Sample records for nanos tall strategies

  1. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. Scope This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. Conclusions This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose–response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender or thick axial organs. PMID:22437663

  2. How Tall is Tall? Questions Section 3.2

    E-print Network

    Science Topic Outreach posters STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters Name Grade/Class # Name? #12;How Tall is Tall? Questions · Section 3.2 STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters Name? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ How Tall is Tall? Questions · Section 3.2 STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters #12;How Tall

  3. Evaluating tall children.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, A. K.; Robson, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    The causes of tall stature are numerous; genetic tall stature and constitutional tall stature are the most common. Diagnosis can usually be established from the history and physical examination. An estimation of bone age can help to confirm diagnosis and to determine the child's growth potential. No treatment is usually necessary. Hormonal therapy can be considered for individuals for whom the predicted height is excessive if the psychosocial and medical advantages outweigh the risks of treatment. Images p462-a PMID:7773029

  4. New Approaches to Target T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Roti, Giovanni; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. Although it is now curable in 80–90% of cases, patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) experience a higher frequency of induction failure and early relapse. Despite aggressive treatment approaches, including transplantation and new salvage regimens, most children with relapsed T-ALL will not be cured. As such, we are in need of new targeted therapies for the disease. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of T-ALL have uncovered a number of new therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent advancements in the study of inhibiting the NOTCH1, PI3K–AKT, and Cyclin D3:CDK4/6 pathways as therapeutic strategies for T-ALL. We will focus on pre-clinical studies supporting the testing of small-molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins and the rationale of combination therapies. Moreover, epigenetic approaches to modulate T-ALL are rapidly emerging. Here, we will discuss the data supporting the role of bromodomain and extra-terminal bromodomain inhibitors in human T-ALL. PMID:25072021

  5. Development of a bio-analytical strategy for characterization of vaccine particles combining SEC and nanoES GEMMA

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Marlene; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Friedbacher, Gernot; Messner, Paul; Winkler, Wolfgang; Perez-Burgos, Laura; Tauer, Christa; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used methods for size and shape analysis of bionanoparticles found in vaccines like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy are very time-consuming and cost-intensive. The nano-electrospray (nanoES) gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analyzer (GEMMA), belonging to the group of ion mobility spectrometers, was used for size determination of vaccine virus particles because it requires less analysis time and investment (no vacuum system). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of viral vaccines and production intermediates turned out to be a good purification/isolation method prior to GEMMA, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy) investigations, as well as providing a GEMMA analysis-compatible buffer. Column materials and different elution buffers were tested for optimal vaccine particle yield. We used a Superdex 200 column with a 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer. In addition, SEC allowed the removal of process-related impurities from the virions of interest. A sample concentrating step or a detergent addition step was also investigated. As a final step of our strategy SEC-purified or untreated vaccine-nanoparticles were further analyzed: (a) by immunological detection with a specific polyclonal antibody (dot blot) to verify the biological functionality, (b) by GEMMA to provide the size of the particles at atmospheric pressure and (c) by AFM and (d) TEM to obtain both size and shape information. The mean diameter of inactivated tick-borne encephalitis virions (i.e. vaccine particles) determined by GEMMA measurement was 46.6 ± 0.5 nm, in contrast to AFM and TEM images providing diameters of about 58 ± 4 and 52 ± 5 nm, respectively. PMID:24473104

  6. Nano-Structured Sorbent Injection Strategies for Heavy Metal Capture in Combustion Exhausts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achariya Suriyawong; Xu Chen; Pratim Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Nano-structured sorbent injection is a promising technique for heavy metal capture in combustion systems. The importance of sorbent injection strategies, including the form of the sorbent and its injection location for metal capture and removal is investigated in this study. A multi-component tri-modal aerosol dynamic model was employed to understand the evolution of heavy metals and sorbents, as well as

  7. Experimental tall fescue population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to determine the stress tolerance, seed productivity and forage productivity of an endophyte free (non toxic), experimental tall fescue population generated by a gamete selection approach. This approach has successfully been applied in breeding of other crop specie...

  8. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant cool-season perennial grass in the United States. It is widely used for both forage and turf purposes. This chapter describes a protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calli induced from caryopsis are used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain used is EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker, and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Calli resistant to hygromycin are obtained after 4-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown tall fescue plants can be regenerated 4-5 months after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PMID:25416272

  9. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No....

  10. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No....

  11. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No....

  12. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No....

  14. An Experimental Tall Fescue Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is one of the worlds most productive and highly utilized grass forages. A novel, experimental breeding approach utilizing a gamete selection method has been applied to selected breeding stocks to determine if the development of a productive, highly stress tolerant population can be achi...

  15. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  16. Stack effect in tall buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lovatt, J.E.; Wilson, A.G. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd. Consulting Engineers, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Building Science Services

    1994-12-31

    Buoyancy forces due to the density difference between cold outdoor air and warm indoor air are known to cause problems in tall buildings in cold climates. Such problems as elevator doors that do not close and prevent the car from moving, unbalanced ventilation and exhaust airflows in vertical shafts, lobby entrance doors that are difficult to open in cold weather, and discomfort on lower floors due to large quantities of cold infiltrating air are usually a direct result of buoyancy forces acting on these elements of the building during cold weather. The ASHRAE Task Group on Tall Buildings commissioned Research Project 661, ``Field Verification of Problems Caused by Stack Effect in Tall Buildings,`` with the objectives of measuring the magnitude of specific problems related to stack effect in a tall building exposed to cold weather and testing the effect of modifications to the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system designed to reduce these problems. The measurements indicated that stack effect caused few observable problems in the specific building measured. Simulations showed that these problems were strongly dependent on the envelope air leakage area. Stack-induced pressures across fire exit doors in leaky tall buildings could exceed the limits for force required to open the doors. Maintaining an airtight envelope above the lobby level minimizes all the problems related to stack effect. Differential pressurization of floors to counteract stack effect was found to be inappropriate for the great majority of buildings. Airtight vestibules around entrance, elevator, and stairwell doors or automatic door openers can reduce door-opening problems due to high stack pressures where envelope leakage is difficult to address.

  17. MoMA: Tall Buildings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Museum of Modern Art's (MoMA) project, Tall Buildings, addresses issues of technology, urbanism, and program for twenty five buildings designed within the last decade. This interactive website, designed with Macromedia Flash Player, allows users to compare the height, area, geographic locations, and program distribution. Users can learn about many design issues such as aerodynamics, green technologies, and public space. For each building, visitors can find a clear introduction and many images of floor plans and external views.

  18. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  19. A new strategy for faster urinary biomarkers identification by Nano-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Benkali, K; Marquet, P; Rérolle, JP; Le Meur, Y; Gastinel, LN

    2008-01-01

    Background LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis is a potent tool in biomarkers discovery characterized by its high sensitivity and high throughput capacity. However, methods based on MALDI-TOF/TOF for biomarkers discovery still need optimization, in particular to reduce analysis time and to evaluate their reproducibility for peak intensities measurement. The aims of this methodological study were: (i) to optimize and critically evaluate each step of urine biomarker discovery method based on Nano-LC coupled off-line to MALDI-TOF/TOF, taking full advantage of the dual decoupling between Nano-LC, MS and MS/MS to reduce the overall analysis time; (ii) to evaluate the quantitative performance and reproducibility of nano-LC-MALDI analysis in biomarker discovery; and (iii) to evaluate the robustness of biomarkers selection. Results A pool of urine sample spiked at increasing concentrations with a mixture of standard peptides was used as a specimen for biological samples with or without biomarkers. Extraction and nano-LC-MS variabilities were estimated by analyzing in triplicates and hexaplicates, respectively. The stability of chromatographic fractions immobilised with MALDI matrix on MALDI plates was evaluated by successive MS acquisitions after different storage times at different temperatures. Low coefficient of variation (CV%: 10–22%) and high correlation (R2 > 0.96) values were obtained for the quantification of the spiked peptides, allowing quantification of these peptides in the low fentomole range, correct group discrimination and selection of "specific" markers using principal component analysis. Excellent peptide integrity and stable signal intensity were found when MALDI plates were stored for periods of up to 2 months at +4°C. This allowed storage of MALDI plates between LC separation and MS acquisition (first decoupling), and between MS and MSMS acquisitions while the selection of inter-group discriminative ions is done (second decoupling). Finally the recording of MSMS spectra to obtain structural information was focused only on discriminative ions in order to minimize analysis time. Conclusion Contrary to other classical approaches with direct online coupling of chromatographic separation and on the flight MS and/or MSMS data acquisition for all detected analytes, our dual decoupling strategy allowed us to focus on the most discriminative analytes, giving us more time to acquire more replicates of the same urine samples thus increasing detection sensitivity and mass precision. PMID:19014585

  20. Technological strategy for advanced micro- and nano-structured optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuta, Hisao

    2008-03-01

    A wide variety of micro and nano-structured optical elements have been developed. Among other things, optical elements with subwavelength structure surfaces are moving on the advanced stage for practical use. A camera lens with antireflective structured surface and an achromatic birefringent wave-plate have been fabricated by plastic molding process. Form-birefringent micro-reader array is used for a polarization imaging camera system. Recent research-and-developments on subwavelength structured optical elements are oriented to practical applications and process technologies for manufacturing. In this paper the current situation of the subwavelength structured optical elements have been summarized and subjects of developments are discussed from the viewpoint of practical applications.

  1. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  2. Tall Timbers Research Station: Research Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Tall Timbers Research Station works to foster land stewardship through its research, conservation, and education efforts. Located in Tallahassee, Florida, the Tall Timbers Station conducts research in the areas of Fire Ecology, Resource Management, Vertebrate Ecology, Forestry, and Northern Bobwhite Quail studies. The Station's website contains overviews of its five major research programs and offers information regarding research jobs and internships. Tall Timbers also provides downloadable copies of its _Research Notes_ publication, and lists a variety of staff publications (some of which are downloadable). In addition, Tall Timbers features the E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, January 6, 1999) which contains approximately 15,000 citations, and 6,000 abstracts.

  3. Medical intervention in a constitutionally tall child.

    PubMed

    Nasrat, Ghada H; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Constitutionally tall stature (CTS) in children is a normal variant of growth within populations. Based mainly on psychological factors, sex steroids have been prescribed since the 1950s to induce puberty, as a mean to reduce final adult height. Controversy remains in the treatment of CTS, as well as lack of established criteria for initiating treatment. We report a constitutionally tall Saudi boy who was treated with sex steroids and was successful in reducing his final adult height. PMID:23076690

  4. Micro/Nano gas sensors: a new strategy towards in-situ wafer-level fabrication of high-performance gas sensing chips.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Dai, Zhengfei; Duan, Guotao; Guo, Lianfeng; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yanxiang; Cai, Weiping; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structured gas sensing materials, in particular nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanowires, enable high sensitivity at a ppb level for gas sensors. For practical applications, it is highly desirable to be able to manufacture such gas sensors in batch and at low cost. We present here a strategy of in-situ wafer-level fabrication of the high-performance micro/nano gas sensing chips by naturally integrating microhotplatform (MHP) with nanopore array (NPA). By introducing colloidal crystal template, a wafer-level ordered homogenous SnO2 NPA is synthesized in-situ on a 4-inch MHP wafer, able to produce thousands of gas sensing units in one batch. The integration of micromachining process and nanofabrication process endues micro/nano gas sensing chips at low cost, high throughput, and with high sensitivity (down to ~20?ppb), fast response time (down to ~1?s), and low power consumption (down to ~30?mW). The proposed strategy of integrating MHP with NPA represents a versatile approach for in-situ wafer-level fabrication of high-performance micro/nano gas sensors for real industrial applications. PMID:26001035

  5. Developing Concrete Recycling Strategies by Utilization of Nano-SiO 2 Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hosseini; A. Booshehrian; A. Madari

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, applying sustainable development strategies in designation and production of various products has attracted specific\\u000a attention. In order to consider ecological sustainable development for a product, reducing its environmental impacts should\\u000a be observed. Concrete technology and its products are not exceptions, and therefore, the same has been a concern for concrete\\u000a industry. Alongside, concrete recycling is one of the measures

  6. Twisters, Tall Tales, and Science Teaching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dawn Renee Wilcox

    2006-07-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Your students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and scientific phenomena. Harness your students' creative engery with this lesson that incorporates tall tales into the classroom, and follows the 5-E model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) for incorporating constructivism into science teaching.

  7. Forage production and animal performance from Kenhy tall fescue 

    E-print Network

    Dorsett, D. J

    1976-01-01

    an annual ryegrass (Loli um multiflorum Lam. ) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ) cross. Since Kenhy tall fescue has not been evaluated in Texas, a study was conducted under local conditions to evaluate its perfor- mance. The objectives...

  8. Identification of dihaploids in tall fescue utilizing capillary electrophresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovations in tall fescue selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two products are generated. These are tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid lines resulting from a parthenogenic, chromosome doubli...

  9. Reconstructing Householder Vectors from Tall-Skinny Grey Ballard

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Reconstructing Householder Vectors from Tall-Skinny QR Grey Ballard James Demmel Laura Grigori;Reconstructing Householder Vectors from Tall-Skinny QR October 26, 2013 Grey Ballard1, James Demmel2, Laura 4Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA Abstract The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm

  10. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology UNIST, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulasn Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  11. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. = Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and before that, Festuca elatior L.) is a cool-season perennial grass that is well adapted in the upper transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropic...

  12. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  13. Electrochemical sensor based on electrodeposited graphene-Au modified electrode and nanoAu carrier amplified signal strategy for attomolar mercury detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Guang Ming; Tang, Lin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yuan; He, Xiao Xiao; He, Yan

    2015-01-20

    An electrochemical sensor was developed for attomolar Hg(2+) detection. Three single-stranded DNA probes were rationally designed for selective and sensitive detection of the target, which combined T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry and the characteristic of convenient modification of electrochemical signal indicator. Graphene and nanoAu were successively electrodeposited on a glass carbon electrode surface to improve the electrode conductivity and functionalize with the 10-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P1). NanoAu carriers functionalized with 29-mer guanine-rich DNA probe (P3) labeled methyl blue (MB-nanoAu-P 3s) were used to further strengthen signal response. In the presence of Hg(2+), a T-T mismatched dsDNA would occur between P1 and a 22-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P2) on the electrode surface due to T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. Followed by adding the MB-nanoAu-P 3s for hybridization with P2, square wave voltammetry was executed. Under optimal conditions, Hg(2+) could be detected in the range from 1.0 aM to 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.001 aM. Selectivity measurements reveal that the sensor is specific for Hg(2+) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. Three different environmental samples were analyzed by the sensor and the results were compared with that from an atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The developed sensor was demonstrated to achieve excellent detectability. It may be applied to development of ultrasensitive detection strategies. PMID:25440021

  14. NANO EXPRESS Open Access Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer-

    E-print Network

    Li, Teng

    NANO EXPRESS Open Access Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer- bridged carbon nanoscrolls nano-oscillators based on carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) using molecular dynamics simulations. Initiated of gigahertz. We demonstrate an effective strategy to reduce the dissipation of the CNS-based nano

  15. Urinary and biliary excretion of ergot alkaloids from steers that grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Stuedemann, J A; Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Fayrer-Hosken, R A; Hay, W P; Dawe, D L; Seman, D H; Martin, S A

    1998-08-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue. Little is known about the bioavailability of the ergot alkaloid classes (lysergic acid, lysergic acid amides, or ergopeptine alkaloids) in livestock, and this hampers development of pharmacological strategies to ameliorate the toxicosis. One method used to determine bioavailability of ergot alkaloids is to examine urinary and biliary excretion patterns. Thus, our objectives were to compare ergot alkaloid excretion via urinary or biliary systems and to determine the rate of appearance or clearance of these alkaloids in cattle that were grazing E+ or endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue. In autumn 1996, bile and urine samples were collected from eight steers (203 kg), each grazing E+ and E- tall fescue, and total alkaloid excretion was quantified using competitive ELISA. Approximately 96% of the ergot alkaloids were excreted in urine. The same steers were used to examine the rate of appearance in, or clearance from, urine when switched from E+ to E-, or from E- to E+, pastures in comparison with steers that were continuously grazing E+ or E- tall fescue at 0, 2, 5, and 7 d. Steers were returned to their original pastures after 7 d, and urine was collected at 2, 5, and 7 d. Urinary alkaloid concentrations in steers switched from E- to E+ pastures were similar (P = .55) to those in steers that continuously grazed E+ tall fescue after 2 d. Steers switched from E+ to E- pastures had urinary alkaloid concentrations similar (P = .91) to those in steers that continuously grazed E- pastures after 2 d. In 1997, two trials were conducted in which steers (191 kg) were switched or remained on E+ or E- pastures, and urine was collected at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h to estimate rate of alkaloid appearance or clearance. Steers switched from E- to E+ 1) had about 33% as much urinary alkaloids as steers grazing E+ pasture after 12 h, 2) were not different after 24 h (P = .76), 3) had twice those of the E+ steers at 48 h (P < .05), and 4) were not different after 96 h. Steers switched from E+ to E- tall fescue had approximately 33% less (P < .05) urinary alkaloids than those grazing E+ at 12 h, 67% less (P < .05) at 24 and 48 h, and were not different (P = .86) from steers continuously grazing E- pastures after 96 h. Urinary alkaloid excretion patterns were similar to ergot alkaloid solubility patterns from in vitro digestion of E+ tall fescue. We suggest that alkaloids, liberated from the forage by ruminal microorganisms, were rapidly absorbed as lysergic acid amides and biotransformed ergopeptine alkaloids. PMID:9734865

  16. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The inaugural issue of the journal of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, CTBUH Review, was released online in April 2003 and can be downloaded from the council's homepage. Several technical articles and an in-depth case study of a featured project, the IDX Tower in Seattle, comprise the 64 pages. Special attention is given to post-September 11 building design. The journal is scheduled to be published quarterly, but it is unclear whether future issues will remain available free online. Although it may take a while to download on slow connection, it is well worth the wait.

  17. Nematode suppression by endophyte-associated tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is planted as a forage and turf grass and a postplant ground cover for reducing soil erosion. It withstands drought and is resistant to various pests, including some plant-parasitic nematodes. The presence of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum can increase tall fescue grow...

  18. Principles of Nano-Optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lukas Novotny; Bert Hecht

    2006-01-01

    Nano-optics is the study of optical phenomena and techniques on the nanometer scale, that is, near or beyond the diffraction limit of light. It is an emerging field of study, motivated by the rapid advance of nanoscience and nanotechnology which require adequate tools and strategies for fabrication, manipulation and characterization at this scale. In Principles of Nano-Optics the authors provide

  19. New optimal design strategies and analysis of ultra-low leakage circuits for nano-scale SOI technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koushik K. Das; Rajiv V. Joshi; Ching-Te Chuang; Peter W. Cook; Richard B. Brown

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes new SOI circuit strategies for simultaneous reduction of standby gate and sub-threshold leakages. Various enhanced MTCMOS design alternatives are analyzed. A new method for assigning the VTH and sizes of header and footer transistors is proposed, and stacking of headers\\/footers is analyzed. The optimum stacking height and tapering\\/sizing ratio under various design constraints are determined. Our strategies

  20. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  1. Deformation of earth's surface caused loading of tall building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, P.; Mojzeš, M.; Va?ko, M.

    2010-06-01

    Tall buildings can cause deformations of the earth's crust for long distances from the area of their realization. Monitoring the deformation of tall big buildings from geodetic networks realised near the building can also have deformations from this point of view, and analysis of the measurements can result in false conclusions. The loading effect of the earth crust must be excluded from the measurement parameters. The paper presents a model computation of the loading effect produced by tall buildings constructed of simple geometric forms on the earth's crust.

  2. 7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left to right: elevator C, feed mill, pellet plant, elevator A. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children.

    PubMed

    Barstow, Craig; Rerucha, Caitlyn

    2015-07-01

    Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short and tall stature should include a history and physical examination, accurate serial measurements, and determination of growth velocity, midparental height, and bone age. Common normal variants of short stature are familial short stature, constitutional delay of growth and puberty, and idiopathic short stature. Pathologic causes of short stature include chronic diseases; growth hormone deficiency; and genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome. Tall stature has the same prevalence as short stature, but it is a much less common reason for referral to subspecialty care. Common causes of tall stature include familial tall stature, obesity, Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and precocious puberty. Although most children with short or tall stature have variants of normal growth, children who are more than three standard deviations from the mean for age are more likely to have underlying pathology. Evaluation for pathologic etiologies is guided by history and physical examination findings. PMID:26132126

  4. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  5. Carbon nanotubes: from nano test tube to nano-reactor.

    PubMed

    Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2011-12-27

    Confinement of molecules and atoms inside carbon nanotubes provides a powerful strategy for studying structures and chemical properties of individual molecules at the nanoscale. In this issue of ACS Nano, Allen et al. explore the nanotube as a template leading to the formation of unusual supramolecular and covalent structures. The potential of carbon nanotubes as reactors for synthesis on the nano- and macroscales is discussed in light of recent studies. PMID:22200191

  6. 75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...around each Tall Ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships Challenge...while they operate throughout the Great Lakes. The combination of large...

  7. Nano Waterproofing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-07-30

    This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

  8. Tall structure lightning induced by sprite-producing discharges.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, M. A. (Mark A.); Heavner, M. J. (Matthew J.)

    2003-01-01

    The large and rapid charge transfer of some +CGs can initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures while simultaneously initiating downward positive streamers below the base of the ionosphere in the form of sprites . Structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders, the presence of which is readily detected later if a dart leader propagates down the channel to ground, generating a -CG return stroke. Such tall structures can be repeatedly struck if, as often happens, sprite-producing +CGs repeatedly occur .

  9. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  10. QR Factorization of Tall and Skinny Matrices in a Grid Computing Environment

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 QR Factorization of Tall and Skinny Matrices in a Grid Computing Environment Emmanuel Agullo kernels ­ of tall and skinny matrices in a grid computing environment that overcomes these two bottlenecks

  11. LAPACK Working Note #224 QR Factorization of Tall and Skinny Matrices in a

    E-print Network

    Dongarra, Jack

    LAPACK Working Note #224 QR Factorization of Tall and Skinny Matrices in a Grid Computing factorization ­ one of the main dense linear algebra kernels ­ of tall and skinny matrices in a grid computing

  12. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  17. Chemical characterization of acidic components in a commercial depitching of crude tall oil 

    E-print Network

    Tsurumi, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Ed J. Soltes Tall oil, a mixture of resin acids, fatty acids, and neutral compounds, is a by-product obtained in the manufacture of wood pulp by the sulfate (kraft) process. Acids purified by fractional distillation are used in various... this depitching oper ation, crude tall oil (CTO ) is fractionated into tall oil distillate (TOD) and tall oil pitch (TOP ). Chemical separation procedures, using saponification-extraction, and anion-exchange resin (DEAE-Sephadex), provided consistent yields...

  18. Management of Cattle to Reduce Vulnerability to Heat Stress Following Grazing of Toxic Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is primarily utilized for cow-calf production because poor weight gain efficiency of calves exhibiting fescue toxicosis has prevented the wide use of tall fescue for stocker production. Most calves weaned on tall fescue pastures and not retained for herd replacement are typically sold ...

  19. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Keskin; Abdulkadir Ya?ar; Metin Gürü; Duran Alt?parmak

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the

  20. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY...Rhode Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. DATES: This rule is effective...Special Local Regulations: Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay,...

  1. Sampling the genetic diversity of tall fescue utilizing gamete selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamete Selection is a plant breeding selection methodology that has been traditionally shown to be effective in the development of a wide array of plant species. Widely utilized in corn, wheat, rye and legumes, a gamete selection approach has not been applied toward tall fescue germplasm developmen...

  2. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  3. Field measurements of typhoon effects on a super tall building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S. Li; Y. Q. Xiao; C. K. Wong; A. P. Jeary

    2004-01-01

    Di Wang Tower located in Shenzhen has a height of approximately 325 m and was the tallest building in Mainland China when it was built several years ago. The aspect ratio between the building’s height and transverse width is about 9, which has largely exceeded the criteria in the current design codes and standards in China. This super tall building

  4. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  5. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

  6. Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs. PMID:23885206

  7. LATE SEASON TOXIC ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS IN TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM SPP.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall larkspurs [Delphinium barbeyi, D. occidentale, D. glaucescens, D. glaucum] pose a serious poisoning threat to cattle on many summer ranges. Livestock producers often defer grazing until larkspur is mature, but specific information is lacking on toxic alkaloid concentrations in larkspur from th...

  8. Vascular activity increases with time off of tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle continue to recover from depressed vasoactivity (vasoconstriction) beyond 60 days after removal from endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture and after prolactin (an indicator of fescue toxicosis) had returned to physiologic levels. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of...

  9. Understanding Nano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.

  10. FHL1C induces apoptosis in notch1-dependent T-ALL cells through an interaction with RBP-J

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrantly activated Notch signaling has been found in more than 50% of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Current strategies that employ ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) to target Notch activation have not been successful. Many limitations, such as non-Notch specificity, dose-limiting gastrointestinal toxicity and GSI resistance, have prompted an urgent need for more effective Notch signaling inhibitors for T-ALL treatment. Human four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1C (FHL1C) (KyoT2 in mice) has been demonstrated to suppress Notch activation in vitro, suggesting that FHL1C may be new candidate target in T-ALL therapy. However, the role of FHL1C in T-ALL cells remained unclear. Methods Using RT-PCR, we amplified full-length human FHL1C, and constructed full-length and various truncated forms of FHL1C. Using cell transfection, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscope, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blotting, we found that overexpression of FHL1C induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. By using a reporter assay and Annexin-V staining, the minimal functional sequence of FHL1C inhibiting RBP-J-mediated Notch transactivation and inducing cell apoptosis was identified. Using real-time PCR and Western blotting, we explored the possible molecular mechanism of FHL1C-induced apoptosis. All data were statistically analyzed with the SPSS version 12.0 software. Results In Jurkat cells derived from a Notch1-associated T-ALL cell line insensitive to GSI treatment, we observed that overexpression of FHL1C, which is down-regulated in T-ALL patients, strongly induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that FHL1C-induced apoptosis depended on the RBP-J-binding motif at the C-terminus of FHL1C. Using various truncated forms of FHL1C, we found that the RBP-J-binding motif of FHL1C had almost the same effect as full-length FHL1C on the induction of apoptosis, suggesting that the minimal functional sequence in the RBP-J-binding motif of FHL1C might be a new drug candidate for T-ALL treatment. We also explored the molecular mechanism of FHL1C overexpression-induced apoptosis, which suppressed downstream target genes such as Hes1 and c-Myc and key signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT and NF-?B of Notch signaling involved in T-ALL progression. Conclusions Our study has revealed that FHL1C overexpression induces Jurkat cell apoptosis. This finding may provide new insights in designing new Notch inhibitors based on FHL1C to treat T-ALL. PMID:24952875

  11. Strategis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Strategis is a web site developed by Industry Canada to provide business information resources to Canadian businesses. Resources available include a searchable database of Canadian companies, business information for each sector, a list of business support services, and a guide to business laws and regulation. The International Business Information Network offers information about business opportunities abroad; Trade Data Online provides Canadian and US trade data. A collection of research publications by Industry Canada and monthly economic indicators on the economy are additional economic resources found at this site. Users can view this site in French or English.

  12. Tall tales from de Sitter space; 1, Renormalization group flows

    E-print Network

    Leblond, F; Myers, R C; Leblond, Frederic; Marolf, Donald; Myers, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    We study solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a positive cosmological constant and matter, which are asymptotically de Sitter and homogeneous. Regarded as perturbations of de Sitter space, a theorem of Gao and Wald implies that generically these solutions are `tall,' meaning that the perturbed universe lives through enough conformal time for an entire spherical Cauchy surface to enter any observer's past light cone. Such observers will realize that their universe is spatially compact. An interesting fact, which we demonstrate with an explicit example, is that this Cauchy surface can have arbitrarily large volume for fixed asymptotically de Sitter behavior. Our main focus is on the implications of tall universes for the proposed dS/CFT correspondence. Particular attention is given to the associated renormalization group flows, leading to a more general de Sitter `c-theorem.' We find, as expected, that a contracting phase always represents a flow towards the infrared, while an expanding phase represents a `...

  13. Computing tall skinny solutions of AX-XB=C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Brandts

    2003-01-01

    We will concentrate on the numerical computation of so-called tall and skinny solutions X of the Sylvester equations AX?XB=C. By this we mean that A is an n×n matrix with cheaply applicable action (A is for example sparse), and B a k×k matrix, with k?n. This type of Sylvester equation plays an important role in the computation of invariant subspaces

  14. Using micro to manipulate nano.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangyu; Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng; Jiang, Lei

    2014-01-29

    A "Micro to nano" dewetting strategy is presented to generate multi-direction-controlled, precise-positioning 1D assemblies of conductive silver (Ag) NPs based on a superhydrophobicity-directed assembly strategy. Electrons can transport along linear NP assemblies and their behavior is sustained by coating a coaxial protecting layer outside the nanostructures. This new concept might open new routes for NP-based nanoelectronic circuit fabrication. PMID:23922285

  15. Observations of simultaneous upward lightning leaders from multiple tall structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Tom A.

    2012-11-01

    We present high-speed camera observations (up to 7200 images per second) and correlated electric field measurements of upward lightning leaders initiated simultaneously from multiple tall towers. Four towers spanning a horizontal distance of 2.9 km and ranging in height from 121 to 191 m, developed upward leaders following a nearby positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) flash on 7/16/09 UT in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA during the summer thunderstorm season. The optical and electric field observations suggest that all four upward propagating leaders were positive polarity (i.e., upward negative lightning) and initiated simultaneously approximately 2 ms following the + CG return stroke. There was significant intracloud flash activity prior to the return stroke, and upward leader initiation coincided with the passage of horizontally extensive in-cloud negative breakdown following the + CG return stroke. This observation supports the idea that downward positive cloud-to-ground lightning can trigger upward negative lightning from multiple tall objects. Specifically, the triggering component is an area of horizontally propagating negative breakdown following the + CG return stroke that influences a broad area resulting in simultaneous or near-simultaneous, positive polarity upward leader initiation from multiple tall objects.

  16. Nano Letters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An electronic version of this journal from the American Chemical Society is available for free through June 30, 2001. Nano Letters is ACS's newest journal. It deals with "physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, processes and applications of structures within the nanoscale range."

