Sample records for nanos tall strategies

  1. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. Scope This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. Conclusions This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose–response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender or thick axial organs. PMID:22437663

  2. The Tall Tale Ladies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of tall tales for children and focuses on tall tale heroines that have become more prevalent and offer models of strong, resourceful, undaunted women. Includes examples of popular tall tale heroines and offers suggestions for class activities. (LRW)

  3. Development of a bio-analytical strategy for characterization of vaccine particles combining SEC and nanoES GEMMA

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Marlene; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Friedbacher, Gernot; Messner, Paul; Winkler, Wolfgang; Perez-Burgos, Laura; Tauer, Christa; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used methods for size and shape analysis of bionanoparticles found in vaccines like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy are very time-consuming and cost-intensive. The nano-electrospray (nanoES) gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analyzer (GEMMA), belonging to the group of ion mobility spectrometers, was used for size determination of vaccine virus particles because it requires less analysis time and investment (no vacuum system). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of viral vaccines and production intermediates turned out to be a good purification/isolation method prior to GEMMA, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy) investigations, as well as providing a GEMMA analysis-compatible buffer. Column materials and different elution buffers were tested for optimal vaccine particle yield. We used a Superdex 200 column with a 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer. In addition, SEC allowed the removal of process-related impurities from the virions of interest. A sample concentrating step or a detergent addition step was also investigated. As a final step of our strategy SEC-purified or untreated vaccine-nanoparticles were further analyzed: (a) by immunological detection with a specific polyclonal antibody (dot blot) to verify the biological functionality, (b) by GEMMA to provide the size of the particles at atmospheric pressure and (c) by AFM and (d) TEM to obtain both size and shape information. The mean diameter of inactivated tick-borne encephalitis virions (i.e. vaccine particles) determined by GEMMA measurement was 46.6 ± 0.5 nm, in contrast to AFM and TEM images providing diameters of about 58 ± 4 and 52 ± 5 nm, respectively. PMID:24473104

  4. New Approaches to Target T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Roti, Giovanni; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. Although it is now curable in 80–90% of cases, patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) experience a higher frequency of induction failure and early relapse. Despite aggressive treatment approaches, including transplantation and new salvage regimens, most children with relapsed T-ALL will not be cured. As such, we are in need of new targeted therapies for the disease. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of T-ALL have uncovered a number of new therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent advancements in the study of inhibiting the NOTCH1, PI3K–AKT, and Cyclin D3:CDK4/6 pathways as therapeutic strategies for T-ALL. We will focus on pre-clinical studies supporting the testing of small-molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins and the rationale of combination therapies. Moreover, epigenetic approaches to modulate T-ALL are rapidly emerging. Here, we will discuss the data supporting the role of bromodomain and extra-terminal bromodomain inhibitors in human T-ALL. PMID:25072021

  5. Adaptive sampling strategies for efficient parameter scans in nano-photonic device simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, Martin; Pomplun, Jan; Burger, Sven; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Rigorous optical simulations are an important tool in optimizing scattering properties of nano-photonic devices and are used, for example, in solar cell optimization. The finite element method (FEM) yields rigorous, timeharmonic, high accuracy solutions of the full 3D vectorial Maxwell's equations1 and furthermore allows for great flexibility and accuracy in the geometrical modeling of these often complex shaped 3D nano-structures. A major drawback of frequency domain methods is the limitation of single frequency evaluations. For example the accurate computation of the short circuit current density of an amorphous silicon/micro-crystalline multi-junction thin film solar cell may require the solution of Maxwell's equations for over a hundred different wavelengths if an equidistant sampling strategy is employed. Also in optical metrology, wavelength scans are frequently used to reconstruct unknown geometrical and material properties of optical systems numerically from measured scatterometric data. In our contribution we present several adaptive numerical integration and sampling routines and study their efficiency in the context of the determination of generation rate profiles of solar cells. We show that these strategies lead to a reduction in the computational effort without loss of accuracy. We discuss the employment of tangential information in a Hermite interpolation scheme to achieve similar accuracy on coarser grids. We explore the usability of these strategies for scatterometry and solar cell simulations.

  6. Short and Tall Stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurgen H. Bramswig

    2007-01-01

    Short or tall stature is primarily a normal variation of height. It is part of the continuum of the normal Gaussian distribution curve which defines the lower and upper limit of normal as the 3rd and 97th percentile. Within this context it is very important to differentiate normal variations in height and growth from pathological conditions. Normal variations in height

  7. Tall Tower Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore the design of tall structures such as skyscrapers and telecommunication towers. Learners work in teams to engineer the tallest tower they can build using just straws, pipe cleaners, and paperclips. The tower must be strong enough to support the weight of a golf ball for two minutes.

  8. ITS-NANO - Prioritising nanosafety research to develop a stakeholder driven intelligent testing strategy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the risk of all nanomaterials (NMs) on a case-by-case basis is challenging in terms of financial, ethical and time resources. Instead a more intelligent approach to knowledge gain and risk assessment is required. Methods A framework of future research priorities was developed from the accorded opinion of experts covering all major stake holder groups (government, industry, academia, funders and NGOs). It recognises and stresses the major topics of physicochemical characterisation, exposure identification, hazard identification and modelling approaches as key components of the current and future risk assessment of NMs. Results The framework for future research has been developed from the opinions of over 80 stakeholders, that describes the research priorities for effective development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS) to allow risk evaluation of NMs. In this context, an ITS is a process that allows the risks of NMs to be assessed accurately, effectively and efficiently, thereby reducing the need to test NMs on a case-by-case basis. For each of the major topics of physicochemical characterisation, exposure identification, hazard identification and modelling, key-priority research areas are described via a series of stepping stones, or hexagon diagrams structured into a time perspective. Importantly, this framework is flexible, allowing individual stakeholders to identify where their own activities and expertise are positioned within the prioritisation pathway and furthermore to identify how they can effectively contribute and structure their work accordingly. In other words, the prioritisation hexagon diagrams provide a tool that individual stakeholders can adapt to meet their own particular needs and to deliver an ITS for NMs risk assessment. Such an approach would, over time, reduce the need for testing by increasing the reliability and sophistication of in silico approaches. The manuscript includes an appraisal of how this framework relates to the current risk assessment approaches and how future risk assessment could adapt to accommodate these new approaches. A full report is available in electronic format (pdf) at http://www.nano.hw.ac.uk/research-projects/itsnano.html. Conclusion ITS-NANO has delivered a detailed, stakeholder driven and flexible research prioritisation (or strategy) tool, which identifies specific research needs, suggests connections between areas, and frames this in a time-perspective. PMID:24521051

  9. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11 characteristics of…

  10. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant cool-season perennial grass in the United States. It is widely used for both forage and turf purposes. This chapter describes a protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calli induced from caryopsis are used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain used is EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker, and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Calli resistant to hygromycin are obtained after 4-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown tall fescue plants can be regenerated 4-5 months after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PMID:25416272

  11. Tall building collapse mechanisms initiated by fire 

    E-print Network

    Usmani, Asif; Roben, Charlotte; Johnston, Louise; Flint, Graeme

    This paper introduces the hypothesis of two possible failure mechanisms for tall buildings in multiple floor fires. This paper extends the previous work done on the WTC towers by investigating more "generic" tall building ...

  12. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap of the pine tree. It is obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil resin...

  13. MoMA: Tall Buildings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Museum of Modern Art's (MoMA) project, Tall Buildings, addresses issues of technology, urbanism, and program for twenty five buildings designed within the last decade. This interactive website, designed with Macromedia Flash Player, allows users to compare the height, area, geographic locations, and program distribution. Users can learn about many design issues such as aerodynamics, green technologies, and public space. For each building, visitors can find a clear introduction and many images of floor plans and external views.

  14. A Nano-Chip-LC\\/MS n Based Strategy for Characterization of Modified Nucleosides Using Reduced Porous Graphitic Carbon as a Stationary Phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Michael Bernth Giessing; Lincoln Greyson Scott; Finn Kirpekar

    2011-01-01

    LC\\/MS analysis of ribonucleosides is traditionally performed by reverse phase chromatography on silica based C18 type stationary\\u000a phases using MS compatible buffers and methanol or acetonitrile gradients. Due to the hydrophilic and polar nature of nucleosides,\\u000a down-scaling C18 analytical methods to a two-column nano-flow setup is inherently difficult. We present a nano-chip LC\\/MS\\u000a ion-trap strategy for routine characterization of RNA

  15. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  16. HiJAKing T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Asnafi, Vahid

    2014-11-13

    In the current issue of Blood, Degryse and coauthors report the transforming potential of a series of JAK3 mutations identified in primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) samples and pave the way toward multitargeted JAK1 and JAK3 therapy in T-ALL. PMID:25395141

  17. Nano-sized assemblies of a PEG-docetaxel conjugate as a formulation strategy for docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jubo; Zahedi, Payam; Zeng, Faquan; Allen, Christine

    2008-08-01

    An amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugate was prepared by attachment of low molecular weight methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (i.e., 2 kDa) to docetaxel (DTX) through an ester linkage. The PEG-DTX conjugate having a critical micelle concentration of 0.88 mg/mL was used to form nano-sized micelles, with mean diameters of less than 100 nm, for solubilization of free DTX. The maximum concentrations of free and conjugated DTX achieved in this formulation were 28 and 12 mg/mL (DTX equivalent), respectively; which corresponds to a drug to polymer ratio of 4:3 (w/w). The physico-chemical properties of the PEG-DTX conjugate and DTX formulation were evaluated including stability, rate of hydrolysis, hemolytic activity, and drug release profile. The anti-cancer activity of the drug in the PEG-DTX micelle formulation was demonstrated to be retained in three human cancer cell lines. Intravenous administration of DTX in the PEG-DTX micelles revealed relatively rapid dissociation of the free drug from the formulation; however, a 1.8-fold higher DTX equivalent area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was obtained, in comparison to DTX administered as Taxotere. The maximum tolerated dose of this DTX formulation was also 2.5-fold higher than that for Taxotere(R) in healthy mice. PMID:18064681

  18. Developing Concrete Recycling Strategies by Utilization of Nano-SiO 2 Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hosseini; A. Booshehrian; A. Madari

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, applying sustainable development strategies in designation and production of various products has attracted specific\\u000a attention. In order to consider ecological sustainable development for a product, reducing its environmental impacts should\\u000a be observed. Concrete technology and its products are not exceptions, and therefore, the same has been a concern for concrete\\u000a industry. Alongside, concrete recycling is one of the measures

  19. Investigation and management of tall stature.

    PubMed

    Davies, Justin H; Cheetham, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Referral for an assessment of tall stature is much less common than for short stature. Although the commonest cause is an underlying familial tendency to tallness, there are important disorders that should be considered at the initial assessment. Distinguishing these conditions from normal variations of growth is the key objective when managing the child and family. In some children, further targeted investigations will be needed and in rare instances intervention to limit final height may be appropriate. This article discusses a structured approach to the assessment and management of a child with tall stature. PMID:24833789

  20. Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, S.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

  1. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  2. Tall women's satisfaction with the fit and style of tall women's clothing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle R. Jones; Valerie L. Giddings

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess tall women's satisfaction with the fit and style of apparel for tall women. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 75 US women, who were at least 5 feet 8 inches and between 18 and 54 years old, were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with misses-size and tall-size apparel, in

  3. AUTHOR: Mitchell A. Pavao-Zuckerman, John C. Waller, Teri Ingle, and Henry A. TITLE: Methane Emissions of Beef Cattle Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures at Three

    E-print Network

    Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell

    Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+) can be mitigated with management strategies that improve forage quality of E of CH4 emissions from free-roaming cattle grazing tall fescue pastures indicates that (i) improved: Methane Emissions of Beef Cattle Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures at Three Levels of Endophyte Infestation

  4. Tall Timbers Research Station: Research Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Tall Timbers Research Station works to foster land stewardship through its research, conservation, and education efforts. Located in Tallahassee, Florida, the Tall Timbers Station conducts research in the areas of Fire Ecology, Resource Management, Vertebrate Ecology, Forestry, and Northern Bobwhite Quail studies. The Station's website contains overviews of its five major research programs and offers information regarding research jobs and internships. Tall Timbers also provides downloadable copies of its _Research Notes_ publication, and lists a variety of staff publications (some of which are downloadable). In addition, Tall Timbers features the E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, January 6, 1999) which contains approximately 15,000 citations, and 6,000 abstracts.

  5. Internal tide generation by tall ocean ridges

    E-print Network

    Echeverri Mondragón, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Internal tides are internal waves of tidal period generated by tidal currents flowing over submarine topography. Tall ridges that are nominally two-dimensional (2-D) are sites of particularly strong generation. The subsequent ...

  6. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K; Greif, Philipp A; Baldus, Claudia D

    2015-02-20

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by ?-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25595890

  7. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology UNIST, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulasn Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  8. Twisters, Tall Tales, and Science Teaching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dawn Renee Wilcox

    2006-07-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Your students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and scientific phenomena. Harness your students' creative engery with this lesson that incorporates tall tales into the classroom, and follows the 5-E model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) for incorporating constructivism into science teaching.

  9. Electrochemical sensor based on electrodeposited graphene-Au modified electrode and nanoAu carrier amplified signal strategy for attomolar mercury detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Guang Ming; Tang, Lin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yuan; He, Xiao Xiao; He, Yan

    2015-01-20

    An electrochemical sensor was developed for attomolar Hg(2+) detection. Three single-stranded DNA probes were rationally designed for selective and sensitive detection of the target, which combined T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry and the characteristic of convenient modification of electrochemical signal indicator. Graphene and nanoAu were successively electrodeposited on a glass carbon electrode surface to improve the electrode conductivity and functionalize with the 10-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P1). NanoAu carriers functionalized with 29-mer guanine-rich DNA probe (P3) labeled methyl blue (MB-nanoAu-P 3s) were used to further strengthen signal response. In the presence of Hg(2+), a T-T mismatched dsDNA would occur between P1 and a 22-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P2) on the electrode surface due to T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. Followed by adding the MB-nanoAu-P 3s for hybridization with P2, square wave voltammetry was executed. Under optimal conditions, Hg(2+) could be detected in the range from 1.0 aM to 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.001 aM. Selectivity measurements reveal that the sensor is specific for Hg(2+) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. Three different environmental samples were analyzed by the sensor and the results were compared with that from an atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The developed sensor was demonstrated to achieve excellent detectability. It may be applied to development of ultrasensitive detection strategies. PMID:25440021

  10. Analysis of Alongwind Tall Building Response to Transient Nonstationary Winds

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Analysis of Alongwind Tall Building Response to Transient Nonstationary Winds Xinzhong Chen1 Abstract: Transient nonstationary extreme winds such as thunderstorm downbursts are responsible tall building response to transient nonstationary winds based on nonstationary random vibration theory

  11. Dynamic interrelationship between technology and architecture in tall buildings

    E-print Network

    Moon, Kyoung-Sun

    2005-01-01

    The interrelationship between the technology and architecture of tall buildings is investigated from the emergence of tall buildings in the late 19th century to the present. Through the historical research, a filtering ...

  12. Diagrid Structures for Complex-Shaped Tall Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoung Sun Moon

    2011-01-01

    Diagrid structures are prevalently used for today's tall buildings due to their structural efficiency and architectural aesthetic potentials. This paper studies structural performance of diagrid systems employed for complex-shaped tall buildings such as twisted, tilted and freeform towers. For each complex form category, tall buildings are designed with diagrid systems, and their structural efficiency is studied in conjunction with building

  13. Selection of Shade Tolerant Tall Fescue Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

  14. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  15. NANO EXPRESS Open Access Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer-

    E-print Network

    Li, Teng

    NANO EXPRESS Open Access Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer- bridged carbon nanoscrolls nano-oscillators based on carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) using molecular dynamics simulations. Initiated of gigahertz. We demonstrate an effective strategy to reduce the dissipation of the CNS-based nano

  16. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ?500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes at a regional scale in order to achieve a better understanding about CO2 and CH4 fluxes and their response to climate. We will present first direct comparisons of measurements obtained from continuously calibrated laser absorption spectrometers to quantify the atmospheric concentrations of carbon-dioxide and methane, but also from meteorological sensors and turbulence measurements. Data from the sensors at the two stations will be used to address the following question: can a mountain top station provide similar quality of data and spatial representativeness as a tall tower for the investigation of atmospheric patterns of greenhouse gases at diurnal to seasonal scale?

  17. Seedling performance associated with live or herbicide treated tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitro...

  18. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  19. Green or Grey? The Aesthetics of Tall Building Sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Wood RIBA

    This paper outlines the viability of the tall building as a sustainable element in our future urban centres and examines several tall building case studies that have embraced environmental approaches to a lesser or greater degree. In doing this, it suggests a number of design approaches which, collectively and broadly, could be interpreted as a new vernacular for the skyscraper

  20. Cooperative genetic defects in TLX3 rearranged pediatric TALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Van Vlierberghe; I Homminga; L Zuurbier; J Gladdines-Buijs; E R van Wering; M Horstmann; H B Beverloo; R Pieters; J P P Meijerink; JPP Meijerink

    2008-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive neoplastic disorder, in which multiple genetic abnormalities cooperate in the malignant transformation of thymocytes. About 20% of pediatric T-ALL cases are characterized by TLX3 expression due to a cryptic translocation t(5;14)(q35;q32). Although a number of collaborating genetic events have been identified in TLX3 rearranged T-ALL patients (NOTCH1 mutations, p15\\/p16 deletions, NUP214-ABL1 amplifications),

  1. Contrasting Micro/Nano Architecture on Termite Wings: Two Divergent Strategies for Optimising Success of Colonisation Flights

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gregory S.; Cribb, Bronwen W.; Watson, Jolanta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many termite species typically fly during or shortly after rain periods. Local precipitation will ensure water will be present when establishing a new colony after the initial flight. Here we show how different species of termite utilise two distinct and contrasting strategies for optimising the success of the colonisation flight. Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. fly during rain periods and adopt hydrophobic structuring/‘technologies’ on their wings to contend with a moving canvas of droplets in daylight hours. Schedorhinotermes sp. fly after rain periods (typically at night) and thus do not come into contact with mobile droplets. These termites, in contrast, display hydrophilic structuring on their wings with a small scale roughness which is not dimensionally sufficient to introduce an increase in hydrophobicity. The lack of hydrophobicity allows the termite to be hydrophilicly captured at locations where water may be present in large quantities; sufficient for the initial colonization period. The high wettability of the termite cuticle (Schedorhinotermes sp.) indicates that the membrane has a high surface energy and thus will also have strong attractions with solid particles. To investigate this the termite wings were also interacted with both artificial and natural contaminants in the form of hydrophilic silicon beads of various sizes, 4 µm C18 beads and three differently structured pollens. These were compared to the superhydrophobic surface of the planthopper (Desudaba psittacus) and a native Si wafer surface. The termite cuticle demonstrated higher adhesive interactions with all particles in comparison to those measured on the plant hopper. PMID:21935401

  2. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester–diesel fuel blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duran Alt?parmak; Ali Keskin; Atilla Koca; Metin Gürü

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the

  3. Carbon nanotubes: from nano test tube to nano-reactor.

    PubMed

    Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2011-12-27

    Confinement of molecules and atoms inside carbon nanotubes provides a powerful strategy for studying structures and chemical properties of individual molecules at the nanoscale. In this issue of ACS Nano, Allen et al. explore the nanotube as a template leading to the formation of unusual supramolecular and covalent structures. The potential of carbon nanotubes as reactors for synthesis on the nano- and macroscales is discussed in light of recent studies. PMID:22200191

  4. Nano Waterproofing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-07-30

    This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

  5. Targeting nonclassical oncogenes for therapy in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Prem S; Whye, Dosh W; Efimenko, Evgeni; Chen, Jianchung; Tosello, Valeria; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Kashishian, Adam; Thompson, Mary Ann; Castillo, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Davé, Utpal P; Ferrando, Adolfo; Lannutti, Brian J; Diacovo, Thomas G

    2012-04-17

    Constitutive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation is common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Although four distinct class I PI3K isoforms (?, ?, ?, ?) could participate in T-ALL pathogenesis, none has been implicated in this process. We report that in the absence of PTEN phosphatase tumor suppressor function, PI3K? or PI3K? alone can support leukemogenesis, whereas inactivation of both isoforms suppressed tumor formation. The reliance of PTEN null T-ALL on the combined activities of PI3K?/? was further demonstrated by the ability of a dual inhibitor to reduce disease burden and prolong survival in mice as well as prevent proliferation and promote activation of proapoptotic pathways in human tumors. These results support combined inhibition of PI3K?/? as therapy for T-ALL. PMID:22516257

  6. Forage production and animal performance from Kenhy tall fescue

    E-print Network

    Dorsett, D. J

    1976-01-01

    multiflorum Lam, ) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ) cross, was studied to evaluate its forage production and animal pro- duction potential. Six pastures of unequal size stocked wi th equal numbers of animals to provide a range in stocking...-season grasses used to provide winter pasture in the Southwest are primarily limited to two species, T. A. M. wintergreen ii rdinggrass (Pblaris tube osa ua . ~steno tera and tati fescue (Festuca arundinacea schreb. ). Varieties of tall fescue are the "The...

  7. Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Nayak; M. C. Gupta; K. W. Kolasinski

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time that a regular array of sharp nano-textured conical microstructures are formed on the titanium metal surface by irradiation with ultrafast laser pulses of 130 fs duration, 800 nm wavelength in vacuum (˜1 mbar) or in 100 mbar He. The microstructures are up to 25 mum tall, and taper to about 500 nm diameters at

  8. Ch08 oupTall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 Tall tales on intelligence

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    Ch08 oup­Tall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 Tall tales on intelligence #12;Ch08 oup­Tall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 #12;Ch08 oup­Tall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 Chapter 8 Is bigger

  9. Understanding Nano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.

  10. Method for tall oil recovery and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.R.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-08-31

    A system and apparatus are disclosed for removing particles from suspension in a liquid, particularly for removing tall oil soap particles from black liquor. The black liquor flows along a fluid flow path which runs between a source of black liquor and a skimming tank. Two electrodes are disposed one downstream of the other within the fluid flow path. A power supply applies an electrical potential between the electrodes. The downstream electrode is connected to earth ground. It has been found that this earth ground connection provides substantial improvements in the quality and quantity of recovered tall oil soap.

  11. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  12. Strategis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Strategis is a web site developed by Industry Canada to provide business information resources to Canadian businesses. Resources available include a searchable database of Canadian companies, business information for each sector, a list of business support services, and a guide to business laws and regulation. The International Business Information Network offers information about business opportunities abroad; Trade Data Online provides Canadian and US trade data. A collection of research publications by Industry Canada and monthly economic indicators on the economy are additional economic resources found at this site. Users can view this site in French or English.

  13. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall...component in the manufacture of food-grade additives in accordance with the...

  14. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall...component in the manufacture of food-grade additives in accordance with the...

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall...component in the manufacture of food-grade additives in accordance with the...

  16. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall...component in the manufacture of food-grade additives in accordance with the...

  17. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  3. Big and Tall Men as Apparel Shoppers: Consumer Characteristics and Shopping Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soyeon Shim; Antigone Kotsiopulos

    1991-01-01

    This study explores big and tall men as an untapped market. More specifically, the study was designed to segment the big and tall men's apparel market by their clothing involvementand investigate its relationships to consumer characteristics and clothing shopping behavior. The big and tall men (n=172) reflected a wide range of clothing involvement and were classified into three groups: \\

  4. Management of Cattle to Reduce Vulnerability to Heat Stress Following Grazing of Toxic Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is primarily utilized for cow-calf production because poor weight gain efficiency of calves exhibiting fescue toxicosis has prevented the wide use of tall fescue for stocker production. Most calves weaned on tall fescue pastures and not retained for herd replacement are typically sold ...

  5. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and individual owners, so that they can make well-informed financial decisions.

  6. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  7. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  8. Wind pressures on tapered and set-back tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Chul; Kanda, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Recent tall buildings tend to have irregular and unconventional shapes as a prevailing but unavoidable trend, which is very effective for suppressing across-wind responses. Suppression of across-wind responses is a major factor in safety and habitability design of tall buildings, and the so-called aerodynamic modification method is comprehensively used. While the effectiveness of aerodynamic modification in reducing wind loads has been widely reported, there have been few detailed investigations of pressure fluctuations. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of pressure fluctuations applied to height-modified tall buildings comprehensively, including differences of vortex formation and shedding mechanism based on the previously reported mechanism of a conventional square tall building. The results show that taper and set-back affect on the bandwidth of power spectra and position of peak frequencies. And through taper and set-back, the height at which the vortex begins to form moves up, and due to the small building dimension, the vortex component formed at that height sheds from the building more frequently before an inverted conical vortex is formed over the whole height.

  9. IMPROVING TALL FESCUE SHADE TOLERANCE: IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtaine...

  10. Probabilistic Calculations of Lightning Protection for Tall Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul S. Velazquez; Victor Gerez; Dinkar Mukhedkar; Yvon Gervais

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of the protection practices applied to tall buildings by using lightning rods or horizontal wires has shown a deficiency in defining the shape and the extent of the protective zone. The limitations in the application of the empirical protective zone defined by a conical shape below and around a lightning rod have motivated the development of new techniques

  11. Vascular activity increases with time off of tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle continue to recover from depressed vasoactivity (vasoconstriction) beyond 60 days after removal from endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture and after prolactin (an indicator of fescue toxicosis) had returned to physiologic levels. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of...

  12. MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARDS FROM SALINE JOSE TALL WHEATGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum, is a salt resistant crop currently produced in California to help manage saline subsurface drainage water. There is a need to find high value uses for such material. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and water...

  13. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  14. Improving Tall Fescue Shade Tolerance: Identifying Candidate Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

  15. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Motoyama; W. Janischewskyj; A. M. Hussein; W. A. Chisholm; J. S. Chang; R. Rusan

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic

  16. MECHANICAL RENOVATION OF BERMUDAGRASS FOR INTERSEEDING TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial year-round grazing systems require both warm- and cool-season grass components that establish readily and persist in the warm, humid climate of the southeastern USA. The ideal conditions for tall fescue establishment in bermudagrass has not been extensively investigated. Previous attempts ...

  17. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because...

  18. Transient Response of a Tall Object to Lightning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A. Rakov

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—Experimental data showing the transient behavior of tall objects struck by lightning are reviewed. The influence of this transient behavior, illustrated by simple calculations, on measured lightning current and measured remote electromagnetic fields is discussed. The estimated equivalent impedance of the lightning channel at the time of the initial current peak is appreciably higher than the characteristic impedance,of an ordinary

  19. Defoliation Management Effects on Meadow Fescue, Tall Fescue, and Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.] represents an alternative to temperate grasses typically used in forage-livestock systems. Our objective was to compare the productivity, nutritive value, and persistence of diverse meadow fescue cultivars with that of tall fescue [Lolium arund...

  20. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

  1. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

  2. Nano Letters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An electronic version of this journal from the American Chemical Society is available for free through June 30, 2001. Nano Letters is ACS's newest journal. It deals with "physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, processes and applications of structures within the nanoscale range."

  3. NanoEd Resource Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the National Center for Learning and Teaching in Nanoscale Science and Engineering, this educational site focuses on teaching resources in nanotechnology for high school and undergraduate students. The site is divided by resource type; visitors will find simulations and demonstrations, courses, lessons, and outside resources for integrating and introducing nanoscience into the classroom. The topics here range from carbon nanotubes, to magnetic force microscopes, to electrodeposition. Faculty are also encouraged to participate their own teaching materials to the project, and can find out more information by following the Contribute to NanoEd link.

