysis. PMID:23851924

  4. Tailoring metal-oxide interfaces of inverse catalysts of TiO2/nanoporous-Au under hydrogen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Kamran; Quynh, Bui Thi Phuong; Lee, Hyosun; Moon, Song Yi; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-06-14

    Engineering metal-oxide interfaces in TiO2/nanoporous (np) Au inverse catalysts results in enhancement of H2 oxidation activity. While the intrinsic activity of the novel np-Au prepared from a Au-Si alloy is low, the activity increased as the weight fraction of the TTIP (amount of TiO2) was increased to 0.5 weight%. We correlate the change in activity with the active sites at the perimeter interface between the TiO2 and np-Au. PMID:25959456

  5. Structure of triglycine sulfate embedded in porous aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golitsyna, O. M.; Drozhdin, S. N.; Zanin, I. E.; Gridnev, A. E.

    2012-11-01

    The X-ray diffraction investigations have been performed for nanocomposite materials based on porous aluminum oxide with inclusions of TGS and TGS, which is doped with L,α-alanine (ATGS). The presence of the TGS and ATGS textures in pores of Al2O3 films has been found. It has been established that, under conditions of confined geometry, the broadening of diffraction maxima of the reflection is caused by the size effect. The temperature dependences of the order parameter for porous aluminum oxide with TGS inclusions have been constructed.

  6. The Strength of the Metal. Aluminum Oxide Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    The strength of the interface between metals and aluminum oxide is an important factor in the successful operation of devices found throughout modern technology. One finds the interface in machine tools, jet engines, and microelectronic integrated circuits. The strength of the interface, however, should be strong or weak depending on the application. The diverse technological demands have led to some general ideas concerning the origin of the interfacial strength, and have stimulated fundamental research on the problem. Present status of our understanding of the source of the strength of the metal - aluminum oxide interface in terms of interatomic bonds are reviewed. Some future directions for research are suggested.

  7. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes.

    PubMed

    Belwalkar, A; Grasing, E; Van Geertruyden, W; Huang, Z; Misiolek, W Z

    2008-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 microm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity. PMID:19578471

  8. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 µm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity. PMID:19578471

  9. Use of aluminum as an oxidation barrier for titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Shenoy, R. N.; Wiedemann, K. E.; Clark, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    A study is conducted of the use of aluminum coatings as oxidation retardants for Ti alloys, using room temperature normal emittance and spectral emittance as bases for the characterization of oxidation properties with and without the coatings. Thermal exposures were conducted in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus in which specimen weight was continuously monitored. The results obtained indicate that the weight gains are proportional to the square root of the time for uncoated alloys and for 649 C-exposed aluminum-coated alloys. For the 704 C-exposed aluminum-coated alloys, weight gain exhibits a low rate for short and a high rate for long exposure times, implying that the 0.5-micron coating's protection decreases for long exposures at this temperature.

  10. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  11. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  12. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  13. OXYANION SORPTION TO HIGH SURFACE AREA IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of selected oxyanions (Mo, As, and P) to high surface area iron and aluminum oxides was investigated using in situ Raman and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, batch sorption methods, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and surface complexation modeling. In situ ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra were coup...

  14. Aluminum oxide filler prevents obstructions in tubing during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1966-01-01

    Granular aluminum oxide is used as filler in serpentine tubing while welding the tubing to a flat surface. The filler eliminates obstructions in the tubes formed by molten weld nuggets and is porous enough to allow gases to escape from the welding area.

  15. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  16. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  17. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  18. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  19. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  20. Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

    2006-03-17

    This project led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of dross formation. The microstructural evolution in industrial dross samples was determined. Results suggested that dross that forms in layers with structure and composition determined by the local magnesium concentration alone. This finding is supported by fundamental studies of molten metal surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that only magnesium segregates to the molten aluminum alloy surface and reacts to form a growing oxide layer. X-ray diffraction techniques that were using to investigate an oxidizing molten aluminum alloy surface confirmed for the first time that magnesium oxide is the initial crystalline phase that forms during metal oxidation. The analytical techniques developed in this project are now available to investigate other molten metal surfaces. Based on the improved understanding of dross initiation, formation and growth, technology was developed to minimize melt loss. The concept is based on covering the molten metal surface with a reusable physical barrier. Tests in a laboratory-scale reverberatory furnace confirmed the results of bench-scale tests. The main highlights of the work done include: A clear understanding of the kinetics of dross formation and the effect of different alloying elements on dross formation was obtained. It was determined that the dross evolves in similar ways regardless of the aluminum alloy being melted and the results showed that amorphous aluminum nitride forms first, followed by amorphous magnesium oxide and crystalline magnesium oxide in all alloys that contain magnesium. Evaluation of the molten aluminum alloy surface during melting and holding indicated that magnesium oxide is the first crystalline phase to form during oxidation of a clean aluminum alloy surface. Based on dross evaluation and melt tests it became clear that the major contributing factor to aluminum alloy dross was in the alloys with Mg content. Mg was

  1. Magnetic properties of nickel and cobalt catalysts supported on nanoporous oxides.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Polo, C; Gil, A; Korili, S A; Pérez-Landazabal, J I; Recarte, V; Trujillano, R; Vicente, M A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work is to use magnetic measurements as a research tool in the study of possible metal-support interactions in nickel and cobalt nanoporous catalysts. Several physicochemical techniques, namely nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction and chemical analysis, were used to analyze the role of the preparation method and the nature of the support on the existence of such metal-support interactions and to relate them with the magnetic response of these nanoporous systems. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and precipitation-deposition with two commercial oxides, gamma-Al2O3 and SiO2, as supports. The magnetic behavior of the catalysts is drastically affected by the existence of interactions between the metal and the support during the preparation procedure. The samples with weak metal-support interactions have characteristic magnetic behavior of antiferromagnetic metal oxide nanoparticles, while the ones having strong interactions display spin-glass like behavior. PMID:18681026

  2. Nanoporous copper oxide ribbon assembly of free-standing nanoneedles as biosensors for glucose.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaodong; Sun, Yuexia; Chen, Anran; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Yang, Zhimao

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by a sequential hydrolysis-precipitation mechanism, morphology-controllable hierarchical cupric oxide (CuO) nanostructures are facilely fabricated by a green water/ethanol solution-phase transformation of Cu(x)(OH)(2x-2)(SO4) precursors in the absence of any organic capping agents and without annealing treatment in air. Antlerite Cu3(OH)4(SO4) precursors formed in a low volume ratio between water and ethanol can transform into a two-dimensional (2D) hierarchical nanoporous CuO ribbon assembly of free-standing nanoneedle building blocks and hierarchical nanoneedle-aggregated CuO flowers. Brochantite Cu4(OH)6(SO4) precursors formed in a high volume ratio between water and ethanol can transform into hierarchical nanoplate-aggregated CuO nanoribbons and nanoflowers. Such 2D hierarchical nanoporous CuO ribbons serving as a promising electrode material for nonenzymatic glucose detection show high sensitivity, a low detection limit, fast amperometric response and good selectivity. Significantly, this green water-induced precursor-hydrolysis method might be used to control effectively the growth of other metal oxide micro-/nanostructures. PMID:26057132

  3. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  4. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  5. Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Chunqing Otto, M.; Lupascu, A.

    2014-01-27

    We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5 nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303 mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

  6. Development of topologically structured membranes of aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankova, A.; Videkov, V.; Tzaneva, B.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, nanomembranes have become one of the most widely used construction material for ultrasensitive and ultrathin applications in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and other sensor structures due to their remarkable mechanical properties. Among these, the mechanical stability is of particular importance. We present an approach to the analysis of the stability of nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide free membranes subjected to mechanical bending. The membranes tested were with a thickness of 500 nm to 15 urn in various topological shapes; we describe the technological schemes of their preparation. Bends were applied to membranes prepared by using a selective process of etching and anodizing. The results of the preparation of the membranes are discussed, together with the influence of the angle of deflection, and the number of bendings. The results obtained can be used in designing MEMS structures and sensors which use nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide.

  7. Removal of nano and microparticles by granular filter media coated with nanoporous aluminium oxide.

    PubMed

    Lau, B L T; Harrington, G W; Anderson, M A; Tejedor, I

    2004-01-01

    Conventional filtration was designed to achieve high levels of particle and pathogen removal. Previous studies have examined the possibility of modifying filtration media to improve their ability to remove microorganisms and viruses. Although these studies have evaluated filter media coatings for this purpose, none have evaluated nanoscale particle suspensions as coating materials. The overall goal of this paper is to describe the preliminary test results of nanoporous aluminium oxide coated media that can be used to enhance filtration of nano and microparticles. Filtration tests were carried out using columns packed with uncoated and coated forms of granular anthracite or granular activated carbon. A positive correlation between isoelectric pH of filter media and particle removal was observed. The modified filter media with a higher isoelectric pH facilitated better removal of bacteriophage MS2 and 3 microm latex microspheres, possibly due to increased favorable electrostatic interactions. PMID:15686025

  8. Tailoring oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula; Sharma, Vimal

    2016-05-01

    In this report, the oxidation temperature and reaction enthalpy of Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles has been controlled by reinforcing with carbon nanotubes. The physical mixing method with ultrasonication was employed to synthesize CNT/Al nanocomposite powders. The micro-morphology of nanoconmposite powders has been analysed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The oxidation behavior of nanocomposite powders analyzed by thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimertry showed improvement in the exothermic enthalpy. Largest exothermic enthalpy of-1251J/g was observed for CNT (4 wt%)/Al nanocomposite.

  9. Growth control of carbon nanotubes using by anodic aluminum oxide nano templates.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Won Seek; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template prepared in acid electrolyte possess regular and highly anisotropic porous structure with pore diameter range from five to several hundred nanometers, and with a density of pores ranging from 10(9) to 10(11) cm(-2). AAO can be used as microfilters and templates for the growth of CNTs and metal or semiconductor nanowires. Varying anodizing conditions such as temperature, electrolyte, applied voltage, anodizing and widening time, one can control the diameter, the length, and the density of pores. In this work, we deposited Al thin film by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method to fabricate AAO nano template and synthesized multi-well carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). AAO nano-porous templates with various pore sizes and depths were introduced to control the dimension and density of CNT arrays. The AAO nano template was synthesize on glass by two-step anodization technique. The average diameter and interpore distance of AAO nano template are about 65 nm and 82 nm. The pore density and AAO nano template thickness are about 2.1 x 10(10) pores/cm2 and 1 microm, respectively. Aligned CNTs on the AAO nano template were synthesized by MPECVD at 650 degrees C with the Ni catalyst layer. The length and diameter of CNTs were grown 2 microm and 50 nm, respectively. PMID:24734654

  10. Selective growth of vertical silicon nanowire array guided by anodic aluminum oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Nguyen, Van; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Konagai, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    We report on the selective growth of vertical silicon nanowire arrays guided by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template without the introduction of any metallic catalyst. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using disilane as a source gas was carried out. The growth conditions such as flow rate and growth temperature were changed to optimize the Si nanowire growth. It was found that the selective growth was promoted at a flow rate of 0.5 sccm, whereas the selective growth was poor at high flow rates of 1 and 2 sccm. One-micrometer-long Si nanowire arrays were obtained at a low flow rate of 0.5 sccm only at the growth temperature of 700 °C. The obtained Si grown at a temperature of 650 °C exhibited conglomerated structures with Si grains piled up inside the nanopores of the AAO template. We found that increasing the growth temperature and decreasing the flow rate are useful for improving the growth selectivity.

  11. Preparation of polyaniline nanotubes array based on anodic aluminum oxide template

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Shanxin; Wang Qi; Xia Hesheng

    2004-08-03

    In this article, the highly ordered polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes array was prepared by in situ polymerization using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as template. Polymerization of aniline was confined in the one-dimensional nanochannel of AAO template. The aniline was adsorbed and polymerized preferentially on the pore walls of template. The structure of PANI nanotubes array was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and dynamic force microscope (DFM). The results show that PANI nanotubes are synthesized successfully in the nanopores of template, the diameter and length of PANI nanotubes are closed to the pore diameter and thickness of AAO template, respectively, the arrangement of PANI nanotubes is very regular and uniform, the crystal form of PANI nanotubes is hexagonal, different from pseudo-orthorhombic crystal form of PANI bulk sample, and cell parameters a and b are 0.5008 nm. The change of crystal form is due to the confinement of AAO template, which makes the molecular chain of PANI arrange more ordered.

  12. Gas Adsorption Properties of Graphene-Oxide-Frameworks and Nanoporous Benzene-Boronic Acid Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burress, Jacob; Simmons, Jason; Ford, Jamie; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-03-01

    There has been a recent resurgence in graphene oxide research as a potential route to large scale graphene synthesis. Recent research has also used dehydration reactions of boronic acids for the formation of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and other new nanoporous materials. We are trying to synthesize graphene-oxide-frameworks (GOFs) by linking the OH groups on graphene oxide with benzene-boronic acids. Our initial x-ray studies indicate that the benzene-boronic acids are successfully incorporated into graphene-oxide (GO) layers expanding the interlayer spacing up to 12 Ang. We also found that the amorphous phases of bare dehydrated benzene-boronic acid polymers (amorphous borocarbons, ABCs) show quite interesting and unusual hydrogen adsorption behavior. The diffusion of hydrogen into the sample is thermally activated. While there is no adsorption at 30 K, the rate of excess adsorption increases with increasing temperature up to 70 K. We will present detailed high-pressure isotherms of H2/CO2/Methane at different temperatures of these interesting new GOF materials and dehydrated boronic acid polymers.

  13. A nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  14. A nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  15. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Oganov, Artem R.; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, we have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure ranges 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2- and peroxide O22- ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2.

  16. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Oganov, Artem R; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, we have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure ranges 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O(2-) and peroxide O2(2-) ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2. PMID:25830780

  17. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Oganov, Artem R.; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, we have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure ranges 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2− and peroxide O22− ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2. PMID:25830780

  18. Anodic Oxidation in Aluminum Electrode by Using Hydrated Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Film as Solid Electrolyte under High Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Su, Zhen; Peng, Yong; Zou, Pei; Yao, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Dense and nonporous amorphous aluminum oxide (AmAO) film was deposited onto platinized silicon substrate by sol-gel and spin coating technology. The evaporated aluminum film was deposited onto the AmAO film as top electrode. The hydrated AmAO film was utilized as a solid electrolyte for anodic oxidation of the aluminum electrode (Al) film under high electric field. The hydrated AmAO film was a high efficiency electrolyte, where a 45 nm thick Al film was anodized completely on a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and breakdown phenomena of a dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film with a 150 nm thick Al electrode pad were studied in this work. Breakdown voltage of the dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film were 85 ± 3 V (405 ± 14 MV m(-1)) and 160 ± 5 V (762 ± 24 MV m(-1)), respectively. The breakdown voltage of the hydrated AmAO film increased about twice, owing to the self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction). As an intuitive phenomenon of the self-healing behavior, priority anodic oxidation phenomena was observed in a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film with a 65 nm thick Al electrode pad. The results suggested that self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction) was occurring nearby the defect regions of the films during I-V test. It was an effective electrical self-healing method, which would be able to extend to many other simple and complex oxide dielectrics and various composite structures. PMID:27070754

  19. Surface engineering of nanoporous substrate for solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sanghoon; Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Yu, Wonjong; Kang, Sungmin; Cho, Gu Young; Kim, Sung Han

    2015-01-01

    Summary Solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited thin film electrolytes supported on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) are electrochemically characterized with varying thickness of bottom electrode catalyst (BEC); BECs which are 0.5 and 4 times thicker than the size of AAO pores are tested. The thicker BEC ensures far more active mass transport on the BEC side and resultantly the thicker BEC cell generates ≈11 times higher peak power density than the thinner BEC cell at 500 °C. PMID:26425432

  20. Surface engineering of nanoporous substrate for solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sanghoon; Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Yu, Wonjong; Kang, Sungmin; Cho, Gu Young; Kim, Sung Han; An, Jihwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited thin film electrolytes supported on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) are electrochemically characterized with varying thickness of bottom electrode catalyst (BEC); BECs which are 0.5 and 4 times thicker than the size of AAO pores are tested. The thicker BEC ensures far more active mass transport on the BEC side and resultantly the thicker BEC cell generates ≈11 times higher peak power density than the thinner BEC cell at 500 °C. PMID:26425432

  1. Naringin protects memory impairment and mitochondrial oxidative damage against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Shur, Bhargabi; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum has been indicated in neurodegenerative disorders and naringin, a bioflavonoid has been used to reduce neurotoxic effects of aluminum against aluminum chloride-induced rats. Therefore, present study has been designed to explore the possible role of naringin against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) drug treatment were administered orally for six weeks to male wistar rats. Various behavioral performance tasks, biochemical, mitochondrial oxidative parameters, and aluminum concentration in the brain were assessed. Aluminum chloride treatment significantly caused cognitive dysfunction and mitochondria oxidative damage as compared to vehicle treated control group. Besides, aluminum chloride treatment significantly increased acetyl cholinesterase activity and aluminum concentration in the brain as compared to sham. Chronic administration of naringin significantly improved cognitive performance and attenuated mitochondria oxidative damage, acetyl cholinesterase activity, and aluminum concentration in aluminum-treated rats as compared to control rats. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of naringin against aluminum chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction and mitochondrial oxidative damage. PMID:23510099

  2. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries. PMID:23354412

  3. Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.

    2001-07-17

    The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99+ percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. This information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly.

  4. Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.

    2001-07-17

    The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99 plus percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. The information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly.

  5. The effects of aluminum oxide on inertial welding of aluminum in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael H.

    1992-05-01

    Inertial friction welding of 2219 aluminum alloy studs to 2219 aluminum alloy plates is investigated in air and in an argon atmosphere to determine the effects of an intact oxide layer on weld quality. Scratch-brushing of plates and studs was performed in an argon atmosphere to break up the oxide layer and prevent reformation prior to testing. Argon was used to simulate the near-oxygen free space environment. Weld quality was determined by a bend test and by measurement of the fraction of the weld surface area that was dimpled in appearance following fracture of the weld. The fundamental theories of friction and wear that are applicable to friction welding are reviewed. A brief survey of current welding methods that may have application in space is presented, as well as a discussion of their feasibility and limitations. Characteristics of the space station are discussed as well as their consequences on welding in space. A qualitative model of the process of inertial friction welding based on the theories of friction and observations of welds and weld fractures is developed and presented.

  6. Chemical dynamics of nano-aluminum/iodine (V) oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, B. K.; Welle, E. J.; Emery, S. B.; Bogle, M. B.; Ashley, V. L.; Schrand, A. M.; Lindsay, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    This proceeding describes our preliminary efforts in studying highly reactive composites containing crystalline iodine (V) oxide and nano-aluminum (nAl) with various amounts of cyclohexanone in the form of powders. In this study we report upon the application of physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and electron microscopy for chemical characterization of powder composites. In addition dynamic measurements were conducted by recording pressure trace profiles during a combustion event. These various techniques were employed to examine these energetic materials (EMs) and associate changes to the chemical dynamics of the composite with the additive.

  7. Aircraft water vapor measurements utilizing an aluminum oxide hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    1973-01-01

    A hygrometer for water vapor measurements from an aircraft has been developed. An aluminum oxide hygrometer mounted in an aircraft Rosemount air temperature scoop was flown on NASA and USAF aircraft. Water vapor measurements were conducted up to 40,000 feet with penetration into the stratosphere. Good agreement was obtained with simultaneously flown remote sounders of water vapor. During transcontinental flights the hygrometer demonstrated adequate response to measure the natural variability of water vapor near the tropopause. Rapid response was demonstrated in pursuit of the jet wake of an F-104 at 35,000 feet.

  8. Aircraft water vapor measurements utilizing an aluminum oxide hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    1974-01-01

    A hygrometer for water vapor measurements from an aircraft was developed. An aluminum oxide hygrometer mounted in an aircraft Rosemount air temperature scoop was flown on the NASA Convair 990 and on a USAF B-57 aircraft. Water vapor measurements from the Convair 990 were conducted up to 40,000 ft with penetration into the stratosphere. Good agreement was obtained with simultaneously flown remote sounders of water vapor. During transcontinental flights the hygrometer demonstrated adequate response to measure the natural variability of water vapor near the tropopause. Rapid response was demonstrated in pursuit of the jet wake of an F-104 at 35,000 ft.

  9. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication. PMID:27427755

  10. Nanoporous metal oxides thin-films as "chemical reactive layers" for magnetoelastic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong

    Freestanding magnetoelastic sensors are good candidates for in situ analysis of gases. After coating magnetoelastic ribbons with suitable nanoporous thin films, chemical reactive layers (CRL), sensitivity and specificity of the sensor for targeted gas increases. This thesis addresses two major aspects concerning magnetoelastic sensing of gases. The first aspect relates to developing methodology to measure mass of gas adsorbed from frequency shifts. Effective Young's modulus of the sensor coated with porous thin-films suffers large changes upon mass loading. This study demonstrates that changes in Young's modulus produced upon mass loading can be eliminated from the relationship between the magnitude of mass loaded and shifts in resonant frequency using the Two Different Length Sensors method. Sensitivity of the sensor not only depends on its properties but also depends on the nature of material being loaded and on its mass. Results show that sensitivity for the same sensor can range between 214 Hz/mg for mass loads of Au to 438,809 Hz/mg for acetone. The second aspect of this research deals with the development of CRL for ethylene sensing. Nanoporous metal oxides (TiO2 and SiO 2) surface modified with metals Pt(0) and metal ions Pt(II), Pd(II), Ag(I) were synthesized and evaluated as potential candidates. These materials were evaluated as ethylene adsorbents. We also studied the gain in weight upon ethylene adsorption and the nature of their chemical interaction with ethylene. Results from these studies showed that ethylene is completely mineralized (CO2+H2O) upon exposure to Pt(0)-modified TiO2 cermets. TiO2 modified with Pd(II) and Pt(II) oxidizes a fraction of ethylene to carboxylic and carboxylate species, causing adsorption of ethylene to be partially irreversible at room temperature. Ag(I)-doped materials react with ethylene to form surface complexes with sigma bonding character. Adsorption of ethylene is reversible process in this case. While the adsorption

  11. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  12. Formation of anodic aluminum oxide with serrated nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Chuanhai; Lu, Jia G

    2010-08-11

    We report a simple and robust method to self-assemble porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes with serrated nanochannels by anodizing in phosphoric acid solution. Due to high field conduction and anionic incorporation, an increase of anodizing voltage leads to an increase of the impurity levels and also the field strength across barrier layer. On the basis of both experiment and simulation results, the initiation and formation of serrated channels are attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles followed by plastic deformation in the oxide film. Alternating anodization in oxalic and phosphoric acids is applied to construct multilayered membranes with smooth and serrated channels, demonstrating a unique way to design and construct a three-dimensional hierarchical system with controllable morphology and composition. PMID:20617804

  13. Interfacial charging phenomena of aluminum (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, T.; Yong, H.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1999-08-31

    The interfacial charging of Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite and bayerite) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied. For Al(OH){sub 3} it can be shown that the very strong variation in charging behavior for different preparations is related to the relative presence of differently reacting crystal planes. The edge faces of the hexagonal gibbsite crystals are proton reactive over the whole pH range, in contrast to the 001 plane, which is mainly uncharged below pH = 10. On this 001 face only doubly coordinated surface groups are found, in contrast to the edges which also have singly coordinated surface groups. The results are fully in agreement with the predictions of the Multi site complexation (MUSIC) model. The proton adsorption, electrolyte ion adsorption, and shift of the IEP of gibbsite and aluminum oxide have been modeled simultaneously. For gibbsite, the ion pair formation of Na is larger than that of Cl, as is evidenced by modeling the experimentally observed upward shift on the IEP and charge reversal at high electrolyte concentrations. All these experimental results can be satisfactorily modeled with the MUSIC model, including the experimental surface potential of aluminum oxide (ISFET).

  14. Corrosion evaluation of zirconium doped oxide coatings on aluminum formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bajat, Jelena; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Vasilić, Rastko; Stojadinović, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O) and Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O doped with Zr was analyzed in order to obtain oxide coatings with improved corrosion resistance. The influence of current density in PEO process and anodization time was investigated, as well as the influence of Zr, with the aim to find out how they affect the chemical content, morphology, surface roughness, and corrosion stability of oxide coatings. It was shown that the presence of Zr increases the corrosion stability of oxide coatings for all investigated PEO times. Evolution of EIS spectra during the exposure to 3% NaCl, as a strong corrosive agent, indicated the highest corrosion stability for PEO coating formed on aluminum at 70 mA/cm(2) for 2 min in a zirconium containing electrolyte. PMID:25125114

  15. Fabrication and electrocatalytic application of functionalized nanoporous carbon material with different transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiee, L.; Shoghi, F.; Vinu, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the work presented here, an attempt is made to study the effect of functionalization with different transition metal oxides on the mesostructural properties as well as electrochemical behavior of Pt/nanoporous carbon supports. In this respect, the functionalized samples have been synthesized by using CMK-3 and metallocene as transition metal sources. The platinum catalysts (5 wt% Pt) obtained through a conventional wet impregnation method. All the materials have been characterized by XRD (low and high), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution field emission scanning electron, EDX mapping images and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. The results showed that the mesostructural order has been destroyed by functionalization of CMK-3 with CoO, whereas it is not that much affected in NiO and CuO functionalized samples. EDX image mapping exhibited the good and uniform dispersion of functionalizing elements (Ni, Cu, Fe and Co), Pt in the carbon supports. Moreover, XRD studies revealed the formation of smaller platinum crystallite sizes in NiO and CuO functionalized samples in relative to other functionalized supports. Electrochemical measurements were performed using CV and RDE method. Kinetic analysis revealed an activity increases in the following order: CMK-3-NiO-Pt > CMK-3-CuO-Pt > CMK-3-CoO-Pt > CMK-3-Fe2O3-Pt which is showing of simultaneous effect of surface area and surface reactivity parameters.

  16. Nanoporous gold as an active low temperature catalyst toward CO oxidation in hydrogen-rich stream

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongwei; Zhu, Ye; Wang, Hui; Ding, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Preferential CO oxidation (PROX) was investigated by using dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) catalyst under ambient conditions. Systematic investigations were carried out to characterize its catalytic performance by varying reaction parameters such as temperature and co-existence of CO2 and H2O, which revealed that NPG was a highly active and selective catalyst for PROX, especially at low temperature. At 20°C, the exit CO concentration could be reduced to less than 2 ppm with a turnover frequency of 4.1 × 10−2 s−1 at a space velocity of 120,000 mL h−1 g−1cat. and its high activity could retain for more than 24 hours. The presence of residual Ag species in the structure did not seem to improve the intrinsic activity of NPG for PROX; however, they contributed to the stabilization of the NPG structure and apparent catalytic activity. These results indicated that NPG might be readily applicable for hydrogen purification in fuel cell applications. PMID:24145317

  17. Nanoporous gold as an active low temperature catalyst toward CO oxidation in hydrogen-rich stream.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongwei; Zhu, Ye; Wang, Hui; Ding, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Preferential CO oxidation (PROX) was investigated by using dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) catalyst under ambient conditions. Systematic investigations were carried out to characterize its catalytic performance by varying reaction parameters such as temperature and co-existence of CO2 and H2O, which revealed that NPG was a highly active and selective catalyst for PROX, especially at low temperature. At 20°C, the exit CO concentration could be reduced to less than 2 ppm with a turnover frequency of 4.1 × 10(-2) s(-1) at a space velocity of 120,000 mL h(-1) g(-1)cat. and its high activity could retain for more than 24 hours. The presence of residual Ag species in the structure did not seem to improve the intrinsic activity of NPG for PROX; however, they contributed to the stabilization of the NPG structure and apparent catalytic activity. These results indicated that NPG might be readily applicable for hydrogen purification in fuel cell applications. PMID:24145317

  18. Functionalized Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane–Electrode System for Enzyme Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A nanoporous membrane system with directed flow carrying reagents to sequentially attached enzymes to mimic nature’s enzyme complex system was demonstrated. Genetically modified glycosylation enzyme, OleD Loki variant, was immobilized onto nanometer-scale electrodes at the pore entrances/exits of anodic aluminum oxide membranes through His6-tag affinity binding. The enzyme activity was assessed in two reactions—a one-step “reverse” sugar nucleotide formation reaction (UDP-Glc) and a two-step sequential sugar nucleotide formation and sugar nucleotide-based glycosylation reaction. For the one-step reaction, enzyme specific activity of 6–20 min–1 on membrane supports was seen to be comparable to solution enzyme specific activity of 10 min–1. UDP-Glc production efficiencies as high as 98% were observed at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, at which the substrate residence time over the electrode length down pore entrances was matched to the enzyme activity rate. This flow geometry also prevented an unwanted secondary product hydrolysis reaction, as observed in the test homogeneous solution. Enzyme utilization increased by a factor of 280 compared to test homogeneous conditions due to the continuous flow of fresh substrate over the enzyme. To mimic enzyme complex systems, a two-step sequential reaction using OleD Loki enzyme was performed at membrane pore entrances then exits. After UDP-Glc formation at the entrance electrode, aglycon 4-methylumbelliferone was supplied at the exit face of the reactor, affording overall 80% glycosylation efficiency. The membrane platform showed the ability to be regenerated with purified enzyme as well as directly from expression crude, thus demonstrating a single-step immobilization and purification process. PMID:25025628

  19. Nanoporous activated carbon fluidized bed catalytic oxidations of aqueous o, p and m-cresols: kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, S; Sekaran, G; Gupta, V K

    2013-07-01

    Nanoporous activated carbon prepared from rice husk through precarbonisation at 400 °C and phosphoric acid activation at 800 °C was used as fluidized bed in Fenton oxidation of the o, p and m-cresols in aqueous solution. The efficiencies of homogeneous Fenton oxidation, fluidized Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological oxidation systems for the removal of o, p and m-cresols in aqueous solution have been compared. The kinetic constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the homogeneous Fenton, heterogeneous Fenton and aerobic biological oxidations of o, p and m-cresols in synthetic wastewater were determined. The degradation of cresols in synthetic wastewater was confirmed using FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. PMID:23292221

  20. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits. PMID:26927754

  1. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  2. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  3. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  4. Organic solar cells on indium tin oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Kerstin; Maennig, Bert; Leo, Karl; Tomita, Yuto; May, Christian; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Brier, Eduard; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The authors compare organic solar cells using two different transparent conductive oxides as anode: indium tin oxide (ITO) and three kinds of aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZAO). These anodes with different work functions are used for small molecule photovoltaic devices based on an oligothiophene derivative as donor and fullerene C60 as acceptor molecule. It turns out that cells on ITO and ZAO have virtually identical properties. In particular, the authors demonstrate that the work function of the anode does not influence the Voc of the photovoltaic device due to the use of doped transport layers.

  5. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; De Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile. PMID:24398625

  6. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrochemically synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Kaur, Harpreet

    2016-03-01

    In this study, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via an electrochemical method. The effects of reaction parameters such as supporting electrolytes, solvent, current and electrolysis time on the shape and size of the resulting NPs were investigated. The Al2O3 NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Moreover, the Al2O3 NPs were explored for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye under sunlight irradiation via two processes: adsorption followed by photocatalysis; coupled adsorption and photocatalysis. The coupled process exhibited a higher photodegradation efficiency (45%) compared to adsorption followed by photocatalysis (32%). The obtained kinetic data was well fitted using a pseudo-first-order model for MG degradation.

  8. Biodistribution and toxicity of spherical aluminum oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Lee, Gwang-Hee; Yoon, Cheolho; Jeong, Uiseok; Kim, Younghun; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of the nano-industry, concerns about their potential adverse health effects have been raised. Thus, ranking accurately their toxicity and prioritizing for in vivo testing through in vitro toxicity test is needed. In this study, we used three types of synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles (AlONPs): γ-aluminum oxide hydroxide nanoparticles (γ-AlOHNPs), γ- and α-AlONPs. All three AlONPs were spherical, and the surface area was the greatest for γ-AlONPs, followed by the α-AlONPs and γ-AlOHNPs. In mice, γ-AlOHNPs accumulated the most 24 h after a single oral dose. Additionally, the decreased number of white blood cells (WBC), the increased ratio of neutrophils and the enhanced secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 were observed in the blood of mice dosed with γ-AlOHNPs (10 mg kg(-1)). We also compared their toxicity using four different in vitro test methods using six cell lines, which were derived from their potential target organs, BEAS-2B (lung), Chang (liver), HACAT (skin), H9C2 (heart), T98G (brain) and HEK-293 (kidney). The results showed γ-AlOHNPs induced the greatest toxicity. Moreover, separation of particles was observed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of cells treated with γ-AlOHNPs, but not γ-AlONPs or α-AlONPs. In conclusion, our results suggest that the accumulation and toxicity of AlONPs are stronger in γ-AlOHNPs compared with γ-AlONPs and α-AlONPs owing their low stability within biological system, and the presence of hydroxyl group may be an important factor in determining the distribution and toxicity of spherical AlONPs. PMID:26437923

  9. Single-Phase Rare-Earth Oxide/Aluminum Oxide Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. Richard; Abadie, John G.; Hixson, April D.; Nordine, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Glasses that comprise rare-earth oxides and aluminum oxide plus, optionally, lesser amounts of other oxides, have been invented. The other oxide(s) can include SiO2, B2O3, GeO2, and/or any of a variety of glass-forming oxides that have been used heretofore in making a variety of common and specialty glasses. The glasses of the invention can be manufactured in bulk single-phase forms to ensure near uniformity in optical and mechanical characteristics, as needed for such devices as optical amplifiers, lasers, and optical waveguides (including optical fibers). These glasses can also be formulated to have high indices of refraction, as needed in some of such devices.

  10. Partial oxidation of dimethyl ether using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al prepared through the anodic oxidation of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Yu, B Y; Lee, K H; Kim, K; Byun, D J; Ha, H P; Byun, J Y

    2011-07-01

    The partial oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al. The porous Al2O3 layer was synthesized on the aluminum plate through anodic oxidation in an oxalic-acid solution. It was observed that about 20 nm nanopores were well developed in the Al2O3 layer. The thickness of Al2O3 layer can be adjusted by controlling the anodizing time and current density. After pore-widening and hot-water treatment, the Al2O3/Al plate was calcined at 500 degrees C for 3 h. The obtained delta-Al2O3 had a specific surface area of 160 m2/g, making it fit to be used as a catalyst support. A microchannel reactor was designed and fabricated to evaluate the catalytic activity of Rh/Al2O3/Al in the partial oxidation of DME. The structured catalyst showed an 86% maximum hydrogen yield at 450 degrees C. On the other hand, the maximum syngas yield by a pack-bed-type catalyst could be attained by using a more than fivefold Rh amount compared to that used in the structured Rh/Al2O3/Al catalyst. PMID:22121705

  11. Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Atsushi; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2010-02-16

    Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis for probe liquids were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of bis((tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,-tetrahydrooctyl)-dimethylsiloxy)methylsilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)Si(CH(3))(2)O)(2)SiCH(3)H, (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH). Oxidized aluminum surfaces were prepared by photooxidation/cleaning of sputter-coated aluminum on silicon wafers (Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3)))) using oxygen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that this facile CVD method produces a monolayer with a thickness of 1.1 nm on the Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface without a discernible change in surface morphology. After monolayer deposition, the hydrophilic Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface became both hydrophobic and oleophobic and exhibited essentially no contact angle hysteresis for water and n-hexadecane (advancing/receding contact angles (theta(A)/theta(R)) = 110 degrees/109 degrees and 52 degrees/50 degrees, respectively). Droplets move very easily on this surface and roll off of slightly tilted surfaces, independently of the contact angle (which is a practical definition of ultralyophobic). A conventional fluoroalkylsilane monolayer was also prepared from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(7)CH(2)CH(2)Si(OCH(3))(3), R(F)Si(OMe)(3)) for comparison. The theta(A)/theta(R) values for water and n-hexadecane are 121 degrees/106 degrees and 76 degrees/71 degrees, respectively. The larger hysteresis values indicate the "pinning" of probe liquids, even though advancing contact angles are larger than those of the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers. The (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers have excellent hydrolytic stability in water. We propose that the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers are flexible and liquidlike and that drops in contact with these surfaces experience very low energy barriers between metastable states, leading to the

  12. Oxidation and reduction under cover: Chemistry at the confined space between ultra-thin nanoporous silicates and Ru(0001)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    J. Anibal Boscoboinik; Zhong, Jian -Qiang; Kestell, John; Waluyo, Iradwikanari; Wilkins, Stuart; Mazzoli, Claudio; Barbour, Andi; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shete, Meere; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2016-03-23

    The oxidation and reduction of Ru(0001) surfaces at the confined space between two-dimensional nanoporous silica frameworks and Ru(0001) have been investigated using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). The porous nature of the frameworks and the weak interaction between the silica and the ruthenium substrate allow oxygen and hydrogen molecules to go through the nanopores and react with the metal at the interface between the silica framework and the metal surface. In this work, three types of two-dimensional silica frameworks have been used to study their influence in the oxidation and reduction of the ruthenium surface at elevated pressuresmore » and temperatures. These frameworks are bilayer silica (0.5 nm thick), bilayer aluminosilicate (0.5 nm thick), and zeolite MFI nanosheets (3 nm thick). It is found that the silica frameworks stay essentially intact under these conditions, but they strongly affect the oxidation of ruthenium, with the 0.5 nm thick aluminosilicate bilayer completely inhibiting the oxidation. Furthermore, the latter is believed to be related to the lower chemisorbed oxygen content arising from electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged aluminosilicate framework and the Ru(0001) substrate.« less

  13. Formation of Fine Clusters in High-Temperature Oxidation of Molten Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, KeeHyun

    2014-07-01

    High-temperature oxidation of molten aluminum was investigated by high-resolution electron microscopes in order to determine the possibility of heterogeneous nucleation of aluminum grains on oxide for the grain refinement and structural uniformity of intensively melt-sheared aluminum alloys. High-resolution observations detect initial amorphous phase and gamma-alumina phase and show fine clusters with size of about 150 to 200 nm composed of extremely fine aluminum grains and gamma-alumina or amorphous aluminum oxide. Furthermore, high-resolution lattice images and diffraction patterns show no orientation relationship, although there is a specific orientation between gamma-alumina and aluminum along (111)[110] with high potency of heterogeneous nucleation. The volumetric shrinkage by the transformation of gamma- into alpha-alumina causes the surface oxide films to repeatedly rupture and leads to the creation of channels to the base melt surface for further oxidation of fresh metal. Based on the observations, the mechanism of high-temperature oxidation of molten aluminum and formation of the fine clusters as well as the possibility of the heterogeneous nucleation of aluminum grains are discussed.

  14. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C.; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures. PMID:23682201

  15. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of aluminum-cyclopentadienyl clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnemrat, Sufian; Hooper, Joseph P.

    2014-05-01

    We report Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of aluminum-cyclopentadienyl clusters currently being considered as novel fuels or energetic materials. These clusters contain a small aluminum core surrounded by a single organic ligand layer. The aromatic cyclopentadienyl ligands form a very strong bond with surface Al atoms, giving rise to a stable organometallic cluster which crystallizes into a low-symmetry solid-state material. Our calculations of an isolated cluster in oxygen show minimal reaction between the ligand and oxygen molecules at simulation temperatures of 300 and 1000 K. Rather, in all cases O2 diffuses through the ligand barrier, splits into atomic oxygen upon contact with the aluminum, and forms an amorphous aluminum oxide core. Loss of aluminum-ligand units, as expected from bond strength calculations, is not observed except following significant oxidation. We present simple metrics to quantitatively compare the steric barrier of the outer ligands that limits the oxidation process.

  16. In-flight oxidation of aluminum in the twin-wire electric arc process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Williams, Brian G.

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the in-flight oxidation of aluminum sprayed in air using the twin-wire electric arc (TWEA) thermal spray process. Aerodynamic shear at the droplet surface increases the amount of in-flight oxidation by promoting entrainment of the surface oxides within the molten droplet and continually exposing fresh fluid available for oxidation. Mathematical predictions herein confirm experimental measurements that reveal an elevated, nearly constant surface temperature (˜2273 K) of the droplets during flight. The calculated oxide volume fraction of a “typical” droplet with internal circulation compares favorably to the experimentally determined oxide content (3.3 12.7%) for a typical TWEA-sprayed aluminum coating sprayed onto a room temperature substrate. It is concluded that internal circulation within the molten aluminum droplet is a significant source of oxidation. This effect produces an oxide content nearly two orders of magnitude larger than that of a droplet without continual oxidation.

  17. Nanoporous silicon prepared through air-oxidation demagnesiation of Mg2Si and properties of its lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianwen; Li, Xiaona; Hou, Zhiguo; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-04-28

    Nanoporous silicon has been prepared through the air-oxidation demagnesiation of Mg2Si at 600 °C for 10 hours (Mg2Si + O2 → Si + MgO), followed by HCl washing. Mg2Si was prepared from 200 mesh commercial Si at 500 °C for 5 h in an autoclave. The as-prepared Si exhibits a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g(-1) at 36 A g(-1) and ∼1200 mA h g(-1) at 1.8 A g(-1) over 400 cycles. PMID:25812916

  18. Photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on aluminum oxide particle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rubasinghege, Gayan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen oxides, including nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid, react with mineral dust particles in the atmosphere to yield adsorbed nitrate. Although nitrate ion is a well-known chromophore in natural waters, little is known about the surface photochemistry of nitrate adsorbed on mineral particles. In this study, nitrate adsorbed on aluminum oxide, a model system for mineral dust aerosol, is irradiated with broadband light (lambda > 300 nm) as a function of relative humidity (RH) in the presence of molecular oxygen. Upon irradiation, the nitrate ion readily undergoes photolysis to yield nitrogen-containing gas-phase products including NO(2), NO, and N(2)O, with NO being the major product. The relative ratio and product yields of these gas-phase products change with RH, with N(2)O production being highest at the higher relative humidities. Furthermore, an efficient dark reaction readily converts the major NO product into NO(2) during post-irradiation. Photochemical processes on mineral dust aerosol surfaces have the potential to impact the chemical balance of the atmosphere, yet little is known about these processes. In this study, the impact that adsorbed nitrate photochemistry may have on the renoxification of the atmosphere is discussed. PMID:19534452

  19. Film Growth on Nanoporous Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James; Zhao, Chenwei; Xu, J. M.; Valles, James

    Self-ordered nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) provides an easy way to fabricate nano structured material, such as nano wires and nano particles. We employ AAO as substrates and focus on the thermally evaporated film growth on the surface of the substrate. With various materials deposited onto the substrate, we find the films show different structures, e,g. ordered array of nano particles for Lead and nanohoneycomb structure for Silver. We relate the differing behaviors to the difference of surface energy and diffusion constant. To verify this, the effect of substrate temperature on the film growth has been explored and the structure of the film has been successfully changed through the process. We are grateful for the support of NSF Grants No. DMR-1307290.