  17. Alleviation of heat damage to photosystem II by nitric oxide in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chen, Liang; Fan, Jibiao; Fu, Jinmin

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to mediate plant responses to heat stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of NO in the recovery process of photosystem II (PSII) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) against heat stress. Treatment of tall fescue leaves with NO donor sodium nitroprusside significantly improved the overall behavior of PSII probed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, while the inhibition of NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO, a NO scavenger) plus N (G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) dramatically disrupted the operation of PSII. Specifically, under heat stress, the exogenous NO reduced the initial fluorescence (F 0), increased the maximal quantum yield (F V/F M), and disappeared the K-step of 0.3 ms. By the analysis of the JIP-test, the exogenous NO improved the quantum yield of the electron transport flux from Q A to Q B (ET0/ABS), and decreased the trapped excitation flux per reaction center (RC) (TR0/RC), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/RC), and electron flux reducing end electron acceptors per RC (RE0/RC). In addition, the exogenous NO reduced the content of H2O2, O 2 (•-) , and malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. These data suggest that exogenous NO could protect plants, increase the amount of activated RC and improve the electron transport from oxygen evolving complex to D1 protein. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, NO induced the gene expression of psbA, psbB, and psbC, which encode proteins belonging to subunits of PSII core reaction center (Psb) complex. These findings indicate that, as an important strategy to protect plants against heat stress, NO could improve the recovery process of PSII by the up regulation of the transcriptions of genes encoding PSII core proteins. PMID:23832593

  18. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

  19. Clinical and molecular characterization of early T-cell precursor leukemia: a high-risk subgroup in adult T-ALL with a high frequency of FLT3 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, M; Heesch, S; Gökbuget, N; Schwartz, S; Schlee, C; Benlasfer, O; Farhadi-Sartangi, N; Thibaut, J; Burmeister, T; Hoelzer, D; Hofmann, W-K; Thiel, E; Baldus, C D

    2012-01-01

    A subgroup of pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) was characterized by a gene expression profile comparable to that of early T-cell precursors (ETPs) with a highly unfavorable outcome. We have investigated clinical and molecular characteristics of the ETP-ALL subgroup in adult T-ALL. As ETP-ALL represents a subgroup of early T-ALL we particularly focused on this cohort and identified 178 adult patients enrolled in the German Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Multicenter studies (05/93–07/03). Of these, 32% (57/178) were classified as ETP-ALL based on their characteristic immunophenotype. The outcome of adults with ETP-ALL was poor with an overall survival of only 35% at 10 years, comparable to the inferior outcome of early T-ALL with 38%. The molecular characterization of adult ETP-ALL revealed distinct alterations with overexpression of stem cell-related genes (BAALC, IGFBP7, MN1, WT1). Interestingly, we found a low rate of NOTCH1 mutations and no FBXW7 mutations in adult ETP-ALL. In contrast, FLT3 mutations, rare in the overall cohort of T-ALL, were very frequent and nearly exclusively found in ETP-ALL characterized by a specific immunophenotype. These molecular characteristics provide biologic insights and implications with respect to innovative treatment strategies (for example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors) for this high-risk subgroup of adult ETP-ALL. PMID:22829239

  20. Clinical and molecular characterization of early T-cell precursor leukemia: a high-risk subgroup in adult T-ALL with a high frequency of FLT3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, M; Heesch, S; Gökbuget, N; Schwartz, S; Schlee, C; Benlasfer, O; Farhadi-Sartangi, N; Thibaut, J; Burmeister, T; Hoelzer, D; Hofmann, W-K; Thiel, E; Baldus, C D

    2012-01-01

    A subgroup of pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) was characterized by a gene expression profile comparable to that of early T-cell precursors (ETPs) with a highly unfavorable outcome. We have investigated clinical and molecular characteristics of the ETP-ALL subgroup in adult T-ALL. As ETP-ALL represents a subgroup of early T-ALL we particularly focused on this cohort and identified 178 adult patients enrolled in the German Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Multicenter studies (05/93-07/03). Of these, 32% (57/178) were classified as ETP-ALL based on their characteristic immunophenotype. The outcome of adults with ETP-ALL was poor with an overall survival of only 35% at 10 years, comparable to the inferior outcome of early T-ALL with 38%. The molecular characterization of adult ETP-ALL revealed distinct alterations with overexpression of stem cell-related genes (BAALC, IGFBP7, MN1, WT1). Interestingly, we found a low rate of NOTCH1 mutations and no FBXW7 mutations in adult ETP-ALL. In contrast, FLT3 mutations, rare in the overall cohort of T-ALL, were very frequent and nearly exclusively found in ETP-ALL characterized by a specific immunophenotype. These molecular characteristics provide biologic insights and implications with respect to innovative treatment strategies (for example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors) for this high-risk subgroup of adult ETP-ALL. PMID:22829239

  1. 33 CFR 165.T09-0073 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City...Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City...Tall Ships Challenge 2010 in the Great Lakes. This includes, but...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products...

  4. Tall tales from de Sitter space I: Renormalization group flows

    E-print Network

    Frederic Leblond; Donald Marolf; Robert C. Myers

    2002-04-09

    We study solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a positive cosmological constant and matter, which are asymptotically de Sitter and homogeneous. Regarded as perturbations of de Sitter space, a theorem of Gao and Wald implies that generically these solutions are `tall,' meaning that the perturbed universe lives through enough conformal time for an entire spherical Cauchy surface to enter any observer's past light cone. Such observers will realize that their universe is spatially compact. An interesting fact, which we demonstrate with an explicit example, is that this Cauchy surface can have arbitrarily large volume for fixed asymptotically de Sitter behavior. Our main focus is on the implications of tall universes for the proposed dS/CFT correspondence. Particular attention is given to the associated renormalization group flows, leading to a more general de Sitter `c-theorem.' We find, as expected, that a contracting phase always represents a flow towards the infrared, while an expanding phase represents a `reverse' flow towards the ultraviolet. We also discuss the conformal diagrams for various classes of homogeneous flows.

  5. Health dynamic measurement of tall building using wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, J. P.; Li, H. W.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Li, Q. S.

    2005-05-01

    Health Monitoring is very important for large structures like suspension- and cable-stayed bridges, offshore platforms, tall buildings and so on. Due to recent developments in new sensor systems, wireless communication systems, Internet-based data sharing and monitoring, advanced technologies for structure health monitoring (SHM) have been caused much more attentions, in which the wireless sensor network is recently received special interests. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large populations of wirelessly connected nodes, capable of computation, communication, and sensing. In this paper, a wireless sensor networks based health monitoring system for tall buildings has been explored integrated with wireless sensing communication, computation, data management and data remote access via Internet. Firstly, a laboratory prototype was designed and developed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed system. Wireless sensor nodes were deployed on a test structure, the data being sensed by the sensor nodes in the network is eventually transmitted to a base station, where the information can be accessed. Through a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, IEEE802.11b), the simulated data was transferred among personal computers and wireless sensor nodes peripherals without cables. And then, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) includes eight sensor nodes and one base station was installed on Di Wang Tower to verify the performance of the present system in-depth. Finally, comparisons between WSN and cable-based monitoring analytical acceleration responses of field measurement have been performed. The proposed system is shown to be effective for structural health monitoring.

  6. Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Aggregate Distribution In Response to Tall Fescue Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soi...

  7. Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

  8. Predicted Efficiency of Spaced Plant Selection to Indirectly Improve Tall Fescue Sward Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of spaced plant evaluation to determine sward performance of forage grasses has oft been questioned. This experiment studied the efficiency of spaced plant evaluation to indirectly improve sward yield and nutritional quality in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). A tall fescue ...

  9. INDIVIDUAL PLANT CONTROL OF TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM BARBEYI) WITH TEBUTHIURON1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadcast application of herbicides to control tall larkspur is difficult under aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) and most herbicides kill the desirable tall forbs that are associated with larkspur. The pellet formulation of tebuthiuron allows individual treatment of plants without injury to associ...

  10. Aerodynamic Loads on Tall Buildings: Interactive Database Yin Zhou. M.ASCE1

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Aerodynamic Loads on Tall Buildings: Interactive Database Yin Zhou. M.ASCE1 ; Tracy Kijewski, S database of aerodynamic loads is presented, which can be accessed by any user with Microsoft Explorer, the nondimensional aerodynamic loads can be used to compute the wind-induced response of tall buildings

  11. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (599 ± 6.0 kg) were allocated randomly to one of eight 10-ha tall fescue pastures (subdivided into six 1.6-h...

  12. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Temiz; Gry Alfredsen; Morten Eikenes; Nasko Terz?ev

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

  14. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  16. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  17. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  18. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

  19. A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

    2013-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

  20. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  2. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  9. VIABILITY AND LONGEVITY OF POLLEN FROM TRANSGENIC AND NONTRANSGENIC TALL FESCUE (FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA )( P OACEAE) PLANTS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZENG-YU WANG; YAXIN GE; MEGANN SCOTT; GERMAN SPANGENBERG

    Pollen is an important vector of gene flow in plants, particularly for outcrossing species like tall fescue. Several aspects of pollination biology were investigated using pollen from transgenic and nontransgenic plants of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), the most important forage species worldwide of the Festuca genus. To effectively assess in vitro pollen viability in tall fescue, an optimized

  10. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  11. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  12. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  13. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  15. Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere shils to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a forage grass of world-wide importance. It has a natural association with an endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum). In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures have been shown to enhan...

  16. Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures appear to enhance soil carbon sequestration. A hypothetical mechanism that may account for the enhanced carbon sequestration is that the E+ tall fescue affects the soil microbial community or components of ...

  17. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the pre-dominant forage species on over one million acres of

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    -season perennial grass that is well adapted to much of Virginia's soils and climate. Tall fescue has many desirable and in certain regions, tall fescue is the most reliable perennial cool- season grass. Tall fescue generally is superior to all other perennial cool-season grasses in its ability to be stockpiled for late fall

  18. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology. PMID:22662021

  19. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology. PMID:22662021

  20. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  1. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  2. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  3. Nano Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Billed as "the magazine for small science," Nano Magazine has an impressive online presence. Published in Britain, the magazine covers all aspects of nanotechnology and its various applications. Along the top of the homepage, visitors will find a "Hot News" area that scrolls important news developments in the field. Visitors can move on to look through the "Latest Issue" area, which contains interviews with experts in nanotechnology, its role in environmental sustainability, and editorial pieces. For professionals working in this area, the site also has a thorough listing of industry and scholarly events and a list of accredited degree programs for those seeking additional formal training. Finally, visitors can browse through the magazine archive, where past thematic issues include "Nanomedicine" and "Cars of the Future".

  4. Targeting the Notch1 and mTOR pathways in a mouse T-ALL model

    PubMed Central

    Cullion, Kathleen; Draheim, Kyle M.; Hermance, Nicole; Tammam, Jennifer; Sharma, Vishva M.; Ware, Christopher; Nikov, George; Krishnamoorthy, Veena

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in NOTCH1 are frequently detected in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and in mouse T-ALL models. Treatment of mouse or human T-ALL cell lines in vitro with ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis. These studies suggest GSIs as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of T-ALL. To determine whether GSIs have antileukemic activity in vivo, we treated near-end-stage Tal1/Ink4a/Arf+/? leukemic mice with vehicle or with a GSI developed by Merck (MRK-003). We found that GSI treatment significantly extended the survival of leukemic mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Notch1 target gene expression was repressed and increased numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in the GSI-treated mice, demonstrating that Notch1 inhibition in vivo induces apoptosis. T-ALL cell lines also exhibit PI3K/mTOR pathway activation, indicating that rapamycin may also have therapeutic benefit. When GSIs are administered in combination with rapamycin, mTOR kinase activity is ablated and apoptosis induced. Moreover, GSI and rapamycin treatment inhibits human T-ALL growth and extends survival in a mouse xenograft model. This work supports the idea of targeting NOTCH1 in T-ALL and suggests that inhibition of the mTOR and NOTCH1 pathways may have added efficacy. PMID:19246562

  5. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, L M; Dougherty, C T; Bradley, N W; Cornelius, P L

    1990-05-01

    Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) perform poorly due to tall fescue toxicosis, especially when animals are under heat stress. In order to determine whether thiamin promotes recovery from tall fescue toxicosis, 1 or 0 g of thiamin per day, as mononitrate, was fed orally to adult Angus (Bos taurus) cows (380 +/- 8 kg) grazing either tall fescue pasture with and without endophyte or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A tethered grazing system employing a split-plot design was used to estimate intake and components of ingestive behavior. No significant differences attributable to thiamin supplements were seen in rates of intake and biting, grazing time and intake per bite when cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue during the first 4 d of exposure. When cows grazed endophyte-infected (greater than 95%) tall fescue with 2,091 micrograms/g loline alkaloids after 4 d of exposure, the untreated animals ingested herbage dry matter (DM) at 1.19 kg/h, whereas the cows receiving thiamin ate 1.57 kg/h (P less than .05). Cattle achieved these rates of DM intake by forming bites of 1.0 and 1.2 g DM at 24 and 26 bites/min when treated with 0 and 1 g of thiamin per day, respectively. Thiamin supplements had no effect on ingestive behavior of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue or alfalfa after exposure to these forages for 4 d. Responses to thiamin generally were greater when cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue were exposed to heat stress. Oral thiamin supplementation may alleviate tall fescue toxicosis of beef cattle during warm weather. PMID:2365641

  6. MICROARRAY COMPARISON OF TALL FESCUE GENE EXPRESSION IN ENDOPHYTE INFECTED AND ENDOPHYTE FREE PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. The endophyte receives shelter and nutrients from the host ...

  7. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial...commercial traffic throughout the Great Lakes. DATES: Comments and...

  8. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial...commercial traffic throughout the Great Lakes. DATES: This rule will be...

  9. Stand persistence of tall fescue pasture cultivars free of or infested with Acremonium coenophialum

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -1071, USA The endophytic fungus A. coenophialum in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is associated and species composition were estimated for each pasture by two observers at 21-d intervals (Mitchell et al

  10. Passive motion control of super tall buildings : tuned mass and viscous dampers in Taipei 101.

    E-print Network

    Gong, Zheng Li

    2009-01-01

    As tall buildings keep becoming taller, they become more susceptible to dynamic excitations such as wind and seismic excitations. One way to reduce structural vibration under dynamic excitations is by placing damping devices ...

  11. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  12. Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

  13. Tall stature as presenting symptom in a girl with triple X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, B U; Rohrer, T R; Singer, H; Doerr, H G

    2003-02-01

    An 11 year-old girl presented with 47,XXX karyotype. Our report emphasizes the fact that triple X syndrome has also to be considered in girls presenting with tall stature that is not explained by parental heights. PMID:12713263

  14. The role of the aerodynamic modifications of the shapes of tall buildings

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jooeun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in technology, recent tall building design has undergone a shift to the free-style geometric forms in the exuberant and liberal atmosphere. As a height of the building increases, it is more susceptible ...

  15. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum (Schreb.) Dumort.] imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physio...

  16. Metabolite and gene expression studies in endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue under water deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions, how endop...

  17. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Takach, Johanna E.; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Trammell, Michael A.; Huhman, David V.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as “Kentucky-31” (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples. PMID:25408942

  18. Nano Scavenger Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about identifying nanoscale objects and phenomena in today's world. Learners will break into groups and conduct a "NanoBlitz Challenge," spending a set amount of time on a scavenger hunt for all things nano, both natural and man-made, in the world around them. They will then assemble a chart of their findings and discuss. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Where's Nano?

  19. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

  20. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-02-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. PMID:25514895

  1. The effects of endophytes on seed production and seed predation of tall fescue and meadow fescue.

    PubMed

    Saari, Susanna; Helander, Marjo; Faeth, Stanley H; Saikkonen, Kari

    2010-11-01

    Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E- grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E- plants, but E- and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions. PMID:20871988

  2. Characteristics of wind forces and responses of rectangular tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, J. A.; Ahuja, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of wind tunnel tests on rectangular building models having the same plan area and height but different side ratios of 1, 1.56, 2.25, 3.06 and 4. The models were made from perspex sheet at a geometrical scale of 1:300. The wind pressure coefficients on all the models were evaluated from pressure records measured in a closed circuit wind tunnel under boundary layer flow for wind directions of 0° to 90° at an interval of 15°. The mean responses of rectangular tall buildings having different side ratios were also evaluated from the experimentally obtained wind loads. Effectiveness of side ratio of buildings in changing the surface pressure distribution and mean responses of prototype buildings is assessed for wind directions of 0° to 90° at an interval of 15°. It is observed that the side ratio of buildings significantly affects the wind pressures on leeward and sidewalls, whereas wind pressure on windward wall is almost independent of side ratio. Further, the wind incidence angles and side ratio of the buildings significantly affect its mean displacements as well as torque.

  3. A dual strategy for sensing metals with a nano 'pincer' scavenger for in vitro diagnostics and detection of liver diseases from blood samples.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Kim, Benjamin; Kolmodin, Nicholas J; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-02-01

    This work presents a dual, non-invasive approach for the detection of elevated level of metals in patients with liver disease. A highly sensitive, small molecule 'pincer' scavenger was synthesized for the detection and quantification of copper in serum and systemically in vivo. For the in vitro diagnostics, the developed technique involves only a routine capillary blood sampling or venipuncture, removing the need for invasive biopsies. The organic scavenger molecule showed high specificity toward copper ions, with a detection sensitivity of 1.35 × 10(-2)?g/L in mouse serum. Furthermore, for the systemic detection of copper in the liver, a polymeric nanopincer has been designed and studied. The small molecule scavengers were stably incorporated into polymeric micelles via its long acyl chains and polymeric micelle proved to be a stable carrier when injected into mice intravenously. The organic scavenger molecule was found to be highly fluorescent and specific toward Cu(2+) and can potentially help ameliorate diseases regarding accretion of copper in certain vital organs. The strategy and the results provide a novel, non-invasive dual nanomedicine approach for the early detection and treatment of excessive metal deposits in the human organs. PMID:25595484

  4. Nano Research Journal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nano Research is a peer-reviewed, international and interdisciplinary research journal that focuses on all aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Submissions are solicited in all topical areas, ranging from basic aspects of the science of nanoscale materials to practical applications of such materials. Nano Research is an open-access journal, making all research results freely available online.Nano Research offers readers an attractive mix of authoritative and comprehensive Reviews, original cutting-edge research in Communication and Full Paper formats. Rapid review to ensure quick publication is a key feature of Nano Research.Articles in Nano Research are accessible free of charge in 2008 and 2009.

  5. Integrated Micro Nano Systems Integrated Micro Nano Systems

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 2 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 3 Val Jones (Ed.) Symposium on Integrated Micro Nano Systems: Convergence of bio and nanotechnologies, Enschede, The Netherlands, June 2006 Micro Nano Systems 4 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 5 Preface In order to explore the convergence

  6. Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility: Weining Wang Office: Brauer rules and procedures (a) Accidents and spills for chemicals Not containing Nano-Materials Spills of non for chemicals Containing Nano-Materials In a fume hood small spills of nano-materials in a liquid may

  7. Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

  8. Analysis of tall fescue ESTs representing different abiotic stresses, tissue types and developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Mian, MA Rouf; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Cheng, Xiaofei; Chen, Lei; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Dai, Xinbin; Mao, Chunhong; Cheung, Foo; Zhao, Xuechun; He, Ji; Scott, Angela D; Town, Christopher D; May, Gregory D

    2008-01-01

    Background Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST) database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress factors. The results of inter-library and library-specific in silico expression analyses of these ESTs are also reported. Results A total of 41,516 ESTs were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress conditions. The Festuca Gene Index (FaGI) has been established. To date, this represents the first publicly available tall fescue EST database. In silico gene expression studies using these ESTs were performed to understand stress responses in tall fescue. A large number of ESTs of known stress response gene were identified from stressed tissue libraries. These ESTs represent gene homologues of heat-shock and oxidative stress proteins, and various transcription factor protein families. Highly expressed ESTs representing genes of unknown functions were also identified in the stressed tissue libraries. Conclusion FaGI provides a useful resource for genomics studies of tall fescue and other closely related forage and turf grass species. Comparative genomic analyses between tall fescue and other grass species, including ryegrasses (Lolium sp.), meadow fescue (F. pratensis) and tetraploid fescue (F. arundinacea var glaucescens) will benefit from this database. These ESTs are an excellent resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-based molecular markers. PMID:18318913

  9. The effect of endophyte presence on Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue) establishment varies with grassland community structure.

    PubMed

    Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Drystek, Emily; Maherali, Hafiz; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    The endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue) may alter host interactions with specific resident species or shift the host's niche. These effects can be quantified by assessing tall fescue responses to, and effects on, the variation among resident species (selection) and resident species interactions (complementarity). To determine how N. coenophialum affects tall fescue, grassland microcosms containing 16 transplants of two, four, or eight resident species were seeded with endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) Kentucky-31 (KY-31) tall fescue. All resident species were also grown in monoculture. Aboveground biomass was harvested 9 weeks after tall fescue was added (18 weeks' total growth). At harvest, more E+ than E- individuals were present and they represented a larger portion of the aboveground biomass across richness treatments, despite similar germination in concurrent trials. Tall fescue individuals were larger in microcosms dominated by more productive resident species (greater selection). In contrast, fewer E-, but not E+, individuals were present in microcosms with more facilitative interactions among the resident species (greater complementarity). E- and E+ tall fescue also affected resident species differently. High-richness E+ microcosms were more diverse and less dominated by productive species (lower selection) than E- microcosms. Thus, E+ KY-31 may more readily establish in, and affect, species-rich, functionally diverse communities as a result of niche shifts during establishment and negative effects on specific resident species. Although results need to be further tested under field conditions, it appears that endophyte presence may only facilitate KY-31 invasion into a limited suite of community types. PMID:24385086

  10. Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

  11. High correlation between thermotolerance and photosystem II activity in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Sun, Xiaoyan; Amombo, Erick; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Zhuangjun; Chen, Liang; Xu, Qingguo; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-12-01

    Heat stress affects a broad spectrum of cellular components and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the behavior of Photosystem II (PSII) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) with various thermotolerance capacities and to broaden our comprehension about the relationship between thermotolerance and PSII function. Heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive accessions were incubated at 24 °C (control) and 46 °C (heat stress) for 5 h. The fluorescence transient curves (OJIP curves), slow Chl fluorescence kinetic, and light response curve were employed to study the behavior of PSII subjected to heat stress. After heat stress, performance index for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII antenna until the reduction of PSI acceptors (PITotal), the value of electrons produced per photon (a), and the maximal rate of electron transport (ETRmax) of heat-tolerant accessions were lower than those of heat-sensitive accessions. Relatively lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were detected in heat-tolerant accessions. Simultaneously, there was a significant decline in the quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PS II (Y(II)), probability that a PSII Chl molecule functions as reaction center (?RC), and the increase of quantum yield for non-regulated non-photochemical energy loss (Y(NO)) in heat-tolerant accessions. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation between heat tolerance indexes (HTI) and Y(II) was observed. Therefore, maintaining a lower photochemical activity in heat-tolerant accessions could be a crucial strategy to improve their thermotolerance. This finding could be attributed to the structural difference in the reaction center, and for heat-tolerant accessions, it could simultaneously limit energy input into linear electron transport, and dissipate more energy through non-regulated non-photochemical energy loss processes. PMID:25145554

  12. USC Nano Center Poster Session

    E-print Network

    Davis, James P.

    USC Nano Center Poster Session 19 April 2002 Nano-scale VLSI Design: A Significant Paradigm Shift The recent progression of events in nano-technology, from nanotubes to nano- transistors, begs a basic will the changes in underlying device materials theory of nano-scale electronics affect ways in which we currently

  13. Direct Nano-Patterning With Nano-Optic Devices 

    E-print Network

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2011-08-08

    In this study nano-patterning was carried out using two different nano-optic devices namely- the NSOM and Fresnel zone plate. In the first study, NSOM was used to generate nano-patterns on selected semiconducting (Si and ...

  14. Nano-Power Africa Nano-Power Africa

    E-print Network

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Nano-Power Africa i Nano-Power Africa 2 Year Project Implementation Plan Technologies The University of Cape Town, South Africa Haramaya University, Ethiopia Kigali Institute of Technology, Rwanda http://www.eng.uc.edu/~gbeaucag/NanoPowerAfrica

  15. Aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the United States deduced from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Griffis, T. J.; Tessum, C.; Travis, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aromatic compounds including benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and xylenes (C8H10) are important anthropogenic precursors of secondary organic aerosol and ground-level ozone. In addition, benzene has been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, their emissions remain poorly constrained. Here we present a full year (2011) of continuous aromatic hydrocarbon measurements by PTR-MS at the University of Minnesota tall tower Tracer Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower, 244 m a.g.l, 44.689°N, 93.073°W). We interpret the tall tower data with a 0.5° ×0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to constrain US sources of benzene, toluene, and xylenes. The tall tower observations reveal a clear high bias in the model, with model: measurement slopes of 1.8, 5.3, and 2.9 for benzene, toluene, and xylenes, respectively. The high bias reflects an overestimate of aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the model, which are based on the RETRO emission Inventory. In this work, we employ a Bayesian inversion to interpret the KCMP tall tower measurements in terms of quantitative constraints on US aromatic sources and the importance of sectors such as on-road transportation, waste treatment and disposal, solvent use, etc. We discuss our findings relative to other emission estimates (e.g., the EPA NEI) and in terms of their implications for air quality modeling.

  16. Chromatin looping defines expression of TAL1, its flanking genes, and regulation in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Saffrey, Peter; Vukovic, Milica; Michie, Alison M; Strogantsev, Ruslan; West, Adam G; Vetrie, David

    2013-12-19

    TAL1 is an important regulator of hematopoiesis and its expression is tightly controlled despite complexities in its genomic organization. It is frequently misregulated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), often due to deletions between TAL1 and the neighboring STIL gene. To better understand the events that lead to TAL1 expression in hematopoiesis and in T-ALL, we studied looping interactions at the TAL1 locus. In TAL1-expressing erythroid cells, the locus adopts a looping "hub" which brings into close physical proximity all known TAL1 cis-regulatory elements including CTCF-bound insulators. Loss of GATA1 results in disassembly of the hub and loss of CTCF/RAD21 from one of its insulators. Genes flanking TAL1 are partly dependent on hub integrity for their transcriptional regulation. We identified looping patterns unique to TAL1-expressing T-ALL cells, and, intriguingly, loops occurring between the TAL1 and STIL genes at the common TAL1/STIL breakpoints found in T-ALL. These findings redefine how TAL1 and neighboring genes communicate within the nucleus, and indicate that looping facilitates both normal and aberrant TAL1 expression and may predispose to structural rearrangements in T-ALL. We also propose that GATA1-dependent looping mechanisms may facilitate the conservation of TAL1 regulation despite cis-regulatory remodeling during vertebrate evolution. PMID:24200685

  17. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.

    PubMed

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2012-12-01

    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers. PMID:23079410

  18. Influence of canopy foliage on turbulence above tall deciduous vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapkalijevski, Metodija; Moene, Arnold; Ouwersloot, Huug; Patton, Edward; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the role of tree phenology on the atmospheric turbulence over tall vegetation is investigated. Our aim is to study dimensionless mean gradients, variances, and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the roughness sublayer (RSL), and their dependence on the leaf state of the canopy and the stability regimes. To do this, we analyse observations, that are continuously collected over a whole season above and in a walnut tree orchard during the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) field experiment near Dixon, California. To support this data analysis, we compare profiles of vertical fluxes and co-variances, as well as vertical gradients of mean wind, temperature and humidity, with empirically derived dimensionless gradients from previous studies and results from a second-order closure turbulence diagnostic model. In doing so, we study the differences in the calculation of the dimensionless gradients between recently developed model approaches that account for the RSL effects on these gradients against representations that omit those effects. The observations and model results are non-dimensionalized using atmospheric surface layer scaling, paying special attention to the displacement height. The latter is calculated from the observations and depends on the variable under consideration and the leaf state. Our results for the dimensionless gradients of momentum, heat and moisture show a reduction of these variables closer to the canopy top compared to the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for both unstable and near neutral conditions. We find that the reduction is larger for canopy with leaves than for leafless canopy. This confirms the applicability of the aforementioned RSL models. Their results are in better agreement with the observations for the fully vegetated canopy then for the leafless canopy. With regard to the TKE-budget, our analysis shows that turbulent transport is increasingly important term of the budget when approaching heights closer to the canopy top. However, the results are very sensitive to the choice of the displacement height. Our findings indicate the need (a) to account for the effects of the roughness sublayer in calculating and interpreting flux-gradient relationships and TKE above a deciduous forest, and (b) to include in these calculations a displacement height that takes the canopy leaf state into account.

  19. Activating Notch1 mutations in mouse models of T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Jennifer; Calvo, Jennifer; McKenna, Keith; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Aster, Jon C.; Bassing, Craig H.; Alt, Frederick W.; Kelliher, Michelle; Look, A. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that most patients with T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) have activating mutations in NOTCH1. We sought to determine whether these mutations are also acquired in mouse models of T-ALL. We sequenced the heterodimerization domain and the PEST domain of Notch1 in our mouse model of TAL1-induced leukemia and found that 74% of the tumors harbor activating mutations in Notch1. Cell lines derived from these tumors undergo G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis when treated with a ?-secretase inhibitor. In addition, we found activating Notch1 mutations in 31% of thymic lymphomas that occur in mice deficient for various combinations of the H2AX, Tp53, and Rag2 genes. Thus, Notch1 mutations are often acquired as a part of the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALLs that develop in mice with known predisposing genetic alterations. (Blood. 2006;107:781-785) PMID:16166587

  20. Utilizing a dihaploid-gamete selection strategy for tall fescue development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...

  1. Strategies for mitigating wind-induced motion in tall buildings through aerodynamic and damping modifications

    E-print Network

    Nnamani, Nnabuihe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of modern structural systems, spurred by advances in construction methodology and high strength materials, has driven the height of modern skyscrapers beyond what was once deemed possible. Although science and ...