  4. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of the Festuca genus to include representatives of each tall fescue morphotype, and to use low copy nuclear gene-derived sequences to identify putative progenitors of the polyploid species. The demonstration of distinct tall fescue lineages has implications for both taxonomy and molecular breeding strategies, and may facilitate the generation of morphotype and/or sub-genome-specific molecular markers. PMID:20937141

  5. Intake estimation of horses grazing tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) or fed tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Chavez, S J; Siciliano, P D; Huntington, G B

    2014-05-01

    Six mature geldings of light horse breeds (557 ± 37 kg) were randomly assigned to a nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue hay (n = 3) or pasture treatment (n = 3) in a crossover design with 14-d periods to estimate DMI with alkane markers and to compare DMI of hay and pasture. When fed pasture, horses were housed in stalls from 0700 to 1300 h daily with access to water and then grazed pasture as a group in a single 0.4 ha pasture from 1300 to 0700 h. When fed hay, horses were maintained individually in stalls and given access to hay ad libitum from 1300 to 0700 h. All horses were individually fed 225 g oats twice daily treated with hexatriacontane (C36; external marker) and fecal samples were collected at 0700 and 1900 h on d 10 to 14. Fecal samples were mixed, dried, subsampled, and analyzed for tritriacontane (C33) and hentriacontane (C31) as internal markers and C36 as the external marker using gas chromatography. Estimated hay DMI using either C33 (1.75 kg/100 kg BW) or C31 (1.74 kg/100 kg BW) as internal alkane marker did not differ (P = 0.55) from measured hay DMI (1.70 kg/100 kg BW). Pasture DMI and DM digestibility (DMD) estimated with C31 (2.24 kg/100 kg BW and 53.1 g/100 g DMI) or with C33 (2.34 kg/100 kg BW and 56.2 g/100 g DMI) was greater (P = 0.05) than hay DMI and DMD (1.74 kg/100 kg BW and 44.5 g/100 g DMI). Intake estimated with C33 or C31 did not differ (P = 0.35) during hay or pasture. In conclusion, alkanes can be used to estimate pasture or hay DMI and DMD, and pasture intake exceeded hay intake when offered ad libitum. PMID:24663171

  6. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

  7. Stability of tall buildings with shear-wall structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S Li

    2001-01-01

    An analytical model of a flexural-shear plate is proposed herein for the purpose of buckling analysis. In this paper, tall buildings with shear-wall structures and with narrow rectangular plane configuration are modeled as flexural-shear plates for buckling analysis. The governing differential equation for buckling of a flexural-shear plate with varying cross-section is established. Using appropriate transformations, the equation is reduced

  8. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  9. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, C. J.

    1985-07-02

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  10. Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Nayak; M. C. Gupta; K. W. Kolasinski

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time that a regular array of sharp nano-textured conical microstructures are formed on the titanium\\u000a metal surface by irradiation with ultrafast laser pulses of 130 fs duration, 800 nm wavelength in vacuum (?1 mbar) or in 100 mbar\\u000a He. The microstructures are up to 25 ?m tall, and taper to about 500 nm diameters at the tip. Irradiation in the presence

  11. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology. PMID:22662021

  12. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H. [CRIEPI, Tokyo (Japan)] [CRIEPI, Tokyo (Japan); Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chisholm, W.A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chang, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)] [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Rusan, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  13. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products...

  14. Lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J.; Montanyà, J.; Maruri, M.; De la Vega, D.; Aranda, J. A.; Gaztelumendi, S.

    2012-11-01

    Lightning detection in the Spanish Basque Country is performed using the LF TOA, VHF interferometer and the VLF lightning detection technologies in which two independent networks are based, providing a better detection quality due to the combination of these different techniques. Total lightning activity related to the tall structure of the weather radar operated by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) is presented. The tall structure is a 50 m tower located on the top of Kapildui Mountain (at about 1169.48 m ASL). Remarkable electrical activity associated to this place has been witnessed in the last two years. Two particular flashes during November 30th 2009 caused damage to the weather radar. Two different lightning detection networks detected five and six cloud-to-ground strokes, respectively. Only nine VHF sources were detected in the first flash without any VLF detection classified as intracloud. But for the second flash non VHF source was detected and two detections were reported by the VLF system. In both cases some intracloud detections were reported before cloud-to-ground strokes and some others during the flash. This paper presents the study of a winter episode with a special impact in the tower, the research carried out for characterizing the lightning events and the measures taken in order to achieve a better protection mechanism for the radar site.

  15. Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichloë species.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, H F; Liu, J S; Staben, C; Christensen, M J; Latch, G C; Siegel, M R; Schardl, C L

    1994-01-01

    The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among endophytes of tall fescue. Phylogenetic relationships among seven isolates from tall fescue, three from meadow fescue (a probable ancestor of tall fescue), and nine Epichloë isolates from other host species were investigated by comparing sequences of noncoding segments of the beta-tubulin (tub2) and rRNA (rrn) genes. Whereas each Epichloë isolate and meadow fescue endophyte had only a single tub2 gene, most tall fescue endophytes had two or three distinct tub2 copies. Phylogenetic analysis of tub2 sequences indicated that the presence of multiple copies in the tall fescue endophytes was a consequence of hybridization with Epichloë species. At least three hybridization events account for the distribution and relationships of tub2 genes. These results suggest that interspecific hybridization is the major cause of genetic diversification of the tall fescue endophytes. Images PMID:8172623

  16. Voltages induced on an overhead wire by lightning strikes to a nearby tall grounded object

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Baba; Vladimir A. Rakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify conditions under which the presence of tall strike object can serve to increase or decrease lightning-induced voltages on a nearby overhead wire. We examined the ratios of magnitudes of lightning-induced voltages on the overhead wire for the cases of strikes to a tall object and to flat ground as a function of

  17. Evolutionary Diversification of Fungal Endophytes of Tall Fescue Grass by Hybridization with Epichloddot{e} Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huei-Fung Tsai; Jih-Shiou Liu; Chuck Staben; Michael J. Christensen; Garrick C. M. Latch; Malcolm R. Siegel; Christopher L. Schardl

    1994-01-01

    The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloddot{e} (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among

  18. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  19. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  20. INDIVIDUAL PLANT CONTROL OF TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM BARBEYI) WITH TEBUTHIURON1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadcast application of herbicides to control tall larkspur is difficult under aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) and most herbicides kill the desirable tall forbs that are associated with larkspur. The pellet formulation of tebuthiuron allows individual treatment of plants without injury to associ...

  1. Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Aggregate Distribution In Response to Tall Fescue Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soi...

  2. Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

  3. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  4. 77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0278; FRL-9365-4] Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated...requirement of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated propoxylated...for residues of fatty [[Page 65835

  5. REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED OR NOVEL TALL FESCUE FED EWES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced pregnancy rates often occur in ruminants grazing endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue. The objectives were to characterize basal and oxytocin-induced PGF2' concentrations in serum and reproductive function in ewes fed tall fescue and to determine whether addition of fish meal (FM) to a diet...

  6. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  7. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the ergopeptine alkaloids produced by the endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) of tall fescue, ergovaline has been reported as the most abundant in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). As a result much focus has been placed on ergovaline and its impact on grazing animal health (i...

  8. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  9. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

  10. Chemotais disruption in protylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue...

  11. Response of Tall Building Structures using Panel Elements with In-Plane Rotational Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Tehranizadeh; Afshin Meshkat-Dini

    Generally, strain based finite elements are useful to assess the response of tall buildings. It should be noted that use of many lower order finite elements may reveal some analytical problems in analysis of tall buildings. The absence of an appropriate in-plane rotational stiffness in some finite elements and the existence of parasitic shear effects in the governing displacement functions

  12. Tall Fescue Persists and Cattle Perform Well on a Novel-Endophyte Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is a widely disseminated grass grown around the world and is considered the most important perennial, cool-season grass in the southeastern USA. Tall fescue withstands grazing pressure by cattle and persists better than other cool-season perennial forages, especially when exposed to the...

  13. Efficiency of Using Spaced Plants to Indirectly Improve Sward Yield and Nutritional Quality in Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the efficiency of using spaced plants to indirectly improve sward yield and nutritional quality in tall fescue. Narrow-sense heritabilities, genetic and rank correlations, and selection efficiences were estimated from spaced-plant and seeded-sward evaluation of a tall fesuce (...

  14. Lightning electromagnetic environment in the presence of a tall grounded strike object

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Lightning electromagnetic environment in the presence of a tall grounded strike object Yoshihiro have analyzed and compared distance dependences of electric and magnetic fields due to a lightning strike to a tall object and due to the same lightning strike to flat ground. In both cases, lightning

  15. Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus directly measured currents

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus-field-to-current conversion factors for lightning strikes to tall objects for (1) the initial peak current at the object top by lightning detection networks and are each expressed here as the product of (a) the far

  16. Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) ...

  17. Dyanmics of Peripheral Bloodflow for Endophyte-Naive Cattle Fed Toxic Tall Fescue Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood flow in cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue is constricted to peripheral tissues because certain ergot alkaloids produced by the Neotyphodium endophyte that inhabits most tall fescue plants bind alpha-adrenergic receptors in the vasculature of cattle. Although the adverse effects that ergot al...

  18. Tall Fescue Genomic SSR Markers: Development and Transferability across Multiple Grass Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are highly informative and widely used for genetic and breeding studies. Currently, a very limited number of SSR markers are available for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) and other forage grass species. A tall fescue genomic library enriched in (GA/CT)n ...

  19. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

  20. Steer and tall fescue pasture responses to grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  1. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  2. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  3. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  16. Nano Scavenger Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about identifying nanoscale objects and phenomena in today's world. Learners will break into groups and conduct a "NanoBlitz Challenge," spending a set amount of time on a scavenger hunt for all things nano, both natural and man-made, in the world around them. They will then assemble a chart of their findings and discuss. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Where's Nano?

  17. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures appear to enhance soil carbon sequestration. A hypothetical mechanism that may account for the enhanced carbon sequestration is that the E+ tall fescue affects the soil microbial community or components of ...

  19. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  1. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  2. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  3. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

  4. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-02-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. PMID:25514895

  5. The watering of tall trees - Embolization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-03-21

    We can propound a thermo-mechanical understanding of the ascent of sap to the top of tall trees thanks to a comparison between experiments associated with the cohesion-tension theory and the disjoining pressure concept for liquid thin-films. When a segment of xylem is tight-filled with crude sap, the liquid pressure can be negative although the pressure in embolized vessels remains positive. Examples are given that illustrate how embolized vessels can be refilled and why the ascent of sap is possible even in the tallest trees avoiding the problem due to cavitation. However, the maximum height of trees is limited by the stability domain of liquid thin-films. PMID:25602527

  6. Physical Limits to Leaf Size in Tall Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf sizes in angiosperm trees vary by more than 3 orders of magnitude, from a few mm to over 1 m. This large morphological freedom is, however, only expressed in small trees, and the observed leaf size range declines with tree height, forming well-defined upper and lower boundaries. The vascular system of tall trees that distributes the products of photosynthesis connects distal parts of the plant and forms one of the largest known continuous microfluidic distribution networks. In biological systems, intrinsic properties of vascular systems are known to constrain the morphological freedom of the organism. We show that the limits to leaf size can be understood by physical constraints imposed by intrinsic properties of the carbohydrate transport network. The lower boundary is set by a minimum energy flux, and the upper boundary is set by a diminishing gain in transport efficiency.

  7. Pollination in Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae): the advantage of being tall.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, S E; Lortie, C J; Aarssen, L W

    1998-11-01

    According to the "effective pollination" hypothesis, tall stature resulting from strong apical dominance attracts greater pollinator visitation, thus allowing larger pollen loads and/or greater outcrossing rates, which in turn produces more vigorous offspring with greater genotypic variability and/or less inbreeding depression. Components of this hypothesis were tested in Verbascum thapsus, which commonly grows unbranched to over 2 m tall with strong apical dominance suppressing all axillary meristems. A natural population survey indicated that plants with visiting pollinators were significantly taller than their nearest neighboring individuals not possessing a visiting pollinator. Plants in natural populations with excluded pollinators produced seeds via a delayed selfing mechanism. However, delayed selfing under pollinator exclusion resulted in only 75% of the seed set obtained with natural pollinators. Under natural pollination, emasculated flowers experienced a 50% reduction in pollen deposition by the time of flower closure but only a 5% reduction in seed set relative to intact flowers. Hence, taller plants attracted more pollinators and maximum seed set could not be achieved without pollinators. Comparison of seed set and seed mass in plants that were artificially selfed and artificially crossed (in both the greenhouse and in natural populations) indicated that plants were fully self-compatible with no evidence of early-acting inbreeding depression. However, this does not exclude the possibility that inbreeding depression is manifested in later life stages. The results suggest that V. thapsus has a mixed mating system with potential for reproductive assurance and various levels of outcrossing depending on variables affecting pollinator availability (e.g., population size). PMID:21680322

  8. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  9. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  10. Nano Research Journal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nano Research is a peer-reviewed, international and interdisciplinary research journal that focuses on all aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Submissions are solicited in all topical areas, ranging from basic aspects of the science of nanoscale materials to practical applications of such materials. Nano Research is an open-access journal, making all research results freely available online.Nano Research offers readers an attractive mix of authoritative and comprehensive Reviews, original cutting-edge research in Communication and Full Paper formats. Rapid review to ensure quick publication is a key feature of Nano Research.Articles in Nano Research are accessible free of charge in 2008 and 2009.

  11. A dual strategy for sensing metals with a nano 'pincer' scavenger for in vitro diagnostics and detection of liver diseases from blood samples.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Kim, Benjamin; Kolmodin, Nicholas J; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-02-01

    This work presents a dual, non-invasive approach for the detection of elevated level of metals in patients with liver disease. A highly sensitive, small molecule 'pincer' scavenger was synthesized for the detection and quantification of copper in serum and systemically in vivo. For the in vitro diagnostics, the developed technique involves only a routine capillary blood sampling or venipuncture, removing the need for invasive biopsies. The organic scavenger molecule showed high specificity toward copper ions, with a detection sensitivity of 1.35×10(-2)?g/L in mouse serum. Furthermore, for the systemic detection of copper in the liver, a polymeric nanopincer has been designed and studied. The small molecule scavengers were stably incorporated into polymeric micelles via its long acyl chains and polymeric micelle proved to be a stable carrier when injected into mice intravenously. The organic scavenger molecule was found to be highly fluorescent and specific toward Cu(2+) and can potentially help ameliorate diseases regarding accretion of copper in certain vital organs. The strategy and the results provide a novel, non-invasive dual nanomedicine approach for the early detection and treatment of excessive metal deposits in the human organs. PMID:25595484

  12. Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

  13. Integrated Micro Nano Systems Integrated Micro Nano Systems

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 2 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 3 Val Jones (Ed.) Symposium on Integrated Micro Nano Systems: Convergence of bio and nanotechnologies, Enschede, The Netherlands, June 2006 Micro Nano Systems 4 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 5 Preface In order to explore the convergence

  14. Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility: Weining Wang Office: Brauer rules and procedures (a) Accidents and spills for chemicals Not containing Nano-Materials Spills of non for chemicals Containing Nano-Materials In a fume hood small spills of nano-materials in a liquid may

  15. USC Nano Center Poster Session

    E-print Network

    Davis, James P.

    USC Nano Center Poster Session 19 April 2002 Nano-scale VLSI Design: A Significant Paradigm Shift The recent progression of events in nano-technology, from nanotubes to nano- transistors, begs a basic will the changes in underlying device materials theory of nano-scale electronics affect ways in which we currently

  16. Screening strategy to avoid toxicological hazards of inhaled nanoparticles for drug delivery: The use of a-quartz and nano zinc oxide particles as benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, Andrea; Schulz, Holger; Kissel, Thomas; Stoeger, Tobias

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a broad, revolutionary field with promising advantages for new medicine. In this context the rapid development and improvement of so called nanocarriers is of high pharmaceutical interest and some devices are already on the market. In our project we aim to develop well characterized nanoscaled drug delivery systems for an inhalative application. To this end, we focus on the most adverse side-effects within the lung, the cytotoxic and the proinflammatory responses to these nanoparticles (NPs). Before performing any animal experiments, we start with an in vitro screening for analyzing the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of the investigated particles on two murine lung target cell lines, the alveolar epithelial like typ II cell line (LA4) and the alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S). Three different endpoints were estimated, (i) cellular metabolic activity, determined by the WST-1 assay, (ii) membrane integrity, by detection of LDH release and hemolytic activity, and (iii) secretion of inflammatory mediators. To analyze the relative particle toxicity we choose two reference particles as benchmarks, (i) fine a-quartz, and (ii) ultrafine ZnO particles. The investigation of dose-response and kinetics of proinflammatory and toxic effects caused to the named cell lines provide an insight to a close evaluation of our cell based screening strategy. oc-quartz is well known for its inflammatory and toxic potential caused by inhalation, and nanosized ZnO particles - used in a broad field of nanotechnology like electronics, but also cosmetics and pharmaceuticals - is to a high degree cytotoxic and proinflammatory in vitro. Preliminary experiments indicated not only particle and cell specific inflammatory responses, but also different susceptibilities of the cell types being exposed to our benchmark particles regarding their size and surface activities. Exposure to the ?m-sized a-quartz particles affected the viability of epithelia cells less than that of macrophages, pointing to the impact of particle uptake by phagocytosis. In contrast, the nanosized ZnO particles caused much stronger decrease in cell viability and higher levels of LDH in the macrophage cell line compared to epithelial cells, even though the hemolytic activity was much higher for the a-quartz particles than for the nanosized ZnO. For the proinflammatory effects, we observed a clear dose-dependent release of acute phase cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, G-CSF> CXCL10>CCL2) for both alveolar cell lines after Min-U-Sil exposure. After ZnO treatment the cytokine responses were negligible compare to control cells. In conclusion, our data attach value to the use of different cell types to detect different pathways of toxicity generated by different particle properties. Therefore, we will establish both lung target cell lines for an in vitro screening to analyze proinflammatory and cytotoxicity effects of nanocarriers. The implementation of the two reference particles facilitate the validated classification of the cytotoxic responses caused by the NPs investigated.

  17. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum (Schreb.) Dumort.] imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physio...

  18. Collapse scenarios of WTC 1 & 2 with extension to generic tall buildings 

    E-print Network

    Usmani, Asif; Flint, Graeme; Jowsey, Allan; Roben, Charlotte; Torero, Jose L

    This paper presents a summary of the author’s investigation into the collapse of tall buildings. A large number of computational analyses have been carried out at the University of Edinburgh (UoE) over the last 4 years ...

  19. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial...commercial traffic throughout the Great Lakes. DATES: Comments and...

  20. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial...commercial traffic throughout the Great Lakes. DATES: This rule will be...

  1. The role of the aerodynamic modifications of the shapes of tall buildings

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jooeun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in technology, recent tall building design has undergone a shift to the free-style geometric forms in the exuberant and liberal atmosphere. As a height of the building increases, it is more susceptible ...

  2. MICROARRAY COMPARISON OF TALL FESCUE GENE EXPRESSION IN ENDOPHYTE INFECTED AND ENDOPHYTE FREE PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. The endophyte receives shelter and nutrients from the host ...

  3. Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

  4. Tall buildings in Asia : a critique on the high-rise building in Colombo, Shri Lanka

    E-print Network

    Pieris, Anoma D. (Anoma Darshani)

    1993-01-01

    The recent generation of tall buildings in Asia have been appropriated from the West with little adaptation. With no understanding of the forces that have generated this building form, Asia embraces the high-rise as an ...

  5. A Simple Tall Fescue Seed Extraction and Partial Purification of Ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several substances present in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Lolium arundinaceum /Neotyphodium coenophialum) that have biological activity. These include the pyrrolizidine and ergot alkaloids plus peramine. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids have significant mammalian to...

  6. INHIBITION OF SEEDLINGS BY TALL FESCUE: SEASON PATTERNS, INTERSPECIFIC DIFFERENCES AND EFFECTS OF MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is an important cool-season forage grass typically infected with an endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum). While conferring ecological advantages upon the plant, the association produces toxic alkaloids that restrict animal gains and impair reproductive perf...

  7. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  8. Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Ian

    of egg infertility and poor hatching success. Despite extensive surveys, tall fescue was not observed (Bunin et al. 1997; Jamieson & Ryan 2000). The majority of egg failures result from high egg infertility

  9. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  10. Effects of endophytic fungi on some drought tolerance mechanisms of tall fescue in a hydroponics culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bayat; A. Mirlohi; M. Khodambashi

    2009-01-01

    Neotyphodium, a seed-transmissible nonpathogenic fungal endophyte (symbiont) is considered beneficial because endophyte-infected grasses\\u000a are more drought-tolerant, produce more dry matter, utilize soil nitrogen more efficiently, and deter insects. In this study,\\u000a the effects of endophytes on physiological mechanisms of drought tolerance in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in a greenhouse. Two clonally propagated genotypes of tall fescue (F.

  11. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of resin acids in tall oil rosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Holmbom; E. Avela; S. Pekkala

    1974-01-01

    The resin acid composition of Finnish tall oil rosin was investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry employing\\u000a open tubular capillary columns. On a column coated with 1,4-butanediol succinate, 16 resin acids found in tall oil rosin samples\\u000a were well resolved, and mass spectra could be recorded. All resin acids were confirmed to be of the pimaric and abietic types

  12. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Takach, Johanna E.; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Trammell, Michael A.; Huhman, David V.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as “Kentucky-31” (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples. PMID:25408942

  13. Performance-Based Design of Tall Reinforced Concrete Core Wall Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Wallace

    \\u000a Reinforced concrete (RC) walls are commonly used as the primary lateral-force-resisting system for tall buildings, although\\u000a for buildings over 49 m (160 ft), IBC 2006 requires use of a dual system. Use of nonlinear response history analysis (NRHA)\\u000a coupled with peer-review has become a common way to assess the expected performance of tall buildings at various hazard levels\\u000a to avoid

  14. Prognostic significance of molecular-cytogenetic abnormalities in pediatric TALL is not explained by immunophenotypic differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M van Grotel; J P P Meijerink; E R van Wering; A W Langerak; H B Beverloo; J G C A M Buijs-Gladdines; N B Burger; M Passier; E M van Lieshout; W A Kamps; A J P Veerman; M M van Noesel; R Pieters; JPP Meijerink

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is characterized by chromosomal rearrangements possibly enforcing arrest at specific development stages. We studied the relationship between molecular-cytogenetic abnormalities and T-cell development stage to investigate whether arrest at specific stages can explain the prognostic significance of specific abnormalities. We extensively studied 72 pediatric T-ALL cases for genetic abnormalities and expression of transcription factors, NOTCH1

  15. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  16. Characteristics of wind forces and responses of rectangular tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, J. A.; Ahuja, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of wind tunnel tests on rectangular building models having the same plan area and height but different side ratios of 1, 1.56, 2.25, 3.06 and 4. The models were made from perspex sheet at a geometrical scale of 1:300. The wind pressure coefficients on all the models were evaluated from pressure records measured in a closed circuit wind tunnel under boundary layer flow for wind directions of 0° to 90° at an interval of 15°. The mean responses of rectangular tall buildings having different side ratios were also evaluated from the experimentally obtained wind loads. Effectiveness of side ratio of buildings in changing the surface pressure distribution and mean responses of prototype buildings is assessed for wind directions of 0° to 90° at an interval of 15°. It is observed that the side ratio of buildings significantly affects the wind pressures on leeward and sidewalls, whereas wind pressure on windward wall is almost independent of side ratio. Further, the wind incidence angles and side ratio of the buildings significantly affect its mean displacements as well as torque.

  17. The effects of endophytes on seed production and seed predation of tall fescue and meadow fescue.

    PubMed

    Saari, Susanna; Helander, Marjo; Faeth, Stanley H; Saikkonen, Kari

    2010-11-01

    Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E- grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E- plants, but E- and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions. PMID:20871988

  18. ABT-199 mediated inhibition of BCL-2 as a novel therapeutic strategy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Peirs, Sofie; Matthijssens, Filip; Goossens, Steven; Van de Walle, Inge; Ruggero, Katia; de Bock, Charles E; Degryse, Sandrine; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Briot, Delphine; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Lammens, Tim; De Moerloose, Barbara; Benoit, Yves; Poppe, Bruce; Meijerink, Jules P; Cools, Jan; Soulier, Jean; Rabbitts, Terence H; Taghon, Tom; Speleman, Frank; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter

    2014-12-11

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with gradually improved survival through introduction of intensified chemotherapy. However, therapy-resistant or refractory T-ALL remains a major clinical challenge. Here, we evaluated B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 inhibition by the BH3 mimetic ABT-199 as a new therapeutic strategy in human T-ALL. The T-ALL cell line LOUCY, which shows a transcriptional program related to immature T-ALL, exhibited high in vitro and in vivo sensitivity for ABT-199 in correspondence with high levels of BCL-2. In addition, ABT-199 showed synergistic therapeutic effects with different chemotherapeutic agents including doxorubicin, l-asparaginase, and dexamethasone. Furthermore, in vitro analysis of primary patient samples indicated that some immature, TLX3- or HOXA-positive primary T-ALLs are highly sensitive to BCL-2 inhibition, whereas TAL1 driven tumors mostly showed poor ABT-199 responses. Because BCL-2 shows high expression in early T-cell precursors and gradually decreases during normal T-cell differentiation, differences in ABT-199 sensitivity could partially be mediated by distinct stages of differentiation arrest between different molecular genetic subtypes of human T-ALL. In conclusion, our study highlights BCL-2 as an attractive molecular target in specific subtypes of human T-ALL that could be exploited by ABT-199. PMID:25301704

  19. Nano Hive Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NanoHive-1 is a modular simulator used for modeling the physical world at a nanometer scale. The intended purpose of the simulator is to act as a tool for the study, experimentation, and development of nanotech entities. NanoHive-1 is a GPL/LGPL licensed open-source development - you can download and use it for free.

  20. Sustainable nano-catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel nano-catalyst system which bridges the homogenous and heterogeneous system is described that is cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and requires no need of catalyst filtration during the work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact between r...

  1. Exploring Products: Nano Sand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  2. Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

  3. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M. E.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

    2010-09-01

    Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentrations gradient with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the global values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr-1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr-1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr-1; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The strong local sources and sinks reflect in the amplitude of mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower levels). CH4 seasonal amplitude observed is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O observations show two additional concentrations maxima in early summer and in autumn. Seasonal cycles of the day-time mean concentrations show that surface concentrations or high elevation concentrations alone do not give a representative value for the boundary layer concentrations, especially in winter time, but that the vertical profile data along the mast can be used to construct a useful boundary layer mean value. The variability at Cabauw in the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on time scales of minutes to hours is several ppm and is much larger than the precision of the measurements (0.1 ppm). The diurnal and synoptical variability of the concentrations at Cabauw carry information on the sources and sinks in the footprint area of the mast, that is and will be used in combination with inverse atmospheric transport model to verify emission estimates and improve ecosystem models. For this purpose a network of tall tower stations like Cabauw is a very useful addition to the existing global observing network for greenhouse gases.

  4. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M. E.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

    2011-03-01

    Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr-1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr-1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr-1; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower sampling levels). The observed CH4 seasonal amplitude is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O observations show two additional concentration maxima in early summer and in autumn. Seasonal cycles of the day-time mean concentrations show that surface concentrations or high elevation concentrations alone do not give a representative value for the boundary layer concentrations, especially in winter time, but that the vertical profile data along the mast can be used to construct a useful boundary layer mean value. The variability at Cabauw in the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on time scales of minutes to hours is several ppm and is much larger than the precision of the measurements (0.1 ppm). The diurnal and synoptical variability of the concentrations at Cabauw carry information on the sources and sinks in the footprint area of the mast, that will be useful in combination with inverse atmospheric transport model to verify emission estimates and improve ecosystem models. For this purpose a network of tall tower stations like Cabauw forms a very useful addition to the existing global observing network for greenhouse gases.