  20. Aluminum ions accelerated the oxidative stress of copper-mediated melanin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Junwei; Bi, Shuping

    2003-11-01

    A comparison between the effects of aluminum and cupric ions on the dopachrome (DC) conversion and the cooperation effect of the both ions in the DOPA oxidation to melanin pathway has been studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. Both aluminum and cupric ions catalyze the DC conversion reaction, which is an important step in the melanin synthesis pathway. However, cupric ions catalyze the conversion of DC to yield 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) but the product of DC conversion catalyzed by aluminum is 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). DOPA oxidation catalyzed by aluminum and cupric ions is studied in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The results from our experiments provide evidence that aluminum can markedly increase the oxidative stress of copper-mediated the melanin formation and influence the properties of the melanin by means of changing the ratio of DHICA/DHI in the acidic environment (pH 5.5).

  1. Pt-Al2O3 dual layer atomic layer deposition coating in high aspect ratio nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardon, Gaspard; Gatty, Hithesh K.; Stemme, Göran; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Roxhed, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Functional nanoporous materials are promising for a number of applications ranging from selective biofiltration to fuel cell electrodes. This work reports the functionalization of nanoporous membranes using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is used to conformally deposit platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on Pt in nanopores to form a metal-insulator stack inside the nanopore. Deposition of these materials inside nanopores allows the addition of extra functionalities to nanoporous materials such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Conformal deposition of Pt on such materials enables increased performances for electrochemical sensing applications or fuel cell electrodes. An additional conformal Al2O3 layer on such a Pt film forms a metal-insulator-electrolyte system, enabling field effect control of the nanofluidic properties of the membrane. This opens novel possibilities in electrically controlled biofiltration. In this work, the deposition of these two materials on AAO membranes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Successful process parameters are proposed for a reliable and cost-effective conformal deposition on high aspect ratio three-dimensional nanostructures. A device consisting of a silicon chip supporting an AAO membrane of 6 mm diameter and 1.3 μm thickness with 80 nm diameter pores is fabricated. The pore diameter is reduced to 40 nm by a conformal deposition of 11 nm Pt and 9 nm Al2O3 using ALD.

  2. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg–Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    Summary This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg–Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg–Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials. PMID:25161858

  3. Advantages of Oxide Films as Bases for Aluminum Pigmented Surface Coatings for Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R W; Mutchler, W H

    1931-01-01

    Both laboratory and weather-exposure corrosion tests showed conclusively that the protection afforded by aluminum pigmented spar varnish coatings applied to previously anodized aluminum surfaces was greatly superior to that afforded by the same coatings applied to surfaces which had simply been cleaned free from grease and not anodized.

  4. Effects of the surface characteristics of nanoporous titanium oxide films on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy on the initial adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    PubMed Central

    HAO, YUQUAN; LI, SHUJUN; HAN, XUESONG; HAO, YULIN; AI, HONGJUN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the surface characteristics of nanoporous titanium oxide films, formed by anodization on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy, on the early adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Nanoporous titanium oxide films with two different pore sizes (30 and 90 nm) were formed by anodization in NH4F solution on Ti2448 alloy. The surface roughness of the nanoporous titanium oxide films was determined using a Surftest Formtracer and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cell viability was evaluated at different time points using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms involved in the focal adhesion of osteoblasts to Ti2448 alloy, we quantified the expression levels of integrin β1 and paxillin mRNAs on the nanoporous titanium oxide films during early osteoblast adhesion using real-time RT-PCR. Samples with a 30-nm nanoporous film exhibited a greater number of overlapping microporous structures with microprojections compared with the 90-nm nanoporous film samples. The MTT assay indicated that cell viability on the 30-nm nanoporous surface following 24 and 48 h of cell culture was higher than those observed on the unanodized control and 90-nm nanoporous surfaces. Integrin β1 mRNA expression levels on the 30-nm nanoporous surface following cell culture for 48 h were also significantly higher compared with those on the unanodized control and 90-nm nanoporous surfaces. The results demonstrated that a 30-nm nanoporous titanium oxide film on Ti2448 alloy may provide the optimum bioactive implant surface for the initial adhesion of osteoblasts. PMID:23935754

  5. Effects of the surface characteristics of nanoporous titanium oxide films on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy on the initial adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuquan; Li, Shujun; Han, Xuesong; Hao, Yulin; Ai, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the surface characteristics of nanoporous titanium oxide films, formed by anodization on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy, on the early adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Nanoporous titanium oxide films with two different pore sizes (30 and 90 nm) were formed by anodization in NH4F solution on Ti2448 alloy. The surface roughness of the nanoporous titanium oxide films was determined using a Surftest Formtracer and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cell viability was evaluated at different time points using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms involved in the focal adhesion of osteoblasts to Ti2448 alloy, we quantified the expression levels of integrin β1 and paxillin mRNAs on the nanoporous titanium oxide films during early osteoblast adhesion using real-time RT-PCR. Samples with a 30-nm nanoporous film exhibited a greater number of overlapping microporous structures with microprojections compared with the 90-nm nanoporous film samples. The MTT assay indicated that cell viability on the 30-nm nanoporous surface following 24 and 48 h of cell culture was higher than those observed on the unanodized control and 90-nm nanoporous surfaces. Integrin β1 mRNA expression levels on the 30-nm nanoporous surface following cell culture for 48 h were also significantly higher compared with those on the unanodized control and 90-nm nanoporous surfaces. The results demonstrated that a 30-nm nanoporous titanium oxide film on Ti2448 alloy may provide the optimum bioactive implant surface for the initial adhesion of osteoblasts. PMID:23935754

  6. Oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Alnemrat, Sufian; Hooper, Joseph P

    2014-03-14

    We report Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters that form a prototypical cluster-assembled material. These clusters contain a small aluminum core surrounded by a monolayer of organic ligand. The aromatic cyclopentadienyl ligands form a strong bond with surface Al atoms, giving rise to an organometallic cluster that crystallizes into a low-symmetry solid and is briefly stable in air before oxidizing. Our calculations of isolated aluminum/cyclopentadienyl clusters reacting with oxygen show minimal reaction between the ligand and O2 molecules at simulation temperatures of 500 and 1000 K. In all cases, the reaction pathway involves O2 diffusing through the ligand barrier, splitting into atomic oxygen upon contact with the aluminum, and forming an oxide cluster with aluminum/ligand bonds still largely intact. Loss of individual aluminum-ligand units, as expected from unimolecular decomposition calculations, is not observed except following significant oxidation. These calculations highlight the role of the ligand in providing a steric barrier against oxidizers and in maintaining the large aluminum surface area of the solid-state cluster material. PMID:24628175

  7. Oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Alnemrat, Sufian; Hooper, Joseph P.

    2014-03-14

    We report Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters that form a prototypical cluster-assembled material. These clusters contain a small aluminum core surrounded by a monolayer of organic ligand. The aromatic cyclopentadienyl ligands form a strong bond with surface Al atoms, giving rise to an organometallic cluster that crystallizes into a low-symmetry solid and is briefly stable in air before oxidizing. Our calculations of isolated aluminum/cyclopentadienyl clusters reacting with oxygen show minimal reaction between the ligand and O{sub 2} molecules at simulation temperatures of 500 and 1000 K. In all cases, the reaction pathway involves O{sub 2} diffusing through the ligand barrier, splitting into atomic oxygen upon contact with the aluminum, and forming an oxide cluster with aluminum/ligand bonds still largely intact. Loss of individual aluminum-ligand units, as expected from unimolecular decomposition calculations, is not observed except following significant oxidation. These calculations highlight the role of the ligand in providing a steric barrier against oxidizers and in maintaining the large aluminum surface area of the solid-state cluster material.

  8. Oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnemrat, Sufian; Hooper, Joseph P.

    2014-03-01

    We report Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters that form a prototypical cluster-assembled material. These clusters contain a small aluminum core surrounded by a monolayer of organic ligand. The aromatic cyclopentadienyl ligands form a strong bond with surface Al atoms, giving rise to an organometallic cluster that crystallizes into a low-symmetry solid and is briefly stable in air before oxidizing. Our calculations of isolated aluminum/cyclopentadienyl clusters reacting with oxygen show minimal reaction between the ligand and O2 molecules at simulation temperatures of 500 and 1000 K. In all cases, the reaction pathway involves O2 diffusing through the ligand barrier, splitting into atomic oxygen upon contact with the aluminum, and forming an oxide cluster with aluminum/ligand bonds still largely intact. Loss of individual aluminum-ligand units, as expected from unimolecular decomposition calculations, is not observed except following significant oxidation. These calculations highlight the role of the ligand in providing a steric barrier against oxidizers and in maintaining the large aluminum surface area of the solid-state cluster material.

  9. In-process oxidation protection in fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.; Featherston, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Aluminum is cleaned of its oxide coating and is sealed immediately with polymeric material which makes it suitable for fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding. Time involved between cleaning and brazing is no longer critical factor.

  10. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of human odorant binding proteins immobilized on nanopore arrays for biochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanli; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Yixuan; Luo, Senbiao; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-05-15

    Human odorant-binding proteins (hOBPs) not only can bind and transport odorants in the surrounding environment for sensing smells, but also play important roles in transmitting lots of biomolecules in different organs. Utilizing the properties of hOBPs, an electrochemical biosensor with nanopore array was developed to detect specific biomolecular ligands, such as aldehydes and fatty acids. The highly ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide with diameter of 20-40 nm were fabricated with two-step oxidation. Through 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid, hOBPs were self-assembled on nanopores as the sensing membrane. With nanopore arrays, the impedance spectra showed quite different electron transfer processes in the frequency spectra, which could be characterized by the electron transfer resistance and electrical resistance of the porous membrane. Under stimulation of biomolecular ligands, series resistance of nanopores and hOBPs increased and showed a concentration-dependence feature, while the electron transfer resistance hardly changed. The nanopore based biosensor could sensitively detect biological ligands of benzaldehyde, docosahexaenoic acid, and lauric acid, which were closely related to or were potential biomarkers for cancers and other serious diseases. Equipped with hOBPs, the sensor exhibited promising potentials both in odorant and biomolecule detection for olfactory biosensing and in disease diagnosis and evaluation for biochemical detection. PMID:26710343

  11. Molecular Scale Assessment of Methylarsenic Sorption on Aluminum Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, M.; Ginder-Vogel, M; Parikh, S; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Methylated forms of arsenic (As), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA), have historically been used as herbicides and pesticides. Because of their large application to agriculture fields and the toxicity of MMA and DMA, the sorption of methylated As to soil constituents requires investigation. MMA and DMA sorption on amorphous aluminum oxide (AAO) was investigated using both macroscopic batch sorption kinetics and molecular scale extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. Sorption isotherm studies revealed sorption maxima of 0.183, 0.145, and 0.056 mmol As/mmol Al for arsenate (As{sup V}), MMA, and DMA, respectively. In the sorption kinetics studies, 100% of added As{sup V} was sorbed within 5 min, while 78% and 15% of added MMA and DMA were sorbed, respectively. Desorption experiments, using phosphate as a desorbing agent, resulted in 30% release of absorbed As{sup V}, while 48% and 62% of absorbed MMA and DMA, respectively, were released. FTIR and EXAFS studies revealed that MMA and DMA formed mainly bidentate binuclear complexes with AAO. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that increasing methyl group substitution results in decreased As sorption and increased As desorption on AAO.

  12. Microfluidic DNA extraction using a patterned aluminum oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Gale, Bruce K.

    2006-01-01

    A DNA extraction system was designed and fabricated using an AOM (aluminum oxide membrane) with 200 nm pores and PDMS microfluidic channels. The membrane was patterned using soft lithography techniques and SU-8 photolithography on the membrane. After making the pattern with SU-8, the AOM was observed using an SEM (scanning electro microscope) to verify the AOM structure was not damaged. From the SEM images, the AOM structure was not different after modification with SU-8. To complete the system, a PDMS mold for the microfluidic channels was made by soft lithography. Using the SU-8 mold, PDMS microchannels were cast using PDMS with a low polymer to curing agent ratio to provide adhesion between the patterned membrane and microfluidic channel. Then, the patterned membrane was sandwiched between PDMS microfluidic channels in a parallel format. The completed system was tested with 10ug of Lambda DNA mixed with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. Following DNA extraction, the surface of each well was examined with fluorescence microscopy while embedded in the microfluidic system. Extracted and immobilized DNA on the AOM was observed in almost every separation well. This microsystem, referred to as a membrane-on-a-chip, has potential applications in high-throughput DNA extraction and analysis, with the possibility of being integrated into polymer-based microfluidic systems.

  13. Electrokinetic separation of biomolecules through multiple nano-pores on membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunho; Cha, Misun; Choi, Yosep; Joo, Hyunsang; Lee, Junghoon

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a nanoporous membrane device integrated with an on-chip microfluidic platform for the electrokinetic separation of biomolecules. This platform offers a thin (500 nm) film of anodized aluminum oxide directly fabricated and suspended onto a silicon substrate, assembled into a compact microfluidic device. We successfully showed the electrokinetic transport of ssDNA through the nano-porous membrane under various conditions. Size exclusive biomolecular separation driven by electric field was verified with the complex of thrombin and thrombin aptamer. This architecture enables an on-chip device for binary separation and size exclusive filtration targeted to various applications such as molecular detection and purification.

  14. Nanoporous bimetallic Pt-Au alloy nanocomposites with superior catalytic activity towards electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2011-04-01

    We present a facile route to fabricate novel nanoporous bimetallic Pt-Au alloy nanocomposites by dealloying a rapidly solidified Al(75)Pt(15)Au(10) precursor under free corrosion conditions. The microstructure of the precursor and the as-dealloyed sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The Al(75)Pt(15)Au(10) precursor is composed of a single-phase Al(2)(Au,Pt) intermetallic compound, and can be fully dealloyed in a 20 wt.% NaOH or 5 wt.% HCl aqueous solution. The dealloying leads to the formation of the nanoporous Pt(60)Au(40) nanocomposites (np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs) with an fcc structure. The morphology, size and crystal orientation of grains in the precursor can be conserved in the resultant nanoporous alloy. The np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs consist of two zones with distinct ligament/channel sizes and compositions. The formation mechanism of these np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs can be rationalized based upon surface diffusion of more noble elements and spinodal decomposition during dealloying. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs show superior catalytic activity towards the electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid in the acid media compared to the commercial JM-Pt/C catalyst. This material can find potential applications in catalysis related areas, such as direct methanol or formic acid fuel cells. Our findings demonstrate that dealloying is an effective and simple strategy to realize the alloying of immiscible systems under mild conditions, and to fabricate novel nanostructures with superior performance. PMID:21311802

  15. Controlled synthesis of nanoporous nickel oxide with two-dimensional shapes through thermal decomposition of metal-cyanide hybrid coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed B; Hu, Ming; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Pramanik, Malay; Takai, Kimiko; Malgras, Victor; Choi, Seyong; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Imura, Masataka; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-02-23

    The urgent need for nanoporous metal oxides with highly crystallized frameworks is motivating scientists to try to discover new preparation methods, because of their wide use in practical applications. Recent work has demonstrated that two-dimensional (2D) cyanide-bridged coordination polymers (CPs) are promising materials and appropriate for this purpose (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.- 2013, 52, 1235). After calcination, 2D CPs can be transformed into nanoporous metal oxides with a highly accessible surface area. Here, this strategy is adopted in order to form 2D nanoporous nickel oxide (NiO) with tunable porosity and crystallinity, using trisodium citrate dihydrate as a controlling agent. The presence of trisodium citrate dihydrate plays a key role in the formation of 2D nanoflakes by controlling the nucleation rate and the crystal growth. The size of the nanoflakes gradually increases by augmenting the amount of trisodium citrate dihydrate in the reaction. After heating the as-prepared CPs in air at different temperatures, nanoporous NiO can be obtained. During this thermal treatment, organic units (carbon and nitrogen) are completely removed and only the metal content remains to take part in the formation of nanoporous NiO. In the case of large-sized 2D CP nanoflakes, the original 2D flake-shapes are almost retained, even after thermal treatment at low temperature, but they are completely destroyed at high temperature because of further crystallization in the framework. Nanoporous NiO with high surface area shows significant efficiency and interesting results for supercapacitor application. PMID:25639533

  16. Mechanisms of oxygen ion diffusion in a nanoporous complex oxide 12CaO•7 Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Hayashi, Katsuro; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We performed a theoretical analysis of O2- diffusion mechanisms in a nanoporous complex oxide 12CaO•7Al2O3 (C12A7). This material can be viewed as a positively charged framework, arranged in subnanometer sized cages, hosting extra-framework O2- ions occupying one in six cages. Using both classical molecular-dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations we demonstrate that the diffusion of O2- species is dominated by the exchange of framework and extra-framework O2- ions rather than by an interstitial diffusion mechanism. The results allow us to rationalize the origins of the experimentally observed high oxide ion conductivity of C12A7 and the stability of its lattice under positive ion-beam irradiation.

  17. New Double-Infiltration Methodology to Prepare PCL-PS Core-Shell Nanocylinders Inside Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Belén; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen; Palacios, Jordana K; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    Melt nanomolding of core-shell nanocylinders of different sizes, employing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, is reported here for the first time. The core-shell nanostructures are achieved by a new melt double-infiltration technique. During the first infiltration step, polystyrene (PS) nanotubes are produced by an adequate choice of AAO nanopore diameter size. In the second step, PCL is infiltrated inside the PS nanotubes, as its melting point (and infiltration temperature) is lower than the glass transition temperature of PS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements verified the complete double-infiltration of the polymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments show that the infiltrated PCL undergoes a confined fractionated crystallization with two crystallization steps located at temperatures that depend on which surface is in contact with the PCL nanocylinders (i.e., alumina or PS). The melt double-infiltration methodology represents a novel approach to study the effect of the surrounding surface on polymer crystallization under confinement. PMID:27420298

  18. [Effect of aluminum on the non-enzymatic oxidation of dopamine].

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Manso, C F

    1994-11-01

    The effect of different concentrations of aluminum sulphate on the nonenzymatic oxidation of dopamine was studied in order to evaluate the action of this metal on neuromelanin synthesis. Data shows that under the studied conditions, aluminum partially inhibits dopamine self-oxidation, decreasing the formation of some intermediate compounds, namely dopaminequinone and dopaminochrome. If neuromelanins have a cytoprotective function in the central nervous system, possibly acting as intracellular scavengers of free radicals and redox metal ions, their decrease due to aluminum could be responsible for serious damage to neuronal tissues. PMID:7717100

  19. A method to study the history of a double oxide film defect in liquid aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiszadeh, R.; Griffiths, W. D.

    2006-12-01

    Entrained double oxide films have been held responsible for reductions in mechanical properties in aluminum casting alloys. However, their behavior in the liquid metal, once formed, has not been studied directly. It has been proposed that the atmosphere entrapped in the double oxide film defect will continue to react with the liquid metal surrounding it, perhaps leading to its elimination as a significant defect. A silicon-nitride rod with a hole in one end was plunged into liquid aluminum to hold a known volume of air in contact with the liquid metal at a constant temperature. The change in the air volume with time was recorded by real-time X-ray radiography to determine the reaction rates of the trapped atmosphere with the liquid aluminum, creating a model for the behavior of an entrained double oxide film defect. The results from this experiment showed that first oxygen, and then nitrogen, was consumed by the aluminum alloy, to form aluminum oxide and aluminum nitride, respectively. The effect of adding different elements to the liquid aluminum and the effect of different hydrogen contents were also studied.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; Wang, H. Hau; Birrell, James P.; Welp, Ulrich; Hryn, John N.; Pellin, Michael J.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Poco, John F.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Amore » tomic layer deposition ( ALD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ∼ 40 nm and pore length L ∼ 70 microns. The AAO membranes were coated by ALD to fabricate catalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane.dditional AAO membranes coated with ALD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by ALD .« less

  1. Self-assembling synthesis of free-standing nanoporous graphene-transition-metal oxide flexible electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodan; Sun, Bing; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoporous graphene by a convenient carbon nanofiber assisted self-assembly approach is reported. Porous structures with large pore volumes, high surface areas, and well-controlled pore sizes were achieved by employing spherical silica as hard templates with different diameters. Through a general wet-immersion method, transition-metal oxide (Fe3O4, Co3O4, NiO) nanocrystals can be easily loaded into nanoporous graphene papers to form three-dimensional flexible nanoarchitectures. When directly applied as electrodes in lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, the materials exhibited superior electrochemical performances, including an ultra-high specific capacity, an extended long cycle life, and a high rate capability. In particular, nanoporous Fe3O4-graphene composites can deliver a reversible specific capacity of 1427.5 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1) as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, nanoporous Co3O4-graphene composites achieved a high supercapacitance of 424.2 F g(-1) . This work demonstrated that the as-developed freestanding nanoporous graphene papers could have significant potential for energy storage and conversion applications. PMID:24129981

  2. MOF-derived binary mixed metal/metal oxide @carbon nanoporous materials and their novel supercapacitive performances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y C; Li, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, B Q

    2016-07-21

    Mixed cobalt and manganese oxides embedded in the nanoporous carbon framework (M/MO@C) were synthesized by the direct carbonization of a binary mixed-metal organic framework (CoMn-MOF-74) for the first time. The unique M/MO@C carbon materials maintained the primary morphology of CoMn-MOF-74, and showed a uniform dispersibility of Co, MnO and CoO nanoparticles in the carbon matrix, and therefore greatly increased the conductivity of the M/MO@C materials. A series of M/MO@C samples were tested as the electrode materials for supercapacitors, and a remarkable specific capacitance of 800 F g(-1) was obtained using the M/MO@C-700 sample at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Moreover, the M/MO@C sample showed a good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 85% after 1000 cycles. It is also found that the optimized carbonization temperature is a critical parameter to obtain such a M/MO@C nanoporous carbon framework with the best capacitive performances. The present approach is convenient and reproducible, which could be easily extended to the preparation of other M/MO@C composites with excellent electrochemical performances. PMID:27328374

  3. Integrated Solid/Nanoporous Copper/Oxide Hybrid Bulk Electrodes for High-performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chao; Lang, Xing-You; Han, Gao-Feng; Li, Ying-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Lian, Jian-She; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g−1 for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications. PMID:24096928

  4. Cell Adhesion and Growth on the Anodized Aluminum Oxide Membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Su; Moon, Dalnim; Kim, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-03-01

    Nanotopological cues are popular tools for in vivo investigation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular microenvironments. The ECM is composed of multiple components and generates a complex microenvironment. The development of accurate in vivo methods for the investigation of ECM are important for disease diagnosis and therapy, as well as for studies on cell behavior. Here, we fabricated anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using sulfuric and oxalic acid under controlled voltage and temperature. The membranes were designed to possess three different pore and interpore sizes, AAO-1, AAO-2, and AAO-3 membranes, respectively. These membranes were used as tools to investigate nanotopology-signal induced cell behavior. Cancerous cells, specifically, the OVCAR-8 cell-line, were cultured on porous AAO membranes and the effects of these membranes on cell shape, proliferation, and viability were studied. AAO-1 membranes bearing small sized pores were found to maintain the spreading shape of the cultured cells. Cells cultured on AAO-2 and AAO-3 membranes, bearing large pore-sized AAO membranes, changed shape from spreading to rounding. Furthermore, cellular area decreased when cells were cultured on all three AAO membranes that confirmed decreased levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Additionally, OVCAR-8 cells exhibited increased proliferation on AAO membranes possessing various pore sizes, indicating the importance of the nanosurface structure in regulating cell behaviors, such as cell proliferation. Our results suggest that porous-AAO membranes induced nanosurface regulated cell behavior as focal adhesion altered the intracellular organization of the cytoskeleton. Our results may find potential applications as tools in in vivo cancer research studies. PMID:27280255

  5. Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membranes for Cellular Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Anthony P.

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes can be fabricated with a highly tunable pore structure making them a suitable candidate for cellular hybrid devices with single-molecule selectivity. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular response of AAO membranes with varying pore sizes to serve as a proof-of-concept for an artificial material/cell synapse system. AAO membranes with pore diameters ranging from 34-117 nm were achieved via anodization at a temperature of -1°C in a 2.7% oxalic acid electrolyte. An operating window was established for this setup to create membranes with through-pore and disordered pore morphologies. C17.2 neural stem cells were seeded onto the membranes and differentiated via serum withdrawal. The data suggests a highly tunable correlation between AAO pore diameter and differentiated cell populations. Analysis of membranes before and after cell culture indicated no breakdown of the through-pore structure. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) showed that AAO membranes had increased neurite outgrowth when compared to tissue culture treated (TCT) glass, and neurite outgrowth varied with pore diameter. Additionally, lower neuronal percentages were found on AAO as compared to TCT glass; however, neuronal population was also found to vary with pore diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICC images suggested the presence of a tissue-like layer with a mixed-phenotype population. AAO membranes appear to be an excellent candidate for cellular devices, but more work must be completed to understand the surface chemistry of the AAO membranes as it relates to cellular response.

  6. Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotipalli, R.; Delamare, R.; Poncelet, O.; Tang, X.; Francis, L. A.; Flandre, D.

    2013-09-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) has recently demonstrated an excellent surface passivation for both n- and p-type c-Si solar cells thanks to the presence of high negative fixed charges (Qf ~ 1012-1013 cm-2) in combination with a low density of interface states (Dit). This paper investigates the passivation quality of thin (15 nm) Al2O3 films deposited by two different techniques: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) and Thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD). Other dielectric materials taken into account for comparison include: thermally-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) (20 nm), SiO2 (20 nm) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) (20 nm) also deposited by PECVD. With the above-mentioned dielectric layers, Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors were fabricated for Qf and Dit extraction through Capacitance-Voltage-Conductance (C-V-G) measurements. In addition, lifetime measurements were carried out to evaluate the effective surface recombination velocity (SRV). The influence of extracted C-V-G parameters (Qf,Dit) on the injection dependent lifetime measurements τ(Δn), and the dominant passivation mechanism involved have been discussed. Furthermore we have also studied the influence of the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness between the Al2O3 and silicon surface on the field-effect passivation mechanism. It is shown that the field effect passivation in accumulation mode is more predominant when compared to surface defect passivation.

  7. Role of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as oxidation barrier for silicon based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe Morana, Bruno; Forte, Salvatore; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, the authors study the protective effect against oxidation of a thin layer of atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Nitrogen doped silicon carbide (poly-SiC:N) based microheaters coated with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are used as test structure to investigate the barrier effect of the alumina layers to oxygen and water vapor at very high temperature (up to 1000 °C). Different device sets have been fabricated changing the doping levels, to evaluate possible interaction between the dopants and the alumina layer. The as-deposited alumina layer morphology has been evaluated by means of AFM analysis and compared to an annealed sample (8 h at 1000 °C) to estimate the change in the grain structure and the film density. The coated microheaters are subjected to very long oxidation time in dry and wet environment (up to 8 h at 900 and 1000 °C). By evaluating the electrical resistance variation between uncoated reference devices and the ALD coated devices, the oxide growth on the SiC is estimated. The results show that the ALD alumina coating completely prevents the oxidation of the SiC up to 900 °C in wet environment, while an oxide thickness reduction of 50% is observed at 1000 °C compared to uncoated devices.

  8. Nanopore patterning using Al2O3 hard masks on SOI substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Goryll, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum oxide Al2O3, deposited using amorphous atomic layer deposition (ALD), is a very promising material to be utilized as a hard mask for nano-patterning. We used an aluminum oxide hard mask on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate to implement a sub-100 nm nanopore process. The transfer of nanoscale patterns via dry etching of the Al2O3 thin film was investigated by comparing etch profiles, etch rates, and selectivity of Al2O3 over PMMA resist, using different gas chemistries such as Cl2, Ar, Ar/BCl3 mixtures, and BCl3 plasma. A selectivity of 1:4 was observed using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) tool with BCl3 plasma, and the sub-100 nm nanopore patterns were anisotropically transferred to the alumina layer from a 250 nm PMMA layer. The dense and inert Al2O3 hard mask showed exceptional etch selectivity to Si and SiO2, which allowed the subsequent transfer of the nanopore patterns into the 340 nm-thick Si device layer and made it possible to attempt etching the 1 μm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. Using chlorine chemistry, nanopores patterned in the Si device layer showed excellent anisotropy while preserving the original pattern dimensions. The process demonstrated is ideally suited for patterning high aspect ratio nanofluidic structures.

  9. Interaction of ester functional groups with aluminum oxide surfaces studied using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, J; Blajiev, O; Beentjes, P C J; Terryn, H; de Wit, J H W

    2004-07-20

    The bonding of two types of ester group-containing molecules with a set of different oxide layers on aluminum has been investigated using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. The different oxide layers were made by giving typical surface treatments to the aluminum substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to find out what type of ester-oxide bond is formed and whether this is influenced by changes in the composition and chemistry of the oxide. The extent by which these bonded ester molecules resisted disbondment in water or substitution by molecules capable of chemisorption was also investigated. The ester groups were found to show hydrogen bonding with hydroxyls on the oxide surfaces through their carbonyl oxygens. For all oxides, the ester groups showed the same nu(C = O) carbonyl stretching vibration after adsorption, indicating very similar bonding occurs. However, the oxides showed differences in the amount of molecules bonded to the oxide surface, and a clear relation was observed with the hydroxyl concentration present on the oxide surface, which was determined from XPS measurements. The two compounds showed differences in the free to bonded nu(C = O) infrared peak shift, indicating differences in bonding strength with the oxide surface between the two types of molecules. The bonding of the ester groups with the oxide surfaces was found to be not stable in the presence of water and also not in the presence of a compound capable of chemisorption with the aluminum oxide surface. PMID:15248718

  10. Nanoporous carbon nanotubes synthesized through confined hydrogen-bonding self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Adrian T; Chen, Min; Chen, Zhu; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Fan, Hongyou

    2006-07-26

    We report a simple and direct synthetic method for the preparation of nanoporous carbon nanotubes with larger pores (>10 nm) on the tube wall. The method combines the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a template for the tube diameter and block copolymer/carbohydrates self-assembly within thin films confined inside AAO pore channels to form nanopores. It involves coating the AAO inner pore channel surface with block copolymer (polystyrene-co-poly(vinylpyridine)) and carbohydrates in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Drying of DMF induced microphase separation of PS-PVP and formation of ordered PS and PVP/carbohydrate domains. Within the coating, the carbohydrates stay specifically only in the pyridine domains surrounding PS domains due to the hydrogen bonding between carbohydrates and pyridine blocks. After carbonization at high temperature (>460 degrees C) in argon, PS was removed, forming the nanopores and carbohydrates, and PVP was carbonized, forming the framework of nanoporous carbon tubes within AAO channels. Removal of AAO led to the formation of individual monodisperse nanoporous carbon nanotubes with a tube wall of approximately 16 nm. The ease with which these nanoporous carbon nanotubes can be fabricated, and the ability to tune tube nanostructures and surface chemistry through the choice of block copolymers used and carbonization temperature, should facilitate investigations of their scope for practical applications. PMID:16848431

  11. Improvement of plasmonic enhancement of quantum dot emission via an intermediate silicon-aluminum oxide interface

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M. Campbell, Quinn

    2015-01-05

    We studied the emission of quantum dots in the presence of plasmon-metal oxide substrates, which consist of arrays of metallic nanorods embedded in amorphous silicon coated with a nanometer-thin layer of aluminum oxide on the top. We showed that the combined effects of plasmons and the silicon-aluminum oxide interface can lead to significant enhancement of the quantum efficiency of quantum dots. Our results show that such an interface can significantly enhance plasmonic effects of the nanorods via quantum dot-induced exciton-plasmon coupling, leading to partial polarization of the quantum dots' emission.

  12. Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory or oxidative events specifically in the brain.

    PubMed

    Becaria, Angelica; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Bondy, Stephen C; Chen, DeMao; Hamadeh, Ali; Li, Huihui; Taylor, Russell; Campbell, Arezoo

    2006-07-01

    Inflammatory and oxidative events are up-regulated in the brain of AD patients. It has been reported that in animal models of AD, exposure to aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu) enhanced oxidative events and accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 3-month exposure of mice to copper sulfate (8 microM), aluminum lactate (10 or 100 microM), or a combination of the salts. Results suggest that although Al or Cu may independently initiate inflammatory or oxidative events, they may function cooperatively to increase APP levels. PMID:16697052

  13. Niobium-aluminum base alloys having improved, high temperature oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor); Stephens, Joseph R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A niobium-aluminum base alloy having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 48%-52% niobium, 36%-42% aluminum, 4%-10% chromium, 0%-2%, more preferably 1%-2%, silicon and/or tungsten with tungsten being preferred, and 0.1%-2.0% of a rare earth selected from the group consisting of yttrium, ytterbium and erbium. Parabolic oxidation rates, k.sub.p, at 1200.degree. C. range from about 0.006 to 0.032 (mg/cm.sup.2).sup.2 /hr. The new alloys also exhibit excellent cyclic oxidation resistance.

  14. Preparation of Nanoporous Pd by Dealloying Al-Pd Slice and Its Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nana; Wang, Tianning; Nie, Chen; Sun, Lanju; Li, Jie; Geng, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    AlPd alloy slices with a thickness of 0.5 mm were taken as precursors during the fabrication of nanoporous palladium (np-Pd) using chemical dealloying in NaOH solution or electrochemical dealloying in NaCl solution. Scanning electron microscope photos and x-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate a full dealloying of Al out of the precursors and the formation of nP-Pd which is characterized by a three-dimensional, bicontinuous, ligament-channel structure with nanoscale length scales. Electrochemical measurements were performed to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and structure stability of np-Pd towards formic acid oxidation and it showed a good structure stability.

  15. Characterization of Aluminum Oxide Tunnel Barrier for use in a Non-Local Spin Detection Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Joseph; Garramone, John; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Labella, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Aluminum oxide can be utilized as an interface layer between ferromagnetic metals and silicon to achieve spin injection into silicon. The goal of our research is to inject and readout spins using a non-local measurement device that utilizes 1-2 nm aluminum oxide interface layers as tunnel barriers. An important step of fabricating a non-local measurement device out of silicon is the growth of an aluminum oxide tunnel barrierfootnotetextO. van't Erve, A. Hanbicki, M. Holub, C. Li, C. Awo-Affouda, P. Thompson and B. Jonker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 212109 (2007).. Aluminum Oxide thin films where grown using a Knudsen cell to deposit 1 nm, 2 nm, and 3 nm of aluminum. The films were then oxidized in O2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to characterize the film stoichiometry, and the band gap. We will also report on current voltage measurements of these films after they have been capped with metal and compare the resistance area product to those calculated for spin injection into siliconfootnotetextB.-C. Min, K. Motohashi, C. Lodder, and R. Jansen, Nat. Mater. 5, 817 (2006). .

  16. A novel nanoporous graphitic composite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Ming; Hoshinoo, Kumiko; Xue, M; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Ooi, Kenta

    2002-08-21

    A novel nanoporous composite containing micrographitic carbon layers is synthesized by preliminarily expanding the interlayer of an oxidized product of graphite using surfactant, followed by Si bridging/pillaring, and carbonization. PMID:12211211

  17. Localized functionalization of single nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J; Lee, J I; Ratto, T V; Letant, S E

    2005-09-12

    We demonstrate the localization of chemical functionality at the entrance of single nanopores for the first time by using the controlled growth of an oxide ring. Nanopores were fabricated by Focused Ion Beam machining on silicon platforms, locally derivatized by ion beam assisted oxide deposition, and further functionalized with DNA probes via silane chemistry. Ionic current recorded through single nanopores at various stages of the fabrication process demonstrated that the apertures can be locally functionalized with DNA probes. Future applications for this functional platform include the selective detection of biological organisms and molecules by ionic current blockade measurements.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  19. Over-limiting Current and Control of Dendritic Growth by Surface Conduction in Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Hyung; Khoo, Edwin; Bai, Peng; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding over-limiting current (faster than diffusion) is a long-standing challenge in electrochemistry with applications in desalination and energy storage. Known mechanisms involve either chemical or hydrodynamic instabilities in unconfined electrolytes. Here, it is shown that over-limiting current can be sustained by surface conduction in nanopores, without any such instabilities, and used to control dendritic growth during electrodeposition. Copper electrodeposits are grown in anodized aluminum oxide membranes with polyelectrolyte coatings to modify the surface charge. At low currents, uniform electroplating occurs, unaffected by surface modification due to thin electric double layers, but the morphology changes dramatically above the limiting current. With negative surface charge, growth is enhanced along the nanopore surfaces, forming surface dendrites and nanotubes behind a deionization shock. With positive surface charge, dendrites avoid the surfaces and are either guided along the nanopore centers or blocked from penetrating the membrane. PMID:25394685

  20. Plasmon-enhanced nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jiayong; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Wu, Zilong; Penley, Daniel; Liang, Chaolun; Tong, Yexiang; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-06-10

    Conversion of solar irradiation into chemical fuels such as hydrogen with the use of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell is an attractive strategy for green energy. The promising technique of incorporating metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the photoelectrodes is being explored to enhance the performance of the photoelectrodes. In this work, we developed Au-NPs-functionalized nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and utilized the plasmonic effects of Au NPs to enhance the photoresponse. The plasmonic enhancement leads to an AM 1.5 photocurrent of 5.1 ± 0.1 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus a reverse hydrogen electrode. We observed an enhancement of five times with respect to pristine BiVO4 in the photocurrent with long-term stability and high energy-conversion efficiency. The overall performance enhancement is attributed to the synergy between the nanoporous architecture of BiVO4 and the plasmonic effects of Au NPs. Our further study reveals that the commendable photoactivity arises from the different plasmonic effects and co-catalyst effects of Au NPs. PMID:27119335

  1. Plasmon-enhanced nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jiayong; Bangalore Rajeeva, Bharath; Wu, Zilong; Penley, Daniel; Liang, Chaolun; Tong, Yexiang; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-06-01

    Conversion of solar irradiation into chemical fuels such as hydrogen with the use of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell is an attractive strategy for green energy. The promising technique of incorporating metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the photoelectrodes is being explored to enhance the performance of the photoelectrodes. In this work, we developed Au-NPs-functionalized nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and utilized the plasmonic effects of Au NPs to enhance the photoresponse. The plasmonic enhancement leads to an AM 1.5 photocurrent of 5.1 ± 0.1 mA cm‑2 at 1.23 V versus a reverse hydrogen electrode. We observed an enhancement of five times with respect to pristine BiVO4 in the photocurrent with long-term stability and high energy-conversion efficiency. The overall performance enhancement is attributed to the synergy between the nanoporous architecture of BiVO4 and the plasmonic effects of Au NPs. Our further study reveals that the commendable photoactivity arises from the different plasmonic effects and co-catalyst effects of Au NPs.

  2. Selective thermal desorption of ultrathin aluminum oxide layers induced by electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Manisha; Miyata, Noriyuki; Ichikawa, Masakazu

    2001-08-06

    The mechanism of electron-beam-induced selective thermal desorption of ultrathin aluminum-oxide layer ({approx}0.4 nm) on Si(001) surface was investigated by using scanning reflection electron microscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy. We found that the change in the aluminum-oxide layer composition induced by electron-stimulated oxygen desorption accounted for the selective thermal desorption of the oxide layer. A systematic increase in the vacuum-annealing temperature to 500{sup o}C, 600{sup o}C and 720{sup o}C resulted in the formation of three-dimensional metal aluminum clusters, desorption of these clusters, and creation of a nanometer-scale clean Si(001)-2 x 1 open window in the selected electron-beam-irradiated area. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Band Offset Characterization of the Atomic Layer Deposited Aluminum Oxide on m-Plane Indium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ye; Wallace, Joshua S.; Qin, Yueling; Gardella, Joseph A.; Dabiran, Amir M.; Singisetti, Uttam

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we report the band offset characterization of the atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide on non-polar m-plane indium nitride grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offset between aluminum oxide and m-plane indium nitride was determined to be 2.83 eV. The Fermi level of indium nitride was 0.63 eV above valence band maximum, indicated a reduced band bending in comparison to polar indium nitride. The band gap of aluminum oxide was found to be to 6.7 eV, which gave a conduction band offset of 3.17 eV.

  4. XANES studies of chromate replacements in oxide films on aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, A.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Isaacs, H.S.; Kendig, M.W.; Mundy, A.M.

    1991-12-31

    The chemistry of conversion coatings on aluminum containing chromate and non-toxic chromate replacements has been investigated using XANES. Chromate conversion coatings contain 20% 6-valent chromium which is gradually lost on immersion in a corrosive environment. The most promising alternative coatings are those based on phosphotungstate. The chemistry of these and coatings containing Mo, V, and Mn are discussed.

  5. XANES studies of chromate replacements in oxide films on aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, A.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Isaacs, H.S. ); Kendig, M.W. . Science Center); Mundy, A.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The chemistry of conversion coatings on aluminum containing chromate and non-toxic chromate replacements has been investigated using XANES. Chromate conversion coatings contain 20% 6-valent chromium which is gradually lost on immersion in a corrosive environment. The most promising alternative coatings are those based on phosphotungstate. The chemistry of these and coatings containing Mo, V, and Mn are discussed.