  2. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cunilio, T.V. [Center of Sustainable Argoforesty, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  3. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E?), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E?>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e.g., herbivory release) or may not be related to this plant-microbial symbiosis. PMID:24497994

  4. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e.g., herbivory release) or may not be related to this plant-microbial symbiosis. PMID:24497994

  5. Integrating bermudagrass into tall fescue-based pasture systems for stocker cattle.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, R L; Crawford, R J; Massie, M D; Kerley, M S; Bailey, N J

    2012-01-01

    The daily BW gain of stocker steers grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.]-based pastures typically declines during summer. To avoid these declines, in part to mitigate the effects of tall fescue toxicosis, it is commonly advised to move cattle to warm-season forage during this period. A 3-yr (2006, 2007, and 2008) grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing 25% of the area of a tall fescue/clover (81% endophyte-infected) pasture system with "Ozark" bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] overseeded with clover (Trifolium spp.) to provide summer grazing for stocker steers (TF+BERM). The TF+BERM treatment was compared with a grazing system in which tall fescue/clover (TF) pastures were the only type of forage available for grazing. Our objective was to determine if replacement of 25% of the land area in a fescue system with bermudagrass would increase annual beef production compared with a system based solely on tall fescue. The study was conducted at the Southwest Research and Education Center of the University of Missouri near Mt. Vernon. Each treatment was rotationally stocked with 5 steers (248 ± 19.3 kg) on 1.7 ha. Fertilizer applications were applied at rates recommended for each respective forage species. Total forage production, BW gain per hectare, and season-long ADG of steers was greater (P < 0.06) for TF+BERM than for TF in 2006, but none of these measures differed (P > 0.19) in 2007 or 2008. In vitro true digestibility of pastures was greater (P = 0.01) for TF (84.4%, SEM = 0.64%) compared with TF+BERM (80.6%, SEM = 0.79%), even in summer. The decreased in vitro true digestibility of the bermudagrass pastures likely negated any benefit that animals in TF+BERM had in avoiding the ergot-like alkaloids associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Renovating 25% of the pasture system to bermudagrass provided some benefit to the system in years when summertime precipitation was limited (2006) but provided no value in wetter years (2007 and 2008). Although renovating endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures to a warm-season forage is a widely used practice to mitigate tall fescue toxicosis, the benefits of this practice are limited if forage quality of the warm season component is poor. PMID:21856893

  6. Effect of nitrogen addition and drought on above-ground biomass of expanding tall grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Fiala; Ivan T?ma; Petr Holub

    2011-01-01

    Tall expansive grasses act as serious weeds since they spread intensively and are a important threat to biodiversity of various\\u000a plant communities. A field experiment was set up based on three sets of paired plots, where Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius dominated and a mixture of both these tall grasses occurred. Parallel plots were treated by additional amounts of nitrogen

  7. Nitrogen isotope tracer acquisition in low and tall birch tundra plant communities: a 2 year test of the snowshrub

    E-print Network

    Grogan, Paul

    Nitrogen isotope tracer acquisition in low and tall birch tundra plant communities: a 2 year test N tracer (15 N) in late summer to control and snowfenced low birch hummock tundra to test the influence of deepened snow on N cycling. Further- more, tracer was added to tall birch tundra to compare N

  8. 654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 43, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2001 Transient Response of a Tall Object to Lightning

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    current, lightning electro- magnetic field, tall objects, transients, traveling waves. I. INTRODUCTION654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 43, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2001 Transient Response of a Tall Object to Lightning Vladimir A. Rakov Abstract--Experimental data showing the transient

  9. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  10. Measurements of Atmospheric O2 Variations at the WLEF Tall-tower Site Figure 4. Comparison to

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Measurements of Atmospheric O2 Variations at the WLEF Tall-tower Site Figure 4. Comparison to MBL. The fuel-cell instrument has successfully measured O2 concentrations at the WLEF tall-tower research site biogeochemical processes, continental boundary-layer mixing, and potential means of industrial emission

  11. Hair Coat and Ear Implant Effects on Physiological Measurements of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown cattle grazing toxic tall fescue have reduced weight gain, rough hair coats, and exhibit symptoms of heat stress during the summer. Sixty steers were grazed on toxic tall fescue to determine the effects of hair coats and steroidal ear implants on physiological measurements. Stee...

  12. TALL-1 is a novel member of the TNF family that is down-regulated by mitogens

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Hui

    and FasL/ApoL. This search identified multiple EST clones that encode two different human genes. We have the identification and cloning of a novel TNF family member that has been designated as TALL-1. TALL-1 is a 285-aminoBank EST database with the TBLASTN program for genes homologous to the extracellular domains of human TNF

  13. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  14. We all know that the Earth has tall mountains, but compared to its size these are actually very

    E-print Network

    How Tall is ? We all know that the Earth has tall mountains, but compared to its size these are actually very small. If we were to shrink the Earth down to the size of a basketball, the tallest mountain of the Earth is actually larger at the equator than at the poles by about 0.3%. That's not much, but the Earth

  15. EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED VERTICAL DISPERSION IN THE WAKES OF TALL BUILDINGS IN WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF LOWER MANHATTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observations of flow and dispersion in urban areas with tall buildings have revealed a phenomenon whereby contaminants can be transported vertically up the lee sides of tall buildings due to the vertical flow in the wake of the building. This phenomenon, which contributes to w...

  16. Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the N Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4), and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

  17. Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Concentrate Feeding and Steroidal Implants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue toxicosis has a negative impact on animal performance and physiology, but concentrate feeding and ear implantation with steroid hormones could mitigate problems in grazing yearling cattle on toxic tall fescue. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) ‘KY-31’ tall fescue for 7...

  18. Chemical Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Endohyte-Infested Tall Fescue for Improving Steer Weight Gain and Physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the experiment was to de...

  19. Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. II. Uptake and recycling

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomy Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. II. Uptake and recycling of nitrogen in the sward during winter G. Lemaire N. Culleton2 1 INRA Station d showed that autumn nitrogen supply affected the earliness of spring gowth in tall fes- cue (cv. Clarine

  20. Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

  1. Modelization and Simulation of Nano Devices in nano calculus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelization and Simulation of Nano Devices in nano calculus A. Credi1 , M. Garavelli1 , C. Laneve2, Paris Abstract. We develop a process calculus ­ the nano calculus ­ for modeling, analyzing and predicting the properties of molecular devices. The nano calculus is equipped with a simple stochastic model

  2. Nano-Drugs Based on Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Turjeman, Keren; Bavli, Yaelle; Kizelsztein, Pablo; Schilt, Yaelle; Allon, Nahum; Katzir, Tamar Blumenfeld; Sasson, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Ovadia, Haim; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2015-01-01

    The present study shows the advantages of liposome-based nano-drugs as a novel strategy of delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve neuroinflammation. We used the most common animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main challenges to overcome are the drugs’ unfavorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, which result in inadequate therapeutic efficacy and in drug toxicity (due to high and repeated dosage). We designed two different liposomal nano-drugs, i.e., nano sterically stabilized liposomes (NSSL), remote loaded with: (a) a “water-soluble” amphipathic weak acid glucocorticosteroid prodrug, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) or (b) the amphipathic weak base nitroxide, Tempamine (TMN). For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of ?-amyloid. Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting. For the NSSL-MPS and the NSSL-TMN it was demonstrated that these nano-drugs ameliorate the clinical signs and the pathology of EAE. We have further investigated the MPS nano-drug’s therapeutic efficacy and its mechanism of action in both the acute and the adoptive transfer EAE models, as well as optimizing the perfomance of the TMN nano-drug. The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:26147975

  3. NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND RUNOFF FROM ALUM-TREATED BROILER LITTER TALL FESCUE PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of poultry litter as fertilizer may lead to impaired surface and ground water quality. An experiment was conducted at Crossville, AL to study the effects of alum [Al2 (SO4)3,14H2O] treatment of broiler litter on the yield and nutrient uptake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) a...

  4. IMPACT OF A LARGE SAN ANDREAS FAULT EARTHQUAKE ON TALL BUILDINGS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    1995c). These buildings resist lateral forces from an earthquake through bending in rigidly connectedIMPACT OF A LARGE SAN ANDREAS FAULT EARTHQUAKE ON TALL BUILDINGS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Swaminathan exposed the vulnerability of steel moment-resisting frame buildings to fracture (SAC 1995a; SAC 1995b; SAC

  5. Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

  6. Toxicity of ergovaline, the tall fescue ergot alkaloid, to Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotyphodium infected tall fescue produces a variety of secondary metabolites that are toxic and/or grazing deterrents. Alkaloid production has been related to defense against vertebrate and insect pests, in particular plant-parasitic nematodes. The ergot and pyrrollizidine (loline) alkaloids are ...

  7. Endophyte Effect on Seedling Vigor in 19 Half-sib Familes of Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling mass and emergence force were studied in two greenhouse experiments using 19 half-sib families of ‘Kentucky 31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] each of which was produced from genotypes with or without the common toxic endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones ...

  8. Mg and K Effects on Cation Uptake and Dry Matter Accumulation in Tall Fescue (Festuca Arundinacea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HiMag tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire = Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was selected for high Mg concentration to reduce grass tetany risk to ruminants; however, the mechanism of increased Mg uptake into shoots is unknown. The objective was to determine cation concentrations ...

  9. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  10. Suppression of vortex-excited vibration of tall buildings using tuned liquid dampers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Chang; M. Gu

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the control effects of rectangular TLDs installed on a tall building that vibrates due to vortex excitation. Optimal design properties of these TLDs and their control performance are first obtained using the characteristic equation of the TLD-building system. Wind tunnel experiments are performed on a scaled-down building model equipped with rectangular TLDs

  11. EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT DESIGN OF TALL BUILDINGS WITH BASEMENT AND DEEP FOUNDATION ON SOFT SOIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dradjat Hoedajanto; Awal Surono

    The actual dynamic response of tall buildings on soft soil against earthquake loading is a very complicated one. The desire to have in-elastic responses of the superstructure's structural elements while maintaining the response of the underground structural system remain elastic is not easy to model even with the current advances achieved in available non-linear dynamic structural analysis commercial software. Thus,

  12. Chemotaxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue root extracts against Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protection against herbivores and insects in the Neotyphodium-tall fescue grass association is provided by toxic secondary metabolites. Root exudates in this relationship contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances released into the soil that are either stimulatory, inhibitory, or inactive...

  13. Combining nitrogen fertilizer with poultry litter in a binary mixture of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem when poultry litter is applied to pastures in the southeastern USA is the buildup of soil P because of the difference in N-P-K ratio of the litter and plant requirements. This 2-yr study tested the theory that if the N requirement of a tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixture is only...

  14. Suspended chains damp wind-induced oscillations of tall flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1968-01-01

    Hanging-chain system, which is a form of impact damper, suppresses wind-induced bending oscillations of tall cylindrical antenna masts. A cluster of chains enclosed in a neoprene shroud is suspended inside the tip of the antenna mast, forming a simple method of damping structural vibrations.

  15. Endophyte Effects on Nutrient Acquisition in Tall Fescue Grown in Andisols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hasinur Rahman; S. Saiga

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin on the mineral content of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum Schreb., SJ Darbyshire) ecotypes (Fukaura, Koiwai, and Showa) grown on two Andisols (Black Andisol and Red Andisol) with different fertilities. Black Andisol, with a naturally low content of phosphorus, was high in

  16. Nutrient composition of tall fescue pasture forage free of or infested with Acremonium coenophialum

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nutrient composition of tall fescue pasture forage free of or infested with Acremonium coenophialum with the endophytic fungus A. coenophialum is associated with substantial economic reduction in grazing livestock is related to nutrient composition of the forage. Two treatments were established near Knoxville (35°49'N, 83

  17. Changes in bovine vascular contraction and constriction relative to time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (E+; Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (TF; Lolium arundinaceum) are exposed to ergot alkaloids when consuming forage. Ergot alkaloids induce constriction in vascular tissue of extremities of animals grazing TF leading to inability to regulate body tempera...

  18. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle. Novel endophytes can sustain fescue persistence an...

  19. Particleboard quality characteristics of saline jose tall wheatgrass and chemical treatment effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical pro...

  20. View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First potlatch pole since 1904. Dedicated to all things and all peoples of southeast Alaska, 1971. Oct potlatch, looking northwest - Kake Salmon Cannery, Totem Pole, Kake, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, AK

  1. Tall Precipitation Cells in Tropical Cyclone Eyewalls Are Associated with Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Owen A.; Stout, John; Halverson, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    The association between tall precipitation and tropical cyclone intensification may have implications for the difficult task of forecasting the destructive potential of these storms. We propose a novel way to use radar-observed rain height to help predict tropical cyclone intensity. Then, we adapt this technique for use on the much more plentiful data from infrared and microwave instruments.

  2. High Neotyphodium infection frequencies in tillers and seed of infected tall fescue plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research quantified frequencies of Neotyphodium infected (E+) tillers and mature seed from field-grown E+ plants of two wild tall fescue accessions from Morocco and Sardinia, Italy. Tiller infection rates were 100% (n = 50 from 10 E+ plants/accession) for each accession and over 99% of the seed...

  3. Allelopathy of Bermudagrass, Tall Fescue, Redroot Pigweed, and Cutleaf Evening Primrose on Pecan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Smith; Margaret E. Wolf; Becky S. Cheary; Becky L. Carroll

    Two studies were conducted to determine if selected grass and dicot species had an allelopathic interaction with pecan ( Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch). Leachate from pots with established grasses or dicots was used to irrigate container-grown pecan trees. Leachates from bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Shreb. cv. Kentucky 31), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.),

  4. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  5. Evaluation of the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or in concert, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA) and ergovaline (ERV) individua...

  6. BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND DRY MATTER CONSUMPTION OF STEERS FOLLOWING GRAZING OF TOXIC TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue during the spring and summer can exhibit symptoms of toxicosis resulting in poor weight gains and extended times of adjustment to feedyard rations. A 2-yr experiment (2004 and 2005) monitored body weight (BW) change and dry matter (DM) consumption for 36 be...

  7. Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue fertilized with broiler litter and inorganic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is widely used as a fertilizer on tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire], but little is known of forage quality responses to litter. Field studies were conducted to determine (1) the trends in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and in vitro digest...

  8. Analysis of Low-Frequency Turbulence Above Tall Vegetation Using a Doppler Sodar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Thomas; Jens-Christopher Mayer; Franz X. Meixner; Thomas Foken

    2006-01-01

    This study applies acoustic sounding to observe coherent structures in the roughness sublayer (RSL) above tall vegetated surfaces. Data were collected on 22 days during two separate field experiments in summer 2003. A quality control scheme was developed to ensure high data quality of the collected time series. The data analysis was done using both discrete and continuous wavelet transform. The

  9. Endophyte symbiosis with tall fescue: how strong are the impacts on communities and ecosystems?

    E-print Network

    Rudgers, Jennifer

    : Competition Herbivory Lolium arundinaceum MAXQ endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum Predators Soil Trophc with tall fescue over the past 13 y. Lolium arundinaceum is the most abundant plant in the eastern USA.05.002 #12;been devoted to similar questions with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), meadow fescue (L

  10. Full-scale monitoring of typhoon effects on super tall buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S. Li; Y. Q. Xiao; C. K. Wong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the field measurement results of wind characteristics and structural responses of two super tall buildings, Central Plaza Tower (374m, 78 floors) in Hong Kong and Di Wang Tower (384m, 78 floors) in Shenzhen during the passage of Typhoon Sally. The field data such as wind speeds, wind directions and acceleration responses were simultaneously and continuously measured from

  11. Therapeutic targeting of c-Myc in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Loosveld, Marie; Castellano, Rémy; Gon, Stéphanie; Goubard, Armelle; Crouzet, Thomas; Pouyet, Laurent; Prebet, Thomas; Vey, Norbert; Nadel, Bertrand; Collette, Yves; Payet-Bornet, Dominique

    2014-05-30

    T-ALL patients treated with intensive chemotherapy achieve high rates of remission. However, frequent long-term toxicities and relapses into chemotherapy-refractory tumors constitute major clinical challenges which could be met by targeted therapies. c-MYC is a central oncogene in T-ALL, prompting the exploration of the efficacy of MYC inhibitors such as JQ1 (BET-bromodomain inhibitor), and SAHA (HDAC inhibitor). Using a standardized ex vivo drug screening assay, we show here that JQ1 and SAHA show competitive efficiency compared to inhibitors of proteasome, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and NOTCH pathways, and synergize in combination with Vincristine. We also compared for the first time the in vivo relevance of such associations in mice xenografted with human primary T-ALLs. Our data indicate that although treatments combining JQ1 or SAHA with chemotherapeutic regimens might represent promising developments in T-ALL, combinations will need to be tailored to specific subgroups of responsive patients, the profiles of which still remain to be precisely defined. PMID:24930440

  12. Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

  13. SHORT-TERM RESPONSES OF SOIL C AND N FRACTIONS TO TALL FESCUE ENDOPHYTE INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and that may alter soil organic matter dynamics. A 60-week mesocosm study with a factorial arrangement of soil t...

  14. Full-scale monitoring of typhoon effects on super tall buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S. Li; Y. Q. Xiao; C. K. Wong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the field measurement results of wind characteristics and structural responses of two super tall buildings, Central Plaza Tower (374 m, 78 floors) in Hong Kong and Di Wang Tower (384 m, 78 floors) in Shenzhen during the passage of Typhoon Sally. The field data such as wind speeds, wind directions and acceleration responses were simultaneously and continuously

  15. An Extract of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Seed Induces Vasoconstriction of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ethanol extract of tall fescue seed was produced to further understand the interactions of toxic compounds that cause fescue toxicosis. We hypothesized that the combination of alkaloids present in the extract would have a greater vasoconstrictive response than individual alkaloids. The objective ...

  16. Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. The objectives of this work were to identify effects from ergot and lolin...

  17. Ergovaline stability in tall fescue based on sample handling and storage methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.] and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objec...

  18. CELL BIOLOGY & MOLECULAR GENETICS Infection of Somatic Embryos of Tall Fescue with Acremonium coenophialum

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Wayne

    cultures of tall fescue were induced using leaf basal tissue as the explant source, and Mu- rashige., 1991).Infectedtall fescue plants vary in levels of ergopeptine alkaloid produc- tion (Hill et al., 1990 alkaloid content is decreased or eliminatedthrough selection of lowergopeprineal- kaloid

  19. Full Scale Validation of the Predicted Response of Tall Buildings: Preliminary Results of Chicago Monitoring Project

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    , J. K. Galsworthya , D. Morrisha , N. Isyumova , A. Kareemb a The Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Lab (UND), the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory (BLWTL) at the University of Western Ontario (UWO are consistent with the wind tunnel predictions. 1 INTRODUCTION Even though the performance of tall buildings

  20. Hemodynamic Responses of the Caudal Artery to Toxic Tall Fescue in Beef Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with either endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or non-infected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to six pens and were fed...

  1. Peroxidase activity of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seedlings artificially infected with endophytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Peroxidase activity of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seedlings artificially infected to study the effects of symbiotic fungi of fodder grasses on the peroxidase activity of their hosts dif- ferent from that of the non-infected control. Similar results were obtained with perennial

  2. Nutrient uptake of 'Jesup MaxQ' tall fescue fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutrients derived from organic or inorganic sources can affect tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)forage in various ways, including seasonal availability of macronutrients, and interaction with endophyte-produced metabolites, alkaloids, that can reduce animal performance. The cultivar, Jesu...

  3. Filling the forage gaps with novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arkansas beef producers rely on both warm season (bermudagrass) as well as cool season (usually endophyte-infected tall fescue) perennial forages to achieve as close to a 12-month grazing season as possible. Even with this combined warm-cool season forage system, “forage gaps” still exist at certai...

  4. Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System

    E-print Network

    Greer, Julia R.

    prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts response spectral amplitude from knowledge of earthquake magnitudeSeismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System M. H. Cheng & T. W. Graves U.S. Geological Survey, USA SUMMARY: In California, United States, an earthquake early

  5. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

  6. Introgression of bread wheat chromatin into tall wheatgrass via somatic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haifeng; Yu, Zhiyong; Deng, Jingyao; Gao, Xin; Sun, Yang; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-01-01

    Regenerates were obtained following somatic hybridization between tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Jinan177) protoplasts. Two lines (CU and XI) were self-fertile in the first (R0) and subsequent (R1 and R2) generations. The phenotype of each R1 population was uniform. All CU progeny were phenotypically similar to the tall wheatgrass parent, while XI progeny had thinner, smoother and softer leaves. Cytological analysis showed that more wheat chromatin was present in the hybrid callus than in the R1 and R2 plants, and that some intercalary translocations of wheat chromosome segments were retained in the R2 generation. AFLP profiling confirmed the presence of wheat DNA in the introgression lines. Analysis of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit content of derived seed identified three novel subunits, not present in either the wheat or the tall wheatgrass parent. Microsatellite-based profiling of the chloroplast genome of the introgression lines suggested that only chloroplast sequences from the tall wheatgrass parent were present. The specifically inherited phenomena and possible application of these hybrids are discussed. PMID:18985381

  7. Arthropod abundance in tall fescue, Lolium arundinaceum, pastures containing novel ‘safe’ endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor livestock performance on tall fescue is linked to infection by a fungal endophyte that enhances grass resistance to stress, including erbivory, while producing ergot alkaloids toxic to vertebrate grazers. Novel ‘safe’ endophyte/grass associations produce no ergot alkaloids yet etain stand persi...

  8. Effects of Tall Fescue Forage Mass on Steer Ingestive Behavior and Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] is a well adapted perennial pasture species utilized across the north-south transition zone of the United States and in similar environments worldwide. This 3-yr trial evaluated the influence of three forage masses (FM) on steer and pasture respons...

  9. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    1992-01-01

    A worker in the rubber tyre industry is described with occupational asthma from exposure to a solution of tall oil, a pine resin, confirmed by specific inhalation challenge. This supports studies of contact dermatitis which have suggested abietic and dehydroabietic acid oxidants to be the cause of colophony induced allergic reactions. PMID:1551039

  10. Microsystmes Micro et Nano technologies

    E-print Network

    Ingrand, François

    Microsystèmes Micro et Nano technologies Automatique Réseaux Sûreté informatique Robotique et IA Interactions avec le vivant Intelligence ambiante #12;PÔLE MICRO ET NANO SYSTÈMES MICRO ET NANO SYSTÈMES MINAS nano systèmes notamment pour les télécommunications, les systèmes embarqués, la gestion de l

  11. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  12. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  13. PREFACE: Nano and microfluidics Nano and microfluidics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety

  14. The influence of 'Tall Man' lettering on errors of visual perception in the recognition of written drug names.

    PubMed

    Darker, Iain T; Gerret, David; Filik, Ruth; Purdy, Kevin J; Gale, Alastair G

    2011-01-01

    Visual errors in the perception of written drug names can reflect orthographic similarity amongst certain names. Drug names are typically printed in lowercase text. 'Tall Man' lettering, the capitalisation of the portions that differ amongst orthographically similar drug names, is employed in the field of medication labelling and prescribing to reduce medication errors by highlighting the area most likely to prevent confusion. The influence of textual format on visual drug name perception was tested amongst healthcare professionals (n = 133) using the Reicher-Wheeler task. Relative to lowercase text, Tall Man lettering improved accuracy in drug name perception. However, an equivalent improvement in accuracy was obtained using entirely uppercase text. Thus, character size may be a key determinant of perceptual accuracy for Tall Man lettering. Specific considerations for the manner in which Tall Man lettering might be best formatted and implemented in practice to reduce medication errors are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Tall Man lettering aims to prevent medication errors by reducing visual confusions amongst orthographically similar drug names. It was found that, compared to lowercase text, Tall Man lettering improved accuracy in drug name perception. Character size appeared to be a key determinant of perceptual accuracy for Tall Man lettering. PMID:21181586

  15. Nano-composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  16. Nano-electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-06-27

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 ?L acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary electrophoresis (CE). In that way the sample preparation performed by nano-EME was coupled directly with a CE separation. Separation performance of 42,000-193,000 theoretical plates could easily be obtained by this direct sample preparation and injection technique that both provided enrichment as well as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction. This corresponded to 100-times enrichment per minute of nano-EME. Nano-EME was found to be a very soft extraction technique, and about 99.2-99.9% of the analytes remained in the sample volume of 200 ?L. The SLM could be reused for more than 200 nano-EME extractions, and memory effects in the membrane were avoided by effective electro-assisted cleaning, where the electrical potential was actively used to clean the membrane. PMID:23764444

  17. MR imaging techniques for nano-pathophysiology and theranostics.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin M; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Cabral, Horacio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Aoki, Ichio

    2014-07-01

    The advent of nanoparticle DDSs (drug delivery systems, nano-DDSs) is opening new pathways to understanding physiology and pathophysiology at the nanometer scale. A nano-DDS can be used to deliver higher local concentrations of drugs to a target region and magnify therapeutic effects. However, interstitial cells or fibrosis in intractable tumors, as occurs in pancreatic or scirrhous stomach cancer, tend to impede nanoparticle delivery. Thus, it is critical to optimize the type and size of nanoparticles to reach the target. High-resolution 3D imaging provides a means of "seeing" the nanoparticle distribution and therapeutic effects. We introduce the concept of "nano-pathophysiological imaging" as a strategy for theranostics. The strategy consists of selecting an appropriate nano-DDS and rapidly evaluating drug effects in vivo to guide the next round of therapy. In this article we classify nano-DDSs by component carrier materials and present an overview of the significance of nano-pathophysiological MRI. PMID:24787226

  18. A contribution to urbanism--the tall building as a multi-dimensional framework for additive growth and change

    E-print Network

    Nelson, David J. (David Jeffrey)

    1987-01-01

    Skyscrapers do not destroy cities; they make them look different and they make the urban space more crowded, but they have not yet put an end to the urban environment. Many of the problems with the early tall buildings ...

  19. Gene expression and metabolite analysis of endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue clone pairs under water deficit conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte i...

  20. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue Gene Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. To d...

  1. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. PMID:25534968

  2. Comparison of three widely-used aerodynamic modifications that minimize the impact of wind loads on tall buildings

    E-print Network

    Kwok, Raymond Hoi-Kit

    2007-01-01

    For tall buildings, motion caused by wind is usually the most damaging to the lateral support system. As a result, engineers have invented many different methods to limit the motion of the buildings, for example dampers, ...

  3. 'Lump Sugar and Salt Shaker'-Like Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizi, P.; Horváth, A.; Hudoba, Gy.; Bérczi, Sz.; Sík, A.

    2012-10-01

    Nano, Pico Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) with a new strategy, multiple parallel use of these great number of devices allows the covering of larger surfaces on the planet measuring several focused parameters, e.g., DDS. Environmental friendly design.

  4. Magnetically guided nano-micro shaping and slicing of silicon.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young; Choi, Chulmin; Hong, Daehoon; Kong, Seong Deok; Jin, Sungho

    2012-04-11

    Silicon is one of the most important materials for modern electronics, telecom, and photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. With the rapidly expanding use of Si in the global economy, it would be highly desirable to reduce the overall use of Si material, especially to make the PVs more affordable and widely used as a renewable energy source. Here we report the first successful direction-guided, nano/microshaping of silicon, the intended direction of which is dictated by an applied magnetic field. Micrometer thin, massively parallel silicon sheets, very tall Si microneedles, zigzag bent Si nanowires, and tunnel drilling into Si substrates have all been demonstrated. The technique, utilizing narrow array of Au/Fe/Au trilayer etch lines, is particularly effective in producing only micrometer-thick Si sheets by rapid and inexpensive means with only 5 ?m level slicing loss of Si material, thus practically eliminating the waste (and also the use) of Si material compared to the ~200 ?m kerf loss per slicing and ~200 ?m thick wafer in the typical saw-cut Si solar cell preparation. We expect that such nano/microshaping will enable a whole new family of novel Si geometries and exciting applications, including flexible Si circuits and highly antireflective zigzag nanowire coatings. PMID:22409369

  5. Relative roles of different-sized herbivores and plant-plant interactions in tall shrub tundra vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravolainen, Virve; Ims, Rolf; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Stien, Audun; Kollstrøm, Julie; Lægreid, Eiliv; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2013-04-01

    Tall shrubs play important roles in the ecology of Arctic tundra ecosystems, including support of high shrub-associated biodiversity and regulation of a range of ecosystem processes. Tall shrub patches and herbaceous vegetation surrounding them often form a two-state vegetation mosaic. Such tall shrub tundra vegetation is an important locus for current vegetation changes in the Arctic. Both abiotic and biotic drivers are known to influence the shrub component. However, although expansion of the shrub state has received much focus lately, relative strengths of the multiple drivers of vegetation state are currently not fully understood. We investigated the role of herbivory relative to temperature and relative to plant-plant interactions, conducting a field survey and experimental studies at large spatial scales in riparian tall shrub tundra in Norway. We found both summer temperatures and summer grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) to affect tall shrub distribution and expansion potential. Furthermore, we found strong and rapid shrub growth change in response to abundance of key arctic herbivores; small rodents. Finally, we quantified the relative importance of neighboring plants and both herbivore types to recruiting tall shrubs. The previously unforeseen rate at which tall shrub tundra responded to altered herbivore pressures further exemplifies its central role in the tundra ecosystems, promoting tall shrub tundra as a bell-whether of change with respect to both abiotic and biotic drivers. While many of the results clearly relate to herbivory, neighboring plants or climate as drivers, some variation remains unexplained warranting future research focus on this highly dynamic part of the tundra ecosystem. Our results suggest that spatially variable biotic interactions are likely to modify forcing by climate, calling for an ecosystem approach when studying change in tundra ecosystems.

  6. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis.

  7. Comparative Criteria for Models of the Vascular Transport Systems of Tall Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Mencuccini; Teemu Hölttä; Jordi Martinez-Vilalta

    \\u000a During the past decade, several detailed models of plant vascular transport systems (i.e. xylem and phloem) have been presented\\u000a in the literature, and many of them are currently capable of accurately modelling the hydraulic characteristics of trees,\\u000a including tall trees. This marks a departure from earlier modelling exercises in plant water relations, when models were intended\\u000a primarily to promote an

  8. MEFLUIDIDE TREATMENT OF TALL FESCUE: EFFECT ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION 1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Robb; D. G. Ely; C. E. Rieck; R. J. Thomas; B. P. Glenn

    Summary Mefluidide (n-( 2,4-dimethyl-5 ( ((trifluoro- methyl)sulfonyl) amino) phenyl) acetamide), a plant growth regulator, was applied to Ken- tucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.) on May 2. Mefluidide-treated fescue (T) and untreated (C) accumulated fescue were harvested on May 31, July 15 and August 18 (except C which was harvested on October 5). In addition, C and T regrowth

  9. Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus directly measured currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Baba; Vladimir A. Rakov

    2007-01-01

    We have derived far-field-to-current conversion factors for lightning strikes to tall objects for (1) the initial peak current at the object top, (2) the largest peak current at the object top, and (3) the peak current at the object bottom. These far-field-to-current conversion factors are needed for proper interpretation of peak currents reported by lightning detection networks and are each

  10. Soil microbial community function, structure, and glomalin in response to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Buyer; David A. Zuberer; Kristine A. Nichols; Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2011-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and may alter soil microbial communities. A 60-week\\u000a mesocosm study with a factorial arrangement of soil type (clay loam and loamy sand) and endophyte infection (with and without)\\u000a was conducted to determine changes in soil

  11. Computing the R of the QR factorization of tall and skinny matrices using MPI_Reduce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Langou

    2010-01-01

    A QR factorization of a tall and skinny matrix with n columns can be represented as a reduction. The operation used along the reduction tree has in input two n-by-n upper triangular matrices and in output an n-by-n upper triangular matrix which is defined as the R factor of the two input matrices stacked the one on top of the

  12. Air and water pollution control in crude tall oil manufacture in the pulp and paper industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Krumbein; A. B. Adams

    1973-01-01

    Pollution preventive measures should be built into the process when a new mill is designed; corrective measures must be taken\\u000a on existing mills. For air pollution control, these measures consist essentially of enclosing all vessels that contain the\\u000a black liquor from which the tall oil is recovered. Hoods are placed over storage tanks, sumps, heat exchangers, and other\\u000a liquor-containing vessels.