  5. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Leaf Meristems of Tall Fescue 1

    PubMed Central

    Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1984-01-01

    Our objective was to examine alterations in carbohydrate status of leaf meristems that are associated with nitrogen-induced changes in leaf elongation rates of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Dark respiration rates, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates, and soluble proteins were measured in leaf intercalary meristems and adjacent segments of elongating leaves. The two genotypes used differed by 43% in leaf elongation rate. Application of high nitrogen (336 kilograms per hectare) resulted in 140% higher leaf elongation rate when compared to plants receiving low nitrogen (22 kilograms per hectare). Leaf meristems of plants receiving high and low nitrogen had dark respiration rates of 5.4 and 2.9 microliters O2 consumed per milligram structural dry weight per hour, respectively. Concentrations of soluble proteins were lower while concentrations of fructan tended to be slightly higher in leaf meristems of low-nitrogen plants when compared to high-nitrogen plants. Concentrations of reducing sugars, nonreducing sugars, and takadiastase-soluble carbohydrate of leaf meristems were not affected by nitrogen treatment. Total nonstructural carbohydrates of leaf meristems averaged 44 and 39% of dry weight for low- and high-nitrogen plants, respectively. Within the leaf meristem, approximately 74 and 34% of the pool of total nonstructural carbohydrate could be consumed per day in high- and low-nitrogen plants, respectively, assuming no carbohydrate import to the meristem occurred. Plants were able to maintain high concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in leaf meristems despite a 3-fold range in leaf elongation rates, suggesting that carbohydrate synthesis and transport to leaf intercalary meristems may not limit leaf growth of these genotypes. PMID:16663466

  6. Modelization and Simulation of Nano Devices in nano calculus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelization and Simulation of Nano Devices in nano calculus A. Credi1 , M. Garavelli1 , C. Laneve2, Paris Abstract. We develop a process calculus ­ the nano calculus ­ for modeling, analyzing and predicting the properties of molecular devices. The nano calculus is equipped with a simple stochastic model

  7. Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

  8. The effect of endophyte presence on Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue) establishment varies with grassland community structure.

    PubMed

    Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Drystek, Emily; Maherali, Hafiz; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    The endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue) may alter host interactions with specific resident species or shift the host's niche. These effects can be quantified by assessing tall fescue responses to, and effects on, the variation among resident species (selection) and resident species interactions (complementarity). To determine how N. coenophialum affects tall fescue, grassland microcosms containing 16 transplants of two, four, or eight resident species were seeded with endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) Kentucky-31 (KY-31) tall fescue. All resident species were also grown in monoculture. Aboveground biomass was harvested 9 weeks after tall fescue was added (18 weeks' total growth). At harvest, more E+ than E- individuals were present and they represented a larger portion of the aboveground biomass across richness treatments, despite similar germination in concurrent trials. Tall fescue individuals were larger in microcosms dominated by more productive resident species (greater selection). In contrast, fewer E-, but not E+, individuals were present in microcosms with more facilitative interactions among the resident species (greater complementarity). E- and E+ tall fescue also affected resident species differently. High-richness E+ microcosms were more diverse and less dominated by productive species (lower selection) than E- microcosms. Thus, E+ KY-31 may more readily establish in, and affect, species-rich, functionally diverse communities as a result of niche shifts during establishment and negative effects on specific resident species. Although results need to be further tested under field conditions, it appears that endophyte presence may only facilitate KY-31 invasion into a limited suite of community types. PMID:24385086

  9. Short-term, high-dose testosterone treatment fails to reduce adult height in boys with constitutional tall stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bettendorf; U. E. Heinrich; D. K. Schönberg; J. Grulich-Henn

    1997-01-01

    Height predictions based on three different methods (Bayley-Pinneau [BP], Tanner-Whitehouse Mark II [TW II], Roche-Wainer-Thissen\\u000a [RWT]) were compared to adult heights in 19 males with constitutional tall stature previously treated with high-dose testosterone\\u000a oenanthate for 6 months (group A) and 25 untreated tall males (group B). Their chronological ages (CA) at the initial evaluation\\u000a of tall stature ranged from 12.1

  10. High correlation between thermotolerance and photosystem II activity in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Sun, Xiaoyan; Amombo, Erick; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Zhuangjun; Chen, Liang; Xu, Qingguo; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-12-01

    Heat stress affects a broad spectrum of cellular components and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the behavior of Photosystem II (PSII) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) with various thermotolerance capacities and to broaden our comprehension about the relationship between thermotolerance and PSII function. Heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive accessions were incubated at 24 °C (control) and 46 °C (heat stress) for 5 h. The fluorescence transient curves (OJIP curves), slow Chl fluorescence kinetic, and light response curve were employed to study the behavior of PSII subjected to heat stress. After heat stress, performance index for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII antenna until the reduction of PSI acceptors (PITotal), the value of electrons produced per photon (a), and the maximal rate of electron transport (ETRmax) of heat-tolerant accessions were lower than those of heat-sensitive accessions. Relatively lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were detected in heat-tolerant accessions. Simultaneously, there was a significant decline in the quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PS II (Y(II)), probability that a PSII Chl molecule functions as reaction center (?RC), and the increase of quantum yield for non-regulated non-photochemical energy loss (Y(NO)) in heat-tolerant accessions. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation between heat tolerance indexes (HTI) and Y(II) was observed. Therefore, maintaining a lower photochemical activity in heat-tolerant accessions could be a crucial strategy to improve their thermotolerance. This finding could be attributed to the structural difference in the reaction center, and for heat-tolerant accessions, it could simultaneously limit energy input into linear electron transport, and dissipate more energy through non-regulated non-photochemical energy loss processes. PMID:25145554

  11. Sound of nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylott, Jon; Clark, Matt; Marques, Leonel; Perez-Cota, Fernando; Smith, Richard J.; Webb, Kevin F.

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasound is widely used for imaging, measurement and diagnostics in the MHz region and is perhaps most familiar as a medical or non-destructive imaging or measurement tool. In the MHz frequency range the wavelength is typically measured in microns and is many times longer than the wavelength of visible light, limiting its resolution to objects much larger than the nano-scale. It is possible to perform ultrasonic imaging and measurement at much higher frequencies, in the GHz region. Here the acoustic wavelength is typically less than that of light permitting the higher resolutions than optical microscopy and the ability to probe micro and nano-scale objects. At these high frequencies ultrasonics has much to offer the nano-world as a powerful diagnostic tool: it could be used in circumstances where optical microscopy, electron microscopy and probe microscopy cannot, such as inside living objects. Despite the potential that ultrasonics offers for imaging and measurement at the micro and nano-scale, performing ultrasonics at the nano-scale is hampered by many problems that render the techniques typically used in the MHz region impractical. In this paper we discuss some of the practical problems standing in the way of nano-ultrasonics and some of the solutions, especially the use of pico-second laser ultrasonics and the development of nano-ultrasonic transducers and their application to ultrasonic imaging inside living cells.

  12. Utilizing a dihaploid-gamete selection strategy for tall fescue development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...

  13. Strategies for mitigating wind-induced motion in tall buildings through aerodynamic and damping modifications

    E-print Network

    Nnamani, Nnabuihe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of modern structural systems, spurred by advances in construction methodology and high strength materials, has driven the height of modern skyscrapers beyond what was once deemed possible. Although science and ...

  14. Recent progress of seismic research on tall buildings in China Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xilin; Jiang, Huanjun

    2014-08-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth and urbanization in the past two decades, many tall buildings have been constructed in China Mainland, offering researchers and practitioners an excellent opportunity for research and practice in the field of structural engineering. This paper reviews progress by researchers throughout China Mainland on the seismic research of tall buildings, focusing on three major topics that impact the seismic performance of tall buildings. These are: (1) new types of steel-concrete composite structural members such as steel-concrete composite shear walls and columns, (2) earthquake resilient shear wall structures such as shear walls with replaceable structural components, self-centering shear walls and rocking walls, and (3) performance-based seismic design, including seismic performance index, performance level and design method. The paper concludes by presenting future research needs and directions in this field.

  15. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  16. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e.g., herbivory release) or may not be related to this plant-microbial symbiosis. PMID:24497994

  17. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E?), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E?>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e.g., herbivory release) or may not be related to this plant-microbial symbiosis. PMID:24497994

  18. Comparison of Nitrogen Fixation Activity in Tall and Short Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Soils 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Roger B.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina alterniflora and short S. alterniflora marsh soils was investigated. Zero-order kinetics and first-order kinetics of acetylene reduction were used to describe the activity of the N2 fixers in marsh soil slurries. It was found that the Vmax values were approximately 10 times greater for the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina than in the short Spartina marsh when raffinose was used as the energy source. In addition, the (Ks + Sn) values were approximately 4 to 15 times lower for the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina than in short Spartina marsh. First-order kinetics of nitrogen fixation for several substrates indicate that the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina marsh were two to seven times more active than those in the short Spartina marsh. Ammonium chloride (25 ?g/ml) did not inhibit nitrogen fixation in the tall Spartina marsh, but there was a 50% inhibition in nitrogen fixation in the short Spartina marsh. On the other hand, sodium nitrate inhibited nitrogen fixation almost 100% at 25 ?g/ml in both soil environments. Amino nitrogen (25 to 100 ?g/ml) had little or no effect on nitrogen fixation. The results indicate that the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina marsh were physiologically more responsive to nutrient addition than those in the short Spartina marsh. This difference in the two populations may be related to the difference in daily tidal influence in the respective areas and thus provide another explanation for the enhanced S. alterniflora production in the creek bank soil system. PMID:16345213

  19. Nano-composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  20. TALL-1 is a novel member of the TNF family that is down-regulated by mitogens

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Hui

    and FasL/ApoL. This search identified multiple EST clones that encode two different human genes. We have the identification and cloning of a novel TNF family member that has been designated as TALL-1. TALL-1 is a 285-aminoBank EST database with the TBLASTN program for genes homologous to the extracellular domains of human TNF

  1. Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. II. Uptake and recycling

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomy Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. II. Uptake and recycling of nitrogen in the sward during winter G. Lemaire N. Culleton2 1 INRA Station d showed that autumn nitrogen supply affected the earliness of spring gowth in tall fes- cue (cv. Clarine

  2. Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

  3. USDA-Kentucky Report: Forage-Animal Production Research Unit (FAPRU) Investigations: Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Forage-Animal Production Research Unit is involved in several research projects addressing the problem of Tall Fescue toxicosis. This is a toxic situation in grazing cattle and other animals as they consume tall fescue grass which is infected with a fungus. Cattle will grow poorly and in sever...

  4. Nitrogen isotope tracer acquisition in low and tall birch tundra plant communities: a 2 year test of the snowshrub

    E-print Network

    Grogan, Paul

    Nitrogen isotope tracer acquisition in low and tall birch tundra plant communities: a 2 year test N tracer (15 N) in late summer to control and snowfenced low birch hummock tundra to test the influence of deepened snow on N cycling. Further- more, tracer was added to tall birch tundra to compare N

  5. EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED VERTICAL DISPERSION IN THE WAKES OF TALL BUILDINGS IN WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF LOWER MANHATTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observations of flow and dispersion in urban areas with tall buildings have revealed a phenomenon whereby contaminants can be transported vertically up the lee sides of tall buildings due to the vertical flow in the wake of the building. This phenomenon, which contributes to w...

  6. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  7. Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte (HM4) that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids, and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

  8. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  9. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the pre-dominant forage species on over one million acres of

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    tall fescue plants are infected with a fungus that grows inside the plant. This fungus is called recently been reclassified as Neotyphodium coenophialum. Interestingly, it is not the fungus itself that is toxic, rather the fungus produces alkaloid(s) that are toxic to Making the Most of Tall Fescue

  10. Effects of Storage Conditions on the Forage Quality Characteristics and Ergovaline Content of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the southern Ozark Highlands, endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] hay often is stored outdoors, without cover. At two research sites (Fayetteville and Batesville, AR), the effects of unprotected storage were assessed for large-round bales of tall fescue...

  11. Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the N Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4), and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

  12. Rapid Estimation of Damage to Tall Buildings Using Near Real-Time Earthquake and Archived Structural Simulations

    E-print Network

    Tape, Carl

    earthquakes in densely populated parts of the world (e.g., Christchurch, New Zealand; Haiti; Chile; and otherRapid Estimation of Damage to Tall Buildings Using Near Real-Time Earthquake and Archived a new approach to rapidly estimate the damage to tall buildings immediately following a large earthquake

  13. Chemical Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Endohyte-Infested Tall Fescue for Improving Steer Weight Gain and Physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the experiment was to de...

  14. Chaparral Herbicide Application for Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Tall Fescue Pastures and Possible Alleviation of Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seed head emergence in tall fescue. A two-yr grazing experiment is being conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that are either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the...

  15. Performance by Spring-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows grazing 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] infected with its wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+) generally display suboptimal performance. Recently, endophyte strains that do not produce compounds toxic to cattle have been incorporated into tall ...

  16. Direct Nano-Patterning With Nano-Optic Devices

    E-print Network

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2011-08-08

    thermal oxidation and nano-scale melting/recrystallization of the targets. Furthermore, the resulting nano-patterns also showed a significant dependence on the optical properties (i.e., absorption coefficient and surface reflectivity) of the target...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  1. Tall Whitetop Eradication and Native Plant Community Restoration Shannon Peters, RTI and Ph.D. Candidate UC Berkeley, 360 Monte Vista Ave., Oakland, CA 94611

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    33 Tall Whitetop Eradication and Native Plant Community Restoration Shannon Peters, RTI and Ph, Juniper Rose and Associates, P.O. Box 426, Silver City, NV 89428 wrgtbooks@gbis.com Abstract Tall whitetop and difficult to control or eradicate." Tall whitetop (Lepidium latifolium), (TWT), aka Perennial pepperweed

  2. TALL FESCUE RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES FOLLOWING SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TANNERY WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field plots were established in 1978 and 1979 on a Willamette sil in western Oregon to evaluate the effects of chrome tannery wastes on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and soil properties. Three rates of waste material were applied each year; N, Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn in so...

  3. Particleboard Quality Characteristics of Saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass and Chemical Treatment Effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical pro...

  4. Peroxidase activity of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seedlings artificially infected with endophytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Peroxidase activity of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seedlings artificially infected (Received 11May 1999; accepted 15 July 1999) Abstract - An increase in peroxidase activity is a common to study the effects of symbiotic fungi of fodder grasses on the peroxidase activity of their hosts

  5. Soil microbial community function, structure, and glomalin in response to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and may alter soil microbial communities. A 60-week mesocosm study with a factorial arrangemen...

  6. Management of tall fescue pastures and nutrients in a Southern Piedmont environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures have replaced row-crop agriculture in many parts of the Southern Piedmont in response to soil and water conservation needs where tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a common pasture grass. However, nutrient losses from livestock manure and/or poultry fertilization can contribute to ...

  7. Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System

    E-print Network

    Greer, Julia R.

    prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts response spectral amplitude from knowledge of earthquake magnitudeSeismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System M. H. Cheng & T. W. Graves U.S. Geological Survey, USA SUMMARY: In California, United States, an earthquake early

  8. Filling gaps in the time series of tall tower flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragomir, Carmelia

    2010-05-01

    The expanding network of tall tower based eddy covariance measurements provides new insight into the biogeochemical cycles of the biosphere over an extended region as compared to the patch scale FLUXNET sites. For tall tower based eddy covariance systems the role of storage flux plays an increasing role with increasing measurement height, which raises new methodological issues. Here we present results based on the tall tower measurements performed at Lutjewad, The Netherlands (6° 21' E, 53° 24' N, 1 m ASL). At Lutjewad the eddy covariance system is installed at 50 m height above the ground, and no storage flux measurements are performed. The basic aim of our study is to provide a methodology to fill the measurement gaps and to provide daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) sums without correcting for storage. Atmospheric fluxes are generally transformed to surface fluxes before gaps in the data are filled via the estimation of the storage flux. Without accurate storage estimation the transformation becomes less accurate with increasing distance above the surface. Here we propose an alternative method to fill gaps of atmospheric fluxes directly using empirical relations with environmental parameters. We find that atmospheric fluxes were time lagged to variations in radiation. Moreover, we find atmospheric fluxes at elevated height increase almost proportionally with friction velocity. These findings were related to storage between the surface and measurement level. Our results are compared with data taken from the Hungarian tall tower measurements where storage flux is estimated.

  9. Particleboard quality characteristics of saline jose tall wheatgrass and chemical treatment effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical pro...

  10. Introgression of bread wheat chromatin into tall wheatgrass via somatic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haifeng; Yu, Zhiyong; Deng, Jingyao; Gao, Xin; Sun, Yang; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-01-01

    Regenerates were obtained following somatic hybridization between tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Jinan177) protoplasts. Two lines (CU and XI) were self-fertile in the first (R0) and subsequent (R1 and R2) generations. The phenotype of each R1 population was uniform. All CU progeny were phenotypically similar to the tall wheatgrass parent, while XI progeny had thinner, smoother and softer leaves. Cytological analysis showed that more wheat chromatin was present in the hybrid callus than in the R1 and R2 plants, and that some intercalary translocations of wheat chromosome segments were retained in the R2 generation. AFLP profiling confirmed the presence of wheat DNA in the introgression lines. Analysis of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit content of derived seed identified three novel subunits, not present in either the wheat or the tall wheatgrass parent. Microsatellite-based profiling of the chloroplast genome of the introgression lines suggested that only chloroplast sequences from the tall wheatgrass parent were present. The specifically inherited phenomena and possible application of these hybrids are discussed. PMID:18985381

  11. PARTICLEBOARD QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SALINE JOSE TALL WHEATGRASS AND EFFECT OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical pro...

  12. Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

  13. Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

  14. OPTIMIZED USE OF THE OUTRIGGER SYSTEM TO STIFFEN THE COUPLED SHEAR WALLS IN TALL BUILDINGS

    E-print Network

    Mobasher, Barzin

    of the structure becomes more important. In addition, the depth of lintel beams connecting shear walls will usually, and indicated that the structural behavior of coupled shear walls could be significantly affected by particularOPTIMIZED USE OF THE OUTRIGGER SYSTEM TO STIFFEN THE COUPLED SHEAR WALLS IN TALL BUILDINGS NAVAB

  15. Nonlinear seismic response of tall concrete-faced rockfill dams in narrow canyons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panos Dakoulas

    The seismic behavior of tall concrete face rockfill dams in narrow canyons is investigated, based on numerical simulation of the staged construction, creep settlements, reservoir impoundment and seismic shaking of the dam. The study takes into account the flexibility of the canyon rock, the hydrodynamic effects and potential dynamic rockfill settlements. The static analysis uses a hyperbolic model for the

  16. Endophyte Effect on Seedling Vigor in 19 Half-sib Familes of Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling mass and emergence force were studied in two greenhouse experiments using 19 half-sib families of ‘Kentucky 31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] each of which was produced from genotypes with or without the common toxic endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones ...

  17. An energy-balance model for the optimal design of tall office buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Pitman

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency differs by building use and type as well as prevailing climatic conditions. This study examines the energy efficiency of tall office buildings in a Mediterranean climate by developing an energy balance for a typical level (or storey) of the building that may be of any form or style. The availability of, and ability to harness, renewable energy in

  18. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle. Novel endophytes can sustain fescue persistence an...

  19. Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. The objectives of this work were to identify effects from ergot and lolin...

  20. REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSES AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF RAM LAMBS FED ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of endophyte-infected tall fescue on reproductive development and function and carcass characteristics of ram lambs. Hampshire and Suffolk rams, 214 d of age, were fed individually a diet of endophyte-free (EF; n = 8) or infected (EI; n = 9) ...

  1. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...effect on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship...Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution...Federal Government and Indian tribes. 12. Energy...Rhode Island, during the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival...proceeding south along the western side of Newport...

  2. 77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...effect on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship...Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution...Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects...Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships 2012...proceeding south along the western side of Newport...

  3. Changes in biomass and soil nutrient pools of tall tussock grasslands in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin F. O'Connor; Alan H. Nordmeyer; Kristín Svavarsdóttir

    This paper addresses the question whether nutrient loss from ecosystems is a cause of rangeland de- sertification or an outcome. The history of vegetation changes since humans arrived in New Zealand is summarily reconstructed, emphasising the early effects of fire and grazing in European pastoralism in reducing above-ground biomass of tall tussock grasslands that resulted from Polynesian burning of forest.

  4. Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue fertilized with broiler litter and inorganic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is widely used as a fertilizer on tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire], but little is known of forage quality responses to litter. Field studies were conducted to determine (1) the trends in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and in vitro digest...

  5. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

  6. High Neotyphodium infection frequencies in tillers and seed of infected tall fescue plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research quantified frequencies of Neotyphodium infected (E+) tillers and mature seed from field-grown E+ plants of two wild tall fescue accessions from Morocco and Sardinia, Italy. Tiller infection rates were 100% (n = 50 from 10 E+ plants/accession) for each accession and over 99% of the seed...

  7. Evaluation of the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or in concert, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA) and ergovaline (ERV) individua...

  8. Interior gas distribution technology for tall buildings. Phase 2 report, September 1991-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Belkus, P.; Torbin, R.N.; Winter, S.

    1994-08-01

    Interior gas distribution technology for tall and large buildings was reviewed in the Phase I effort by conducting an extensive examination of existing gas tubing hardware, supplemented with the development of innovative complementary technologies. These technologies include modular meter/service regulators, tall building construction methods, flexible piping systems, appliance venting, and intelligent building systems. An assessment of tall and large buildings was conducted. The results of that study indicated that the best commercial opportunities for gas are in new hospitals, new retail and new multifamily buildings. The Phase II effort focused on the development and evaluation of two prototypical distribution concepts that are representative of gas distribution systems for most tall buildings. The first concept includes a master meter, vertical riser, and an extensive horizontal piping network, and is best suited for hotel and hospital applications. The second concept includes a horizontal header, vertical risers, submeter stations, and a horizontal piping network. To determine technical and economic advantages for each prototypical concept, a case study was performed on one building type for each concept. In addition, each case study included an evaluation of alternative building design features and construction practices.

  9. Gone are the days of awkwardly angling your tall plastic water

    E-print Network

    Baskaran, Mark

    Gone are the days of awkwardly angling your tall plastic water bottle under the rushing arc of the number of plastic water bottles saved from landfills.As of Oct.31, the station in the RFC alone has prevented the demise of 1,196 plastic containers. The refill stations are quite popular according to Daryl

  10. Current and electromagnetic field associated with lightning-return strokes to tall towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhad Rachidi; Wasyl Janischewskyj; Ali M. Hussein; Carlo Alberto Nucci; Silvia Guerrieri; Behzad Kordi; Jen-Shih Chang

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of electric and magnetic fields radiated by lightning first and subsequent return strokes to tall towers is presented. The contributions of the various components of the fields, namely, static, induction, and radiation for the electric field, and induction and radiation for the magnetic field are illustrated and discussed. It is shown in particular that the presence of a

  11. Initial stage in lightning initiated from tall objects and in rocket-triggered lightning

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Initial stage in lightning initiated from tall objects and in rocket- triggered lightning M. Miki,1-initiated lightning derived from current measurements on the Gaisberg tower (100 m, Austria), the Peissenberg tower-triggered lightning in Florida. All lightning events analyzed here effectively transported negative charge to ground

  12. Hemodynamic Responses of the Caudal Artery to Toxic Tall Fescue in Beef Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with either endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or non-infected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to six pens and were fed...

  13. TITLE: Effects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue

    E-print Network

    36 TITLE: Effects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of drought on the visual quality and photosynthesis in two, Kansas Turfgrass Foundation INTRODUCTION: Drought stress is a major problem in cool-season turfgrasses

  14. SHORT-TERM RESPONSES OF SOIL C AND N FRACTIONS TO TALL FESCUE ENDOPHYTE INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and that may alter soil organic matter dynamics. A 60-week mesocosm study with a factorial arrangement of soil t...

  15. Arthropod abundance in tall fescue, Lolium arundinaceum, pastures containing novel ‘safe’ endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor livestock performance on tall fescue is linked to infection by a fungal endophyte that enhances grass resistance to stress, including erbivory, while producing ergot alkaloids toxic to vertebrate grazers. Novel ‘safe’ endophyte/grass associations produce no ergot alkaloids yet etain stand persi...

  16. View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First potlatch pole since 1904. Dedicated to all things and all peoples of southeast Alaska, 1971. Oct potlatch, looking northwest - Kake Salmon Cannery, Totem Pole, Kake, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, AK

  17. Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Selection Response, and Forage Production of Tall Fescue in Contrasting Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon isotope discrimination (') usually correlates with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (water use efficiency) in C3 species, but its heritability and relationship to forage production is less clear. In a four year study of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at Pullman, WA and Ardmor...

  18. Comparative proteomics of short and tall glandular trichomes of Nicotiana tabacum reveals differential metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Sallets, Adrienne; Beyaert, Maxime; Boutry, Marc; Champagne, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    Leaf glandular trichomes (epidermal hairs) actively synthesize secondary metabolites, many of which are the frontline of plant defense. In Nicotiana tabacum, tall and short glandular trichomes have been identified. While the former have been extensively studied and match the classic picture of trichome function, the short trichomes have remained relatively uncharacterized. We have set up a procedure based on centrifugation on Percoll density gradients to obtain separate tall and short trichome fractions purified to >85%. We then investigated the proteome of both trichome types combining 2D-LC fractionation of tryptic peptides and quantification of a set of 461 protein groups using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Almost the entire pathway leading to the synthesis of diterpenes was identified in the tall trichomes. Indications for their key roles in the synthesis of cuticular compounds were also found. Concerning the short glandular trichomes, ribosomal proteins and enzymes such phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and polyphenol oxidase were more abundant than in the tall glandular trichomes. These results are discussed in the frame of several hypotheses regarding the respective roles of short and long glandular trichomes. PMID:24865179

  19. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  20. What is Nano-Infusion?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from Nano-Link describes Nano-Infusion. This program "promotes integration and inclusion of nanoscale concepts into high school and college level education." Teachers are encouraged to join the free program to obtain training, support, and nano-related supplies that will aid in introducing nano experiments into their classrooms. To join the program, applicants merely need to create an account on the Nan-Link website and complete and introductory survey.

  1. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  2. Highly surfaced polypyrrole nano-networks and nano-fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muge Acik; Canan Baristiran; Gursel Sonmez

    2006-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-networks and nano-fibers were synthesized using interfacial and template polymerization techniques, respectively. The morphology of the PPy nano-networks showed that a homogeneous, three-dimensionally grown nano-fibers were produced. Dodecyl sulfonate was used as surfactant in the interfacial polymerization. Bulk conductivity of PPy nano-networks were in a range of 10?1–10?4 S\\/cm with a surface area of ca. 480 m2\\/g. Template synthesis produced one-directional

  3. Simple analytical strategy for MALDI-TOF-MS and nanoUPLC-MS/MS: quantitating curcumin in food condiments and dietary supplements and screening of acrylamide-induced ROS protein indicators reduced by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Lu, Chi-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin is the major active ingredient of turmeric and is widely used as a preservative, flavouring and colouring agent. Curcumin is a potent substance with several functions, including antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antimutagenic, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been used to analyse various molecules (including natural antioxidants). This study established an expeditious method that couples MALDI-TOF-MS with a simple dilution method to quantify curcumin in food condiments and dietary supplements. The linear range of curcumin detection ranged from 1 to 100 ?g/mL. In further experiments, liver cells were treated with curcumin after exposure to acrylamide. Nano ultra performance liquid chromatographic system (nanoUPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to evaluate the potential proteins and protein modifications induced by acrylamide. The results indicate that curcumin reduces the effects of reactive oxygen species induced by acrylamide. PMID:25529721

  4. Nano Ice Cream

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2014-06-04

    In this activity/demo, learners discover how liquid nitrogen cools a creamy mixture at such a rapid rate that it precipitates super fine grained (nano) ice cream. This is a fun (and tasty!) way for learners to discover the nanoworld! Note: this activity should be conducted by adults only.

  5. Use of Computer Simulation to Reduce the Energy Consumption in a Tall Office Building in Dubai-UAE

    E-print Network

    Abu-Hijleh, B.; Abu-Dakka, M.

    2010-01-01

    consumption in a typical tall office building in Dubai-UAE is used to optimize the effectiveness of natural lighting penetration and calculate the associated energy savings. Two alternative building designs are proposed and tested. The overall energy savings...

  6. Gene expression and metabolite analysis of endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue clone pairs under water deficit conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte i...