  6. Applying graphene oxide nano-film over a polycarbonate nanoporous membrane to monitor E. coli by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Krishna Pal; Dhek, Neeraj Singh; Nehra, Anuj; Ahlawat, Sweeti; Puri, Anu

    2017-01-01

    Nano-biosensors are excellent monitoring tools for rapid, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, in-field, on-line, and/or real-time detection of pathogens in foods, soil, air, and water samples. A variety of nano-materials (metallic, polymeric, and/or carbon-based) were employed to enhance the efficacy, efficiency, and sensitivity of these nano-biosensors, including graphene-based materials, especially graphene oxide (GO)-based materials. GO bears many oxygen-bearing groups, enabling ligand conjugation at the high density critical for sensitive detection. We have fabricated GO-modified nano-porous polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membranes that were conjugated to an Escherichia coli-specific antibody (Ab) and used to detect E. coli. The random distribution of nanopores on the PCTE membrane surface and the bright coating of the GO onto the membrane were confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Anti-E. coli β-gal Abs were conjugated to the GO surface via 1-ethyl-3,3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride-N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry; antibody coating was confirmed by the presence of a characteristic IR peak near 1600cm(-1). A non-corresponding Ab (anti-Pseudomonas) was used as a negative control under identical conditions. When E. coli interacted anti-E.coli β-gal with Ab-coated GO-nano-biosensor units, we observed a clear shift in the IR peak from 3373.14 to 3315cm(-1); in contrast, we did not observe any shift in IR peaks when the GO unit was coated with the non-corresponding Ab (anti-Pseudomonas). Therefore, the detection of E. coli using the described GO-nano-sensor unit is highly specific, is highly selective and can be applied for real-time monitoring of E. coli with a detection limit between 100μg/mL and 10μg/mL, similar to existing detection systems. PMID:27391314

  7. Model of the radial distribution function of pores in a layer of porous aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkas, N. L.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2016-03-01

    An empirical formula is derived to describe the quasi-periodic structure of a layer of porous aluminum oxide obtained by anodization. The formula accounts for two mechanisms of the transition from the ordered state (2D crystal) to the amorphous state. The first mechanism infers that vacancy-type defects arise, but the crystal lattice remains undestroyed. The second mechanism describes the lattice destruction. The radial distribution function of the pores in porous aluminum oxide is obtained using the Bessel transform. Comparison with a real sample is performed.

  8. Analytical model to evaluate interface characteristics of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Balani, Kantesh; Agarwal, Arvind

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analytical method to investigate the effect of volume fraction and the number of outer walls of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) reinforcement on load carrying capability in the aluminum oxide matrix. Interfacial shear stress transfer and energy dissipation have been estimated using the Cox model. Critical energy release rate for the debonding of MWNT from the matrix is also estimated based on the crack deflection. The computed results sufficiently manifest that MWNT pullout and crack deflection contributes greatly to improved fracture toughness of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum oxide nanocomposites.

  9. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, L. V.; Mendivil, M. I.; Roy, T. K. Das; Castillo, G. A.; Shaji, S.

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe2O3, 20-40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm2 with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe2O3 presented the MgFe2O4 spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm2, there were the formations of MgAl2O4 spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed.

  10. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Särhammar, Erik Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  11. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide thin films via pyrolysis of dimethylaluminum isopropoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Benjamin W.; Sweet, William J. III; Rogers, Bridget R.; Bierschenk, Eric J.; Gren, Cameron K.; Hanusa, Timothy P.

    2010-03-15

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposited aluminum oxide films were produced via pyrolysis of dimethylaluminum isopropoxide in a high vacuum reaction chamber in the 417-659 deg. C temperature range. Deposited films contained aluminum, oxygen, and carbon, and the carbon-to-aluminum ratio increased with increased deposition temperature. Aluminum-carbon bonding was observed in films deposited at 659 deg. C by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, but not in films deposited at 417 deg. C. The apparent activation energy in the surface reaction controlled regime was 91 kJ/mol. The O/Al and C/Al ratios in the deposited films were greater and less than, respectively, the ratios predicted by the stoichiometry of the precursor. Flux analysis of the deposition process suggested that the observed film stoichiometries could be explained by the participation of oxygen-containing background gases present in the reactor at its base pressure.

  12. Addressing the Limit of Detectability of Residual Oxide Discontinuities in Friction Stir Butt Welds of Aluminum using Phased Array Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This activity seeks to estimate a theoretical upper bound of detectability for a layer of oxide embedded in a friction stir weld in aluminum. The oxide is theoretically modeled as an ideal planar layer of aluminum oxide, oriented normal to an interrogating ultrasound beam. Experimentally-measured grain scattering level is used to represent the practical noise floor. Echoes from naturally-occurring oxides will necessarily fall below this theoretical limit, and must be above the measurement noise to be potentially detectable.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of responsive nanoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth

    to cocaine in both systems, consistent with previous reports of aptamer behavior. Next, two types of electro-active polymers, polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), were vapor-phase polymerized onto the surface of a commercially available aluminum oxide nanoporous membrane, or Anodisc. These polymers expand in the reduced state and contract in the oxidized state to produce a responsive membrane.

  14. Three-dimensional nanoporous gold-cobalt oxide electrode for high-performance electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhihao; He, Yanghua; Ke, Xi; Gan, Lin; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Guofeng; Wu, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal method combined with a post-annealing treatment, cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanosheet arrays are grown on three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous gold (NPG) film supported on Ni foam substrates, in which NPG is fabricated by chemically dealloying electrodeposited Au-Sn alloy films. The morphology and structure of the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam hybrids are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical activity of the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam electrode toward hydrogen peroxide electroreduction in alkaline medium is studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and chronoamperometry (CA). The results demonstrate that the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam electrode possesses exceptionally high catalytic activity and excellent stability for the peroxide electroreduction, resulting mainly from the unique electrode architecture. The combined 3D hierarchical porous structures of NPG/Ni foam with the open and porous structures of Co3O4 nanosheet arrays facilitate the mass transport and charge transfer. Therefore, the metal oxides supported on 3D hierarchical porous NPG/Ni foam framework may hold great promise to be effective electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of peroxide and other electrochemical reactions.

  15. Mueller Matrix of Specular Reflection Using an Aluminum Grating Surface with Oxide Nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun; Ran, Dongfang; Liu, Linhua; Hsu, Pei-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The accurate nondestructive and real-time determination of the critical dimensions of oxide nanofilms on periodic nanostructures has potential applications in nanofabrication techniques. Mueller ellipsometry is fast, accurate, nondestructive, and can be used in the ambient air. This study used the elements of a Mueller matrix of specular reflection, which is based on a Mueller ellipsometry method, to evaluate the thickness of an oxide nanofilm on an aluminum grating surface. By using non-traditional rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), we decomposed the Mueller matrix to obtain the relationship between the evaluated polarization properties of reflected light and the dimensions of oxide nanofilms on aluminum grating surfaces. We also quantitatively analyzed the Mueller matrix elements' variation due to the thicknesses of top, sidewall, and bottom oxides. We consider these oxide films are naturally formed and of nonuniform thickness on grating structures. The results show that the elements of Mueller matrix shift with the increasing of the uniform thickness of oxide at a fixed wavelength. Moreover, as oxide nanofilms on grating structures are nonuniform, the impact of the thickness of side wall oxide on the Mueller matrix elements is more obvious than that of top and bottom oxides at the relative larger incidence wavelength range. The finding of this work may facilitate the nondestructive and real-time measurement of the thickness of oxide nanofilms on metal gratings where the metal is easily oxidized. PMID:27129364

  16. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  17. The formation mechanism of aluminum oxide tunnel barriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Cerezo, A.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Larson, D. J.; Pinitsoontorn, S.; Singleton, E. W.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Oxford; Seagate Tech.

    2006-01-01

    The functional properties of magnetic tunnel junctions are critically dependant on the nanoscale morphology of the insulating barrier (usually only a few atomic layers thick) that separates the two ferromagnetic layers. Three-dimensional atom probe analysis has been used to study the chemistry of a magnetic tunnel junction structure comprising an aluminium oxide barrier formed by in situ oxidation, both in the under-oxidized and fully oxidized states and before and after annealing. Low oxidation times result in discrete oxide islands. Further oxidation leads to a more continuous, but still non-stoichiometric, barrier with evidence that oxidation proceeds along the top of grain boundaries in the underlying CoFe layer. Post-deposition annealing leads to an increase in the barrier area, but only in the case of the fully oxidized and annealed structure is a continuous planar layer formed, which is close to the stoichiometric Al:O ratio of 2:3. These results are surprising, in that the planar layers are usually considered unstable with respect to breaking up into separate islands. Analysis of the various driving forces suggests that the formation of a continuous layer requires a combination of factors, including the strain energy resulting from the expansion of the oxide during internal oxidation on annealing.

  18. Fabrication of Crystalline Indium Tin Oxide Nanobasket Electrodes using Aluminum Anodic Oxide Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, He-Tsing; Yang, Hsihang

    2008-07-01

    Fabrication of crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanobasket electrodes shaped by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template for better electron conductivity is presented. ITO films were deposited on porous AAO templates by RF magnetron sputtering. The sputter-coated ITO films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to illustrate the nanobasket morphologies. The compositions of the ITO films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to evaluate the crystallinity. The crystallinity can be enhanced by annealing at 300 °C. Although the conductivity of the ITO nanobasket film is larger than that of the conventional ITO thin film, the harvest efficiency can be markedly increased due to the nanobasket structure which enables most of the photoexcited electrons to reach their nearest electrode before losing their momentum. The presented ITO nanobasket films can be further used as a more effective electrode material for photovoltaics such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  19. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of NBD 200 silicon nitride ceramics by aluminum implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundhan, Priya

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics are leading candidates for high temperature structural applications. They have already demonstrated functional capabilities well beyond the limits of conventional metals and alloys in advanced diesel and turbine engines. However, the practical exploitation of these benefits is limited by their oxidation and associated degradation processes in chemically aggressive environments. Additives and impurities in Si3N4 segregate to the surface of Si3N 4 and accelerate its high temperature oxidation process. This study aims to investigate the oxidation behavior of Norton NBD 200 silicon nitride (hot isostatically pressed with ˜1 wt.% MgO) and its modification by aluminum surface alloying. NBD 200 samples tribochemically polished to a mirror finish (10 nm) were implanted with 5, 10, 20 and 30 at.% aluminum at multienergies and multi-doses to achieve a uniform implant depth distribution to 200 nm. Unimplanted and aluminum-implanted samples were oxidized at 800°--1100°C in 1 atm O2 for 0.5--10 hours. Oxidation kinetics was determined using profilometry in conjunction with etch patterning. The morphological, structural and chemical characteristics of the oxide were characterized by various analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation of NBD 200 follows parabolic kinetics in the temperature range investigated and the process is diffusion-controlled. The oxide layers are enriched with sodium and magnesium from the bulk of the Si3N 4. The much higher oxidation rate for NBD 200 silicon nitride than for other silicon nitride ceramics with a similar amount of MgO is attributed to the presence of sodium. The rate-controlling mechanism is the outward diffusion of Mg2+ from the grain boundaries to the oxide scale. Aluminum implantation alleviates the detrimental effects of Na+ and Mg2+; not only is the rate of oxidation

  20. Fabrication of GaN nanotubular material using MOCVD with aluminum oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Gwang; Jung, Se-Hyuck; Kung, Patrick; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2006-02-01

    GaN nanotubular material is fabricated with aluminum oxide membrane in MOCVD. SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are employed to characterize the fabricated GaN nanotubular material. An aluminum oxide membrane with ordered nano holes is used as template. Gallium nitride is deposited at the inner wall of the nano holes in aluminum oxide template, and the nanotubular material with high aspect ratio is synthesized using the precursors of TMG and ammonia gas. Optimal synthesis condition in MOCVD is obtained successfully for the gallium nitride nanotubular material in this research. The diameter of GaN nanotube fabricated is approximately 200 ~ 250 nm and the wall thickness is about 40 ~ 50 nm. GaN nanotubular material consists of numerous fine GaN particulates with sizes ranging 15 to 30 nm. The composition of gallium nitride is confirmed to be stoichiometrically 1:1 for Ga and N by EDS. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that grains in GaN nanotubular material have nano-crystalline structure. No blue shift is found in the PL spectrum on the GaN nanotubular material fabricated in aluminum oxide template.

  1. Silicon nanoprofiling with the use of a solid aluminum oxide mask and combined 'dry' etching

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A. N.; Demidov, Yu. A.; Putrya, M. G.; Golishnikov, A. A.; Vasilyev, A. A.

    2009-12-15

    Technological features of nanoprofiling of silicon protected by a solid mask based on porous aluminum oxide are considered. It is shown that, for a nanoprofiled silicon surface to be formed, it is advisable that combined dry etching be used including preliminary bombardment of structures with accelerated neutral atoms of an inert gas followed by reactive ion etching.

  2. In-situ measurement of the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; White, D.P.; Snead, L.L.

    1996-10-01

    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho irradiation experiment has been completed which measured the in-situ electrical resistivity of 12 different grades of aluminum oxide during HFIR neutron irradiation at 450{degrees}C. No evidence for bulk RIED was observed following irradiation to a maximum dose of 3 dpa with an applied dc electric field of 200 V/mm.

  3. Fabrication, structural characterization and sensing properties of polydiacetylene nanofibers templated from anodized aluminum oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polydiacetylene (PDA), a unique conjugated polymer, has shown its potential in the application of chem/bio-sensors and optoelectronics. In this work, we first infiltrated PDA monomer (10, 12-pentacosadiynoic acid, PCDA) melted into the anodized aluminum oxide template, and then illuminated the infil...

  4. Oxidation of silicon implanted with high-dose aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zunde; Du, Honghua; Withrow, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Si(100) wafers were implanted with Al at 500 C to high doses at multi-energies and were oxidized in 1 atm flowing oxygen at 1000-1200 C. Morphology, structure, and oxidation behavior of the implanted and oxidized Si were studied using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Large Al precipitates were formed and embedded near the surface region of the implanted Si. Oxidation rate of the Al-implanted Si wafers was lower than that of virgin Si. The unique morphology of the implanted Si results from rpaid Al diffusion and segregation promoted by hot implantation. Reduction of the oxidation rate of Si by Al implantation is attributed to preferential oxidation of Al and formation of a continuous diffusion barrier of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. Low oxidation state aluminum-containing cluster anions: Cp(∗)AlnH(-), n = 1-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Ganteför, Gerd; Eichhorn, Bryan; Mayo, Dennis; Sawyer, William H; Gill, Ann F; Kandalam, Anil K; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Bowen, Kit

    2016-08-21

    Three new, low oxidation state, aluminum-containing cluster anions, Cp*AlnH(-), n = 1-3, were prepared via reactions between aluminum hydride cluster anions, AlnHm (-), and Cp*H ligands. These were characterized by mass spectrometry, anion photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory based calculations. Agreement between the experimentally and theoretically determined vertical detachment energies and adiabatic detachment energies validated the computed geometrical structures. Reactions between aluminum hydride cluster anions and ligands provide a new avenue for discovering low oxidation state, ligated aluminum clusters. PMID:27544103

  6. Synthesis of graphene-supported one-dimensional nanoporous Pt based catalysts, and their enhanced performance on methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liji; Hao, Yanfei; Yang, Yunyun; Yuan, Junhua; Niu, Li

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach is developed to synthesize PtIr or Pt nanowires (NWs) supported on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using Te NWs as template based on the replacement reaction. The resulting RGO-supported PtIr and Pt electrocatalysts are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. TEM images show that these Pt based catalysts are uniformly distributed in the matrix of graphene with a characteristic of one-dimensional (1D) nanoporous structure. As one of promising anode materials used in the direct methanol fuel cells, these 1D nanoporous PtIr/RGO (or Pt/RGO) hybrids exhibit an enlarged electroactive surface and enhanced catalytic activity toward the methanol reaction relative to those PtIr or Pt NWs without graphene support.

  7. Graphene Oxide Derived Carbons (GODC); High-Surface Area NanoPorous Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Carbon Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Taner

    2012-02-01

    Even though there has been extensive research on gas adsorption properties of various carbon materials based on activated carbon and nanotubes, there has been little work done on the gas adsorption properties of graphite oxide (GO). In this study [1], we show that one-and-a-half-century-old graphite oxide can be easily turned into a potentially useful gas storage material. In order to create high-surface nanoporous materials from GO, we used two different approaches. In the first approach, we have successfully synthesized graphene-oxide framework materials (GOFs) by interlinking GO layers by diboronic acids. The resulting GOF materials have well defined pore size and BET surface area up to 500 m2/g with twice larger heat of adsorption of H2 and CO2 than those found in other physisorption materials such as MOF5. In the second approach, we synthesized a range of high surface area GO derived carbons (GODC) and studied their applications toward H2, CO2 and CH4 gas storage. The GODCs, with wide range of pore structure, have been prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). We obtain largely increased surface areas up to nearly 1900 m^2/g for GODC samples from 10 m^2/g for initial GO. A detailed experimental study of high pressure excess sorption isotherms on GODCs reveal an increase in both CO2 and CH4 storage capacities compared to other high surface area activated carbons. Finally, we compared the gas sorption properties of our GO-based matarials with other systems such as MOFs, ZIFs, and COFs. [4pt] [1] See http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/staff/taner for references and more information.

  8. Microfluidic synthesis of monodisperse nanoporous oxide particles and control of hierarchical pore structure.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Nick J; Crowder, Peter F; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Patterson, Wendy; Ratnaweera, Dilru R; Perahia, Dvora; Atanassov, Plamen; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2013-05-01

    Particles with hierarchical porosity can be formed by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/oil nanoemulsion mixture. The nanoemulsion oil droplet and micellar dimensions determine the pore size distribution: one set of pores with diameters of tens of nanometers coexisting with a second subset of pores with diameters of single nanometers. Further practical utility of these nanoporous particles requires precise tailoring of the hierarchical pore structure. In this synthesis study, the particle nanostructure is tuned by adjusting the oil, water, and surfactant mixture composition for the controlled design of nanoemulsion-templated features. We also demonstrate control of the size distribution and surface area of the smaller micelle-templated pores as a consequence of altering the hydrophobic chain length of the molecular surfactant template. Moreover, a microfluidic system is designed to process the low interfacial system for fabrication of monodisperse porous particles. The ability to direct the assembly of template nanoemulsion and micelle structures creates new opportunities to engineer hierarchically porous particles for utility as electrocatalysts for fuel cells, chromatography separations, drug delivery vehicles, and other applications. PMID:23387998

  9. Processing and microstructural evolution of alumina/aluminum alloy and aluminum nitride/aluminum alloy composites by directed melt oxidation. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Crudele, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental investigation on the directed oxidation of aluminum-zinc alloys to produce alumina/aluminum alloy composites with and without alumina preforms has been conducted. It has been suggested in the literature that Al-Mg alloys grow composites by the dissolution of a magnesia surface layer and reprecipitation of alumina in the composite. The intent of this investigation is to reveal relevant distinctions in the proposed dissolution-reprecipitation process as they apply to a more commercially interesting Zn containing alloy with a reinforcing preform. The TGA behavior and microstructural observations on the oxidation of Al-10Zn-8Si alloys were coupled with a thermodynamic and kinetic analysis to develop a composite growth model. Experiments were carried out in air at 1000-1200 C. At the higher temperatures (greater than 1100 C), Al2O3/Al composites grow by dissolving a ZnAl2O4 (spinel) surface layer. The dissolution process releases oxygen that reprecipitates in the form of Al2O3 on the existing composite, and also releases Zn and Al which migrate upward through the spinel to regenerate the surface oxide. Composite growth may only occur when the surface regenerates at a rate comparable with that of the dissolution process. At the lower temperatures, 1000 C, the composite growth is limited by the spinel regeneration process, and becomes intermittent. The addition of Mg to this alloy allows normal composite growth by the dissolution of a surface (Zn,Mg)Al2O4 layer at the lower temperatures, 980-1060 C, but leads to heterogeneous microstructures with voids as the temperature increases above approximately 1060 C. The directed oxidation of an Al-Zn alloy into porous alumina preforms yields an Al2O3/Al composite matrix which fills the preform interstices. Al-10Zn-8Si-0.25Mg alloys that are oxidized from 960-1100 C, and Al-10Zn-8Si alloys that are oxidized at 800-1000 C climb up the preform particle.

  10. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces based on hexamethyldisilazane-modified nanoporous alumina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (alumina) surfaces were prepared using treatment with vapor-phase hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Nanoporous alumina substrates were first made using a two-step anodization process. Subsequently, a repeated modification procedure was employed for efficient incorporation of the terminal methyl groups of HMDS to the alumina surface. Morphology of the surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, showing hexagonally ordered circular nanopores with approximately 250 nm in diameter and 300 nm of interpore distances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance analysis showed the presence of chemically bound methyl groups on the HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces. Wetting properties of these surfaces were characterized by measurements of the water contact angle which was found to reach 153.2 ± 2°. The contact angle values on HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces were found to be significantly larger than the average water contact angle of 82.9 ± 3° on smooth thin film alumina surfaces that underwent the same HMDS modification steps. The difference between the two cases was explained by the Cassie-Baxter theory of rough surface wetting. PMID:21827683

  11. Oxidative addition of the C-I bond on aluminum nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Turbasu; Das, Susanta; Pal, Sourav

    2015-07-01

    Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly sensitive to the geometrical shapes and electronic structures of the clusters rather than their size, imposing the fact that comprehensive studies on aluminum clusters can be beneficial for nanoscience and nanotechnology. To understand the possible reaction mechanism in detail, the reaction pathway is investigated with the ab initio Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulation and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. In short, our theoretical study highlights the thermodynamic and kinetic details of C-I bond dissociation on aluminum clusters for future endeavors in cluster chemistry.Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly

  12. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  13. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process.

  14. Combined flame and electrodeposition synthesis of energetic coaxial tungsten-oxide/aluminum nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhong; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Kear, Bernard H; Tse, Stephen D

    2013-09-11

    A nanostructured thermite composite comprising an array of tungsten-oxide (WO2.9) nanowires (diameters of 20-50 nm and lengths of >10 μm) coated with single-crystal aluminum (thickness of ~16 nm) has been fabricated. The method involves combined flame synthesis of tungsten-oxide nanowires and ionic-liquid electrodeposition of aluminum. The geometry not only presents an avenue to tailor heat-release characteristics due to anisotropic arrangement of fuel and oxidizer but also eliminates or minimizes the presence of an interfacial Al2O3 passivation layer. Upon ignition, the energetic nanocomposite exhibits strong exothermicity, thereby being useful for fundamental study of aluminothermic reactions as well as enhancing combustion characteristics. PMID:23899165

  15. Aluminum cladding oxidation of prefilmed in-pile fueled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, W. R.; Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Lillo, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of fueled irradiation experiments were recently completed within the Advanced Test Reactor Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Gas Test Loop (GTL) campaigns. The conduct of the AFIP experiments supports ongoing efforts within the global threat reduction initiative (GTRI) to qualify a new ultra-high loading density low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel. This study details the characterization of oxide growth on the fueled AFIP experiments and cross-correlates the empirically measured oxide thickness values to existing oxide growth correlations and convective heat transfer correlations that have traditionally been utilized for such an application. This study adds new and valuable empirical data to the scientific community with respect to oxide growth measurements of highly irradiated experiments, of which there is presently very limited data. Additionally, the predicted oxide thickness values are reconstructed to produce an oxide thickness distribution across the length of each fueled experiment (a new application and presentation of information that has not previously been obtainable in open literature); the predicted distributions are compared against experimental data and in general agree well with the exception of select outliers.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin blocking layer for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell on nanoporous substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak; Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Cha, Suk Won; Ji, Sanghoon; An, Jihwan

    2015-01-15

    An ultrathin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) blocking layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized for improving the performance and reliability of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) supported by an anodic aluminum oxide substrate. Physical vapor-deposited YSZ and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) electrolyte layers were deposited by a sputtering method. The ultrathin ALD YSZ blocking layer was inserted between the YSZ and GDC sputtered layers. To investigate the effects of an inserted ultrathin ALD blocking layer, SOFCs with and without an ultrathin ALD blocking layer were electrochemically characterized. The open circuit voltage (1.14 V) of the ALD blocking-layered SOFC was visibly higher than that (1.05 V) of the other cell. Furthermore, the ALD blocking layer augmented the power density and improved the reproducibility.

  17. Oxidation/corrosion of metallic and ceramic materials in an aluminum remelt furnace. [For fluidized bed waste heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; Jones, P.J.

    1985-12-01

    Both metallic alloys and ceramic materials are candidates for the distributor plate and other components of fluidized bed waste heat recovery (FBWHR) systems. Eleven Fe-, Ni-, and Co-base alloys were exposed to air at elevated temperatures in laboratory furnaces and to flue gases in an aluminum remelt furnace to assess their resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Four SiC ceramics and two oxide ceramics were also tested in the aluminum remelt furnace. Some alloys were coated with aluminum or SiO2 by commercial processes in an effort to enhance their oxidation and corrosion resistance.

  18. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of silicon carbide by high-dose and multi-energy aluminum implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Du, H.; Libera, M.; Withrow, S.P.; Casas, L.M.; Lareau, R.T.

    1993-12-31

    High-dose and multi-energy aluminum implantation of {alpha}-SiC (0001) was carried out to achieve a broad aluminum distribution extending from the sample surface to a depth of approximately 350 nm. Oxidation resistance of the implanted crystals was studied in 1 atm flowing oxygen at 1300C. Aluminum implantation resulted in a 45% improvement in the oxidation resistance of {alpha}-SiC as compared with unimplanted crystals due to the formation of structurally dense mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}) in the oxidation scale.

  19. Welding Phenomenon and Removal Mechanism of Aluminum-Oxide Films by Space GHTA Welding Process in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Ekuni, Tomohide; Kamei, Misa; Tsukuda, Yoshiyuki; Terajima, Noboru; Yamashita, Masahiro; Imagawa, Kichiro; Masubuchi, Koichi

    Aluminum alloys have been widely used in constructing various space structures including the ISS (International Space Station) and launch vehicles. In order to apply the welding technology in space, welding experiments on aluminum alloy were performed using by the GHTA (Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc) welding processes using an inverter controlled DC/AC GTA welding machine in vacuum. We observed the removal mechanism of aluminum-oxide films on molten metal in detail during the welding using a high-speed video camera. As a result, it is clarified that the impact arc pressure produced by pulsed current mechanically crushes and removes aluminum-oxide films on the molten pool. This removal mechanism of aluminum-oxide films is completely different from a removal mechanism by cleaning action.

  20. Aluminum chloride induced oxidative damage on cells derived from hippocampus and cortex of ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Rui, Ding; Yongjian, Yang

    2010-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) is among the most abundant elements on earth, it has been associated with the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, AlCl(3) was administered with the dose of 10, 50 or 300 mg/kg b.wt/day through diet for 100 days. On day 101, overnight-fasted animals were sacrificed, the whole brains were removed and the cells from hippocampus or cortex were separated for the measurements: malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. AlCl(3) exposure resulted in increased MDA levels accompanied by decreased activities of SOD in the cells. Comet assay demonstrated that aluminum induces nDNA damage in a dose-dependent manner, dramatically increased formation of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the mtDNA isolated from the cells was also measured. The alterations seem more serious than the results displayed by the studies performed with lower doses of aluminum. However, a detailed biochemical mechanism by which aluminum accelerates mtDNA damage has not yet been identified, but the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increase in MDA level in aluminum-treated mice may suggest the involvement of oxidative stress. PMID:20156420

  1. Luminescence properties of oxide coatings on aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershukevich, P. P.; Shabrov, D. V.; Osipov, V. P.; Schreiber, J.; Lapina, V. A.

    2011-09-01

    This is a study of the luminescence properties of coatings formed on aluminum alloys by anodizing in electrolytic solutions based on oxalic, sulfuric, and tartaric-sulfonic acids. At least two emission centers, with band maxima in the ranges of 390-410 and 470-510 nm, can be reliably identified in the photoluminescence spectra. The first type of center is characterized by single-band photoluminescence excitation spectra and the second, by two-band spectra. An analysis of the two-band photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra in the range of 470-510 nm shows that the position of the narrow short-wavelength PLE spectrum near 272 nm is independent of the type of acid used in the anodization process. The position and shape of the other PLE spectral bands depend both on the type of acid used and on the processing of the alloy or alumina surfaces. It is assumed that defect-free alumina centers are responsible for the 272 nm PLE band, while the other photoluminescence bands are caused primarily by different divacancies of oxygen ( {F_2^+} , F 2, and {F_2^{+2}} centers) whose origin is governed by the type of electrolyte.

  2. Strategy and method for nanoporous cladding formation on silica optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tian, Fei; Liu, Kai; Kanka, Jiri; Du, Henry

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate the proof of an innovative concept of fabricating nanostructured aluminum oxide cladding on silica optical fiber. Our fabrication strategy entails freeze-coating aluminum on silica fiber and its subsequent anodization, resulting in the formation of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) cladding with highly organized nanopore channels vertically aligned to the fiber axis. We show that the structure (diameter of pore channels and the porosity) of AAO cladding can be controlled by varying anodization conditions such as the type and concentration of electrolyte solutions and applied voltage. The versatility of AAO as a cladding with tunable structural and optical characteristics and/or a host of other functional nanostructures within the pore channels has the potential to enable a new class of specialty optical fiber for new sensor architecture and applications. PMID:27304300

  3. In-situ growth of porous alumino-silicates and fabrication of nano-porous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodumuri, Pradeep

    2009-12-01

    Feasibility of depositing continuous films of nano-porous alumino-silicates, primarily zeolites and MCM-41, on metallic and non-metallic substrates was examined with an aim to develop membranes for separation of gaseous mixtures and also for application as hydrogen storage material. Mesoporous silica was deposited in-side the pores of these nano-porous disks with an aim to develop membranes for selective separations. Our study involves supported zeolite film growth on substrates using in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. Faujasite, Silicalite and Mesoporous silica have been grown on various metallic and non-metallic supports. Metallic substrates used for film growth included anodized titanium, sodium hydroxide treated Titanium, Anodized aluminum, and sintered copper. A non-metallic substrate used was nano-porous aluminum oxide. Zeolite film growth was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (AMRAY 1820) and High Resolution Transmission electron microscope. Silicalite was found to grow uniformly on all the substrates to form a uniform and closely packed film. Faujasite tends to grow in the form of individual particles which do not inter-grow like silicalite to form a continuous film. Mesoporous silica was found to grow uniformly on anodized aluminum compared to growth on sintered copper and anodized titanium. Mesoporous silica growth on AnodiscRTM was found to cover more than half the surface of the substrate. Commercially obtained AnodiscRTM was found to have cylindrical channels of the pore branching into each other and since we needed pore channels of uniform dimension for Mesoporous silica growth, we have fabricated nano-porous alumina with uniform pore channels. Nano-porous alumina membranes containing uniform distribution of through thickness cylindrical pore channels were fabricated using anodization of aluminum disks. Free-standing nano-porous alumina membranes were used as templates for electro-deposition in order to fabricate nickel and palladium nano

  4. CO2-Selective Nanoporous Metal-Organic Framework Microcantilevers

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Changyong; Lee, Moonchan; Yun, Minhyuk; Kim, Gook-Hee; Kim, Kyong Tae; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) microcantilevers are fabricated and MIL-53 (Al) metal-organic framework (MOF) layers are directly synthesized on each cantilever surface by using the aluminum oxide as the metal ion source. Exposure of the MIL53-AAO cantilevers to various concentrations of CO2, N2, CO, and Ar induces changes in their deflections and resonance frequencies. The results of the resonance frequency measurements for the different adsorbed gas molecules are almost identical when the frequency changes are normalized by the molecular weights of the gases. In contrast, the deflection measurements show that only CO2 adsorption induces substantial bending of the MIL53-AAO cantilevers. This selective deflection of the cantilevers is attributed to the strong interactions between CO2 and the hydroxyl groups in MIL-53, which induce structural changes in the MIL-53 layers. Simultaneous measurements of the resonance frequency and the deflection are performed to show that the diffusion of CO2 into the nanoporous MIL-53 layers occurs very rapidly, whereas the binding of CO2 to hydroxyl groups occurs relatively slowly, which indicates that the adsorption of CO2 onto the MIL-53 layers and the desorption of CO2 from the MIL-53 layers are reaction limited. PMID:26035805

  5. Modeling of oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles by using Cabrera Mott Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanova, Zamart; Zyskin, Maxim; Martirosyan, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Our research focuses on modeling new Nanoenergetic Gas-Generator (NGG) formulations that rapidly release a large amount of gaseous products and generates shock and pressure waves. Nanoenergetic thermite reagents include mixtures of Al and metal oxides such as bismuth trioxide and iodine pentoxide. The research problem is considered a spherically symmetric case and used the Cabrera Mott oxidation model to describe the kinetics of oxide growth on spherical Al nanoparticles for evaluating reaction time which a process of the reaction with oxidizer happens on the outer part of oxide layer of aluminum ions are getting in contact with an oxidizing agent and react. We assumed that a ball of Al of radius 20 to 50 nm is covered by a thin oxide layer 2-4 nm and is surrounded by abundant amount of oxygen stored by oxidizers. The ball is rapidly heated up to ignition temperature to initiate self-sustaining oxidation reaction. As a result highly exothermic reaction is generated. In the oxide layer of excess concentrations of electrons and ions are dependent on the electric field potential with the corresponding of the Gibbs factors and that it conducts to the solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation for the electric field potential in a moving boundary domain. Motion of the boundary is determined by the gradient of a solution on the boundary. We investigated oxidation model numerically, using the COMSOL software utilizing finite element analysis. The computing results demonstrate that oxidation rate increases with the decreasing particle radius.

  6. Carbon dioxide capture using Sodium bicarbonate/Sodium carbonate supported on nanoporous Iron(III) oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, Bryce

    Strong evidence exists suggesting that anthropogenic emissions of CO 2, primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, have been contributing to global climate change, including warming of the atmosphere and acidification of the oceans. These, in turn, lead to other effects such as melting of ice and snow cover, rising sea levels, severe weather patterns, and extinction of life forms. With these detrimental shifts in ecosystems already being observed, it becomes imperative to mitigate anthropogenic CO2. CO2 capture is typically a costly operation, usually due to the energy required for regeneration of the capture medium. Na2CO3 is one potential capture medium with the potential to decrease this energy requirement. Extensively researched as a potential sorbent for CO2, Na2CO3 is well known for its theoretically low energy requirement, due largely to its relatively low heat of reaction compared to other capture technologies. Its primary pitfalls, however, are its extremely low reaction rate during sorption and slow regeneration of Na2CO 3. Before Na2CO3 can be used as a CO2 sorbent, then, it is critical to increase its reaction rate. In order to do so, this project studied nanoporous FeOOH as a potential supporting material for Na2CO3. Because regeneration of the sorbent is the most energy-intensive step when using Na2CO3 for CO 2 sorption, this project focused on the decomposition of NaHCO 3, which is equivalent to CO2 desorption. Using BET, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, magnetic susceptibility tests, and Mossbauer spectroscopy, we show FeOOH to be thermally stable both with and without the presence of NaHCO3 at temperatures necessary for sorption and regeneration, up to about 200°C. More significantly, we observe that FeOOH not only increases the surface area of NaHCO3, but also has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of NaHCO3, reducing activation energy from 80 kJ/mol to 44 kJ/mol. This reduction in activation energy leads to a significant increase in the

  7. Fabrication and ultraviolet photoresponse characteristics of ordered SnOx (x ≈ 0.87, 1.45, 2) nanopore films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Based on the porous anodic aluminum oxide templates, ordered SnOx nanopore films (approximately 150 nm thickness) with different x (x ≈ 0.87, 1.45, 2) have been successfully fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering and oxidizing annealing. Due to the high specific surface area, this ordered nanopore films exhibit a great improvement in recovery time compared to thin films for ultraviolet (UV) detection. Especially, the ordered SnOx nanopore films with lower x reveal higher UV light sensitivity and shorter current recovery time, which was explained by the higher concentration of the oxygen vacancies in this SnOx films. This work presents a potential candidate material for UV light detector. PACS: 81.15.Cd, 81.40.Ef, 81.70.Jb, 85.60.Gz. PMID:22142559

  8. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  9. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  10. Crystalline nanoporous metal oxide thin films by post-synthetic hydrothermal transformation: SnO2 and TiO2.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shaofeng; Dimitrov, Momtchil; Guan, Naijia; Köhn, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    Nanostructured and nanoporous metal oxide thin films are rarely accessible by standard synthetic approaches but highly desired for many applications, e.g. as electrodes, transparent conducting coatings, sensors or surface catalysts. Template based sol–gel chemistry combined with post-synthetic hydrothermal treatment allows now the synthesis of nanocrystalline mesostructured porous thin films of metal oxides, e.g. tin oxide and titania. Even in cases where the crystallization cannot be induced highly stable thin films can be achieved, e.g. niobium oxide thin films. We demonstrate how the size of the nanocrystallites influences and stabilizes the mesostructure at temperatures as low as 100 C and thereby in the case of titania or tin dioxide even prevents it from deterioration at higher temperatures up to 400–600 C. PMID:20945539

  11. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  12. Synthesis of iridescent Ni-containing anodic aluminum oxide films by anodization in oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Li, Ru-Song; Sun, Hui-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Ni-containing anodic aluminum oxide films with highly saturated colors were synthesized using an ac electrodeposition method, and the optical and magnetic characteristics of the films were characterized. Precisely controllable color tuning could be obtained using wet-chemical etching to thin and widen the anodic aluminum oxide films pores isotropically before Ni deposition. Magnetic measurements indicate that such colored composite films not exhibit obvious easy magnetization direction. The resulted short (200 nm in length) and wide (50 nm in diameter) Ni nanowires present only fcc phase. The magnetization reversal mechanism is in good agreement with the symmetric fanning reversal mode which is discussed in detail. Such films may find applications in decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  13. Amorphous Vanadium Oxide/Carbon Composite Positive Electrode for Rechargeable Aluminum Battery.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Masanobu; Takeda, Hiroki; Matsumura, Shota; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-11-11

    Amorphous vanadium oxide/carbon composite (V2O5/C) was first applied to the positive electrode active material for rechargeable aluminum batteries. Electrochemical properties of V2O5/C were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests. Reversible reduction/oxidation peaks were observed for the V2O5/C electrode and the rechargeable aluminum cell showed the maximum discharge capacity over 200 mAh g(-1) in the first discharging. The XPS analyses after discharging and the following charging exhibited that the redox of vanadium ion in the V2O5/C active material occurred during discharging and charging, and the average valence of V changed between 4.14 and 4.85. PMID:26489385

  14. Fabrication of polymeric nano-batteries array using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ling; Sun, Zhenkun; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2009-02-01

    Rechargeable nano-batteries were fabricated in the array pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, combining template method and electrochemical method. The battery consisted of electropolymerized PPy electrode, porous TiO2 separator, and chemically polymerized PAn electrode was fabricated in the array pores of two-step anodizing aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, based on three-step assembling method. It performs typical electrochemical battery behavior with good charge-discharge ability, and presents a capacity of 25 nAs. AFM results show the hexagonal array of nano-batteries' top side. The nano-battery may be a promising device for the development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS). PMID:19441424

  15. Oxidation behavior of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - Magnesium oxide and nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - zirconate type of cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1976-01-01

    The 1100 and 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance of dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgO, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - CaZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - SrZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgZro3 cermets and a 70 percent dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y developmental material was determined. The cermets contained 60 and 50 volume percent of Ni-Cr-Al-Y which formed a matrix with the oxide particles imbedded in it. The cermets containing MgO were superior to cermets based on zirconates and to the porous Ni-Cr-Al-Y material.

  16. Effect of conditions of thermal treatment on the porous structure of an aluminum oxide-containing nanofibrous aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, E. B.; Krasil'nikova, O. K.; Grankina, T. Yu.; Serov, Yu. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect the conditions of thermal treatment have on a specific surface and the number of primary adsorption centers is studied. The relationship between changing adsorption characteristics and changes in the structure of nanofibrous aluminum oxide is considered.

  17. Effects of additives on volume change on melting, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. L.; Rasmussen, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of various oxide additives on the volume change on melting, the surface tension, and the viscosity of liquid Al2O3 were studied. Additives of Sm2O3, MgO, and Y2O3 which form solid solutions, compounds, and multiphase solids with Al2O3 were studied. A review of the property data for Al2O3 and Al2O3 containing oxide additives is presented. Oxide additives to Al2O3 reduce the volume change on melting and with the exception of SiO2 lower the viscosity; surface tensions change with oxide additives, but changes vary with different container material. Viscosity and volume change on melting appeared to be significantly more important for studying the properties of liquid oxides than surface tension. Supercooling of 270 K of yttrium aluminum garnet was observed.

  18. Energy dependence of the trapping of uranium atoms by aluminum oxide surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Librecht, K. G.

    1979-01-01

    The energy dependence of the trapping probability for sputtered U-235 atoms striking an oxidized aluminum collector surface at energies between 1 eV and 184 eV was measured. At the lowest energies, approximately 10% of the uranium atoms are not trapped, while above 10 eV essentially all of them stick. Trapping probabilities averaged over the sputtered energy distribution for uranium incident on gold and mica are also presented.

  19. Surface conductivity of the single crystal aluminum oxide in vacuum and caesium vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilchenko, A.V.; Izhvanov, O.L.