  13. Seismic isolation technique for extra tall bushing of GIS using a pendulum type counterweight

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tomisawa, Masao; Murase, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of the authors` investigation here is to adopt the seismic isolation technique by using a pendulum type counterweight as a new approach for seismic qualification of the extra tall bushing of Gas-Insulated-Substations. It has been definitely shown by the results of numerical simulation of this isolation type bushing that the stress of the lower end of bushing can be effectively reduced to about 50% as compared with non-isolated case.

  14. Regeneration of fertile transgenic tall fescue plants with a stable highly expressed foreign gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benke Kuai; Sue J. Dalton; Andy J. E. Bettany; Phillip Morris

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and seventeen green tall fescue plants and 37 albino plants were regenerated from a glufosinate ammonium resistant\\u000a callus clone co-transformed with the bar gene and the gusgene, both driven by the rice actin 1 promoter. The gus gene was not detectable in regenerated plants but the presence of the bar gene in these plants was detected by the

  15. Numerical Simulation of the Flow around a Tall Finite Cylinder Using LES and PANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajnovi?, Siniša; Basara, Branislav

    Two unsteady numerical techniques, LES and PANS with different computer requirements were used to predict of the flow around a tall finite cylinder. The well resolved LES was found to predict the flow in agreement with previous experimental observations, while PANS was found to suffer from the combination of the k - ? model and wall function close to the wall of the cylinder and too coarse a resolution.

  16. Practical Analysis of Wind-Induced Human Comfort Condition of Tall Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuifu Chen; Chao Li

    2010-01-01

    A practical analysis procedure for estimation of the wind-induced root mean square acceleration response and the human comfort condition of tall buildings is presented in this paper. The modal wind-force time history curves and the corresponding power spectrum curves are first determined through analysis of the wind-pressure coefficient data obtained from the aerodynamic wind-tunnel model test and the dynamic characteristics

  17. Greenhouse gases measurements at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Bin; Lavri?, Jošt V.; Kolle, Olaf; Vesala, Timo; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Boreal ecosystems play a crucial role in atmospheric carbon budget calculations as they represent about one third of the Earth's forested land surface area and are typically a net sink of carbon dioxide and a net source of methane. However, direct measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane in large areas of the boreal zone, such as Central Siberia, are sparse and unevenly distributed in space. In order to improve the spatial coverage and representativeness of flux estimates and reduce their uncertainty, our group has begun eddy covariance measurements to complement our tall tower measurements in Central Siberia. The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, www.zottoproject.org) measurement site is located in pristine taiga near the Yenisei river (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The ZOTTO tall tower is equipped with continuous, low-maintenance CO2/CH4 concentration measurements by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) from six heights up to 301 m since May 2009. Additionally, we have set up two eddy covariance flux measurement systems in the forest and in the bog, located 1 and 3 km from the tall tower, respectively. Both towers are equipped with an enclosed CO2/H2O gas analyzer and ultrasonic anemometers. The bog tower includes a CH4 eddy covariance gas analyzer. Here, we report atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, focusing on growing season of 2012. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration in boreal forest eddy site, and carbon fluxes in the wetland area (60°49'N, 89°23'E) are examined in terms of their relationship with major controlling factors such as temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficits, soil moisture, and friction velocity.

  18. Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils. PMID:24912220

  19. Wild-type KRAS inhibits oncogenic KRAS-induced T-ALL in mice.

    PubMed

    Staffas, A; Karlsson, C; Persson, M; Palmqvist, L; Bergo, M O

    2015-05-01

    The role of hyperactive RAS signaling is well established in myeloid malignancies but less clear in T-cell malignancies. The Kras2(LSL)Mx1-Cre (KM) mouse model expresses endogenous KRAS(G12D) in hematopoietic cells and is widely used to study mechanisms and treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The model displays an intriguing shift from MPN to acute T-cell leukemia (T-ALL) after transplantation to wild-type mice, but the mechanisms underlying this lineage shift is unknown. Here, we show that KRAS(G12D) increases proliferation of both myeloid and T-cell progenitors, but whereas myeloid cells differentiate, T-cell differentiation is inhibited at early stages. Secondary mutations in the expanded pool of T-cell progenitors accompany T-ALL development, and our results indicate that the shift from myeloid to T-lymphoid malignancy after transplantation is explained by the increased likelihood for secondary mutations when the tumor lifespan is increased. We demonstrate that tumor lifespan increases after transplantation because primary KM mice die rapidly, not from MPN, but from KRAS(G12D) expression in nonhematopoietic cells, which causes intestinal bleeding and severe anemia. We also identify loss of the wild-type KRAS allele as a secondary mutation in all T-ALL cells and provide evidence that wild-type KRAS acts as a tumor suppressor in the T-cell lineage in mice. PMID:25371176

  20. Notch3/Jagged1 Circuitry Reinforces Notch Signaling and Sustains T-ALL12

    PubMed Central

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC–overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  1. Turner syndrome presented with tall stature due to overdosage of the SHOX gene

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kang, Eungu; Cho, Ja Hyang; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal disorders. It is caused by numerical or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome and results in short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. The short stature arises from haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene, whereas overdosage contributes to tall stature. This report describes the first Korean case of Turner syndrome with tall stature caused by SHOX overdosage. The patient presented with primary amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism at the age of 17 years. Estrogen replacement therapy was initiated at that time. She displayed tall stature from childhood, with normal growth velocity, and reached a final height of 190 cm (standard deviation score, 4.3) at the age of 30 years. Her karyotype was 46,X, psu idic(X)(q21.2), representing partial monosomy of Xq and partial trisomy of Xp. Analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detected a duplication at Xp22.3-Xp22.2, encompassing the PPP2R3 gene near the 5'-end of the SHOX gene through the FANCD gene at Xp22.2.

  2. Full-scale monitoring of typhoon effects on super tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. S.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Wong, C. K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the field measurement results of wind characteristics and structural responses of two super tall buildings, Central Plaza Tower (374 m, 78 floors) in Hong Kong and Di Wang Tower (384 m, 78 floors) in Shenzhen during the passage of Typhoon Sally. The field data such as wind speeds, wind directions and acceleration responses were simultaneously and continuously measured from the tall buildings during the typhoon. Detailed analysis of the field data and comparative study were conducted to investigate the characteristics of typhoon-generated wind over the two cities and wind-induced vibrations of the two super tall buildings under typhoon condition. The dynamic characteristics of the buildings were determined on the basis of the field measurements and comparisons with those calculated from the computational models of the buildings were made. The damping ratios of the buildings were estimated and the amplitude-dependent damping characteristics are presented and discussed. Furthermore, the full-scale measurements were compared with the wind tunnel results to evaluate the accuracy of the model test results and the adequacy of the techniques used in wind tunnel tests.

  3. Notch3/Jagged1 circuitry reinforces notch signaling and sustains T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC-overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  4. The NanoMicro Interface: Bridging Micro and Nano

    E-print Network

    Odom, Teri W.

    applications (e.g., transis- tors, light-emitting diodes, sensors) based on nanostructures, in whichThe Nano­Micro Interface: Bridging Micro and Nano Worlds Edited by Hans-Jçrg Fecht and Matthias Werner. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2004. 351 pp., hard- cover E 99.00.--ISBN 3527309780 By its very title, Nano

  5. NanoSail-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Adams, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    The "NanoSail-D" mission is currently scheduled for launch onboard a Falcon-1 Launch Vehicle in the early June 2008 timeframe. The NanoSail-D spacecraft will consist of a solar sail subsystem stowed in a 2U volume and a 1U spacecraft bus, provided by Ames Research Center. The primary objectives of the NanoSail-D technology demonstration mission are to fabricate, stow and deploy on-orbit a solar sail and perform a de-orbit maneuver to demonstrate a potential orbital debris mitigation technology. The NanoSail-D mission is being developed through a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the NASA Ames Research Center Small Spacecraft Office. Details of the NanoSail-D system will be presented, including: 1) design details of the solar sail reflective membrane quadrants, gossamer booms, deployment system and passive attitude control system, 2) design analysis results including structural, thermal, environmental, orbital debris and safety, and 3) test results including deployment, ascent venting, launch vibration and PPOD integration verification.

  6. What is Nano-Infusion?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from Nano-Link describes Nano-Infusion. This program "promotes integration and inclusion of nanoscale concepts into high school and college level education." Teachers are encouraged to join the free program to obtain training, support, and nano-related supplies that will aid in introducing nano experiments into their classrooms. To join the program, applicants merely need to create an account on the Nan-Link website and complete and introductory survey.

  7. Analysis of Wind Characteristics at United States Tall Tower Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.

    2008-12-01

    A major initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure that 20% of the country's electricity is produced by wind energy by the year 2030. An understanding of the boundary layer characteristics, especially at elevated heights greater than 80 meters (m) above the surface is a key factor for wind turbine design, wind plant layout, and identifying potential markets for advanced wind technology. The wind resource group at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory is analyzing wind data collected at tall (80+ m) towers across the United States. The towers established by both public and private initiative, measure wind characteristics at multiple levels above the surface, with the highest measurement levels generally between 80 and 110 m. A few locations have measurements above 200 m. Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) directly assess and analyze specific wind resource characteristics such as wind speed shear over the turbine blade swept area. The majority of the available public tall tower measurement sites are located between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The towers are not evenly distributed among the states. The states with the largest number of towers include Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. These states have five or six towers collecting data. Other states with multiple tower locations include Texas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and Ohio. The primary consideration when analyzing the data from the tall towers is identifying tower flow effects that not only can produce slightly misleading average wind speeds, but also significantly misleading wind speed shear values. In addition, the periods-of-record of most tall tower data are only one to two years in length. The short data collection time frame does not significantly affect the diurnal wind speed pattern though it does complicate analysis of seasonal wind patterns. The tall tower data analysis revealed some distinct regional features of wind shear climatology. For example, the wind shear exponent (alpha) at the towers in the Central Plains is generally between 0.15 and 0.25, greater than the commonly used 1/7 power law exponent value of 0.143. Another characteristic of Central Plains wind climatology was that winds from the south had alpha values of 0.2 to 0.3, while northerly winds had lower alpha values from 0.1 to 0.2. The wind resource at a particular tower is affected not only by the regional climatology but also by local conditions such as terrain, surface roughness, and structure of the lower boundary layer.

  8. Isoprene emissions and impacts in an ecological transition region inferred from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Griffis, T. J.; Turner, P. A.; Helmig, D.; Curtis, A.; Jacques, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present a full year of continuous in-situ measurements of isoprene and its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK+MACR) by PTR-MS from a 244 m tall tower in the US Upper Midwest (KCMP tall tower). The tower is located at an ecological transition between isoprene-emitting deciduous forest to the north and east, and predominantly non-isoprene-emitting agricultural landscapes to the west and south. Based on independent cartridge measurements and a source-tracer analysis, we estimate that anthropogenic interferences (or anthropogenic isoprene) contribute on average 20% of the observed PTR-MS m/z 69 signal during daytime in summer at the KCMP tall tower (and up to 80% at night). Interferences for MVK+MACR at m/z 71 are small (7%). After removing these interferences, the observed isoprene and MVK+MACR mixing ratios show pronounced seasonal cycles, reaching maxima of 2540 pptv (isoprene) and 2790 pptv (MVK+MACR) during summer. The KCMP tall tower is impacted both by nearby isoprene sources (with transport time within an isoprene lifetime) and more distant regional isoprene sources (with transport time exceeding an isoprene lifetime), as indicated by daytime enhancements of isoprene (but little MVK+MACR) under southwest winds, and enhancements of MVK+MACR (but little isoprene) under transport from other directions. We find that the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model driven with the MEGANv2.1 biogenic inventory can reproduce the observed isoprene mixing ratios to within model uncertainty once improved land cover and temperature estimates are implemented in the model. However, a model low bias in MVK+MACR of (25% - 66%) cannot be resolved, even across diverse model assumptions for chemistry, atmospheric mixing, and land cover. This suggests that, while isoprene emissions in the immediate vicinity of the KCMP tall tower are adequately captured, the model is still underestimating emissions across the broader region. Using the loss of HOx radicals relative to the loss of NOx radicals (LHOx/LNOx) in the model as an indicator, we find that this region experiences a strong seasonal shift between VOC-limited chemistry in the spring and fall and NOx-limited or transitional chemistry in the summer, and that this transition is driven by the temporal and spatial distribution of isoprene emissions.

  9. Expression of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene in tall fescue confers resistance to gray leaf spot and brown patch diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shujie Dong; H. David Shew; Jianli Lu; Elumalai Sivamani; Eric S. Miller; Rongda Qu

    2008-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important turf and forage grass species worldwide. Fungal diseases present a major limitation in the maintenance\\u000a of tall fescue lawns, landscapes, and forage fields. Two severe fungal diseases of tall fescue are brown patch, caused by\\u000a Rhizoctonia solani, and gray leaf spot, caused by Magnaporthe grisea. These diseases are often major problems of

  10. Clinical and molecular characterization of early T-cell precursor leukemia: a high-risk subgroup in adult TALL with a high frequency of FLT3 mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Neumann; S Heesch; N Gökbuget; S Schwartz; C Schlee; O Benlasfer; N Farhadi-Sartangi; J Thibaut; T Burmeister; D Hoelzer; W-K Hofmann; E Thiel; C D Baldus

    2012-01-01

    A subgroup of pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) was characterized by a gene expression profile comparable to that of early T-cell precursors (ETPs) with a highly unfavorable outcome. We have investigated clinical and molecular characteristics of the ETP-ALL subgroup in adult T-ALL. As ETP-ALL represents a subgroup of early T-ALL we particularly focused on this cohort and identified 178 adult

  11. Biodiesel production from tall oil with synthesized Mn and Ni based additives: Effects of the additives on fuel consumption and emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Keskin; Metin Gürü; Duran Alt?parmak

    2007-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel fuel and fuel additives were produced from crude tall oil that is a by-product in the pulp manufacturing by craft or sulphate pulping process. Fatty acids and resinic acids were obtained from crude tall oil by distillation method. Tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel) was produced from fatty acids. Resinic acids were reacted with NiO and MnO2

  12. A comparative study of growth strategies in two varieties of Arrhenatherum elatius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin U. Khan; Alan J. Morton

    1994-01-01

    Growth strategies of the two varieties of Arrhenatherum elatius were studied. The two varieties studied were: onion couch, which produces bulbous swollen internodes and is an arable weed of local importance, whilst tall oat-grass is more widely distributed. An experiment in which the two varieties were grown at different densities in monoculture and were harvested at intervals, highlighted various aspects

  13. Nano-Satellite Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culver, Harry

    1999-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

  14. Nano-rods of zinc oxide in nano-graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Pedro; Chavira, Elizabeth; Monroy, Marel; Elizalde, José; Santiago, Patricia; Sato, Roberto; Tejeda, Adriana; González, Guillermina; Novelo, Omar; Flores, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    It's of great interest to study the devices based on nano-ZnO and graphene, for their electromagnetic and optical properties to increase the efficiency of solar cells. The graphene multilayers synthesis was done by mechanosynthesis, grinding in a mechanical agate mortar. The zinc oxide nano-rods were synthesized from zinc acetate dihydrate, Ace, (Sigma Aldrich) and ethylene diamine, En, (Sigma Aldrich) with a 1:2 ratio of reagents En/Ace. The ZnO nano-rods in nano-tubes graphene were obtained by mechanosynthesis. The X-ray powder diffraction, shows the shift of C with PDF 12-0212 and ZnO, Zincite PDF 36-1451, both with hexagonal unit cell. The grain size and morphology of graphene (multilayers and nano-tubes), ZnO nano-rods and ZnO-graphene mixture (multilayers, nano-tubes) were observed by scanning electron microscope. Transmission electron microscope, corroborates shown in SEM. Raman spectroscopy, shows the shift of multilayer graphene and the ZnO nano-rods. In photoluminescence measurements, observe the change in intensity in the band defects. Magnetic properties characterization was carried out by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. We conclude that graphite multilayers dislocated by cutting efforts, forming graphene nano-tubes and encapsulated ZnO nano-rods within graphene.

  15. Feedbacks between tall shrubland development and active layer temperatures in northwest Siberian arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost soils are a globally significant carbon store, but changes in permafrost thermal regime observed in recent decades across much of the Arctic suggest that permafrost carbon balance is likely to change with continued climate warming. Critical to changes in permafrost carbon balance in a warmer world, however, are feedbacks between changes in the composition and density of surface vegetation, and the thermal state of permafrost. Shrub expansion has been widely observed in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, but the magnitude and direction of shrub-induced impacts to permafrost temperature and stability remain poorly understood. Here we evaluate changes to active layer properties and thermal regime that occur during tall shrubland development (shrubs > 1.5 m height) within a northwest Siberian landscape dominated by well-developed, small-scale patterned ground features (e.g., non-sorted circles). We measured the annual time-series of soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm depth, and the structural attributes of vegetation at patterned-ground microsites across four stages of tall shrubland development: low-growing tundra lacking erect shrubs, newly-developed shrublands, mature shrublands, and paludified shrublands. Mean summer soil temperatures declined with increasing shrub cover and moss thickness, but winter soil temperatures increased with shrub development. Shrubland development strongly attenuated cryoturbation, promoting the establishment of complete vegetation cover and the development of a continuous organic mat. Increased vegetation cover, in turn, led to further reduced cryoturbation and an aggrading permafrost table. These observations indicate that tall shrub expansion that is now occurring in patterned-ground landscapes of the northwest Siberian Arctic may buffer permafrost from atmospheric warming, and increase carbon storage in these systems at least in the short term.

  16. Growing tall-grass energy crops on sewage effluent spray field at Tallahassee, FL

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; McConnell, W.V. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Six tall tropical grasses, N-51, PI 300086, and Merkeron elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and US 72-1153, US 56-9 and L 79-1002 energy cane (Saccharum sp.) and Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were planted on the sewage effluent spray field of the city of Tallahassee, FL on January 6, 1993. Effluent with a total N content of 18 mg/1 was applied at the average rate of about 65 mm per week. In 1993, the plants grew well but we had difficulty with irrigation not reaching the experimental area during a drought. Seasonal dry matter biomass from Merkeron, PI 300086 and N-51 elephantgrass was 16.0, 18.2 and 16.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, and for L79-1002, US 72-1153 and US 56-9 energy canes was 22.6, 13.0 and 6.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, respectively. The second season all the grasses had excellent growth during season but, cattle broke in and harvested plots for us. In 1995 plots were split and low and high fertilizer rates applied. The average dry matter biomass production for 1995 season over the surviving five tropical tall grasses remaining was 28.7 Mg ha{sup -1} at low fertilizer rate and 32.2 Mg ha{sup -1} at high fertilizer rate. The annual oven dry biomass yields were 3 5.3, 34.8 and 27.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the elephantgrass entries, Merkeron, N-51 and PI 300086 and 28.7 and 25.8 Mg ha{sup -1} for US 72-1153 and L79-1002 energy canes, respectively. All grass plants suffered N deficiency each winter and spring until N fertilizer was applied. The tall grass energy crops can be successfully grown on sewage effluent fields of cities in Lower South, USA.

  17. Tall oil precursors and turpentine in Jack and Eastern White Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    The tall oil precursors and turpentine from jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were investigated. The tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and unsaponifiables were determined by chemical fractionation of the nonvolatile diethyl ether extractives (NVEE) of these speices: (approximate % resin acids, % fatty acids, % unsaponifiables, and % acids other that fatty and resin acids) - jack pine sapwood (10, 60, 10, 20%), heartwood (38, 12, 6, 44%); eastern white pine sapwood (11, 57, 9, 22%), and heartwood (11, 18, 10, 62%). The resin acids were a mixture of the pimaric and abietic acids common to pines. In addition, eastern white pine contained major amounts of the resin acid, anticopalic acid. The fatty acids were predominately oleic, linoleic, and 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acids. The unsaponsiables were a complex mixture of diterpenes and sterols (mainly campesterol and sitosterol). On treating these species with paraquat, lightwood occurred in the sapwood but not in the heartwood areas as we have oberved with other pines. The NVEE of the lightwood areas contained increased amounts of resin acids, unsaponifiables, and acids other than fatty and resin acids. The total fatty acid content was essentially unchanged. Since fatty acid components are preferentially lost by esterification with neutral alcoholic constituents in the unsaponifiables during the distillation refining of crude tall oil, the increased unsaponifiables relative to the constant fatty acid content might result in a net reduction in fatty acid recovery from lightered trees. The turpentine content of both jack and eastern white pine increased on lightering and was primarily a mixture of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-pinene.

  18. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Mohr, M.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.; Millet, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in the atmosphere as a source of carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO), however the magnitude and distribution of methanol emissions remain poorly constrained. Here we present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 185 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40% of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10% during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35% in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of HCHO and CO is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20% of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12% later in the summer and 12% on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  19. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Mohr, M. J.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.

    2011-11-01

    We present over one year (January 2010-February 2011) of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40% of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10% during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35% in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20% of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12% later in the summer and 12% on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  20. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Mohr, M. J.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.; Millet, D. B.

    2011-06-01

    We present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40 % of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10 % during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35 % in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20 % of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12 % later in the summer and 12 % on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  1. Growth responses of two tall fescue cultivars to Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Xie, Yan; Jin, Guifang; Fu, Jinmin; Li, Huiying

    2015-04-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), a widely planted cool-season turfgrass and forage, is tolerant to heavy metals. However, previous investigation demonstrated that different accessions varied in Pb tolerance. In present study, hydroponic system was used to study the effects of Pb on two tall fescue cultivars, Pb tolerant 'Silverado' and Pb sensitive 'AST7001', respectively. The results indicated that Pb concentration was 14 times lower in shoots of 'Silverado' (1.34 mg g(-1) dry weight) versus 'AST7001' (19.92 mg g(-1) dry weight), although it was higher in roots of 'Silverado' (68.28 mg g(-1) dry weight) versus 'AST7001' (48.7 mg g(-1) dry weight), when subjected to 1,000 mg L(-1) Pb. In both cultivars, Pb caused an induction in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, to a less increase in 'Silerado' than 'AST7001'. Pb treatment decreased significantly soluble protein content in 'AST7001'. By contrast, soluble protein content was increased progressively, and the ratio of variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence was not affected in 'Silverado'. Pb treated tall fescue leaves had a greater level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity in both cultivars, however, increase was sharp in 'Silverado' plants. The results of Q-PCR analysis for genes encoding antioxidant enzyme were in accordance with that of enzyme activities. The higher Pb tolerance of 'Silverado' might be attributed to lower shoot Pb concentration and MDA content. Meantime, the amount of soluble protein, activity of SOD and POD, as well as the level of up regulation of Cyt Cu/ZnSOD was all higher in 'Silverado' than in 'AST7001'. PMID:25537098

  2. Electron microscopic study of rheumatoid synovial vasculature. Intimate relationship between tall endothelium and lymphoid aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, T; Ziff, M

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between (a) "tallness" and (b) cross-sectional area of the endothelial cells (EC) of postcapillary venules (PCV) and capillaries and the cellular composition of adjacent perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in rheumatoid (RA) synovial membrane has been examined by electron microscopy. "Tallness" of the EC was measured as the ratio of the height of the EC to its base (H/B). H/B showed a strong positive correlation with the number and percent of perivascular lymphocytes, i.e., the denser the lymphoid aggregation, the taller the EC. In contrast, H/B showed negative correlations with percent perivascular plasma cells, macrophages, and fibroblast(cyte)s. No such correlations were observed with pericapillary infiltrates. A computer-based morphometric technique yielded similar relationships between the cross-sectional area of the EC and the composition of the perivascular infiltrates. These results indicate that the EC of PCV in lymphocyte-rich areas of synovium tend to be tall and to occupy an increased fraction of the cross-sectional area of the vessel. In contrast, in areas rich in macrophages and plasma cells, EC tend to be flat and to occupy a smaller fraction of the cross-sectional area. PCV in uninfiltrated interstitial areas and in normal synovium had flat EC, and capillaries had flat EC regardless of the character of the surrounding infiltrate. Finally, PCV in lymphocyte-rich areas closely resembled those of tonsil in appearance. Our findings indicate that the PCV of the RA synovial membrane from which lymphocytes emigrate to form perivascular lymphoid aggregates resemble those of lymphoid tissue. They suggest that chronic inflammatory tissue and normal lymphoid tissue share mechanisms of lymphocyte emigration. Images PMID:3944263

  3. Self-Organization Nano-Computation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Self-Organization for Nano-Computation and Nano-Assembly Bruce J. MacLennan Dept. of Computer Science University of Tennessee, Knoxville #12;6 March 2007 Self-Organization for Nano- Computation & Nano, or ­ inspired by that occurring in nature formal material #12;6 March 2007 Self-Organization for Nano

  4. Protein micro- and nano-capsules for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Ulyana; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Knowles, T P J; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2014-03-01

    Micro- and nano-scale systems have emerged as important tools for developing clinically useful drug delivery systems. In this tutorial review, we discuss the exploitation of biomacromolecules for this purpose, focusing on proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides and mixtures thereof as potential building blocks for novel drug delivery systems. We focus on the mechanisms of formation of micro- and nano-scale protein-based capsules and shells, as well as on the functionalization of such structures for use in targeted delivery of bioactive materials. We summarise existing methods for protein-based capsule synthesis and functionalization and highlight future challenges and opportunities for delivery strategies based on biomacromolecules. PMID:24336689

  5. Rapid synthesis of a PtRu nano-sponge with different surface compositions and performance evaluation for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Meiling; Feng, Ligang; Zhu, Jianbing; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A rapid strategy to synthesize a highly active PtRu alloy nano-sponge catalyst system for methanol electro-oxidation is presented. The greatly increased Pt utilization, anti-CO poisoning ability and electronic effect resulting from the porous nano-sponge structure could account for the performance improvement.

  6. Verification of Large Scale Nano Systems with Unreliable Nano Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Hsiao; Shuo Sheng; Rajat Arora; Ankur Jain; Vamsi Boppana

    Any nano-system that designers build must guarantee functional correctness. The sheer scale factor and the added layers of\\u000a uncertainty in nano-systems demand revolutionary breakthroughs in system design tools and algorithms. Formal verification\\u000a of nano systems, then, must be able to deal with large state spaces, together with the presence of unknowns and uncertainties.\\u000a The methods described in this chapter present

  7. Building Tall

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS Kids

    2006-01-01

    In this engineering activity (page 2 of PDF), young learners investigate how a wide base can make a building more stable. Learners use blocks or boxes of different sizes to construct stable towers. Learners will compare and contrast different structures, document their observations, experiment with different materials, and conduct stability tests. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Curious George's Home for Pigeons." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

  8. Applicability of a displaced-beam laser scintillometer in a sparse tall Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammalleri, C.; Agnese, C.; D'Urso, G.; Georgiadis, T.; La Loggia, G.; Sciortino, M.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies showed that the sensible heat flux (H) measured with an array of eddy-correlation system has an high spatial and temporal variability over sparse tall vegetation, such as olive trees, whereas Hdetermined with a displaced-beam laser scintillometer (DBLS) appeared to behave more stable. In this study, the results are shown of two field experiments performed over an olive tree plantation in Sicily in 2007 and 2008, in order to investigate the applicability of a DBSL in combination with remote sensing techniques for the actual evapotranspiration assessment. In 2007 the laser beams was closer to the top of the canopy than in 2008. Various aspects of the scintillation method will be discussed, such as uncertainty about Monin-Obukhov similarity relations for dissipation of kinetic turbulence energy (É?), the structure parameter of temperature (CT2 ), effects of the roughness sub-layer and the outer scale of turbulence. Finally, a practical method will be proposed for routine applications in agriculture of the DBLS over sparse tall Mediterranean vegetation.

  9. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  10. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at ?^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  11. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  12. Leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to crown architecture in the tall canopy species, Fagus crenata.