  7. A contribution to urbanism--the tall building as a multi-dimensional framework for additive growth and change

    E-print Network

    Nelson, David J. (David Jeffrey)

    1987-01-01

    Skyscrapers do not destroy cities; they make them look different and they make the urban space more crowded, but they have not yet put an end to the urban environment. Many of the problems with the early tall buildings ...

  8. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. PMID:25534968

  9. Innovative nano-optical devices and optical integration using nano-fabrication technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Jim Wang; Xuegong Deng; Lei Chen; Paul F. Sciortino; Jiandong Deng; Feng Liu; Anguel Nikolov; Alan Graham; Yonglin Huang

    2005-01-01

    We developed various optical devices and integrated optical devices based on innovative nano-optical structures and design. The nano-optical devices and integrated devices were fabricated through a nano-manufacturing platform based on wafer level nano-replication with mold and nano-pattern transfer by nano-lithography. The nano-replication process, which based on imprinting a single-layer spin-coated UV curable resist, achieved excellent nano-patterning fidelity and on-wafer uniformity

  10. Nano-Machines Achieve Huge Mechanical Breakthrough

    E-print Network

    Leigh, David A.

    NANO TECH Nano-Machines Achieve Huge Mechanical Breakthrough Dublin, Ireland (SPX) Sep 08, 2005 that use molecular 'nano'-machines of this kind to help perform physical tasks. Nano-machines could also owners set to return to battered Orleans l Six dead, two missing after heavy rains hit Page 1 of 3Nano-Machines

  11. Greenhouse gases measurements at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Bin; Lavri?, Jošt V.; Kolle, Olaf; Vesala, Timo; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Boreal ecosystems play a crucial role in atmospheric carbon budget calculations as they represent about one third of the Earth's forested land surface area and are typically a net sink of carbon dioxide and a net source of methane. However, direct measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane in large areas of the boreal zone, such as Central Siberia, are sparse and unevenly distributed in space. In order to improve the spatial coverage and representativeness of flux estimates and reduce their uncertainty, our group has begun eddy covariance measurements to complement our tall tower measurements in Central Siberia. The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, www.zottoproject.org) measurement site is located in pristine taiga near the Yenisei river (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The ZOTTO tall tower is equipped with continuous, low-maintenance CO2/CH4 concentration measurements by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) from six heights up to 301 m since May 2009. Additionally, we have set up two eddy covariance flux measurement systems in the forest and in the bog, located 1 and 3 km from the tall tower, respectively. Both towers are equipped with an enclosed CO2/H2O gas analyzer and ultrasonic anemometers. The bog tower includes a CH4 eddy covariance gas analyzer. Here, we report atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, focusing on growing season of 2012. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration in boreal forest eddy site, and carbon fluxes in the wetland area (60°49'N, 89°23'E) are examined in terms of their relationship with major controlling factors such as temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficits, soil moisture, and friction velocity.

  12. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental, larch-dominated ecotones of central and eastern Siberia. PMID:24115456

  13. Air and water pollution control in crude tall oil manufacture in the pulp and paper industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Krumbein; A. B. Adams

    1973-01-01

    Pollution preventive measures should be built into the process when a new mill is designed; corrective measures must be taken\\u000a on existing mills. For air pollution control, these measures consist essentially of enclosing all vessels that contain the\\u000a black liquor from which the tall oil is recovered. Hoods are placed over storage tanks, sumps, heat exchangers, and other\\u000a liquor-containing vessels.

  14. Melatonin and Pineal Neurochemicals in Steers Grazed on Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue: Effects of Metoclopramidel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Porter; J. A. Stuedemannt; F. N. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Plasma and pineal melatonin (MEL) and selected pineal neurochemicals (5-hydroxytrypto- phan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine) associated with MEL synthesis were determined in steers grazing Acremonium coenophia- 1 um (endophyte) - infected 'Kentucky- 3 1' tall fescue paddocks. Paddock treatments included low (LE, 33%) or high (HE, 74%) endophyte at either low (134 kg.ha-l*yr-l, LN) or high (335 kg.ha-l.yr-l, HN) nitrogen

  15. An Improved Simulation Model of Shear Wall Structures of Tall Building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowang Chen; Jianguo Tan; Yang Oyang

    2011-01-01

    To simulate shear wall of tall building structures, some kinds of calculation methods towards Multi-Vertical-Line-Element Model are discussed in detail. A more reasonable element stiffness matrix and a improved Multi-Vertical-Line-Element Model are given. Combined with hysteretic axial model and hysteretic shear model, nonlinear analysis of a shear wall is put through. The calculation result indicates that the improved model has

  16. The Effects of Endophytes on Seed Production and Seed Predation of Tall Fescue and Meadow Fescue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Saari; Marjo Helander; Stanley H. Faeth; Kari Saikkonen

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations.\\u000a In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined\\u000a endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed

  17. Simulation of lightning attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnamahilan, P.; Hoole, P. (Univ. of Technology, Lae (Papua New Guinea). Dept. of Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering); Ratnajeevan, S.; Hoole, H. (Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    The characteristics of lightning waveforms are important in taking protective measures against it. However, many of these characteristics cannot be measured. This paper employs a mathematical model of lightning currents to write a software package to simulate all manner of lightning flashes. The capabilities available to us through this are demonstrated by extracting the behavior of lightning waveforms following attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft.

  18. Seismic isolation technique for extra tall bushing of GIS using a pendulum type counterweight

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tomisawa, Masao; Murase, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of the authors` investigation here is to adopt the seismic isolation technique by using a pendulum type counterweight as a new approach for seismic qualification of the extra tall bushing of Gas-Insulated-Substations. It has been definitely shown by the results of numerical simulation of this isolation type bushing that the stress of the lower end of bushing can be effectively reduced to about 50% as compared with non-isolated case.

  19. How Do Changes in Leaf\\/Shoot Morphology and Crown Architecture Affect Growth and Physiological Function of Tall Trees?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Ishii

    \\u000a With increasing height within the crowns of tall trees, leaves tend to become smaller and thicker and shoots shorter. In tall\\u000a trees, the vertical variation in leaf\\/shoot morphology is largely driven by water status. Morphological changes associated\\u000a with increasing height in the crown present static constraints on photosynthesis, such as decreasing light intercepting area\\u000a relative to leaf mass and decreasing

  20. Relative roles of different-sized herbivores and plant-plant interactions in tall shrub tundra vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravolainen, Virve; Ims, Rolf; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Stien, Audun; Kollstrøm, Julie; Lægreid, Eiliv; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2013-04-01

    Tall shrubs play important roles in the ecology of Arctic tundra ecosystems, including support of high shrub-associated biodiversity and regulation of a range of ecosystem processes. Tall shrub patches and herbaceous vegetation surrounding them often form a two-state vegetation mosaic. Such tall shrub tundra vegetation is an important locus for current vegetation changes in the Arctic. Both abiotic and biotic drivers are known to influence the shrub component. However, although expansion of the shrub state has received much focus lately, relative strengths of the multiple drivers of vegetation state are currently not fully understood. We investigated the role of herbivory relative to temperature and relative to plant-plant interactions, conducting a field survey and experimental studies at large spatial scales in riparian tall shrub tundra in Norway. We found both summer temperatures and summer grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) to affect tall shrub distribution and expansion potential. Furthermore, we found strong and rapid shrub growth change in response to abundance of key arctic herbivores; small rodents. Finally, we quantified the relative importance of neighboring plants and both herbivore types to recruiting tall shrubs. The previously unforeseen rate at which tall shrub tundra responded to altered herbivore pressures further exemplifies its central role in the tundra ecosystems, promoting tall shrub tundra as a bell-whether of change with respect to both abiotic and biotic drivers. While many of the results clearly relate to herbivory, neighboring plants or climate as drivers, some variation remains unexplained warranting future research focus on this highly dynamic part of the tundra ecosystem. Our results suggest that spatially variable biotic interactions are likely to modify forcing by climate, calling for an ecosystem approach when studying change in tundra ecosystems.

  1. Genetic diversity and structure among Iranian tall fescue populations based on genomic-SSR and EST-SSR marker analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Sharifi Tehrani; Mohsen Mardi; Jamal Sahebi; Pilar Catalán; Antonio Díaz-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. subsp. arundinacea) is one of the most economically important forage grasses in cold and temperate regions of the world. In this study, we have\\u000a assessed the genetic diversity and structure of wild Iranian tall fescue populations. Thirty-seven individuals from nine natural\\u000a populations from northern, western, and southern Iranian mountain ranges were analyzed using six genomic-SSRs

  2. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis.

  3. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis. PMID:25374886

  4. Notch3/Jagged1 Circuitry Reinforces Notch Signaling and Sustains T-ALL12

    PubMed Central

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC–overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  5. Notch3/Jagged1 circuitry reinforces notch signaling and sustains T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC-overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  6. The use of graphs in the ergonomic evaluation of tall pilots' sitting posture.

    PubMed

    de Ree, J J

    1989-10-01

    A survey has shown that the average height of KLM pilots has increased by 18 mm (0.7 in) per decade in the last 20 years. Around 6% are taller than 1905 mm (75.0 in), the upper limit of pilot height for flight deck design. With the use of graphs of the flight deck, we established that the main problem of tall pilots is insufficient legroom. Of all KLM/NLM aircraft types, the Boeing 747-200/300 and the Douglas DC-9 are most uncomfortable for pilots taller than 1960 mm (77.2 in). In the Airbus A310, pilots of 2000 mm (78.7 in) have insufficient legroom. The other aircraft types do not present difficulties for pilots up to 2030 mm (79.9 in). Ergonomic adaptations on the flight decks of the Boeing 747-200/300 and the Airbus A310 are necessary to alleviate the problems of tall pilots. Future aircraft types should be designed to accommodate tall pilots. If ergonomic adaptation of the flight deck is impossible, anthropometric limits for pilot selection have to be employed. PMID:2803157

  7. Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils. PMID:24912220

  8. Application of ceilometers to retrieve planetary boundary layer height near tall-tower sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biavati, G.; Feist, D. G.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    Tall tower measurement sites can provide continuous records of various climate-relevant atmospheric gases like CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, or SF6 at different altitude levels. With the help of inverse transport models, the results can be used to determine sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases. Several tall tower sites with heights around 300 m have been established in Poland, Germany and France. Depending on the height of the tower and meteorological conditions, the different levels are influenced by air masses on a local to synoptic scale. A critical parameter for the analysis of the data is the planetary boundary layer height (PBL). If the top of the tower is still inside the PBL the measurements at the top level would be mostly influenced by local to regional sources and sinks. If the top is already in the free troposphere the measurements would be influenced by long-range transport. However, the PBL height cannot be derived from the tower measurements alone. Within the preparations for the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS), several methods for determining PBL height near tall tower sites have been evaluated. During a campaign in France in October 2008, lidar systems, radio sondes as well as two different commercial ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15k) were run side-by-side. One goal of the campaign was to find out if and how ceilometers could be used to retrieve PBL height operationally and if they should become part of future ICOS network sites.

  9. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+?plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+?and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+?than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  10. Quantification of ergovaline using HPLC and mass spectrometry in Iranian Neotyphodium infected tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Najafabadi, A. Sobhani; Mofid, M.R.; Mohammadi, R.; Moghim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ergovaline, the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in tall fescue (Fescue arundinacea Schreb.) infected with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams), is known to cause tall fescue toxicosis. This study was conducted to examine the presence of fungal endophytes in five populations of tall fescue collected from various regions of Iran. The existence of Neotyphodium mycelia in the tissues of the samples was confirmed by microscopic examination, and the isolation was performed from leaf tissues of the hosts on potato dextrose agar. All isolates were confirmed as the Neotyphodium species by PCR, using specific primers. Mass detection and determination of ergovaline were performed by HPLC at three plant growth stages. Ergovaline was detected in all isolates, with the mean concentrations of 0.24 to 3.48 ?g/g dry matter of different populations for the whole three plant growth stages. The differences in ergovaline content between plant populations and sampling time were statistically significant. This is the first report of ergovaline content in endophyte infected Fescue arundinacea from natural grasslands in Iran. PMID:22049272

  11. Nano-Enlightenment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Nanotechnology Undergraduate Education (NUE) program entitled, "Nano-Enlightenment," at Drexel University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department will develop thematic groups of multi-week modules to be 'embedded within' Drexel's interdisciplinary set of freshman and sophomore courses. The themes will be nano-oriented, each theme spanning multiple courses within a given academic quarter, to examine an aspect of nanotechnology from a truly multi-disciplinary aspect and imbue the students with a sense of the all-pervasiveness of nanoscience throughout their chosen discipline. On this site, visitors will find more information about the project team, modules and laboratory activities for students to experience nanotechnology first hand, and the ENGR102 Lego Mindstorm Nanobot Project, in which students design a robot to find cancerous cells and deliver targeted drugs to them.

  12. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  13. Nano robots in Bio medical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Durairaj; M. Sivasankar

    2012-01-01

    Nano-robots are the robots that are simply known as that controllable machines at the nano (10?9) meter or molecular scale, composed of nano-components. More specifically, nano robotics refer to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nano robots. Even though the field of nano robotics is fundamentally different from that of the macro robots due to

  14. Magnetic Nano-Materials: Truly Sustainable Green Chemistry Nano Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    We envisioned a novel nano-catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system, and simultaneously be cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and possibly does not require elaborate work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact betw...

  15. To be nano or not to be nano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanostructured materials, nanoimprint, nanobiotechnology, nanophysics, nanochemistry, radical nanotechnology, nanosciences, nanooptics, nanoelectronics, nanorobotics, nanosoldiers, nanomedecine, nanoeconomy, nanobusiness, nanolawyer, nanoethics to name a few of the nanos. We need a clear definition of all these burgeoning fields for the sake of the grant attribution, for the sake of research program definition, and to avoid everyone being lost in so many nanos.

  16. Ligandless surfactant mediated solid phase extraction combined with Fe?O? nano-particle for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium and lead in water and soil samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: multivariate strategy.

    PubMed

    Jalbani, N; Soylak, M

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a microextraction technique combining Fe3O4 nano-particle with surfactant mediated solid phase extraction ((SM-SPE)) was successfully developed for the preconcentration/separation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples. The analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effective variables such as the amount of adsorbent (NPs), the pH, concentration of non-ionic (TX-114) and centrifugation time (min) were investigated by Plackett-Burman (PBD) design. The important variables were further optimized by central composite design (CCD). Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (LODs) of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 0.15 and 0.74 µg/L, respectively. The validation of the proposed procedure was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials of TMDA 53.3 fortified water and GBW07425 soil. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples. PMID:24530734

  17. Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer-bridged carbon nanoscrolls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a viable approach to fabricating ultrafast axial nano-oscillators based on carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) using molecular dynamics simulations. Initiated by a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT), a monolayer graphene can continuously scroll into a CNS with the CNT housed inside. The CNT inside the CNS can oscillate along axial direction at a natural frequency of tens of gigahertz. We demonstrate an effective strategy to reduce the dissipation of the CNS-based nano-oscillator by covalently bridging the carbon layers in the CNS. We further demonstrate that such a CNS-based nano-oscillator can be excited and driven by an external AC electric field, and oscillate at more than 100 GHz. The CNS-based nano-oscillators not only offer a feasible pathway toward ultrafast nano-devices but also hold promise to enable nanoscale energy transduction, harnessing, and storage (e.g., from electric to mechanical). PMID:21787389

  18. NanoDrop 3300 Fluorospectrometer

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    NanoDrop 3300 Fluorospectrometer V2.7 User's Manual #12;The information in this publication are the property of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries. NanoDrop is a trademark of Thermo Fisher 19810 U.S.A. Telephone: 302-479-7707 Fax: 302-792-7155 E-mail: info@nanodrop.com www.nanodrop

  19. Exploring Materials: Nano Gold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners discover that nanoparticles of gold can appear red, orange or even blue. They learn that a material can act differently when it’s nanometer-sized. Use this activity to explain how stained glass gets its different colors. Note: the cost for the materials in this activity is quite high. However, this is a one-time cost, since the nano gold is kept in vials at all time and thus should not be used up. SAFETY: Do not let visitors ingest the contents of the vials. Keep vials sealed shut. Use caution when handling the stained glass samples. Do not remove them from their protective case.

  20. Growth responses of two tall fescue cultivars to Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Xie, Yan; Jin, Guifang; Fu, Jinmin; Li, Huiying

    2015-04-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), a widely planted cool-season turfgrass and forage, is tolerant to heavy metals. However, previous investigation demonstrated that different accessions varied in Pb tolerance. In present study, hydroponic system was used to study the effects of Pb on two tall fescue cultivars, Pb tolerant 'Silverado' and Pb sensitive 'AST7001', respectively. The results indicated that Pb concentration was 14 times lower in shoots of 'Silverado' (1.34 mg g(-1) dry weight) versus 'AST7001' (19.92 mg g(-1) dry weight), although it was higher in roots of 'Silverado' (68.28 mg g(-1) dry weight) versus 'AST7001' (48.7 mg g(-1) dry weight), when subjected to 1,000 mg L(-1) Pb. In both cultivars, Pb caused an induction in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, to a less increase in 'Silerado' than 'AST7001'. Pb treatment decreased significantly soluble protein content in 'AST7001'. By contrast, soluble protein content was increased progressively, and the ratio of variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence was not affected in 'Silverado'. Pb treated tall fescue leaves had a greater level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity in both cultivars, however, increase was sharp in 'Silverado' plants. The results of Q-PCR analysis for genes encoding antioxidant enzyme were in accordance with that of enzyme activities. The higher Pb tolerance of 'Silverado' might be attributed to lower shoot Pb concentration and MDA content. Meantime, the amount of soluble protein, activity of SOD and POD, as well as the level of up regulation of Cyt Cu/ZnSOD was all higher in 'Silverado' than in 'AST7001'. PMID:25537098

  1. Feedbacks between tall shrubland development and active layer temperatures in northwest Siberian arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost soils are a globally significant carbon store, but changes in permafrost thermal regime observed in recent decades across much of the Arctic suggest that permafrost carbon balance is likely to change with continued climate warming. Critical to changes in permafrost carbon balance in a warmer world, however, are feedbacks between changes in the composition and density of surface vegetation, and the thermal state of permafrost. Shrub expansion has been widely observed in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, but the magnitude and direction of shrub-induced impacts to permafrost temperature and stability remain poorly understood. Here we evaluate changes to active layer properties and thermal regime that occur during tall shrubland development (shrubs > 1.5 m height) within a northwest Siberian landscape dominated by well-developed, small-scale patterned ground features (e.g., non-sorted circles). We measured the annual time-series of soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm depth, and the structural attributes of vegetation at patterned-ground microsites across four stages of tall shrubland development: low-growing tundra lacking erect shrubs, newly-developed shrublands, mature shrublands, and paludified shrublands. Mean summer soil temperatures declined with increasing shrub cover and moss thickness, but winter soil temperatures increased with shrub development. Shrubland development strongly attenuated cryoturbation, promoting the establishment of complete vegetation cover and the development of a continuous organic mat. Increased vegetation cover, in turn, led to further reduced cryoturbation and an aggrading permafrost table. These observations indicate that tall shrub expansion that is now occurring in patterned-ground landscapes of the northwest Siberian Arctic may buffer permafrost from atmospheric warming, and increase carbon storage in these systems at least in the short term.

  2. Invasive and native tall forms of Spartina alterniflora respond differently to nitrogen availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Hua; Yao, Yihan; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Fengqin; Sun, Yixiang; Zhou, Changfang; An, Shuqing

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare various plant traits of native and invasive conspecifics of the tall form of Spartina alterniflora to test the genetic shift hypothesis, which predicts that due to genetic differences invasive plants may have different performance. We conducted a controlled experiment with six populations of the tall form of S. alterniflora: three transported from its introduced range in Jiangsu Province, China, and three from its native range in Georgia, USA. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and subjected to one of two levels of nitrogen availability for several months. Growth, biomass accumulation, biomass allocation, and photosynthetic and morphological traits, as well as the corresponding trait plasticities, were measured and compared between the populations. Nitrogen addition significantly affected individual traits of both invasive Jiangsu and native Georgia S. alterniflora populations, with invasive populations having stronger responses to nitrogen addition in RGR, total biomass, total leaf number (TLN), total leaf area (TLA) and maximum culm height (MxCH) than native populations according to the results of both reaction norms and the relative distance plasticity index (RDPI). Invasive S. alterniflora was more vigorous than its native conspecific as shown by greater total biomass and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax). Several morphological traits (MxCH, TLN and LAR) and most of the biomass allocation traits of invasive populations were found to differ from native populations. Our results indicated probable genetic shifts in plant traits in the introduced populations relative to the native populations of the tall form of S. alterniflora. Such genetic shifts may play a vital role in their success as invasive plants.

  3. Monitoring a tall tower through radar interferometry: The case of the Collserola tower in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, Guido; Crosetto, Michele; Monserrat, Oriol

    2014-05-01

    Data acquired through a Real Aperture Radar interferometer aimed at monitoring a tall tower and its guys are here analysed. The acquisition of temporal samples of interferometric phase, corresponding to different parts of the tower, are used to estimate main vibration frequencies and modal shapes of the tower. Guys have been also monitored to verify the possibility to retrieve their tension force using the taut string approximation. The study confirmed the potential of this technique considering also that an analogous monitoring carried out with conventional contact sensors would be unadvisable due to its high costs and the strong electromagnetic noise of this environment.

  4. Fluid flows induced in tall narrow containers by A.C.R.T.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capper, P.; Gosney, J. J.; Jones, C. L.; Pearce, E. J.

    1986-11-01

    An investigation into the flows produced by the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique (A.C.R.T.) in tall narrow containers has been carried out. Spiral shearing, Ekman and transient Couette flows have been demonstrated and interactions between them observed. Various crucible base configurations have been employed to simulate actual crystal growth. Ekman flow is the most important stirring mechanism in the region close to the growing crystal while unstable Couette flow is an efficient mixing process at the crucible walls. Experimentally—determined rotation rates for the onset of transient Couette flow are compared to those predicted from Rayleigh’s criterion.

  5. The Effect of Nano-Silver on Allergic Rhinitis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mi-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Silver has long been known as a strong antimicrobial and disinfectant. Several types of nano-silver coated products have been developed. However, the antimicrobial and disinfectant characteristics of nano-silver have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-silver on allergic inflammation in a mouse model. Methods Female BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Mice were challenged with intranasal instillation of OVA. Nano-silver was also administered nasally prior to intranasal instillation of OVA. Severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed according to nasal symptoms, serum OVA-specific IgE level, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon (INF)-? levels in nasal lavage fluid. Hematoxylin-eosin stain and periodic acid-Schiff stain were performed for evaluation of histological change. Results Nano-silver attenuated manifestation of nasal symptoms in sensitized mice and inhibited production of OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, and IL-10, however, it had no effect on INF-? level. In addition, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia was attenuated by nano-silver. Conclusion These results suggest that nano-silver may effectively reduce allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Through its properties as an anti-inflammatory agent, nano-silver may be a useful therapeutic strategy. PMID:23205228

  6. EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

  7. EE 238 Engineering nano-systems EE 238 Engineering nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 238 Engineering nano-systems Page 1 EE 238 Engineering nano-systems A.F.J. Levi Spring 2009, OHE This course is designed as an introduction to nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

  8. 3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes

    E-print Network

    Sitti, Metin

    3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes Amrinder S nano-fibers by using precise positioning and temperature control. AFM nano-probe is used to pull or extrude thermoset or thermoplastic polymers precisely to fabricate 3-D polymer nano-fiber structures

  9. Transcriptional activity of TAL1 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) requires RBTN1 or -2 and induces TALLA1, a highly specific tumor marker of T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Ono, Y; Fukuhara, N; Yoshie, O

    1997-02-14

    TAL1, which is frequently activated in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), encodes lineage-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that bind specifically to E-box DNA motif upon dimerization with ubiquitous basic helix-loop-helix proteins E47 or E12. RBTN1 and RBTN2, also frequently activated in T-ALL, encode proteins only with tandem cysteine-rich LIM domains. We found that aberrant expression of TAL1 detected in 11 out of 14 T-ALL cell lines was invariably accompanied by that of either RBTN1 or RBTN2. Forced expression of TAL1 together with RBTN1 or RBTN2, but not TAL1 alone, strongly induced artificial reporter genes in a TAL1/RBTN-negative T-ALL cell line, HPB-ALL. Such collaborative transcriptional activity of TAL1 and RBTN was not, however, observed in non-T cell lines, suggesting further involvement of some T cell-specific cofactors. In this context, we carried out preliminary evaluation of a potential role of the T cell-specific GATA-binding protein, GATA3, in the transcriptional activity of TAL1 and RBTN. We also showed that coexpression of TAL1 and RBTN1 in HPB-ALL strongly induced TALLA1, a highly specific T-ALL marker whose positivity correlated 100% with ectopic expression of TAL1 among various T-ALL cell lines. Collectively, ectopic TAL1 and RBTN1 or -2, together with some endogenous T cell-specific cofactors like GATA3, constitute a highly collaborative set of transcription factors whose aberrant activity in T cells may lead to leukemogenesis by modulating expression of downstream genes such as TALLA1. PMID:9020185

  10. GROWTH OFGROWTH OFGROWTH OFGROWTH OF BACTERIABACTERIABACTERIABACTERIA CONSORTIUMCONSORTIUMCONSORTIUMCONSORTIUM ONONONON NANO-NANO-NANO-NANO-CARBON ELECTRODECARBON ELECTRODECARBON ELECTRODECARBON ELECTRODE FOR POWER GENERATIONFOR POWER GENERATIONFOR POWER

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    CONSORTIUMCONSORTIUMCONSORTIUMCONSORTIUM ONONONON NANO-NANO-NANO-NANO- CARBON ELECTRODECARBON ELECTRODECARBON ELECTRODECARBON ELECTRODE(CNTs) supported carbon fiber electrode has outstanding electronchemical properties in fuel cell application and generating power METHODS -Preparation of CNTs based carbon fiber-Preparation of CNTs based carbon fiber

  11. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the event bridged as far as medical application of nanotechnologies. It could have turned out that such a hotchpotch produced an incoherent event that lacked direction and focus, but in truth, as the feedback showed, the delegates revelled in the diversity and depth of quality. Excellent speakers, the common application to biomolecules and common language of spectroscopy were probably the reasons why things worked out so well. I am delighted to bring together in this special feature in Measurement Science and Technology a selection of contributions from the meeting and I thank all the authors for their excellent contributions. Included are papers on nanoparticles, plasmonics, sensing and imaging. This special feature, and indeed similar meetings in the future, will undoubtedly help sustain the 'nanomeeters' message of NMS.