    1996-03-01

    Results of measurements of surface conductivity of single-crystal aluminum oxide samples in vacuum and cesium vapors at T=620{endash}830 K and P{sub Cs}=0.13{endash}2 Pa are shown in the paper. Analysis of caesium vapor influence is carried out and ultimate characteristics of samples conductivity under operation conditions in thermionic nuclear power system (NPP) TFE are estimated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  1. Elaboration of aluminum oxide-based graphite containing castables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningsheng

    The aim of this work was set to develop effective and practicable new methods to incorporate natural flake graphite (FG) into the Al2O 3 based castables for iron and steel making applications. Three approaches, viz. micro-pelletized graphite (PG), crushed briquette of Al2O3-graphite (BAG) and TiO2 coated graphite (CFG), have been developed to insert flake graphite into Al2O 3 rich Al2O3-SiC based and Al2O 3-MgO based castables. These approaches were put into effect as countermeasures against the problems caused by FG in order: (1) to agglomerate the FG powders so as to decrease the specific surface area; (2) to diminish the density difference by using crushed carbon bonded compact of oxide-FG mixture; (3) to modify the surface of the flake graphite by forming hydrophilic coating; (4) to control the dispersion state of the graphite in the castable to maintain enough bonding strength; and (5) to use appropriate antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of FG. The whole work was divided into two stages. In stage one, Al2O 3-SiC-C castables were dealt with to compare 4 modes of inserting graphite, i.e., by PG, BAG, CFG and FG. Overall properties were measured, all in correlation with graphite amount and incorporating mode. In stage two, efforts were made to reduce water demand in the Al2O3-MgO castables system. For this purpose, the matrix portion of the castable mixes was extracted and a coaxial double cylinder viscometer was adopted to investigate rheological characteristics of the matrix slurries vs. 4 kinds of deflocculants, through which the best deflocculant and its appropriate amount were found. Efforts were then made to add up to 30% MgO into the castables, using a limited amount of powders (<0.3 mm), the rest being increased in size gradually up to the top size of 4.76 mm. Into the optimized Al2O3-MgO castables graphite was incorporated by PG and BAG, and 4 kinds of antioxidants, Si, SiC, B4C and ZrB2, were added respectively or in combination. Overall properties

  2. Tunneling Spectroscopy Studies of Urea, Thiourea, and Selected Phosphonate Molecules Adsorbed on Aluminum Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Charles D.

    Experimental and calculated inelastic electron tunneling intensities were compared for several of the vibrational modes of thiourea adsorbed on aluminum oxide. The partial charge model of Kirtley, Scalapino, and Hansma was used to compute the theoretical intensities of each mode. The required partial charges were determined using a method developed by Momany. Essentially, the Coulomb potential resulting from point charges located at atom sites was fitted to the quantum mechanical electrostatic potential of a molecule calculated from Hartree-Fock theory. The effect of a vibrational mode pattern on the electrostatic potential of a molecule was investigated. This effect could not be acceptably modeled with a single point charge located on each atom, so one charge was used to represent the positive nucleus of each atom and a second charge was used to represent the valence cloud. The valence charge was allowed to move independently of the nuclear charge during a molecular vibration, and the motions of the two charges were found to be very different for hydrogen atoms. This model gave very reasonable agreement between the theoretical and observed relative intensities for the in plane vibrational modes of thiourea. An acceptable set of out of plane force constants could not be found. This caused problems in the interpretation of the out of plane relative intensities. Based on the in plane modes, it was concluded that thiourea bonded to aluminum oxide with the sulfur atom near the oxide and the sulfur-carbon bond perpendicular to the aluminum oxide surface. Quantum mechanical electrostatic potentials were also calculated for urea, phosphoric acid (PA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), hydroxymethylphosphonic acid (HMP), and nitrotrismethylphosphonic acid (NTMP). Electron tunneling spectra were taken for PA, HMP and NTMP, and the observed frequencies were compared to values obtained from Fourier transform infrared, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Upward shifts in the P=O and P

  3. Applicability of poorly crystalline aluminum oxide for adsorption of arsenate.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn-Jong; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Mok; Choi, Sang-Il

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of arsenate adsorption on poorly crystalline oxide (PCAO) which was obtained from recycling of dry sanding powders (DSP) produced during sanding and sawing process in a decorative interior company. After calcinating DSP at 550°C, poorly crystalline oxide (PCAO) was obtained as an adsorbent. From the batch adsorption experiments, arsenate was completely removed up to the concentration of 10 mg/L by PCAO. The stability of PCAO as an adsorbent was evaluated at pH 7 and found that the arsenate adsorbed on PCAO was stable for 24 h. The predominant interaction between arsenate and PCAO was thought to be a strong chemical bond by spectroscopic analysis. The arsenate adsorption behavior onto PCAO was satisfactorily simulated with MINEQL+, suggesting that arsenate formed inner-sphere complexes with the surface of PCAO by chemisorption. Meanwhile, the presence of competitive anions such as PO(4) (3-), SO(4) (2-) and CO(3) (2-) decreased somewhat the removal efficiency of arsenate and the effects of competing anions on the adsorption of arsenate were in the order of PO(4) (3-) > SO(4) (2-) > CO(3) (2-) under pH 6. The application of PCAO to the real mine drainage was also carried out. Although the adsorption of arsenic on the PCAO was slightly decreased rather than that removed from synthetic wastewater due to competitive sorption by multiple ions, it was possible to meet the national discharge standard limit with increasing adsorbent concentration. PMID:21942390

  4. Adhesion of Poly(phenylene sulfide) Resin with Polymeric Film of Triazine Thiol on Aluminum Surface Modified by Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Hyuk; Jang, Eun Kyung; Hong, Tae Eun; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Jin, Jong Sung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Shin, Dong Su; Bae, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Euh Duck

    2015-01-01

    Various surface modifications have been applied to improve the adhesion properties of aluminum for the cap plate and sealing quality of electrolyte on Li ion batteries. In this study, we have tried to find the effective condition for the polymerization of triazine thiols (TT) on modified aluminum surfaces by anodic aluminum oxide. Characterization of polymerized films on aluminum was explored by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that meaningful roughness was formed on aluminum surfaces by anodic oxidation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis results represent that the peel strength was found to depend on film thickness and the composition of the adhesion layer. As a result, Al/PPS (polyphenylene sulfide) resin assemblies developed in this study have superior adhesive property. Therefore, these assemblies might be a viable candidate for a sealing technique for Li ion batteries. PMID:26301310

  5. Role of Exogenous Melatonin on Cell Proliferation and Oxidant/Antioxidant System in Aluminum-Induced Renal Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Bayrak, Bertan Boran; Arda-Pirincci, Pelin; Sarikaya-Unal, Guner; Us, Huseyin; Yanardag, Refiye

    2015-11-01

    Aluminum has toxic potential on humans and animals when it accumulates in various tissues. It was shown in a number of studies that aluminum causes oxidative stress by free radical formation and lipid peroxidation in tissues and thus may cause damage in target organs. Although there are numerous studies investigating aluminum toxicity, biochemical mechanisms of the damage caused by aluminum have yet to be explained. Melatonin produced by pineal gland was shown to be an effective antioxidant. Since kidneys are target organs for aluminum accumulation and toxicity, we have studied the role of melatonin against aluminum-induced renal toxicity in rats. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups. Group I served as control, and received only physiological saline; group II served as positive control for melatonin, and received ethanol and physiological saline; group III received melatonin (10 mg/kg); group IV received aluminum sulfate (5 mg/kg) and group V received aluminum sulfate and melatonin (in the same dose), injected three times a week for 1 month. Administration of aluminum caused degenerative changes in renal tissues, such as increase in metallothionein immunoreactivity and decrease in cell proliferation. Moreover, uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels and xanthine oxidase activity increased, while glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, paraoxonase 1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sodium potassium ATPase activities decreased. Administration of melatonin mostly prevented these symptoms. Results showed that melatonin is a potential beneficial agent for reducing damage in aluminum-induced renal toxicity. PMID:25855374

  6. Microstructure, optical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel nanoporous tungsten oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaoued, Yahia; Ashrit, P. V.; Badilescu, S.; Bruning, R.

    2003-08-01

    Porous tungsten oxide films have been prepared by a nonhydrolitic sol-gel method using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a structure directing agent. The method entails the hydrolysis of an ethanolic solution of tungsten ethoxide (formed by the reaction of WCl6 with ethanol) followed by condensation and polymerization at the PEG-tungsten oxide oligometers interface. A highly porous WO3 framework was obtained after PEG was burned off by calcination at a relativley low temperature. AFM images of the films treated thermally show an ordered material rather than microscopic particulates. Both fibrilar nanostructures and striped phase can be obtained via this approach, depending on the concentration of PEG in the coating solution. XRD data from the fibrils indicate that they are crystalline with very small crystals, whereas the striped phases obtained with 20% PEG correspond to two crystalline phases, one, the stoichiometric WO3 and the other one an oxygen deficient phase, containing larger crystals (~28 nm). The results show that PEG promotes the formation of oxygen deficient phases and delays crystallization. Compared to WO3 with no PEG, the optical and electrochromic properties of the macroporous tungsten oxide films appear to be significantly improved. The formation of organized nanostructures is tentatively accounted for by the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between PEG and the tungsten oxide oligomers.

  7. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy of Co-Ni nanowires: comparison between single nanowires and nanowire arrays in hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Vega, V; Böhnert, T; Martens, S; Waleczek, M; Montero-Moreno, J M; Görlitz, D; Prida, V M; Nielsch, K

    2012-11-23

    Co(x)Ni(1-x) alloy nanowires with varying Co content (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.95), having a diameter of 130 nm and length of around 20 μm, are synthesized by template-assisted electrodeposition into the nanopores of SiO(2) conformal coated hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The magneto-structural properties of both single isolated nanowires and hexagonally ordered nanowire arrays of Co-Ni alloys are systematically studied by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively, allowing us to compare different alloy compositions and to distinguish between the magnetostatic and magnetocrystalline contributions to the effective magnetic anisotropy for each system. The excellent tunable soft magnetic properties and magnetic bistability exhibited by low Co content Co-Ni nanowires indicate that they might become the material of choice for the development of nanostructured magnetic systems and devices as an alternative to Fe-Ni alloy based systems, being chemically more robust. Furthermore, Co contents higher than 51 at.% allow us to modify the magnetic behavior of Co-rich nanowires by developing well controlled magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which is desirable for data storage applications. PMID:23095457

  8. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Aluminum Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack Lee; Pye, S. L.

    2009-02-01

    A simple test-tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide microspheres by the internal gelation process. Broth formulations of aluminum, hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous aluminum oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60-90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations in order to equate the test-tube gelation times with actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broths.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of ultra-uniform magnetic nanoparticle arrays in ordered aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming

    2001-07-01

    Anodization of aluminum in acid solutions can generate unique morphologies of the resulting amorphous alumina films, consisting of long and columnar nanopores with approximately hexagonal ordering (alumite). Alumite has attracted broad attention, both on a fundamental and applied level, for more than half a century. In particular, the possibility of synthesizing nano-structures for magnetic recording technology makes this classic self-assembly process even more attractive. Previous studies have shown that the pore size and pore distance could be easily tuned by controlling anodization conditions. Recently, excellent hexagonal ordering of these nanopores has been achieved by multi-step anodization. Although the maximum ordered area could be increased to 100 mum 2 by further extending the anodization time and using a multi-step anodization, the defects and grain structure in the Al metal surface hamper the achievement of longer-range order. Alumite structures are an almost ideal template for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticle arrays, which have possible applications in advanced magnetic recording technology and as model systems for the study of well-defined and uniform magnetic nanoparticles. Electroplating can allow a systematic study of how best to make such arrays controlled. Various voltage and current waveforms were employed to control the nucleation, growth, and consequently the magnetic properties of the magnetic metal array in ordered alumite. At first, Fe nanowires were deposited in disordered pores, then Co nanowires were deposited in ordered pores by AC sinusoidal waveform electrodeposition. The average length and diameter of these nanowires can be controlled, but a wide distribution of nanowire lengths is observed. Successively, particle uniformity was achieved by a novel electrodeposition scheme, utilizing pulse-reverse voltage waveforms (pulse-reverse electrodeposition) to control nucleation and growth of the particles. The resulting nanoparticles

  10. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts

    PubMed Central

    Willhite, Calvin C.; Karyakina, Nataliya A.; Yokel, Robert A.; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M.; Arnold, Ian M. F.; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous substance encountered both naturally (as the third most abundant element) and intentionally (used in water, foods, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines); it is also present in ambient and occupational airborne particulates. Existing data underscore the importance of Al physical and chemical forms in relation to its uptake, accumulation, and systemic bioavailability. The present review represents a systematic examination of the peer-reviewed literature on the adverse health effects of Al materials published since a previous critical evaluation compiled by Krewski et al. (2007). Challenges encountered in carrying out the present review reflected the experimental use of different physical and chemical Al forms, different routes of administration, and different target organs in relation to the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposure. Wide variations in diet can result in Al intakes that are often higher than the World Health Organization provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), which is based on studies with Al citrate. Comparing daily dietary Al exposures on the basis of “total Al” assumes that gastrointestinal bioavailability for all dietary Al forms is equivalent to that for Al citrate, an approach that requires validation. Current occupational exposure limits (OELs) for identical Al substances vary as much as 15-fold. The toxicity of different Al forms depends in large measure on their physical behavior and relative solubility in water. The toxicity of soluble Al forms depends upon the delivered dose of Al+3 to target tissues. Trivalent Al reacts with water to produce bidentate superoxide coordination spheres [Al(O2)(H2O4)+2 and Al(H2O)6+3] that after complexation with O2•−, generate Al superoxides [Al(O2•)](H2O5)]+2. Semireduced AlO2• radicals deplete mitochondrial Fe and promote generation of H2O2, O2•− and OH•. Thus, it is the Al+3-induced formation of oxygen radicals that accounts for the oxidative damage that

  11. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    PubMed

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances. PMID:25233067

  12. Application of diffusion barriers to the refractory fibers of tungsten, columbium, carbon and aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Veltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A radio frequency powered ion-plating system was used to plate protective layers of refractory oxides and carbide onto high strength fiber substrates. Subsequent overplating of these combinations with nickel and titanium was made to determine the effectiveness of such barrier layers in preventing diffusion of the overcoat metal into the fibers with consequent loss of fiber strength. Four substrates, five coatings, and two metal matrix materials were employed for a total of forty material combinations. The substrates were tungsten, niobium, NASA-Hough carbon, and Tyco sapphire. The diffusion-barrier coatings were aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide with 14% cobalt addition, and zirconium carbide. The metal matrix materials were IN 600 nickel and Ti 6/4 titanium. Adhesion of the coatings to all substrates was good except for the NASA-Hough carbon, where flaking off of the oxide coatings in particular was observed.

  13. Luminescence of europium-doped anode oxide films on titanium-aluminum composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, V. A.; Pinaeva, M. M.; Gurskaya, E. A.; Stekol'Nikov, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The luminescence of europium in anode oxide films (AOF) on titanium-aluminum film composites is investigated. It is shown that the intensity distribution in the continuous and line luminescence spectra of europium introduced into the AOF directly in the process of anodic oxidation essentially depends on the sequence of arrangement of the layers of metal films and on the temperature of their heat treatment preceding the process of anodic oxidation. It is established that the nature of the luminescence spectrum of the AOF correlates with the chronovoltammetry diagrams of anodic oxidation. Composites with a high degree of europium doping are found and methods of searching for composites for creating new materials of electronic technology are outlined.

  14. Crystal structure of complex natural aluminum magnesium calcium iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2010-07-15

    The structure of a new natural oxide found near the Tashelga River (Eastern Siberia) was studied by X-ray diffraction. The pseudo-orthorhombic unit cell parameters are a = 5.6973(1) A, b = 17.1823(4) A, c = 23.5718(5) A, {beta} = 90{sup o}, sp. gr. Pc. The structure was refined to R = 0.0516 based on 4773 reflections with vertical bar F vertical bar > 7{sigma}(F) taking into account the twin plane perpendicular to the z axis (the twin components are 0.47 and 0.53). The crystal-chemical formula (Z = 4) is Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}{sup IV}Fe{sub 2}{sup (2+)IV}[Al{sub 14}{sup VI}O{sub 31}(OH)][Al{sub 2}{sup IV}O][Al{sup IV}]AL{sup IV}(OH)], where the Roman numerals designate the coordination of the atoms. The structure of the mineral is based on wide ribbons of edge-sharing Al octahedra (an integral part of the spinel layer). The ribbons run along the shortest x axis and are inclined to the y and z axes. The adjacent ribbons are shifted with respect to each other along the y axis, resulting in the formation of step-like layers in which the two-ribbon thickness alternates with the three-ribbon thickness. Additional Al octahedra and Mg and Fe{sup 2+} tetrahedra are located between the ribbons. The layers are linked together to form a three-dimensional framework by Al tetrahedra, Ca polyhedra, and hydrogen bonds with the participation of OH groups.

  15. Controlling the anodizing conditions in preparation of an nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Abolfazl, Seyed; Sadjadi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template is commonly used in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanorods, due to its simple fabrication process. Controlling the anodizing conditions is important because of their direct influence on the size of AAO template pores; it affects the size of nanostructures that are fabricated in AAO template. In present study, several alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical anodization in different conditions, such as the time of first process, its voltage, and electrolyte concentration. The effect of these factors on pore diameters of AAO templates was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Al K-edge extended fine structures in X-ray emission spectra of aluminum metal and aluminum oxide measured by an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, S.; Nishio, M.

    1998-03-01

    The radiative Auger satellite peaks of Al Kα for aluminum metal and aluminum oxide were measured over a small area using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The oscillation was found to be similar to the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in the EPMA spectra, oscillation which was recently discovered by Hayashi et al. (1997) in the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. The measured EXAFS spectra with EPMA are in good agreement with those by Hayashi et al., but here the oscillation structure could be obtained in a few minutes over a small area by using EPMA.

  17. Nano-porous indium oxide transistor sensor for the detection of ethanol vapours at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, M.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2012-01-01

    Porous indium oxide thin film prepared by the dip coating technique has been used in the construction of a field effect transistor. The coating solution was prepared from indium chloride precursor. The average particle size of the dip coated thin film was found to be 25 nm. Scanning electron microscopic images show the porous nature of the film, and the root mean square roughness of the film calculated using atomic force microscope was 24 nm. A transistor has been constructed by evaporating metal Aluminium as source and drain electrodes on the indium oxide active layer and employing the silicon substrate itself as a gate. The sensor response of the constructed transistor was tested with ethanol, ammonia and acetone vapours. The sensor showed good response to ethanol vapours even at 5-ppm level, and the time for response and recovery of the gas was nearly 1 min. Response to ammonia and acetone was comparatively poor. When the gate voltage was increased from 0 to 300 mV, a considerable increase in the source-drain current was observed. As the temperature of the sensing element increased, response to ethanol vapours also increased. There was nearly a linear variation in the transistor response for 100 ppm of ethanol vapours when the gate voltage was swept from 0 to 300 mV. The sensor response of the transistor increases with the gas concentration. The constructed transistor was found to be selectively sensitive to ethanol; therefore it can be implemented to work as a breath alcohol checker.

  18. Non-isothermal oxidation of aluminum nanopowder coated by hydrocarbons and fluorohydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, A.; Duranti, E.; Paravan, C.; DeLuca, L. T.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Gromov, A. A.; Pautova, Yu. I.; Lerner, M. I.; Rodkevich, N. G.

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum nanopowder (nAl) obtained by electrical explosion of wires and passivated/coated with hydrocarbons and fluorohydrocarbons is comprehensively characterized. Coatings of different natures (octadecanoic and hexadecanoic acid, (1,1,11) trihydroperfluoro-undecan-1-ol, Fluorel™ + ester from esterification of (1,1,11) trihydroperfluoro-undecan-1-ol with furan-2,5-dione) were applied on the particle surface. The powders were studied by TEM, SEM, DSC-TGA, and BET specific surface area. The active aluminum content was determined by volumetric analyses. Coated nAl particles were compared to non-coated powder by the corresponding reactivity parameters obtained from DSC-TGA. It was found that while fatty acids have a weak effect on the non-isothermal oxidation behavior, fluoroelastomers shift the oxidation onset of nAl to higher temperatures by ˜20 °C for the first oxidation stage and by ˜100 °C for the second oxidation stage.

  19. Iron-aluminum cluster catalysts obtained by alkoxy synthesis. 1. Liquid-phase oxidation of hexadecane

    SciTech Connect

    Tsodikov, M.V.; Kugel, V.Ya.; Bukhtenko, O.V. ); Maksimov, Yu.V. ); Ellert, O.G.; Shcherbakov, V.M. )

    1994-07-01

    Much attention has previously been devoted to simple metal oxides as catalysts for low-temperature liquid-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons. Iron-substituted boehmite gel has been prepared by alkoxy synthesis, i.e., by reaction of Fe(acac)[sub 3] with a fresh surface of AlOOH. Iron-aluminum complex oxide catalysts for liquid-phase oxidation of hexadecane were prepared by annealing the gel precursors. The gels with 0-20 wt.% of iron loading were studied by magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Depending on the iron concentration, differing amounts of paramagnetic Fe[sup 3+] ions in the boehmite structure and small ferrimagnetic spinel clusters were observed in the X-ray amorphous precursors. Thermal treatment led to formation of substituted spinels, Fe[sub x]Al[sub 2-x]O[sub 3], as well as [gamma]-ferric oxide clusters. The overall rate of hexadecane oxidation increased with an increase in the relative content of magnetic clusters. The inclusion of nonmagnetic Al[sup 3+] ions in the [gamma]-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] lattice reduced the number of terminal Fe[sup 3+]=O groups and the overall catalytic activity. The role of electronically excited terminal oxygen on the surface of [gamma]-ferric oxide clusters in the mechanism of hexadecane oxidation is discussed. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  1. Electromechanical Breakdown of Barrier-Type Anodized Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Under High Electric Field Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Yao, Xi

    2016-02-01

    Barrier-type anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) thin films were formed on a polished aluminum substrate via electrochemical anodization in 0.1 mol/L aqueous solution of ammonium pentaborate. Electromechanical breakdown occurred under high electric field conditions as a result of the accumulation of mechanical stress in the film-substrate system by subjecting it to rapid thermal treatment. Before the breakdown event, the electricity of the films was transported in a highly nonlinear way. Immediately after the breakdown event, dramatic cracking of the films occurred, and the cracks expanded quickly to form a mesh-like dendrite network. The breakdown strength was significantly reduced because of the electromechanical coupling effect, and was only 34% of the self-healing breakdown strength of the AAO film.

  2. Colloidal infrared reflective and transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides a method of preparing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) injecting a precursor mixture of a zinc precursor, an aluminum precursor, an amine, and a fatty acid in a solution of a vicinal diol in a non-coordinating solvent, thereby resulting in a reaction mixture, (2) precipitating the nanocrystals from the reaction mixture, thereby resulting in a final precipitate, and (3) dissolving the final precipitate in an apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a dispersion. In an exemplary embodiment, the dispersion includes (1) nanocrystals that are well separated from each other, where the nanocrystals are coated with surfactants and (2) an apolar solvent where the nanocrystals are suspended in the apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a film. In an exemplary embodiment, the film includes (1) a substrate and (2) nanocrystals that are evenly distributed on the substrate.

  3. Method of making highly porous, stable aluminum oxides doped with silicon

    DOEpatents

    Khosravi-Mardkhe, Maryam; Woodfield, Brian F.; Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Huang, Baiyu

    2016-03-22

    The present invention relates to a method for making high surface area and large pore volume thermally stable silica-doped alumina (aluminum oxide) catalyst support and ceramic materials. The ability of the silica-alumina to withstand high temperatures in presence or absence of water and prevent sintering allows it to maintain good activity over a long period of time in catalytic reactions. The method of preparing such materials includes adding organic silicon reagents to an organic aluminum salt such as an alkoxide in a controlled quantity as a doping agent in a solid state, solvent deficient reaction followed by calcination. Alternatively, the organic silicon compound may be added after calcination of the alumina, followed by another calcination step. This method is inexpensive and simple. The alumina catalyst support material prepared by the subject method maintains high pore volumes, pore diameters and surface areas at very high temperatures and in the presence of steam.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of the aluminum oxide-yttrium oxide pseudo-binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, Jason Conrad

    The growth of thin films of selected phases from the pseudo-binary Al 2O3-Y2O3 material system was demonstrated using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Specifically ALD growth of Al2O 3, Y2O3, Ce2O3, Y2 Al4O12 (Yttrium Aluminum Monoclinic - YAM), and Y3Al5O12 (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet - YAG) was accomplished. All films were grown using the same precursors: AlCl 3 at 105°C and H2O, Y(thd)3 [thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione] at 140°C and O3, and Ce(acac)3 [acac = acetylacetonate] at 140°C, and O3. The Al2O3 films were grown at substrate temperatures from 295°C to 515°C. A surface-controlled growth temperature 'window' (ALD window) was found for Al 2O3 between 365°C to 465°C using AlCl3 and H2O. The resultant films grown at all temperatures were amorphous as characterized by X-ray diffraction, and showed a rough surface morphology. The growth rate was determined to be 1 A/cycle within the ALD 'window'. The thickness of films grown in the ALD 'window' varied linearly with the number of cycles. Films up to 1 microm thick were grown (10,000 cycles). The Y2O3 films were grown at substrate temperatures ranging from 200°C to 500°C. No surface-controlled growth temperature window could be determined using Y(thd)3 and O3. The resultant films were polycrystalline with a cubic structure and a smooth surface morphology. The growth rate was determined to be 3 pm/cycle at 350°C. Films up to 30 nm thick were grown (10,000 cycles). Atomic layer deposition of Ce2O3 thin films were also studied because Ce3+ is often used as a luminescent rare earth dopant in YAG and YAM. The Ce2O3 films were grown at substrate temperatures from 200°C to 500°C. No surface-controlled growth temperature window could be found using Ce(acac)3 and O 3. The resultant films had a rough surface morphology. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it was determined that the Ce3+ oxidation state was present in the as-deposited films rather than Ce4+. When included in the growth process for

  5. Assessing the fate and effects of nano aluminum oxide in the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jessica G; Johnson, David R; Stanley, Jacob K; Bednar, Anthony J; Weiss, Charles A; Boyd, Robert E; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-07-01

    Nano-sized aluminum is currently being used by the military and commercial industries in many applications including coatings, thermites, and propellants. Due to the potential for wide dispersal in soil systems, we chose to investigate the fate and effects of nano-sized aluminum oxide (Al2O3), the oxidized form of nano aluminum, in a terrestrial organism. The toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of micron-sized (50-200 microm, nominal) and nano-sized (11 nm, nominal) Al2O3 was comparatively assessed through acute and subchronic bioassays using the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Subchronic (28-d) studies were performed exposing E. fetida to nano- and micron-sized Al2O3-spiked soils to assess the effects of long-term exposure. No mortality occurred in subchronic exposures, although reproduction decreased at >or=3,000 mg/kg nano-sized Al2O3 treatments, with higher aluminum body burdens observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg; no reproductive effects were observed in the micron-sized Al2O3 treatments. In addition to toxicity and bioaccumulation bioassays, an acute (48-h) behavioral bioassay was conducted utilizing a soil avoidance wheel in which E. fetida were given a choice of habitat between control, nano-, or micron-sized Al2O3 amended soils. In the soil avoidance bioassays, E. fetida exhibited avoidance behavior toward the highest concentrations of micron- and nano-sized Al2O3 (>5,000 mg/kg) relative to control soils. Results of the present study indicate that nano-sized Al2O3 may impact reproduction and behavior of E. fetida, although at high levels unlikely to be found in the environment. PMID:20821608

  6. Aluminum overload increases oxidative stress in four functional brain areas of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher aluminum (Al) content in infant formula and its effects on neonatal brain development are a cause for concern. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution and concentration of Al in neonatal rat brain following Al treatment, and oxidative stress in brain tissues induced by Al overload. Methods Postnatal day 3 (PND 3) rat pups (n =46) received intraperitoneal injection of aluminum chloride (AlCl3), at dosages of 0, 7, and 35 mg/kg body wt (control, low Al (LA), and high Al (HA), respectively), over 14 d. Results Aluminum concentrations were significantly higher in the hippocampus (751.0 ± 225.8 ng/g v.s. 294.9 ± 180.8 ng/g; p < 0.05), diencephalon (79.6 ± 20.7 ng/g v.s. 20.4 ± 9.6 ng/g; p < 0.05), and cerebellum (144.8 ± 36.2 ng/g v.s. 83.1 ± 15.2 ng/g; p < 0.05) in the HA group compared to the control. The hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brain stem of HA animals displayed significantly higher levels of lipid peroxidative products (TBARS) than the same regions in the controls. However, the average superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brain stem were lower in the HA group compared to the control. The HA animals demonstrated increased catalase activity in the diencephalon, and increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brain stem, compared to controls. Conclusion Aluminum overload increases oxidative stress (H2O2) in the hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brain stem in neonatal rats. PMID:22613782

  7. Determining the Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Aggregation of Amyloid-Beta in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Suhag; Matticks, John; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease has been linked partially to genetic factors but the predicted environmental components have yet to be determined. In Alzheimer's, accumulation of amyloid-beta protein in the brain forms plaques resulting in neurodegeneration and loss of mental functions. It has been postulated that aluminum influences the aggregation of amyloid-beta. To test this hypothesis, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, CL2120, was used as a model organism to observe neurodegeneration in nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Behavioral testing, fluorescent staining, and fluorescence microscopy were used to test the effects of aggregation of amyloid-beta in the nervous systems of effected nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to quantify the total concentration of aluminum oxide that the worms were exposed to during the experiment. Exposure of transgenic and wild type worms to a concentration of 4 mg mL-1 aluminum oxide showed a decrease in the sinusoidal motion, as well as an infirmity of transgenic worms when compared to control worms. These results support the hypothesis that aluminum may play a role in neurodegeneration in C. elegans, and may influence and increase the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047 DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  8. The Identification of Stable Reaction Intermediates on Aluminum Oxide Surfaces with Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Michael Karpovich

    The stable surface intermediates that were formed in several heterogeneous reactions on aluminum oxide films were identified with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. The alumina films were synthesized by the plasma oxidation of aluminum metal films. The temperature and exposure dependent interaction of cyclopropane carboxylic acid with alumina films was studied. Cyclopropane carboxylate and n-butane carboxylate were the only adsorbed species formed. The n-butane carboxylate results from hydrogenolysis of the cyclopropyl ring of the adsorbed cyclopropane carboxylate with hydrogen supplied by surface hydroxyl groups. The relative populations of the two surface species are strongly dependent upon coverage and temperature. The adsorption of gaseous dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) on alumina films was investigated. Surface temperatures ranged between 200 K and 673 K, and exposures ranged between 3 x 10('-4) and 10 Torr-s. Tunneling spectra of deuterium labeled DMMP, perdeutero methyl alcohol, methyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid and trimethyl phosphine oxide, all adsorbed on aluminum oxide surfaces, were used to clarify the structures of the species resulting from the adsorption and decomposition of DMMP. At 200 K, DMMP is adsorbed molecularly with high surface coverages. At surface temperatures above 295 K, DMMP is adsorbed dissociatively in low coverages. Surface temperatures above 473 K lead to the dealkylation of the dissociatively adsorbed adspecies, which results in the formation of adsorbed methyl phosphonate. The adsorption and reaction of three phosphonate esters on alumina films was comparatively examined. The phosphonate esters were diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) and diphenyl methyl phosphonate (DPMP). The adsorption temperatures ranged from 200 to 673 K. At 373 K, DIMP was found to adsorb dissociatively in low coverages as isopropyl methyl phosphonate. Above 373 K the isopropyl methyl

  9. A preliminary study of ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin-film micro-oxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing 10 to the minus 3rd power M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission (I sub max) was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity (t sub 1/2) was an inverse function of test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  10. A preliminary study of ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Meador, M. A.; Morales, W.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin-film micro-oxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing 10 to the minus 3 power M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission (I sub max) was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity (t sub 1/2) was an inverse function of test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  11. The use of PEEK nanorod arrays for the fabrication of nanoporous surfaces under high temperature: SiNx example.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol

    2012-09-21

    Large area silicon nitride (SiN(x)) nanoporous surfaces are fabricated using poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) nanorod arrays as a template. The procedure involves manipulation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates in order to form an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars with high temperature resistant characteristics. In this context, self-ordered AAO templates are infiltrated with PEEK melts via the "precursor film" method. Once the melts have been crystallized in the porous structure of AAO, the basis alumina layer is removed, yielding an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars. The resulting structure is a high temperature and chemical resistant polymeric nanomold, which can be utilized in the synthesis of nanoporous materials under aggressive conditions. Such conditions are high temperatures (up to 320 °C), vacuum, or extreme pH. For example, SiN(x) nanopore arrays have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C, which can be of interest as mold for nanoimprint lithography, due to its hardness and low surface energy. The SiN(x) nanopore array portrays the same characteristics as the original AAO template: 120 nm diameter pores and an interpore distance of 430 nm. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the SiN(x) nanopores can be tuned by selecting an AAO template with appropriate conditions. The use of PEEK as a nanotemplate extends the applicability of polymeric nanopatterns into a temperature regime up to now not accessible and opens up the simple fabrication of novel nanoporous inorganic surfaces. PMID:22854871

  12. Aluminum oxide coating for post-growth photo emission wavelength tuning of indium phosphide nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryauf, David M.; Zhang, Junce; Norris, Kate J.; Diaz Leon, Juan; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2013-09-01

    Semiconductor-oxide nanostructure devices can be a very intriguing material platform if optoelectronic properties of the original semiconductor nanostructures can be tuned by explicitly controlling properties of the oxide coating. This paper describes our finding that optical properties of semiconductor nanowires can be tuned by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide. In this experiment, indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates with gold catalyst. The nanowires formed three-dimensional nanowire networks from which collective optical properties were obtained. The nanowire network was coated with an aluminum oxide thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. We studied the dependence of the peak wavelength of photoluminescence spectra on the thickness of the oxide coatings. We observed continuous blue shift in photoluminescence spectra when the thickness of the oxide coating was increased. The observed blue shift is attributed to the Burstein-Moss effect due to increased carrier concentration in the nanowire cores caused by repulsion from an intrinsic negative fixed charge from the oxide surface. Samples were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selective area diffractometry in an attempt to explain the physical mechanisms for the blue shift.

  13. The oxidation of aluminum at high temperature studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation in air of high-purity Al foil was studied as a function of temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC). The rate and/or extent of oxidation was found to be a non-linear function of the temperature. Between 650 and 750 %C2%B0C very little oxidation took place; at 850 %C2%B0C oxidation occurred after an induction period, while at 950 %C2%B0C oxidation occurred without an induction period. At oxidation temperatures between 1050 and 1150 %C2%B0C rapid passivation of the surface of the aluminum foil occurred, while at 1250 %C2%B0C and above, an initial rapid mass increase was observed, followed by a more gradual increase in mass. The initial rapid increase was accompanied by a significant exotherm. Cross-sections of oxidized specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the observed alumina skin thicknesses correlated qualitatively with the observed mass increases.

  14. Evaluation of Residual Stress Development at the Interface of Plasma Electrolytically Oxidized and Cold-Worked Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asquith, David; Yerokhin, Aleksey; James, Neil; Yates, John; Matthews, Allan

    2013-10-01

    Fatigue failure in hard oxide-coated aluminum is usually driven by rapid short crack propagation from the interface through the substrate; mitigation of this is possible by introducing interfacial compressive stresses. Combining cold work with hard oxide coating can improve their performance under conditions of simultaneous wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Three-dimensional strain fields in an aluminum alloy with combined cold work and PEO coating have been measured and mechanisms for stress redistribution presented. These comprise material consumption, expansive growth of oxide layers, and local annealing.

  15. Nanoporous zeolite and solid-state electrochemical devices for nitrogen-oxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiun-Chan

    Solid-state electrochemical gas sensing devices composed of stabilized-zirconia electrolyte have used extensively in the automobile and chemical industry. Two types of electrochemical devices, potentiometric and amperometric, were developed in this thesis for total NOx (NO + NO2) detection in harsh environments. In potentiometric devices, Pt covered with Pt containing zeolite Y (PtY) and WO3 were examined as the two electrode materials. Significant reactivity differences toward NOx between PtY and WO 3 led to the difference in non-electrochemical reactions and resulted in a electrode potential. With gases passing through a PtY filter, it was possible to remove interferences from 2000 ppm CO, 800 ppm propane, 10 ppm NH3, as well as to minimize effects of 1˜13% O2, CO2, and H2O. Total NOx concentration was measured by maintaining a temperature difference between the filter and the sensor. The sensitivity was significantly improved by connecting sensors in series. Amperometic devices were also developed to detect NOx passing through the PtY filter. By applying a low anodic potential of 80 mV, NO in the NOx equilibrated mixture can be oxidized at a Pt working electrode on the YSZ electrolyte at 500°C. The PtY can be held separate from the YSZ or coated onto the YSZ as a film. This design was demonstrated to exhibit total-NOx detection capability, a low NOx detection limit (< 1 ppm), high NOx selectivity relative to CO and oxygen, and linear dependence on NOx concentration. The non-electrochemical reactions around the triple-phase boundary were studied to understand the origin of the superior performance of WO3 on potentiometric NOx sensing. From TPD, DRIFTS, XRD, Raman, and catalytic activity measurements, the interfacial reactions between WO 3 and YSZ were found to dramatically reduce the NOx catalytic activity of YSZ. WO3 reacted with surface Y2O3 on YSZ and formed less catalytically active yttrium tungsten oxides and monoclinic ZrO2, which suppressed the non

  16. Growth of alumina/metal composites into porous ceramics by the oxidation of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Watari, Takanori; Mori, Koichiro; Torikai, Toshio; Matsuda, Ohsaku . Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-10-01

    Ductile metal is incorporated into brittle ceramics to improve their fracture toughness. Of the many methods for fabricating ceramic/metal composites, the oxidation of a molten alloy (DIMOX process) is particularly interesting because it affords (1) ease of composite production, (2) low cost, and (3) near-net-shape capability. Alumina/metal composites were grown into the pores of porous alumina, porous aluminosilicate, and porous silicon carbide substrates through the oxidation of Al-Si (5 wt %) powder compacts coated with magnesia powder (11 mg/cm[sup 2]). The thickness of the resulting composite increased with oxidation time and temperature, and was proportional to (pore size)[sup 0.5] on using porous alumina. The composite thickness was more than 2 times larger in the silicon carbide and about 4 times larger in the aluminosilicate than in the alumina at 1,523 K for 1 h. The products using these three types of substrates consisted of alumina, aluminum, and silicon, except that a silicon carbide phase occurred when using the silicon carbide substrate. Silica and mullite in the aluminosilicate substrate changed to silicon and alumina, and silica in the silicon carbide substrate changed to silicon because of the reduction by aluminum.

  17. Microleakage on Class V glass ionomer restorations after cavity preparation with aluminum oxide air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rocha, Renata Andréa Salvitti de Sá; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with aluminum oxide air abrasion and restored with different glass ionomer cements. The cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 15 sound third molars with an air- abrasion device (Kreativ Mach 4.1; New Image) using a 27.5-microm aluminum oxide particle stream, and were assigned to 3 groups of 10 cavities each. The restorative materials were: group I, a conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Fil); groups II and III, resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Vitremer R and Fuji II LC, respectively). After placement of the restorations, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, polished and then submitted to a thermocycling regimen of 500 cycles, isolated, immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B solution for 24 h, included and serially sectioned. Microleakage was assessed by viewing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to a color video camera and a computer. The images obtained were digitized and analyzed for microleakage using software that allows for a standard quantitative assessment of dye penetration in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskall-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. Means of dye penetration (%) were: occlusal - I: 25.76 +/- 34.35, II: 20.00 +/- 42.16, III: 28.25 +/- 41.67; cervical - I: 23.72 +/- 41.84; II: 44.22 +/- 49.69, III: 39.27 +/- 50.74. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were observed among either the glass ionomer cements or the margins. In conclusion, class V cavities restored with either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cements after preparation with aluminum oxide air abrasion did not show complete sealing at the enamel and dentin/cementum margins. PMID:16113931

  18. Defects and characteristics of the structure and properties of aluminum oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, V. B.; Aleksandrov, K. A.; Sergeev, E. V.

    2008-07-01

    Based on IR spectroscopy data, it was established that nonstoichiometry defects in the structure of aluminum oxides were components of the Wannier-Mott exciton states and included the Al-O, Al-Al, O2, O{2/+}, O{2/-}, O{2/2-}, O3, and O2 n isolated oscillators in the ground and electronically excited states. It was shown that their presence manifested itself by thermoemission of molecular oxygen singlet forms, excess heat capacity, and anomalous diamagnetism at elevated temperatures.

  19. CRYSTALLINE CHROMIUM DOPED ALUMINUM OXIDE (RUBY) USE AS A LUMINESCENT SCREEN FOR PROTON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.; GASSNER,D.M.

    1999-03-29

    In our search for a better luminescent screen material, we tested pieces of mono-crystalline chromium doped aluminum oxide (more commonly known as a ruby) using a 24 GeV proton beam. Due to the large variations in beam intensity and species which are run at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), we hope to find a material which can sufficiently luminesce, is compatible in vacuum, and maintain its performance level over extended use. Results from frame grabbed video camera images using a variety of neutral density filters are presented.

  20. Aptamer-modified anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitive sensor for the detection of bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bongkeun; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Kim, Soyoun; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2011-02-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive, and low-cost method to detect bisphenol A (BPA) using an anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitive sensor. BPA is detected by measuring the change in capacitance caused by the biospecific binding of BPA with a BPA aptamer that is immobilized on the electrode surface. For a solution containing 100 pM BPA, the capacitance decreased by approximately 3%. In addition, we fabricated a capacitive sensor array and demonstrated that BPA in environmental samples can be measured using our capacitive sensor.

  1. Oxidation behavior in reaction-bonded aluminum-silicon alloy/alumina powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, S.H.

    1992-12-01

    Goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of producing low-shrinkage mullite/alumina composites by applying the reaction-bonded alumina (RBAO) process to an aluminum-silicon alloy/alumina system. Mirostructural and compositional changes during heat treatment were studied by removing samples from the furnace at different steps in the heating schedule and then using optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDS and XRD to characterize the powder compacts. Results suggest that the oxidation behavior of the alloy compact is different from the model proposed for the pure Al/alumina system.