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Yasumura, Yuko; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    The theory of optimal leaf N distribution predicts that the C gain of plants is maximized when the N content per unit area (N(area)) scales with light availability, but most previous studies have demonstrated that the N distribution is not proportional to light availability. In tall trees, the leaves are often clustered on twigs (leaf cluster) and not evenly distributed within the crowns. Thus, we hypothesized that the suboptimal N distribution is partly caused by the limited capacity to translocate N between leaf clusters, and consequently, the relationship between light and N(area) differs for leaves in different clusters. We investigated the light availability and N content of all individual leaves within several leaf clusters on tall trees of a deciduous canopy species Fagus crenata in Japan. We observed that the within-cluster leaf N distribution patterns differed from the between-cluster patterns and the slopes of the relationships between light and N(area) were lower within clusters than between clusters. According to the detailed analysis of the N distribution within leaf clusters, N(area) was greater for current-year shoots with greater light availability or a larger total leaf area. The latter pattern was probably caused by the greater sink strength of the current-year shoots with a larger leaf area. These N distribution patterns suggest that leaf clusters are fairly independent with respect to their N use, and the productivity of real F. crenata crowns may be less than optimal. PMID:24844645

  13. Leukemia stem cells in T-ALL require active Hif1? and Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Giambra, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Catherine E; Lam, Sonya H; Hoofd, Catherine; Belmonte, Miriam; Wang, Xuehai; Gusscott, Sam; Gracias, Deanne; Weng, Andrew P

    2015-06-18

    The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to play important roles in normal hematopoietic stem cell biology and in the development of both acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Its role in maintaining established leukemia stem cells, which are more directly relevant to patients with disease, however, is less clear. To address what role Wnt signaling may play in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we used a stably integrated fluorescent Wnt reporter construct to interrogate endogenous Wnt signaling activity in vivo. In this study, we report that active Wnt signaling is restricted to minor subpopulations within bulk tumors, that these Wnt-active subsets are highly enriched for leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), and that genetic inactivation of ?-catenin severely reduces LIC frequency. We show further that ?-catenin transcription is upregulated by hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif1?) stabilization, and that deletion of Hif1? also severely reduces LIC frequency. Of note, the deletion of ?-catenin or Hif1? did not impair the growth or viability of bulk tumor cells, suggesting that elements of the Wnt and Hif pathways specifically support leukemia stem cells. We also confirm the relevance of these findings to human disease using cell lines and patient-derived xenografts, suggesting that targeting these pathways could benefit patients with T-ALL. PMID:25934477

  14. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-04-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  15. ABC transporter and metallothionein expression affected by NI and Epichloe endophyte infection in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Mirzahossini, Zahra; Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sharifi-Tehrani, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Epichloe endophytes are symbiotic fungi which unlike mycorrhiza grow within aerial parts of host plants. The fungi may increase host tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the effect of endophyte infection on growth and tolerance, carbohydrate contents and ABC (ABC transporter) and MET (metallothionein) expression in the leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The endophyte infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (30, 90 and 180mgkg(-1)). Growth parameters including root, shoot, total biomass, tiller number and total chlorophyll content of plants and H2O2 content of shoots were measured at the end of experiment. Ni translocation to the shoots, carbohydrate contents in roots and expression of ABC and MET of the leaves were also measured after 10 weeks of growth. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of endophyte association on growth and Ni tolerance of tall fescue under Ni stress through an avoidance mechanism (reduction of Ni accumulation and translocation to the shoots). Endophyte infected plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the endophyte free plants. In endophyte free plants, H2O2 production had a significant positive correlation with genes expression, indicating that an increase in H2O2 might be involved in the up-regulation of ABC and MET under Ni stress. PMID:26024809

  16. Vasoconstriction in bovine vasculature induced by the tall fescue alkaloid lysergamide.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J W; Abney, L K; Strickland, J R; Linnabary, R D

    1993-10-01

    Treatment of bovine lateral saphenous vein (cranial branch) and dorsal metatarsal artery with lysergamide (lysergic acid amide), an alkaloid in abundance in tall fescue, resulted in vasoconstriction similar to that previously shown for the ergot alkaloids ergonovine and ergotamine. Preincubation of tissues with lysergamide resulted in partial inhibition of the contractile response induced by the selective adrenergic agents phenylephrine and BHT-920 (P < .05), indicating partial agonist or antagonist activity of lysergamide at these receptors. Bovine vessels were strongly contracted by serotonin, and the response was markedly inhibited (P < .01) when tissues were preincubated with lysergamide. Studies with selective serotonergic agents indicated that lysergamide may have predilection for serotonin-2 receptors (5-HT2). Thus, lysergamide by itself has vasoconstrictor activity and acts as a partial agonist or antagonist at adrenergic and serotonergic receptors. Further studies are needed to establish the exact receptor effects of lysergamide. However, it is evident that this important alkaloid found in tall fescue infested with the endophytic fungus Acremonium coenophialum should be given consideration in studies designed to alleviate the fescue toxicosis syndrome in cattle. PMID:7901191

  17. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  18. 46 CFR 32.55-20 - Venting of cargo tanks of tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL. 32.55-20 Section 32.55-20 Shipping...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951—T/ALL. (a) Venting required. (1) On all tankships, the construction or...

  19. 46 CFR 32.55-20 - Venting of cargo tanks of tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL. 32.55-20 Section 32.55-20 Shipping...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951—T/ALL. (a) Venting required. (1) On all tankships, the construction or...

  20. 46 CFR 32.55-20 - Venting of cargo tanks of tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL. 32.55-20 Section 32.55-20 Shipping...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951—T/ALL. (a) Venting required. (1) On all tankships, the construction or...

  1. 46 CFR 32.55-20 - Venting of cargo tanks of tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL. 32.55-20 Section 32.55-20 Shipping...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951—T/ALL. (a) Venting required. (1) On all tankships, the construction or...

  2. 46 CFR 32.55-20 - Venting of cargo tanks of tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL. 32.55-20 Section 32.55-20 Shipping...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951—T/ALL. (a) Venting required. (1) On all tankships, the construction or...

  3. Ultrasound-responsive thrombus treatment with zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    is undertaken to design zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t In acute myocardial infarction, treatment strategies aimed at rapidly restoring complete and2 persistent deeply penetrate into the interior of body. Seve

  4. www.nanobiomed.at NanoBiosciences & NanoMedicine

    E-print Network

    Szmolyan, Peter

    www.nanobiomed.at MEng NanoBiosciences & NanoMedicine Postgraduate Program, Master of Engineering Krems #12;Nanobiosciences and Nanomedicine are quite rightly regarded as the foremost fields, chemistry, physics, material science and medicine. Thus, nanobiosciences and nanomedicine are based

  5. The Supramolecular NanoMaterials Group From Nano-Particles

    E-print Network

    Materials Group Supramolecular Materials Science Monolayer Protected Metal Nanoparticles Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanowires Supramolecular Lithography Supramolecular Nano Stamping Jackson, Myerson, Stellacci, Nat manuscript in prep. NANO-MATERIALS LITHOGRAPHY 20 m #12;S u N M a G Metal Nanoparticles Synthesis Metal Salt

  6. Corking nano test tubes by chemical self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Hillebrenner, Heather; Buyukserin, Fatih; Kang, Myungchan; Mota, Miguel O; Stewart, Jon D; Martin, Charles R

    2006-04-01

    There is tremendous current interest in using nanoparticles to deliver biomolecules and macromolecules (e.g., drugs and DNA) to specific sites in living systems. Release of the biomedical payload from the nanoparticle can be accomplished by chemical or enzymatic degradation of the nanoparticle or of the link between the payload and the nanoparticle. We are exploring an alternative payload-release strategy that builds on our work on template-synthesized nano test tubes. These are hollow nanotubes that are closed on one end and open on the other, and the dimensions can be controlled at will. If these nano test tubes could be filled with a payload and then the open end corked with a chemically labile cap, they might function as a universal delivery vehicle. We show here that silica nano test tubes can be covalently corked by chemical self-assembly of nanoparticles to the tubes. We also show that the nanoparticle corks remain attached to the mouths of the nano test tubes after liberation from the alumina template. For this proof-of-principle study, we used simple imine linkages to attach the corks to the test tubes. Schiff's bases are thermodynamically unstable in the presence of water; however, the multiple points of contact between the nano test tubes and nanoparticles allow the assembled structure to be metastable under our experimental conditions. Other chemical linkages-either more or less stable-may be more appropriate for other applications, and these are currently under development. PMID:16568992

  7. Adsorption-induced crystallization of U-rich nanocrystals on nano-Mg(OH)(2) and the aqueous uranyl enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhuang, Zanyong; Cao, Qing; Pan, Xiaohong; Guan, Xiong; Lin, Zhang

    2014-01-22

    The mechanism of the interaction between nano-Mg(OH)2 adsorbent and uranyl in water was studied. At trace levels, the uranyl is adsorbed as a monolayer on nano-Mg(OH)2, and occupied a small proportion of the adsorption sites. As the uranyl concentration crosses over a threshold, continuous increase of adsorption capacity takes place. It indicates that, by taking the pre-adsorbed uranyl as the nucleation centers, the additional uranyl crystallizes and forms U-rich nanocrystals well-scattered on the surface of nano-Mg(OH)2. A strategy of inducing fast crystal growth of nano-Mg(OH)2 to micrometer-sized Na2Mg(CO3)2 enables the desorption and enrichment of uranyl. The recycling and reuse of nano-Mg(OH)2 can be achieved simultaneously. The finding in this work provides fundamental understanding of the efficient usage of nano-Mg(OH)2 in practical applications. PMID:24369706

  8. Are tall trees more sensitive to prolonged drought in tropical per-humid forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality of water flux was investigated for common tree species of a Central Sulawesi pre-montane perhumid forest located in the Lore Lindu National Park. Trees were exposed to reduced soil water levels under a rainfall exclusion experiment (Sulawesi Throughfall Displacement Experiment, STD), to simulate drought effects and to monitor species-specific short-term responses to extended water stress. Several climate scenarios predict more frequent occurrence of ENSO droughts with increasing severity induced by global warming. Detailed assessments of the ecological consequences of droughts in perhumid forests are scarce and knowledge whether and how these ecosystems are adapted to severe droughts is limited. Key research questions were: (1) how do tall rainforest trees cope with long pathways under low evaporative demand, (2) how sensitive are trees from tropical perhumid forests and how do they acclimate to drought-stress and 3) does wood density determine the drought sensitivity of perhumid forest trees? From June 2007 until October 2009 we monitored 95 trees from 8 common tree species. Half of them were located under the STD Experiment and the other half in control areas. We used the constant heated method to continuously monitor stem xylem flux density and conduct parallel measurements of xylem anatomy and hydraulic conductivity in twigs, stems and roots. After almost 22 months of experimental drought only 25% of xylem flux density reduction was observed in the experimental trees. But the reaction to water stress was species-specific and in some species xylem flux went down to 50 % compared to the individuals located at the control plots. Wood density did not correlate with any hydraulic measurement, but anatomy and hydraulic architecture observations showed a positive correlation between xylem conductivity and vessel size with tree height. These results reveal a well adapted hydraulic system of tall canopy trees allowing for highly efficient water flow under conditions of low atmospheric evaporative demand at the cost of cavitation security. But this is contradictory to the low reduction in xylem flux density with drought since tall trees undergo the risk of cavitation by having large vessels. With drought these vessels should be easily embolized and we should have observed a clear reduction in xylem flux.

  9. Characterizing the Vertical Flux of CO2 within the Nocturnal Boundary Layer near a Tall Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, D. W.; Buckley, R.; Kurzeja, R.; Zhang, G.; Parker, M.; Duarte, H.; Leclerc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the vertical dispersion of carbon dioxide respired from plants at night is crucial to distinguishing local- to regional-scale transport and continental-scale transport in global carbon budgets. When atmospheric conditions are stable, CO2 will be weakly mixed, and nearby detectors above the surface layer will instead sample CO2 carried from large distances. These conditions often prevail during the nighttime, making that period ideal for continental-scale sampling. On the other hand, during periods of moderate or intermittent nocturnal turbulence, locally-respired CO2 will be transported through the surface layer and produce a signal at the detector. In August 2008, a 329m tall TV tower (33.4058N, 81.834W) in Aiken, South Carolina (the "South Carolina Tower" http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/towers/#sct) was incorporated into the NOAA-Global Monitoring Division's Tall Tower network. This site is located within a region that varies from agricultural, broken forests, suburban, urban and industrial. Emissions from several cities (most notably Augusta, GA) and industrial sites are within 50km of the tower and may contribute disproportionately to the nighttime tower readings. To distinguish local and regional sources, it is necessary to characterize vertical turbulent transport at this site. There are several ways to do this, and we focus on three. First, a mesoscale model was run at high-resolution to recreate the winds and temperature observed during a May 2009 nocturnal tracer release field project conducted in the region surrounding the site. The model data then served as input to a Lagrangian transport model. This was done for two eight-hour periods on successive but different nights: one slightly stable, and the other more stable. The coupled mesoscale/transport model was then validated against the tracer data, and was used to calculate the dispersion properties of the tracer and provide a 3-dimensional picture of the plume. For comparison, we apply two other methods to calculate eddy diffusivity. We calculate it directly using sonic anemometer and fast-response CO2 flux and concentration data from the tall tower. The fast response data (10Hz) allows for the explicit calculation of the turbulent transport and, along with the vertical gradient, provide an estimate of the diffusivity. As a third method, the eddy diffusivity can also be calculated by an empirical method that uses as input the turbulent properties measured at the tower. We select one such method and compare the results to the other two estimates.

  10. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  11. Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader. The results indicate, in particular, that a charge moment change of 390 C km in a +CG can lead to leader initiation from a 457 m tower approximately 15 km from the +CG, in good agreement with observations reported in [Stanley and Heavner, 2003]. We report detailed relationships, including analytical estimates and numerical modeling results, providing information on the charge moment charges versus tower height and radial position with respect to +CG required for initiation of upward leaders.

  12. Exploring Materials: Nano Gold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners discover that nanoparticles of gold can appear red, orange or even blue. They learn that a material can act differently when it’s nanometer-sized. Use this activity to explain how stained glass gets its different colors. Note: the cost for the materials in this activity is quite high. However, this is a one-time cost, since the nano gold is kept in vials at all time and thus should not be used up. SAFETY: Do not let visitors ingest the contents of the vials. Keep vials sealed shut. Use caution when handling the stained glass samples. Do not remove them from their protective case.

  13. TALL FESCUE FERTILIZED WITH ALUM-TREATED AND UNTREATED BROILER LITTER: RUNOFF, SOIL, AND PLANT NUTRIENT CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface and ground water quality may be impacted as a result of land application of poultry litter to pasture or crop lands. An experiment was conducted at Crossville, AL to study the effects of alum [Al2 (SO4)3,14H2O] treatment of broiler litter on the yield and nutrient uptake of tall fescue (Fes...

  14. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 18 crossbred Angus steers each year to evaluate changes in body temperature, vasoconstriction, and prolactin concentrations in steers previously grazed on toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) as c...

  15. PREDICTING TOXICITY OF TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM BARBEYI): MEASUREMENT OF THE VARIATION IN ALKALOID CONCENTRATION AMONG PLANTS AND AMONG YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) is the principle mountain larkspur responsible for the majority of cattle deaths on mountain rangelands in western Colorado and central and southern Utah. The objective of this paper was to describe the variation in toxic alkaloid concentrations between plants, ov...

  16. Tall oatgrass mosaic virus (TOgMV): a novel member of the genus Tritimovirus infecting Arrhenatherum elatius.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed; Širlová, Lenka; Vacke, Josef

    2014-07-01

    A novel tritimovirus of the family Potyviridae was isolated from tall oatgrass, Arrhenatherum elatius, exhibiting mosaic symptoms. The virus, for which the name tall oatgrass mosaic virus (TOgMV) is coined, has a filamentous particle of 720 nm and is associated with pinwheel inclusion bodies characteristic of members of the family Potyviridae. The virus was mechanically transmitted to tall oatgrass seedlings, which subsequently exhibited mosaic symptoms. The experimental host range was limited to a few monocot species. The complete genome sequence of TOgMV was determined to be 9359 nucleotides, excluding the 3' polyadenylated tail. The viral RNA encodes one large putative open reading frame of 3029 amino acids with a genome organization typical of monopartite potyvirids. Pairwise comparison of putative mature proteins and proteinase cleavage sites indicated that TOgMV is most closely related to members of the genus Tritimovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete polyprotein and CP sequences of representative members of the family Potyviridae indicate that TOgMV is a distinct tritimovirus naturally infecting tall oatgrass. PMID:24193952

  17. Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics of tall fescue–endophyte associations as a function of defoliation intensity and light availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum, Schreb. S. J. Darbyshire] in terms of productivity and persistence in agro-ecosystems arises in part from association with Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams, Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) endophyte. The influence of novel, non-ergogenic endo...

  18. EFFECT OF ENDOPHYTE TYPE ON CARCASS TRAITS, MEAT QUALITY, AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING TALL FESCUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Realini; S. K. Duckett; B. G. Lyon; C. S. Hoveland; J. H. Bouton; J. R. Sackmann; M. H. Gillis; K. R. Smith

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY Fourteen Hereford steers were used to compare carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef from cattle grazing tall fescue infected with either wild-type (TOXIC; n = 6) or novel, non-toxic (MAXQ; n = 8) endophyte. At the end of the grazing period (135 d), steers were harvested at a commercial meat plant and carcass data collected.

  19. Interaction of breed-type and endophyte-infected tall fescue on milk production and quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk production of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue (TF) (Festuca arundinacea), an important cool season grass in the southeastern U.S., is often decreased and can impact calf growth. The objective of this study was to determine whether a thermo-tolerant Bos taurus breed of c...

  20. Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixtures fertilized with combinations of nitrogen fertilizer and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round forage production is feasible in much of the southeastern USA through utilization of cool- and warm-season forages. This study determined if productivity and nutritive value in binary mixtures of tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort] and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L...

  1. Steer Performance and pasture productivity of a tall fescue-bermudagrass system compared with yellow bluestem and coastal panicgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round grazing in animal production systems has potential in the mid-Atlantic USA. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbysh.] is generally the cool-season perennial and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] the warm-season perennial in these systems. This study evaluated yel...

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics oas an index of tall fescue–endophyte association response to light availability and defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is adapted to diverse growing conditions occurring in humid, temperate agro-ecosystems. A mutualistic endophytic symbiont (Neotyphodium coenophialum, [Morgan-Jones et Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) contributes to this resilience, but at t...

  3. Contractile response of fescue-naïve bovine lateral saphenous veins to increasing concentrations of tall fescue alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue have been shown to elicit different effects in the grazing animal. As part of an ongoing characterization of vascular response generated by different alkaloids, the objective this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergono...

  4. CORRELATION OF ENDOPYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE ROOT EXTRACT FRACTIONS WITH PATHOGENIC NEMATODE ACTIVITY MEASURED IN AN IN VITRO SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root exudates contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances released into soils by healthy intact roots and include such classes of compounds as organic acids, peptides, amino acids, sugars, phenols, and other miscellaneous compounds. The roots of grasses, tall fescue in particular, are noted prod...

  5. Elucidating differences in gene expression of Epichloe coenophiala endophytic fungus in reproductive vs. vegetative tissues of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tall fescue – Epichloe coenophiala symbiotic system is the most extensively studied of any grass-microbe symbiosis, mainly because of its economic importance worldwide. This is also an extraordinarily stable and mutualistic symbiosis where the endophyte colonizes both vegetative and reproductive...

  6. Growth performance, ruminal fermentation profiles, and carcass characteristics of beef steers grazing tall fescue without or with nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effects of finishing beef cattle grazed on tall fescue (TF) pasture without or with N fertilization on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics. In each grazing season, 18 Angus crossbred steers were arranged based on...

  7. Influence of stocking rate and steroidal implants on growth rate of steers grazing toxic tall fescue and subsequent physiological responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr grazing experiment evaluated interactions between stocking rate and implantation with steroid hormones on weight gain and symptoms of toxicosis for yearling steers grazing endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Combinations of four stocking rates (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 s...

  8. Intergeneric somatic hybridization in Gramineae: somatic hybrid plants between tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Takamizo; German Spangenberg; Ken-ichi Suginobu; Ingo Potrykus

    1991-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) protoplasts, inactivated by iodoacetamide, and non-morphogenic Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) protoplasts, both derived from suspension cultures, were electrofused and putative somatic hybrid plants were recovered. Two different genotypic fusion combinations were carried out and several green plants were regenerated in one of them. With respect to plant habitus, leaf and inflorescence morphology, the regenerants

  9. Assessment of Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Lateral Saphenous Veins of Crossbreed Heifer Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is one response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively, the objective of this study was to begin to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA), ergov...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429...Chemical Substances § 721.10429 Fatty acids, C18 -unsatd., dimers,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429...Chemical Substances § 721.10429 Fatty acids, C18 -unsatd., dimers,...

  12. EFFECT OF SOURCE AND RATE OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR FERTILIZER ON YIELD, QUALITY, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF STOCKPILED TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research was conducted for 2 yr to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) source and rate effects on stockpiled tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forage yield, quality, and mineral content at different harvest dates. High lysine fertilizer (HLF), which contains approximate...

  13. Ask the Experts...Perception of Motion Criteria for Tall Buildings Subjected to Wind: A Panel Discussion

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Ask the Experts...Perception of Motion Criteria for Tall Buildings Subjected to Wind: A Panel-rise construction worldwide has insured that the issue of motion perception will remain an urgent concern and the appropriateness of the two most popular perception criteria: peak and RMS accelerations. Origins of Perception

  14. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue–fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    •Climate change (altered CO2, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant–microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum–Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. •To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing c...

  15. Post-Graze Performance and Recovery from Heat Stress for Yearling Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) consume ergot alkaloids that can lead to “fescue toxicosis”. The alkaloids can be diluted with concentrates to improve weight gains, but it is uncertain if dilution can affect subsequent feedyard performance. A 2-yr experiment determined if ...

  16. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 3-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experimental design with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SF; tannin...

  17. Variable Performance of Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid on Neotyphodium-infected Wild Tall Fescue from Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent of Neotyphodium based resistance in wild fescue to bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) was determined by quantifying densities of this aphid on a series of Neotyphodium – infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tall fescue entries. Little or no aphid survival was observed on plants from ...

  18. Disrupted hair follicle activity in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in the summer insulates core body temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most plants of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes cattle to have rough hair coats during the summer and persistent vascular constriction that impedes heat dissipation via blood flow to peripheral tissues. Experi...

  19. EARLY PASTURE RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT SOURCE AND TALL FESCUE-ENDOPHYTE ASSOCIATION IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue pastures are an important part of the agricultural landscape in the southeastern USA. We evaluated various plant and animal responses during the first three years of an experiment on a Typic Kanhapludult. Pastures were grazed with yearling Angus heifers whenever sufficient forage was ava...

  20. Steer and plant responses to chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide (Dow AgroSciences; Indianapolis, IN) has shown to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] and potentially mitigate the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infec...

  1. Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. I. Analysis of morphogenesis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomie Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. I; The effects of applying nitrogen to grass after the last cut in autumn on growth the following spring the following spring was measured in all trials. Autumn nitrogen resulted in greater grass yields the following

  2. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  3. Computing the R of the QR factorization of tall and skinny matrices using MPI_Reduce

    E-print Network

    Langou, Julien

    2010-01-01

    A QR factorization of a tall and skinny matrix with n columns can be represented as a reduction. The operation used along the reduction tree has in input two n-by-n upper triangular matrices and in output an n-by-n upper triangular matrix which is defined as the R factor of the two input matrices stacked the one on top of the other. This operation is binary, associative, and commutative. We can therefore leverage the MPI library capabilities by using user-defined MPI operations and MPI_Reduce to perform this reduction. The resulting code is compact and portable. In this context, the user relies on the MPI library to select a reduction tree appropriate for the underlying architecture.

  4. EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

  5. EE 238 Engineering nano-systems EE 238 Engineering nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 238 Engineering nano-systems Page 1 EE 238 Engineering nano-systems A.F.J. Levi Spring 2009, OHE This course is designed as an introduction to nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

  6. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the event bridged as far as medical application of nanotechnologies. It could have turned out that such a hotchpotch produced an incoherent event that lacked direction and focus, but in truth, as the feedback showed, the delegates revelled in the diversity and depth of quality. Excellent speakers, the common application to biomolecules and common language of spectroscopy were probably the reasons why things worked out so well. I am delighted to bring together in this special feature in Measurement Science and Technology a selection of contributions from the meeting and I thank all the authors for their excellent contributions. Included are papers on nanoparticles, plasmonics, sensing and imaging. This special feature, and indeed similar meetings in the future, will undoubtedly help sustain the 'nanomeeters' message of NMS.

  7. Nanodiamond as an effective reinforcing component for nano-copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Livramento; J. B. Correia; N. Shohoji; E. ?sawa

    2007-01-01

    This work reports for the first time the use of nanodiamond (nD) particles as a reinforcing component for alloying with nano-copper (nCu). Significant rise in Vickers microhardness (HV) was realised for nCu after ball milling together with nD. Thus, mechanical alloying (MA) proved to be an effective strategy for strengthening copper with nD, and perhaps for other metallic alloys as

  8. Molecular characterisation and interpretation of genetic diversity within globally distributed germplasm collections of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds.).

    PubMed

    Hand, Melanie L; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W

    2012-04-01

    Allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) is an agriculturally important grass cultivated for pasture and turf world-wide. Genetic improvement of tall fescue could benefit from the use of non-domesticated germplasm to diversify breeding populations through the incorporation of novel and superior allele content. However, such potential germplasm must first be characterised, as three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) with varying degrees of hybrid interfertility are commonly described within this species. As hexaploid tall fescue is also a member of a polyploid species complex that contains tetraploid, octoploid and decaploid taxa, it is also possible that germplasm collections may have inadvertently sampled some of these sub-species. In this study, 1,040 accessions from the publicly available United States Department of Agriculture tall fescue and meadow fescue germplasm collections were investigated. Sequence of the chloroplast genome-located matK gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) permitted attribution of accessions to the three previously known morphotypes and also revealed the presence of tall fescue sub-species of varying ploidy levels, as well as other closely related species. The majority of accessions were, however, identified as Continental hexaploid tall fescue. Analysis using 34 simple sequence repeat markers was able to further investigate the level of genetic diversity within each hexaploid tall fescue morphotype group. At least two genetically distinct sub-groups of Continental hexaploid tall fescue were identified which are probably associated with palaeogeographic range expansion of this morphotype. This work has comprehensively characterised a large and complex germplasm collection and has identified genetically diverse accessions which may potentially contribute valuable alleles at agronomic loci for tall fescue cultivar improvement programs. PMID:22222441

  9. Corporate Strategy Corporate Strategy

    E-print Network

    Zharkova, Valentina V.

    Corporate Strategy 2010-2020 Corporate Strategy 2010-2020 #12;S C I E N C E A N D T E C H N O L O G Strategic themes 16 Solutions for global challenges 18 Inspiring and involving 20 Sustaining research international influence 28 Strategic enablers 30 Developing our people 32 Financial sustainability 34 Efficient

  10. *SINAM NANO SEMINAR * Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) -NSF

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    *SINAM NANO SEMINAR * Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) - NSF Nanoscale and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) Email:xz_asst@me.berkeley.edu Phone: 510.642.0390 Fax: 510.643.2311 #12;

  11. Silicon-carbon nano-structures to nano-tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Huda; Leonard Kleinman; A. K. Ray

    2006-01-01

    There have been continuing efforts to stabilize silicon cage-type nano-structures or nano-tubes which can be used in similar ways as the carbon-based fullerene structures. This is due to the fact that the current semiconductor industries are based on silicon. Silicon carbide is the focus of scientific research due to its potential use even in extreme conditions, such as extreme high-temperature,

  12. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Prabhu; B. K. Vinayagam

    2010-01-01

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries.\\u000a The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon\\u000a wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great challenge in the manufacturing industry. Finishing of\\u000a micro components such as micro-moulds, micro-lenses

  13. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  14. Convergence Science in a Nano World

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innovative and groundbreaking technologies. In the biological and biomedical sciences, nanotechnology research has resulted in dramatic improvements in sensors, diagnostics, imaging, and even therapeutics. In particular, there is a current push to examine the interface between the biological world and micro/nano-scale systems. For example, my laboratory is developing novel strategies for spatial patterning of biomolecules, electrical and optical biosensing, nanomaterial delivery systems, cellular patterning techniques, and the study of cellular interactions with nano-structured surfaces. In this seminar, I will give examples of how convergent research is being applied to three major areas of biological research &endash; cancer diagnostics, microbiology, and DNA-based biosensing. These topics will be presented as case studies, showing the benefits (and challenges) of multi-disciplinary, convergent research and development.

  15. Nano-fluidic dye laser

    E-print Network

    Gersborg-Hansen, M; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This letter describes the design and operation of a single mode polymer-based nano-fluidic dye laser. The device relies on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nano-fluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order distributed feed-back (DFB) grating, formed by the array of nano-fluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straight-forward to integrate on Lab-on-a-Chip micro-systems, e.g. for novel sensor concepts, where coherent, tunable light in the visible range is desired.

  16. Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Väänänen, Virpi; Järventaus, Hilkka; Suhonen, Satu; Nygren, Jonas; Hämeilä, Mervi; Valtonen, Jarkko; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Norppa, Hannu

    2008-05-31

    As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our results indicate that fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT contain direct-acting genotoxic components. PMID:18499510

  17. The stable isotopic composition of atmospheric molecular hydrogen at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Popa, M. E.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a promising energy carrier that might replace fossil fuels in vehicles. It has great potential for making transportation more sustainable, but there may be environmental side effects that, to some degree, offset the benefits. Concerns have been raised that large-scale leakage of H2 into the atmosphere could affect the atmosphere's oxidative capacity and stratospheric ozone chemistry. To assess these risks, a better understanding of the global, regional and global atmospheric H2 cycle is needed. Since the H2 source and sink processes have large effects on ?D(H2), due to the large relative mass difference between 'ordinary' hydrogen and deuterium, studying the stable isotopic composition of H2 (?D(H2)) is a promising way to achieve this. Over the last decade, studies of the isotope effects in H2 source and sink processes have appeared, ?D(H2) has been incorporated into global chemical transport models and many more environmental observations of ?D(H2) have been published. The latter, however, were mostly obtained from samples that were collected at ground level at remote locations, which is not sufficient to fully characterize the H2 cycle or to assess the possible environmental effects of H2 leakage in very polluted regions. For this project, samples are collected at the Cabauw tall tower owned by KNMI. The Cabauw tower is 213 m tall and located in a central part of the Netherlands. It is equipped with a tubing system with air inlets at 20, 60, 120, and 200 meter altitude. This tubing system was used to make continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and H2 mixing ratios, but also to collect flasks samples at different heights for the analysis of ?D(H2). More than 200 samples were collected over a period of more than three years. The results show that the local H2 cycle at Cabauw is under heavy anthropogenic influence compared to Mace Head, a station that receives mostly clean marine background air at the Irish West Coast. On average, m(H2) is larger and ?D(H2) lower at Cabauw, a result of anthropogenic emissions of deuterium-depleted H2. Because of the same anthropogenic emissions, the samples collected from the lower levels of the tower tend to have larger m(H2) and lower ?D(H2) than the samples collected from the higher levels. This also indicates that the local uptake of H2 by soils is relatively weak.

  18. A novel method for measuring trace gas fluxes from tall vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, James; Phil, Ineson

    2014-05-01

    The nature of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as greenhouse gases (GHGs) means that accurate measurement of their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is extremely important to our ability to manage climate change. Manual static chambers are commonly used to measure soil fluxes of these trace gases, with landscape values extrapolated from point measurements of typically less than 1m2, at a weekly or monthly frequency. Moreover, due to the reliance upon manual sampling, data are typically biased towards day-time measurements, and use of opaque chambers halts photosynthesis. Automation of chambers, such as the Licor Li-8100 (Lincoln, NE) system, allows for measurement of soil respiration at a near-constant frequency, but does not solve the problem of measuring CH4 and N2O, neither does it allow measurements to be taken from over tall (more than 20 cm) vegetation. Eddy covariance (EC) techniques allow for high frequency measurements of CO2 and CH4 to be made at the landscape scale, and are increasingly available for N2O. However, the inability of EC to resolve to the plot scale hinders its use for manipulative experiments, and replication is rare. Additionally, stratification of the boundary layer creates difficulty in measuring night-time fluxes and it is common to discard large parts of data sets due to unsuitable wind direction or other meteorological conditions. Here we present a new technique for measuring trace gas fluxes from over tall vegetation. The system is capable of simultaneously delivering NEE of CO2, CH4 and N2O, automatically measuring at high temporal resolution (circa hourly) from replicated plots. We show the effect of green compost addition on trace gas fluxes from Miscanthus x giganteus, an important crop for bioenergy production. The ability to quantify NEE of GHGs from such crops forms an essential part of the lifecycle analysis of energy produced from biomass, which may play an important role in future mitigation of climate change.

  19. Nematoxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue toxins and extracts to an in vitro bioassay using the nematode Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of Neotyphodium-tall fescue grass symbiota are provided with enhanced protection from grazing vertebrate herbivores and insects due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, considerable controversy exists concerning the involvement of the Neotyphodium coenophialum and tal...