  12. Building Tall

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS Kids

    2006-01-01

    In this engineering activity (page 2 of PDF), young learners investigate how a wide base can make a building more stable. Learners use blocks or boxes of different sizes to construct stable towers. Learners will compare and contrast different structures, document their observations, experiment with different materials, and conduct stability tests. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Curious George's Home for Pigeons." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

  13. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-04-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  14. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated high efficiency transformation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zeng-Yu; Ge, Yaxin

    2005-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is the predominant cool-season pasture grass in the USA. Embryogenic calluses were induced from seeds/caryopsis of elite tall fescue cultivars Jesup and Kentucky-31, and were broken up into small pieces and used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium strains LBA4404 and EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA vectors or the super-binary vector pTOK233 were used to infect the embryogenic callus pieces. The number of hygromycin resistant calluses obtained per dish of infected callus pieces was in the range of 2.0-5.8, and the number of transgenic plants recovered per dish of infected callus pieces was in the range of 0.4-1.7. When transformation efficiency was calculated based on the number of transgenic plants recovered and the number of original intact calluses used, the transformation frequency was in the range of 1.9-8.7%. The use of the easily available pCAMBIA vectors could produce equivalent results as the superbinary vector pTOK233. The transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was demonstrated by Southern hybridization analysis using undigested and digested genomic DNA samples. Expression of the transgenes was confirmed by northern hybridization analysis, GUS staining, and detection of GFP signals. Fertile transgenic plants were obtained after vernalization in the greenhouse. Progeny analysis revealed Mendelian inheritance of the transgenes. PMID:15700425

  16. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  17. *SINAM NANO SEMINAR * Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) -NSF

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    *SINAM NANO SEMINAR * Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) - NSF Nanoscale and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) Email:xz_asst@me.berkeley.edu Phone: 510.642.0390 Fax: 510.643.2311 #12;

  18. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Prabhu; B. K. Vinayagam

    2010-01-01

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries.\\u000a The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon\\u000a wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great challenge in the manufacturing industry. Finishing of\\u000a micro components such as micro-moulds, micro-lenses

  19. Nano boron nitride flatland.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed. PMID:24280706

  20. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  1. NanoKids(TM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NanoKids(TM) is an education and outreach program for intermediate-level (middle-school) students intended to increase their knowledge of nanotechnology and emerging research and technology in this field, which involves working with objects on the molecular and atomic scale (as small as one-billionth of a meter). Site materials include a series of self-contained lessons accompanied by animated videos and an online workbook for students. There is also a sample test and additional resources for teachers (slide presentations, games, and other materials). The site also offers an overview of the project and its participants, biographical "sketches" of the characters used in the animations, and one-page features that explain the nanometer scale, the countries and scientists involved in nanotechnology, and atoms, molecules, and bondng. Some materials on the site are available in Spanish.

  2. 632 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 49, NO. 3, AUGUST 2007 Electromagnetic Fields at the Top of a Tall Building

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    than 100 m. In order to optimize lightning protection means of tall buildings in such an area Fields at the Top of a Tall Building Associated With Nearby Lightning Return Strokes Yoshihiro Baba and azimuthal magnetic field H due to lightning return strokes in the presence and in the absence of a building

  3. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticulo-ruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from a washed reticulorumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n = 8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+; 0.015 mg ergovaline•kg BW-1•d-1) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via r...

  4. Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a Common Tall Fescue Genotype iN. s. Hill,* W.A. Parrott, and D. D. Pope

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Wayne

    Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a Common Tall Fescue Genotype iN. s. Hill,* W Battista, 1990); however, the endophyte also pro- duces ergopeptine alkaloids, which are responsible consuming tall rescue herbage. Recent investi- .gations in which ergopeptine alkaloids were infused

  5. Nano(Q)SAR: Challenges, pitfalls and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tantra, Ratna; Oksel, Ceyda; Puzyn, Tomasz; Wang, Jian; Robinson, Kenneth N; Wang, Xue Z; Ma, Cai Y; Wilkins, Terry

    2014-09-11

    Abstract Regulation for nanomaterials is urgently needed, and the drive to adopt an intelligent testing strategy is evident. Such a strategy will not only provide economic benefits but will also reduce moral and ethical concerns arising from animal testing. For regulatory purposes, such an approach is promoted by REACH, particularly the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships [(Q)SAR] as a tool for the categorisation of compounds according to their physicochemical and toxicological properties. In addition to compounds, (Q)SAR has also been applied to nanomaterials in the form of nano(Q)SAR. Although (Q)SAR in chemicals is well established, nano(Q)SAR is still in early stages of development and its successful uptake is far from reality. This article aims to identify some of the pitfalls and challenges associated with nano-(Q)SARs in relation to the categorisation of nanomaterials. Our findings show clear gaps in the research framework that must be addressed if we are to have reliable predictions from such models. Three major barriers were identified: the need to improve quality of experimental data in which the models are developed from, the need to have practical guidelines for the development of the nano(Q)SAR models and the need to standardise and harmonise activities for the purpose of regulation. Of these three, the first, i.e. the need to improve data quality requires immediate attention, as it underpins activities associated with the latter two. It should be noted that the usefulness of data in the context of nano-(Q)SAR modelling is not only about the quantity of data but also about the quality, consistency and accessibility of those data. PMID:25211549

  6. The effect of formulation and amount of potassium fertilizer on macromineral concentration and cation-anion difference in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Swift, M L; Bittman, S; Hunt, D E; Kowalenko, C G

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of altering the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) in grass by altering the grass variety and the amount and formulation of K fertilizer application. In experiment 1, treatments were combinations of 2 varieties (Barcel and Hi-Mag) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb); 2 rates of K (0 and 250 kg/ha), supplied as KCl; and 2 rates of Mg (0 and 60 kg/ha), supplied as MgO. In experiment 2, K fertilizer was applied at 0 or 125 kg/ha as KCl or K2SO4. There was no difference between HiMag and Barcel tall fescue in the concentrations of Mg, S, and Cl. Application of K fertilizer decreased concentrations of Mg, but the magnitude of the decrease was not consistent across harvests. Conversely, application of Mg fertilizer increased Mg concentrations, but again, the magnitude of the increase was not consistent across harvests. The concentrations of Ca were higher in HiMag than in Barcel tall fescue, with the magnitude of the difference increasing from first to last harvest. Potassium fertilizer decreased Ca concentrations in the first, fourth, and fifth harvests only. Calcium concentration was decreased by a greater magnitude in HiMag tall fescue as a result of Mg fertilization. The HiMag tall fescue contained lower concentrations of K than did Barcel tall fescue in the first, second, and third harvests. Application of K fertilizer increased the K concentration in all 5 harvests but did not affect Na concentrations except in the last harvest. The HiMag tall fescue contained less Na than did Barcel, but the magnitude of the difference was affected by K and Mg fertilization. Application of K fertilizer decreased S concentrations in first-harvest grass, increased concentrations in second-and third-harvest grasses, and had no effect in fourth-or fifth-harvest grasses. Application of Mg fertilizer decreased S concentrations of tall fescue. Application of K fertilizer increased DCAD values for grass harvested from the second through fifth harvests. The increase in DCAD attributable to K fertilizer was less in HiMag than in Barcel tall fescue. Application of K fertilizer as K2SO4 increased dry matter yield and S concentrations of HiMag tall fescue, whereas K applied as KCl increased concentrations of K and Cl. There was no effect of fertilizer formulation on Na concentrations. The DCAD was lower in HiMag tall fescue fertilized with K2SO4 compared with that fertilized with KCl. This study showed that DCAD of grass can be manipulated by the choice of grass variety, fertilizer formulation, and fertilizer application rate. PMID:17235186

  7. Fabricating nano ribbons and nano fibers of semiconductor materials by diamond turning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiwang; Gai, Xiaohui; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2009-02-01

    Diamond turning tests have been made on single crystalline silicon wafers. It was found that chips removed from the material surface during machining consist of nano needles, nano ribbons and nano fibers, the shape and size of which depend on the undeformed chip thickness and the cutting edge geometry. Electron diffraction studies showed that the needle-type chips are micro-crystalline with slight amorphization; while the nano ribbons and nano fibers have been mostly transformed into the amorphous phase. This work preliminary demonstrated the feasibility of an efficient and inexpensive production method for mechanically flexible nano ribbons and nano fibers for micro-nano mechanical and electronic applications. PMID:19441538

  8. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  9. Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader. The results indicate, in particular, that a charge moment change of 390 C km in a +CG can lead to leader initiation from a 457 m tower approximately 15 km from the +CG, in good agreement with observations reported in [Stanley and Heavner, 2003]. We report detailed relationships, including analytical estimates and numerical modeling results, providing information on the charge moment charges versus tower height and radial position with respect to +CG required for initiation of upward leaders.

  10. Characterizing the Vertical Flux of CO2 within the Nocturnal Boundary Layer near a Tall Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, D. W.; Buckley, R.; Kurzeja, R.; Zhang, G.; Parker, M.; Duarte, H.; Leclerc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the vertical dispersion of carbon dioxide respired from plants at night is crucial to distinguishing local- to regional-scale transport and continental-scale transport in global carbon budgets. When atmospheric conditions are stable, CO2 will be weakly mixed, and nearby detectors above the surface layer will instead sample CO2 carried from large distances. These conditions often prevail during the nighttime, making that period ideal for continental-scale sampling. On the other hand, during periods of moderate or intermittent nocturnal turbulence, locally-respired CO2 will be transported through the surface layer and produce a signal at the detector. In August 2008, a 329m tall TV tower (33.4058N, 81.834W) in Aiken, South Carolina (the "South Carolina Tower" http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/towers/#sct) was incorporated into the NOAA-Global Monitoring Division's Tall Tower network. This site is located within a region that varies from agricultural, broken forests, suburban, urban and industrial. Emissions from several cities (most notably Augusta, GA) and industrial sites are within 50km of the tower and may contribute disproportionately to the nighttime tower readings. To distinguish local and regional sources, it is necessary to characterize vertical turbulent transport at this site. There are several ways to do this, and we focus on three. First, a mesoscale model was run at high-resolution to recreate the winds and temperature observed during a May 2009 nocturnal tracer release field project conducted in the region surrounding the site. The model data then served as input to a Lagrangian transport model. This was done for two eight-hour periods on successive but different nights: one slightly stable, and the other more stable. The coupled mesoscale/transport model was then validated against the tracer data, and was used to calculate the dispersion properties of the tracer and provide a 3-dimensional picture of the plume. For comparison, we apply two other methods to calculate eddy diffusivity. We calculate it directly using sonic anemometer and fast-response CO2 flux and concentration data from the tall tower. The fast response data (10Hz) allows for the explicit calculation of the turbulent transport and, along with the vertical gradient, provide an estimate of the diffusivity. As a third method, the eddy diffusivity can also be calculated by an empirical method that uses as input the turbulent properties measured at the tower. We select one such method and compare the results to the other two estimates.

  11. Nano Lect 1 Questions and Keypoints Key Points

    E-print Network

    Smy, Tom

    lots of useful properties Questions 1. Define nanotechnology. Is an nano ipod nano technology? 2. Why do we use a electron microscope to image nano-technologyNano Lect 1 ­ Questions and Keypoints Key Points 1. What

  12. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT OF OZONE-INDUCED FOLIAR INJURY ON TALL MILKWEED (ASCLEPIAS EXLTATA) IN GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for cohorts of leaves and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as...

  13. Influence of stocking rate and steroidal implants on growth rate of steers grazing toxic tall fescue and subsequent physiological responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr grazing experiment evaluated interactions between stocking rate and implantation with steroid hormones on weight gain and symptoms of toxicosis for yearling steers grazing endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Combinations of four stocking rates (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 s...

  14. Fire, Grazing and the Dynamics of Tall-Grass Savannas in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Sankaran

    Prescribed burning is often used to enhance forage availability for herbivores in rangelands worldwide. This study evaluated the utility of such prescribed burning as a management tool to improve herbivore habitat quality in the Mundanthurai plateau region of the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), south India. Currently, large tracts of the plateau are dominated by the unpalatable tall-grass species Cymbopogon flexuosus,

  15. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

  16. Impact of the 2005-2006 drought on soil water content under a tall grass prairie at Fort Reno, Oklahoma.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined changes in the seasonal pattern of soil water content under a tall grass prairie in central Oklahoma as a result of the 2005-2006 drought. The seasonal pattern of soil water content in the top 50 cm of the soil profile was minimally impacted by the drought, as this portion of the...

  17. Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics oas an index of tall fescue–endophyte association response to light availability and defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is adapted to diverse growing conditions occurring in humid, temperate agro-ecosystems. A mutualistic endophytic symbiont (Neotyphodium coenophialum, [Morgan-Jones et Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) contributes to this resilience, but at t...

  18. Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. I. Analysis of morphogenesis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomie Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. I; The effects of applying nitrogen to grass after the last cut in autumn on growth the following spring the following spring was measured in all trials. Autumn nitrogen resulted in greater grass yields the following

  19. Post-Graze Performance and Recovery from Heat Stress for Yearling Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) consume ergot alkaloids that can lead to “fescue toxicosis”. The alkaloids can be diluted with concentrates to improve weight gains, but it is uncertain if dilution can affect subsequent feedyard performance. A 2-yr experiment determined if ...

  20. We all know that the Earth has tall mountains, but compared to its size these are actually very

    E-print Network

    the center of the Earth? All of these are reasonable (and interesting!) ways to do it. Mt. Everest rises 29 Tall Illustration: Not to Scale STOPfor science http://chandra.si.edu/edu/stop/ The peak of Mt. Everest of the Earth than that of any other mountain. A - Mt. Everest B - Mt. Chimborazo C - Mauna Kea Mars ian) peaks

  1. EARLY PASTURE RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT SOURCE AND TALL FESCUE-ENDOPHYTE ASSOCIATION IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue pastures are an important part of the agricultural landscape in the southeastern USA. We evaluated various plant and animal responses during the first three years of an experiment on a Typic Kanhapludult. Pastures were grazed with yearling Angus heifers whenever sufficient forage was ava...

  2. EFFECTS OF FEEDING ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE SEED TO SHEEP EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most common agents of foodborne illness in humans and has been isolated from ruminants at all stages of production. Objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of short-term exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on fecal shedding and ...

  3. Performance and Physiology of Yearling Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls and Steroidal Implants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle to inflict a malady collectively termed ‘fescue toxicosis’. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with yearling steers graz...

  4. CORRELATION OF ENDOPYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE ROOT EXTRACT FRACTIONS WITH PATHOGENIC NEMATODE ACTIVITY MEASURED IN AN IN VITRO SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root exudates contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances released into soils by healthy intact roots and include such classes of compounds as organic acids, peptides, amino acids, sugars, phenols, and other miscellaneous compounds. The roots of grasses, tall fescue in particular, are noted prod...

  5. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie L Hand; Noel OI Cogan; Alan V Stewart; John W Forster

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This

  6. Disrupted hair follicle activity in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in the summer insulates core body temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most plants of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes cattle to have rough hair coats during the summer and persistent vascular constriction that impedes heat dissipation via blood flow to peripheral tissues. Experi...

  7. Contractile response of fescue-naïve bovine lateral saphenous veins to increasing concentrations of tall fescue alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue have been shown to elicit different effects in the grazing animal. As part of an ongoing characterization of vascular response generated by different alkaloids, the objective this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergono...

  8. EFFECT OF SOURCE AND RATE OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR FERTILIZER ON YIELD, QUALITY, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF STOCKPILED TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research was conducted for 2 yr to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) source and rate effects on stockpiled tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forage yield, quality, and mineral content at different harvest dates. High lysine fertilizer (HLF), which contains approximate...

  9. Effects of Selected Combinations of Tall Fescue Alkaloids on the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Fescue-Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot...

  10. Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics of tall fescue–endophyte associations as a function of defoliation intensity and light availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum, Schreb. S. J. Darbyshire] in terms of productivity and persistence in agro-ecosystems arises in part from association with Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams, Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) endophyte. The influence of novel, non-ergogenic endo...

  11. Competition between tall fescue and plantago under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: Impact of endophytic fungi and mineral N inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is one of the most important perennial grasses as forage and turfgrass. It is usually associated with a systemic endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams). The endophytic fungus often increases the host resistance to stresses, thus e...

  12. PREDICTING TOXICITY OF TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM BARBEYI): MEASUREMENT OF THE VARIATION IN ALKALOID CONCENTRATION AMONG PLANTS AND AMONG YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) is the principle mountain larkspur responsible for the majority of cattle deaths on mountain rangelands in western Colorado and central and southern Utah. The objective of this paper was to describe the variation in toxic alkaloid concentrations between plants, ov...

  13. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue–fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    •Climate change (altered CO2, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant–microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum–Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. •To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing c...

  14. Chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue for improving cattle weight gain and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide to determine if suppression of seedhead emergence and maturity can increase average daily gain (ADG) and alleviate fescue toxicosis....

  15. Steer and plant responses to chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide (Dow AgroSciences; Indianapolis, IN) has shown to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] and potentially mitigate the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infec...

  16. Isolation of feeding deterrents to Argentine stem weevil in cultures of endophytes of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Prestidge; D. R. Lauren; S. G. Van Der Zijpp; M. E. Di Menna

    1985-01-01

    Bioassays showed that a feeding deterrent to adult Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel)) was produced in broth cultures of 4 strains of the endophyte Acremonium loliae (Latch, Christensen & Samuels) isolated from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and one strain of an endophyte isolated from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.). Weevils could detect the deterrent when 0.05% w\\/w mycelium

  17. Nano-Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Moebius, E.; Sternovsky, Z.; Auer, S.; Srama, R.; Juhasz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, the STEREO WAVES instruments recorded a large number of intense electric field signals, which were interpreted as impacts from nanometer sized particles striking the spacecraft with velocities of about the solar wind speed [1]. This high flux and strong spatial and/or temporal variations of nanometer sized dust grains at low latitude appears to be uncorrelated with the solar wind properties. Early dust instruments onboard Pioneer 8 and 9 and Helios spacecraft detected a flow of submicron sized dust particles coming from the direction of the Sun. These particles originate in the inner solar system from mutual collisions among meteoroids and move on hyperbolic orbits that leave the Solar System under the prevailing radiation pressure force [2]. The observed fluxes of inner-source pickup ions also point to the existence of a much enhanced dust population in the nanometer size range [3]. A new highly sensitive instrument is being developed within NASA's Heliophysics Program to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and measure their chemical composition. The instrument is based on the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) that has analyzed the composition of nanometer sized dust particles emanating from the Jovian and Saturnian systems but could not be pointed towards the Sun. By applying technologies implemented in solar wind instruments and coronagraphs a highly sensitive dust analyzer will be developed and tested in the laboratory. The measurements will enable us to identify the source of the dust by comparing their elemental composition with that of larger micrometeoroid particles of cometary and asteroid origin and will reveal interaction of nano-dust with the interplanetary medium by investigating the relation of the dust flux with solar wind and IMF properties. [1] Meyer-Vernet, N. et al., Solar Physics, 256, 463, 2009 [2] Zook, H.A. and Berg, O.E.: A source for hyperbolic cosmic dust particles. Planetary and Space Science, 23 (1975) 183-203. [3] Schwadron, N. A., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7465, 2000.

  18. Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.

    PubMed

    Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2012-03-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 ± 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22°C (d 1 to 3) and 32°C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32°C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

  19. Transgenic plants of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) obtained by direct gene transfer to protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Takamizo, T; Iglesias, V A; Osusky, M; Nagel, J; Potrykus, I; Spangenberg, G

    1992-06-01

    Chimeric hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) genes were introduced, using polyethylene glycol treatment, into protoplasts isolated from embryogenic cell suspension cultures of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), a graminaceous plant that is an important forage crop in temperate pastures. Colonies resistant to either 200 mg/l hygromycin or 100 mg/l phosphinothricin, respectively, were recovered upon selection using bead-type culture systems. Stable integration of the transgenes in the genomes of plants regenerated from resistant callus clones was shown by Southern hybridization analysis. In situ hybridization of a labeled transgene-probe to metaphase chromosomes is shown for one transgenic primary regenerant. Expression of the transgenes in mature plants was demonstrated by HPH enzyme assay or by phosphinothricin-herbicide spraying. PMID:1369399

  20. On cat's eyes and multiple disjoint cells natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Báez, Elsa; Nicolás, Alfredo

    2014-10-01

    Natural convection fluid flow in air-filled tall tilted cavities is studied numerically with a direct projection method applied on the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in primitive variables. The study is focused on the so called cat's eyes and multiple disjoint cells as the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination ? of the cavity vary. Results have already been reported with primitive and stream function-vorticity variables. The former are validated with the latter ones, which in turn were validated through mesh size and time-step independence studies. The new results complemented with the previous ones lead to find out the fluid motion and heat transfer invariant properties of this thermal phenomenon, which is the novelty here.

  1. Approaching the nano world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, Andreas; Jacobs, Heiko; Knapp, Helmut F.

    1996-12-01

    At the interface of micro and macro world, vision plays a fundamental role in localizing targets and positioning micro- or nanorobots relative to them. Traditionally, far- field optics are used to achieve this task. However, in most practical applications optical diffraction limits resolution to the micrometer-range although image processing may provide us relative accuracies on the order of several nanometers in a few special cases. At ambient pressure, capillary condensation of water vapor severely hampers reproducible and reversible manipulations of micrometer- sized or smaller objects since the resulting adhesive forces between tool and object easily exceed the object's weight. The size of objects also dictates the useful dimensions of sensors and actuators and generally necessitates integration of several sensing and/or actuation functions into a single device. To overcome above mentioned difficulties in accessing the micro and nano world, sensing and actuating principles derived from scanning probe microscopies such as atomic force or optical near-field provide us with the necessary extension of the capabilities offered by traditional far-field systems. A fluid environment also prevents those hard-to-control effects of capillary forces.

  2. Folded Conformation, Cyclic Pentamer, Nano-Structure and PAD4 Binding Mode of YW3-56

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haimei; Wang, Yuji; Wang, Yaonan; Zhao, Shurui; Zhao, Ming; Gui, Lin; Xu, Wenyun; Chen, Xiangyun Amy; Wang, Yanming; Peng, Shiqi

    2013-01-01

    The physical and chemical mechanisms of small molecules with pharmacological activity forming nano-structures are developing into a new field of nano-medicine. By using ROESY 2D NMR spectroscopy, trandem mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and computer-assisted molecular modeling, this paper demonstrated the contribution of the folded conformation, the intra- and intermolecular ?-? stacking, the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the receptor binding free energy of 6-dimethylaminonaph-2-yl-{N-S-[1-benzylcarba-moyl-4-(2-chloroacetamidobutyl)]-carboxamide (YW3-56) to the rapid formation of nano-rings and the slow formation of nano-capsules. Thus we have developed a strategy that makes it possible to elucidate the physical and chemical mechanisms of bioactive small molecules forming nano-structures. PMID:23795230

  3. The National Nanotechnology Initiative's nanoEHS Workshop Series: February 24-25, 2009: Human and Environmental Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials

    E-print Network

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative's nanoEHS Workshop Series: February 24-25, 2009: Human & Ethical, Legal, and Societal Implications of Nanotechnology National Nanotechnology Initiative Save in the National Nanotechnology Initiative's Strategy for Nanotechnology-related Environmental, Health, and Safety

  4. Nano-Tera.CH: Nano-technologies for Tera-scale Problems Giovanni De Micheli

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Nano-Tera.CH: Nano-technologies for Tera-scale Problems Giovanni De Micheli EPF Lausanne 1015, Switzerland ABSTRACT -- The Nano-Tera.CH initiative is a broad engineering program in Switzerland for health is rooted in advances in engineering nano-scale materials and their exploitation in a variety of systems

  5. Nano-engineered optical fibers and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-J. Li; P. Tandon; D. Bookbinder; D. Nolan; S. Bickham; M. McDermott; R. Desorcie; J. Englebert; S. Logunov; V. Kozlov

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a technology for making nano-engineered optical fibers. Key features and advantages of nano-enginneered glass fibers are discussed. Fiber designs and their applications are presented.

  6. Transcriptional Activation of Prostate Specific Homeobox Gene NKX3-1 in Subsets of T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Schneider, Björn; Geffers, Robert; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL. PMID:22848398

  7. Graduate School of Engineering, NAGOYA UNIVERSITY Center for Micro-Nano MechatronicsCenter for Micro-Nano Mechatronics

    E-print Network

    Takahashi, Ryo

    Graduate School of Engineering, NAGOYA UNIVERSITY Center for Micro-Nano MechatronicsCenter for Micro-Nano Mechatronics Nano measurement engineering Nano design and manufacturing Nano materials-Nano Mechatronics" at Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University in 2008 with the aim of applying

  8. The TCR ?? Repertoire and Relative Gene Expression Characteristics of T-ALL Cases with Biclonal Malignant V?1 and V?2 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haitao; Wang, Xu; Ma, Yu; Xu, Bing; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Wu, Xiuli; Przybylski, Grzegorz K.; Huang, Suming

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant improvement in our understanding of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) biology and pathogenesis, many questions remain unanswered. In previous studies, we found a T-ALL case with two malignant T-cell clones with V?1D?2D?3J?1 and V?2D?3J?2 rearrangements. In this study, we further characterized T-ALL cases with two malignant clones containing V?1D?3J?1 and V?2D?1J?1 rearrangements using fine-tiling array comparative genomic hybridization, ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR), sequencing, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. We further analyzed the distribution and clonality of the T-cell receptor (TCR) V? and V? subfamily T cells in the two T-ALL cases by RT-PCR and GeneScan. Monoclonal V?1 and V?2 subfamilies were confirmed in both samples, the V?3 through V?7 subfamilies could not be detected in the T-ALL samples, whereas the oligoclonal V?8 subfamily could be identified. Based on the clinical finding that both of the T-ALL cases with two malignant T-cell clones had a poor outcome, we attempted to compare the expression pattern of genes related to T-cell activation and proliferation between cases with the malignant V?1 and V?2 T-cell clones and T-ALL cases with a mono-malignant V? T-cell clone. We selected two T-ALL cases with V?J? rearrangements and analyzed the expression level of Notch1, TAL1, and the CARMA-BCL10-MALT-A20-NF-?B pathway genes by real-time PCR. A20 had significantly higher expression in the biclonal compared with the monoclonal T-ALL group (p=0.0354), and there was a trend toward higher expression for the other genes in the biclonal group with the exception of TAL1, although the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, we identified two T-ALL cases with biclonal malignant T-cell clones and described the characteristics of the biclonal T-ALL subtype and its gene expression pattern. Thus, our findings may improve the understanding of biclonal T-ALL. PMID:24329526

  9. Nano Science and Technology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nano Science and Technology Institute (NSTI) is chartered with the promotion and integration of nano and other advanced technologies through education, technology and business development. NSTI accomplishes this mission through its offerings of membership services, continuing education programs, scientific and business publishing and community outreach. NSTI produces the annual Nanotech conference and trade show, the most comprehensive international nanotechnology convention in the world. NSTI also produces the semi-annual Nanotech Venture, Nanotech Industrial Impact Workshop, Nano Impact Summit and the Nanotech Course Series in the US and Europe. NSTI was founded in 1997 as a result of the merger between various scientific societies, and is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts with additional offices in California and Switzerland.

  10. EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems Page 1 EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.edu/dept/engineering/eleceng/Adv_Network_Tech/Html/ee337.html This course is designed as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano

  11. EE 337 Engineering nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering nano-systems Page 1 EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi Spring.edu/dept/engineering/eleceng/Adv_Network_Tech/Html/ee337.html This course is designed as an introduction to nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of nano-technology into systems

  12. nanoHUB-UNEED IMPACT STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    nanoHUB-UNEED IMPACT STATEMENT INITIATIVE With support from NSF, Purdue, and Intel, a team of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The nanoHUB-U team includes faculty in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering and Physics. nanoHUB-U courses are 5

  13. Opportunities and Challenges of Nano Satellites

    E-print Network

    Opportunities and Challenges of Nano Satellites August, 2010 Rei Kawashima AXELSPACE Corporation #12;2 AXELSPACE - Who are we? Space venture company specialized in nano-satellites. Developer of nano-satellites conceptual design, manufacture, testing, launch to satellite operation Established in 8/8/2008. Young

  14. Fundamental Issues of Nano-fluid Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Wesley C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 massachusetts avenue cambridge, ma 02139-4307 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper will elucidate some of the behaviors of nano-fluids other than the abnormal conductivity enhancement, which are of importance to the experimental and engineering use of nano-fluids. Nano-fluid is the common name of any sol colloid involving nano-scale (less than 100 nm) sized particles dispersed within a base fluid. It has been shown previously that the dispersion of nano-particulate metallic oxides into water can increase thermal conductivity up to 30-40% over that of the base fluid and anomalously more than the mere weighed average of the colloid. There is a great potential for the use of nano-fluids as a way to enhance fluid/thermal energy transfer systems. Due to the recentness of nano-fluid science, there are still many issues which have not been fully investigated. This paper should act as a primer for the basic understanding of nano-fluid behavior. Particle size and colloid stability are of key importance to the functionality of nano-fluids. The pH and concentration/loading of nano-fluids can alter the size of the nano-particles and also the stability of the fluids. It will be shown through experiment and colloid theory the importance of these parameters. Furthermore, most of the existing literature uses volume percentage as the measure of particle loading, which can often be misleading. There will be discussion of this and other misleading ideas in nano-fluid science. (author)

  15. Environmental strategies for portion control in children.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Thomas N; Matheson, Donna M

    2015-05-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  16. A novel method for measuring trace gas fluxes from tall vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, James; Phil, Ineson

    2014-05-01

    The nature of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as greenhouse gases (GHGs) means that accurate measurement of their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is extremely important to our ability to manage climate change. Manual static chambers are commonly used to measure soil fluxes of these trace gases, with landscape values extrapolated from point measurements of typically less than 1m2, at a weekly or monthly frequency. Moreover, due to the reliance upon manual sampling, data are typically biased towards day-time measurements, and use of opaque chambers halts photosynthesis. Automation of chambers, such as the Licor Li-8100 (Lincoln, NE) system, allows for measurement of soil respiration at a near-constant frequency, but does not solve the problem of measuring CH4 and N2O, neither does it allow measurements to be taken from over tall (more than 20 cm) vegetation. Eddy covariance (EC) techniques allow for high frequency measurements of CO2 and CH4 to be made at the landscape scale, and are increasingly available for N2O. However, the inability of EC to resolve to the plot scale hinders its use for manipulative experiments, and replication is rare. Additionally, stratification of the boundary layer creates difficulty in measuring night-time fluxes and it is common to discard large parts of data sets due to unsuitable wind direction or other meteorological conditions. Here we present a new technique for measuring trace gas fluxes from over tall vegetation. The system is capable of simultaneously delivering NEE of CO2, CH4 and N2O, automatically measuring at high temporal resolution (circa hourly) from replicated plots. We show the effect of green compost addition on trace gas fluxes from Miscanthus x giganteus, an important crop for bioenergy production. The ability to quantify NEE of GHGs from such crops forms an essential part of the lifecycle analysis of energy produced from biomass, which may play an important role in future mitigation of climate change.