  2. Effect of environment on iodine oxidation state and reactivity with aluminum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan K; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L

    2016-04-28

    Iodine oxide is a highly reactive solid oxidizer and with its abundant generation of iodine gas during reaction, this oxidizer also shows great potential as a biocidal agent. A problem with using I2O5 in an energetic mixture is its highly variable reactive behavior. This study isolates the variable reactivity associated with I2O5 as a function of its chemical reaction in various environments. Specifically, aluminum fuel and iodine oxide powder are combined using a carrier fluid to aid intermixing. The carrier fluid is shown to significantly affect the oxidation state of iodine oxide, thereby affecting the reactivity of the mixture. Four carrier fluids were investigated ranging in polarity and water miscibility in increasing order from hexane < acetone < isopropanol < water as well as untreated, dry-mixed reactants. Oxidation state and reactivity were examined with experimental techniques including X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results are compared with thermal equilibrium simulations. Flame speeds increased with polarity of the fluid used to intermix the powder and ranged from 180 to 1202 m s(-1). The I2O5 processed in the polar fluids formed hydrated states of iodine oxide: HIO3 and HI3O8; and, the nonpolar and dry-mixed samples formed: I2O4 and I4O9. During combustion, the hydrated iodine oxides rapidly dehydrated from HIO3 to HI3O8 and from HI3O8 to I2O5. Both steps release 25% of their mass as vapor during combustion. Increased gas generation enhances convective energy transport and accounts for the increase in reactivity seen in the mixtures processed in polar fluids. These results explain the chemical mechanisms underlying the variable reactivity of I2O5 that are a function of the oxide's highly reactive nature with its surrounding environment. These results will significantly impact the selection of carrier fluid in the synthesis approach for iodine containing reactive mixtures. PMID:27052472

  3. Oxidative removal of bisphenol A using zero valent aluminum-acid system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanpeng; Zhang, Honghua; Cao, Beipei; Lin, Kunde; Gan, Jay

    2011-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a controversial endocrine disruptor, is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In this study, the oxidative degradation of BPA and its mechanism using zero valent aluminum (ZVAl)-acid system under air-equilibrated conditions was investigated. Under pH <3.5 acidic conditions, ZVAl demonstrated an excellent capacity to remove BPA. More than 75% of BPA was eliminated within 12 h in pH 1.5 reaction solutions initially containing 4.0 g/L aluminum and 2.0 mg/L BPA at 25 ± 1 °C. The removal of BPA was further accelerated with increasing aluminum loadings. Higher temperature and lower initial pH also facilitated BPA removal. The addition of Fe(2+) into the ZVAl-acid system significantly accelerated the reaction likely due to the enhancing transformation of H(2)O(2) to HO via Fenton reaction. Furthermore, the primary products or intermediates including monohydroxylated BPA, hydroquinone, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane and 4-isopropenylphenol, were identified and a possible reaction scheme was proposed. The remarkable capacity of the ZVAl-acid system in removing BPA displays its potential application in the treatment of organic compound-contaminated water. PMID:21185583

  4. Effects of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Oxide on the Crystallization and Melting Behavior of Poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiying; Niu, Jiali; Ren, Zhongjie; Sun, Xiaoli; Yan, Shouke

    2016-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanotubes were fabricated by melt-wetting into porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with two different interfacial properties: one is pristine AAO, and the other is modified by FOTS (AAO-F). Their crystallization and melting behaviors are compared with those of a bulk sample. For the PVDF in AAO-F, the nonisothermal crystallization temperature is slightly lower than that of bulk, and the melting temperature is similar to that of bulk. For the PVDF in pristine AAO, when the pore diameter is 200 nm, the crystallization is induced by two kinds of nucleation: heterogeneous nucleation and interface-induced nucleation. On the contrary, in the AAO template with pore diameter smaller than 200 nm, only interface-induced nucleation occurs. The melting temperature of PVDF crystals in the pristine AAO is much higher than that of bulk which can be attributed to the presence of an interfacial layer of PVDF on the template inner surface. The interaction between PVDF and AAO template produces the interfacial layer. Such an interfacial layer plays an important role in enhancing the melting temperature of PVDF crystals. The higher melting peak is always observed when the PVDF is nonisothermally crystallized in the AAO template irrespective of the thermal erasing temperature suggesting the interfacial layer is very stable on the AAO template surface. If the PVDF nanostructures are released from AAO template, the higher melting peak disappears with the enhancement of thermal erasing temperature. PMID:26745857

  5. Origin of the bottlenecks in preparing anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates on ITO glass.

    PubMed

    Foong, Thelese R B; Sellinger, Alan; Hu, Xiao

    2008-11-25

    Nanoporous anodic alumina (AAO) templates are routinely created with ease on substrates, particularly Si wafers. However, the inability to stabilize Al anodization on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass is a key stumbling block that has prevented AAO-assisted deposition of nanomaterial arrays extending from ITO that are attractive for a range of opto-electronic applications (e.g., solar cells and photonic devices). We report on the processing of stable AAO templates directly on ITO substrates by utilizing an ultrathin (0.3 nm) adhesion/passivation layer of Ti between ITO and Al. Precise control of the Ti layer thickness to within the subnanometer (0.2-0.5 nm) range is essential for the anodization process for two factors: (1) to prevent the delamination of Al and destruction of ITO; and (2) to prevent the formation of thick barrier layers at the bottom of the pore channels, which prevent pore connectivity to the conductive ITO substrate. We explore the complex correlation between the electrical properties of substrates (and interlayers) and barrier layer formation and further highlight the criteria for successful barrier layer removal. PMID:19206390

  6. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  7. Plasmon-induced optical switching of electrical conductivity in porous anodic aluminum oxide films encapsulated with silver nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Han; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Lau, Ben-Chao; Liu, Chih-Yi; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Tzeng, Yonhua

    2010-12-20

    We report on plasmon induced optical switching of electrical conductivity in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of silver (Ag) nanoparticles encapsulated inside nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. The reversible switching of photoconductivity greatly enhanced by an array of closely spaced Ag nanoparticles which are isolated from each other and from the ambient by thin aluminum oxide barrier layers are attributed to the improved electron transport due to the localized surface plasmon resonance and coupling among Ag nanoparticles. The photoconductivity is proportional to the power, and strongly dependent on the wavelength of light illumination. With Ag nanoparticles being isolated from the ambient environments by a thin layer of aluminum oxide barrier layer of controlled thickness in nanometers to tens of nanometers, deterioration of silver nanoparticles caused by environments is minimized. The electrochemically fabricated nanostructured Ag/AAO is inexpensive and promising for applications to integrated plasmonic circuits and sensors. PMID:21197062

  8. A study of the initial oxidation of evaporated thin films of aluminum by AES, ELS, and ESD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujor, M.; Larson, L. A.; Poppa, H.

    1982-01-01

    The room temperature, low pressure, oxidation of evaporated aluminum thin films has been studied by AES, ELS, and ESD. ESD was the most sensitive of the three methods to characterize a clean aluminum surface. Two oxidation stages were distinguished in the 0-3000 L oxygen exposure range. Between 0 and 50 L, the chemisorption of oxygen atoms was characterized by a fast decrease of the 67 eV AES Al peak and the 10 eV surface plasmon peak, and by a simultaneous increase of the oxygen AES and ESD signals. After 50 L, a change in slope in all AES and ESD signal variations was attributed to the slow growth of a thin layer of aluminum oxide, which after 3000 L was still only a few angstroms thick.

  9. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Masis, M. Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  10. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H2)-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H2-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  11. Characterization of Monolayer Formation on Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes,C.; Lappi, S.; Fischer, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Genzer, J.; Franzen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on a glass substrate are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Optical studies with coupling in the Kretschmann configuration reveal an angle-dependent plasma frequency in the mid-IR for p-polarized radiation, suggestive of the detection of a Drude plasma frequency. These studies are complemented by oxygen depletion density functional theory studies for the calculation of the charge carrier concentration and plasma frequency for bulk AZO. In addition, we report on the optical and physical properties of thin film adlayers of n-hexadecanethiol (HDT) and n-octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AZO surfaces using reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Our characterization of the SAM deposition onto the AZO thin film reveals a range of possible applications for this conducting metal oxide.

  12. Improving dielectric performance in anodic aluminum oxide via detection and passivation of defect states

    SciTech Connect

    Mibus, M.; Zangari, G.; Jensen, C.; Hu, X.; Reed, M. L.; Knospe, C.

    2014-06-16

    The electronic and ionic transports in 32–56 nm thick anodic aluminum oxide films are investigated before and after a 1-h anneal at 200–400 °C in argon. Results are correlated to their defect density as measured by the Mott-Schottky technique. Solid state measurements show that electronic conduction upon annealing is hindered by an increase in the Schottky emission barrier, induced by a reduction in dopant density. Using an electrochemical contact, the films fail rapidly under cathodic polarization, unless defect density is decreased down to 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, resulting in a three order of magnitude reduction in current and no visible gas evolution. Under anodic polarization, the decrease in defect density delays the onset of ionic conduction as well as further oxide growth and failure.

  13. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision. PMID:25273741

  14. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  15. An investigation of the electrical behavior of thermally-sprayed aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, C.J.; Seals, R.D.; White, R.L.; Murray, W.P.; Cooper, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    Electrical properties of plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide coatings were measured at temperatures up to 600 C. High purity (> 99.5 wt% pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) alumina powders were plasma-sprayed on stainless steel substrates over a range of power levels, using two gun configurations designed to attain different spray velocities. Key electrical properties were measured to evaluate the resultant coatings as potential insulating materials for electrostatic chucks (ESCs) being developed for semiconductor manufacturing. Electrical resistivity of all coatings was measured under vacuum upon heating and cooling over a temperature range of 20 to 600 C. Dielectric constants were also measured under the same test conditions. X-ray diffraction was performed to examine phase formation in the coatings. Results show the important of powder composition and careful selection and control of spray conditions for optimizing electrical behavior in plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide, and point to the need for further studies to characterize the relationship between high temperature electrical properties, measured plasma-spray variables, and specific microstructural and compositional coating features.

  16. Anodic aluminum oxide-epoxy composite acoustic matching layers for ultrasonic transducer application.

    PubMed

    Fang, H J; Chen, Y; Wong, C M; Qiu, W B; Chan, H L W; Dai, J Y; Li, Q; Yan, Q F

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate the application of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as matching layer of ultrasonic transducer. Quarter-wavelength acoustic matching layer is known as a vital component in medical ultrasonic transducers to compensate the acoustic impedance mismatch between piezoelectric element and human body. The AAO matching layer is made of anodic aluminum oxide template filled with epoxy resin, i.e. AAO-epoxy 1-3 composite. Using this composite as the first matching layer, a ∼12MHz ultrasonic transducer based on soft lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramic is fabricated, and pulse-echo measurements show that the transducer exhibits very good performance with broad bandwidth of 68% (-6dB) and two-way insertion loss of -22.7dB. Wire phantom ultrasonic image is also used to evaluate the transducer's performance, and the results confirm the process feasibility and merit of AAO-epoxy composite as a new matching material for ultrasonic transducer application. This matching scheme provides a solution to address the problems existing in the conventional 0-3 composite matching layer and suggests another useful application of AAO template. PMID:27125558

  17. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  18. Nanoporous Anodic Edge Passivation of Si Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeho; Palei, Srikanta; Parida, Bhaskar; Ko, Seuk Yong; Kim, Keunjoo

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the anodization effect on edge passivation of Si solar cells. The Si anodization allowed SiO2 formation on the edges of the cell for electrical passivation. The edge passivated cell showed enhanced conversion efficiency with reduced carrier recombination which was observed from photoluminescence and electroluminescence images. The luminescences were reduced at the edges indicating prevention of edge current leakage. However, when the rear Al paste layer of a sample was contacted to the solution during the anodization process, the conversion efficiency of the cell was reduced. We characterized oxide thin films by performing the anodization process for front Al thin film layer deposited by evaporation and rear Al paste layer. The front anodic aluminum oxide covering the Si emitter layer showed the excellent phototransmission with small photoreflectance lower than 5% and the anodization of Al paste showed the formation of a thin SiO2 film as well as nanoporous Al2O3 layer originating from the microspherical Al paste. The rear Al paste anodization allowed the Al microspheres to be filled with the nanopores in the inner empty space. PMID:26726608

  19. The Role of Entrained Surface Oxides in RS-PM Aluminum Alloys on Resultant Structures and Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    The RS-PM aluminum alloys which show less than anticipated toughness properties were studied. After eliminating negative variables such as sodium and potassium in lithium containing alloys, hydrogen in all Al alloys, and trapped impurities from the atomization processing the data pointed to fine oxides, as the primary cause of poor toughness properties. The oxide content of aluminum powders increases with: decreasing powder size, deviations from spherical powder shapes, exposure to moist atmospheres either during atomization or in subsequent powder handling, and alloy compositions which contain significant amounts of lithium, magnesium, cerium, and other reactive elements.

  20. Reliability and fatigue failure modes of implant-supported aluminum-oxide fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Stappert, Christian F. J.; Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Hänssler, Felix; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Thompson, Van P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate failure modes and reliability of implant-supported aluminum-oxide three-unit fixed-dental-prostheses (FDPs) using two different veneering porcelains. Material and methods Thirty-six aluminum-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM fabricated and either hand-veneered(n=18) or over-pressed(n=18). All FDPs were adhesively luted to custom-made zirconium-oxide-abutments attached to dental implant fixtures (RP-4×13mm). Specimens were stored in water prior to mechanical testing. A Step-Stress-Accelerated-Life-Test (SSALT) with three load/cycles varying profiles was developed based on initial single-load-to-failure testing. Failure was defined by veneer chipping or chipping in combination with framework fracture. SSALT was performed on each FDP inclined 30° with respect to the applied load direction. For all specimens, failure modes were analyzed using polarized-reflected-light-microscopy and scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM). Reliability was computed using Weibull analysis software (Reliasoft). Results The dominant failure mode for the over-pressed FDPs was buccal chipping of the porcelain in the loading area of the pontic, while hand-veneered specimens failed mainly by combined failure modes in the veneering porcelain, framework and abutments. Chipping of the porcelain occurred earlier in the over-pressed specimens (350 N/85k, load/cycles) than in the hand-veneered (600 N/110k)(profile I). Given a mission at 300 N load and 100k or 200 K cycles the computed Weibull reliability (2-sided at 90.0 % confidence bounds) was 0.99(1/0.98) and 0.99(1/0.98) for hand-veneered FDPs, and 0.45(0.76/0.10) and 0.05(0.63/0) for over-pressed FDPs, respectively. Conclusions In the range of average clinical loads (300–700 N), hand-veneered aluminum-oxide FDPs showed significantly less failure by chipping of the veneer than the over-pressed. Hand-veneered FDPs under fatigue loading failed at loads ≥ 600N. PMID:22093019

  1. The formation and structure of the oxide and hydroxide chemisorbed phases at the aluminum surface, and relevance to hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Michael; Kelly, Robert; Neurock, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Aluminum alloys used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) induced by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) (Gangloff and Ives 1990). Crack growth experiments have demonstrated a linear relation between the relative humidity of the environment and crack growth rates, indicating the importance of water (Speidel and Hyatt 1972). While the presence of water has been demonstrated to be necessary for EAC of aluminum, crack growth rates have been linked to the diffusivity of hydrogen in aluminum (Gangloff 2003) and hydrogen densities at the crack tip as high as Al2H have been observed (Young and Scully 1998). While the mechanism by which hydrogen embrittles aluminum is yet not well understood, without the entry of hydrogen into the aluminum matrix, embrittlement would not occur. While at the crack tip high hydrogen concentrations exist, the solubility of hydrogen in aluminum is normal near 1 ppm (Wolverton 2004). In this work combined first principles and kinetic Monte Carlo methods will be used to examine the oxide and hydroxide structure resulting from exposure of aluminum to H2O or O2 and relevance to hydrogen entry as well as EAC is discussed.

  2. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers) have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH)3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J) were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure) were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines), blood (total and differential cell counts), lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics. Results Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt) respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). However no neutrophilic inflammation in BAL fluid was found and neutrophils were below 1% in all groups. No significant differences were found in total protein, activity of LDH, or

  3. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Ting Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  4. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-01

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance gm change, threshold voltage VT change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  5. Oxidation Behavior of In-Flight Molten Aluminum Droplets in the Twin-Wire Electric Arc Thermal Spray Process

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Brian G. Williams

    2005-05-01

    This paper examines the in-flight oxidation of molten aluminum sprayed in air using the twin-wire electric arc (TWEA) thermal spray process. The oxidation reaction of aluminum in air is highly exothermic and is represented by a heat generation term in the energy balance. Aerodynamic shear at the droplet surface enhances the amount of in-flight oxidation by: (1) promoting entrainment and mixing of the surface oxides within the droplet, and (2) causing a continuous heat generation effect that increases droplet temperature over that of a droplet without internal circulation. This continual source of heat input keeps the droplets in a liquid state during flight. A linear rate law based on the Mott-Cabrera theory was used to estimate the growth of the surface oxide layer formed during droplet flight. The calculated oxide volume fraction of an average droplet at impact agrees well with the experimentally determined oxide content for a typical TWEA-sprayed aluminum coating, which ranges from 3.3 to 12.7%. An explanation is provided for the elevated, nearly constant surface temperature (~ 2000 oC) of the droplets during flight to the substrate and shows that the majority of oxide content in the coating is produced during flight, rather than after deposition.

  6. An XPS study of the stability of Fomblin Z25 on the native oxide of aluminum. [x ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jones, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of Fomblin Z25, a perfluoropolyalkylether lubricant, were vapor deposited onto clean, oxidized aluminum and sapphire surfaces, and their behavior at different temperatures was studied using x ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It was found that the interfacial fluid molecules decompose on the native oxide at room temperature, and continue to decompose at elevated temperatures, as previous studies had shown to occur on clean metal. TDS indicated that different degradation mechanisms were operative for clean and oxidized aluminum. On sapphire substrates, no reaction was observed at room temperature. Our conclusion is that the native oxide of aluminum is neither passive nor protective towards Fomblin Z25. At high temperatures (150 C) degradation of the polymer on sapphire produced a debris layer at the interface with a chemical composition similar to the one formed on aluminum oxide. Rubbing a Fomblin film on a single crystal sapphire also induced the decomposition of the lubricant in contact with the interface and the formulation of a debris layer.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the stability of Fomblin Z25 on the native oxide of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jones, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Thin films of Fomblin Z25, a perfluoropolyalkylether lubricant, were vapor deposited onto clean, oxidized aluminum, and onto sapphire surfaces, and their behavior at different temperatures was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The interfacial fluid molecules decompose on the native oxide at room temperature, and continue to decompose at elevated temperatures, as previous studies had shown to occur on the clean metal. TDS indicated that different degradation mechanisms were operative for clean and oxidized aluminum. On sapphire substrates, no reaction was observed at room temperature. The native oxide of aluminum is neither passive nor protective towards Fomblin Z25. At higher temperatures (150 C), degradation of the polymer on sapphire produced a debris layer at the interface with a chemical composition similar to the one formed on aluminum oxide. Rubbing a Fomblin film on a single crystal sapphire also induced the decomposition of the lubricant in contact with the interface and the formation of a debris layer.

  8. Characterization of Nano-scale Aluminum Oxide Transport through Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, S.; Reynolds, M.; Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Johnson, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colloidal material (including that in the nanoparticle size range) is naturally present in most subsurface environments. Mobilization of these colloidal materials via particle disaggregation may occur through abrupt changes in flow rate and/or via chemical perturbations, such as rapid changes in ionic strength or solution pH. While concentrations of natural colloidal materials in the subsurface are typically small, those concentrations may be greatly increased at contaminated sites such as following the application of metal oxides for groundwater remediation efforts. Additionally, while land application of biosolids has become common practice in the United States as an alternative to industrial fertilizers, biosolids have been shown to contain a significant fraction of organic and inorganic nano-scale colloidal materials such as oxides of iron, titanium, and aluminum. Given their reactivity and small size, there are many questions concerning the potential migration of nano-scale colloidal materials through the soil column and their potential participation in the facilitated transport of contaminants, such as heavy metals and emerging pollutants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport behavior of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles through porous media. The impacts of pH, ionic strength, pore-water velocity (i.e., residence time), and aqueous-phase concentration on transport was investigated. All experiments were conducted with large injection pulses to fully characterize the impact of long-term retention and transport behavior relevant for natural systems wherein multiple retention processes may be operative. The results indicate that the observed nonideal transport behavior of the nano-scale colloids is influenced by multiple retention mechanisms/processes. Given the ubiquitous nature of these nano-scale colloids in the environment, a clear understanding of their transport and fate is necessary in further resolving the potential for

  9. Low-temperature aluminum reduction of graphene oxide, electrical properties, surface wettability, and energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dongyun; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Tang, Yufeng; Zhou, Mi; Zhong, Yajuan; Huang, Fuqiang; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-10-23

    Low-temperature aluminum (Al) reduction is first introduced to reduce graphene oxide (GO) at 100-200 °C in a two-zone furnace. The melted Al metal exhibits an excellent deoxygen ability to produce well-crystallized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) papers with a low O/C ratio of 0.058 (Al-RGO), compared with 0.201 in the thermally reduced one (T-RGO). The Al-RGO papers possess outstanding mechanical flexibility and extremely high electrical conductivities (sheet resistance R(s) ~ 1.75 Ω/sq), compared with 20.12 Ω/sq of T-RGO. More interestingly, very nice hydrophobic nature (90.5°) was observed, significantly superior to the reported chemically or thermally reduced papers. These enhanced properties are attributed to the low oxygen content in the RGO papers. During the aluminum reduction, highly active H atoms from H(2)O reacted with melted Al promise an efficient oxygen removal. This method was also applicable to reduce graphene oxide foams, which were used in the GO/SA (stearic acid) composite as a highly thermally conductive reservoir to hold the phase change material for thermal energy storage. The Al-reduced RGO/SnS(2) composites were further used in an anode material of lithium ion batteries possessing a higher specific capacity. Overall, low-temperature Al reduction is an effective method to prepare highly conductive RGO papers and related composites for flexible energy conversion and storage device applications. PMID:22984901

  10. Interactions of aluminum with biochars and oxidized biochars: implications for the biochar aging process.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-01-15

    Interactions of aluminum with primary and oxidized biochars were compared to understand the changes in the adsorption properties of aged biochars. The structural characteristics of rice straw-derived biochars, before and after oxidation by HNO3/H2SO4, were analyzed by element composition, FTIR, and XPS. The adsorption of Al to primary biochars was dominated by binding to inorganic components (such as silicon particles) and surface complexation of oxygen-containing functional groups via esterification reactions. Oxidization (aging) introduced carboxylic functional groups on biochar surfaces, which served as additional binding sites for Al(3+). At pH 2.5-3.5, the Al(3+) binding was significantly greater on oxidized biochars than primary biochars. After loading with Al, the -COOH groups anchored to biochar surfaces were transformed into COO(-) groups, and the negative surface charge diminished, which indicated that Al(3+) coordinated with COO(-). Biochar is suggested as a potential adsorbent for removing Al from acidic soils. PMID:24364719

  11. The role of stress in self-ordered porous anodic oxide formation and corrosion of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capraz, Omer Ozgur

    The phenomenon of plastic flow induced by electrochemical reactions near room temperature is significant in porous anodic oxide (PAO) films, charging of lithium batteries and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). As this phenomenon is poorly understood, fundamental insight into flow from our work may provide useful information for these problems. In-situ monitoring of the stress state allows direct correlation between stress and the current or potential, thus providing fundamental insight into technologically important deformation and failure mechanisms induced by electrochemical reactions. A phase-shifting curvature interferometry was designed to investigate the stress generation mechanisms on different systems. Resolution of our curvature interferometry was found to be ten times more powerful than that obtained by state-of-art multiple deflectometry technique and the curvature interferometry helps to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature. During this work, formation of surface patterns during both aqueous corrosion of aluminum and formation of PAO films were investigated. Interestingly, for both cases, stress induced plastic flow controls the formation of surface patterns. Pore formation mechanisms during anodizing of the porous aluminum oxide films was investigated . PAO films are formed by the electrochemical oxidation of metals such as aluminum and titanium in a solution where oxide is moderately soluble. They have been used extensively to design numerous devices for optical, catalytic, and biological and energy related applications, due to their vertically aligned-geometry, high-specific surface area and tunable geometry by adjusting process variables. These structures have developed empirically, in the absence of understanding the process mechanism. Previous experimental studies of anodizing-induced stress have extensively focused on the measurement of average stress, however the measurement of stress evolution during anodizing does not provide

  12. Development of calcium zirconate-based hydrogen sensors with oxide reference electrodes for molten aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Vivek

    Hydrogen is a major cause of gas porosity in aluminum and is frequently removed from the melt prior to casting. The degassing process can be better controlled if the hydrogen content in the melt is known. Thus, gas sensors which can make continuous in situ measurements in molten aluminum are needed. Current online hydrogen sensing systems are complex designs which are prohibitively expensive. Solid electrolyte based potentiometric sensors have been developed as an attractive alternate. These sensors have traditionally used a gas phase as the reference electrode. The present design has a condensed-phase reference electrode to avoid the need for transport of the reference gas into and out of the melt. The use of an oxide rather than a hydride phase reference is expected to considerably lower device cost and improve shelf life and reliability. The sensor element consists of a solid electrolyte tube based on 10 mol% Indoped CaZrO3, which was synthesized using both solid oxide and oxalate co-precipitation techniques. Precursor oxalate powders prepared using polymeric surfactants (PEG) were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and particle size analysis. PEG was found to reduce particle size and also influence the process of perovskite formation. The oxalate co-precipitation technique enabled powder synthesis at reduced processing time and temperature. Closed-one-end tubes were slip cast and densified for use as solid electrolytes. Impedance spectroscopy and D.C. resistance measurements were made at temperatures between 650 and 900°C. Undoped CaZrO3 was found to be a p-type conductor in air. Indoped CaZrO3 acted as a proton conductor in air and argon+H2O, whereas the material was found to be a p-type conductor in pure argon. While bulk conduction was found to be homogenous with activation energies matching those from D.C. measurements, conduction across the grain boundary was found to be heterogeneous. Potentiometric sensors using In-doped CaZrO3 as the electrolyte, and

  13. Aluminum affects heterogeneous Fe(III) (Hydr)oxide nucleation, growth, and ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Li, Qingyun; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous coprecipitation of iron and aluminum oxides is an important process for pollutant immobilization and removal in natural and engineered aqueous environments. Here, using a synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering technique, we studied heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz under conditions found in acid mine drainage (at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2, [Fe(3+)] = 10(-4) M) with different initial aqueous Al/Fe ratios (0:1, 1:1, and 5:1). Interestingly, although the atomic ratios of Al/Fe in the newly formed Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were less than 1%, the in situ particle size and volume evolutions of the precipitates on quartz were significantly influenced by aqueous Al/Fe ratios. At the end of the 3 h experiments, with aqueous Al/Fe ratios of 0:1, 1:1, and 5:1, the average radii of gyration of particles on quartz were 5.7 ± 0.3, 4.6 ± 0.1, and 3.7 ± 0.3 nm, respectively, and the ratio of total particle volumes on quartz was 1.7:3.4:1.0. The Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were poorly crystallized, and were positively charged in all solutions. In the presence of Al(3+), Al(3+) adsorption onto quartz changed the surface charge of quartz from negative to positive, which caused the slower heterogeneous growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz. Furthermore, Al affected the amount of water included in the Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, which can influence their adsorption capacity. This study yielded important information usable for pollutant removal not only in natural environments, but also in engineered water treatment processes. PMID:24289329

  14. Aluminum manganese oxides with mixed crystal structure: high-energy-density cathodes for rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Wook; Ku, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Ryoung-Hee; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seok-Soo; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2014-07-01

    We report a new discovery for enhancing the energy density of manganese oxide (Nax MnO2 ) cathode materials for sodium rechargeable batteries by incorporation of aluminum. The Al incorporation results in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 with a mixture of tunnel and layered crystal structures. NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 shows a much higher initial discharge capacity and superior cycling performance compared to pristine Na(0.65) MnO2 . We ascribe this enhancement in performance to the formation of a new orthorhombic layered NaMnO2 phase merged with a small amount of tunnel Na(0.44) MnO2 phase in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , and to improvements in the surface stability of the NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 particles caused by the formation of Al-O bonds on their surfaces. Our findings regarding the phase transformation and structure stabilization induced by incorporation of aluminum, closely related to the structural analogy between orthorhombic Na(0.44) MnO2 and NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , suggest a strategy for achieving sodium rechargeable batteries with high energy density and stability. PMID:24797956

  15. Chemical Bath Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Buffer on Curved Surfaces for Growing Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-07-01

    Direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on substrates requires the deposition of an aluminum oxide buffer (AOB) layer to prevent the diffusion and coalescence of catalyst nanoparticles. Although AOB layers can be readily created on flat substrates using a variety of physical and chemical methods, the preparation of AOB layers on substrates with highly curved surfaces remains challenging. Here, we report a new solution-based method for preparing uniform layers of AOB on highly curved surfaces by the chemical bath deposition of basic aluminum sulfate and annealing. We show that the thickness of AOB layer can be increased by extending the immersion time of a substrate in the chemical bath, following the classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov crystallization kinetics. The increase of AOB thickness in turn leads to the increase of CNT length and the reduction of CNT curviness. Using this method, we have successfully synthesized dense aligned CNT arrays of micrometers in length on substrates with highly curved surfaces including glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and porous ceramic foam. PMID:26053766

  16. Aluminum work function: Effect of oxidation, mechanical scraping and ion bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Lemogne, T.; Montes, H.

    1985-01-01

    Surface studies have been performed on aluminum polycrystalline surfaces which have been mechanically scraped. Such studies were initiated in order to understand surface effects occurring in tribological processes which involve rubbing surfaces and the effects of adsorption of oxygen. To characterize the surfaces, the following three different experimental approaches have been used: (1) X.P.S. (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), in order to check the cleanliness of the surfaces and follow the adsorption and oxidation kinetics; (2) Analysis of the work function changes by following the energy spectra of secondary electrons emitted under low energy electron bombardment; and (3) Analysis of photoemission intensities under U.V. excitation. The reference state being chosen to be the surface cleaned by ion bombardment and exposures to oxygen atmospheres have been shown to lower the work function of clean polycrystalline aluminum by 1.2 eV. The oxygen pressure is found to affect only the kinetics of these experiments. Mechanical scraping has been shown to induce a decrease ( 0.3 eV) in the work function, which could sharply modify the kinetics of adsorption on the surface.

  17. High-Quality, Ultraconformal Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoplasmonic and Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Riley, Conor T; Smalley, Joseph S T; Post, Kirk W; Basov, Dimitri N; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Wang, Deli; Liu, Zhaowei; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2016-02-17

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a tunable low-loss plasmonic material capable of supporting dopant concentrations high enough to operate at telecommunication wavelengths. Due to its ultrahigh conformality and compatibility with semiconductor processing, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for many plasmonic applications. However, despite many attempts, high-quality AZO with a plasma frequency below 1550 nm has not yet been realized by ALD. Here a simple procedure is devised to tune the optical constants of AZO and enable plasmonic activity at 1550 nm with low loss. The highly conformal nature of ALD is also exploited to coat silicon nanopillars to create localized surface plasmon resonances that are tunable by adjusting the aluminum concentration, thermal conditions, and the use of a ZnO buffer layer. The high-quality AZO is then used to make a layered AZO/ZnO structure that displays negative refraction in the telecommunication wavelength region due to hyperbolic dispersion. Finally, a novel synthetic scheme is demonstrated to create AZO embedded nanowires in ZnO, which also exhibits hyperbolic dispersion. PMID:26715115

  18. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness. PMID:26726615

  19. Analysis of mid-tropospheric Space Shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Lala, G. Garland; Wightman, James P.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum oxide particles from the exhaust of the Space Shuttle were collected immediately after the launch of the SEPEX mission and during the descent over the altitude interval of 7.6-4.6 km. The SEM examination revealed that the particles were spherical and ranged in diameter from about 0.1 micron to 10 microns. Results from the energy dispersive analysis (by an X-ray method) and of the particle chemistry (by electron spectroscopy) confirmed that the particles were predominantly composed of aluminum and oxygen. The particle size distribution of the Al2O3 was bimodal, with one observed peak centered near 2.0 microns; the other distribution mode centered at a diameter of less than 0.3 micron, but could not be accurately located. A mass median diameter was slightly less than 2 microns. Evaluation of ice nucleation activity revealed only a small fraction (about 1 ppm) of active ice nuclei among the Al2O3 particulates.

  20. Catalytically solid-phase self-organization of nanoporous SnS with optical depolarizability.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Chun-Jung; Tsai, Ling-Hsuan; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chen, Mu Ku; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I; Tsai, Din Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-02-28

    The catalytic solid-phase synthesis of self-organized nanoporous tin sulfide (SnS) with enhanced absorption, manipulative transmittance and depolarization features is demonstrated. Using an ultralow radio-frequency (RF) sputtering power, the variation of the orientation angle between the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and the axis of the sputtered ion beam detunes the catalytically synthesized SnS from nanorod to nanoporous morphology, along the sidewall of the AAO membrane. The ultraslow catalytic sputtering synthesis on the AAO at the RF plasma power of 20 W and the orientation angle of 0° regulates the porosity and integrality of nanoporous SnS, with average pore diameter of 80-150 nm. When transferring from planar to nanoporous structure, the phase composition changes from SnS to SnS2-Sn2S3, and the optical bandgap shrinks from 1.43 to 1.16 eV, due to the preferred crystalline orientation, which also contributes to an ultralow reflectance of <1% at 200-500 nm when both the transmittance and the surface scattering remain at their maxima. The absorption coefficient is enhanced by nearly one order of magnitude with its minimum of >5 × 10(4) cm(-1) at the wavelength between 200 and 700 nm, due to the red-shifting of the absorption spectrum to at least 100 nm. The catalytically self-organized nanoporous SnS causes strong haze and beam divergence of 20°-30° by depolarized nonlinear scattering at the surface, which favors the solar energy conversion with reduced surface reflection and enhanced photon scattering under preserved transmittance. PMID:26842460

  1. Catalytically solid-phase self-organization of nanoporous SnS with optical depolarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Chun-Jung; Tsai, Ling-Hsuan; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chen, Mu Ku; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I.; Tsai, Din Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-02-01

    The catalytic solid-phase synthesis of self-organized nanoporous tin sulfide (SnS) with enhanced absorption, manipulative transmittance and depolarization features is demonstrated. Using an ultralow radio-frequency (RF) sputtering power, the variation of the orientation angle between the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and the axis of the sputtered ion beam detunes the catalytically synthesized SnS from nanorod to nanoporous morphology, along the sidewall of the AAO membrane. The ultraslow catalytic sputtering synthesis on the AAO at the RF plasma power of 20 W and the orientation angle of 0° regulates the porosity and integrality of nanoporous SnS, with average pore diameter of 80-150 nm. When transferring from planar to nanoporous structure, the phase composition changes from SnS to SnS2-Sn2S3, and the optical bandgap shrinks from 1.43 to 1.16 eV, due to the preferred crystalline orientation, which also contributes to an ultralow reflectance of <1% at 200-500 nm when both the transmittance and the surface scattering remain at their maxima. The absorption coefficient is enhanced by nearly one order of magnitude with its minimum of >5 × 104 cm-1 at the wavelength between 200 and 700 nm, due to the red-shifting of the absorption spectrum to at least 100 nm. The catalytically self-organized nanoporous SnS causes strong haze and beam divergence of 20°-30° by depolarized nonlinear scattering at the surface, which favors the solar energy conversion with reduced surface reflection and enhanced photon scattering under preserved transmittance.

  2. Effect of aluminum and iron oxides and organic matter on flocculation and dispersion of arid zone soils

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, S.; Rhoades, J.D. ); Kapoor, B.S. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors investigated the structural stabilities of eight arid zone soils using percent optical transmittance as a measure of flocculation-dispersion behavior. The soils were sodium saturated and their stabilities determined in sodium chloride solutions of varying concentrations. They treated the soils with hypochlorite for organic matter removal, with oxalate for removal of amorphous aluminum and iron oxides, and with dithionite for removal of crystalline aluminum and iron oxides. The removal of amorphous and/or crystalline oxides increased the clay dispersivity. This indicated that amorphous and crystalline oxides play important, stabilizing roles in soil structure. The removal of organic matter decreased the clay dispersivity. This indicated that dissolved organic matter enhances clay dispersion. The well-known positive effect of organic matter on soil structure prrobably occurs through binding of soil particles by roots and hyphae at the aggregate level, but at the clay-particle level the negative charge of organic anions enhances clay dispersion.

  3. Mitoprotective effect of Centella asiatica against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats: possible relevance to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-08-01

    Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been well documented in various cognitive-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal that may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. The antioxidant and memory enhancing effects of Centella asiatica (CA) are well known in the last few decades. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of CA on chronic aluminum exposure induced mitochondrial enzyme alteration, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in rat. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered daily for a period of 6 weeks in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral, biochemical and cellular estimations and aluminum concentration were assessed. Chronic aluminum administration resulted in memory impairment and caused marked oxidative damage associated with mitochondria impairment. It also caused a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, acetylcholine esterase activity and aluminum concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rat brain. Chronic administration of CA significantly improved memory performance, oxidative defense decreased aluminum concentration, caspase-3, acetylcholinestrease activity and reversal of mitochondrial enzyme activity as compared to aluminum-treated animals. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of CA against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and mito- oxidative damage. PMID:23224641

  4. Effect of Sr on the bioactivity and corrosion resistance of nanoporous niobium oxide coating for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Pauline, S Anne; Rajendran, N

    2014-03-01

    In this study, strontium incorporated Nb2O5 was synthesized in two different proportions by sol-gel methodology and was deposited on 316L SS by spin coating method. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a nanoporous morphology. The prepared Sr-incorporated Nb2O5 coatings were uniform, smooth and well adherent on to the substrate 316L SS. The coatings were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the formation of Sr-incorporated Nb2O5 coatings with nanoporous morphology was confirmed. Static water contact angle measurements showed an enhancement in the wettability of the obtained coatings. In vitro bioactivity test of the coated substrates showed that 0.05M Sr-incorporated Nb2O5 coating had better bioactivity compared to 0.1M Sr-incorporated coating. Solution analysis studies confirmed the controlled release of Sr ions from the coating, which aid and enhance hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth. Electrochemical studies confirmed that the coatings provided excellent corrosion protection to the base material as increased charge transfer resistance and decreased double layer capacitance was observed for the coated substrates. PMID:24433904

  5. Studies of aluminum oxide thin films deposited by laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płóciennik, P.; Guichaoua, D.; Korcala, A.; Zawadzka, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the structural and optical investigations of the aluminum oxide nanocrystalline thin films. Investigated films were fabricated by laser ablation technique in high vacuum onto quartz substrates. The films were deposited at two different temperatures of the substrates equal to room temperature and 900 K. X-ray Diffraction spectra proved nanocrystalline character and the corundum phase of the film regardless on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Values of the refractive indices, extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated by using Transmission and Reflection Spectroscopy in the UV-VIS-NIR range of the wavelength. Coupling Prism Method was used for films thickness estimations. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the Third Harmonic Generation were also reported. Obtained results show that the lattice strain may affect obtained values of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibility.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of hot-pressed and PECS-sintered magnesium-doped copper aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Morelli, Donald T

    2011-02-03

    Copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO{sub 2}) is considered as a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications. Partially magnesium-doped CuAlO{sub 2} bulk pellets were fabricated using solid-state reactions, hot-pressing, and pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were adopted for structural analysis. High-temperature transport property measurements were performed on hot-pressed samples. Electrical conductivity increased with Mg doping before secondary phases became significant, while the Seebeck coefficient displayed the opposite trend. Thermal conductivity was consistently reduced as the Mg concentration increased. Effects of Mg doping, preparation conditions, and future modification on this material’s properties are discussed.

  7. Europium-doped aluminum oxide phosphors as indicators for frontal polymerization dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, Arturo; Gewin, Mariah; Pojman, John A.

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we present an inexpensive and practical method that allows the monitoring and visualization of front polymerization, propagation, and dynamics. Commercially available europium-doped aluminum oxide powders were combined with video imaging to visualize free-radical propagating polymer fronts. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this method, frontal copolymerization reactions of propoxylated glycerin triacrylate (EB53), pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), and pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETEA) with 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (Luperox 231®) as an initiator were studied and compared to the results obtained by IR imaging. Systems exhibiting higher filler loading, higher EB53 content, and less acrylated monomers showed a marked decrease in front velocity, while those with more acrylated monomers and higher crosslinking density showed a marked increase in front velocity. Finally, in order to show the potential of the imaging technique, we studied fronts propagating in planar and spherical geometries.

  8. Graphene-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon Using Anodic Aluminum Oxides as Patterning Templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-11-01

    We first report graphene-assisted chemical etching (GaCE) of silicon by using patterned graphene as an etching catalyst. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene transferred on a silicon substrate is patterned to a mesh with nanohole arrays by oxygen plasma etching using an anodic- aluminum-oxide etching mask. The prepared graphene mesh/silicon is immersed in a mixture solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydro peroxide with various molecular fractions at optimized temperatures. The silicon underneath graphene mesh is then selectively etched to form aligned nanopillar arrays. The morphology of the nanostructured silicon can be controlled to be smooth or porous depending on the etching conditions. The experimental results are systematically discussed based on possible mechanisms for GaCE of Si. PMID:26473800

  9. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  10. Fabrication of Chemically Tunable, Hierarchically Branched Polymeric Nanostructures by Multi-branched Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hanju; Haberkorn, Niko; Pan, Jia-Ahn; Vakili, Mohammad; Nielsch, Kornelius; Theato, Patrick

    2016-06-28

    In this paper, a template-assisted replication method is demonstrated for the fabrication of hierarchically branched polymeric nanostructures composed of post-modifiable poly(pentafluorophenyl acrylate). Anodic aluminum oxide templates with various shapes of hierarchically branched pores are fabricated by an asymmetric two-step anodization process. The hierarchical polymeric nanostructures are obtained by infiltration of pentafluorophenyl acrylate with a cross-linker and photoinitiator, followed by polymerization and selective removal of the template. Furthermore, the nanostructures containing reactive pentafluorophenyl ester are modified with spiropyran amine via post-polymerization modification to fabricate ultraviolet-responsive nanostructures. This method can be readily extended to other amines and offers a generalized strategy for controlling functionality and wettability of surfaces. PMID:27243550

  11. Durability of self-assembled monolayers on aluminum oxide surface for determining surface wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejun; Bong, Jihye; Ha, Young-Geun; Park, Sangyoon; Ju, Sanghyun

    2015-03-01

    The durable non-wettability of functionalized aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films coated with two different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), phosphonic acid (HDF-PA) and trichlorosilane (HDF-S), was investigated by a water flow test method. After exposing the surface to 5 L of water droplets, the contact angle of HDF-S coated Al2O3 thin films remained at the initial value of ∼102.7°, while the contact angle of HDF-PA coated Al2O3 thin films decreased from an initial value of ∼99.9° to a value of ∼69.3°. Thermal annealing effect at various temperature post formation of the self-assembled HDF-PA on the Al2O3 were investigated and shown to enhance the durability of SAMs with a constant contact angle (∼100°) annealed at 100-150 °C.