  20. Nematotoxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue toxins and extracts to an in vitro bioassay using the nematode Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the Neotyphodium coenophialum-tall fescue grass symbiota are provided with enhanced protection from grazing vertebrate herbivores due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, considerable controversy exists concerning this symbiotum and its toxicity to nematode species...

  1. A high rise multi-use building for Boston : an investigation into the nature and organization of public space in a tall building

    E-print Network

    Weiner, David Jay

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is essentially a study of how to organize public space vertically in a tall building. In most cases, high rise buildings tend to be organized in one of two ways, either centrally, with the core elements in the ...

  2. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hongmei; Xu, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia), were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP) and spike weight (SW). However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K) was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single-associated markers were associated with SW; five single-associated markers were associated with SC; seven single-associated markers were associated with SCP; three single-associated markers were associated with SL. Especially, we observed that the genetic variation of SW was explained 11.6 % by M37 marker. It is interesting to observe that nine markers (M1, M2, M35, M54 marker was associated with both BCS and SC; M3, M4 markers were associated with BCS, SW, and SC; M19 marker was associated with both pH and PD, M40 marker was associated with both SCP and SW; and M193 marker was associated with both PH and SL) were associated with more than two agronomic traits. Notably, Branch count per spike (BCS) was explained by four markers (M1, M2, M3, and M4) exceeding 10 %. These identified marker alleles associated with agronomic traits could provide important information and markers for molecular-assisted breeding that facilitate the breeding process in tall fescue. PMID:26186338

  3. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Waller, John C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  5. On the formation of degradation products from the pyrolysis of tall oil fatty acids with kraft lignin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Traitler; K. Kratzl

    1980-01-01

    Mixtures of tall oil fatty acids and kraft lignin from southern pine wood were pyrolyzed at 160 C and 280 C with or without\\u000a exclusion of oxygen. In addition to fatty acids of various chain lengths and aromatic degradation products from lignin, a\\u000a number of homologousn-alkylbenzenes were formed (ca. 1.5%) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The possible ways of

  6. Association of blood cholesterol with occurrence of fat necrosis in cows and tall fescue summer toxicosis in steers.

    PubMed

    Stuedemann, J A; Rumsey, T S; Bond, J; Wilkinson, S R; Bush, L P; Williams, D J; Caudle, A B

    1985-09-01

    Factors associated with fat necrosis in cows and tall-fescue summer toxicosis in steers were studied. In the cow study, fescue pastures were fertilized, using 3 rates of N: high N (703 to 483 kg and 0 kg of N/ha/year from broiler litter in 1972 to 1974 and 1975, respectively), moderate N, and low N (224 and 74 kg of N/ha/yr from NH4NO3, 1972 to 1975, respectively). Bermuda grass pastures were fertilized at 2 rates of N: moderate N and low N (280 and 20 kg of N/ha/year from NH4NO3, 1972 to 1975, respectively). Fat necrosis developed only in cows grazing tall fescue, with an occurrence of 60%, 8%, and 3% for high-N, moderate-N, and low-N pastures, respectively. Cows grazing the high-N fescue, and to some extent those grazing the moderate-N fescue, had clinical signs of summer fescue toxicosis. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were lowest in cattle grazing the high-N fescue, averaging 114 mg/dl, followed by 134 and 127 mg/dl in cattle grazing the moderate-N and low-N fescue, respectively. In the steer grazing study, 24 paddocks of 0.49 ha each were seeded with tall-fescue lines G1-307 or G1-306 or with tall-fescue cultivars, KY-31 or Kenhy. All paddocks were fertilized with 170 kg of N/ha/year. Serum cholesterol concentrations were lower in steers grazing on G1-307 than in steers grazing on G1-306 or cultivars. Serum total lipids followed a similar trend, with a positive correlation (r = 0.49) between cholesterol and total lipids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2996391

  7. Ant and plant-mediated indirect effects induced by aphid colonization on herbivorous insects on tall goldenrod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshino Ando; Takayuki Ohgushi

    2008-01-01

    We studied the indirect effects of an aphid Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum on density and performance of herbivorous insects through tending ants and modification of plant traits on a tall goldenrod\\u000a Solidago altissima in Japan. To examine ant-mediated indirect effects of the aphid on the leafhopper and geometrid moth caterpillars, we conducted\\u000a an experiment in which we manipulated aphid densities. The aphid

  8. TNT and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene influence on germination and early seedling development of tall fescue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Peterson; G. L. Horst; P. J. Shea; S. D. Comfort; R. K. D. Peterson

    1996-01-01

    Cost-effective and environmentally acceptable methods are needed to remediate munitions-contaminated soil. Some perennial grass species are tolerant of soil contaminants and may promote remediation because of their high water use and extensive fibrous root systems. The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its reduction product, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT), on germination and early seedling development of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were determined.

  9. Field measurements of boundary layer wind characteristics and wind-induced responses of super-tall buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Fu; Q. S. Li; J. R Wu; Y. Q. Xiao; L. L. Song

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents field measurement results of boundary layer wind characteristics over typical open country and urban terrains and wind-induced responses of two super-tall buildings during the passages of windstorms. The field data such as wind speed, wind direction and acceleration responses, etc., were measured from an observation tower with height of 17.5m at a coastal region in Lufeng and

  10. Performance of Irrigated Tall Fescue–Legume Communities under Two Grazing Frequencies in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Lauriault; Steven J. Guldan; Charles A. Martin; Dawn M. VanLeeuwen

    2006-01-01

    Irrigated pastures form a significant component of agriculture in the irrigated steppe of the southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Information is limited, however, describing performance of grazed binary perennial cool-season grass-legume mixtures in the region. Established mono- culturetallfescue(FestucaarundinaceaSchreb.5Loliumarundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire) 1 134 kg Nh a 21 (MONO) and tall fescue mixed with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (ALF\\/TF), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus

  11. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively. PMID:21313873

  12. The National Nanotechnology Initiative's nanoEHS Workshop Series: February 24-25, 2009: Human and Environmental Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials

    E-print Network

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative's nanoEHS Workshop Series: February 24-25, 2009: Human & Ethical, Legal, and Societal Implications of Nanotechnology National Nanotechnology Initiative Save in the National Nanotechnology Initiative's Strategy for Nanotechnology-related Environmental, Health, and Safety

  13. Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Dale F.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Myers, Richard C.; Elkins, James W.

    1997-04-01

    We present a 15-month record of mixing ratios of CO, CH4, N2O, and eight halogenated gases (CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHCl3, C2Cl4, and SF6) at a rural site in eastern North Carolina. The data result from hourly gas Chromatographic analyses of air sampled at three heights on a 610-m-tall telecommunications tower during November 1994 through January 1996. At night, most of these gases were more abundant near the ground (51 m) than aloft (496 m) because of the buildup of local and regional surface emissions in the shallow nocturnal stable layer. The abundance and variability of trace gases at this continental site were generally higher than those at similar latitude remote locations. Mixing ratios of most gases were well correlated in polluted air masses occasionally advected to the tower. Frequent, strong enhancements in CHCl3 at the lower sampling level(s) indicate a local point source(s) of this gas that is not associated with combustion. Temporal trends of regional background mixing ratios at this continental site are, for the most part, in good agreement with recent trends of remote background mixing ratios in the northern hemisphere.

  14. Wind response of a tall building with full-scale observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.S. (California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    A 22-story hotel is the subject of a full-scale experimental study conducted as the second phase of a project addressing the wind-induced response of tall buildings. The first phase of this study investigated a 16-story office building. The observations of wind loading and building response obtained at the hotel site reflect similar behavior as was observed at the office building. Consequently, the second phase serves to reinforce and generalize the findings of the phase one study. The results illustrate the significance of wind-induced response for buildings of intermediate height. Based on estimated thresholds of human perceptibility combined with predictions of maximum building response from a theoretical analysis, clearly perceptible wind-induced motion is expected to occur annually at the hotel. Yet, motion will not be sufficient intensity to be unpleasant. A similar analysis suggests that building response will also produce some non-structural damage on an annual basis. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Tall fescue is a potential spillover reservoir host for Alternaria species.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah E; Carroll, George C; Roy, Bitty A; Blaisdell, G Kai

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is complicated and multifaceted. Enemy spillover (i.e. the transfer of a natural enemy from a reservoir host to a novel host) is one mechanism that facilitates the spread of non-native species. The reservoir host is a species that harbors high abundance of the enemy with little cost to fitness. We asked whether Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue), a highly invasive grass species in North America, is a potential reservoir host for the ubiquitous genus of fungi, Alternaria. We also asked whether spillover of Alternaria is possible among grasses that commonly occur with S. arundinaceus in grassland ecosystems. We performed a greenhouse cross inoculation of three isolates of Alternaria and six grass species (three native, three invasive, including S. arundinaceus). We determined that spillover is possible because the fungal isolates infected and caused disease symptoms on all six grasses and decreased biomass in two of the grass species. We also determined that the invasive grass species appear to be more competent hosts than the native species and that S. arundinaceus could be a likely reservoir host for Alternaria spp. because it can harbor the pathogen with no apparent fitness cost. PMID:24603832

  16. A virtual tall tower network for understanding continental sources and sinks of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-09

    Our understanding of the North American terrestrial carbon cycle is limited by both a lack of continental atmospheric CO2 data, and by a need for methods to interpret these and other continental data with confidence. In response to this challenge a rapid expansion of the N. American carbon cycle observational network is underway. This expansion includes a network of continuous, continental CO2 mixing ratio observations being collected at a subset of AmeriFlux towers. Progress in developing this resource includes instrument development, site installation, calibration and intercalibration efforts, and initiation of a uniform data product. Progess in applying these data include proposed methods for interpreting surface layer measurements in atmospheric inversions (the virtual tall towers approach), examination of coherence patterns in continental mixing ratios in response to weather and climate, and application of these mixing ratio measurements in formal atmospheric inversions. Future work will merge these methods with interpretation of flux towers observations of terrestrial carbon fluxes in an effort to create a single coherent diagnosis of North American terrestrial carbon fluxes over a multi-year period.

  17. Triple Akt inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cani, Alice; Simioni, Carolina; Martelli, Alberto M; Zauli, Giorgio; Tabellini, Giovanna; Ultimo, Simona; McCubrey, James A; Capitani, Silvano; Neri, Luca M

    2015-03-30

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive neoplastic disorder in which chemotherapy resistance and refractory relapses occur, with a poorer prognostic outcome.Constitutively active PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is a common feature of T-ALL upregulating cell proliferation, survival and drug resistance. This pathway is currently under clinical trials with small molecules inhibitors (SMI).To verify whether a multi-inhibition treatment against Akt protein could enhance the efficacy of individual drug administration and overcome drug resistance as well as to obtain a decrease in single drug concentration, we tested on T-ALL cell lines the effects of combined treatments with three Akt inhibitors with different mode of action, GSK690693, MK-2206 and Perifosine.In cells with hyperactivated Akt, combined administration of the drugs displayed a significant synergistic and cytotoxic effect and affected PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway at much lower concentration than single drug use. Highest synergistic effect for full inhibition of Akt was also related to the timing of every drug administration. Furthermore the triple treatment had greater efficacy in inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and both apoptosis and autophagy.Targeting Akt as a key protein of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with multiple drugs might represent a new and promising pharmacological strategy for treatment of T-ALL patients. PMID:25788264

  18. Triple Akt inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Alberto M.; Zauli, Giorgio; Tabellini, Giovanna; Ultimo, Simona; McCubrey, James A.; Capitani, Silvano; Neri, Luca M.

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive neoplastic disorder in which chemotherapy resistance and refractory relapses occur, with a poorer prognostic outcome. Constitutively active PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is a common feature of T-ALL upregulating cell proliferation, survival and drug resistance. This pathway is currently under clinical trials with small molecules inhibitors (SMI). To verify whether a multi-inhibition treatment against Akt protein could enhance the efficacy of individual drug administration and overcome drug resistance as well as to obtain a decrease in single drug concentration, we tested on T-ALL cell lines the effects of combined treatments with three Akt inhibitors with different mode of action, GSK690693, MK-2206 and Perifosine. In cells with hyperactivated Akt, combined administration of the drugs displayed a significant synergistic and cytotoxic effect and affected PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway at much lower concentration than single drug use. Highest synergistic effect for full inhibition of Akt was also related to the timing of every drug administration. Furthermore the triple treatment had greater efficacy in inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and both apoptosis and autophagy. Targeting Akt as a key protein of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with multiple drugs might represent a new and promising pharmacological strategy for treatment of T-ALL patients. PMID:25788264

  19. NanoMicroTechnologies au service de l'Energie

    E-print Network

    Salagnac, Guillaume

    Journées NanoMicroTechnologies au service de l'Energie 29 - 30 novembre 2012 VENIR À L'INSA Accès Rhône-Alpes Club Nano MicroTechnologies Secrétariat et Inscritpions : Club NanoMicroTechnologie Ecole Lyon Marcel Lahmani Club NanoMicroTechnologie René Fillit Club NanoMicroTechnologie Laurent Lévy C'Nano

  20. Constraints on the sources and impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over North America from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu

    This dissertation presents the first-ever in-situ tall tower measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. The data span August 2009 through July 2012, and provide new constraints on seasonal and long-term controls on VOC sources and their atmospheric effects. The 200 m sampling height provides a large-scale footprint, while the tall tower location, near the intersection of the main North American ecosystems and at times downwind of the Twin Cities, affords information on natural emissions from some of the most important US landscapes as well as on anthropogenic sources. I interpret the dataset using an atmospheric chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM), with a focus on several key atmospheric VOCs. This dissertation finds that current models underestimate methanol emission rates for younger versus older leaves. This biased seasonality means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated. A Bayesian inverse analysis of the tall tower observations reveals that the prior estimate of North American anthropogenic acetone sources (based on the US EPA's NEI05 inventory) is accurate to within 20%. However, biogenic acetone emissions from broadleaf trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are presently underestimated (˜37%), while emissions from needleleaf trees plus secondary production from biogenic precursors are overestimated by a similar amount (˜40%). Model-measurement comparisons imply that isoprene emissions in the immediate vicinity of the tall tower are accurately captured by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic inventory, but that larger-scale regional emissions are underestimated, reflecting the heterogeneous land cover in this transitional landscape. Isoprene emissions play a key role in seasonal shifts between VOC-limited chemistry in the spring and fall and NOx-limited or transitional chemistry in the summer. A Bayesian inverse analysis based on the tall tower measurements suggests that: i) the RETRO global emission inventory significantly overestimates (> two-fold) US C6-C8 aromatic emissions; ii) the US EPA's NEI08 inventory likewise overestimates the toluene flux by a factor of 3, partly reflecting a bias in the estimated non-road emissions; and iii) total annual emissions of benzene and C8 aromatics in the EPA's NEI08 are accurate to within the analysis uncertainty, but with some seasonal biases for on-road emissions.

  1. 3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes

    E-print Network

    Sitti, Metin

    3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes Amrinder S) nano-scale manufacturing tools in this paper. Commercially available Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) systems are mainly limited to 1-D or 2-D manipulation tasks, and advanced 3-D nano

  2. Whither `nano' or `bio'? | Rob Ritchie So what's all this hype about `nano' and `bio'?

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    OPINION Whither `nano' or `bio'? | Rob Ritchie So what's all this hype about `nano' and `bio of these words. Indeed, I've heard numerous people glibly state that, unless the title of your proposal has `nano! The nano revolution has certainly taken our field by storm. One constantly hears of the new paradigm ­ we

  3. Nano Letters 8, 4477-4482 (2008) NANO-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON NANOTUBES

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    Nano Letters 8, 4477- 4482 (2008) 1 NANO-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON NANOTUBES N. Bozovi 1 meV energy resolution and 1 nm spatial resolution.1 The later should enable nano-crystallography ­ XRD study of individual nano-particles. The commissioning of NSLS II will take some time -- the plan

  4. Nano-Tera.CH: Nano-technologies for Tera-scale Problems Giovanni De Micheli

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Nano-Tera.CH: Nano-technologies for Tera-scale Problems Giovanni De Micheli EPF Lausanne 1015, Switzerland ABSTRACT -- The Nano-Tera.CH initiative is a broad engineering program in Switzerland for health is rooted in advances in engineering nano-scale materials and their exploitation in a variety of systems

  5. Dynamics and Kinematics of Viral Protein Linear Nano-Actuators for Bio-Nano Robotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    A vision of a nano-organism: carbon nano-tubes form the main body; peptide limbs can be used for locomotionDynamics and Kinematics of Viral Protein Linear Nano- Actuators for Bio-Nano Robotic Systems A/inorganic nanoscale components such as DNA actuators and carbon nanotubes. The proteins used in the motor

  6. Coaxial metal nano-/microcables with isolating sheath: synthetic methodology and their application as interconnects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Luo, Lin-Bao; Zhan, Yong-Jie; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2010-05-01

    Synthesis of coaxial nano-/microcables has been an intensive research subject due to their heterogeneous structures, tuneable properties, and important applications in nano-/micrometer-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Research on the fabrication of nanocables via solution strategies has made great progress in the past few years. In this Research News article, rapidly emerging new solution strategies such as hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and synergistic soft-hard templates (SSHTs) are highlighted. Unique and flexible coaxial nano-/microcables synthesized by those methods have obvious advantages such as long-term stability and their electrical transport properties, compared with bare counterparts, suggesting that they are potential candidates as interconnects in the future. PMID:20225184

  7. Nano Science and Technology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nano Science and Technology Institute (NSTI) is chartered with the promotion and integration of nano and other advanced technologies through education, technology and business development. NSTI accomplishes this mission through its offerings of membership services, continuing education programs, scientific and business publishing and community outreach. NSTI produces the annual Nanotech conference and trade show, the most comprehensive international nanotechnology convention in the world. NSTI also produces the semi-annual Nanotech Venture, Nanotech Industrial Impact Workshop, Nano Impact Summit and the Nanotech Course Series in the US and Europe. NSTI was founded in 1997 as a result of the merger between various scientific societies, and is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts with additional offices in California and Switzerland.

  8. EE 337 Engineering nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering nano-systems Page 1 EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi Spring.edu/dept/engineering/eleceng/Adv_Network_Tech/Html/ee337.html This course is designed as an introduction to nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of nano-technology into systems

  9. EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems Page 1 EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.edu/dept/engineering/eleceng/Adv_Network_Tech/Html/ee337.html This course is designed as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano

  10. Technology foresight on Danish nano-science and nano-technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Dannemand Andersen; Birgitte Rasmussen; Marianne Strange; Jens Haisler

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose is to report on a Danish nano-science and nano-technology foresight project carried out in 2004. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The foresight process had the following key elements: review of international technology foresight projects on nano-technology; mapping of Danish nano-science and nano-technology; broad internet survey among interested parties; expert reports; workshops related to the expert reports; analysis of the

  11. Nano-optoelectronics research in WNLO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiping Zhouab; Dingshan Gaoa; Yi Wang; Jinlin Chen; Junbo Feng; Zhixuan Xia; Yao Chen

    2006-01-01

    The research progress in nano optoelectronic devices and their integration at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics are summarized. Integrations on different material platforms are described, but emphasis is given to new micro\\/nano scale emitters, detectors, and light beam controlling devices. The perspective of micro\\/nano scale monolithic integration of optical devices and electronic devices on a single chip by standard CMOS

  12. Nano copper conductive ink for RFID application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Li; Bing An; Jian Qin; Yiping Wu

    2011-01-01

    A novel nano copper conductive ink, composed of anti-oxidation nano copper particles and chemical additives, had been successfully developed and employed for RFID application. A pattern of UHF RFID antenna was chosen to print on polyimide (PI) film by ink-jet printing, and then cured by UV light to form the copper wire. The adhesion of the nano copper ink film

  13. Continuous CO2/CH4 measurement at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winderlich, Jan; Chen, Huilin; Höfer, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Global climate change has particular impact on Siberia, where one tenth of global vegetation and soil carbon is stored. The increase in temperature lengthens the vegetation period and consequently enlarges the carbon sink. On the other hand, a warming climate will enhance thawing of permafrost which contains organic carbon that can be released either as carbon dioxide or methane depending on the local hydrological conditions. Long-term biogeochemical trace gas measurements on tall towers (> 250 m) over continents help to improve the knowledge about surface source/sink processes at regional to continental scales. Without the usage of aircrafts, the height of the tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is - unlike the surface layer - only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus representative for a larger region (~1000km). The recently established Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, 304 m, www.zottoproject.org) is located near the village of Zotino at the Yenisei River in central Siberia (60° N, 89° E). The ZOTTO facility was built in the perspective to monitor and determine variability and trends in the carbon balance of central Siberian forests. Since April 2009 we measure CO2 and CH4 from 6 height levels reaching from 4 to 301 m with an analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique (Picarro Inc., CA, USA, model G1301). Experiments have shown that reliable accurate measurements can be obtained even without drying the sample gas. To obtain dry air mixing ratios for CO2 and CH4, the simultaneous water vapor measurements are used to correct dilution and pressure broadening effects, resulting in a precision and accuracy that is better than WMO recommendations. Furthermore, the system requires only a very low amount of calibration gases, because calibration takes place only every 100 hrs. These two aspects allow keeping maintenance low, which is an important requirement for this remote station. In each sampling line buffer volumes integrate the atmospheric signal over a typical time period of 40 minutes. With these the periodic switching from line to line every three minutes with only one single analyzer provides a quasi continuous, concurrent measurement from each height level. As a consequence of the averaging as well as the precision of the analyzer, the data show a low noise level and still moderately high temporal resolution, and gradients between different levels can be determined to a very high accuracy. The new data from 2009 and 2010 will be presented and interpreted in the context of regional sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 in central Siberia. As the nocturnal boundary develops during night, it locally traps respired CO2 and CH4 and builds up vertical gradients. The analysis of the gradients allows estimating the trapped carbon amount in this layer which can be assigned to a certain region by using the Lagrangian transport model STILT.

  14. Realization and characterization of nano electromechanical devices based on ZnO nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Realization techniques for integrating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire into micro electromechanical structures to form nano devices at low temperature are reviewed. Two main strategies are focused on: one is based on controllable dielectrophoretic assembly, and another is using electric-field assisted wet chemical growth. Functional properties of the fabricated devices including electrical contacts, photosensitivity, thermoelectricity, and piezoelectricity are summarized to demonstrate

  15. Nano Materials Under High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, S.; Garg, Nandini; Sharma, Surinder M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-12-01

    Materials comprising of units or particles of the size of a few nano-meters have significantly different high pressure behavior than their bulk counterparts. This is abundantly elucidated in our studies on transition metals encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes filled with Argon also show that it affects the behavior of tubes as well as argon. Studies on nano-crystalline Si displays an interesting crystalline-amorphous reversible transition, unique of its kind in elemental solids. We also demonstrate that in some cases of nanocrystalline samples, a phase perceived to be an intermediate-transient may be actually realized.

  16. Performance of various RANS eddy-viscosity models for turbulent natural convection in tall vertical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moutaouakil, L.; Zrikem, Z.; Abdelbaki, A.

    2014-08-01

    The present study is dedicated to the identification of turbulence models that are accurate and numerically economic for computing the natural air-flow and heat transfer by convection in tall cavities with differentially heated vertical walls. The eddy-viscosity models (EVM) are among the simplest to implement and the most economical to treat this problem. This study evaluated the dynamic, thermal and computational performances of twenty EVM turbulence models with one, two or three-equation closure. All the models were first implemented in several in-house codes using the finite volume method. The predictions of the retained models in terms of profiles of velocity, temperature and vertical velocity fluctuations in the cavity have been compared with those of experimental or numerical studies. The obtained results were used to identify the turbulence models that are accurate and numerically economic in predicting natural convection in vertical cavities with a high aspect ratio. The EVM models with three-equation (v2-f and ?-f) provide the most accurate mean and fluctuating quantities, followed by the k-? RNG (ReNormalization Group) and k-? SST (Shear Stress Transport) models. The computing time of these four models is higher than that of the 2L (two-layer) and q-? models, which provide fairly accurate results especially for the mean heat transfer between the vertical active walls. The other one-equation (Spalart and Allmaras model) and two-equation (k-?, k-? and hybrid models) turbulence models tested in this work, have a high computing time and/or predictions that are not sufficiently precise simultaneously for both velocity and temperature fields.

  17. Tall cell papillary thyroid carcinoma: new diagnostic criteria and mutations in BRAF and TERT.

    PubMed

    S Dettmer, Matthias; Schmitt, Anja; Steinert, Hans; Capper, David; Moch, Holger; Komminoth, Paul; Perren, Aurel

    2015-06-01

    The tall cell (TC) variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has an unfavorable prognosis. The diagnostic criteria remain inconsistent, and the role of a minor TC component is unclear. Molecular diagnostic markers are not available; however, there are two potential candidates: BRAF V600E and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations. Using a novel approach, we enriched a collective with PTCs that harbored an adverse outcome, which overcame the limited statistical power of most studies. This enabled us to review 125 PTC patients, 57 of which had an adverse outcome. The proportion of TCs that constituted a poor prognosis was assessed. All of the tumors underwent sequencing for TERT promoter and BRAF V600E mutational status and were stained with an antibody to detect the BRAF V600E mutation. A 10% cutoff for TCs was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that TCs above 10% were the only significant factor for overall, tumor-specific, and relapse-free survival. Seven percent of the cases had a TERT promoter mutation, whereas 61% demonstrated a BRAF mutation. The presence of TC was significantly associated with TERT promoter and BRAF mutations. TERT predicted highly significant tumor relapse (P<0.001). PTCs comprised of at least 10% TCs are associated with an adverse clinical outcome and should be reported accordingly. BRAF did not influence patient outcome. Nevertheless, a positive status should encourage the search for TCs. TERT promoter mutations are a strong predictor of tumor relapse, but their role as a surrogate marker for TCs is limited. PMID:25870252

  18. Wind load analysis of tall chimneys with piled raft foundation considering the flexibility of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2015-04-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis was carried out for tall reinforced concrete chimneys with piled raft foundation subjected to wind loads. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soil were considered based on different material properties. Chimneys of different elevations and different ratios of height to base diameter of chimney were selected for the parametric study. The thickness of raft of piled raft foundation was also varied based on different ratios of outer diameter to thickness of raft. The chimneys were assumed to be located in open terrain and subjected to a maximum wind speed of 50 m/s. The along-wind and across-wind loads were computed according to IS: 4998 (Part 1)-1992 and applied along the height of the chimney. The analysis was carried out using three-dimensional finite element technique based on the direct method of SSI. The linear elastic material behaviour was assumed for the integrated chimney-foundation-soil system. The radial and tangential moments, lateral deflection and base moment of chimney were evaluated through SSI analysis and compared with the response obtained from chimney with fixed base. The base moment of chimney considerably reduces due to the effect of SSI. It is found that the variation of different responses in chimney due to the effect of SSI depends significantly on the geometrical properties of chimney and foundations. The response variation at base for a distance of 1/40th of the height of chimney should be considered for a safe design.

  19. Wind load analysis of tall chimneys with piled raft foundation considering the flexibility of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2015-06-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis was carried out for tall reinforced concrete chimneys with piled raft foundation subjected to wind loads. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soil were considered based on different material properties. Chimneys of different elevations and different ratios of height to base diameter of chimney were selected for the parametric study. The thickness of raft of piled raft foundation was also varied based on different ratios of outer diameter to thickness of raft. The chimneys were assumed to be located in open terrain and subjected to a maximum wind speed of 50 m/s. The along-wind and across-wind loads were computed according to IS: 4998 (Part 1)-1992 and applied along the height of the chimney. The analysis was carried out using three-dimensional finite element technique based on the direct method of SSI. The linear elastic material behaviour was assumed for the integrated chimney-foundation-soil system. The radial and tangential moments, lateral deflection and base moment of chimney were evaluated through SSI analysis and compared with the response obtained from chimney with fixed base. The base moment of chimney considerably reduces due to the effect of SSI. It is found that the variation of different responses in chimney due to the effect of SSI depends significantly on the geometrical properties of chimney and foundations. The response variation at base for a distance of 1/40th of the height of chimney should be considered for a safe design.

  20. An Ethical Argument in Favor of Nano-enabled Diagnostics in Livestock Disease Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Evers; Stefan Aerts; Johan De Tavernier

    2008-01-01

    Livestock production has been confronted with several epidemics over the last decades. The morality of common animal disease\\u000a strategies—stamping out and vaccination—is being debated and provokes controversies among farmers, authorities and the broader\\u000a public. Given the complexity and controversy of choosing an appropriate control strategy, this article explores the potential\\u000a of nano-enabled diagnostics in future livestock production. At first glance,

  1. The spectral shift between near- and far-field resonances of optical nano-antennas.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Christoph; Hebestreit, Erik; Mühlig, Stefan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Burger, Sven; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

    2014-04-21

    Within the past several years a tremendous progress regarding optical nano-antennas could be witnessed. It is one purpose of optical nano-antennas to resonantly enhance light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, e.g. the interaction of an external illumination with molecules. In this specific, but in almost all schemes that take advantage of resonantly enhanced electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nano-antennas, the precise knowledge of the spectral position of resonances is of paramount importance to fully exploit their beneficial effects. Thus far, however, many nano-antennas were only optimized with respect to their far-field characteristics, i.e. in terms of their scattering or extinction cross sections. Although being an emerging feature in many numerical simulations, it was only recently fully appreciated that there exists a subtle but very important difference in the spectral position of resonances in the near-and the far-field. With the purpose to quantify this shift, Zuloaga et al. suggested a Lorentzian model to estimate the resonance shift. Here, we devise on fully analytical grounds a strategy to predict the resonance in the near-field directly from that in the far-field and disclose that the issue is involved and multifaceted, in general. We outline the limitations of our theory if more sophisticated optical nano-antennas are considered where higher order multipolar contributions and higher order antenna resonances become increasingly important. Both aspects are highlighted by numerically studying relevant nano-antennas. PMID:24787879

  2. Modification of esterified cell wall phenolics increases vulnerability of tall fescue to herbivory by the fall armyworm.