  17. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparisons of Tall Fescue Gene Expression in Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In a...

  18. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Waller, John C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  20. Nano-JASMINE Data Analysis and Publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Hara, T.; Yoshioka, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Miyashita, H.; Hatsutori, Y.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.

    2012-09-01

    The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A collaboration between the Gaia AGIS and Nano-JASMINE teams on the Nano-JASMINE data reduction started in 2007. The Nano-JASMINE team writes codes to generate AGIS input, and this is called Initial Data Treament (IDT). Identification of observed stars and their observed field of view, getting color index, are different from those of Gaia because Nano-JASMINE is ultra small satellite. For converting centroiding results on detector to the celestial sphere, orbit and attitude data of the satellite are used. In Nano-JASMINE, orbit information is derived from on board GPS data and attitude is processed from on-board star sensor data and on-ground Kalman filtering. We also show the Nano-JASMINE goals, status of the data publications and utilizations, and introduce the next Japanese space astrometric mission.

  1. Mechano-micro/nano systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, Mikio

    2004-10-01

    In recent years, the researches about Micro/Nano Systems are down actively in the bio-medical research fields, DNA research fields, chemical analysis systems fields, etc. In the results, a new materials and new functions in the systems are developed. In this invited paper, Mechano-Micro/Nano Systems, especially, motion systems are introduced. First, the research activities concerning the Mechano-Micro/Nano Systems in the world(MST2003, MEMS2003 and MEMS2004) and in Japan(Researech Projects on Nanotechnology and Materials in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) are shown. Secondary, my research activities are introduced. As my research activities, (1) a comb-drive static actuator for the motion convert mechanisms, (2) a micro-nano fabrication method by use of FAB(Fast Atom Beam) machines, (3) a micro optical mirror manipulator for inputs-outputs optical switches, (4) a miniature pantograph mechanism with large-deflective hinges and links made of plastics are discussed and their performances are explained.

  2. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    SciTech Connect

    Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  3. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively. PMID:21313873

  4. Necessity and adequacy of near-source factors for not-so-tall fixed-base buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhan, Cenk; Sürmeli, Melih

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear response history analyses and use of strong ground motion data including near-field effects has become a common practice in both performance based design of tall buildings and design of base-isolated buildings. On the other hand, ordinary buildings are commonly analysed via response spectrum analysis following the rules of conventional seismic codes, most of which do not take near-field effects into account. This study evaluates the necessity and the adequacy of near-source factors for ordinary fixed-base buildings that are not specifically classified as tall, by comparing dynamic responses of 3, 8, and 15-story benchmark buildings obtained via (1) linear time history analyses using 220 record components from 13 historical earthquakes and 45 synthetic earthquake records of different magnitudes and fault distances and (2) response spectrum analyses in accordance with the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 -representing seismic codes not taking near-field effects into account- and the Uniform Building Code 1997 which takes near-field effects into account via near-source factors that amplify design response spectrum. It is shown that near-source factors are crucial for the safe design of not-so-tall ordinary fixed-base buildings but those defined in UBC97 may still not be adequate for those located in the vicinity of the fault.

  5. Biosolids applications to tall fescue have long-term influence on soil nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cogger, Craig G; Bary, Andy I; Myhre, Elizabeth A; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Repeated applications of biosolids provide long-term benefits by increasing soil organic matter and N supply but can cause excess accumulation of P. Our objective was to determine the residual effects of repeated surface applications of biosolids on N availability and fate, tall fescue ( Schreb.) response, soil C, and P. A field experiment was started in 1993 to compare two biosolids products, each applied at three rates (6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 Mg ha yr), with synthetic N fertilizer (0 and 403 kg N ha yr as ammonium nitrate). Treatments were surface applied for 10 yr, followed by a 9-yr residual period where all plots received a reduced rate of inorganic N (202 kg N ha yr). Annual measurements included forage yield, N uptake, and soil nitrate N. Soil samples collected in 2002 and 2011 were analyzed for total C and N and Bray-1 P. Cumulative apparent N recoveries in harvested grass (1993-2010) were 51% for biosolids N and 72% for ammonium nitrate. Net fall soil nitrate N summed for the period 1993-2002 ranged from <1 to 3% of N applied. The N applied that was accounted for in forage and soil averaged 74% for biosolids and 73% for ammonium nitrate. Soil C increased in the biosolids treatments, and the increase was equivalent to 27% of biosolids C. Bray-1 P remained at excessive levels (338-629 mg P kg soil) 9 yr after the last biosolids application. PMID:23673844

  6. Characteristics of upward lightning from a 325-m-tall meteorology tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Mingyuan; Lu, Gaopeng; Liu, Dongxia

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive observations of lightning flashes striking at a 325-m-tall meteorology tower were conducted in Beijing, China, during the summer of 2012. The images from high speed camera and normal video camera and the measurements of electric field changes were examined to investigate the characteristics of upward negative lightning initiated from the tower. Among eight upward lightning flashes documented during two thunderstorms, four were self-initiated events without lightning activity nearby prior to their initiation, two were triggered by the nearby positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+ CG) with the initiation of the upward leaders from the tower lagged 0.4 ms and 5 ms behind, respectively, and the remaining two were triggered by nearby intra-cloud lightning activities. The average 2-D speed of the upward positive leader was 1.0 × 105 m/s within several hundred meters above the tower tip. When the upward lightning occurred, the tower was swept by a radar echo zone with not very strong peak intensity of about 35-45 dBZ, which exhibited as a secondary convective area in the trailing stratiform region of the mesoscale convective system. The vertical cross section revealed a relatively low altitude of the radar echo center, indicative of a low charge center of the cloud which was favorable for initiating tower lightning.

  7. Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Dale F.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Myers, Richard C.; Elkins, James W.

    1997-04-01

    We present a 15-month record of mixing ratios of CO, CH4, N2O, and eight halogenated gases (CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHCl3, C2Cl4, and SF6) at a rural site in eastern North Carolina. The data result from hourly gas Chromatographic analyses of air sampled at three heights on a 610-m-tall telecommunications tower during November 1994 through January 1996. At night, most of these gases were more abundant near the ground (51 m) than aloft (496 m) because of the buildup of local and regional surface emissions in the shallow nocturnal stable layer. The abundance and variability of trace gases at this continental site were generally higher than those at similar latitude remote locations. Mixing ratios of most gases were well correlated in polluted air masses occasionally advected to the tower. Frequent, strong enhancements in CHCl3 at the lower sampling level(s) indicate a local point source(s) of this gas that is not associated with combustion. Temporal trends of regional background mixing ratios at this continental site are, for the most part, in good agreement with recent trends of remote background mixing ratios in the northern hemisphere.

  8. A virtual tall tower network for understanding continental sources and sinks of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-09

    Our understanding of the North American terrestrial carbon cycle is limited by both a lack of continental atmospheric CO2 data, and by a need for methods to interpret these and other continental data with confidence. In response to this challenge a rapid expansion of the N. American carbon cycle observational network is underway. This expansion includes a network of continuous, continental CO2 mixing ratio observations being collected at a subset of AmeriFlux towers. Progress in developing this resource includes instrument development, site installation, calibration and intercalibration efforts, and initiation of a uniform data product. Progess in applying these data include proposed methods for interpreting surface layer measurements in atmospheric inversions (the virtual tall towers approach), examination of coherence patterns in continental mixing ratios in response to weather and climate, and application of these mixing ratio measurements in formal atmospheric inversions. Future work will merge these methods with interpretation of flux towers observations of terrestrial carbon fluxes in an effort to create a single coherent diagnosis of North American terrestrial carbon fluxes over a multi-year period.

  9. Particleboard quality characteristics of saline jose tall wheatgrass and chemical treatment effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; Blunk, Sherry

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical properties and water resistance improved with the increase of particleboard density from 0.71 to 0.75 g/cm(3). The particleboards with density of 0.74 g/cm(3) had similar mechanical properties of wood-based particleboards, except for lower internal bond strength. Among the particleboards made with particles of different initial moisture contents from 2% to 10%, the particleboard with the particles of 8% initial moisture content had the highest qualities. The pretreatment using NaOH solution to wash the JTW particles reduced the qualities of finished particleboards bonded with both PMDI and urea formaldehyde (UF) resins. Particleboards made with PMDI showed superior qualities than those made with UF, as shown by the measured contact angle results between the adhesives and JTW. PMID:16806907

  10. Tall fescue is a potential spillover reservoir host for Alternaria species.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah E; Carroll, George C; Roy, Bitty A; Blaisdell, G Kai

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is complicated and multifaceted. Enemy spillover (i.e. the transfer of a natural enemy from a reservoir host to a novel host) is one mechanism that facilitates the spread of non-native species. The reservoir host is a species that harbors high abundance of the enemy with little cost to fitness. We asked whether Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue), a highly invasive grass species in North America, is a potential reservoir host for the ubiquitous genus of fungi, Alternaria. We also asked whether spillover of Alternaria is possible among grasses that commonly occur with S. arundinaceus in grassland ecosystems. We performed a greenhouse cross inoculation of three isolates of Alternaria and six grass species (three native, three invasive, including S. arundinaceus). We determined that spillover is possible because the fungal isolates infected and caused disease symptoms on all six grasses and decreased biomass in two of the grass species. We also determined that the invasive grass species appear to be more competent hosts than the native species and that S. arundinaceus could be a likely reservoir host for Alternaria spp. because it can harbor the pathogen with no apparent fitness cost. PMID:24603832

  11. Sound pressure level attenuation provided by thin rigid screens coupled to tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeu, A.; António, J.; Mendes, P. Amado; Godinho, L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper computes the sound pressure attenuation provided by thin rigid screens placed on the walls of a tall building to protect the building from the direct sound incidence produced by sound pressure sources placed in its vicinity. The problem is formulated in the frequency domain via the Traction Boundary Element Method (TBEM), which overcomes the thin-body difficulty arising with the classical Boundary Element Method (BEM) formulation. The building, the screens and the ground are assumed to be infinitely long and rigid. The Green's functions used in the TBEM formulation allow the solution to be obtained without discretizing the flat solid ground and vertical solid façade. Thus, only the boundary of each rigid screen is modelled, which allows the TBEM to be efficient even at high excitation frequencies. The hypersingular integrals that result from the implementation of the TBEM are computed analytically. The algorithm is verified using a BEM model, which incorporates the Green's functions for a full space, thus requiring the full discretization of the domain. The model developed is then used to simulate wave propagation in the vicinity of thin rigid screens with different dimensions and geometries. The two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) time and frequency responses and sound pressure attenuation results are both computed over grids of receivers placed perpendicular and parallel to the building wall.

  12. Constraints on the sources and impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over North America from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu

    This dissertation presents the first-ever in-situ tall tower measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. The data span August 2009 through July 2012, and provide new constraints on seasonal and long-term controls on VOC sources and their atmospheric effects. The 200 m sampling height provides a large-scale footprint, while the tall tower location, near the intersection of the main North American ecosystems and at times downwind of the Twin Cities, affords information on natural emissions from some of the most important US landscapes as well as on anthropogenic sources. I interpret the dataset using an atmospheric chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM), with a focus on several key atmospheric VOCs. This dissertation finds that current models underestimate methanol emission rates for younger versus older leaves. This biased seasonality means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated. A Bayesian inverse analysis of the tall tower observations reveals that the prior estimate of North American anthropogenic acetone sources (based on the US EPA's NEI05 inventory) is accurate to within 20%. However, biogenic acetone emissions from broadleaf trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are presently underestimated (˜37%), while emissions from needleleaf trees plus secondary production from biogenic precursors are overestimated by a similar amount (˜40%). Model-measurement comparisons imply that isoprene emissions in the immediate vicinity of the tall tower are accurately captured by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic inventory, but that larger-scale regional emissions are underestimated, reflecting the heterogeneous land cover in this transitional landscape. Isoprene emissions play a key role in seasonal shifts between VOC-limited chemistry in the spring and fall and NOx-limited or transitional chemistry in the summer. A Bayesian inverse analysis based on the tall tower measurements suggests that: i) the RETRO global emission inventory significantly overestimates (> two-fold) US C6-C8 aromatic emissions; ii) the US EPA's NEI08 inventory likewise overestimates the toluene flux by a factor of 3, partly reflecting a bias in the estimated non-road emissions; and iii) total annual emissions of benzene and C8 aromatics in the EPA's NEI08 are accurate to within the analysis uncertainty, but with some seasonal biases for on-road emissions.

  13. RI&E Nano particles*) Carried out by

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    1 RI&E Nano particles*) Carried out by: Faculty: CTW/EWI/TNW Department: 1. Information Nano characteristics of nano material (or parent material) **) Carcinogenic Mutagenic Reprotoxic Density (kg/dm3 ) kg/dm3 State of aggregation of the nano material Liquid Solid 2. Health hazard nano material Danger

  14. Metallic nano-particles for trapping light

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj PMID:23391493

  15. Synthesis and Characterisation of Nano Lanthana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moothedan, Marymol; Sherly, K. B.

    2011-10-01

    Nano sized oxide materials have gained an immense importance due to their unque electrical and magnetic properties. Nano Lanthana has various applications in solide oxide fuel cells, catalytic exhaust gas converters, magnetic data storage, water treatment and also as a nano catalyst. The performance of the nano Lanthana depends on the particle size, morphology, crystalline nature etc which in tern depends on the method of preparation and pre-treatment conditions. In this study nano Lanthana was prepared by using the natural polymer Starch as the template. The effect of reaction condition and concentration of starch on the formation, particle size, crystalline nature, and morphology of nano lanthana was also investigated. The phase composition, crystallinine character and particle size were obtained from XRD. The surface morphology of the prepared sample was investigated by SEM. Elemental analysis using SEM-EDAX confirmed the stochiometry of the sample..

  16. Continuous CO2/CH4 measurement at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winderlich, Jan; Chen, Huilin; Höfer, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Global climate change has particular impact on Siberia, where one tenth of global vegetation and soil carbon is stored. The increase in temperature lengthens the vegetation period and consequently enlarges the carbon sink. On the other hand, a warming climate will enhance thawing of permafrost which contains organic carbon that can be released either as carbon dioxide or methane depending on the local hydrological conditions. Long-term biogeochemical trace gas measurements on tall towers (> 250 m) over continents help to improve the knowledge about surface source/sink processes at regional to continental scales. Without the usage of aircrafts, the height of the tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is - unlike the surface layer - only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus representative for a larger region (~1000km). The recently established Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, 304 m, www.zottoproject.org) is located near the village of Zotino at the Yenisei River in central Siberia (60° N, 89° E). The ZOTTO facility was built in the perspective to monitor and determine variability and trends in the carbon balance of central Siberian forests. Since April 2009 we measure CO2 and CH4 from 6 height levels reaching from 4 to 301 m with an analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique (Picarro Inc., CA, USA, model G1301). Experiments have shown that reliable accurate measurements can be obtained even without drying the sample gas. To obtain dry air mixing ratios for CO2 and CH4, the simultaneous water vapor measurements are used to correct dilution and pressure broadening effects, resulting in a precision and accuracy that is better than WMO recommendations. Furthermore, the system requires only a very low amount of calibration gases, because calibration takes place only every 100 hrs. These two aspects allow keeping maintenance low, which is an important requirement for this remote station. In each sampling line buffer volumes integrate the atmospheric signal over a typical time period of 40 minutes. With these the periodic switching from line to line every three minutes with only one single analyzer provides a quasi continuous, concurrent measurement from each height level. As a consequence of the averaging as well as the precision of the analyzer, the data show a low noise level and still moderately high temporal resolution, and gradients between different levels can be determined to a very high accuracy. The new data from 2009 and 2010 will be presented and interpreted in the context of regional sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 in central Siberia. As the nocturnal boundary develops during night, it locally traps respired CO2 and CH4 and builds up vertical gradients. The analysis of the gradients allows estimating the trapped carbon amount in this layer which can be assigned to a certain region by using the Lagrangian transport model STILT.

  17. Graphene nano-ribbon electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihong Chen; Yu-Ming Lin; Michael J. Rooks; Phaedon Avouris

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated graphene nano-ribbon field-effect transistor devices and investigated their electrical properties as a function of ribbon width. Our experiments show that the resistivity of a ribbon increases as its width decreases, indicating the impact of edge states. Analysis of temperature-dependent measurements suggests a finite quantum confinement gap opening in narrow ribbons. The electrical current noise of the graphene

  18. Principles of Nano-Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Lukas; Hecht, Bert

    2012-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Theoretical foundations; 3. Propagation and focusing of optical fields; 4. Resolution and localization; 5. Nanoscale optical microscopy; 6. Near-field optical probes; 7. Probe-sample distance control; 8. Optical interactions; 9. Quantum emitters; 10. Dipole emission near planar interfaces; 11. Photonic crystals, resonators, and cavity optomechanics; 12. Surface plasmons; 13. Optical antennas; 14. Forces in confined fields; 15. Fluctuation-induced interactions; 16. Theoretical methods in nano-optics; Appendices; Index.

  19. InterNano: Nanomanufacturing Clearinghouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN) is an open network for collaboration and information exchange among the nanomanufacturing research, development, and education community. The NNN is an alliance of academic, government and industry partners that cooperate to advance nanomanufacturing strength in the U.S. The NNN conducts strategic workshops and other activities to build communities of practice in nanomanufacturing. The NNN hosts InterNano, the open source information clearinghouse, to provide vital information to nanomanufacturing community.

  20. 3-D nano-fiber manufacturing by controlled pulling of liquid polymers using nano-probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amrinder S. Naint; Metin Sittit

    2003-01-01

    In-addition to the applications of imaging and characterization, proximal probes are proposed to be used three-dimensional (3-D) nano-scale manufacturing tools in this paper. Commercially available Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) systems are mainly limited to 1-D or 2-D manipulation tasks, and advanced 3-D nano-manufacturing applications are not possible. Therefore, this paper proposes 3-D nano-scale manipulation of liquid polymer nano-fibers by using

  1. Performance of various RANS eddy-viscosity models for turbulent natural convection in tall vertical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moutaouakil, L.; Zrikem, Z.; Abdelbaki, A.

    2014-08-01

    The present study is dedicated to the identification of turbulence models that are accurate and numerically economic for computing the natural air-flow and heat transfer by convection in tall cavities with differentially heated vertical walls. The eddy-viscosity models (EVM) are among the simplest to implement and the most economical to treat this problem. This study evaluated the dynamic, thermal and computational performances of twenty EVM turbulence models with one, two or three-equation closure. All the models were first implemented in several in-house codes using the finite volume method. The predictions of the retained models in terms of profiles of velocity, temperature and vertical velocity fluctuations in the cavity have been compared with those of experimental or numerical studies. The obtained results were used to identify the turbulence models that are accurate and numerically economic in predicting natural convection in vertical cavities with a high aspect ratio. The EVM models with three-equation (v2-f and ?-f) provide the most accurate mean and fluctuating quantities, followed by the k-? RNG (ReNormalization Group) and k-? SST (Shear Stress Transport) models. The computing time of these four models is higher than that of the 2L (two-layer) and q-? models, which provide fairly accurate results especially for the mean heat transfer between the vertical active walls. The other one-equation (Spalart and Allmaras model) and two-equation (k-?, k-? and hybrid models) turbulence models tested in this work, have a high computing time and/or predictions that are not sufficiently precise simultaneously for both velocity and temperature fields.

  2. Atmosphere-surface water exchanges from measurements of isotopic composition at a tall tower in Boulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D. C.; Risi, C.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Brown, D. P.; Buenning, N. H.; Gregory, S. A.; Nusbaumer, J.; Sykes, J.; Schneider, D. P.; Vanderwende, B. J.; Wong, J.; Wolfe, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exchange of water and carbon between the atmosphere and land remains poorly understood, particularly in regions of complex terrain and in the case of stable nighttime boundary layers. Profile measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapor were made at the 300 meter NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tall tower facility in Erie in February of 2010 to establish how well moisture budgets can be constrained with isotopic information. Measurements were made by placing instruments on the tower elevator and manually controlling the ascent and decent every 15 minutes for a total of 311 profiles. The four-day experiment followed a snow storm that produced 25-50 mm of snow. Temporal variations in the measured isotopic composition are dominated by the synoptic meteorology rather than local processes. Although both the “Keeling plot” approach applied to time series and the mixing lines applied to vertical profiles emerge algebraically from simple turbulence theory, only the latter is successful in estimating end members in good agreement with the known isotopic composition of the source water. However, mixing lines are only formed when conditions are stationary, and the approach generally fails during times of changes in the profile associated with regional advection. Rapid ventilation of the boundary layer during the day is found from the isotopic data because evaporation of the snow melt tags the gas transport. Weak transport at night is determined using CO2 profiles because respiration contrasts with the tropospheric baseline. We find that transport at night is characterized by slow mixing interrupted by fast mixing events. The intermittent exchange appears important for the net exchange and it is not clear that they are captured in turbulence schemes in climate models. Because the mixing line method is not uniformly successful, our results suggest a more complete framework based on boundary layer dynamics is needed for isotopic profiles to be meaningful.

  3. Ion uptake in tall fescue as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salinity.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

    2014-01-01

    Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. 'Tar Heel II' and 'Wolfpack' cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. 'Tar Heel II' had higher shoot Ca content than 'Wolfpack', which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg(-1), respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

  4. Ion Uptake in Tall Fescue as Affected by Carbonate, Chloride, and Sulfate Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

    2014-01-01

    Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. ‘Tar Heel II’ and ‘Wolfpack’ cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. ‘Tar Heel II’ had higher shoot Ca content than ‘Wolfpack’, which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg?1, respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

  5. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50?S, 60°49'48?W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ?10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ?10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ?10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  6. Lanthanide nano-drums: a new class of molecular nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications†

    PubMed Central

    Gnanam, Annie J.; Arambula, Jonathan F.; Jones, Jessica N.; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W.; DePue, Lauren J.; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Ehrlich, Lauren I. R.; Brown, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a new class of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as potential reporter molecules for imaging, and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors in diagnostic systems. These lanthanide “nano-drums” are homogeneous 4d–4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter that can emit from the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here, we present syntheses, crystal structures, photophysical properties, and comparative cytotoxicity data for six nano-drums containing either Eu, Tb, Lu, Er, Yb or Ho. Imaging capabilities of these nano-drums are demonstrated using epifluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and two-photon microscopy. We discuss how these molecular nanoparticles can to be adapted for a range of assays, particularly by taking advantage of functionalization strategies with chemical moieties to enable conjugation to protein or nucleic acids. PMID:25284181

  7. Preparation of disk-like particles with micro/nano hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Yang, Wenbo; Chen, Pengpeng; Wang, Weina; Jia, Xudong; Xi, Kai

    2013-10-15

    A facile, reproductive method has been successfully developed to produce disk-like microparticles self-assembled from monodispersed hybrid silica nanoparticles under certain circumstance. The disk-like microparticles with micro/nano hierarchical structures could be obtained in large amount under a mild condition and further used to biomimetic design of the superhydrophobic surface of lotus leaf. After traditional surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosiliane, the static contact angle of water on the surface with micro/nano hierarchical structure could reach 168.8°. The method of surface modification could be further simplified by click reaction with the introduction of thiol groups under mild condition. The present strategy for constructing the surface with micro/nano hierarchical structures offers the advantage of simple and large area fabrication, which enables a variety of superhydrophobic applications. PMID:23932083

  8. [Frontier and prospect of micro/nano biofabrication based on microbes].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhijun; Shi, Xudian; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2013-02-01

    Microbe is extremely abundant in nature, and its size has a very wide coverage from nano- to micro-scale making it suitable to be processed at multi-scale level as natural "building blocks" and "chassis cells". Biofabrication based on microbes is an artificial manipulation on microbes to assemble functional materials and devices by using the specific structures and various biological functions of microbes. In the meantime, the novel strategies of biofarication enables us to study the behavioral details of microbes, which will provide new platforms for uncovering the unsolved basic scientific problems of microbes. In this paper, we reviewed the frontier and progress in biofabrication from nano- and micro-scale in microbes that were manipulated as structured "building blocks" or functional "micro/nano robots". PMID:23697158

  9. Cybersecurity Strategies

    E-print Network

    Cybenko, George

    Cybersecurity Strategies: The QuERIES Methodology Lawrence Carin Duke University George Cybenko-efficient cybersecurity strategies. O rganizations in both the private and public sectors have strug- gled to determine typically implemented cybersecurity investment strategies with- out useful guidance from a rigorous

  10. Evolution of ZnO nano-crystals grown on a profiled sapphire(0001) substrate with Au nano-crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Seo; Hyon Chol Kang

    This paper reports the structural evolution of ZnO nano-crystals deposited on profiled Au\\/sapphire(0001) substrates by radio frequency sputtering. In contrast to the typical catalytic growth of ZnO nano-crystals with Au seeds, ZnO was initially formed as nano-discs on top of the Au nano-crystals, and their eventual shape became a replica of the cuboctahedral Au nano-crystals. The ZnO nano-discs transformed into

  11. How well do tall tower measurements characterize the CO2 mole fraction distribution in the planetary boundary layer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haszpra, L.; Barcza, Z.; Haszpra, T.; Pátkai, Z.; Davis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) CO2 mole fraction data are needed by transport models and carbon budget models as both input and reference for validation. The height of in situ CO2 mole fraction measurements is usually different from that of the model levels where the data are needed; data from short towers, in particular, are difficult to utilize in atmospheric models that do not simulate the surface layer well. Tall tower CO2 mole fraction measurements observed at heights ranging from 10 to 115 m a.g.l. at a rural site in Hungary and regular airborne vertical mole fraction profile measurements (136 vertical profiles) above the tower allowed us to estimate how well a tower of a given height could estimate the CO2 mole fraction above the tower in the PBL. The statistical evaluation of the height-dependent bias between the real PBL CO2 mole fraction profile (measured by the aircraft) and the measurement at a given elevation above the ground was performed separately for the summer and winter half years to take into account the different dynamics of the lower troposphere and the different surface CO2 flux in the different seasons. The paper presents: (1) how accurately the vertical distribution of CO2 in the PBL can be estimated from the measurements on the top of a tower of height H, (2) how tall a tower would be needed for the satisfaction of different requirements on the accuracy of the estimation of the CO2 vertical distribution, (3) how accurate a CO2 vertical distribution estimation can be expected from the existing towers; and (4) how much improvement can be achieved in the accuracy of the estimation of CO2 vertical distribution applying the virtual tall tower concept.