  12. Characterization of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane with Variation of Crystallizing Temperature for pH Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap; Jo, Ye-Won; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated electrolyte-dielectric-metal (EDM) device incorporating a high-k Al2O3 sensing membrane from a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using a two step anodizing process for pH sensors. In order to change the properties of the AAO template, the crystallizing temperature was varied from 400 degrees C to 700 degrees C over 2 hours. The structural properties were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The pH sensitivity increased with an increase in the crystallizing temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. However at 700 degrees C, deformation occurred. The porous AAO sensor with a crystallizing temperature of 600 degrees C displayed the good sensitivity and long-term stability and the values were 55.7 mV/pH and 0.16 mV/h, respectively. PMID:26726567

  13. Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP) and scratch testing of polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A screen cage ion plating (SCIP) technique was developed to apply silver films on electrically nonconducting aluminum oxide. It is shown that SCIP has remarkable throwing power; surfaces to be coated need not be in direct line of sight with the evaporation source. Scratch tests, employing a diamond stylus with a 200 micro m radius tip, were performed on uncoated and on silver coated alumina. Subsequent surface analysis show that a significant amount of silver remains on the scratched surfaces, even in areas where high stylus load produced severe crack patterns in the ceramic. Friction coefficients were lowered during the scratch tests on the coated alumina indicating that this modification of the ion planting process should be useful for applying lubricating films of soft metals to electrical insulating materials. The very good throwing power of SCIP also strongly suggests general applicability of this process in other areas of technology, e.g., electronics, in addition to tribology.

  14. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous films of anodic aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.; Filatov, V. V.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous anodic aluminum oxide films have been studied by measuring transmittance and specular reflectance spectra in the visible and UV spectral regions. Angular dependences of the spectral positions of optical stop bands are obtained. It is shown that the reflectance within the first stop band varies from point to point on the sample surface, reaching a level of 98-99% at some points. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves in the model of infinite periodic structure is calculated for the samples under study. The possibility of using models with an infinite or finite number of layers to calculate reflectance spectra near the first optical stop band is discussed.

  15. Direct deposition of aluminum oxide gate dielectric on graphene channel using nitrogen plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Dongchool; Ju, Sanghyun

    2013-07-01

    Deposition of high-quality dielectric on a graphene channel is an essential technology to overcome structural constraints for the development of nano-electronic devices. In this study, we investigated a method for directly depositing aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a graphene channel through nitrogen plasma treatment. The deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on graphene demonstrated excellent dielectric properties with negligible charge trapping and de-trapping in the gate insulator. A top-gate-structural graphene transistor was fabricated using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate dielectric with nitrogen plasma treatment on graphene channel region, and exhibited p-type transistor characteristics.

  16. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  17. Long-term testing of in-situ cerium oxide coated anodes for aluminum electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.

    1989-10-01

    The ELTECH Anode Phase 2 Project (Contract Number AC07-86ID12655), as supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) from December 1988 through April 1989, focused on long-term testing of in-situ anodically deposited cerium oxide (CEROX) coatings on nickel ferrite/Cu cermets. The specific objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the CEROX coating in reducing the transfer of cermet components to the produced aluminum. A dosing regimen was first established for the minimum addition of cerium to the cell necessary to produce targeted CEROX coatings on the cermet anode and the periodic additions necessary to maintain coating thicknesses. The effects of the addition of CeF{sub 3} on CEROX coating formation was evaluated for targeted coating thicknesses at three different current densities. Analytical procedures were identified for determining alumina concentrations and the cryolite bath ratio for quasi-commercial baths.

  18. The effect of surface oxide layer on the rate of hydrogen emission from aluminum and its alloys in a high vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarova, V. I.; Zyabrev, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of surface oxide layers on the kinetics of hydrogen emission at the high vacuum of 10 to the minus 8th power torr was investigated at temperatures from 20 to 450 C using samples of pure AB00 aluminum and the cast alloy AMg. Cast and deformed samples of AMts alloy were used to study the effect of oxide film thickness on the rate of hydrogen emission. Thermodynamic calculations of the reactions of the generation and dissociation of aluminum oxide show that degasification at elevated temperatures (up to 600 C) and high vacuum will not reduce the thickness of artificially-generated surface oxide layers on aluminum and its alloys.

  19. Study of the Adsorption of Acridine and Phenazine on Aluminum Oxide Using Tunneling Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompson, Rosalie J. Graves

    The tunneling spectra of acridine, acridine-d(,9) and phenazine have been investigated in this study. Detailed analyses of the spectra using infrared and Raman results for acridine, phenazine, phenazine-d(,8), anthracene, anthracene -d(,10) and tunneling data for anthracene are presented. The spectra indicate that these molecules do not break up on the oxide surfaces of the tunnel junctions. The spectra of phenazine indicate that phenazine orients with the plane of the molecule parallel to the oxide surface and that an Al-N bond forms between one (or both) of phenazine's nitrogen atoms and an aluminum atom (or atoms) on the surface. In the phenazine study, for the first time, vibrational modes which are inactive in the Raman and infrared but possibly active in a tunneling spectrum (as theoretically predicted, but not found previously in a tunneling spectrum) have been seen. Acridine is probably oriented almost parallel to the oxide surface; however, some degree of "tilt" away from parallel may be indicated by the spectra. This possibility is considered in relation to acridine's corrosion inhibiting properties. Molecules for future work are considered including: 2-, 3- and 4-amino-pyridine; pyridine; aniline; piperidine; ethylene.

  20. Selective induction of IL-6 by aluminum-induced oxidative stress can be prevented by selenium.

    PubMed

    Viezeliene, Dale; Beekhof, Piet; Gremmer, Eric; Rodovicius, Hiliaras; Sadauskiene, Ilona; Jansen, Eugene; Ivanov, Leonid

    2013-07-01

    In this study the acute toxic effects of aluminum (Al) on mice have been investigated, including the interactions of Al and selenium (Se). Focus was put on the systemic effects of (co)exposure to Al and Se as a reflection of the redox status in the liver, kidney and brain. Short-term exposure (16 h) to Al resulted in an increase in the systemic inflammation parameters IL-6 and PAI-1, whereas serum levels of TNF-α remained unaffected. The different response pattern of IL-6 and TNF-α probably indicates an increased intracellular oxidative stress and altered redox status in the liver, because the selective increase in IL-6 serves as a protective intrahepatocellular process driven by oxidative stress. The intracellular glutathione concentration GSHtot decreased significantly upon Al exposure. Both the increase in IL-6 and decrease in glutathione status could be prevented by co-exposure to Se, but not the increase in PAI-1. The redox status of the kidney and brain was not markedly affected. Therefore it was concluded that short-term exposure to Al causes adverse effects on the intracellular oxidative stress processes in the liver, as reflected by the selective increase in the IL-6 concentration. This process can be restored by co-administration of the trace element Se as a part of the glutathione redox system. PMID:23219369

  1. Fabrication of a substrate-independent aluminum oxide-GaAs distributed Bragg reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlert, D.E.; Lin, H.C.; Chang, K.L.; Pickrell, G.W. Jr.; Epple, J.H.; Hsieh, K.C.; Cheng, K.Y. )

    1999-09-01

    We propose a method for forming a top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) during very-low temperature (VLT) molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth that is independent of the substrate being used. By varying the arsenic overpressure during VLT MBE, it was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy and cross-section transmission electron microscopy that alternating layers of polycrystalline GaAs and amorphous (Al,As) can be deposited. Because these layers are not single crystal, they can be grown on any host lattice. After lateral wet oxidation, the polycrystalline GaAs does not undergo any significant changes; whereas the amorphous (Al,As) becomes an amorphous aluminum oxide. An index step of [Delta]n=1.88 is realized between these two layers which makes it possible to fabricate a high efficiency DBR with very few polycrystal-GaAs/amorphous-Al-oxide pairs on GaAs-, GaP-, or InP-based materials. Using reflectivity measurements, we demonstrate a five pair GaAs/AlAs-based DBR grown on an InP substrate that reflects wavelengths between 1.4 and 2.3 [mu]m up to 95[percent]. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Oxidative stress due to aluminum exposure induces eryptosis which is prevented by erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Vota, Daiana M; Crisp, Renée L; Nesse, Alcira B; Vittori, Daniela C

    2012-05-01

    The widespread use of aluminum (Al) provides easy exposure of humans to the metal and its accumulation remains a potential problem. In vivo and in vitro assays have associated Al overload with anemia. To better understand the mechanisms by which Al affects human erythrocytes, morphological and biochemical changes were analyzed after long-term treatment using an in vitro model. The appearance of erythrocytes with abnormal shapes suggested metal interaction with cell surface, supported by the fact that high amounts of Al attached to cell membrane. Long-term incubation of human erythrocytes with Al induced signs of premature erythrocyte death (eryptosis), such as phosphatidylserine externalization, increased intracellular calcium, and band 3 degradation. Signs of oxidative stress, such as significant increase in reactive oxygen species in parallel with decrease in the amount of reduced glutathione, were also observed. These oxidative effects were completely prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Interestingly, erythrocytes were also protected from the prooxidative action of Al by the presence of erythropoietin (EPO). In conclusion, results provide evidence that chronic Al exposure may lead to biochemical and morphological alterations similar to those shown in eryptosis induced by oxidant compounds in human erythrocytes. The antieryptotic effect of EPO may contribute to enhance the knowledge of its physiological role on erythroid cells. Irrespective of the antioxidant mechanism, this property of EPO, shown in this model of Al exposure, let us suggest potential benefits by EPO treatment of patients with anemia associated to altered redox environment. PMID:22174104

  3. Microstructural Effects on the Reactivity of Nano-Aluminum/Iodine (V) Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, B.; Welle, E.; Martinez, L.; Nittinger, J.; Bogle, M.; Emery, S.; Lindsay, C.; Schrand, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recent efforts investigating the self-ignition mechanism of nanoaluminum blended with iodine (V) oxide in the form of powders with and without additives suggests that ignition begins below the decomposition point of either reactant and takes place at the alumina shell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle. As observed in previous studies of powder composites, microstructural features such as particle morphology are expected to strongly influence properties that govern the combustion behavior of this energetic material (EM). In this study, highly reactive composites containing amorphous and/or crystalline iodine oxide and micron/nano-sized Al was blended with an additive and deposited as films. Physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-speed imaging and planar doppler velocimetry were employed to characterize these EMs with emphasis on correlating the reaction rate (burn rate) with inherent microstructural features (porosity, thickness, TMD, etc). This work was a continuation of efforts to probe the self-ignition mechanism of Al-iodine (V) oxide composites.

  4. Microstructural Effects on the Reactivity of Nano-Aluminum/Iodine (V) Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Brian; Langhals, Jarred; Emery, Sam; Martinez, Lucas; Welle, Eric; Lindsay, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recent efforts investigating the self-ignition mechanism of nanoaluminum blended with iodine (V) oxide in the form of powders with and without additives suggests that ignition begins below the decomposition point of either reactant and takes place at the alumina shell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle. As observed in previous studies of powder composites, microstructural features such as particle morphology are expected to strongly influence properties that govern the combustion behavior of this energetic material (EM). In this study, highly reactive composites containing amorphous and/or crystalline iodine oxide and nano-sized Al was blended with an additive and deposited as films. Physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-speed imaging, time of arrival data via photodiodes and planar doppler velocimetry were employed to characterize these EMs with emphasis on correlating the reaction rate (burn rate) with inherent microstructural features (porosity, thickness, TMD, etc). This work was a continuation of efforts to probe the self-ignition mechanism of Al-iodine (V) oxide composites.

  5. Sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation of nano and micron-sized aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Weiss, Charles A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-02-01

    Nano-aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) is used commercially in coatings and abrasives. Nano-Al(2)O(3) can also be generated through the oxidation of nano-aluminum in military propellants and energetics. The purpose of the present study was to assess toxicity and bioaccumulation of nano-Al(2)O(3) to a variety of sediment organisms (Tubifex tubifex, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Corbicula fluminea). The bioaccumulation and toxicity of nano-Al(2)O(3) was compared with that of micron-sized Al(2)O(3) to investigate potential size-related effects. Results of the present study show species-specific differences in relative bioaccumulation of nano and micron-sized Al(2)O(3). Significant toxic effects (survival and growth) were observed in H. azteca testing, but only at high concentrations unlikely to be found in the environment. Nano-Al(2)O(3) was found to be more toxic than micron-sized Al(2)O(3) to H. azteca survival in a 14-d study in which organisms were in direct contact with a thin layer of 625 or 2,500 mg of Al(2)O(3) dispersed on the surface of either sediment or sand. A significant growth effect was also observed for nano but not micron-sized Al(2)O(3) at the highest treatment level tested (100 g/kg Al(2)O(3)) in a 10-d H. azteca bioassay in which Al(2)O(3) was homogenized with sediment. However, differences in measured sediment Al concentrations (micron-sized = 55.1 [+/-0.6] g/kg Al; nano-sized = 66.2 [+/-0.6] g/kg Al) in the nano and micron-sized Al(2)O(3) preclude direct comparison of the toxicity of these two treatments based on particle size. PMID:20821462

  6. Functionalizing Aluminum Oxide by Ag Dendrite Deposition at the Anode during Simultaneous Electrochemical Oxidation of Al.

    PubMed

    Rafailović, Lidija D; Gammer, Christoph; Rentenberger, Christian; Trišović, Tomislav; Kleber, Christoph; Karnthaler, Hans Peter

    2015-11-01

    A novel synthesis strategy is presented for depositing metallic Ag at the anode during simultaneous electrochemical oxidation of Al. This unexpected result is achieved based on galvanic coupling. Metallic dendritic nanostructures well-anchored in a high surface area supporting matrix are envisioned to open up a new avenue of applications. PMID:26398487

  7. Direct imprinting of ordered and dense TiO 2 nanopore arrays by using a soft template for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Peng; Que, Wenxiu; Hu, X.

    2011-09-01

    Highly ordered and dense TiO2 nanopore arrays are directly nanoimprinted on a transparent conductive glass substrate by using a polymethylmethacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane (PMMA/PDMS) composite soft template, which is replicated from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) replica mold. Results indicate that heat infiltration under vacuum conditions can ensure complete filling of PMMA into the AAO pores, and that free-standing PMMA nanorods with an aspect ratio more than 5 can be obtained by adjusting the AAO pore depth based on a freeze-drying technique. TiO2 nanopore arrays with different diameters from 30 to 300 nm and inter-pore distances between 70 and 450 nm can be easily fabricated by using the corresponding templates with different sizes. Preliminary solar cells are also assembled with a heterojunction of conjugated polymer/TiO2 nanopore arrays. Results indicate that the construction of poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/TiO2 nanopore arrays can be more helpful in quenching the PL emission of P3HT than that of P3HT/flat TiO2 film, and a maximum efficiency of about 0.32% can be obtained for a photovoltaic device with a TiO2/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/P3HT structure.

  8. Effect of Aluminum concentration on structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Zinc Aluminum Oxide thin films for transparent electrode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Subba Rao, T.

    2012-11-01

    Zinc Aluminum Oxide(ZAO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar+O2 gas mixture using commercial available Zn metal (99.99% purity) and Al (99.99% purity) targets of 2 inch diameter and 4 mm thickness. The films were characterized and the effect of aluminum (Al) concentration (2 at %-6 at %) on the structural and optical properties was studied. The average crystallite size obtained from Scherer formula is in the range of 32-44nm. Microstructural analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) supplemented with EDS is carried out to find the grain size as well as to find the composition elemental data of prepared thin films. Optical study is performed to calculate the extinction coefficient (k), absorption coefficient (a), optical band gap (Eg) using transmission spectra obtained using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. There was widening of optical band gap with increasing aluminum concentration. ZAO film with low resistivity 3.2 × 10-4 cm and high transmittance of 80% is obtained for 3at% doped Al which is crucial for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Device properties of nanopore PN junction Si for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunjong; Chang, Te Wei; Liu, Logan Gang

    2011-09-01

    Improvement of energy conversion efficiency of solar cells has led to innovative approaches, in particular the introduction of nanopillar photovoltaics [1]. Previous work on nanopillar Si photovoltaic has shown broadband reduction in optical reflection and enhancement of absorption [2]. Radial or axial PN junctions [3, 4] have been of high interest for improved photovoltaic devices. However, with the PN junction incorporated as part of the pillar, the discreteness of individual pillar requires additional conductive layer that would electrically short the top of each pillar for efficient carrier extraction. The fragile structure of the surface pillars would also require a protection layer for possible mechanical scratch to prevent pillars from breaking. Any additional layer that is applied, either for electrical contact or for mechanical properties may introduce additional recombination sites and also reduce the actual light absorption by the photovoltaic material. In this paper, nanopore Si photovoltaics that not only provides the advantages but also addresses the challenges of nanopillers is demonstrated. PN junction substrate of 250 nm thick N-type polycrystalline Si on P-type Si wafer is prepared. The nanopore structure is formed by using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as an etching mask against deep reactive ionic etching (DRIE). The device consists of semi-ordered pores of ~70 nm diameter.

  10. Temporal resolution of nanopore sensor recordings.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Jacob K; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    Here we discuss the limits to temporal resolution in nanopore sensor recordings, which arise from considerations of both small-signal frequency response and accumulated noise power. Nanopore sensors have strong similarities to patch-clamp ion channel recordings, except that the magnitudes of many physical parameters are substantially different. We will present examples from our recent work developing high-speed nanopore sensing platforms, in which we physically integrated nanopores with custom low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry. Close physical proximity of the sensor and amplifier electronics can reduce parasitic capacitances, improving both the signal-to-noise ratio and the effective temporal resolution of the recordings. PMID:24110636

  11. Effects of UV cure on glass structure and fracture properties of nanoporous carbon-doped oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, David M.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Peng Luming; Cui Zhenjiang; Al-Bayati, Amir; MacWilliams, Kenneth P.; M'Saad, Hichem

    2008-08-15

    The effects of UV radiation curing on the glass structure and fracture properties were examined for a class of nanoporous organosilicate low dielectric constant films. A detailed characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed significant changes in the glass structure with increasing curing time, marked by the removal of terminal organic groups and increased network-forming bonds following the initial removal of porogen material. The higher degree of film connectivity brought about by an increased cure duration is demonstrated to significantly enhance adhesive fracture properties and to moderately improve cohesive fracture resistance. Explanations for the enhanced fracture behavior are considered in terms of the glass structure. The important role of crack path selection during adhesive and cohesive fracture processes is used to rationalize the observed behavior.

  12. Effect of Holding Time Before Solidification on Double-Oxide Film Defects and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed; Salem, Hanadi A. G.; Kandeil, Abdelrazek Youssef; Griffiths, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    Double-oxide films (bifilms) have been held responsible for the variability in mechanical properties of aluminum castings. It has been suggested that the air entrapped inside a bifilm can react with the surrounding melt, leading to its consumption, which might improve the mechanical properties of the castings. In this work the effect of holding the melt before solidification on the distribution of mechanical properties, and by implication on entrained double oxide films, was investigated for several different aluminum alloys. The Weibull moduli of plate castings were determined under tensile conditions, and their fracture surfaces were examined for evidence of oxide films. The results suggested the occurrence of two competing mechanisms during the holding treatment: (1) the consumption of air inside the bifilms by reaction with the surrounding molten metal that may lead to improvements in mechanical properties and (2) the accompanying diffusion of hydrogen into the bifilms, which would be expected to have a deleterious effect on properties.

  13. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L⁻¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  14. Acidity and aluminum toxicity caused by iron oxidation around anode bars

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Pepper, G.E.; Hassett, J.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    1998-08-01

    Soil acidity and aluminum toxicity are serious environmental problems often found in humid temperate and tropical regions or in areas with acid rain. Iron oxidation in soils can also cause high concentrations of H{sup +}, which, in turn, causes an increase of Al{sup 3+} in the soil solution. To examine this problem, a study was undertaken to discover the cause of crop damage in crops planted over buried anode bars. Anode bars are part of an impressed current cathodic protection system for pipelines near Decatur, Illinois. Soil samples were collected from the problem site and from a non-problem site for comparison. Results showed that Fe oxidation around anode bars at the problem site is stimulated by electric current, a situation that results in high concentrations of H{sup +} and reduces soil pH to less than 3.0. Under the low pH condition, the content of available Al is very high, and therefore, the soil solution becomes toxic for soybean roots. Exchangeable Al was 360 to 700 ppm in soil immediately adjacent to anode bars but only 3 ppm in the soil midway between anode bars. The damage to the plants, such as reduced vegetative growth and lowered seed yield, developed in a circular pattern over the anode bars. Factors contributing to the problem were soil Fe content, rectifier voltage, and soil drainage.

  15. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material. PMID:26960451

  16. Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga Reddy, E.; Karuppiah, J.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, porous γ-alumina support is developed on Al substrate using anodic oxidation process and copper catalyst particles are deposited homogeneously over anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface by electrodeposition method. We investigated the effect of electrodeposition time and hot water treatment (HWT) on the activity of catalysts for SRM reaction in the temperature range between 160 and 360 °C. The experimental results indicate that the SRM activity, CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME) selectivity's over Cu catalysts increased as the electrodeposition time increased from 30 to 120 s, further increment in deposition time of Cu have no significant effect on it. The rates of SRM conversion are found to be higher for the catalysts made from the supports obtained after HWT, which may be due to the enhancement in the surface area of AAO support. It is found that the SRM activity and CO2 selectivity strongly depended upon the free exposed copper sites available for methanol adsorption and reaction, and DME in products is mainly observed in the reaction temperature range between 300 and 350 °C and it is higher for the catalysts with low Cu content.

  17. Application of a palladium hexacyanoferrate film-modified aluminum electrode to electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Razmi, Habib; Azadbakht, Azadeh; Sadr, Moayad Hossaini

    2005-11-01

    A palladium hexacyanoferrate (PdHCF) film as an electrocatalytic material was obtained at an aluminum (Al) electrode by a simple electroless dipping method. The modified Al electrode demonstrated a well-behaved redox couple due to the redox reaction of the PdHCF film. The PdHCF film showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydrazine. The electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine was studied by cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry techniques. A calibration graph obtained for the hydrazine consisted of two segments (localized at concentration ranges 0.39-10 and 20-75 mM). The rate constant k and transfer coefficient alpha for the catalytic reaction and the diffusion coefficient of hydrazine in the solution D, were found to be 3.11 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), 0.52 and 8.03 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1) respectively. The modified electrode was used to amperometric determination of hydrazine in photographic developer. The interference of ascorbic acid and thiosulfate were investigated and greatly reduced using a thin film of Nafion on the modified electrode. The modified electrode indicated reproducible behavior and a high level of stability during electrochemical experiments, making it particularly suitable for analytical purposes. PMID:16317900

  18. Evaluation of cerium oxide coated Cu cermets as inert anodes for aluminum electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Cu/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} cermets were evaluated, with and without an in-situ deposited CEROX (TM; cerium oxide) coating, in 100 h laboratory A1 electrowinning tests. Bath ratio and current density were varied between tests and corrosion was determined by contamination of the aluminum and cryolite by cermet components (Cu, Fe, and Ni). Higher bath ratios of 1.5 to 1.6 led to less corrosion and thicker CEROX coatings. Lower current densities led to slightly less corrosion but much less oxidation of the Cu cermet substrate. At identical test conditions, the corrosion of the CEROX coated cermets was 1/7 that of an uncoated cermet. Corrosion was increased in CEROX coated cermets tested under unsaturated alumina conditions. The electrical conductivity of the CEROX coating was measured to be {approximately}0.2 ohm{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1}, resulting in a slight voltage penalty, depending on the thickness of the coating.

  19. Enhanced methanol electro-oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction performance of ultrafine nanoporous platinum-copper alloy: Experiment and density functional theory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junzhe; Shi, Jun; Xu, Junling; Chen, Xiaoting; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peng, Zhangquan

    2015-04-01

    Novel ultrafine nanoporous Pt-Cu alloy with a Pt:Cu stoichiometric ratio of 3:1 (np-Pt3Cu) has been prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent two-step chemical dealloying. The obtained np-Pt3Cu has uniform and bicontinuous ligament(metal)-channel(void) structure with the ligament size of 3.3 ± 0.7 nm. To explore its potential application in energy conversion reactions, the np-Pt3Cu alloy has been examined as electrocatalyst for the operating reactions in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Compared with the commercial JM Pt/C, a benchmark catalyst extensively used in fuel cell research, the np-Pt3Cu alloy demonstrates better performance in both the methanol electro-oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in acidic medium. Theoretical calculations reveal that the electronic structure of Pt has been modified with the shift of Pt d-band center due to alloying with Cu, which can decrease CO poisoning and enhance the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction activities.

  20. Island growth in the atomic layer deposition of zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide on hydrogen-terminated silicon: Growth mode modeling and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Puurunen, Riikka L.; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Besling, Wim F. A.; Richard, Olivier; Bender, Hugo; Conard, Thierry; Zhao Chao; Delabie, Annelies; Caymax, Matty; Gendt, Stefan de; Heyns, Marc; Viitanen, Minna M.; Ridder, Marco de; Brongersma, Hidde H.; Tamminga, Yde; Dao, Thuy; Win, Toon de; Verheijen, Marcel; Kaiser, Monja; Tuominen, Marko

    2004-11-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used in applications where inorganic material layers with uniform thickness down to the nanometer range are required. For such thicknesses, the growth mode, defining how the material is arranged on the surface during the growth, is of critical importance. In this work, the growth mode of the zirconium tetrachloride/water and the trimethyl aluminum/water ALD process on hydrogen-terminated silicon was investigated by combining information on the total amount of material deposited with information on the surface fraction of the material. The total amount of material deposited was measured by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, and the surface fractions by low-energy ion scattering. Growth mode modeling was made assuming two-dimensional growth or random deposition (RD), with a 'shower model' of RD recently developed for ALD. Experimental surface fractions of the ALD-grown zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide films were lower than the surface fractions calculated assuming RD, suggesting the occurrence of island growth. Island growth was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, from which the island size and number of islands per unit surface area could also be estimated. The conclusion of island growth for the aluminum oxide deposition on hydrogen-terminated silicon contradicts earlier observations. In this work, physical aluminum oxide islands were observed in TEM after 15 ALD reaction cycles. Earlier, thicker aluminum oxide layers have been analyzed, where islands have not been observed because they have already coalesced to form a continuous film. The unreactivity of hydrogen-terminated silicon surface towards the ALD reactants, except for reactive defect areas, is proposed as the origin of island growth. Consequently, island growth can be regarded as 'undesired surface-selective ALD'.

  1. Collector-up aluminum gallium arsenide/gallium arsenide heterojunction bipolar transistors using oxidized aluminum arsenide for current confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massengale, Alan Ross

    1998-12-01

    The discovery in 1990 that the wet thermal oxidation of AlAs can create a stable native oxide has added a new constituent, AlAs-oxide, to the AlGaAs/GaAs materials system. Native oxides of high Al mole-fraction AlGaAs are being used to confine electrical and/or optical fields in many types of electronic and optoelectronic structures with very promising results. Among these devices are collector-up heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Collector-up HBTs offer a means to reduce base-collector capacitance relative to their emitter-up counterparts, and thus to improve device performance. A novel method for fabricating collector-up AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs where an AlAs layer is inserted into the emitter layer and is oxidized in water vapor at 450sp°C has been developed. The resulting AlAs-oxide serves as a current confining layer that constricts collector current flow to the intrinsic portion of the device. Compared to previous methods of fabricating these devices, the process of converting AlAs into an insulator requires only one growth, and does not suffer from implant damage in the base. Because the lateral oxidation of AlAs is a process that proceeds at rates of microns per minute, one of the major challenges facing its implementation is the ability to accurately control the oxidation rate over the wafer, and from one wafer to the next. In the course of work on the oxidation of AlAs, a method to lithographically form lateral oxidation stop layers has been achieved. This technique utilizes impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) in heavily Si-doped buried planes, combined with selective surface patterning and thermal annealing, to create a lateral variation in the Al mole-fraction of the layer to be oxidized.

  2. Metallic nanoparticle shape and size effects on aluminum oxide-induced enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and quantum dot emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M. Gutha, Rithvik R.; Campbell, Quinn; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the shape and size effects of gold metallic nanoparticles on the enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and emission of semiconductor quantum dots induced via the simultaneous impact of metal-oxide and plasmonic effects. This enhancement occurs when metallic nanoparticle arrays are separated from the quantum dots by a layered thin film consisting of a high index dielectric material (silicon) and aluminum oxide. Our results show that adding the aluminum oxide layer can increase the degree of polarization of quantum dot emission induced by metallic nanorods by nearly two times, when these nanorods have large aspect ratios. We show when the aspect ratio of these nanorods is reduced to half, the aluminum oxide loses its impact, leading to no improvement in the degree of polarization. These results suggest that a silicon/aluminum oxide layer can significantly enhance exciton-plasmon coupling when quantum dots are in the vicinity of metallic nanoantennas with high aspect ratios.

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on the surface morphology and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Hashim, H.; Rusop, M.

    2008-05-20

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films were prepared through sol gel and spin coating technique from zinc acetate dihydrate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate in alcoholic solution. The electrical properties and surface morphology study are investigated for the thin films annealed at 350{approx}500 deg. C. Zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates were characterized using electron microscopy (SEM) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement scanning for surface morphology and electrical properties study respectively. The SEM investigation shows that zinc oxide thin films are denser at higher annealing temperature. The result indicates electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films are improved with annealing temperatures. The resistivity of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films are decreased with annealing temperature up to 500 deg. C.

  4. Metallic nanoparticle shape and size effects on aluminum oxide-induced enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and quantum dot emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Gutha, Rithvik R.; Campbell, Quinn; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the shape and size effects of gold metallic nanoparticles on the enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and emission of semiconductor quantum dots induced via the simultaneous impact of metal-oxide and plasmonic effects. This enhancement occurs when metallic nanoparticle arrays are separated from the quantum dots by a layered thin film consisting of a high index dielectric material (silicon) and aluminum oxide. Our results show that adding the aluminum oxide layer can increase the degree of polarization of quantum dot emission induced by metallic nanorods by nearly two times, when these nanorods have large aspect ratios. We show when the aspect ratio of these nanorods is reduced to half, the aluminum oxide loses its impact, leading to no improvement in the degree of polarization. These results suggest that a silicon/aluminum oxide layer can significantly enhance exciton-plasmon coupling when quantum dots are in the vicinity of metallic nanoantennas with high aspect ratios.

  5. Syntheses of rare-earth metal oxide nanotubes by the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Qin; Lin Zhiwei; Lian Wei; Jiang Zhiyuan; Xie Zhaoxiong Huang Rongbin; Zheng Lansun

    2007-04-15

    In this paper, we report a versatile synthetic method of ordered rare-earth metal (RE) oxide nanotubes. RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the as-prepared nanotubes. It is found that as-prepared RE oxides evolve into bamboo-like nanotubes and entirely hollow nanotubes. A new possible formation mechanism of RE oxide nanotubes in the AAO channels is proposed. These high-quantity RE oxide nanotubes are expected to have promising applications in many areas such as luminescent materials, catalysts, magnets, etc. - Graphical abstract: A versatile synthetic method for the preparation of ordered rare-earth (RE) oxide nanotubes is reported, by which RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates.

  6. Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kuschel, Thomas; Keudell, Achim von

    2010-05-15

    Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

  7. Remarkable enhancement of upconversion luminescence on 2-D anodic aluminum oxide photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Yin, Ze; Xu, Wen; Zhou, Donglei; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Xu; Cui, Haining; Song, Hongwei

    2016-05-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are attracting extensive attention due to their unique physical properties and great application potential. However, the lower luminescence quantum yield/strength is still an obstacle for real application. Local field modulation is a promising method to highly enhance the upconversion luminescence (UCL) of the UCNPs. In this work, a novel kind of two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC), anodic aluminum oxides (AAOs), was explored to improve the UCL of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanoplates (NPs). An optimum enhancement factor (EF) of 65-fold was obtained for the overall intensity of Er3+ under 980 nm excitation, and 130-fold for the red emission. Systematic studies indicate that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the enlargement of the excitation field by scattering and reflection of AAO PCs. It should also be highlighted that the modulation of 2D-PC on the UCL of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ NPs demonstrates weak size-dependent and thickness-dependent behavior, which is well consistent with the stimulated electromagnetic field distribution by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are attracting extensive attention due to their unique physical properties and great application potential. However, the lower luminescence quantum yield/strength is still an obstacle for real application. Local field modulation is a promising method to highly enhance the upconversion luminescence (UCL) of the UCNPs. In this work, a novel kind of two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC), anodic aluminum oxides (AAOs), was explored to improve the UCL of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanoplates (NPs). An optimum enhancement factor (EF) of 65-fold was obtained for the overall intensity of Er3+ under 980 nm excitation, and 130-fold for the red emission. Systematic studies indicate that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the enlargement of the excitation field by scattering and reflection of AAO PCs. It should

  8. Effect of Polar Environments on the Aluminum Oxide Shell Surrounding Aluminum Particles: Simulations of Surface Hydroxyl Bonding and Charge.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Richa; Aquino, Adelia J A; Tunega, Daniel; Pantoya, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to understand molecular variations on an alumina surface due to exposure to a polar environment. The analysis has strong implications for the reactivity of aluminum (Al) particles passivated by an alumina shell. Recent studies have shown a link between the carrier fluid used for Al powder intermixing and the reactivity of Al with fluorine containing reactive mixtures. Specifically, flame speeds show a threefold increase when polar liquids are used to intermix aluminum and fluoropolymer powder mixtures. It was hypothesized that the alumina lattice structure could be transformed due to hydrogen bonding forces exerted by the environment that induce modified bond distances and charges and influence reactivity. In this study, the alumina surface was analyzed using DFT calculations and model clusters as isolated systems embedded in polar environments (acetone and water). The conductor-like screening model (COSMO) was used to mimic environmental effects on the alumina surface. Five defect models for specific active -OH sites were investigated in terms of structures and vibrational -OH stretching frequencies. The observed changes of the surface OH sites invoked by the polar environment were compared to the bare surface. The calculations revealed a strong connection between the impact of carrier fluid polarity on the hydrogen bonding forces between the surface OH sites and surrounding species. Changes were observed in the OH characteristic properties such as OH distances (increase), atomic charges (increase), and OH stretching frequencies (decrease); these consequently improve OH surface reactivity. The difference between medium (acetone) and strong (water) polar environments was minimal in the COSMO approximation. PMID:27175545

  9. Multimillion atom simulations of dynamics of oxidation of an aluminum nanoparticle and nanoindentation on ceramics.

    PubMed

    Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a first-principles-based hierarchical simulation framework, which seamlessly integrates (1) a quantum mechanical description based on the density functional theory (DFT), (2) multilevel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF) that describes chemical reactions and polarization, a nonreactive force field that employs dynamic atomic charges, and an effective force field (EFF), and (3) an atomistically informed continuum model to reach macroscopic length scales. For scalable hierarchical simulations, we have developed parallel linear-scaling algorithms for (1) DFT calculation based on a divide-and-conquer algorithm on adaptive multigrids, (2) chemically reactive MD based on a fast ReaxFF (F-ReaxFF) algorithm, and (3) EFF-MD based on a space-time multiresolution MD (MRMD) algorithm. On 1920 Intel Itanium2 processors, we have demonstrated 1.4 million atom (0.12 trillion grid points) DFT, 0.56 billion atom F-ReaxFF, and 18.9 billion atom MRMD calculations, with parallel efficiency as high as 0.953. Through the use of these algorithms, multimillion atom MD simulations have been performed to study the oxidation of an aluminum nanoparticle. Structural and dynamic correlations in the oxide region are calculated as well as the evolution of charges, surface oxide thickness, diffusivities of atoms, and local stresses. In the microcanonical ensemble, the oxidizing reaction becomes explosive in both molecular and atomic oxygen environments, due to the enormous energy release associated with Al-O bonding. In the canonical ensemble, an amorphous oxide layer of a thickness of approximately 40 angstroms is formed after 466 ps, in good agreement with experiments. Simulations have been performed to study nanoindentation on crystalline, amorphous, and nanocrystalline silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Simulation on nanocrystalline silicon carbide reveals unusual deformation mechanisms in brittle nanophase materials, due to

  10. Characterization of molybdenum doped indium oxide/aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film stacks for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamurugu, Elangovan; Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Dahlem, Marcus; Viegas, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Multilayer (ML) thin films, based on indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), having different stacking were deposited using RF sputtering at room temperature (RT). The total-layer thickness of the MLs ranges between 93 nm and 98 nm. The deposited films were characterized by their structural, electrical, microstructural, and optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks obtained at 2θ of around 30.6° and 34.27° are matched with cubic-In2O3 (222) and hexagonal-ZnO (002), respectively. The MLs have both nano-crystalline and polycrystalline structures depending on the layer properties. A conspicuous feature of XRD analysis is the absence of diffraction peak from 50 nm thick IMO layer when it is stacked below 50 nm thick AZO, whereas it appears significantly when the stacking is reversed to place IMO above AZO layer. Hall measurements confirmed that the deposited MLs are n- type conducting and the electrical properties are varied as a function of layer properties. The deposited MLs show high shortwavelength infrared transmittance (SWIRT) even at 3300 nm, which is ranging as high as 75 % - 90 %. Overall, the MLs show high transmittance in the entire Vis-SWIR region. The optical band gap (Eg) calculated using the absorption coefficient (α) and photon energy (hν) of the deposited MLs is ranging between 3.19 eV and 3.56 eV, depending on the layer properties. Selected as- deposited films were annealed in open air at 400 °C for 1 h; the transmittance of annealed films was improved but their electrical properties deteriorated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis shows that the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the MLs ranges between 0.8 nm and 1.5 nm.

  11. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-01

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlOx) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlOx and hafnium oxide (HfOx) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO2/AlOx/GeOx/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlOx interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 1011 cm-2eV-1 with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  12. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cobalt (II, III) oxide, iron (III) oxide, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, S; Jerobin, J; Saranya, V; Nainawat, M; Sharma, A; Makwana, P; Gayathri, C; Bharath, L; Singh, M; Kumar, M; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite the extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in various fields, adequate knowledge of human health risk and potential toxicity is still lacking. The human lymphocytes play a major role in the immune system, and it can alter the antioxidant level when exposed to NPs. Identification of the hazardous NPs was done using in vitro toxicity tests and this study mainly focuses on the comparative in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four different NPs including cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4), iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on human lymphocytes. The Co3O4 NPs showed decrease in cellular viability and increase in cell membrane damage followed by Fe2O3, SiO2, and Al2O3 NPs in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of exposure to human lymphocytes. The oxidative stress was evidenced in human lymphocytes by the induction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. The Al2O3 NPs showed the least DNA damage when compared with all the other NPs. Chromosomal aberration was observed at 100 µg/ml when exposed to Co3O4 NPs and Fe2O3 NPs. The alteration in the level of antioxidant caused DNA damage and chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes. PMID:25829403

  13. Significance of novel bioinorganic anodic aluminum oxide nanoscaffolds for promoting cellular response

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Shackleton, Robert; Mamun, Shariful Islam; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that can directly benefit from the many advancements in nanotechnology and nanoscience. This article reviews a novel biocompatible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO, alumina) membrane in terms of tissue engineering. Cells respond and interact with their natural environment, the extracellular matrix, and the landscape of the substrate. The interaction with the topographical features of the landscape occurs both in the micrometer and nanoscales. If all these parameters are favorable to the cell, the cell will respond in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The role of the substrate/scaffold is crucial in soliciting a favorable response from the cell. The size and type of surface feature can directly influence the response and behavior of the cell. In the case of using an AAO membrane, the surface features and porosity of the membrane can be dictated at the nanoscale during the manufacturing stage. This is achieved by using general laboratory equipment to perform a relatively straightforward electrochemical process. During this technique, changing the operational parameters of the process directly controls the nanoscale features produced. For example, the pore size, pore density, and, hence, density can be effectively controlled during the synthesis of the AAO membrane. In addition, being able to control the pore size and porosity of a biomaterial such as AAO significantly broadens its application in tissue engineering. PMID:24198483

  14. Aluminum oxide passivated radial junction sub-micrometre pillar array textured silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Elam, David; Ayon, Arturo A.

    2013-06-01

    We report radial, p-n junction, sub-micrometre, pillar array textured solar cells, fabricated on an n-type Czochralski silicon wafer. Relatively simple processing schemes such as metal-assisted chemical etching and spin on dopant techniques were employed for the fabrication of the proposed solar cells. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was employed as a surface passivation layer on the B-doped emitter surface. In spite of the fact that the sub-micrometre pillar array textured surface has a relatively high surface-to-volume ratio, we observed an open circuit voltage (VOC) and a short circuit current density (JSC) as high as 572 mV and 29.9 mA cm-2, respectively, which leads to a power conversion efficiency in excess of 11.30%, for the optimized structure of the solar cell described herein. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection effects along with the light trapping property of the sub-micrometre, pillar array textured surface and the excellent passivation quality of the ALD-grown Al2O3 on the B-doped emitter surface were responsible for the enhanced electrical performance of the proposed solar cells.