    PubMed

    de O Buanafina, Marcia M; Fescemyer, Howard W

    2012-08-01

    Feruloylation of arabinoxylan in grass cell walls leads to cross-linked xylans. Such cross-linking appears to play a role in plant resistance to pathogens and insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated the effect of ferulate cross-linking on resistance to herbivory by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) making use of genetically modified tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Festuca arundinacea)] expressing a ferulic acid esterase gene. Mature leaves of these plants have significant reduced levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates but no change in acid detergent lignin. These reduced levels of esterified cell wall ferulates in transgenic plants had a positive effect on all measures of armyworm larval performance examined. More larvae survived (89 vs. 57 %) and grew faster (pupated 2.1 days sooner) when fed transgenic leaves with reduced levels of cell wall ferulates, than when fed control tall fescue leaves where levels of cell wall ferulates were not altered. Overall, mortality, growth and food utilization were negatively associated with level of esterified cell wall ferulates and diferulates in leaves they were fed. This study is the first to use transgenic plants with modified level of cell wall esterified ferulates to test the role of feruloylation in plant resistance to insects. It is concluded that the accumulation of ferulates and the cross-linking of arabinoxylans via diferulate esters in the leaves of tall fescue underlies the physical barrier to insect herbivory. Reducing ferulate cross-linking in grass cell walls could increase susceptibility of these plants to insect folivores. PMID:22434315

  3. KPT-330 inhibitor of CRM1 (XPO1)-mediated nuclear export has selective anti-leukaemic activity in preclinical models of T-ALL and AML

    PubMed Central

    Etchin, Julia; Sanda, Takaomi; Mansour, Marc R.; Kentsis, Alex; Montero, Joan; Le, Bonnie T.; Christie, Amanda L.; McCauley, Dilara; Rodig, Scott J.; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Stone, Richard; Letai, Anthony; Kung, Andrew L.; Look, A. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study explored the anti-leukaemic efficacy of novel irreversible inhibitors of the major nuclear export receptor, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1, also termed XPO1). We found that these novel CRM1 antagonists, termed SINE (Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export), induced rapid apoptosis at low nanomolar concentrations in a panel of 14 human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cell lines representing different molecular subtypes of the disease. To assess in vivo anti-leukaemia cell activity, we engrafted immunodeficient mice intravenously with the human T-ALL MOLT-4 cells, which harbour activating mutations of NOTCH1 and NRAS as well as loss of function of the CDKN2A, PTEN and TP53 tumour suppressors and express a high level of oncogenic transcription factor TAL1. Importantly, we examined the in vivo anti-leukaemic efficacy of the clinical SINE compound KPT-330 against TALL and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. These studies demonstrated striking in vivo activity of KPT-330 against T-ALL and AML cells, with little toxicity to normal murine haematopoietic cells. Taken together, our results show that SINE CRM1 antagonists represent promising “first-in-class” drugs with a novel mechanism of action and wide therapeutic index, and imply that drugs of this class show promise for the targeted therapy of T-ALL and AML. PMID:23373539

  4. FAK mediates a compensatory survival signal parallel to PI3K-AKT in PTEN-null T-ALL cells.

    PubMed

    You, Dewen; Xin, Junping; Volk, Andrew; Wei, Wei; Schmidt, Rachel; Scurti, Gina; Nand, Sucha; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung; Kuo, Paul C; Breslin, Peter; Kini, Ameet R; Nishimura, Michael I; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-03-31

    Mutations and inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) are observed in 15%-25% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Pten deletion induces myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and/or T-ALL in mice. Previous studies attributed Pten-loss-related hematopoietic defects and leukemogenesis to excessive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling. Although inhibition of this signal dramatically suppresses the growth of PTEN-null T-ALL cells in vitro, treatment with inhibitors of this pathway does not cause a complete remission in vivo. Here, we report that focal adhesion kinase (Fak), a protein substrate of Pten, also contributes to T-ALL development in Pten-null mice. Inactivation of the FAK signaling pathway by either genetic or pharmacologic methods significantly sensitizes both murine and human PTEN-null T-ALL cells to PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibition when cultured in vitro on feeder layer cells or a matrix and in vivo. PMID:25801032

  5. He-Ne laser preillumination improves the resistance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) seedlings to high saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Mei; Li, Yong-Feng; Han, Rong

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we explored the protective effect and physiochemical mechanism of He-Ne laser preillumination in enhancement of tall fescue seedlings tolerance to high salt stress. The results showed that salt stress greatly reduced plant growth, plant height, biomass, leaf development, ascorbate acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) concentration, the enzymatic activities, and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, superoxide radical (O2 (·-)) generation rates, membrane lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, the enzymatic activities, and gene expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD), compared with controls. However, He-Ne laser preillumination significantly reversed plant growth retardation, biomass loss, and leaves development decay induced by salt stress. And the values of the physiochemical parameters observed in salt-stressed plants were partially reverted or further increased by He-Ne laser. Salt stress had no obvious effect on the transcriptional activity of phytochromeB, whereas He-Ne laser markedly enhanced its transcriptional level. Preillumination with white fluorescent lamps (W), red light (RL) of the same wavelength, or RL, then far-red light (FRL) had not alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on plant growth and antioxidant enzymes activities, suggesting that the effect of He-Ne laser on improved salt tolerance was most likely attributed to the induction of phytochromeB transcription activities by the laser preillumination, but not RL, FRL or other light sources. In addition, we also utilized sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as NO donor to pre-treat tall fescue seedlings at the same conditions, and further evaluated the differences of physiological effects between He-Ne laser and NO in increasing salt resistance of tall fescue. Taken together, our data illustrated that He-Ne laser preillumination contributed to conferring an increased tolerance to salt stress in tall fescue seedlings due to alleviating oxidative damage through scavenging free radicals and inducing transcriptional activities of some genes involved in plant antioxidant system, and the induction of phytochromeB transcriptional level by He-Ne laser was probably correlated with these processes. Moreover, this positive physiochemical effect seemed more effective with He-Ne laser than NO molecule. PMID:25547962

  6. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J. C.; Birmili, W.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Juergens, N.; Kisilyakhov, Y.; Panov, A.; Andreae, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties at a very remote, continental site. The instrumentation at the observatory comprises a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until May 2008, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of CO was observed with summer minima around 80 ppb and winter maxima of about 180 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were comparable to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N. Periods of elevated CO concentrations, typically lasting for one to three days, interrupted the mean annual cycle. Backward trajectories computed with the NOAA HYSPLIT model indicated changes of air mass origin associated with the CO peaks. It was found, that for several peaks air masses have passed over the region of Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During summer, very sharp peaks of CO concentration with no change of air mass origin were observed. In this case, local wild fires are most likely the cause of the increase of CO concentrations. This general picture was confirmed by the output of the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model that predicted CO concentrations in good agreement with the measured CO concentration at the ZOTTO site, resembling the typical annual cycle of CO concentrations. Furthermore, some of the peaks related to changes of the air mass origin were also predicted by the model, while the peaks presumably caused by wild fires were not found. The optical properties of the aerosol showed intense variations over the observation period. Episodes with strongly elevated absorption coefficients and particle concentrations occurred between periods of typical background readings. Using gaseous tracers, especially CO, and back-trajectories, these episodes could be traced to anthropogenic emission regions. The combination of CO concentration and aerosol properties with the determination of the air mass origin enables us to distinguish between continental background air and air masses being influenced by anthropogenic activities. Long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

  7. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desai, Ankur R.; Xu, Ke; Tian, Hanqin; Weishampel, Peter; Thom, Jonthan; Baumann, Daniel D.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Cook, Bruce D.; King, Jennifer Y.; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting future terrestrial methane fluxes for constraining future atmospheric methane growth rates, a clear need exists to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties. In 2010, an Ameriflux tower (US-PFa) near Park Falls, WI, USA, was instrumented with closed-path methane flux measurements at 122 m above ground in a mixed wetland–upland landscape representative of the Great Lakes region. Two years of flux observations revealed an average annual methane (CH4) efflux of 785 ± 75 mg CCH4 m?2 yr?1, compared to a mean CO2 sink of ?80 g CCO2 m?2 yr?1, a ratio of 1% in magnitude on a mole basis. Interannual variability in methane flux was 30% of the mean flux and driven by suppression of methane emissions during dry conditions in late summer 2012. Though relatively small, the magnitude of the methane source from the very tall tower measurements was mostly within the range previously measured using static chambers at nearby wetlands, but larger than a simple scaling of those fluxes to the tower footprint. Seasonal patterns in methane fluxes were similar to those simulated in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), but magnitude depends on model parameterization and input data, especially regarding wetland extent. The model was unable to simulate short-term (sub-weekly) variability. Temperature was found to be a stronger driver of regional CH4flux than moisture availability or net ecosystem production at the daily to monthly scale. Taken together, these results emphasize the multi-timescale dependence of drivers of regional methane flux and the importance of long, continuous time series for their characterization.

  8. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption coefficients with SSA values reaching 0.97. These aerosols were present in airmasses from northern Siberia with low CO mixing ratios, which suggests that they are predominantly of biogenic origin. The lowest particle number concentrations (averaging ~430 cm-3) were present in northern Siberian and Arctic airmasses, with similar values in summer and winter. Chemical analysis shows that sulfates and "black" carbon are elevated in the winter aerosol, while organic carbon from biomass burning and terpenoid oxidation dominate in summer. The measurements at ZOTTO are being continued, in the expectation that long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

  9. Detection of a tall ridge at the core-mantle boundary from scattered PKP energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Daniel A.; Rost, Sebastian; Selby, Neil D.; Stuart, Graham W.

    2013-10-01

    The seismic wavefield mainly contains reflected, refracted and direct waves but energy related to elastic scattering can also be identified at frequencies of 1 Hz and higher. The scattered, high-frequency seismic wavefield contains information on the small-scale structure of the Earth's crust, mantle and core. Due to the high thermal conductivity of mantle materials causing rapid dissipation of thermal anomalies, the Earth's small-scale structure most likely reveals details of the composition of the interior, and, is therefore essential for our understanding of the dynamics and evolution of the Earth. Using specific ray configurations we can identify scattered energy originating in the lower mantle and under certain circumstances locate its point of origin in the Earth allowing further insight into the structure of the lowermost mantle. Here we present evidence, from scattered PKP waves, for a heterogeneous structure at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath southern Africa. The structure rises approximately 80 km above the CMB and is located at the eastern edge of the African LLSVP. Mining-related and tectonic seismic events in South Africa, with mb from 3.2 to 6.0 recorded at epicentral distances of 119.3° to 138.8° from Yellowknife Array (YKA) (Canada), show large amplitude precursors to PKPdf arriving 3-15 s prior to the main phase. We use array processing to measure slowness and backazimuth of the scattered energy and determine the scatterer location in the deep Earth. To improve the resolution of the slowness vector at the medium aperture YKA we present a new application of the F-statistic. The high-resolution slowness and backazimuth measurements indicate scattering from a structure up to 80 km tall at the CMB with lateral dimensions of at least 1200 km by 300 km, at the edge of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province. The forward scattering nature of the PKP probe indicates that this is velocity-type scattering resulting primarily from changes in elastic parameters. The PKP scattering data are in agreement with dynamically supported dense material related to the Large Low Shear Velocity Province.

  10. Deployed Nano-Satellites to Determine Gravity as Secondary Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, William J.; Kinkaid, Nathan M.; Page, John R.; Olsen, John

    2015-04-01

    The mass properties of a planetary body can be estimated by using visiting spacecraft, although this currently requires the use of specialised equipment for precise ranging and attitude control. An alternate method without this requirement would allow the reallocation of mass, power and bandwidth budgets to other important scientific tasks. One such method may deploy groups of nano-satellites in the vicinity of a planetary body to make gravity estimates. The estimates are made by measuring the changes in velocity and position of the nano-satellites relative to one another as they move through the gravity field near the body. This technique only requires the use of low-power communications equipment and an ad-hoc positioning network. Computationally simple techniques have been derived which are able to produce in-situ gravity estimates. These have been tested using simulation of vehicles travelling near modelled planetary bodies. As the effectiveness of this technique may depend on the manner in which the vehicles are deployed, two such strategies were simulated as a point for comparison and discussion.. It has been found that the technique becomes increasingly inaccurate for smaller asteroids. By relying on non-directional hardware, each nano-satellite may pursue alternate primary mission goals concurrently with mass determination.

  11. RI&E Nano particles*) Carried out by

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    1 RI&E Nano particles*) Carried out by: Faculty: CTW/EWI/TNW Department: 1. Information Nano characteristics of nano material (or parent material) **) Carcinogenic Mutagenic Reprotoxic Density (kg/dm3 ) kg/dm3 State of aggregation of the nano material Liquid Solid 2. Health hazard nano material Danger

  12. The Nano-Micro Interface Bridging the Micro

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    The Nano-Micro Interface Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds. Edited by Hans-Jörg Fecht and Matthias- tion among researchers. The book The Nano-Micro Interface: Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds fills one of these gaps. More specifically, this book, as its subtitle indicates, bridges the micro and nano worlds

  13. NanoNano--CMOS MixedCMOS Mixed--Signal CircuitSignal CircuitNanoNano CMOS MixedCMOS Mixed Signal CircuitSignal Circuit MetamodelingMetamodeling TechniquesTechniques

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    NanoNano--CMOS MixedCMOS Mixed--Signal CircuitSignal CircuitNanoNano CMOS MixedCMOS Mixed Signal NanoSystem Design Laboratory (NSDL, http://nsdl.cse.unt.edu), University of North Texas Denton TX 76203 This paper targets sampling techniques which are technology independent and the amount that is needed

  14. Unified Challenges inUnified Challenges in NanoNano--Unified Challenges inUnified Challenges in NanoNano CMOS HighCMOS High--Level SynthesisLevel Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Unified Challenges inUnified Challenges in NanoNano--Unified Challenges inUnified Challenges in NanoNano CMOS HighCMOS High--Level SynthesisLevel Synthesis Saraju P. Mohanty Dept of Computer Science.mohanty@unt.edu Homepage: http://www.cse.unt.edu/~smohanty/ 12/4/2008 1Unified Challanges in Nano-CMOS HLS #12;Outline

  15. Micro/Nano Processing Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ruff, Susan

    This course introduces the theory and technology of micro/nano fabrication. Lectures and laboratory sessions focus on basic processing techniques such as diffusion, oxidation, photolithography, chemical vapor deposition, and more. Through team lab assignments, students are expected to gain an understanding of these processing techniques, and how they are applied in concert to device fabrication. Students enrolled in this course have a unique opportunity to fashion and test micro/nano-devices, using modern techniques and technology.This course features detailed lecture slides in the lecture notes section, along with other lab materials used by students in the course in the labs section. In addition, problem sets with solutions are also provided in the assignments section.

  16. Synthesis and Characterisation of Nano Lanthana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moothedan, Marymol; Sherly, K. B.

    2011-10-01

    Nano sized oxide materials have gained an immense importance due to their unque electrical and magnetic properties. Nano Lanthana has various applications in solide oxide fuel cells, catalytic exhaust gas converters, magnetic data storage, water treatment and also as a nano catalyst. The performance of the nano Lanthana depends on the particle size, morphology, crystalline nature etc which in tern depends on the method of preparation and pre-treatment conditions. In this study nano Lanthana was prepared by using the natural polymer Starch as the template. The effect of reaction condition and concentration of starch on the formation, particle size, crystalline nature, and morphology of nano lanthana was also investigated. The phase composition, crystallinine character and particle size were obtained from XRD. The surface morphology of the prepared sample was investigated by SEM. Elemental analysis using SEM-EDAX confirmed the stochiometry of the sample..

  17. Metallic nano-particles for trapping light

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj PMID:23391493

  18. Cybersecurity Strategies

    E-print Network

    Cybenko, George

    Cybersecurity Strategies: The QuERIES Methodology Lawrence Carin Duke University George Cybenko-efficient cybersecurity strategies. O rganizations in both the private and public sectors have strug- gled to determine typically implemented cybersecurity investment strategies with- out useful guidance from a rigorous

  19. Principles of Nano-Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Lukas; Hecht, Bert

    2012-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Theoretical foundations; 3. Propagation and focusing of optical fields; 4. Resolution and localization; 5. Nanoscale optical microscopy; 6. Near-field optical probes; 7. Probe-sample distance control; 8. Optical interactions; 9. Quantum emitters; 10. Dipole emission near planar interfaces; 11. Photonic crystals, resonators, and cavity optomechanics; 12. Surface plasmons; 13. Optical antennas; 14. Forces in confined fields; 15. Fluctuation-induced interactions; 16. Theoretical methods in nano-optics; Appendices; Index.

  20. InterNano: Nanomanufacturing Clearinghouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN) is an open network for collaboration and information exchange among the nanomanufacturing research, development, and education community. The NNN is an alliance of academic, government and industry partners that cooperate to advance nanomanufacturing strength in the U.S. The NNN conducts strategic workshops and other activities to build communities of practice in nanomanufacturing. The NNN hosts InterNano, the open source information clearinghouse, to provide vital information to nanomanufacturing community.

  1. Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anas N. Al-Rabadi

    Novel two types of Carbon Nano Tube (CNT)-based multiplexers are introduced. The first device is a solid- state transmission gate (t-gate) multiplexer that uses CNT as a channel in the Field Effect Transistors (FET) of both n-FET and p-FET types that are used. Because of its very small size, it has been shown that a CNT-based FET switches reliably using

  2. Formation and stability of nano-emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tharwat Tadros; P Izquierdo; J Esquena; C Solans

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the principles of formation and stability of nano-emulsions. It starts with an introduction highlighting the main advantages of nano-emulsions over macroemulsions for personal care and cosmetic formulations. It also describes the main problems with lack of progress on nano-emulsions. The second section deals with the mechanism of emulsification and the dynamic light scattering technique for measurement of

  3. Nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guang; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Venkatesh, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Through three-dimensional finite element modeling, it is demonstrated that the nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands is strongly dependent on the shape of the nano-island and the depth of indentation. For indentations that are relatively deep (i.e., greater than 5% of the height of the islands), the substrate's elastic and plastic properties have a strong influence on the indentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands with substrate plasticity resulting in a significant reduction in the mechanical and electrical indentation stiffness. The predictions of the finite element models compare well with experiments on nano-islands of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate.

  4. Broadband monopole optical nano-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongguo; Ding, Jun; Arigong, Bayaner; Lin, Yuankun; Zhang, Hualiang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a novel design of broadband monopole optical nano-antennas is proposed. It consists of a corrugated halfelliptical patch inside an elliptical aperture. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations have been used to investigate the performance of the nano-antenna. The predicted performance of the proposed monopole nano-antenna is remarkably broadband. Moreover, the proposed broadband nano-antenna can respond to light waves with different polarizations. The proposed optical antenna will pave the way towards the development of high performance optical antennas and optical systems.

  5. Reading Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students utilize two reading strategies that can be used to understand the Cosmic Times materials, and other readings that may be challenging to them. The first strategy, called Talking to the Text, is an independent strategy in which the students write down their thoughts as they are reading the material. In the second strategy, the students pair up and help each other read and understand concepts through reciprocal teaching. This activity is from the Cosmic Times teacher's guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times poster, however, these strategies can be used with any of the Cosmic Times articles.

  6. Lanthanide nano-drums: a new class of molecular nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications†

    PubMed Central

    Gnanam, Annie J.; Arambula, Jonathan F.; Jones, Jessica N.; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W.; DePue, Lauren J.; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Ehrlich, Lauren I. R.; Brown, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a new class of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as potential reporter molecules for imaging, and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors in diagnostic systems. These lanthanide “nano-drums” are homogeneous 4d–4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter that can emit from the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here, we present syntheses, crystal structures, photophysical properties, and comparative cytotoxicity data for six nano-drums containing either Eu, Tb, Lu, Er, Yb or Ho. Imaging capabilities of these nano-drums are demonstrated using epifluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and two-photon microscopy. We discuss how these molecular nanoparticles can to be adapted for a range of assays, particularly by taking advantage of functionalization strategies with chemical moieties to enable conjugation to protein or nucleic acids. PMID:25284181

  7. Poly-cyclodextrin and poly-paclitaxel nano-assembly for anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgung, Ran; Mi Lee, Yeong; Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Yuna; Lee, Byung-Heon; Kim, In-San; Sokkar, Pandian; Rhee, Young Min; Hoffman, Allan S.; Kim, Won Jong

    2014-05-01

    Effective anticancer therapy can be achieved by designing a targeted drug-delivery system with high stability during circulation and efficient uptake by the target tumour cancer cells. We report here a novel nano-assembled drug-delivery system, formed by multivalent host-guest interactions between a polymer-cyclodextrin conjugate and a polymer-paclitaxel conjugate. The multivalent inclusion complexes confer high stability to the nano-assembly, which efficiently delivers paclitaxel into the targeted cancer cells via both passive and active targeting mechanisms. The ester linkages between paclitaxel and the polymer backbone permit efficient release of paclitaxel within the cell by degradation. This novel targeted nano-assembly exhibits significant antitumour activity in a mouse tumour model. The strategy established in this study also provides knowledge for the development of advanced anticancer drug delivery.

  8. Indentation analysis of nano-particle using nano-contact mechanics models during nano-manipulation based on atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadijeh DaeinabiMoharam; Moharam Habibnejad Korayem

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is applied to measure intermolecular forces and mechanical properties of materials, nano-particle\\u000a manipulation, surface scanning and imaging with atomic accuracy in the nano-world. During nano-manipulation process, contact\\u000a forces cause indentation in contact area between nano-particle and tip\\/substrate which is considerable at nano-scale and affects\\u000a the nano-manipulation process. Several nano-contact mechanics models such as Hertz, Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov (DMT), Johnson–Kendall–Roberts–Sperling

  9. Nano photo scouring and nano photo bleaching of raw cellulosic fabric using nano TiO2.

    PubMed

    Montazer, M; Morshedi, S

    2012-05-01

    Photo catalytic action of nano TiO(2) for decomposing of some organic compounds is a well known phenomenon. This can be extended to the application on nano TiO(2) on the desized cotton fabric to decompose the hydrophobic impurities and coloring matters of the fabric. This can be nominating as a replacement for the conventional scouring and bleaching processes on cotton fabric producing the hydrophilic white cotton fabric. The photo activities of the nano TiO(2) on the desized cotton through decomposition of the cotton impurities compared for two different light exposures: UV rays and daylight. The desized cotton fabrics treated in the ultrasonic bath containing a colloidal aqueous solution of nano TiO(2)/citric acid (CA)/sodium hypophosphite (SHP). Incorporating CA in the treatment bath enhanced the treatment durability against washing, created a durable hydrophilic white cotton fabric even after several successive washings. Increasing the nano TiO(2) content enhanced the fabric hydrophilicity and whiteness features. Overall, the nano photo scouring and nano photo bleaching on the cotton fabric introduced and thoroughly discussed. This gains the application of nano TiO(2) on textile materials besides the other well known characteristics obtained on the textiles including self-cleaning, antibacterial and UV protection. PMID:22390850

  10. Plasma Etching of Nano-Scale Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying

    2007-06-01

    As the technology moving to deep nanometer regime, patterning nano-scale semiconductor features with precision imposes many new challenges for plasma etching. Two of the challenges are evidently critical. One of the challenges is that as the sizes of nano-scale features shrinking down to the sub-10nm regime, plasma etching seems to approach to its `limits' in unprecedented ways. For instance, one may face the question of what is the smallest hole can be actually etched by plasmas. Another challenge is the precision controllability of nano-scale feature pattern transferring as the features sizes, masks materials and thickness being all shrinking down to the molecular cluster dimensions. In this paper, we summarize the recent results of studying plasma etching of true nano-scale features using variety of nano-scale patterns and masks, diblock copolymer (similar to resist) self assembled nano holes and lines and self-assembled organosilicate (similar to silicon oxide) nano patterns. Using samples patterned with arrays of nano hole or nano line dimensions in the range from 25nm down to sub-10nm, we studied plasma etching characteristics and challenges for transferring nano-scale patterns into different materials (silicon, and silicon dioxide) in different plasma chemistries and process conditions. By varying the dimensions and thickness of masks, the characteristics of aspect ratio dependence vs. `true' etching limits due to the sizes of sub-25nm nano-scale features were studied. The impacts and challenges of mask selectivity and line edge roughness (LER) to transfer sub-25nm patterns will be reviewed. A few proposed limiting factors of current etching tooling, underlying principles of different chemistries, and processing parameters and their advantage and drawback to etching nanometer scale features will also be discussed.

  11. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  12. Case Study: Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroid Implants on the Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue in the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-two steers were assigned to six, 3.0-ha pastures of toxic tall fescue to study the effects that implant progesterone and winter hair coat retention during the summer, a symptom of fescue toxicosis, has on weight gain and body heat dissapation. Either ten clipped or ten unclipped steers were ra...

  13. Looking back in time: conducting a cohort study of the long-term effects of treatment of adolescent tall girls with synthetic hormones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Public health research is an endeavour that often involves multiple relationships, far-reaching collaborations, divergent expectations and various outcomes. Using the Tall Girls Study as a case study, this paper will present and discuss a number of methodological, ethical and legal challenges that have implications for other public health research. Approach The Tall Girls Study was the first study to examine the long-term health and psychosocial effects of oestrogen treatment for tall stature. Results In undertaking this study the research team overcame many hurdles: in maintaining collaboration with treating clinicians and with the women they had treated as girls - groups with opposing points of view and different expectations; using private practice medical records to trace women who had been patients up to forty years earlier; and exploring potential legal issues arising from the collection of data related to treatment. Conclusion While faced with complex challenges, the Tall Girls Study demonstrated that forward planning, ongoing dialogue between all stakeholders, transparency of processes, and the strict adherence to group-developed protocols were keys to maintaining rigour while undertaking pragmatic research. Implications Public health research often occurs within political and social contexts that need to be considered in the planning and conduct of studies. The quality and acceptability of research findings is enhanced when stakeholders are engaged in all aspects of the research process. PMID:22168546

  14. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  15. Growth Performance and Immune Function of Fall-Born Beef Calves Weaned from Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Pastures on Different Dates in the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue [E+) should benefit from early weaning because of reduced exposure to E+ toxins, but our previous research has not supported this hypothesis. Gelbvieh × Angus calves (n=238) were used in a 3-yr study to determine the optimal ti...

  16. Microsite conditions influence nutritive value characteristics of a common tall fescue cultivar infected with either a native or a novel non-ergogenic endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Schenodorus phoenix Holub] often benefits in terms of productivity and persistence when infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams], Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) endophyte. The influence of novel, non-ergogenic endophytes on nutritive value is unclear, especially when ...

  17. Post-weaning performance of fall-born beef steers weaned from endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on different dates in the spring.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaning fall-born calves grazing tall fescue infected with the toxic wild-type endophyte (E+) prior to early May should reduce exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. Gelbvieh × Angus crossb...

  18. Weaning and Post-Weaning Performance by Fall-Born Beef Calves Weaned on Different Dates in the Spring from Neotyphodium Coenophialum-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] should benefit from early weaning because of reduced exposure to fungal toxins. However, fall-born calves that grazed E+ and were weaned in mid-April had reduced post-weaning perform...

  19. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  20. Lateral saphenous vein responses to serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptor agonists increase with time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (TF; Lolium arundinaceum). This study was conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response over...

  1. INFLUENECE OF FUNGAL ENDOPHYTE INFECTION IN TALL FESCUE AND PERENNIAL RYEGRASS ON SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN LOW INPUT TURFGRASS SYESTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamta Singh; Parwinder S. Grewal

    Turf type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are commonly used for lawns and golf courses in the Northeast and Midwestern United States. These species differ in growth habits, drought tolerance, resistance to herbivory, and form mutualistic associations with Neotyphodium endophytes (Clavicipitaceae). Therefore, we hypothesized that the grass species will differ in the amount of

  2. 632 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 49, NO. 3, AUGUST 2007 Electromagnetic Fields at the Top of a Tall Building

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    632 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 49, NO. 3, AUGUST 2007 Electromagnetic. The enhancement factor for lightning (transient) Ez due to the presence of the building at the field point, lightning electromagnetic envi- ronment, lightning return-stroke model, magnetic field, tall object. I

  3. Stocking Rate and Implantation Effects on Weight Gain and Recovery from Heat Stress for Yearling Steers Grazed on Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implantation with anabolic steroids can improve weight gain of beef cattle on endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea), but the effect has not been determined over a range of stocking rates. A 2-yr grazing experiment evaluated combinations of four stocking rates (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and...

  4. Steer Weight Gain and Physiological Responses to Feeding Soybean Hulls on Toxic Tall Fescue: Dilution of Ergot Alkaloids or Additive Effect on Weight Gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker cattle grazing toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) consume ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte that can lead to the “fescue toxicosis” malady. One approach to alleviating fescue toxicosis is to dilute the alkaloids by interseeding clovers or by feeding concentrates; however...

  5. A sensitive PCR-based assay to detect Neotyphodium fungi in seed and plant tissue of tall fescue and ryegrass spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Neotyphodium endophytes in seed and plant tissue from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses was developed. Based on DNA mixture tests and bulk seed anal...

  6. Assessing the multi-resolution information content of remotely sensed variables and elevation for evapotranspiration in a tall-grass prairie environment

    E-print Network

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    ). Currently, the most promising method of measuring patch-scale (e.g. on the order of 100s of meters) dynamics the tall-grass prairie in North-central Kansas for August 8, 2005. Comparison with three eddy to consider the flow of water, carbon and energy simultaneously (e.g. Ham & Knapp, 1998; Ham et al., 1995

  7. Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

  8. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  9. Post-Weaning Performance of Fall-Born Beef Steers Weaned from Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures on Different Dates in the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier weaning of fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (E+) in the spring should reduced exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. A total of 118 Gelbvieh ×...

  10. Growth performance and immune function of fall-born beef calves weaned from endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on different dates in the spring.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.; E+) Darbysh.] should benefit from early weaning because of reduced exposure to fungal toxins, but our earlier work did not support this theory. A total of 238 Gelbvieh x Angus calves were used in a...

  11. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  12. Development, analysis and design of a 292 ft tall self-erecting flare tower for offshore application

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Srinivasan, N. [Dreco, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a 292 ft tall flare tower applicable for large offshore production facilities. First of its kind in a flare tower design, an innovative but well proven self-erecting technique is used. The technique aimed eliminating the transportation and erection costs. The structural concept is known as Self-Erecting Flare Tower (SEFT). In SEFT concept, the tower is segmented into a number of small manageable sections. A jacket type bottom section is used to support telescoping the tower sections. The design erection procedure, technical and functional feasibility of SEFT concept are discussed. At the end of this paper, a cost comparison study with conventional flare tower is given.

  13. Evaluation and comparison of dominant backscattering sources at 10 GHz in two treatments of tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoughi, Reza; Bredow, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    A very-fine-range resolution Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave radar, operating at X-band, was used to evaluate the primary backscattering contributors to the radar signal from a tall-grass prairie. Defoliation was used to help measure relative backscatter from various components of the canopy with both linear polarizations and at 30 deg and 50 deg incidence angles. Variation of the average returned power with incidence angle was greatest for the natural prairie at horizontal polarization and was the least for vertical polarization. Vertical polarization seemed to be more sensitive to the upper portions of the plants, whereas horizontal polarization was to the lower portions. Attenuation for horizontal polarization was only half that for vertical polarization. Dielectric measurements of the grass and some of the canopy components were conducted as well.