  12. A polymorphism in XKR4 is significantly associated with serum prolactin concentrations in beef cows grazing tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Bastin, B C; Houser, A; Bagley, C P; Ely, K M; Payton, R R; Saxton, A M; Schrick, F N; Waller, J C; Kojima, C J

    2014-06-01

    Fescue toxicosis is a common syndrome of poor growth and reproductive performance of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue infected with Lolium arundinaceum Schreb. Together with decreased feed intake, decreased growth rates and tissue necrosis due to vasoconstriction, depressed circulating serum prolactin concentrations are typically observed in cattle afflicted with fescue toxicosis. Polymorphisms within the XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 4 (XKR4) gene located on BTA14 have been previously reported to be associated with rump fat thickness, residual feed intake, average daily feed intake and average daily gain in cattle. Associations also have been reported between XKR4 genotype and effectiveness of the dopamine antagonist iloperidone as a treatment of schizophrenia in humans. Domperidone, a related dopamine antagonist, mediates effects of fescue toxicosis on livestock, including restoring depressed concentrations of prolactin. A mixed-breed population of 592 beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue was used to examine the association between XKR4 genotype and circulating prolactin concentrations. The SNP rs42646708 was significantly (P = 0.0002) associated with serum prolactin concentrations and explained 2.45% of the phenotypic variation. Effect of genotype at the SNP was tested across five breeds, with significant associations within both Angus (P = 0.0275) and Simmental (P = 0.0224) breeds. These results suggest XKR4 may play a role in mediating the negative effects of fescue toxicosis, and polymorphisms within this gene may be useful markers for selection for genetic resistance to the debilitating effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue. PMID:24666329

  13. Comparison of tall fescue (Cyperales: Gramineae) to other cool-season turfgrasses for tolerance to European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Bughrara, Suleiman S; Smitley, David R; Cappaert, David; Kravchenko, A N

    2003-12-01

    Three cultivars of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were compared with three cultivars each of fine fescue (Festuca spp.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to evaluate tolerance to root-feeding by European chafer grubs, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky). Potted turfgrasses were infested with initial densities equivalent to 33 or 66 grubs per 0.1 m2 on 19 August 2000. More grubs were added in late September and October, bringing the total to 66 or 143 grubs per 0.1 m2. Plant growth, root loss, weight gain, and survival of grubs were measured. The experiment was repeated in fall of 2001 with an initial density of 66 grubs per 0.1 m2. The proportion of root mass lost as a result of grub feeding was a function of turf species, root growth, grub survival, and grub growth during the test. Grubs gained the most weight and consumed the most roots when feeding on fine fescue. Fine fescue suffered the greatest percentage of root loss in 2000, despite having the most rapid root growth and largest mass in control pots. Cultivars of tall fescue appeared to be the most tolerant of grub feeding, having the smallest reduction in root mass in both years. Data from fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass cultivars were not as consistent as tall fescue, because for some cultivars root growth and grub survival were different between years. We also found that grubs increased in mass by 20% when the mass of available roots was doubled. PMID:14977131

  14. Notch1 inhibition targets the leukemia-initiating cells in a Tal1/Lmo2 mouse model of T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Tatarek, Jessica; Cullion, Kathleen; Ashworth, Todd; Gerstein, Rachel; Aster, Jon C; Kelliher, Michelle A

    2011-08-11

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy largely caused by aberrant activation of the TAL1/SCL, LMO1/2, and NOTCH1 oncogenes. Approximately 30% of T-ALL patients relapse, and evidence is emerging that relapse may result from a failure to eliminate leukemia-initiating cells (LICs). Thymic expression of the Tal1 and Lmo2 oncogenes in mice results in rapid development of T-ALL; and similar to T-ALL patients, more than half the leukemic mice develop spontaneous mutations in Notch1. Using this mouse model, we demonstrate that mouse T-ALLs are immunophenotypically and functionally heterogeneous with approximately 1 of 10,000 leukemic cells capable of initiating disease on transplantation. Our preleukemic studies reveal expansion of Notch-active double-negative thymic progenitors, and we find the leukemic DN3 population enriched in disease potential. To examine the role of Notch1 in LIC function, we measured LIC activity in leukemic mice treated with vehicle or with a ?-secretase inhibitor. In 4 of 5 leukemias examined, Notch inhibition significantly reduced or eliminated LICs and extended survival. Remarkably, in 2 mice, ?-secretase inhibitor treatment reduced LIC frequency below the limits of detection of this assay, and all transplanted mice failed to develop disease. These data support the continued development of Notch1 therapeutics as antileukemia agents. PMID:21670468

  15. Friend or foe: can activating mutations in NOTCH1 contribute to a favorable treatment outcome in patients with T-ALL?

    PubMed

    Goldshtein, Aviya; Berger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes. Despite significant improvement in the treatment of T-ALL, approximately 20% of children and most adults succumb to resistant or relapsed disease. Transformation events occur during crucial steps of thymocyte development and have been related to the expression of certain oncogenes such as TAL2, TLX1, LYL1, LMO1, and NOTCH1. Mutations that lead to constitutive activation of NOTCH1 are most commonly found in human patients with T-ALL. Moreover, overexpression of the intracellular portion of NOTCH1 can lead to the initiation of T-ALL in mouse models. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 may promote tumorigenesis through the regulation of differentiation of leukemic cells, and, potentially, of leukemia-initiating cell identity and function. Multiple studies and clinical trials aimed at targeting NOTCH1 in T-ALL or using NOTCH1 mutations as a prognostic tool are currently underway. Recent studies unexpectedly found that activating mutations in NOTCH1 are correlated with better treatment outcome. Here we review these studies and discuss possible explanations for these findings. PMID:25404153

  16. Deletion-based mechanisms of Notch1 activation in T-ALL: key roles for RAG recombinase and a conserved internal translational start site in Notch1.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Todd D; Pear, Warren S; Chiang, Mark Y; Blacklow, Stephen C; Mastio, Jérôme; Xu, Lanwei; Kelliher, Michelle; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan; Aster, Jon C

    2010-12-16

    Point mutations that trigger ligand-independent proteolysis of the Notch1 ectodomain occur frequently in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) but are rare in murine T-ALL, suggesting that other mechanisms account for Notch1 activation in murine tumors. Here we show that most murine T-ALLs harbor Notch1 deletions that fall into 2 types, both leading to ligand-independent Notch1 activation. Type 1 deletions remove exon 1 and the proximal promoter, appear to be RAG-mediated, and are associated with mRNA transcripts that initiate from 3' regions of Notch1. In line with the RAG dependency of these rearrangements, RAG2 binds to the 5' end of Notch1 in normal thymocytes near the deletion breakpoints. Type 2 deletions remove sequences between exon 1 and exons 26 to 28 of Notch1, appear to be RAG-independent, and are associated with transcripts in which exon 1 is spliced out of frame to 3' Notch1 exons. Translation of both types of transcripts initiates at a conserved methionine residue, M1727, which lies within the Notch1 transmembrane domain. Polypeptides initiating at M1727 insert into membranes and are subject to constitutive cleavage by ?-secretase. Thus, like human T-ALL, murine T-ALL is often associated with acquired mutations that cause ligand-independent Notch1 activation. PMID:20852131

  17. Deletion-based mechanisms of Notch1 activation in T-ALL: key roles for RAG recombinase and a conserved internal translational start site in Notch1

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Todd D.; Pear, Warren S.; Chiang, Mark Y.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Mastio, Jérôme; Xu, Lanwei; Kelliher, Michelle; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Point mutations that trigger ligand-independent proteolysis of the Notch1 ectodomain occur frequently in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) but are rare in murine T-ALL, suggesting that other mechanisms account for Notch1 activation in murine tumors. Here we show that most murine T-ALLs harbor Notch1 deletions that fall into 2 types, both leading to ligand-independent Notch1 activation. Type 1 deletions remove exon 1 and the proximal promoter, appear to be RAG-mediated, and are associated with mRNA transcripts that initiate from 3? regions of Notch1. In line with the RAG dependency of these rearrangements, RAG2 binds to the 5? end of Notch1 in normal thymocytes near the deletion breakpoints. Type 2 deletions remove sequences between exon 1 and exons 26 to 28 of Notch1, appear to be RAG-independent, and are associated with transcripts in which exon 1 is spliced out of frame to 3? Notch1 exons. Translation of both types of transcripts initiates at a conserved methionine residue, M1727, which lies within the Notch1 transmembrane domain. Polypeptides initiating at M1727 insert into membranes and are subject to constitutive cleavage by ?-secretase. Thus, like human T-ALL, murine T-ALL is often associated with acquired mutations that cause ligand-independent Notch1 activation. PMID:20852131

  18. Influence of Nocturnal Low-level Jets on Eddy-covariance Fluxes over a Tall Forest Canopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thara V. Prabha; Monique Y. Leclerc; Anandakumar Karipot; David Y. Hollinger; Erich Mursch-Radlgruber

    2008-01-01

    Observations of low-level jets (LLJs) at the Howland AmeriFlux site in the USA and the jet’s impact on nocturnal turbulent\\u000a exchange and scalar fluxes over a tall forest canopy are discussed. Low-frequency motions and turbulent bursts characterize\\u000a moderately strong LLJs, whereas low-frequency motions are suppressed during periods with strong LLJs and enhanced shear. An\\u000a analysis based on the shear-sheltering hypothesis

  19. Nano-curcumin inhibits proliferation of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the T cell mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2013-01-01

    In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it's free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

  20. Nano-Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells and Enhances the T Cell Mediated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2013-01-01

    In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it’s free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

  1. pH-sensitive nano-systems for drug delivery in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Huang, Yuran; Kumar, Anil; Tan, Aaron; Jin, Shubin; Mozhi, Anbu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been widely used in the development of new strategies for drug delivery and cancer therapy. Compared to traditional drug delivery systems, nano-based drug delivery system have greater potential in a variety of areas, such as multiple targeting functionalization, in vivo imaging, combined drug delivery, extended circulation time, and systemic control release. Nano-systems incorporating stimulus-responsive materials have remarkable properties which allow them to bypass biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. As a result of the active metabolism of tumor cells, the tumor microenvironment (TME) is highly acidic compared to normal tissues. pH-Sensitive nano-systems have now been developed in which drug release is specifically triggered by the acidic tumor environment. Studies have demonstrated that novel pH-sensitive drug delivery systems are capable of improving the efficiency of cancer treatment. A number of these have been translated from bench to clinical application and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of various cancerous diseases. Herein, this review mainly focuses on pH-sensitive nano-systems, including advances in drug delivery, mechanisms of drug release, and possible improvements in drug absorption, with the emphasis on recent research in this field. With deeper understanding of the difference between normal and tumor tissues, it might be possible to design ever more promising pH-responsive nano-systems for drug delivery and cancer therapy in the near future. PMID:24309541

  2. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desai, Ankur R.; Xu, Ke; Tian, Hanqin; Weishampel, Peter; Thom, Jonthan; Baumann, Daniel D.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Cook, Bruce D.; King, Jennifer Y.; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting future terrestrial methane fluxes for constraining future atmospheric methane growth rates, a clear need exists to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties. In 2010, an Ameriflux tower (US-PFa) near Park Falls, WI, USA, was instrumented with closed-path methane flux measurements at 122 m above ground in a mixed wetland–upland landscape representative of the Great Lakes region. Two years of flux observations revealed an average annual methane (CH4) efflux of 785 ± 75 mg CCH4 m?2 yr?1, compared to a mean CO2 sink of ?80 g CCO2 m?2 yr?1, a ratio of 1% in magnitude on a mole basis. Interannual variability in methane flux was 30% of the mean flux and driven by suppression of methane emissions during dry conditions in late summer 2012. Though relatively small, the magnitude of the methane source from the very tall tower measurements was mostly within the range previously measured using static chambers at nearby wetlands, but larger than a simple scaling of those fluxes to the tower footprint. Seasonal patterns in methane fluxes were similar to those simulated in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), but magnitude depends on model parameterization and input data, especially regarding wetland extent. The model was unable to simulate short-term (sub-weekly) variability. Temperature was found to be a stronger driver of regional CH4flux than moisture availability or net ecosystem production at the daily to monthly scale. Taken together, these results emphasize the multi-timescale dependence of drivers of regional methane flux and the importance of long, continuous time series for their characterization.

  3. Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannam, T., E-mail: gtalal@hotmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nano-Technology, King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-31

    In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

  4. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

  5. Nano-fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Smith; P. X. Ma

    2004-01-01

    With the ability to form nano-fibrous structures, a drive to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and form scaffolds that are an artificial extracellular matrix suitable for tissue formation has begun. These nano-fibrous scaffolds attempt to mimic collagen, a natural extracellular matrix component, and could potentially provide a better environment for tissue formation in tissue engineering systems. Three different approaches toward

  6. Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghannam, T.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

  7. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=6934.php Ads by Google MEMS Design Tata Nano Nano Devices iTrip Nano Nano Optic

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=6934.php Ads by Google MEMS Design Tata Nano Nano Devices i to innovations in how current personal electronic devices are manufactured. The two-dimensional meta of the journal Applied Physics Letters. This work was also supported by the Air Force Research Laboratories

  8. TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

  9. Conserved Role of nanos Proteins in Germ Cell Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Tsuda; Yumiko Sasaoka; Makoto Kiso; Kuniya Abe; Seiki Haraguchi; Satoru Kobayashi; Yumiko Saga

    2003-01-01

    In Drosophila, maternally supplied Nanos functions in the migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) into the gonad; in mice, zygotic genes are involved instead. We report the cloning and the functional analyses of nanos2 and nanos3 in mice. These genes are differentially expressed in mouse PGCs. nanos2 is predominantly expressed in male germ cells, and the elimination of this gene

  10. InstituteofMicro-andNanotechnologiesMacroNano SCIENTIFICREPORT2013

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    ..................................................................................................................... 5 The Institute and its Bodies ..................................................................................... 10 MicroNano-Broker

  11. Scale effects in gas nano flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisik, Murat; Beskok, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Most previous studies on gas transport in nano-scale confinements assume dynamic similarity with rarefied gas flows, and employ kinetic theory based models. This approach is incomplete, since it neglects the van der Waals forces imposed on gas molecules by the surfaces. Using three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of force driven gas flows, we show the significance of wall force field in nano-scale confinements by defining a new dimensionless parameter (B) as the ratio of the wall force-penetration length to the channel height. Investigation of gas transport in different nano-channels at various Knudsen numbers show the importance of wall force field for finite B values, where the dynamic similarity between the rarefied and nano-scale gas flows break down. Comparison of MD results employing molecularly structured three-dimensional walls versus reflection of gas molecules from a two-dimensional planar surface with Maxwell distribution show that the nano-confinement effects cannot be resolved by the latter approach, frequently used in kinetic theory calculations. Molecularly structured walls determine the bulk flow physics by setting a proper tangential momentum accommodation coefficient, and they also determine the transport in the near wall region. Gas nano-flows with finite B exhibit significant differences in the local density and velocity profiles, affecting the mass flow rate and the formation of Knudsen's minimum in nano-channels.

  12. Nano-Scale Effects in Cylindrical Contacts Sari et al. NANO-SCALE EFFECTS IN THE ADHERENCE, SLIDING

    E-print Network

    Müftü, Sinan

    @coe.neu.edu Abstract The behavior of a nano-scale cylindrical body (e.g. a fiber), lying on a substrate and acted uponNano-Scale Effects in Cylindrical Contacts Sari et al. 1 NANO-SCALE EFFECTS IN THE ADHERENCE to the nano level, adhesion becomes an important issue in this contact problem. Thus this investigation treats

  13. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (<100 C) is also a key to generating these ceramic coatings on the plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (< 90 C) is to take advantage of in-situ precipitated nanoparticles and nanostructures grown from aqueous solution. These nanostructures can be tailored to ceramic film formation and the subsequent microstructure development. In addition, the process provides environment- friendly processing because of the aqueous solution. Low-temperature processing has also shown versatility to generate various nanostructures. The growth of low-dimensional nanostructures (0-D, 1-D) provides a means of enhancing the crystallinity of the solution-prepared films that is of importance for photocatalytic performance. This technology can generate durable, fully functional nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  14. Attostreaking with metallic nano-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Echenique, P. M.; Kazansky, A. K.

    2012-02-01

    The application of atto-second streaking spectroscopy (ASS) to direct time-domain studies of the plasmonic excitations in metallic nano-objects is addressed theoretically. The streaking spectrograms for a rectangular gold nano-antenna and spherical gold clusters are obtained within strong field approximation using classical electron trajectory calculations. The results reported here for spherical clusters are also representative of spherical nano-shells. This study demonstrates that ASS allows for detailed characterization of plasmonic modes, including near-field enhancement, frequency and decay rate. The role of the inhomogeneity of the induced electric fields is also demonstrated.

  15. NanoSpace - Virtual Amusement Park

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Molecularium Project

    NanoSpace, a free website developed by the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, was created to increase science literacy utilizing an amusement park. NanoSpace is designed to teach science to elementary and middle school students through more than 25 games and animations that entice kids to learn more about atoms and molecules in NanoSpace. Visitors can try to beat the clock in the Periodic Memory and click-and-drag atoms to construct molecules in "Build `Em." Answer multiple-choice questions in "Who wants to be a Quidecillionaire?," and hope the answer is correct before you fall down to the bottom rung again.

  16. NANO-SCIENCE CENTER Nano-Science Center har som sit

    E-print Network

    Nygård, Jesper

    FORSKNING 54 NANO-SCIENCE CENTER Nano-Science Center har som sit mål at drive nanoforskning på højt opstod, da Thue Schwartz mødte forskerne fra Nano-Science Center. De er nemlig eksperter i transistorer at kommunikere med transistorer i molekylestørrelse, vil det blive muligt at bygge bittesmå sensorer, der aflæser

  17. Effects of consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue on growth, reproduction and lactation in mice selected for high fecundity.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, V B; Washburn, S P; Eisen, E J; Johnson, B H

    1994-01-01

    Effects of a diet containing endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (83% infected) were investigated using 2 lines of mice, one line selected for fecundity (L(+)) and the other a randomly selected control line (K). Treatments included a commercial stock diet (C), 50% stock plus 50% non-infected tall fescue seed (N), and 50% stock plus 50% infected tall fescue seed (I). The experiment was conducted using mice on respective treatments in 2 phases (successive generations), with 15 to 23 mated females per line and diet subgroups. Mated females of Phase 1 were assigned at random within line to experimental diets which were fed during gestation and through 21 d of lactation. Litters were standardized to 10 pups 1 d after birth. Stock diets were fed to all groups from Day 21 to weaning on Day 28. Weaned male and female pups were allotted to previous diets. Mated females in Phase 2 were managed as in Phase 1 through weaning at 28 d. Diets of males did not affect reproduction and data were pooled within female diets. Selected (L(+)) dams gave birth to more live pups than K dams (P<0.05) during both phases (+3.4 and +2.8 +/- 0.4 pups, respectively). Diet but not line affected littering rate of mated females in Phase 1 (71.3%, I; < 87.1%, C or 93.0%, N; P<0.05) and Phase 2 (82.1%, I < 93.8%, N or 97.1%, C; P<0.05). Diet had no effect on fecundity during Phase 1 but females on I diet had reduced (P<0.05) litter size by 1.9 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 pups compared with the females on N and C diets, respectively, in Phase 2. Feed consumption and weights of dams during lactation generally ranked C>N>I. Growth of pups during both phases also ranked C>N>I. Vaginal opening at 28 d differed by line (71.4%, K < 89.3%, L(+), P<0.05) and diet (56.8%, I < 92.0%, C or 92.2%, N, P<0.05). These results suggest both acute and chronic effects of consumption of endophyte-infected diets. Absence of line-by-diet interactions demonstrates that adverse effects were unrelated to genetic differences between lines. PMID:16727494

  18. Nano-extrusion: a promising tool for continuous manufacturing of solid nano-formulations.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Ramona; Eitzlmayr, Andreas; Matsko, Nadejda; Tetyczka, Carolin; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2014-12-30

    Since more than 40% of today's drugs have low stability, poor solubility and/or limited ability to cross certain biological barriers, new platform technologies are required to address these challenges. This paper describes a novel continuous process that converts a stabilized aqueous nano-suspension into a solid oral formulation in a single step (i.e., the NANEX process) in order to improve the solubility of a model drug (phenytoin). Phenytoin nano-suspensions were prepared via media milling using different stabilizers. A stable nano-suspension was obtained using Tween(®) 80 as a stabilizer. The matrix material (Soluplus(®)) was gravimetrically fed into the hot melt extruder. The suspension was introduced through a side feeding device and mixed with the molten polymer to immediately devolatilize the water in the nano-suspension. Phenytoin nano-crystals were dispersed and embedded in the molten polymer. Investigation of the nano-extrudates via transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the nano-crystals were embedded de-aggregated in the extrudates. Furthermore, no changes in the crystallinity (due to the mechanical and thermal stress) occurred. The dissolution studies confirmed that the prepared nano-extrudates increased the solubility of nano-crystalline phenytoin, regardless of the polymer. Our work demonstrates that NANEX represents a promising new platform technology in the design of novel drug delivery systems to improve drug performance. PMID:25304093

  19. Job & Internship Search Strategies Strategies &

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    Job & Internship Search Strategies Strategies & Tools What it is? How it helps? Advice COB CareerRAM COB CareerRAM is a CSU specific tool that allows you to get connected to available career opportunities, on-campus events, and recruiters who are specifically looking for you. As a student or alumni

  20. Effects of modified tall oil and creatine monohydrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. O'Quinn; B. S. Andrews; R. D. Goodband; J. A. Unruh; J. L. Nelssen; J. C. Woodworth; M. D. Tokach; K. Q. Owen

    The effects of feeding modified tall oil (MTO) and creatine monohydrate (CMH) on growing- finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteris- tics, and meat quality were determined. Eighty cross- bred barrows (initially 45.4 kg) were allotted randomly to one of four dietary treatments by weight and ances- try. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with two levels

  1. Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

  2. Post-weaning performance of fall-born beef steers weaned from endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on different dates in the spring.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaning fall-born calves grazing tall fescue infected with the toxic wild-type endophyte (E+) prior to early May should reduce exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. Gelbvieh × Angus crossb...

  3. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS. PMID:23826953

  4. A sensitive PCR-based assay to detect Neotyphodium fungi in seed and plant tissue of tall fescue and ryegrass spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Neotyphodium endophytes in seed and plant tissue from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses was developed. Based on DNA mixture tests and bulk seed anal...

  5. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  6. Decrements in Children's Reponses to "Big" and "Tall": A Reconsideration of the Potential Cognitive and Semantic Causes. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 5, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller

    A decline exists in children's ability at ages 4 and 5 to accurately respond to the difference between polar adjectives such as "big" and "tall.""Taller" and "bigger" are both taken to mean "having a higher top point," rather than "bigger" meaning "greater overall mass." Two hypotheses are put forth to explain this. The "strong cognitive…

  7. Modeling growth of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea schreb.) at the end of spring in relation to herbage nitrogen status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Duru; H. Ducrocq; V. Tirilly

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to establish a model of vegetative regrowth of plant matter in a stand of cocksfoot and tall fescue according to their nitrogen status. For three years (1989–1991), at the end of each spring, we studied regrowths in relation to differing supplies of nitrogen (120 kg\\/ha or low supply or nil). The herbage nitrogen status (IN) was estimated

  8. Forage nutritive value and steer responses to grazing intensity and seed head suppression of endophyte-free tall fescue in mixed pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted with 8- to 10-mo old steers on pastures of endophyte-free tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) in mixture with other grasses to assess the effect of seed head suppression (SHS) of fescue on steer performance and forage nutritive values. With and without SHS were...

  9. Steer Weight Gain and Physiological Responses to Feeding Soybean Hulls on Toxic Tall Fescue: Dilution of Ergot Alkaloids or Additive Effect on Weight Gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker cattle grazing toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) consume ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte that can lead to the “fescue toxicosis” malady. One approach to alleviating fescue toxicosis is to dilute the alkaloids by interseeding clovers or by feeding concentrates; however...

  10. The Future Can Differ From The Past This is a book of tall claims about evolution: That it can become uncontroversial;

    E-print Network

    Wilson, David. S.

    the study of evolution to biology and a few human-related subjects such as human genetics, physical of evolution when it comes to human affairs. A 1997 article in The Nation titled "The New Creationism: BiologyChapter 1 The Future Can Differ From The Past This is a book of tall claims about evolution

  11. Effects of margarine enriched with plant sterol esters from rapeseed and tall oils on markers of endothelial function, inflammation and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Heggen, Eli; Kirkhus, Bente; Pedersen, Jan I; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Background and aims. The sterol profile of rapeseed oil differs from that of tall oil with higher contents of campesterol and brassicasterol. We previously found that margarines providing 2 g/day of sterols from rapeseed or tall oil resulted in similar reductions in LDL cholesterol of 8-9%. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the consumption of these margarines affected markers of endothelial function, inflammation and hemostasis. Methods. Blood samples were collected from 58 hypercholesterolemic volunteers who completed a double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed each of the two sterol margarines and a control non-sterol margarine for 4 weeks separated by one-week washout periods. All the margarines had the same fatty acid composition. Concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-l (VCAM-1), E-selectin, circulating tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (total, tPAI-1; active, PAI-1) were quantified. Results. Rapeseed-sterol margarine reduced E-selectin concentrations compared to the control margarine (p = 0.012) while tall-sterol margarine had no effect. The rapeseed-sterol margarine also reduced tPAI-1 (p = 0.008) compared to the tall-sterol margarine. No significant changes were observed in TNF? and VCAM-1. No association was found between LDL reduction and changes in E-selectin and tPAI-1. Conclusion. Rapeseed-sterol margarine demonstrated favorable effects on vascular risk markers. PMID:25553599

  12. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  13. Looking back in time: conducting a cohort study of the long-term effects of treatment of adolescent tall girls with synthetic hormones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Public health research is an endeavour that often involves multiple relationships, far-reaching collaborations, divergent expectations and various outcomes. Using the Tall Girls Study as a case study, this paper will present and discuss a number of methodological, ethical and legal challenges that have implications for other public health research. Approach The Tall Girls Study was the first study to examine the long-term health and psychosocial effects of oestrogen treatment for tall stature. Results In undertaking this study the research team overcame many hurdles: in maintaining collaboration with treating clinicians and with the women they had treated as girls - groups with opposing points of view and different expectations; using private practice medical records to trace women who had been patients up to forty years earlier; and exploring potential legal issues arising from the collection of data related to treatment. Conclusion While faced with complex challenges, the Tall Girls Study demonstrated that forward planning, ongoing dialogue between all stakeholders, transparency of processes, and the strict adherence to group-developed protocols were keys to maintaining rigour while undertaking pragmatic research. Implications Public health research often occurs within political and social contexts that need to be considered in the planning and conduct of studies. The quality and acceptability of research findings is enhanced when stakeholders are engaged in all aspects of the research process. PMID:22168546

  14. Post-Weaning Performance of Fall-Born Beef Steers Weaned from Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures on Different Dates in the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier weaning of fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (E+) in the spring should reduced exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. A total of 118 Gelbvieh ×...

  15. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  16. Laboratory of Integrated Biomedical Micro/Nano-

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    -Mimetics Micro/Nano Bio/ChemSensors Integrated Bio-Chips Implantable Micro-Devices Self-Assembling Electronics of virus particles from air Rapid electrical detection and characterization of cells with on chip

  17. NanoFabulous Donna Hammer, Associate Director

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    of materials at the nanoscale. · Magnification Table Visitors discover the microscopic secrets on the surfaces and Technology (NIST) #12;NanoFabulous · Family Scavenger Hunts · School Groups · Summer Camps · Meet a Scientist

  18. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  19. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2009-05-15

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the working fluid. Pool boiling...