  15. Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Chengcheng; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine aluminum oxide, which are abundant in ambient and involved occupational environments, are associated with neurobehavioral alterations. However, few studies have focused on the effect of sex differences following exposure to environmental Al2O3 ultrafine particles. In the present study, male and female mice were exposed to Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) through a respiratory route. Only the female mice showed depression-like behavior. Although no obvious pathological changes were observed in mice brain tissues, the neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channel related gene expression, as well as the small molecule metabolites in the cerebral cortex, were differentially modulated between male and female mice. Both mental disorder-involved gene expression levels and metabolomics analysis results strongly suggested that glutamate pathways were implicated in sex differentiation induced by Al2O3 NPs. Results demonstrated the potential mechanism of environmental ultrafine particle-induced depression-like behavior and the importance of sex dimorphism in the toxic research of environmental chemicals. PMID:26690197

  16. Kinetics of O{sub 3} decomposition and heterogeneous chemistry on aluminum oxide particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hanning-Lee, M.A.; Brady, B.B.; Syage, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of chemistry on aluminum oxide particles pertinent to solid rocket motor plume/stratosphere interactions are reported. A new method for measuring heterogeneous chemistry is described based on real-time studies of the kinetics by absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These measurements complement similar measurements in a flow tube reactor, but have certain advantages in disentangling adsorption/desorption kinetics from equilibrium properties. Catalytic decay of ozone has been expressed as a reaction probability {eta} on different grades of alumina. {eta} ranges from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} over the temperature range 20 to 200{degrees}C, respectively. At stratospheric temperatures (-60{degrees}C), the reaction probability increases to about 10{sup -4} possibly reflecting an increased surface residence time for ozone with decreasing temperature. Adsorption and desorption rate coefficients are presented for plume species of high activity such as ozone, water, and HCl. These measurements enable an assessment of the impact of SRM plumes on stratospheric ozone depletion.

  17. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gang, Tian; Kinge, Sachin; Reinhoudt, David N.; Blank, Dave H.A.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Rijnders, Guus; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al2O3 substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP) or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA) SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as a reference. FePt NPs assembled on all of these monolayers, but much less on unmodified Al2O3, which shows that ligand exchange at the NPs is the most likely mechanism of attachment. Proper modification of the Al2O3 surface and controlling the immersion time of the modified Al2O3 substrates into the FePt NP solution resulted in FePt NPs assembly with controlled NP density. Alumina substrates were patterned by microcontact printing using aminobutylphosphonic acid as the ink, allowing local NP assembly. Thermal annealing under reducing conditions (96%N2/4%H2) led to a phase change of the FePt NPs from the disordered FCC phase to the ordered FCT phase. This resulted in ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Such a process can potentially be applied in the fabrication of spintronic devices. PMID:20480007

  18. Passivation properties of aluminum oxide films deposited by mist chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Shohei; Iguchi, Koji; Kitano, Sho; Hayakashi, Koki; Hotta, Yasushi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Ogura, Atsushi; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Arafune, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum oxide (AlOx) films were deposited by mist chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) in air for p-type crystalline silicon, and the effects of the deposition temperature (Tdep) and AlOx film thickness on the maximum surface recombination velocities (Smax) were evaluated. It was found that Smax was improved with increasing Tdep. The AlOx film deposited at 400 °C exhibited the best Smax value of 2.8 cm/s, and the passivation quality was comparable to that of AlOx deposited by other vacuum-based techniques. Smax was also improved with increasing film thickness. When the film thickness was above 10 nm, Smax was approximately 10 cm/s. From the Fourier transform infrared spectra, it was found that the AlOx films deposited by MCVD consisted of an AlOx layer and a Si-diffused AlOx layer. In addition, it is important for the layers to be thick enough to obtain high-quality passivation.

  19. Remarkable enhancement of upconversion luminescence on 2-D anodic aluminum oxide photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Yin, Ze; Xu, Wen; Zhou, Donglei; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Xu; Cui, Haining; Song, Hongwei

    2016-05-21

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are attracting extensive attention due to their unique physical properties and great application potential. However, the lower luminescence quantum yield/strength is still an obstacle for real application. Local field modulation is a promising method to highly enhance the upconversion luminescence (UCL) of the UCNPs. In this work, a novel kind of two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC), anodic aluminum oxides (AAOs), was explored to improve the UCL of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) nanoplates (NPs). An optimum enhancement factor (EF) of 65-fold was obtained for the overall intensity of Er(3+) under 980 nm excitation, and 130-fold for the red emission. Systematic studies indicate that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the enlargement of the excitation field by scattering and reflection of AAO PCs. It should also be highlighted that the modulation of 2D-PC on the UCL of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NPs demonstrates weak size-dependent and thickness-dependent behavior, which is well consistent with the stimulated electromagnetic field distribution by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. PMID:27139324

  20. Removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solution using aluminum oxide hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Bedemo, Agaje; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Zewge, Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Water is second most essential for human being. Contamination of water makes it unsuitable for human consumption. Chromium ion is released to water bodies from various industries having high toxicity which affects the biota life in these waters. In this study aluminum oxide hydroxide was tested for its efficiency to remove trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions through batch mode experiments. Chromium concentrations in aqueous solutions and tannery waste water before and after adsorption experiments were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cr(III) were studied. The study revealed that more than 99 % removal of Cr(III) was achieved over wide range of initial pH (3-10). The optimum conditions for the removal of Cr(III) were found to be at pH 4-6 with 40 g/L adsorbent dose at 60 min of contact time. The adsorption capacity was assessed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium data at varying adsorbent dose obeyed the two isotherms. The adsorbent was found to be efficient for the removal of Cr(III) from tannery waste effluent. PMID:27547663

  1. Ru nanostructure fabrication using an anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate and highly conformal Ru atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Son, Jong-Yeog; Kim, Hyungjun

    2008-01-30

    We fabricated metallic nanostructures directly on Si substrates through a hybrid nanoprocess combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a self-assembled anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplate. ALD Ru films with Ru(DMPD)(EtCp) as a precursor and O(2) as a reactant exhibited high purity and low resistivity with negligible nucleation delay and low roughness. These good growth characteristics resulted in the excellent conformality for nanometer-scale vias and trenches. Additionally, AAO nanotemplates were fabricated directly on Si and Ti/Si substrates through a multiple anodization process. AAO nanotemplates with various hole sizes (30-100 nm) and aspect ratios (2:1-20:1) were fabricated by controlling the anodizing process parameters. The barrier layers between AAO nanotemplates and Si substrates were completely removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using BCl(3) plasma. By combining the ALD Ru and the AAO nanotemplate, Ru nanostructures with controllable sizes and shapes were prepared on Si and Ti/Si substrates. The Ru nanowire array devices as a platform for sensor devices exhibited befitting properties of good ohmic contact and high surface/volume ratio. PMID:21817499

  2. Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Chengcheng; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Ultrafine aluminum oxide, which are abundant in ambient and involved occupational environments, are associated with neurobehavioral alterations. However, few studies have focused on the effect of sex differences following exposure to environmental Al₂O₃ ultrafine particles. In the present study, male and female mice were exposed to Al₂O₃ nanoparticles (NPs) through a respiratory route. Only the female mice showed depression-like behavior. Although no obvious pathological changes were observed in mice brain tissues, the neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channel related gene expression, as well as the small molecule metabolites in the cerebral cortex, were differentially modulated between male and female mice. Both mental disorder-involved gene expression levels and metabolomics analysis results strongly suggested that glutamate pathways were implicated in sex differentiation induced by Al₂O₃ NPs. Results demonstrated the potential mechanism of environmental ultrafine particle-induced depression-like behavior and the importance of sex dimorphism in the toxic research of environmental chemicals. PMID:26690197

  3. Surface-modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane with hydroxyethyl celluloses as a matrix for bilirubin removal.

    PubMed

    Xue, Maoqiang; Ling, Yisheng; Wu, Guisen; Liu, Xin; Ge, Dongtao; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Microporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were modified by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to produce terminal epoxy groups. These were used to covalently link hydroxyethyl celluloses (HEC) to amplify reactive groups of AAO membrane. The hydroxyl groups of HEC-AAO composite membrane were further modified with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to link arginine as an affinity ligand. The contents of HEC and arginine of arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membrane were 52.1 and 19.7mg/g membrane, respectively. As biomedical adsorbents, the arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membranes were tested for bilirubin removal. The non-specific bilirubin adsorption on the unmodified HEC-AAO composite membranes was 0.8mg/g membrane. Higher bilirubin adsorption values, up to 52.6mg/g membrane, were obtained with the arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membranes. Elution of bilirubin showed desorption ratio was up to 85% using 0.3M NaSCN solution as the desorption agent. Comparisons equilibrium and dynamic capacities showed that dynamic capacities were lower than the equilibrium capacities. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of bilirubin and the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, albumin concentration and ionic strength on adsorption were also investigated. PMID:23290920

  4. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  5. Band Alignment at Molybdenum Disulphide/Boron Nitride/Aluminum Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiStefano, Jennifer; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Robinson, Joshua; Glavin, Nicholas R.; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Brockman, Justin; Kuhn, Markus; French, Benjamin; King, Sean W.

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the design of future heterostructure devices employing two-dimensional (2D) materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal/sp2 boron nitride (BN), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized to determine the valence band offset (VBO) present at interfaces formed between these materials. For MoS2 grown on a pulsed laser-deposited amorphous BN (a-BN) layer with sp2 bonding, the VBO was determined to be 1.4 ± 0.2 eV. Similarly, the VBO between the a-BN layer and the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate was determined to be 1.1 ± 0.2 eV. Using the bandgaps established in the literature for MoS2, h-BN, and Al2O3, the conduction band offsets (CBOs) at the MoS2/a-BN and a-BN/Al2O3 interfaces were additionally calculated to be 3.3 ± 0.2 and 1.7 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The resulting large VBOs and CBOs indicate BN and Al2O3 are attractive gate dielectrics and substrates for future 2D MoS2 devices.

  6. Anodic aluminum oxide and carbon nanotube-based nanostructured materials for hydrogen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumiche, Francisco

    Hydrogen is envisioned as one of the most attractive and sustainable energy systems to power future generations. Because of their particular surface characteristics and distinctive physical properties nanoscale materials are promising candidates for the development of high performance hydrogen sensors, essential components to ensure the safe operation of the infrastructure and to facilitate the public acceptance of hydrogen technologies. This investigation is dedicated to the development of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and double wall carbon nanotube (DWNT)-based nanostructured materials for high performance hydrogen sensors. It addresses the controlled synthesis of nanostructures with defined geometries and sizes, study of physical and electronic properties, and the integration into functional hydrogen sensing devices. Compared to current palladium thin film sensors and nanostructured devices the AAO-based nanostructure exhibits faster response times without compromising sensitivity and selectivity. Performance of developed DWNT-based nanostructures is comparable to that for high performance hydrogen sensors fabricated with SWNTs, but with potential improvement in mechanical and thermal resistance associated to the double layer structure.

  7. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-01

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10-4 Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  8. On the growth of conductive aluminum doped zinc oxide on 001 strontium titanate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C.; Aldica, G.; Radu, R.; Mercioniu, I.; Pintilie, L.

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were obtained by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) on a range of substrate temperatures during ablation between 300 °C and 600 °C. A hexagonal system lying on a cubic one should be difficult to be obtained in epitaxial form. The geometrical selection of the AZO growth on (001) STO is not giving a unique preferential orientation. Two orientations, c-axis (along [001]) and 110, have been observed experimentally with different ratios at different substrate temperature. Discussions are made with respect to the temperature dependence of lattice mismatch between the two cases and the cubic surface of the substrate, and to the substrate surface morphology and terminating atomic layer composition. The 110 AZO is the main phase at deposition temperature of 550 °C, while for other substrate temperatures the 001 is the preferential orientation. The conductive character of 110 AZO thin film have been inferred from both ellipsometry spectra and current-voltage measurements. Excepting the samples deposited at 300 °C, the lowest resistivity is recorded for the samples with 110 AZO as the main phase.

  9. Effects of anodic aluminum oxide membrane on performance of nanostructured solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-05-01

    Three nanowire solar cell device configurations have been fabricated to demonstrate the effects of the host anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on device performance. The three configurations show similar transmittance spectra, indicating that AAO membrane has negligible optical absorption. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is studied as a function of the carrier transport and collection in cell structures with and without AAO membrane. Free standing nanowire solar cells exhibit PCE of 9.9%. Through inclusion of AAO in solar cell structure, interface defects and traps caused by humidity and oxygen are reduced, and direct contact of CdTe tentacles with SnO2 and formation of micro shunt shorts are prevented; hence PCE is improved to 11.1%-11.3%. Partially embedded nanowire solar cells further reduce influence of non-ideal and non-uniform nanowire growth and generate a large amount of carriers in axial direction and also a small quantity of carriers in lateral direction, thus becoming a promising solar cell structure. Thus, including AAO membrane in solar cell structure provides favorable electro-optical properties as well as mechanical advantages.

  10. Catalytic activity of nanostructured Au: Scale effects versus bimetallic/bifunctional effects in low-temperature CO oxidation on nanoporous Au

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Cun; Zhong, Yi; Jin, Haijun; Widmann, Daniel; Weissmüller, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Summary The catalytic properties of nanostructured Au and their physical origin were investigated by using the low-temperature CO oxidation as a test reaction. In order to distinguish between structural effects (structure–activity correlations) and bimetallic/bifunctional effects, unsupported nanoporous gold (NPG) samples prepared from different Au alloys (AuAg, AuCu) by selective leaching of a less noble metal (Ag, Cu) were employed, whose structure (surface area, ligament size) as well as their residual amount of the second metal were systematically varied by applying different potentials for dealloying. The structural and chemical properties before and after 1000 min reaction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic behavior was evaluated by kinetic measurements in a conventional microreactor and by dynamic measurements in a temporal analysis of products (TAP) reactor. The data reveal a clear influence of the surface contents of residual Ag and Cu species on both O2 activation and catalytic activity, while correlations between activity and structural parameters such as surface area or ligament/crystallite size are less evident. Consequences for the mechanistic understanding and the role of the nanostructure in these NPG catalysts are discussed. PMID:23503603

  11. Ru(bpy)32+/nanoporous silver-based electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for alpha fetoprotein enhanced by gold nanoparticles decorated black carbon intercalated reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Lv, Xiaohui; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Hu, Lihua; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was proposed for the quantitative determination of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using gold nanoparticles decorated black carbon intercalated reduced graphene oxide (Au-rGO@CB) as sensing platform and nanoporous silver (NPS) loaded Ru(bpy)32+ as labels. In this work, intercalation of CB inhibited the accumulation of rGO and Au-rGO@CB was firstly used to immobilize primary antibody (Ab1) in ECL system. NPS prepared by the dealloying of binary alloy has high pore volume and surface areas, which was used to load amount of secondary antibodies (Ab2) and Ru(bpy)32+, which could greatly enhance the ECL intensity. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.0001 to 30 ng/mL with a relative lower detection limit of 33 fg/mL for AFP detection. Overall, the designed immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, good repeatability and stability. This proposed method provided a potential application for clinical monitoring of AFP. PMID:26829062

  12. Nanoporous nonwoven fibril-like morphology by cooperative self-assembly of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ethyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene and phenolic resin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guodong; Qiang, Zhe; Lecorchick, Willis; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2014-03-11

    Cooperative self-assembly of block copolymers with (in)organic precursors effectively generates ordered nanoporous films, but the porosity is typically limited by the need for a continuous (in)organic phase. Here, a network of homogeneous fibrous nanostructures (≈20 nm diameter cylinders) having high porosity (≈ 60%) is fabricated by cooperative self-assembly of a phenolic resin oligomer (resol) with a novel, nonfrustrated, ABC amphiphilic triblock copolymer template, poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ethyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PEA-b-PS), via a thermally induced self-assembly process. Due to the high glass transition temperature (Tg) of the PS segments, the self-assembly behavior is kinetically hindered as a result of competing effects associated with the ordering of the self-assembled system and the cross-linking of resol that suppresses segmental mobility. The balance in these competing processes reproducibly yields a disordered fibril network with a uniform fibril diameter. This nonequilibrium morphology is dependent on the PEO-b-PEA-b-PS to resol ratio with an evolution from a relatively open fibrous structure to an apparent poorly ordered mixed lamellae-cylinder morphology. Pyrolysis of these former films at elevated temperatures yields a highly porous carbon film with the fibril morphology preserved through the carbonization process. These results illustrate a simple method to fabricate thin films and coatings with a well-defined fiber network that could be promising materials for energy and separation applications. PMID:24548298

  13. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Cieślak, Grzegorz; Norek, Małgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwik, Paweł; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni3Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 μm/h was found for the anodization at 0 °C and 2.0 V. The highest one - 2.29 μm/h - was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 °C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 °C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 °C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/μm2 (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 94.9 pores/μm2 (12.0 V, 0 °C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the operating conditions.

  14. Aluminum Oxide-Coated Sand for Improved Treatment of Urban Stormwater.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Lisbeth L; Cederkvist, Karin; Holm, Peter E; Ingvertsen, Simon T

    2016-03-01

    Infiltration facilities for urban stormwater runoff, such as biofilters, rain gardens, and curb extensions, typically contain an engineered soil mixture for effective drainage and retention of pollutants. The treatment efficiency of such soils is generally considered high for many pollutants. However, recent studies have revealed that in situ mobilization of soil organic matter may cause leaching of a range of pollutants and therefore diminish the long-term performance of engineered soils. The purpose of this study was to develop and test sand coated with aluminum (Al) oxides for improving the retention of organic matter and a range of common pollutants in engineered soils. Two alternative Al-coating methods were successfully developed in the laboratory. The Al coating of the sand increased the specific surface area from 0.3 to 1.1 m g to 0.87 to 2.2 m g depending on sand fraction. One method was upscaled to produce 100 kg coated sand. The stability of the coatings was studied in batch experiments. Dry shaking showed a high resistance of the coating against mechanical stress. Increasing the ionic strength by the addition of NaCl seemed to improve the stability of the coatings. Varying pH showed that acidic conditions could compromise the Al coating stability. Overall, one coating method showed slightly better results in terms of higher surface area and stability. The Al coating significantly improved the retention capacity of the sand toward dissolved organic carbon. The results document that it is possible to coat sand effectively with Al oxides and consequently to improve the retention capacity and lifetime of engineered soils for urban stormwater management. PMID:27065420

  15. Semitransparent polymer-based solar cells with aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Sebastian; Wilkens, Verena; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Nowak, Regina-Elisabeth; von Maydell, Karsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-01-14

    With the use of two transparent electrodes, organic polymer-fullerene solar cells are semitransparent and may be combined to parallel-connected multijunction devices or used for innovative applications like power-generating windows. A challenging issue is the optimization of the electrodes, to combine high transparency with adequate electric properties. In the present work, we study the potential of sputter-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide as an alternative to the widely used but relatively expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as cathode material in semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells. Concerning the anode, we utilized an insulator-metal-insulator structure based on ultrathin Au films embedded between two evaporated MoO3 layers, with the outer MoO3 film (capping layer) serving as a light coupling layer. The performance of the ITO-free semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells was systematically studied as dependent on the thickness of the capping layer and the active layer as well as the illumination direction. These variations were found to have strong impact on the obtained photocurrent densities. We performed optical simulations of the electric field distribution within the devices using the transfer-matrix method, to analyze the origin of the current density variations in detail and provide deep insight into the device physics. With the conventional absorber materials studied here, optimized ITO-free and semitransparent devices reached 2.0% power conversion efficiency and a maximum optical transmission of 60%, with the device concept being potentially transferable to other absorber materials. PMID:25495167

  16. The effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation on the mean stress sensitivity of the fatigue life of the 6082 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L.; Morgenstern, R.; Hockauf, K.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the mean stress influence on the high cycle fatigue behavior of the plasma electrolytic oxidized (PEO) 6082 aluminum alloy (AlSi1MgMn) is investigated. The present study is focused on the fatigue life time and the susceptibility of fatigue-induced cracking of the oxide coating and their dependence on the applied mean stress. Systematic work is done comparing conditions with and without PEO treatment, which have been tested using three different load ratios. For the uncoated substrate the cycles to failure show a significant dependence on the mean stress, which is typical for aluminum alloys. With increased load ratio and therefore increased mean stress, the fatigue strength decreases. The investigation confirms the well-known effect of PEO treatment on the fatigue life: The fatigue strength is significantly reduced by the PEO process, compared to the uncoated substrate. However, also the mean stress sensitivity of the fatigue performance is reduced. The fatigue limit is not influenced by an increasing mean stress for the PEO treated conditions. This effect is firstly shown in these findings and no explanation for this effect can be found in literature. Supposedly the internal compressive stresses and the micro-cracks in the oxide film have a direct influence on the crack initiation and growth from the oxide film through the interface and in the substrate. Contrary to these findings, the susceptibility of fatigue-induced cracking of the oxide coating is influenced by the load ratio. At tension-tension loading a large number of cracks, which grow partially just in the aluminum substrate, are present. With decreasing load ratio to alternating tension-compression stresses, the crack number and length increases and shattering of the oxide film is more pronounced due to the additional effective compressive part of the load cycle.

  17. Analysis of nanopore arrangement of porous alumina layers formed by anodizing in oxalic acid at relatively high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2014-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers were formed by a simple two-step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid at relatively high temperatures (20-30 °C) and various anodizing potentials (30-65 V). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features of as-obtained oxides was carefully investigated. A linear and exponential relationships between cell diameter, pore density and anodizing potential were confirmed, respectively. On the other hand, no effect of temperature and duration of anodization on pore spacing and pore density was found. Detailed quantitative and qualitative analyses of hexagonal arrangement of nanopore arrays were performed for all studied samples. The nanopore arrangement was evaluated using various methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) images, Delaunay triangulations (defect maps), pair distribution functions (PDF), and angular distribution functions (ADF). It was found that for short anodizations performed at relatively high temperatures, the optimal anodizing potential that results in formation of nanostructures with the highest degree of pore order is 45 V. No direct effect of temperature and time of anodization on the nanopore arrangement was observed.

  18. Pretreatment effects on the morphology and properties of aluminum oxide thermally grown on NiCoCrAlY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, S.; Budhani, R.; Doerr, H. J.; Deshpandey, C. V.; Bunshah, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pretreatments on the morphology and properties of aluminum oxide thermally grown from NiCoCrAlY was investigated. The goal was to optimize process steps to produce a highly adherent, continuous, and insulating aluminum oxide. Two pretreatments were carried out, one in vacuum (about 0.0001 Torr) at 1350 K for 5 h, and the other consisting of deposition of a 1-micron thick Al2O3 film by activated reactive evaporation. Samples were subsequently oxidized thermally at 1000 C for 50 h at 0.5 Torr oxygen pressure. The two pretreatments were carried out on electron-beam evaporation NiCoCrAlY, about 120 microns thick, deposited on a superalloy turbine blade substrate. The results showed that the thermally grown oxide was significantly different in microstructure, surface topography and in its adherence to the NiCoCrAlY for the two pretreatments. Optimum results were obtained by combining the two pretreatments to produce an adherent, continuous, and insulating oxide film on the NiCoCrAlY-coated superalloy substrate.

  19. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

  20. Mechanochemical reactions and strengthening in epoxy-cast aluminum iron-oxide mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, Louis, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    -viscoplastic deformation and brittle fracture behaviors. Significant elastic and plastic deformation during both loading and unloading stages is observed, with approximately 50% elastic recovery of total axial strain occurring rapidly (tens of microseconds) after impact. Coupling high-speed camera images and velocity interferometry measurements shows that the elastic recovery coincides with peak axial strain and the elastic and plastic wave interaction. The incorporation of nano-scale aluminum particles enhances the dynamic stress-strain response and significantly improves the composites' resilience to impact as compared to pure epoxy, and with the use of micron-scale aluminum particles. Post-mortem analysis of recovered Taylor impacted specimens indicates evidence of early stages of strain-induced reactions occurring at select stress, strain, and strain rates. The observed reaction products correlate with results of thermal analysis, which include DTA and in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Central to this study was the interaction of metal-oxide powder mixtures with the epoxy matrix and how their chemical and mechanical properties balance to form a structural energetic material system. The study focuses on describing the underlying principles governing the deformation and fracture behavior, processing characteristics of epoxy-cast Al+Fe2O3 powder mixtures, mechanochemical sensitivity, and reaction response. In order to accomplish this, the effects of size, morphology, and distribution of particles were evaluated based on mechanical and chemical response to high pressures and combined stress-strain states using time-resolved measurements.

  1. Ordered arrays of polymeric nanopores by using inverse nanostructured PTFE surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; del Campo, Adolfo; Reinosa, Julián J; Fernández, José Francisco

    2012-09-28

    We present a simple, efficient, and high-throughput methodology for the fabrication of ordered nanoporous polymeric surfaces with areas in the range of cm(2). The procedure is based on a two-stage replication of a master nanostructured pattern. The process starts with the preparation of an ordered array of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) free-standing nanopillars by wetting self-ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide templates with molten PTFE. The nanopillars are 120 nm in diameter and approximately 350 nm long, while the array extends over cm(2). The PTFE nanostructuring process induces surface hydrocarbonation of the nanopillars, as revealed by confocal Raman microscopy/spectroscopy, which enhances the wettability of the originally hydrophobic material and facilitates its subsequent use as an inverse pattern. Thus, the PTFE nanostructure is then used as a negative master for the fabrication of macroscopic hexagonal arrays of nanopores composed of biocompatible poly(vinylalcohol). In this particular case, the nanopores are 130-140 nm in diameter and the interpore distance is around 430 nm. Features of such characteristic dimensions are known to be easily recognized by living cells. Moreover, the inverse mold is not destroyed in the pore array demolding process and can be reused for further pore array fabrication. Therefore, the developed method allows the high-throughput production of cm(2)-scale biocompatible nanoporous surfaces that could be interesting as two-dimensional scaffolds for tissue repair or wound healing. Moreover, our approach can be extrapolated to the fabrication of almost any polymer and biopolymer ordered pore array. PMID:22948375

  2. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  3. Effects of chromium and aluminum on mechanical and oxidation properties of iron-nickel-base superalloys based on CG-27

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chromium and aluminum on the mechanical and oxidation properties of a series of gamma-prime-strengthened alloys based on CG-27 were studied. Gamma-prime dispersion and solid-solution strengthening were the principal modes of alloy strengthening. The oxidation attack parameter K sub a decreased with increasing Cr and Al contents for each alloy group based on Al content. As a group, alloys with 3 wt % Al had the lowest attack parameters. Therefore, 3 wt % is the optimum level of Al for parabolic oxidation behavior. Spalling, due to diffusion-induced grain growth, was controlled by the overall Cr and Al levels. The alloy with 4 wt % Cr and 3 wt % Al had stress-rupture properties superior to those of the base alloy, CG-27, and maintained parabolic oxidation behavior while the Cr content was reduced by two-thirds of its value in cast CG-27.

  4. Effects of aluminum additions to gas atomized reaction synthesis produced oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, Alexander Lee

    The production of an aluminum containing ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy was investigated. The production method used in this study was gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). GARS was chosen over the previously commercial method of mechanical alloying (MA) process due to complications from this process. The alloy compositions was determined from three main components; corrosion resistance, dispersoid formation, and additional elements. A combination of Cr and Al were necessary in order to create a protective oxide in the steam atmosphere that the boiler tubing in the next generation of coal-fired power plants would be exposed to. Hf and Y were chosen as dispersoid forming elements due to their increased thermal stability and potential to avoid decreased strength caused by additions of Al to traditional ODS materials. W was used as an additive due to benefits as a strengthener as well as its benefits for creep rupture time. The final composition chosen for the alloy was Fe-16Cr-12Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.2Y at%. The aforementioned alloy, GA-1-198, was created through gas atomization with atomization gas of Ar-300ppm O2. The actual composition created was found to be Fe-15Cr-12.3Al-0.9W-0.24Hf-0.19Y at%. An additional alloy that was nominally the same without the inclusion of aluminum was created as a comparison for the effects on mechanical and corrosion properties. The actual composition of the comparison alloy, GA-1-204, was Fe-16Cr-0Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.24Y at%. An investigation on the processing parameters for these alloys was conducted on the GA-1-198 alloy. In order to predict the necessary amount of time for heat treatment, a diffusion study was used to find the diffusion rate of oxygen in cast alloys with similar composition. The diffusion rate was found to be similar to that of other GARS compositions that have been created without the inclusion of aluminum. The effect of heat treatment time was investigated with temperatures of 950°C, 1000

  5. Structural and magnetic characterization of as-prepared and annealed FeCoCu nanowire arrays in ordered anodic aluminum oxide templates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-González, B.; Bran, C.; Warnatz, T.; Vazquez, M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-04-07

    Herein, we report on the preparation, structure, and magnetic characterization of FeCoCu nanowire arrays grown by DC electrodeposition inside self-assembled ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. A systematic study of their structure has been performed both in as-prepared samples and after annealing in the temperature range up to 800 °C, although particular attention has been paid to annealing at 700 °C after which maximum magnetic hardening is achieved. The obtained nanowires have a diameter of 40 nm and their Fe{sub 0.28}Co{sub 0.67}Cu{sub 0.05} composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Focused ion-beam lamellas of two samples (as-prepared and annealed at 700 °C) were prepared for their imaging in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) perpendicularly to the electron beam, where the obtained EDS compositional mappings show a homogeneous distribution of the elements. X-ray diffraction analysis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirm that nanowires exhibit a bcc cubic structure (space group Im-3m). In addition, bright-dark field images show that the nanowires have a polycrystalline structure that remains essentially the same after annealing, but some modifications were observed: (i) an overall increase and sharpening of recrystallized grains, and (ii) an apparent shrinkage of the nanowires diameter. Obtained SAED patterns also show strong textured components with determined <111> and <112> crystalline directions parallel to the wires growth direction. The presence of both directions was also confirmed in the HRTEM images doing Fourier transform analyses. Magnetic measurements show strong magnetic anisotropy with magnetization easy axis parallel to the nanowires in as-prepared and annealed samples. The magnetic properties are tuned by suitable thermal treatments so that, maximum enhanced coercivity (∼2.7 kOe) and normalized remanence (∼0.91 Ms) values are

  6. Structural and magnetic characterization of as-prepared and annealed FeCoCu nanowire arrays in ordered anodic aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-González, B.; Bran, C.; Warnatz, T.; Rivas, J.; Vazquez, M.

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we report on the preparation, structure, and magnetic characterization of FeCoCu nanowire arrays grown by DC electrodeposition inside self-assembled ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. A systematic study of their structure has been performed both in as-prepared samples and after annealing in the temperature range up to 800 °C, although particular attention has been paid to annealing at 700 °C after which maximum magnetic hardening is achieved. The obtained nanowires have a diameter of 40 nm and their Fe0.28Co0.67Cu0.05 composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Focused ion-beam lamellas of two samples (as-prepared and annealed at 700 °C) were prepared for their imaging in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) perpendicularly to the electron beam, where the obtained EDS compositional mappings show a homogeneous distribution of the elements. X-ray diffraction analysis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirm that nanowires exhibit a bcc cubic structure (space group Im-3m). In addition, bright-dark field images show that the nanowires have a polycrystalline structure that remains essentially the same after annealing, but some modifications were observed: (i) an overall increase and sharpening of recrystallized grains, and (ii) an apparent shrinkage of the nanowires diameter. Obtained SAED patterns also show strong textured components with determined ⟨111⟩ and ⟨112⟩ crystalline directions parallel to the wires growth direction. The presence of both directions was also confirmed in the HRTEM images doing Fourier transform analyses. Magnetic measurements show strong magnetic anisotropy with magnetization easy axis parallel to the nanowires in as-prepared and annealed samples. The magnetic properties are tuned by suitable thermal treatments so that, maximum enhanced coercivity (˜2.7 kOe) and normalized remanence (˜0.91 Ms) values are achieved after annealing

  7. Characterization of Nano-scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Sasha Norien

    Land application of biosolids has become common practice in the United States as an alternative to industrial fertilizers. Although nutrient rich, biosolids have been found to contain high concentrations of unregulated and/or unrecognized emerging contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products) while containing a significant fraction of inorganic nano-scale colloidal materials such as oxides of iron, titanium, and aluminum. Given their reactivity and small size, there are many questions concerning the potential migration of these nano-sized colloidal materials through the soil column and into our surface and groundwater bodies. Transport of emerging pollutants of concern through the soil column, at minimum, is impacted by colloidal properties (e.g., chemical composition, shape, aggregation kinetics), solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter), and water flow velocity. The purpose of this current research was to characterize the long-term transport behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al 2O3) through a natural porous media with changes in pH, aqueous-phase concentration, pore-water velocity and electrolyte valence. Additionally, deposition rates during the initial stages of deposition were compared to several models developed based on colloid filtration theory and DLVO stability theory. Benchtop column laboratory experiments showed that, under environmentally relevant groundwater conditions, Al2O3 nanoparticles are mobile through saturated porous media. Mobility increased under conditions in which the nanoparticles and porous media were of like charge (pH 9). Changes in linear pore water velocity, under these same high pH conditions, showed similar transport behavior with little mass retained in the system. Deposition is believed to be kinetically controlled at pH 9, as evidenced by the slightly earlier breakthrough as flow rate increased and was further supported by observed concentration effects on the arrival wave

  8. Analysis of mid-tropospheric space shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Lala, G. Garland; Wightman, James P.

    Aluminum oxide (Al 2O 3) particles from the exhaust of the space shuttle were collected from the shuttle column cloud immediately after the launch of STS-61A on 30 October 1985. The participates were collected on Teflon filters during a tight descending aircraft spiral maneuver over the altitude interval of 7.6-4.6 km. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of the particles revealed that they were virtually all spherical and ranged in diameter from about 0.1 μm to 10 μm. Particles of < 0.1 μm in diameter were not readily visible in the SEM photomicrographs; however, such particles would not be captured efficiently on the Teflon filters used. Results from energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) confirmed that the particles were predominantly composed of Al and O 2. A particle size distribution was determined from the Al 2O 3 samples. The distribution was bimodal, with one observed peak centered near 2.0 μm. The data indicated the existence of another mode centered at a diameter of < 0.3 μm, but could not be accurately located because our technique cut off at diameters of < 0.1 μm. A mass median diameter of slightly < 2 μm was determined. The collection was evaluated for ice nucleation activity, using the filter technique with a static vapor-diffusion chamber. Only a small fraction (about 1:10 6) of active ice nuclei were determined among the Al 2O 3 particulates.

  9. Efforts to improve carrier mobility in radio frequency sputtered aluminum doped zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, C.; Kluth, O.; Hüpkes, J.; Zastrow, U.; Rech, B.; Wuttig, M.

    2004-02-01

    This study addresses the electrical and optical properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films. The main focus was on the improvement in carrier mobility μ to achieve simultaneously high transparency for visible and particularly near-infrared light and low resistivity. The influence of Al concentration in the target, film thickness, sputter power, deposition pressure, and substrate temperature on material properties was investigated. The structural, compositional, electrical and optical properties were studied using x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), room temperature Hall effect measurements and spectral photometry, respectively. All ZnO:Al films were polycrystalline and preferentially oriented along [002]. The grain size along the direction of growth increased with higher Al doping and with increasing film thickness. The SIMS measurements revealed that the Al concentration in the film was nearly the same as in the target. Carrier concentration N and mobility μ are determined by the target Al concentration. In addition μ is influenced by the film thickness and the sputter pressure. For each Al concentration, the highest μ was generally observed at low deposition pressures. By using a target with low Al2O3 concentration of 0.5 wt %, μ could be improved up to 44.2 cm2/V s while maintaining the electrical resistivity ρ as low as 3.8×10-4 Ω cm. For these films the transparency in the near-infrared wavelength range strongly improved which makes them particularly interesting for the application in optoelectronic devices like thin-film solar cells. The μ-N dependence for films deposited under diverse conditions was studied to identify a practical limit for μ.

  10. Evaluation of Alpha and Gamma Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Accumulation, Toxicity and Depuration in Artemia Salina Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to > 0.3 μm for spherical NPs, and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images revealed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. ICP-MS analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, while fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 μm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at in all conditions. PMID:24753078

  11. Surface and crystalline analysis of aluminum oxide single crystal treated by quasistationary compression plasma flow

    SciTech Connect

    Maletic, S.; Popovic, D.M.; Cubrovic, V.; Zekic, A.A.; Dojcilovic, J.

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface by CPF are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented low-dimensional structures are occurred for the treated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dimension of these ripples are 1 {mu}m and the distance between them is about 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ripple-shaped structures contain a higher percentage of oxygen than the surroundings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results could promote CPF as a tool for producing organized oxygen-rich structures. -- Abstract: Material such as aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is important in electronics industry. On the other hand, plasma is one of the most efficient and sophisticated tools for materials processing. In this work a treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface by quasistationary compression plasma flow (CPF) is analyzed in detail. Offline metrology was performed using dielectric measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oriented low-dimensional periodic structures are occurred for the plasma treated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal. In the paper is reported that these oriented ripple-shaped structures contain a higher percentage of oxygen than the surrounding crystal surface. This could be the framework for usage of CPF as a tool in manufacturing of surfaces containing the highly organized oxygen-rich structures.

  12. Adsorption of dissolved organics in lake water by aluminum oxide. Effect of molecular weight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Gloor, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved organic compounds in a Swiss lake were fractionated into three molecular size classes by gel exclusion chromatography, and adsorption of each fraction on colloidal alumina was studied as a function of pH. Organic compounds with molecular weight (Mr) greater than 1000 formed strong complexes with the alumina surface, but low molecular weight compounds were weakly adsorbed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicated that alumina particles suspended in the original lake water were highly negatively charged because of adsorbed organic matter. Most of the adsorbed organic compounds were in the Mr range 1000 < Mr < 3000. Adsorption of these compounds during the treatment of drinking water by alum coagulation may be responsible for the preferential removal of trihalomethane precursors. Adsorption may also influence the molecular-weight distribution of dissolved organic material in lakes. surface, the present work will focus on the influence of molecular size and pH on the adsorption behavior of dissolved organic material of a Swiss lake. From a geochemical point of view, it is important to know the molecular-weight distribution of adsorbed organic matter so that we may better assess its reactivity with trace elements. The study also serves as a first step in quantifying the role of adsorption in the geochemical cycle of organic carbon in lacustrine environments. For water-treatment practice, we need to determine whether molecular weight fractionation occurs during adsorption by aluminum oxide. Such a fractionation could be significant in the light of recent reports that chloroform and other organochlorine compounds are preferentially produced by particular molecular-weight fractions (25-27). ?? 1981 American Chemical Society.

  13. Highly crystalline alumina surface coating from hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide on lithium-rich layered oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Chen, Zhaoyong; Li, Lingjun; Zhu, Huali; Zhao, Qunfang; Xu, Lian; Peng, Nanfa; Gong, Li

    2015-05-01

    Lithium-rich layered oxides, xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO2(M = Ni, Mn, Co), have been under intense investigation as high-performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries due to their high discharge capacity, low cost and environmental benignity. Unfortunately, the commercialized application of these cathode materials have so far been hindered by their severe capacity and voltage fading during high voltage cycling (>4.5 V vs. Li/Li+). In an attempt to overcome these problems, herein, highly crystalline Al2O3 layer from the hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide are coated on 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 with controlling the growth of Al2O3 crystals. The coin cell with bare cathode material delivers a high discharge capacity over 268.2 mAh g-1 between 2.0 V and 4.8 V, while the Al2O3 coated cathode material shows the excellent cycling stability corresponding to 98% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 1C. More importantly, the highly crystalline Al2O3 coated cathode materials exhibit a significantly lower discharge voltage decay compared to the bare cathode materials, which could be ascribed to the suppression of the layered-to-spinel transformation by compact and highly crystalline Al2O3 layer. The results here will shed light on developing cathode materials with special structures and superior electrochemical properties for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  14. Zinc and cadmium adsorption to aluminum oxide nanoparticles affected by naturally occurring ligands.