  14. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1990-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

  15. A nano toolbox for Biomolecular Collaboration between

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    a nano toolbox, based on pores and plasmonics ­ gold and silver plasmon signal enhancement. #12;HowA nano toolbox for Biomolecular imaging Philip Yip Collaboration between: Supervisors: · David networks (A) (B) (C) Sol to gel transition: (A) An ensemble of nanometer scale particles begin to form

  16. Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannam, T., E-mail: gtalal@hotmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nano-Technology, King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-31

    In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

  17. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

  18. MEMS and nano\\/bio technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Fujita

    2005-01-01

    Besides rapid commercialization, MEMS is contributing to expand scientific frontiers in nano-scale and bio technology. A pair of probes with 10-50 nm tip radius were micromachined with integrated microactuators. Field emission, tunneling current and atomic transport were investigated in the gap between probes facing each other. The configuration was also applied to obtain nano tweezers that handle DNA molecules. For

  19. MICRO ET NANO-TECHNOLOGIES, ELECTRONIQUE, PHOTONIQUE,

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    08 MICRO ET NANO-TECHNOLOGIES, E´LECTRONIQUE, PHOTONIQUE, E´LECTROMAGNE´TISME, E´NERGIE E champ de re- cherches multidisciplinaires dans le domaine des micro et nanotechnologies (nanoe de´partement Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et de l'Inge´- nierie rattache´s aux sections

  20. International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering

    E-print Network

    Ingrand, François

    38th International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering 38th International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering 16 - 20 September 2012 Toulouse (France) www.mne12.org contact@mne12.org 16 - 20 - Switzerland Zahid DURRANI Imperial College London- United Kingdom Massimo GENTILI Innovation & Technology

  1. Emissions of C6-C8 aromatic compounds in the United States: Constraints from tall tower and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu; Millet, Dylan B.; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Griffis, Timothy J.; Travis, Katherine R.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Marshall, Julian D.; Reinhart, Wesley F.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Wisthaler, Armin; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gouw, Joost

    2015-01-01

    present two full years of continuous C6-C8 aromatic compound measurements by PTR-MS at the KCMP tall tower (Minnesota, US) and employ GEOS-Chem nested grid simulations in a Bayesian inversion to interpret the data in terms of new constraints on US aromatic emissions. Based on the tall tower data, we find that the RETRO inventory (year-2000) overestimates US C6-C8 aromatic emissions by factors of 2.0-4.5 during 2010-2011, likely due in part to post-2000 reductions. Likewise, our implementation of the US EPA's NEI08 overestimates the toluene flux by threefold, reflecting an inventory bias in non-road emissions plus uncertainties associated with species lumping. Our annual top-down emission estimates for benzene and C8 aromatics agree with the NEI08 bottom-up values, as does the inferred contribution from non-road sources. However, the NEI08 appears to underestimate on-road emissions of these compounds by twofold during the warm season. The implied aromatic sources upwind of North America are more than double the prior estimates, suggesting a substantial underestimate of East Asian emissions, or large increases there since 2000. Long-range transport exerts an important influence on ambient benzene over the US: on average 43% of its wintertime abundance in the US Upper Midwest is due to sources outside North America. Independent aircraft measurements show that the inventory biases found here for C6-C8 aromatics also apply to other parts of the US, with notable exceptions for toluene in California and Houston, Texas. Our best estimates of year-2011 contiguous US emissions are 206 (benzene), 408 (toluene), and 822 (C8 aromatics) GgC.

  2. Accumulation of Ergopeptide Alkaloids in Symbiotic Tall Fescue Grown under Deficits of Soil Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Arechavaleta, M.; Bacon, C. W.; Plattner, R. D.; Hoveland, C. S.; Radcliffe, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The fungus Acremonium coenophialum is endophytically associated with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber). Within this symbiotum the fungus produces ergopeptide alkaloids, which are associated with livestock toxicoses. Environmental effects on the production of ergot alkaloids within the symbiotum are unknown. We conducted a greenhouse study of the effects of flooding, nitrogen rate during fertilization (11, 73, and 220 mg of N per pot weekly), nitrogen form (3.4 and 34 mg of N as NH4+ or NO3- per pot), and drought stress (-0.03, -0.05, and -0.50 MPa) on ergopeptide alkaloid concentrations in one genotype of nonsymbiotic and symbiotic tall fescue grown in plastic pots. It was determined that the concentration of ergovaline, the major type of ergopeptide alkaloid, was increased but was not as high as that in nonflooded controls. Total ergopeptide and ergovaline concentrations in plants receiving high (220 mg of N per pot) and low (11 mg of N per pot) levels of NH4NO3 fertilization were not affected by flooding. The form of nitrogen was important since all concentrations of NO3--N increased ergopeptide alkaloid content, as opposed to the effects of NH4+-N, which was effective only at high concentrations (34 mg of N per pot). Ergopeptide concentrations were highest in drought-stressed plants grown at -0.50 MPa and fertilized at the moderate or high N rate. The results suggest that within this genotype, ergopeptide alkaloid biosynthesis by the fungus is not appreciably affected by flooding but is greatly increased by high rates of N fertilization and moderate water deficit. PMID:16348675

  3. Molecular characterisation of the low-molecular weight glutenin subunit genes of tall wheatgrass and functional properties of one clone Ee34.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanguo; Liu, Shuwei; Zhao, Feng; Xu, Chunhui; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-04-01

    Wild tall wheatgrass (Lophopyrum elongatum L., 2x = 14) is an important resource for improving bread wheat (Titicum aestivum L.), including HMW-GS and LMW-GS relevant to end-use quality of the wheat flour. A set of 14 distinct sequences were amplified from the genomic DNA of the tall wheatgrass, using degenerate primers targeted at Glu-3, the locus containing the genes encoding the low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). Three sequences contained an internal stop codon and were classified as pseudogenes. The other 11 all consisted of a single intron-less intact open-reading frame. An alignment of deduced protein sequences showed that the primary structure of all 11 sequences was similar to that of wheat and other wheat-related grass Glu-3 genes. All 11 sequences carried the 14 amino acid residue N-terminal motif MESNIIISFLK/RPWL, and were classified as LMW-m genes, based on the identity of the first amino acid of the mature protein. All but one of the sequences contained seven cysteine residues (the exception had 6). Their repetitive domain differs significantly from that present in Glu-3 genes isolated from the close relative intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum Intermedium, 6x). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the tall wheatgrass sequences were closely related to those of the intermediate wheatgrass, but only distantly so to those from decaploid tall wheatgrass. One of the 11 LMW-GS peptides with a free-cysteine residue was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified in sufficient scale to perform a flour supplementation test. This showed that the dough strength of bread wheat flour was significantly increased by the presence of the tall wheatgrass LMW-GS. PMID:19484339

  4. NanoSense: Nanoscience Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drawing on concepts from physics, chemistry, and biology, NanoSense units reflect the interdisciplinary nature of nanoscience, emphasize fundamental nanoscience concepts such as size and scale and surface dominance of reactions, and explore applications of nanoscience and how they could affect society and policy.Each unit includes background materials and directions for the teacher, activities and instructional materials for students, and embedded assessments. Available units include:- Size Matters: Introduction to Nanoscience -- Clear Sunscreen: How Light Interacts with Matter -- Clean Energy: Converting Light into Electricity -- Fine Filters: Filtering Solutions for Clean Water.

  5. Vacuum nano-hole array embedded organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sohee; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Song, Young Seok; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics.We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The contents include details about the FDTD modeling, PL specimen fabrication, OLED device fabrication, and PL/EL measurement set-up. Further information is provided relating to the NHA substrate as well. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05331h

  6. “Doing” strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Pugh; L. Jay Bourgeois III

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Most of today's conversations around crafting business strategy center on which strategic framework is most appropriate for a firm, its strategist, or CEO to use. This opinion piece seeks to argue that the focus on frameworks is inappropriate and distracts businesses from crafting holistic and adaptive strategies. To rectify the situation, it aims to offer a more inclusive

  7. TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-27

    This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

  8. In This Issue New Startup -NanoCarbon......................1

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    In This Issue · New Startup - NanoCarbon......................1 · Quantum Computers: Another giant startup company, NanoCarbon. NanoCarbon has licensed a patent from the University of Wollongong (Uo." (More) New Startup: NanoCarbon ­ Surfactant-free graphene Quantum Computers: Another giant leap Artist

  9. Nano photonic sensors for microdamage detection: an exploratory simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ihab Fathy El-Kady; Mahmoud M. Reda Taha

    2005-01-01

    Nano photonic materials are synthetically manufactured crystals at the nano scale with the target of creating a microstructure with a special electro-magnetic periodicity. Such nano photonic materials have the ability to control light propagation and thus are capable of creating photonic bandgaps in the frequency domain. We propose using nano photonic crystals as sensors to detect microdamage in composite materials.

  10. Design and fabrication of a new class of nano hybrid materials based on reactive polymeric molecular cages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De Suo; Liu, Xiang Yang; Li, Jing Liang; Xu, Hong Yao; Lin, Hong; Chen, Yu Yue

    2013-09-10

    This paper describes a strategy of fabricating a new class of nano hybrid particles in terms of the "nanocages" of reactive molecular matrices/networks. The concept is to design molecular matrices functionalized with particular reactive groups, which can on-site synthesize and fix nanoparticles at the designated positions of the molecular networks. The cages of the molecular networks impose the confinement and protection to the nanoparticles so that the size and the stability of nano hybrid particles can be better controlled. To this end, polyamide network polymers (PNP) were synthesized and adopted as the reactive molecular cages for the control of silver nanoparticles formation. It follows that the silver nano hybrid particles fabricated by this method have an average diameter of 4.34 nm much smaller than any other or similar methods ie by a hyperbranched polyamide polymer (HB-PA). As per our design, the size of the silver nano hybrid particles can also be tuned by controlling the molar ratio between silver ions and the functional groups in the polymeric matrices. The silver nano hybrid particles reveal the substantially enhanced stability in aqueous solutions, which gives rise to the long stable performance of localized surface plasmon resonance. As the nano hybrid particles display long eminent nanoeffects, they exert broad implications for a wide range of applications such as biomedicine, catalysis, and optoelectronics. PMID:23980927

  11. Job & Internship Search Strategies Strategies &

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    Job & Internship Search Strategies Strategies & Tools What it is? How it helps? Advice COB Career, you have a unique log-in that allows you to manage your profile, search for positions and companies/interview activities with off-campus searching. Recruiting Events/ Career Fairs On and off-campus events promoted

  12. Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems

    E-print Network

    1 Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems Patrick James McCluskey, and Joost J. Vlassak Division of Engineering is presented for the combinatorial analysis of complex nano-scale material systems. The parallel nano

  13. Research of nano-solution immersion strengthening of recycled aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Kuangliang; Qian Xiaoqian; Zhangjinjian

    2011-01-01

    This paper design the method of strengthening the recycled aggregate by nano-solution. By testing the surface hardness and pore structure changes of the recycled aggregate after immersing in different concentrations of nano-solutions (nano calcium carbonate, nano-silica, sodium silicate) together with SEM observations of the immersion method of recycled aggregate surface structure before and after immersion we found that the nano-solution

  14. Three years of vertically resolved CO2/CH4/CO measurements at the tallest tower in the Amazon - Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin Lavri?, Jošt; Winderlich, Jan; Walter, David; Chi, Xuguang; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The 330 m-tall tower that is currently in its final phase of construction at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, Brazil; 2° 08'S, 59° 00'W), is the counterpart of the 304 m-tall tower of the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory tower (ZOTTO), located in central Siberia (Russia; 60° 48'N, 89° 21'E). The ATTO tall tower will extend above the atmospheric surface layer and the nocturnal stable boundary layer, and aims at delivering ground breaking findings that will be the basis for improved climate models. While awaiting the completion of the tall tower, a number of campaign or continuous pilot measurements are taking place on the ATTO site at and around the currently tallest Amazonian tower and mast (80 m a.g.l.). Since March 2012, we run continuous high precision CO2/CH4/CO measurements in an air-conditioned container at the foot of the 80 m tower. The sample air inlets are installed at five levels; 79, 53, 38, 24, and 4 m a.g.l. Two frequently calibrated CRDS analyzers (G1301 and G1302; Picarro Inc., USA) are used for measuring CO2/CH4 and CO/CO2, respectively. Even if due to proximity of our measurements to the canopy (~ 35 m a.g.l.) the data is influenced by local sources and sinks, it still provides a valuable insight into the diurnal and seasonal variations of the measured gas species. Additionally, the data set has proven to be also interesting combined with the parameters that are measured by other groups at the site in parallel either continuously or during intensive observation periods (e.g. VOCs, reactive trace gases, aerosols). A first analysis of the available data is presented. Our work was performed within the frame of the German-Brazilian project ATTO and supported by the federal government agencies BMBF and MCT (Grant number BMBF 01LB1001A). We acknowledge the fundamental support by the Max Planck Society, INPA and UEA. Special thanks go to the Amazonas State SDS/CEUC-RDS Uatumã.

  15. NanoSpace - Virtual Amusement Park

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Molecularium Project

    NanoSpace, a free website developed by the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, was created to increase science literacy utilizing an amusement park. NanoSpace is designed to teach science to elementary and middle school students through more than 25 games and animations that entice kids to learn more about atoms and molecules in NanoSpace. Visitors can try to beat the clock in the Periodic Memory and click-and-drag atoms to construct molecules in "Build `Em." Answer multiple-choice questions in "Who wants to be a Quidecillionaire?," and hope the answer is correct before you fall down to the bottom rung again.

  16. Preparation of hydrophobic nano-silver colloid and aqueous nano-silver colloid by phase transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanshan Wei; Xiangyang Xu; Yuejun Liu; Junming Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel and facile method to prepare hydrophobic nano-silver colloid and aqueous coordinate was proposed. Chemical reduction of silver nitrate in a tributyl phosphate (TBP) solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was conducted and stable hydrophobic nano-silver\\/TBP\\/PVP colloids were obtained. Adopting a phase transfer process, the as-prepared colloids can be diverted into an aqueous system to obtain hydrophilic nano-silver colloids. The resultant

  17. Mechanical properties and rolling behaviors of nano-grained copper with embedded nano-twin bundles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhang; N. R. Tao; K. Lu

    2008-01-01

    By means of dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT), bulk nano-grained copper samples with embedded nano-twin bundles were prepared. Subsequent cold rolling (CR) of the LNT-DPD Cu led to a reduction in quantity of nano-twin bundles and a slight grain coarsening, accompanied by a decrease in grain boundary (GB) energy from 0.34 to 0.22Jm?2. An increasing CR

  18. Nano-plasmonic exosome diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyungsoon; Shao, Huilin; Weissleder, Ralph; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes have emerged as a promising biomarker. These vesicles abound in biofluids and harbor molecular constituents from their parent cells, thereby offering a minimally-invasive avenue for molecular analyses. Despite such clinical potential, routine exosomal analysis, particularly the protein assay, remains challenging, due to requirements for large sample volumes and extensive processing. We have been developing miniaturized systems to facilitate clinical exosome studies. These systems can be categorized into two components: microfluidics for sample preparation and analytical tools for protein analyses. In this report, we review a new assay platform, nano-plasmonic exosome, in which sensing is based on surface plasmon resonance to achieve label-free exosome detection. Looking forward, we also discuss some potential challenges and improvements in exosome studies. PMID:25936957

  19. Spin transfer nano-oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhongming; Finocchio, Giovanni; Jiang, Hongwen

    2013-03-21

    The use of spin transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs) to generate microwave signals in nanoscale devices has aroused tremendous and continuous research interest in recent years. Their key features are frequency tunability, nanoscale size, broad working temperature, and easy integration with standard silicon technology. In this feature article, we give an overview of recent developments and breakthroughs in the materials, geometry design and properties of STNOs. We focus in more depth on our latest advances in STNOs with perpendicular anisotropy, showing a way to improve the output power of STNO towards the ?W range. Challenges and perspectives of the STNOs that might be productive topics for future research are also briefly discussed. PMID:23400008

  20. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    Both technical and natural processes emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The abundant use of nitrogen (N) as fertiliser increases the concentration of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and in the biosphere, i.e. in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Surplus Nr is distributed across linkages to other spheres until most of it is emitted to the atmosphere as NO, N2O or N2. A complete estimate of the effects from human activities on N2O emissions must therefore include all emissions, the direct emissions and the indirect emissions that happen in interlinked spheres. For this it is necessary to assess the fluxes at least at the landscape scale. The episodic nature and the large spatial variability make it difficult to estimate the direct and indirect emissions in a landscape. Modelling requires not only to include the highly variable microbial processes in the ecosystems that produce N2O but as well the accurate simulation of lateral Nr fluxes and their effects on N2O fluxes in places remote from the primary Nr sources. In this context tall tower N2O flux measurements are particularly useful as they integrate over larger areas and can be run, continuously without disturbing the fluxes. On the other hand these measurements can be difficult to interpret due to difficulties to measure the small concentration fluctuations in the atmosphere at small flux rates and to accurately attribute the measured flux at the tower to the area that generates the flux, i.e. the source area. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has established eddy covariance N2O flux measurements on a 125 m tall tower at its Risø Campus as part of the EU research infrastructure project the 'Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System' (InGOS). The eddy covariance system consisted of a N2O/CO quantum cascade laser, Los Gatos, Mountain View, CA, USA and a 3D sonic anemometer (USA-1), Metek, Elmshorn, Germany. The Risø peninsula lies at the eastern coastline of the Roskilde fjord on the Danish island Zealand. The tower is surrounded by the fjord, by agricultural area, forests and, in the South by the urban area of the City of Roskilde. The City of Roskilde operates a waste incinerator and a waste water treatment plant, which drains treated waste water into the fjord. The level of the measured flux values was generally relatively low. Based on the clear definition of the lag time between N2O concentrations and the vertical wind speed, fluxes were measureable over larger periods. The fluxes showed clear directional relationships indicating their large spatial and temporal variability in the landscape. Footprint calculations were performed to attribute source areas to the measured fluxes ...(Kormann and Meixner, 2001; Neftel et al., 2008). The footprint of the flux measurement included areas between 200 m and several kilometres distance from the tower. A preliminary approach was developed to generate monthly maps of N2O fluxes around the tower. Here we present the results from the first seven months of flux measurements. Based on these results we discuss the potential and the limitations of tall tower eddy covariance measurements to estimate maps of N2O fluxes and the integral value of the landscape N2O flux. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the EU-FP7 InGOS project. We thank Ebba Dellwik (Technical University of Denmark) for providing sonic anemometer data. References: Kormann, R. and Meixner, F.X., 2001. An Analytical Footprint Model For Non-Neutral Stratification. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 99(2): 207-224. Neftel, A., Spirig, C. and Ammann, C., 2008. Application and test of a simple tool for operational footprint evaluations. Environmental Pollution, 152(3): 644-652.

  1. Injectable Nano-Network for Glucose-Mediated Insulin Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Aimetti, Alex A.; Wang, Qun; Dang, Tram T.; Zhang, Yunlong; Veiseh, Omid; Cheng, Hao; Langer, Robert S.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a disorder of glucose regulation, is a global burden affecting 366 million people across the world. An artificial “closed-loop” system able to mimic pancreas activity and release insulin in response to glucose level changes has the potential to improve patient compliance and health. Herein we develop a glucose-mediated release strategy for the self-regulated delivery of insulin using an injectable and acid-degradable polymeric network. Formed by electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged dextran nanoparticles loaded with insulin and glucose-specific enzymes, the nanocomposite-based porous architecture can be dissociated and subsequently release insulin in a hyperglycemic state through the catalytic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid. In vitro insulin release can be modulated in a pulsatile profile in response to glucose concentrations. In vivo studies validated that these formulations provided improved glucose control in type 1 diabetic mice subcutaneously administered with a degradable nano-network. A single injection of the developed nano-network facilitated stabilization of the blood glucose levels in the normoglycemic state (<200 mg/dL) for up to 10 days. PMID:23638642

  2. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2008-10-10

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the ...

  3. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2009-05-15

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the working ...

  4. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Gang

    2009-03-25

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  5. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  6. Characterization of Vapor Deposited Nano Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A; Cherepy, N; Ferreira, J; Hayes, J

    2004-03-25

    The vapor deposition methods of planar magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation are used to synthesize materials with nano structured morphological features that have ultra-high surface areas with continuous open porosity at the nano scale. These nano structured membranes are used in a variety of fuel cells to provide electrode and catalytic functions. Specifically, stand alone and composite nickel electrodes for use in thin film solid-oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cells are formed by sputter deposition and electron bean evaporation, respectively. Also, a potentially high-performance catalyst material for the direct reformation of hydrocarbon fuels at low temperatures is deposited as a nano structure by the reactive sputtering of a copper-zinc alloy using a partial pressure of oxygen at an elevated substrate temperature.

  7. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  8. A Nano-Introduction to Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liang, Barbara

    A very small and generic introduction to the subject of nanotechnology. What makes nanoscience special? What is the history of nano? What can nanotechnology be used for by scientist and industry? What are the ethical and enviromental challenges?

  9. Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan Hyuk Nam; Dongjin Lee; Daehie Hong; Jaewon Chung

    2009-01-01

    Various nano devices such as nanotubes, nanorods, nanoribbon, and nanowires have been extensively studied, since they are\\u000a the essential elements to build nanoelectronic circuits, nanochemical sensors, optical switches, etc. However, because the\\u000a nano devices are very small in size and have different shapes, it is virtually impossible to manipulate them with conventional\\u000a methods. This paper discusses the feasibility of using

  10. Intelligent informatics platform for nano-agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preethu Rose; Manoj Bhat; Kumar Vidhani; Nirav Ajmeri; Anand Gole; Smita Ghaisas

    2011-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector is likely to facilitate and frame the next stage of development of genetically modified crops, precision farming techniques (remote and local sensing), remediation (water treatment plants, pesticide removal from ground water), nano-sensors, nano-agricultural chemicals and most importantly designing smart delivery systems for nutrients and pesticides[1]. Although most of these applications are still

  11. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  12. Excimer laser processing in nano-technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Kathuria

    1999-01-01

    In the emerging field of microelectronics, microrobotics and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) it is often desirable to fabricate sub um order structure of solid surfaces in various materials. Recently with the established technique of laser in science and industry, its application have become diversified in the nano- and micro-processing areas. Excimer laser operating in the u.v. region have been employed in

  13. Impacts of waterlogging and salinity on puccinellia ( Puccinellia ciliata ) and tall wheatgrass ( Thinopyrum ponticum ): zonation on saltland with a shallow water-table, plant growth, and Na + and K + concentrations in the leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sommer Jenkins; Edward G. Barrett-Lennard; Zed Rengel

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the causes of zonation on agricultural land affected by secondary salinity between two halophytic grasses,\\u000a puccinellia (Puccinellia ciliata Bor. cv. Menemen) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Z.-W. Liu & R.R.-C. Wang cv. Tyrrell). We hypothesized that the differences in zonation of puccinellia and tall wheatgrass\\u000a were caused primarily by differences in the tolerance of these

  14. Comparative studies of herbage intake and performance of lambs grazing Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) pastures under rotational management in summer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Y. Liu; J. Hodgson; T. N. Barry

    1997-01-01

    Grazing experiments were conducted on Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus cv. Massey Basyri)\\/white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Grasslands Tahora) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea cv. Grasslands Roa)\\/white clover pastures in late spring?summer (Nov?Jan, Experiment 1) and summer?early autumn (Jan?Mar, Experiment 2) to assess behaviour and performance of lambs and to evaluate the effects of low concentrations of condensed tannins (CT) in

  15. Self-assembly of hybrid structures on nano templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruomiao

    This dissertation describes the investigation on the synthesis of hybrid structures on nano-templates. Fabrication of molecular nano-patterns of organic amphiphiles (e.g. fatty acids) by self-assembly has been discussed here, and their application as templates for two-dimensional in situ synthesis of metal soap molecular pattern has been demonstrated. The synthesis of nanoparticle---nanorod hybrid structure represents another effort to achieve hybrid materials. Therefore, methods to create complex inorganic---organic nano---hybrid are provided by this work. AFM disclosed the pattern structures of the self-assembled monolayers as designed nanoscaled patterns. It is observed two pattern periodicities reflecting the head-to-head and head-to-tail molecular assembly tendencies of the fatty acids and their dependence on the molecular structure and chain length, which exhibits a linear increase in the periodicity with an increasing molecular chain length. The investigation on molecular patterns of self-assembled monolayers of metal arachidates on graphite by AFM and FTIR is described. Metal arachidate self-assemblies show similar stripe pattern and periodicities as those of arachidic acid. The monolayer structure is mainly dictated by graphite, while the type of metal ions mainly affects the domain size, shape and regularity. The results of AFM and FTIR are correlated to the Irving-Williams Series, which predicts bond strength of the metal ions to ligands. The spin coated films from binary solutions of nanoparticles and fatty acids with different chain lengths (Even number of carbon, C18--C26), have been used to study the effect of nanoparticles on self-assemble pattern of fatty acids. C18--C22 acids formed uniform nanorods attached and induced by nanoparticles, while the self-assembled stripe patterns of C24 and C26 were unaffected by the presence of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were aligned on C26 monolayer. The seeded nucleation mechanism has been studied by AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and in situ EDS and it is disclosed the confinement effect of nanoparticles and the competition between template effects from nanoparticle and from graphite. This strategy is proven to be universal, and nano-hybrids have been fabricated using different nanoparticle seeds, fatty acids, and solvents.

  16. c-Myc inhibition prevents leukemia initiation in mice and impairs the growth of relapsed and induction failure pediatric T-ALL cells.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Justine E; Tesell, Jessica; Shultz, Leonard D; Brehm, Michael A; Greiner, Dale L; Harris, Marian H; Silverman, Lewis B; Sallan, Stephen E; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Look, A Thomas; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E; Kelliher, Michelle A

    2014-02-13

    Although prognosis has improved for children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), 20% to 30% of patients undergo induction failure (IF) or relapse. Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) are hypothesized to be resistant to chemotherapy and to mediate relapse. We and others have shown that Notch1 directly regulates c-Myc, a known regulator of quiescence in stem and progenitor populations, leading us to examine whether c-Myc inhibition results in efficient targeting of T-ALL-initiating cells. We demonstrate that c-Myc suppression by small hairpin RNA or pharmacologic approaches prevents leukemia initiation in mice by eliminating LIC activity. Consistent with its anti-LIC activity in mice, treatment with the BET bromodomain BRD4 inhibitor JQ1 reduces C-MYC expression and inhibits the growth of relapsed and IF pediatric T-ALL samples in vitro. These findings demonstrate a critical role for c-Myc in LIC maintenance and provide evidence that MYC inhibition may be an effective therapy for relapsed/IF T-ALL patients. PMID:24394663

  17. Key Drivers for the Nano FieldKey Drivers for the Nano Field Imaging is a key enabling technology for the nano field

    E-print Network

    Key Drivers for the Nano FieldKey Drivers for the Nano Field · Imaging is a key enabling technology for the nano field: ­ Transmission electron microscope (TEM) 1931 ­ Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 1981 of matter Laboratory for Intelligent Structural Technology University of Michigan Slide #31 8

  18. Iodinated NanoClusters as an inhaled computed tomography contrast agent for lung visualization.

    PubMed

    Aillon, Kristin L; El-Gendy, Nashwa; Dennis, Connor; Norenberg, Jeffrey P; McDonald, Jacob; Berkland, Cory

    2010-08-01

    Improvements to contrast media formulations may be an effective way to increase the accuracy and effectiveness of thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging in disease evaluation. To achieve contrast enhancement in the lungs, a relatively large localized concentration of contrast media must be delivered. Inhalation offers a noninvasive alternative to intrapleural injections for local lung delivery, but effective aerosolization may deter successful imaging strategies. Here, NanoCluster technology was applied to N1177, a diatrizoic acid derivative, to formulate low density nanoparticle agglomerates with aerodynamic diameters NanoCluster powders were delivered to rats by insufflation or inhalation and scanned using CT up to 1 h post dose. CT images after inhalation showed a approximately 120 (HU) Hounsfield units contrast increase in the lungs, which was more than sufficient contrast for thoracic CT imaging. Lung tissue histology demonstrated that N1177 NanoClusters did not damage the lungs. NanoCluster particle engineering technology offers a novel approach to safely and efficiently disseminate high concentrations of contrast agents to the lung periphery. PMID:20575527

  19. Iodinated NanoClusters as an inhaled CT contrast agent for lung visualization

    PubMed Central

    Aillon, Kristin L.; El-Gendy, Nashwa; Norenberg, Jeffery P.; McDonald, Jacob; Dennis, Connor; Berkland, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Improvements to contrast media formulations may be an effective way to increase the accuracy and effectiveness of thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging in disease evaluation. To achieve contrast enhancement in the lungs, a relatively large localized concentration of contrast media must be delivered. Inhalation offers a non-invasive alternative to intrapleural injections for local lung delivery, but effective aerosolization may deter successful imaging strategies. Here, NanoCluster technology was applied to N1177, a diatrizoic acid derivative, to formulate low density nanoparticle agglomerates with aerodynamic diameters ? 5 µm. Excipient-free N1177 NanoCluster powders were delivered to rats by insufflation or inhalation and scanned using CT up to 2 h post dose. CT images after inhalation showed a ~120 HU contrast increase in the lungs, which was more than sufficient contrast for thoracic CT imaging. Lung tissue histology demonstrated that N1177 NanoClusters did not damage the lungs. NanoCluster particle engineering technology offers a novel approach to safely and efficiently disseminate high concentrations of contrast agents to the lung periphery. PMID:20575527

  20. Micro/Nano-Computed Tomography Technology for Quantitative Dynamic, Multi-scale Imaging of Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Chelsea L.; Recknagel, Andrew K.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue morphogenesis and embryonic development are dynamic events challenging to quantify, especially considering the intricate events that happen simultaneously in different locations and time. Micro-, and more recently nano-computed tomography (micro/nanoCT), has been used for the past 15 years to characterize large 3D fields of tortuous geometries at high spatial resolution. We and others have advanced micro/nanoCT imaging strategies for quantifying tissue and organ level fate changes throughout morphogenesis. Exogenous soft tissue contrast media enables visualization of vascular lumens and tissues via extravasation. Furthermore, the emergence of antigen specific tissue contrast enables direct quantitative visualization of protein and mRNA expression. Micro-CT X-ray doses appear to be non-embryotoxic, enabling longitudinal imaging studies in live embryos. In this paper we present established soft tissue contrast protocols for obtaining high quality micro/nanoCT images and the image processing techniques useful for quantifying anatomical and physiological information from the datasets. PMID:25245686