    PubMed

    Stietiya, M Hashem; Wang, Jim J

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (AlO) are efficient in removing Cd, Zn, and other heavy metals from wastewaters and soil solutions due to their high specific surface area and surface area to volume ratio. Naturally occurring ligands, such as phosphate (PO), citrate, and humic acid (HA), may affect the efficiency of AlO nanoparticles in adsorption of Cd and Zn. The objective of this study was to investigate Zn and Cd adsorption to AlO nanoparticles as influenced by PO, citrate, and HA. Adsorption of Zn and Cd was performed in mono-metal and binary-metal systems at pH 6.5 with initial metal concentration of 1.0 mmol L and varying ligand concentration at a solid:solution ratio of 1:1000. Adsorption isotherms showed that Zn had higher affinity to the AlO nanoparticle surface than Cd and that adsorption of Zn and Cd in the binary-metal system was lower than in the respective mono-metal systems. Phosphate and HA enhanced Zn and Cd adsorption in all systems, whereas citrate reduced Zn adsorption in the mono-metal system by 25% and increased adsorption in the other metal systems. Removal of Zn or Cd from the systems was generally accompanied by enhanced removal of PO and HA, which may indicate enhanced adsorption due to ternary complex formation or metal-ligand precipitation. Phosphate was the most effective among the three ligands in enhancing Zn and Cd adsorption. Overall, AlO nanoparticles are suitably used for Zn and Cd adsorption, which can be significantly enhanced by the presence of PO or HA and to a lesser degree by citrate at low concentrations. PMID:25602651

  15. Uniform dispersion of graphene oxide in aluminum powder by direct electrostatic adsorption for fabrication of graphene/aluminum composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Zan; Fan, Genlian; Tan, Zhanqiu; Guo, Qiang; Xiong, Dingbang; Su, Yishi; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-08-15

    The excellent properties of graphene promote it as an ideal reinforcement in composites. However, dispersing graphene homogenously into metals is a key challenge that limits the development of high-performance graphene-reinforced metal matrix composites. Here, via simple electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and Al flakes, uniform distribution of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in an Al matrix is achieved. The adsorption process of GO on Al flakes is efficient, as it can be completed in minutes and proceeds spontaneously without any chemical agents. GO can be partially reduced by the electron interchange during the adsorption process and could be thoroughly reduced after subsequent thermal annealing. A densified RGO/Al composite can be obtained by hot pressing the RGO/Al composite powders. By employing the preceding fabrication process, a composite reinforced with only 0.3 wt.% of RGO shows an 18 and 17% increase in elastic modulus and hardness, respectively, over unreinforced Al, demonstrating RGO is a better reinforcement than most other reinforcements. PMID:25053703

  16. Impact of thin metal layer on the optical and electrical properties of indium-doped-tin oxide and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Melvin David; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Joondong

    2015-06-01

    The distinguished transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers like indium-doped-tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide (AZO) layers were prepared in different combinations with and without thin Ni metal layer. The optical and electrical properties of prepared samples were analyzed and compared with the objective to understand the role and influence of the Ni layer in each TCO combination. The highest transmittance value of 91.49% was exhibited by prepared AZO layers. Even though if the transmittance of Ni inserting TCO layers was marginally reduced than that of the ordinary TCO samples, they exhibited balanced optical properties with enhanced electrical properties. Carrier concentration of indium doped tin-oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide (ITO/AZO) bilayer sample is increased more than double the times when the Ni layer was inserted between ITO and AZO. Thin layer of Ni in between TCO layers reduced sheet resistance and offered substantial transmittance, so that the figure of merit (FOM) value of Ni embedding TCOs was greater than that of TCOs without Ni layer. The ITO/Ni/AZO combination provided optimum results in all the electrical properties. As compared to other TCO/metal combinations, the overall performance of ITO/Ni/AZO tri-layer combination was appreciable. These results show that the optical and electrical properties of TCO layers could be enhanced by inserting a Ni layer with optimum thickness in between them.

  17. Oxalate-assisted oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol in a bimetallic, zero-valent iron-aluminum/air/water system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinhong; Wang, Hongwu; Ma, Luming

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of zero-valent iron and aluminum with oxygen produced reactive oxidants that can oxidize 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). However, oxidant yield without metal surface cleaning to dissolve the native oxide layer or in the absence of ligands was too low for practical applications. The addition of oxalate (ox) to dissolved oxygen-saturated solution of Fe(0)-Al(0) significantly increased oxidant yield because of the dissolution, pH buffer, and complexing characteristics of ox. Ox-enhanced reactive oxidant generation was affected by ox concentration and solution pH. The critical effect of ox dosing was confirmed with the reactive species of [Fe(II)(ox)0] and [Fe(II)(ox)2 (2-)]. Systematic studies on the effect of the initial and in situ solution pH revealed that 4-CP oxidation was controlled by the continuous release of dissolved Fe(2+) and Al(3+), their fate, and the activation mechanisms of O2 reduction. The degradation pathway of 4-CP in ox-enhanced Fe(0)-Al(0)/O2 may follow the 4-chlorocatechol pathway. The robustness of the ox-enhanced Al(0)-Fe(0)-O2 process was determined with one-time dosing of ox. Therefore, ox is an ideal additive to enhancing the Fe(0)-Al(0)/O2 system for the oxidative degradation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27180839

  18. The development of a preliminary correlation of data on oxide growth on 6061 aluminum under ANS thermal-hydraulic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, R.E.; Yoder, G.L.; West, C.D.; Montgomery, B.H.

    1990-06-01

    The corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 is being studied in a special test loop facility under the range of thermal-hydraulic conditions appropriate for fuel plate operation in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core. Experimental measurements describing the growth of the boehmite (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}H{sub 2}O) films on the exposed aluminum surfaces are now available for a range of coolant conditions and heat fluxes, and these results have been analyzed to demonstrate the influence of several important experimental variables. A subset of our data base particularly appropriate to the ANS conditions presently anticipated was used to develop a preliminary correlation based on an empirical oxidation model.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Stationary AC Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Aluminum Plate in Consideration of Oxide Layer Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu

    An unified numerical simulation model of AC TIG welding of the aluminum plate considering energy balance among the electrode, the arc and the base metal and employing an analytical model for calculating cleaning rate of the oxide layer has been developed for investigating heat transport properties and weld pool formation process in AC TIG welding of aluminum plate. As a result of this simulation, it was shown that although the heat flux from the arc onto the base metal increases in EN (Electrode Negative) phase due to the electron condensation, that in EP (Electrode Positive) phase conversely decreases because mainly of cooling caused by the electron emission. Furthermore, the validity of the simulation model was confirmed by comparing to experimental results such as the arc voltage, the area of cleaning zone and the shape of weld pool.

  20. Manufacturing of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles: Microstructural and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, Emin; Ayari, Fayza; Tan, Ming Jen; Tosun-Bayraktar, Ayse; Katundi, Dhurata

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the low-cost manufacturing of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano iron oxide as light and efficient materials for engineering applications. It is very desirable to use reinforced aluminum matrix composites in structural applications (automotive, aeronautical, etc.) because of their outstanding stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios. In modern industry, it is increasingly important to develop new composites as alternative materials to fabricate multifunctional pieces. Detailed information is presented on the manufacturing process of this composite, and a preliminary study was performed on the cryogenic-cycling behavior to evaluate the interface between the matrix and the reinforcement. Microindentation tests were carried out to evaluate the micromechanical properties of these materials; a simple and practical finite element model is proposed to predict certain parameters related to the composition of the composite.

  1. Rhizosphere carbon deposition, oxidative stress and nutritional changes in two poplar species exposed to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dhiraj; Smith, Ernest; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2009-03-01

    Species and hybrids in the genus Populus have become the focus of investigation for use in biofuels production and their capacity to sequester carbon (C) in the environment. The identification of species resistant to marginal edaphic sites may be important in both of these endeavors. Plant growth, total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) and low molecular weight organic acid (OA) production, antioxidative enzyme activities and mineral content were assessed in Populus tremuloides L. and Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray seedlings under exposure to aluminum (Al). Both species were sensitive to Al, with significant reductions in shoot and root biomass at and above 50 microM Al. Exposure to Al induced 40-fold increases in TOC deposition in P. tremuloides and 100-fold increases in P. trichocarpa. In P. tremuloides, Al treatment induced root exudation of malic and citric acids, while Al increased exudation of citrate and oxalate in P. trichocarpa. Organic acids accounted for 20-64% of total C released upon Al exposure, with the proportion of OAs increasing in P. tremuloides and decreasing in P. trichocarpa. Dose-dependent responses of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in both root and leaf tissues, indicating that Al exposure induced oxidative stress in poplar. Treatment at and above 100 microM Al reduced the concentrations of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in roots and leaves, whereas Al at or above 50 microM reduced root and leaf phosphorous (P) concentrations. The majority of Al taken up was retained in the root system. Even with the induction of OA exudation and accumulation, P. tremuloides and P. trichocarpa remained sensitive to Al, as evidenced by elevated antioxidative enzyme activities, which may reflect inhibition of Ca or P uptake and destabilization of cell homeostasis in these poplar species. Although plants exhibited reductions in growth and evidence of oxidative and nutritional stress, total C rhizodeposition rates for both species increased with

  2. Atomic layer deposited lithium aluminum oxide: (In)dependency of film properties from pulsing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Miikkulainen, Ville Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Li, Han; King, Sean W.; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O{sub 3} and lithium tert-butoxide-H{sub 2}O for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, all the studied ALD Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic β-LiAlO{sub 2} phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.

  3. Hydrogen absorption in solid aluminum during high-temperature steam oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, L. A.; Gelman, B. G.; Zhukhovitskiy, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen is emitted by aluminum heated in a vacuum after high-temperature steam treatment. Wire samples are tested for this effect, showing dependence on surface area. Two different mechanisms of absorption are inferred, and reactions deduced.

  4. A nanoporous silicon nitride membrane using a two-step lift-off pattern transfer with thermal nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabar, Bhargav P.; Çelik-Butler, Zeynep; Dennis, Brian H.; Billo, Richard E.

    2012-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography is emerging as a viable contender for fabrication of large-scale arrays of 5-500 nm features. A fabrication process for the realization of thin nanoporous membranes using thermal nanoimprint lithography is presented. Suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) in conjunction with a potassium hydroxide-based bulk micromachining process. Nanoscale features were imprinted into a commercially available thermoplastic polymer resist using a prefabricated silicon mold. The pattern was reversed and transferred to a thin aluminum oxide layer by means of a novel two-stage lift-off technique. The patterned aluminum oxide was used as an etch mask in a CHF3/He-based reactive ion etch process to transfer the pattern to silicon nitride. Highly directional etch profiles with near vertical sidewalls and excellent Si3N4/Al2O3 etch selectivity were observed. One micrometer thick porous membranes with varying dimensions of 250 × 250 µm2 to 450 × 450 µm2 and a pore diameter of 400 nm have been engineered and evaluated. Results indicate that the membranes have consistent nanopore dimensions and precisely defined porosity, which makes them ideal as gas exchange interfaces in blood oxygenation systems as well as other applications such as dialysis.

  5. Monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Christophe; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-05-01

    High porosity monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases can be obtained from syndiotactic polystyrene and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)oxide thermoreversible gels by removing the solvent with supercritical CO2. The presence of crystalline nanopores in the aerogels based on these polymers allows a high uptake associated with a high selectivity of volatile organic compounds from vapor phase or aqueous solutions even at very low activities. The sorption and the fast kinetics make these materials particularly suitable as sorption medium to remove traces of pollutants from water and moist air.

  6. Syntheses, structures, and ionic conductivities of perovskite-structured lithium–strontium–aluminum/gallium–tantalum-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Phraewphiphat, Thanya; Iqbal, Muhammad; Suzuki, Kota; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Yonemura, Masao; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2015-05-15

    The ionic conductivities of new perovskite-structured lithium–strontium–aluminum/gallium–tantalum oxides were investigated. Solid solutions of the new perovskite oxides, (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x})(Al{sub (1−x)/2}Ta{sub (1+x)/2})O{sub 3} and (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x})(Ga{sub (1−x)/2}Ta{sub (1+x)/2})O{sub 3}, were synthesized using a ball-milled-assisted solid-state method. The partial substitution of the smaller Ga{sup +3} for Ta{sup +5} resulted in new compositions, the structures of which were determined by neutron diffraction measurements using a cubic perovskite structural model with the Pm−3m space group. Vacancies were introduced into the Sr(Li) sites by the formation of solid solutions with compositions (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x−y}☐{sub y})(Ga{sub [(1−x)/2]−y}Ta{sub [(1+x)/2]+y})O{sub 3}, where the composition range of 0≤y≤0.20 was examined for x=0.2 and 0.25. The highest conductivity, 1.85×10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 250 °C, was obtained for (Li{sub 0.25}Sr{sub 0.625}☐{sub 0.125})(Ga{sub 0.25}Ta{sub 0.75})O{sub 3} (x=0.25, y=0.125). Enhanced ionic conductivities were achieved by the introduction of vacancies at the A-sites. - Graphical abstract: Novel lithium-conducting oxides with the cubic perovskite structure (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x−y}☐{sub y})(Ga{sub [(1−x)/2]−y}Ta{sub [(1+x)/2]+y})O{sub 3} provide a specific solid-solution region with various x and y values, exhibiting the highest ionic conductivity (1.85 S cm{sup −1} at 250 °C) for (Li{sub 0.25}Sr{sub 0.625}☐{sub 0.125})(Ga{sub 0.25}Ta{sub 0.75})O{sub 3} (x=0.25, y=0.125 in (Li{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x−y}☐{sub y})(Ga{sub [(1−x)/2]−y}Ta{sub [(1+x)/2]+y})O{sub 3}). The vacancies (☐) introduced into the A-sites contribute to the enhancement of lithium diffusion in the perovskite structure because of the enlargement of the bottleneck size and suppression of the interaction between lithium and oxygen. - Highlights: • The perovskite-structured novel Li

  7. Multi-component nanoporous platinum-ruthenium-copper-osmium-iridium alloy with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoting; Si, Conghui; Gao, Yulai; Frenzel, Jan; Sun, Junzhe; Eggeler, Gunther; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Multi-component nanoporous platinum-ruthenium-copper-osmium-iridium (np-PtRuCuOsIr) electrocatalyst has been facilely fabricated by chemical dealloying of mechanically alloyed AlCuPtRuOsIr precursor. The np-PtRuCuOsIr catalyst exhibits a typical three-dimensional bi-continuous interpenetrating ligament/channel structure with a length scale of ∼2.5 nm. The np-PtRuCuOsIr catalyst reaches a higher level in the mass activity (857.5 mA mgPt-1) and specific activity (3.0 mA cm-2) towards methanol oxidation compared to the commercial PtC catalyst (229.5 mA mgPt-1 and 0.5 mA cm-2 respectively). Moreover, the CO stripping peak of np-PtRuCuOsIr is 0.54 V (vs. SCE), 130 mV negative shift in comparison with the commercial PtC (0.67 V vs. SCE). The half-wave potential of np-PtRuCuOsIr is 0.900 V vs. RHE, 36 mV positive compared with that of the commercial PtC (0.864 V vs. RHE). The np-PtRuCuOsIr catalyst also shows 1.8 and 3.8 times enhancement in the mass and specific activity towards oxygen reduction than the commercial PtC. Moreover, the np-PtRuCuOsIr alloy exhibits superior oxygen reduction activities even after 15 K cycles, indicating its excellent long-term stability. The present np-PtRuCuOsIr can act as a promising candidate for the electrocatalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  8. A colorimetric sensor based on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate for the detection of nitroaromatics.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H. H.; Indacochea, J. E.; Wang, M. L.

    2011-12-15

    Simple and low cost colorimetric sensors for explosives detection were explored and developed. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with large surface area through its porous structure and light background color was utilized as the substrate for colorimetric sensors. Fabricated thin AAO films with thickness less than {approx} 500 nm allowed us to observe interference colors which were used as the background color for colorimetric detection. AAO thin films with various thickness and pore-to-pore distance were prepared through anodizing aluminum foils at different voltages and times in dilute sulfuric acid. Various interference colors were observed on these samples due to their difference in structures. Accordingly, suitable anodization conditions that produce AAO samples with desired light background colors for optical applications were obtained. Thin film interference model was applied to analyze the UV-vis reflectance spectra and to estimate the thickness of the AAO membranes. We found that the thickness of produced AAO films increased linearly with anodization time in sulfuric acid. In addition, the growth rate was higher for AAO anodized using higher voltages. The thin film interference formulism was further validated with a well established layer by layer deposition technique. Coating poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) layer by layer on AAO thin film consistently shifted its surface color toward red due to the increase in thickness. The red shift of UV-vis reflectance was correlated quantitatively to the number of layers been assembled. This sensitive red shift due to molecular attachment (increase in thickness) on AAO substrate was applied toward nitroaromatics detection. Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS) which can be attached onto AAO nanowells covalently through silanization and attract TNT molecules was coated and applied for TNT detection. UV-vis spectra of AAO with APTS shifted to the longer wavelength side due to

  9. Sol-gel deposition and plasma treatment of intrinsic, aluminum-doped, and gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films as transparent conductive electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaozhao; Mankowski, Trent; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine A.; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charles M.

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide and aluminum/gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited via sol-gel spin-coating technique. Employing plasma treatment as alternative to post thermal annealing, we found that the morphologies of these thin films have changed and the sheet resistances have been significantly enhanced. These plasma-treated thin films also show very good optical properties, with transmittance above 90% averaged over the visible wavelength range. Our best aluminum/gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films exhibit sheet resistances (Rs) of ~ 200 Ω/sq and ~ 150 Ω/sq, respectively.

  10. Nanopore formation on the surface oxide of commercially pure titanium grade 4 using a pulsed anodization method in sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Williamson, R S; Disegi, J; Griggs, J A; Roach, M D

    2013-10-01

    Titanium and its alloys form a thin amorphous protective surface oxide when exposed to an oxygen environment. The properties of this oxide layer are thought to be responsible for titanium and its alloys biocompatibility, chemical inertness, and corrosion resistance. Surface oxide crystallinity and pore size are regarded to be two of the more important properties in establishing successful osseointegration. Anodization is an electrochemical method of surface modification used for colorization marking and improved bioactivity on orthopedic and dental titanium implants. Research on titanium anodization using sulphuric acid has been reported in the literature as being primarily conducted in molarity levels 3 M and less using either galvanostatic or potentiostatic methods. A wide range of pore diameters ranging from a few nanometers up to 10 μm have been shown to form in sulfuric acid electrolytes using the potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods. Nano sized pores have been shown to be beneficial for bone cell attachment and proliferation. The purpose of the present research was to investigate oxide crystallinity and pore formation during titanium anodization using a pulsed DC waveform in a series of sulfuric acid electrolytes ranging from 0.5 to 12 M. Anodizing titanium in increasing sulfuric acid molarities showed a trend of increasing transformations of the amorphous natural forming oxide to the crystalline phases of anatase and rutile. The pulsed DC waveform was shown to produce pores with a size range from ≤0.01 to 1 μm(2). The pore size distributions produced may be beneficial for bone cell attachment and proliferation. PMID:23807314

  11. Multichannel detection of ionic currents through two nanopores fabricated on integrated Si3N4 membranes.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Itaru; Akahori, Rena; Aoki, Mayu; Harada, Kunio; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-16

    Integration of solid-state nanopores and multichannel detection of signals from each nanopore are effective measures for realizing high-throughput nanopore sensors. In the present study, we demonstrated fabrication of Si3N4 membrane arrays and the simultaneous measurement of ionic currents through two nanopores formed in two adjacent membranes. Membranes with thicknesses as low as 6.4 nm and small nanopores with diameters of less than 2 nm could be fabricated using the poly-Si sacrificial-layer process and multilevel pulse-voltage injection. Using the fabricated nanopore membranes, we successfully achieved simultaneous detection of clear ionic-current blockades when single-stranded short homopolymers (poly(dA)60) passed through two nanopores. In addition, we investigated the signal crosstalk and leakage current among separated chambers. When two nanopores were isolated on the front surface of the membrane, there was no signal crosstalk or leakage current between the chambers. However, when two nanopores were isolated on the backside of the Si substrate, signal crosstalk and leakage current were observed owing to high-capacitance coupling between the chambers and electrolysis of water on the surface of the Si substrate. The signal crosstalk and leakage current could be suppressed by oxidizing the exposed Si surface in the membrane chip. Finally, the observed ionic-current blockade when poly(dA)60 passed through the nanopore in the oxidized chip was approximately half of that observed in the non-oxidized chip. PMID:27440476

  12. Comparison of the kinetic laws of the dissolution of bauxite and aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides in hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Kozlov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of the temperature and concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution on the dissolution kinetics of aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides and a natural sample of aluminum-containing raw materials, bauxite, is studied. The rate W of the transition of iron(III) ions from bauxite is higher than the rate of aluminum ion transition. The dependence of the fraction of a dissolved solid phase on time τ of dissolution of the oxides and hydroxides is determined, α = 1 — exp(- Asinh( Wτ)). The solubility of iron(III) chloride increases and that of aluminum chloride decreases as the HCl concentration increases. An empirical equation is proposed for the description of the dependence of the process rate on a series of parameters,.

  13. Structural, Optical, and Dielectric Properties of Aluminum Oxide Nanofibers Synthesized by a Lower-Temperature Sol-Gel Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Saira; Sajid-ur-Rehman; Abutalib, Mymona; Naseem, Shahzad

    2016-07-01

    Alumina (Al2O3) is the most versatile and important ceramic material, having applications in various fields including electronic devices. It is stable at high temperatures and is chemically inert. The sol-gel method, a relatively lower-temperature technique, has been used to synthesize aluminum oxide nanofibers. The molarity of the sol concentration was varied as 0.7 M, 0.8 M, 0.9 M, 1.0 M, and 1.1 M. The structural, optical, and dielectric properties of the as-synthesized nanofibers were characterized. x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results confirmed formation of α-Al2O3 phase of aluminum oxide, notably without any heat treatment or use of water as solvent. The crystallite size and unit cell volume of the nanofibers increased as the sol concentration was increased to 0.9 M, but further increase in sol concentration resulted in reduction of crystallite size and increase in dislocations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed uniform distribution of nanofibers (˜25 nm to 30 nm) under all conditions. Nanofibers prepared using sol concentration of 0.9 M showed high transmission (˜89%) in the visible and infrared regions. The energy bandgap varied from 3.69 eV to 4.1 eV with the variation in molar concentration. Lower bandgap correlated with defect-induced states in the bandgap. The high refractive index is indicative of high density of aluminum oxide nanofibers. High grain-boundary resistance (1.455 MΩ) and high dielectric constant (˜15.76) along with low tangent loss were observed at molar concentration of 0.9 M.

  14. Nanoporous materials for reducing the over potential of creating hydrogen by water electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2016-06-14

    Disclosed is an electrolyzer including an electrode including a nanoporous oxide-coated conducting material. Also disclosed is a method of producing a gas through electrolysis by contacting an aqueous solution with an electrode connected to an electrical power source, wherein the electrode includes a nanoporous oxide-coated conducting material.

  15. Hybrid aluminum and indium conducting filaments for nonpolar resistive switching of Al/AlOx/indium tin oxide flexible device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang; Wang, Jer-Chyi; Zhang, Zhigang; Ye, Yu-Ren; Pan, Liyang; Xu, Jun; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-02-01

    The nonpolar resistive switching characteristics of an Al/AlOx/indium tin oxide (ITO) device on a plastic flexible substrate are investigated. By analyzing the electron diffraction spectroscopy results and thermal coefficient of resistivity, it is discovered that the formation of aluminum and indium conducting filaments in AlOx film strongly depends on the polarity of the applied voltage. The metal ions arising from the Al and ITO electrodes respectively govern the resistive switching in corresponding operation polarity. After 104 times of mechanical bending, the device can perform satisfactorily in terms of resistance distribution, read sequence of high and low resistive states, and thermal retention properties.

  16. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-26

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the β-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600 K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25 % selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride. PMID:26361086

  17. Ion beam fabrication of aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer for high-performance liquid crystals alignment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lee, Ju Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, a 1.8 keV ion beam (IB) sputtered thin layer of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with columnar AZO bumps covering the surface working as an alignment layer for the homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals (LC) is investigated. Bumpy AZO alignment layers in twisted nematic (TN) cells generated larger LC pre-tilt angles and thus enabled accelerated switching of LC, and the highly conductive bumpy AZO thin layers allowed super-fast release of accumulated charges, and led to low residual DC performance. These results indicate the promising applications of AZO bumps layer as alignment layer in LC devices. PMID:27464189

  18. Multi-electrolyte-step anodic aluminum oxide method for the fabrication of self-organized nanochannel arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanochannel arrays were fabricated by the self-organized multi-electrolyte-step anodic aluminum oxide [AAO] method in this study. The anodization conditions used in the multi-electrolyte-step AAO method included a phosphoric acid solution as the electrolyte and an applied high voltage. There was a change in the phosphoric acid by the oxalic acid solution as the electrolyte and the applied low voltage. This method was used to produce self-organized nanochannel arrays with good regularity and circularity, meaning less power loss and processing time than with the multi-step AAO method. PMID:22333268

  19. Fabrication and applications of nanocomposite structures using anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gapin, Andrew Isaac

    As the field of nanotechnology continues to advance and device feature sizes scale down to ever smaller dimensions, it is becoming increasingly important to develop quick and efficient methods for large-scale production at the nanoscale. Creating such a template would have widespread uses in areas such as magnetic data storage, chemical sensors, and mask technology. One promising approach to realizing this goal may lie in utilizing the self-ordering behavior found in porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO). This material offers many advantages such as the ability to customize the pore diameter and spacing and easy device integration based on its compatibility with silicon substrates. The pores of the AAO templates can be filled with many different materials via electrochemical deposition or other methods to produce numerous potential devices. In this work, current research results detailing the fabrication of AAO templates and their use in creating ˜100 nm tall CoPt, Ni, and composite Ni/CoPt nanowires is demonstrated. The synthesis of such nanostructures may ultimately be advantageous for new types of patterned magnetic recording media. The Ni nanowires exhibit relatively soft magnetic coercivity of 242 Oe, while the CoPt nanowires show a very high coercivity of at least 10.97 kOe, measured in the perpendicular direction along the nanowires axis. The composite soft magnet/hard magnet Ni/CoPt nanowires exhibit intermediate perpendicular coercivities depending on the relative amounts of Ni and CoPt. The Ni 80nm/CoPt20nm nanowires showed a coercivity of 1.96 kOe, the Ni50nm/CoPt50nm nanowires had a coercivity of 3.59 kOe, and the Ni20nm/CoPt80nm nanowires had a coercivity of 5.10 kOe. This marked decrease in the coercivity is significant because it could facilitate easier magnetic data writing. Analysis of the magnetic properties of the various nanowire structures and their dependence on the processing parameters is presented. A method for utilizing the AAO structure

  20. Modeling the Normal Spectral Emissivity of Aluminum 1060 at 800-910 K During the Growth of Oxide Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Deheng; Zou, Fenghui; Zhu, Zunlue; Sun, Jinfeng

    2015-04-01

    This work strives to model the normal spectral emissivity of aluminum 1060 during the growth of oxide layer in air over the temperatures ranging from 800 to 910 K. For this reason, the normal spectral emissivity of aluminum 1060 has been measured over a 6 h heating period at a definite temperature. In our experiment, the radiance coming from the specimen is received by an InGaAs photodiode detector, which works at 1.5 μm with the bandwidth of 20 nm. The temperature of specimen surface is measured by averaging the two platinum-rhodium thermocouples, which are symmetrically welded in the front surface of specimen near the measuring area viewed by the detector. The strong oscillations of normal spectral emissivity have been observed and discussed, which are affirmed to be connected with the thickness of oxide layer on the specimen surface, and originate from the interference effect between the radiation coming from the oxide layer on the specimen surface and the radiation stemming from the substrate. The uncertainty of normal spectral emissivity contributed only by the surface oxidization is about 4.6-10.6%, and the corresponding uncertainty of temperature contributed only by the surface oxidization is about 3.5-8.4 K. The analytical model between the normal spectral emissivity and the heating time is evaluated at a definite temperature. A simple functional form with the exponential and logarithmic functions can be employed to reproduce well the variation of normal spectral emissivity with the heating time at a definite temperature, including the reproduction of strong oscillations.

  1. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  2. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  3. Influence of wet etching time cycles on morphology features of thin porous Anodic Aluminum oxide (AAO) template for nanostructure's synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the influence of chemical wet etching time cycles on the morphological features of thin porous AAO template. Pore widening via wet-etching treatment at room temperature was found to modify the pore quality of AAO template and reduces the barrier layer on the bottom of AAO pore array in order to facilitate uniform electrodeposition of nanostructures onto AAO template. High quality AAO pore arrays with different mean pore diameters (64, 70, and 87 nm) were prepared under controllable pore-widening time cycles of 10, 30 and 45 min at room temperature, respectively. The AAO templates and the produced Cu nanorods were characterized using FESEM, EDX, XRD and AFM. The results indicate that the morphology of the aligned arrays of Cu nanorods is strongly affected by the duration of etching and the removal of AAO template. This study showed that the optimum etching duration required to maintain the aligned nanorods without any fracture is approximately 5 min. In addition, the regular hemispherical concave Al surface ensuring the self-ordering of AAO pore can be established when striping is employed for 45 min. Thus, it can be inferred that the duration of wet etching treatment (striping) of Al oxide film performed after the first-step anodization plays a vital role in the final arrangement of nanopores.

  4. Cerium oxide coated anodes for aluminum electrowinning: Topical report, October 1, 1986-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J. K.

    1987-12-01

    Because of the cost of building and maintaining a carbon anode plant and the energy penalties associated with the use of carbon anodes in the production of aluminum, the use of inert anodes has long been proposed. Various cermet anodes have been investigated. In this paper, tests on a material, cerium oxyfluoride (CEROX), deposited in situ as an anode, are reported. (JDH)

  5. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles attenuate the TSLP levels via suppressing caspase-1 in activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NPs) are used as antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and to treat cancer. However, although ZO-NPs have excellent efficiency and specificity, their cytotoxicity is higher than that of micron-sized zinc oxide. Doping ZO-NPs with aluminum can improve therapeutic efficacy, but the biological effects and mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here, we reported the efficacy of aluminum-doped ZO-NP (AZO) on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) production and caspase-1 activation in human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. AZO significantly reduced TSLP levels as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α without inducing cytotoxicity. Furthermore, AZO more effectively reduced TSLP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels than ZO-NP. The levels of inflammatory cytokine mRNA were also reduced by AZO treatment. AZO blocked production of IL-1β and activations of caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB by inhibiting IκB kinase β and receptor interacting protein 2. In addition, AZO attenuated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and p38. These findings provide evidence that AZO improves anti-inflammatory properties and offer a safe and effective potential treatment option. PMID:26825457

  6. Interfacial interactions of poly(ether ketone ketone) polymer coatings onto oxide-free phosphate films on an aluminum surface

    SciTech Connect

    Asunskis, A. L.; Sherwood, P. M. A.

    2007-07-15

    This article continues a series of papers that shows how thin (10 nm or less) oxide-free phosphate films can be formed on a number of metals. The films formed have potential as corrosion resistant films. Previous papers have shown that it is possible to extend the range of the surface coatings that can be formed by placing a thin polymer layer over the phosphate layer. In this work it is shown how the water insoluble polymer poly(ether ketone ketone) (PEKK) can be placed over a thin oxide-free phosphate film on aluminum metal. The surface and the interfaces involved were studied by valence band and core level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Difference spectra in the valence band region were used to show that there is a chemical interaction between the PEKK and phosphate thin films on the aluminum metal. Three different phosphate film compositions were studied using different phosphorous containing acids, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}PO{sub 2}. This type of interaction illustrates the potential of phosphates to act as adhesion promoters. The valence band spectra are interpreted by calculations.

  7. Pro-oxidant activity of aluminum: promoting the Fenton reaction by reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Ruipérez, F; Mujika, J I; Ugalde, J M; Exley, C; Lopez, X

    2012-12-01

    The possibility for an Al-superoxide complex to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), promoting oxidative damage through the Fenton reaction, is investigated using highly accurate ab initio methods and density functional theory in conjunction with solvation continuum methods to simulate bulk solvent effects. It is found that the redox reaction between Al-superoxide and Fe(III) to produce Fe(II) is exothermic. Moreover, the loss of an electron from the superoxide radical ion in the Al-superoxide complex leads to a spontaneous dissociation of molecular oxygen from aluminum, recovering therefore an Al(3+) hexahydrated complex. As demonstrated in previous studies, this complex is again prone to stabilize another superoxide molecule, suggesting a catalytic cycle that augments the concentration of Fe(II) in the presence of Al(III). Similar results are found for Al(OH)(2+) and Al(OH)(2)(+) hydrolytic species. Our work reinforces the idea that the presence of aluminum in biological systems could lead to an important pro-oxidant activity through a superoxide formation mechanism. PMID:23085591

  8. Flame treatment of graphene oxides: cost-effective production of nanoporous graphene electrode for Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yan; Fu, Xiu-Yan; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chun-Dong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    A facile production of highly porous graphene foam by using flame treatment of graphene oxide (GO) is proposed. Highly porous architectures with randomly distributed micro-crack and micro-slit were produced due to the high temperature induced ruinous reduction and rapid expansion of GO. Synchronously, abundant oxygen-containing groups (OCGs) on GO sheets could be effectively removed after flame treatment, which renders significantly increased conductivity to the resultant flame reduced GO (FR-GO). The synergistic effect of micro/nanostructuring and the OCGs removal makes FR-GO a promising candidate for electrode materials. Compared with chemically reduced GO (CR-GO), FR-GO delivers much higher specific capacity. It gives us some hints that flame treatment of graphene-based material is a smart strategy for cost-effective production of anode materials for commercial application.

  9. Flame treatment of graphene oxides: cost-effective production of nanoporous graphene electrode for Lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yan; Fu, Xiu-Yan; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chun-Dong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A facile production of highly porous graphene foam by using flame treatment of graphene oxide (GO) is proposed. Highly porous architectures with randomly distributed micro-crack and micro-slit were produced due to the high temperature induced ruinous reduction and rapid expansion of GO. Synchronously, abundant oxygen-containing groups (OCGs) on GO sheets could be effectively removed after flame treatment, which renders significantly increased conductivity to the resultant flame reduced GO (FR-GO). The synergistic effect of micro/nanostructuring and the OCGs removal makes FR-GO a promising candidate for electrode materials. Compared with chemically reduced GO (CR-GO), FR-GO delivers much higher specific capacity. It gives us some hints that flame treatment of graphene-based material is a smart strategy for cost-effective production of anode materials for commercial application. PMID:26659254

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-doped nanoporous solgel fiber as a humidity sensor with enhanced sensitivity and large linear dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2013-08-01

    An all-optical humidity sensor based on direct and exhaustive guided-mode attenuation in an in-house developed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle-immobilized bare solgel fiber is reported. The main objective of the present work is to enhance the sensitivity considerably while realizing a throughout linear response over a wide dynamic range. The developed sensor is characterized and performance characteristics of the sensor are compared with an optical fiber humidity sensor employing an evanescent wave absorption scheme in a straight and uniform probe, with ZnO nanoparticles-immobilized solgel film as humidity sensing cladding. Sensor response is observed to be linear over a wide dynamic range of 5%-95% relative humidity (RH). The observed linear sensitivity is 0.0103/% RH, which is ~9 times higher than the sensor employing the evanescent wave absorption scheme. In addition, sensor response is observed to be very fast, highly reversible, and repeatable. PMID:23913070

  11. Flame treatment of graphene oxides: cost-effective production of nanoporous graphene electrode for Lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yan; Fu, Xiu-Yan; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chun-Dong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A facile production of highly porous graphene foam by using flame treatment of graphene oxide (GO) is proposed. Highly porous architectures with randomly distributed micro-crack and micro-slit were produced due to the high temperature induced ruinous reduction and rapid expansion of GO. Synchronously, abundant oxygen-containing groups (OCGs) on GO sheets could be effectively removed after flame treatment, which renders significantly increased conductivity to the resultant flame reduced GO (FR-GO). The synergistic effect of micro/nanostructuring and the OCGs removal makes FR-GO a promising candidate for electrode materials. Compared with chemically reduced GO (CR-GO), FR-GO delivers much higher specific capacity. It gives us some hints that flame treatment of graphene-based material is a smart strategy for cost-effective production of anode materials for commercial application. PMID:26659254

  12. Secondary-ion emission from clean and oxidized aluminum as a function of incident ion mass and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauner, Patricia G.; Weller, Robert A.

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of the intensities of low-energy secondary ions emitted from clean and oxidized polycrystalline aluminum surfaces under (15-275)-KeV He+, Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, and Xe+ bombardment are reported. An additional measurement of the secondary-ion mass spectrum obtained from a clean Al surface under 40-MeV Br5+ bombardment is also presented. By varying both the beam energy and mass over such a large range, we have been able to identify three distinct categories of secondary ions. The first category includes the metallic-ion species emitted from the oxide surface. The intensities of these ions are observed to be proportional to the sputtering yield of aluminum, indicating that they are produced by means which are consistent with several of the mechanisms already proposed to explain oxygen-enhanced secondary-ion emission from metals. The second category includes both singly and multiply charged Al ions from the clean surface as well as multiply charged ions from the oxide surface. Under high-energy bombardment, these ions all appear to be produced by the kinetic mechanism which has been proposed to explain multiply charged ion emission from Al under lower-energy bombardment. The third category of secondary ions identified includes only O+ emitted from the oxide surface. This species, although usually a small component of the spectrum, is produced by means wholly unrelated to elastic energy deposition. Its production cannot be explained by any of the proposed models of metallic secondary-ion emission. The possibility that O+ is produced by a mechanism similar to that of electron-stimulated desorption is discussed.

  13. Secondary-ion emission from clean and oxidized aluminum as a function of incident ion mass and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Blauner, P.G.; Weller, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of the intensities of low-energy secondary ions emitted from clean and oxidized polycrystalline aluminum surfaces under (15--275)-KeV He/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ bombardment are reported. An additional measurement of the secondary-ion mass spectrum obtained from a clean Al surface under 40-MeV Br/sup 5+/ bombardment is also presented. By varying both the beam energy and mass over such a large range, we have been able to identify three distinct categories of secondary ions. The first category includes the metallic-ion species emitted from the oxide surface. The intensities of these ions are observed to be proportional to the sputtering yield of aluminum, indicating that they are produced by means which are consistent with several of the mechanisms already proposed to explain oxygen-enhanced secondary-ion emission from metals. The second category includes both singly and multiply charged Al ions from the clean surface as well as multiply charged ions from the oxide surface. Under high-energy bombardment, these ions all appear to be produced by the kinetic mechanism which has been proposed to explain multiply charged ion emission from Al under lower-energy bombardment. The third category of secondary ions identified includes only O/sup +/ emitted from the oxide surface. This species, although usually a small component of the spectrum, is produced by means wholly unrelated to elastic energy deposition. Its production cannot be explained by any of the proposed models of metallic secondary-ion emission. The possibility that O/sup +/ is produced by a mechanism similar to that of electron-stimulated desorption is discussed.

  14. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden

    2015-06-08

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  15. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  16. Polarization-dependent fluorescence of proteins bound to nanopore-confined lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-Q.; Marek, A.; Smirnov, Alex I.; Grebel, H.

    2008-09-01

    Lipid bilayers are essential structural component of biological membranes of all the living species: from viruses and bacteria to plants and humans. Biophysical and biochemical properties of such membranes are important for understanding physical mechanisms responsible for drug targeting. Binding events between proteins and the membrane may be ascertained by introducing fluorescence markers (chromophores) to the proteins. Here we describe a novel biosensing platform designed to enhance signals of these fluorescence markers. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes with and without gold (Au) surface coating have been employed for optical detection of bound conjugated streptavidin to biotinylated lipid bilayers-a model system that mimics protein docking to the membrane surface. Unexpectedly, it was found that fluorescence signals from such structures vary when pumped with E-polarized and H-polarized incident optical beams. The origin of the observed polarization-dependent effects and the implications for enhanced fluorescence detection in a biochip format are being discussed.

  17. Free-standing alumina nanobottles and nanotubes pre-integrated into nanoporous alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jinghua; Levchenko, Igor; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-08-01

    A novel interfacial structure consisting of long (up to 5 μm), thin (about 300 nm), highly-ordered, free-standing, highly-reproducible aluminum oxide nanobottles and long tubular nanocapsules attached to a rigid, thin (less than 1 μm) nanoporous anodic alumina membrane is fabricated by simple, fast, catalyst-free, environmentally friendly voltage-pulse anodization. A growth mechanism is proposed based on the formation of straight channels in alumina membrane by anodization, followed by neck formation due to a sophisticated voltage control during the process. This process can be used for the fabrication of alumina nanocontainers with highly controllable geometrical size and volume, vitally important for various applications such as material and energy storage, targeted drug and diagnostic agent delivery, controlled drug and active agent release, gene and biomolecule reservoirs, micro-biologically protected platforms, nano-bioreactors, tissue engineering and hydrogen storage.

  18. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flumerfelt, Joel Fredrick

    In recent years, the aluminum powder industry has expanded into non-aerospace applications. However, the alumina and aluminum hydroxide in the surface oxide film on aluminum powder require high cost powder processing routes. A driving force for this research is to broaden the knowledge base about aluminum powder metallurgy to provide ideas for fabricating low cost aluminum powder components. The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization commercial inert gas atomization and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). The commercial atomization methods are bench marks of current aluminum powder technology. The GARS process is a laboratory scale inert gas atomization facility. A benefit of using pure aluminum powders is an unambiguous interpretation of the results without considering the effects of alloy elements. A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a

  19. 3-D simulation of nanopore structure for DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Mo; Pak, Y Eugene; Chun, Honggu; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for simulating nanopore structure by using conventional 3-D simulation tool to mimic the I-V behavior of the nanopore structure. In the simulation, we use lightly doped silicon for ionic solution where some parameters like electron affinity and dielectric constant are fitted to consider the ionic solution. By using this method, we can simulate the I-V behavior of nanopore structure depending on the location and the size of the sphere shaped silicon oxide which is considered to be an indicator of a DNA base. In addition, we simulate an Ionic Field Effect Transistor (IFET) which has basically the nanopore structure, and show that the simulated curves follow sufficiently the I-V behavior of the measurement data. Therefore, we think it is reasonable to apply parameter modeling mentioned above to simulate nanopore structure. The key idea is to modify electron affinity of silicon which is used to mimic the KCl solution to avoid band bending and depletion inside the nanopore. We could efficiently utilize conventional 3-D simulation tool to simulate the I-V behavior of nanopore structures. PMID:22966538

  20. Oxidative Addition of Disulfides, Alkyl Sulfides, and Diphosphides to an Aluminum(I) Center.

    PubMed

    Chu, Terry; Boyko, Yaroslav; Korobkov, Ilia; Kuzmina, Lyudmila G; Howard, Judith A K; Nikonov, Georgii I

    2016-09-01

    The aluminum(I) compound NacNacAl (1) reacts with diphenyl disulfide and diethyl sulfide to form the respective four-coordinate bis(phenyl sulfide) complex NacNacAl(SPh)2 (2) and alkyl thiolate aluminum complex NacNacAlEt(SEt) (3). As well, reaction of 1 with tetraphenyl diphosphine furnishes the bis(diphenyl phosphido) complex NacNacAl(PPh2)2 (4). Production of 3 and 4 are the first examples of C(sp(3))-S and R2P-PR2 activation by a main-group element complex. All three complexes were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure analysis. Furthermore, a variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic study was undertaken on 4 to study its dynamic behavior in solution. PMID:27529564