  20. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  1. A Nano-Introduction to Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liang, Barbara

    A very small and generic introduction to the subject of nanotechnology. What makes nanoscience special? What is the history of nano? What can nanotechnology be used for by scientist and industry? What are the ethical and enviromental challenges?

  2. Design methodologies for robust nano-positioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abu Sebastian; Srinivasa M. Salapaka

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic control design and analysis for a two-dimensional nano-positioner. The primary emphasis of the paper is on the robustness of the closed-loop device as these flexure-stage-based, piezoactuated nano-positioners are nonlinear and operate in diverse conditions. To this end, we have used many tools from modern control theory to model devices and to quantify device

  3. Natural convection of nano-fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandy Putra; Wilfried Roetzel; Sarit K. Das

    2003-01-01

    .   \\u000a Fluids with nano size solid particles suspended in them have been given the name nano-fluid which in recent studies have shown\\u000a tremendous promise as heat transfer fluids. However, before suggesting such fluids for applications a thorough knowledge of\\u000a physical mechanism of heat transfer in such fluids is wanted. The present study deals with one such aspect of natural

  4. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA); Artyukhin, Alexander B. (Menlo Park, CA); Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Stoeve, Pieter (Davis, CA)

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  5. Development of Quantitative electron nano-diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is a step towards development of quantitative parallel beam electron nano-diffraction (PBED). It is focused on the superstructure determination of zig-zag and zig-zig NaxCoO2 and analysis of charge distribution in the two polymorphs Nb12O29 using PBED. It has been shown that quantitative electron nano-diffraction (parallel beam) has the potential of solving superstructures as well as charge distribution by

  6. ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

  7. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  8. [Genetic variability of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the northern and southern limits of the natural distribution].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation of six populations of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimean Mountains and of one population in Lebanon were investigated using 18 polymorphic allozyme loci as genetic markers. The high level of genetic variability of J. excelsa was established in the northern and the southern limits of its natural habitat. The mean values of the main indicators of genetic polymorphism were: P99 = 1,000, A = 3,167, H(E) = 0,370, H(o) = 0,405. Subdivision and differentiation of populations were low (F(ST) = 0,032, D(N) = 0,026) indicating similarity of their gene pools. PMID:23821952

  9. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1990-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

  10. Effect of Temperature on Gibberellin (GA) Responsiveness and on Endogenous GA1 Content of Tall and Dwarf Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pinthus, Moshe J.; Gale, Michael D.; Appleford, Nigel E. J.; Lenton, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in height-reducing (Rht) alleles were used to investigate the effects of temperature on endogenous gibberellin (GA) levels and seedling growth response to applied GA3. Sheath and lamina lengths of the first leaf were measured in GA treated and control seedlings, grown at 11, 18, and 25°C, of six Rht genotypes in each of two varietal backgrounds, cv Maris Huntsman and cv April Bearded. Endogenous GA1 levels in the leaf extension zone of untreated seedlings were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard in the six Maris Huntsman Rht lines grown at 10 and 25°C. Higher temperature increased leaf length considerably in the tall genotype, less so in the Rht1 and Rht2 genotypes, and had no consistent effect on the Rht1+2, Rht3 and Rht2+3 genotypes. In all genotypes, endogenous GA1 was higher at 25°C than at 10°C. At 10°C the endogenous GA1 was at a similar level in all the genotypes (except Rht2+3). At 25°C it increased 1.6-fold in the tall genotype, 3-fold in Rht1 and Rht2, 6-fold in Rht3, and 9-fold in Rht1+2. Likewise, the genotypic differences in leaf length were very conspicuous at 25°C, but were only slight and often unsignificant at 11°C. The response of leaf length to applied GA3 in the Rht1, Rht2, and Rht1+2 genotypes increased significantly with lowering of temperature. These results suggest the possibility that the temperature effect on leaf elongation is mediated through its effect on the level of endogenous GA1 and that leaf elongation response to endogenous or applied GAs is restricted by the upper limits set by the different Rht alleles. PMID:16666888

  11. Emissions of C6-C8 aromatic compounds in the United States: Constraints from tall tower and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu; Millet, Dylan B.; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Griffis, Timothy J.; Travis, Katherine R.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Marshall, Julian D.; Reinhart, Wesley F.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Wisthaler, Armin; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gouw, Joost

    2015-01-01

    present two full years of continuous C6-C8 aromatic compound measurements by PTR-MS at the KCMP tall tower (Minnesota, US) and employ GEOS-Chem nested grid simulations in a Bayesian inversion to interpret the data in terms of new constraints on US aromatic emissions. Based on the tall tower data, we find that the RETRO inventory (year-2000) overestimates US C6-C8 aromatic emissions by factors of 2.0-4.5 during 2010-2011, likely due in part to post-2000 reductions. Likewise, our implementation of the US EPA's NEI08 overestimates the toluene flux by threefold, reflecting an inventory bias in non-road emissions plus uncertainties associated with species lumping. Our annual top-down emission estimates for benzene and C8 aromatics agree with the NEI08 bottom-up values, as does the inferred contribution from non-road sources. However, the NEI08 appears to underestimate on-road emissions of these compounds by twofold during the warm season. The implied aromatic sources upwind of North America are more than double the prior estimates, suggesting a substantial underestimate of East Asian emissions, or large increases there since 2000. Long-range transport exerts an important influence on ambient benzene over the US: on average 43% of its wintertime abundance in the US Upper Midwest is due to sources outside North America. Independent aircraft measurements show that the inventory biases found here for C6-C8 aromatics also apply to other parts of the US, with notable exceptions for toluene in California and Houston, Texas. Our best estimates of year-2011 contiguous US emissions are 206 (benzene), 408 (toluene), and 822 (C8 aromatics) GgC.

  12. On the field-to-current conversion factors for lightning strike to tall objects considering the finitely conducting ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qilin; He, Lixia; Ji, Tongtong; Hou, Wenhao

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we have studied the accuracy of field-to-current conversion factors (FCCFs) presented by Baba and Rakov (2007) for currents inferred from electromagnetic field produced by lightning strike to tall objects, considering the perfectly and finitely conducting ground, respectively. For the perfectly conducting ground, the different FCCFs for the initial peak current at the object top, the short-circuit current peak, the largest peak current at the object top, and the peak current at the object bottom have different accuracy ranging from underestimation of 18% to overestimation of 10% for the reflection coefficients at the two ends of object ?t = - 0.5 and ?b = 1.0, and from underestimation of 25% to overestimation of 10% for ?t = - 0.5 and ?b = 0.7; and their accuracy decreases with the increase of current risetime RT. For the finite conductivity with 0.01 S/m and 0.001 S/m, FCCFs will cause many errors if we do not take into account the propagation effect along the finitely conducting ground, and their errors obviously increase with the decrease of the conductivity. For example, for ?t = - 0.5 and ?b = 1.0, the errors are about 20% when the conductivity is 0.01 S/m while the errors are about 55% when the conductivity is 0.001 S/m for lightning strike to the 168 m high object. Therefore, we revised FCCFs by considering the propagation effect of finite conductivity on the electromagnetic field radiated by lightning strike to tall objects and found that our revised FCCFs have much better accuracy for the lossy ground than that presented by Baba and Rakov (2007).

  13. Removing traffic emissions from CO2 time series measured at a tall tower using mobile measurements and transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andres; Rella, Chris W.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Law, Beverly E.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO/CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values ranging from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  14. Reduced blood flow to peripheral and core body tissues in sheep and cattle induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M T; Paterson, J A; Kerley, M S; Garner, H E; Laughlin, M H

    1991-05-01

    Four wethers and 14 steers (environmentally heat stressed, 32 degrees C, 60% relative humidity) were evaluated for changes in blood flow induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue. Concentration of the ergopeptide ergovaline was used as an indicator of diet toxicity due to the endophytic fungus Acremonium coenophialum. Blood flow to specific tissues was measured using radiolabeled microspheres. Wethers received one of two dietary treatments for 30 d before determination of tissue blood flow: 1) a low-endophyte diet (less than .05 ppm ergovaline) or 2) a high-endophyte (1.18 ppm ergovaline) diet. Blood flows to the adrenal glands and skin covering the inner hind leg were less (P less than .10) in wethers consuming the high-endophyte diet than in those consuming the low-endophyte diet. Tissue blood flows in steers were determined on two occasions: 1) after steers had received a low- (less than .01 ppm ergovaline) or high-endophyte (.52 ppm ergovaline) fescue diet for 14 d and 2) 8 d after steers had been switched to a common, fescue-free diet. Blood flows to skin covering the ribs, cerebellum of the brain, duodenum, and colon were less (P less than .10) in steers consuming the high-endophyte diet. However, 8 d after consuming fescue-free diets, steers that had previously consumed the high-endophyte diet had greater (P = .08) blood flow to the coronary bands of the front hooves than steers that had consumed the low-endophyte diet. Blood flows to all other tissues were similar between treatments. We inferred from these experiments that the toxin(s) associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue caused decreased blood flow to peripheral and core body tissues and that this effect was abated within 8 d of removing the toxin(s). PMID:2066313

  15. Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

    2009-08-24

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

  16. Accumulation of Ergopeptide Alkaloids in Symbiotic Tall Fescue Grown under Deficits of Soil Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Arechavaleta, M.; Bacon, C. W.; Plattner, R. D.; Hoveland, C. S.; Radcliffe, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The fungus Acremonium coenophialum is endophytically associated with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber). Within this symbiotum the fungus produces ergopeptide alkaloids, which are associated with livestock toxicoses. Environmental effects on the production of ergot alkaloids within the symbiotum are unknown. We conducted a greenhouse study of the effects of flooding, nitrogen rate during fertilization (11, 73, and 220 mg of N per pot weekly), nitrogen form (3.4 and 34 mg of N as NH4+ or NO3- per pot), and drought stress (-0.03, -0.05, and -0.50 MPa) on ergopeptide alkaloid concentrations in one genotype of nonsymbiotic and symbiotic tall fescue grown in plastic pots. It was determined that the concentration of ergovaline, the major type of ergopeptide alkaloid, was increased but was not as high as that in nonflooded controls. Total ergopeptide and ergovaline concentrations in plants receiving high (220 mg of N per pot) and low (11 mg of N per pot) levels of NH4NO3 fertilization were not affected by flooding. The form of nitrogen was important since all concentrations of NO3--N increased ergopeptide alkaloid content, as opposed to the effects of NH4+-N, which was effective only at high concentrations (34 mg of N per pot). Ergopeptide concentrations were highest in drought-stressed plants grown at -0.50 MPa and fertilized at the moderate or high N rate. The results suggest that within this genotype, ergopeptide alkaloid biosynthesis by the fungus is not appreciably affected by flooding but is greatly increased by high rates of N fertilization and moderate water deficit. PMID:16348675

  17. Cetacean Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Denise DelGrosso

    1991-01-01

    Suggested are activities about whales for children in schools not near the ocean. Activities designed to pique students' interest in whales and to investigate the size, breathing, buoyancy, and feeding strategies of whales are discussed. (CW)

  18. Low PKCa expression within the MRD-HR stratum defines a new subgroup of childhood T-ALL with very poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Gloria; Rebora, Paola; Accordi, Benedetta; Galla, Luisa; Bresolin, Silvia; Cazzaniga, Gianni; Buldini, Barbara; Mura, Rossella; Ladogana, Saverio; Giraldi, Eugenia; Conter, Valentino; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) outcome has improved in the last decades, yet one patient in every four still relapses. Except treatment response and immunophenotype, few markers are reliably prognostic in pediatric T-ALL patients. Aiming to improve T-ALL risk stratification, we investigated a new candidate biomarker with potential prognostic relevance. A phosphoproteomic screening of 98 pediatric T-ALL samples at diagnosis had been performed using the high-throughput Reverse Phase Protein Arrays technique, which led to the identification of PKC?S657 as an activated protein with a broad variation among T-ALL samples. To evaluate PKC? potential as a prognostic biomarker, PKC? expression was analyzed using RQ-PCR in a cohort of 173 patients, representative of ALL2000-ALLR2006 AIEOP study. A threshold of PKC? expression with the highest discrimination for incidence of relapse was identified. Patients with PKC? down-regulation, compared to patients with PKC? levels above the threshold, presented a markedly increased cumulative incidence of relapse (43.8% vs. 10.9%, P<0.001), as well as a worse 4-year overall survival (66% vs. 87.9%, P=0.002) and event-free survival (53.1% vs. 85.2%, P=0.002). In particular, low PKC? expression identified cases with extremely poor outcome within the high-risk minimal residual disease (MRD) stratum, their incidence of relapse being of 69% vs. 15% in the high PKC? levels group. In a multivariate analysis adjusting for main prognostic features, PKC? proved to be an independent prognostic factor related to incidence of relapse. Very high risk patients within the high-risk MRD stratum, identified by PKC? expression, could be proposed for experimental therapeutic protocols. PMID:25026300

  19. The NanoMicro Interface: Bridging Micro and Nano

    E-print Network

    Odom, Teri W.

    benefit, or be revolutionized, by combin- ing both approaches? This book ad- dresses this question-up and small businesses and the necessary steps for how nanotechnolo- gy can make an impact in the market have" is a forward-looking chapter (or two) devoted to the evalua- tion of creative strategies that can

  20. The hydrogel template method for fabrication of homogeneous nano/microparticles.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ghanashyam; Shin, Crystal S; McDermott, Matthew; Mishra, Himanshu; Park, Haesun; Kwon, Ick Chan; Park, Kinam

    2010-02-15

    Nano/microparticles have been used widely in drug delivery applications. The majority of the particles are prepared by the conventional emulsion methods, which tend to result in particles with heterogeneous size distribution with sub-optimal drug loading and release properties. Recently, microfabrication methods have been used to make nano/microparticles with a monodisperse size distribution. The existing methods utilize solid templates for making particles, and the collection of individual particles after preparation has not been easy. The new hydrogel template approach was developed to make the particle preparation process simple and fast. The hydrogel template approach is based on the unique properties of physical gels that can undergo sol-gel phase transition upon changes in environmental conditions. The phase reversible hydrogels, however, are in general mechanically too weak to be treated as a solid material. It was unexpectedly found that gelatin hydrogels could be made to possess various properties necessary for microfabrication of nano/microparticles in large quantities. The size of the particles can be adjusted from 200 nm to >50 microm, providing flexibility in controlling the size in drug delivery formulations. The simplicity in processing makes the hydrogel template method useful for scale-up manufacturing of particles. The drug loading capacity is 50% or higher, and yet the initial burst release is minimal. The hydrogel template approach presents a new strategy of preparing nano/microparticles of predefined size and shape with homogeneous size distribution for drug delivery applications. PMID:19822178

  1. Nano-zirconium oxide and nano-silver oxide\\/cotton gauze fabrics for antimicrobial and wound healing acceleration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Gouda

    2012-01-01

    Nano-zirconium-oxide (nano-Zr-oxide) and nano-silver-oxide (nano-Ag-oxide) were in situ synthesized and deposited into cotton gauze fabrics by reduction of zirconium oxychloride or silver nitrate solutions, in the presence of fabric samples using sodium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide mixture solution at pH 9.5. The resulted homogenous distribution of nano-Zr-oxide and nano-Ag-oxide inside the fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive

  2. The Petrography of Meteoritic Nano-Diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    At least some meteoritic nanodiamonds are likely of presolar origin because of their association with anomalous Xe-HL and Te isotopic components indicative of a supernova (SN) origin. But the abundance of Xe is such that only approx. 1 in 10(exp 6) nano-diamonds contains a Xe atom, and the bulk C-13/C-12 composition of nano-diamond acid residues is chondritic (solar). Therefore, it is possible that a significant fraction of meteoritic nano-diamonds formed within the solar nebula. Nano-diamonds have recently been detected for the first time within the accretion discs of young stars by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). No comparable evidence of nanodiamonds in the interstellar medium has yet been found. We have identified nano-diamonds in acid etched thin-sections of meteorites, polar micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with the goal of determining their distribution as a function of heliocentric distance. (It is assumed the meteorites and the polar micrometeorites are from asteroids at 2-4 AU and at least some of the IDPs are from comets at >50AU). We found that nano-diamonds are heterogeneously distributed throughout carbon-rich meteoritic materials (we identified them in some IDPs and not in others), and that their abundance may actually decrease with heliocentric distance, consistent with the hypothesis that some of them formed within the inner solar system and not in a presolar (SN) environment. In order to gain further insight about the origins of meteoritic nano-diamonds we are currently investigating their distribution in unetched thin-sections. We have examined a chondritic cluster IDP (U220GCA), fragments of the Tagish Lake (CM1) meteorite, and a SN graphite spherule (KE3d8) isolated from the Murchison (CM) meteorite. We selected U220GCA because its nano-diamond abundance (in acid etched thin-sections) appears to be as much as approx. 10X higher than in Murchison matrix, Tagish Lake because it has a higher reported nano-diamond abundance than other carbonaceous chondrites (approx. 3650-4330 ppm), and KE3d8 because it is a carbon spherule with an isotopic composition suggesting that it is a bone fide presolar SN grain.

  3. Preparation of nano fluids by mechanical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathy, J.; Pari, R.; Kavitha, M.; Angelo, P. C.

    2012-07-01

    Nanofluids are conventional heat transfer fluids that contain nano particles of metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or nanotubes. Nanofluids exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficients compared to the base fluids. This paper presents the procedure for preparing nanofluids consisting of Copper and Aluminium nano powders in base fluids. Copper and Aluminium nano powders were produced by planetary ball wet milling at 300rpm for 50hrs. Toluene was added to ensure wet milling. These powders were characterized in XRD and SEM for their purity, particle size and shape. The XRD results confirmed the final particle sizes of Copper and Aluminium in the nano range. Then the 0.01 gm of nano metal powders was added in 150 ml of double distilled water and magnetic stirring was done at 1500 rpm for 15 minutes. Sodium lauryl sulphate (0.05%) was added in water as surfactant to ensure the stability of the dispersion. Ultrasonication in the 3000 watts bath was done for 10 minutes to enhance the uniform dispersion of metal powders in water. The pH, dynamic viscosity, ionic conductivity and the stability of the fluids were determined for further usage of synthesized nanofluids as coolant during grinding operation.

  4. Advances in nano drugs for cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Rahis-Uddin; Salim, K; Rather, Mohmad A; Wani, Waseem A; Haque, Ashanul

    2011-02-01

    In spite of some medications, millions of peoples are dying every year due to cancer. Additionally, the survival patients suffer from various serious side effects due to the use of available anti-neoplastic medicines. The development of nanoparticles based drugs is seems to be effective providing low side effects and targeted action on cancer cells. The present article describes the state-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemotherapy. The nano drugs are targeted selective and specific towards tumors only resulting into better treatment. The important molecules used for preparation nano drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nanoparticles carriers are dendrimers, polymer, liposome, micelles, inorganic, organic nanoparticles etc. A survey was carried out on the drugs available in the market and given in tabular form. However, the commonly used nano drugs till date are liposome dendrimer and some other materials based nanoparticles. Attempts have been made to explain mechanism of action of nano drugs. The future perspectives have also been highlighted in to the conclusion part. PMID:21158724

  5. Rotation motion of designed nano-turbine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Xingfa; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    Construction of nano-devices that can generate controllable unidirectional rotation is an important part of nanotechnology. Here, we design a nano-turbine composed of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoblades, which can be driven by fluid flow. Rotation motion of nano-turbine is quantitatively studied by molecular dynamics simulations on this model system. A robust linear relationship is achieved with this nano-turbine between its rotation rate and the fluid flow velocity spanning two orders of magnitude, and this linear relationship remains intact at various temperatures. More interestingly, a striking difference from its macroscopic counterpart is identified: the rotation rate is much smaller (by a factor of ~15) than that of the macroscopic turbine with the same driving flow. This discrepancy is shown to be related to the disruption of water flow at nanoscale, together with the water slippage at graphene surface and the so-called "dragging effect". Moreover, counterintuitively, the ratio of "effective" driving flow velocity increases as the flow velocity increases, suggesting that the linear dependence on the flow velocity can be more complicated in nature. These findings may serve as a foundation for the further development of rotary nano-devices and should also be helpful for a better understanding of the biological molecular motors. PMID:25068725

  6. Nano, Quantum, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics: Educational Sites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of links provides access to web sites associated with nano, quantum, and statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The links are arranged by type: basic principles (including classical thermodynamics), nano, quantum, and statistical mechanics, mathematical techniques, applications, and references.

  7. Carbon nano-relays for low power switching

    E-print Network

    Milaninia, Kaveh Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis two unique carbon based nanoelectromechanical switches or carbon nano-relays are demonstrated as a toolkit for investigating NEMs based low power switching. The first is a vertical carbon nano-relay, consisting ...

  8. Questioning Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this brief article from the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin the best practices of questioning strategies are explained. The author illustrates the difference between an open and a closed question and provides examples of the five categories of questions that teachers should be asking. A bibliography of additional resources is included for further study.

  9. Mapping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayati, A. Majid; Shariatifar, Sadegh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of using two visual while-reading strategies, knowledge-mapping (KM) and underlining, on the performance of intermediate students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in multiple-choice reading comprehension tests. In doing so, 60 Iranian intermediate EFL students were selected from a…

  10. Microstructure of cement mortar with nano-particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Li; Hui-gang Xiao; Jie Yuan; Jinping Ou

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties of nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 cement mortars were experimentally studied. The experimental results showed that the compressive and flexural strengths measured at the 7th day and 28th day of the cement mortars mixed with the nano-particles were higher than that of a plain cement mortar. Therefore, it is feasible to add nano-particles to improve the mechanical properties of

  11. Abrasion resistance of concrete containing nano-particles for pavement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Li; Mao-hua Zhang; Jin-ping Ou

    2006-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of concrete containing nano-particles for pavement is experimentally studied. Both nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2 are, respectively, employed to be as the additives. For comparison, the abrasion resistance of plain concrete and the concrete containing polypropylene (PP) fibers is also experimentally studied in this work. The test results indicate that the abrasion resistance of concretes containing nano-particles and PP

  12. Pasture management strategies for sequestering soil carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stand...

  13. 3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation Gediminas Seniutinas1,2, Lorenzo Rosa*1,2, Gediminas Gervinskas1,2,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    534 3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation Gediminas Seniutinas1,2, Lorenzo Rosa*1-Institut. License and terms: see end of document. Abstract The resputtering of gold films from nano-holes defined of the nano-holes. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano-wells was investigated

  14. Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems

    E-print Network

    Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

    2012-10-18

    We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localized plasmons in the nanoparticles. We study the dynamics towards the steady state and establish connection with the standard theory of heat transfer in steady state. For strongly coupled nano particles we predict Rabi oscillations in the mean occupation number of surface plasmons in each nano particle.

  15. Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is predicted to out-perform nanotubes. In the last few years, work has been done by researchers to study bulk mechanical properties of graphene platelets in polymer matrix. This thesis reports the extensive improvements observed in fatigue resistance and fracture toughness of epoxy using graphene platelet as a filler in very small quantities. Though significant property improvements like 75% increase in fracture toughness and 25-fold increase in fatigue resistance were observed for graphene epoxy nano-composites, the toughening mechanisms could not be delineated without thermo-mechanical and micro-mechanical tests. In this work, the bulk mechanical properties of graphene platelet-polymer nano-composites are studied and presented and the toughness mechanisms are identified by fractography, differential scanning calorimetry, and Raman spectroscopy; and then compared to predictions by theoretical models. Strong adherence to the matrix was found to be the key mechanism responsible for the effective reinforcement provided by graphene to the polymer. The strong graphene platelet-matrix interface also leads to extensive crack deflection, which was observed to be the major toughening mechanism in the nano-composite. In this thesis, the bulk mechanical property results are complemented by in-depth characterization of filler-polymer interfacial interactions and interphase formation using a battery of techniques including Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Theoretical and empirical models proposed by Faber & Evans and Pezzotti were critically studied and applied. Pezzotti's model was found to corroborate well with experimental results and provided insight into enhancement mechanisms and explains the mechanisms underpinning the toughness loss at high graphene platelet weight fraction. The thesis provides conclusive evidences for the superiority of graphene as a filler for reinforcing polymer matrices. In conclusion, the thesis presents a thorough investigation of one- and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials as fillers for high-performance polymer nano-compo

  17. Web-FACE: a new canopy free-air CO2 enrichment system for tall trees in mature forests.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Steeve; Körner, Christian

    2002-09-01

    The long-term responses of forests to atmospheric CO2 enrichment have been difficult to determine experimentally given the large scale and complex structure of their canopy. We have developed a CO2 exposure system that uses the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) approach but was designed for tall canopy trees. The system consists of a CO2-release system installed within the crown of adult trees using a 45-m tower crane, a CO2 monitoring system and an automated regulation system. Pure CO2 gas is released from a network of small tubes woven into the forest canopy (web-FACE), and CO2 is emitted from small laser-punched holes. The set point CO2 concentration ([CO2]) of 500 µmol mol(-1) is controlled by a pulse-width modulation routine that adjusts the rate of CO2 injection as a function of measured [CO2] in the canopy. CO2 consumption for the enrichment of 14 tall canopy trees was about 2 tons per day over the whole growing season. The seasonal daytime mean CO2 concentration was 520 µmol mol(-1). One-minute averages of CO2 measurements conducted at canopy height in the center of the CO2-enriched zone were within ±20% and ±10% of the target concentration for 76% and 47% of the exposure time, respectively. Despite the size of the canopy and the windy site conditions, performance values correspond to about 75% of that reported for conventional forest FACE with the added advantage of a much simpler and less intrusive infrastructure. Stable carbon isotope signals captured by 80 Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) seedlings distributed within the canopy of treated and control tree districts showed a clearly delineated area, with some nearby individuals having been exposed to a gradient of [CO2], which is seen as added value. Time-integrated values of [CO2] derived from the C isotope composition of C. dactylon leaves indicated a mean (±SD) concentration of 513±63 µmol mol(-1) in the web-FACE canopy area. In view of the size of the forest and the rough natural canopy, web-FACE is a most promising avenue towards natural forest experiments, which are greatly needed. PMID:24599362

  18. A case study of elementary teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy in relationship to a tall grass prairie restoration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, Teresa Jayne

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe seven elementary teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy in relationship to a tall grass prairie restoration project and to explore ways in which the tall grass prairie restoration project for third grade contributed to enhancing educational learning experiences. The research questions were: 1. What are teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy for third grade students? 2. How does the prairie restoration trip contribute to teachers' capacity to teach for environmental literacy of third grade students? 3. What is the pedagogical value of the prairie restoration project? The theoretical frameworks underpinning this study were David Sobel's (1996) model for developmental progression in children's relationships with nature, and the North American Environmental Education Association's (2011) framework for environmental literacy. The first assertion derived from thematic data analysis of interviews, field trip observations, classroom observations, and artifacts was, The participating teachers' visions of environmental literacy for third grade students included components that spanned across a developmentally appropriate progression from cultivating empathy for living things, to fueling discovery of nature, to fostering a sense of responsibility toward the natural world . Components of environmental literacy described by teachers included being at ease in the natural environment, appreciation and respect, wonder and curiosity, awareness and interdependence, sense of agency, responsibility and service, and environmental knowledge. The second assertion stemming from thematic data analysis was, The prairie restoration project and related curriculum have pedagogical value that included and exceeded addressing state science standards. In addition to addressing state science standards identified by teachers, the curriculum related to the prairie restoration project served as an agent of curricular cohesion to integrate a variety of subject areas, developed scientific ways of thinking, provided life experience for children, and fostered authentic learning experiences through concrete connections. It also provided a means to enhance the presence of science and social studies in elementary curriculum. Themes emerging from qualitative data analysis resonated with Sobel's model of progressive stages in children's relationships with nature, and resulted in a tool potentially useful for design of elementary curriculum aimed at developing environmental literacy.

  19. Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

  20. Nano-Spintronics 2010 Spin-Orbit Effects

    E-print Network

    Duisburg-Essen, Universität

    Nano-Spintronics 2010 Spin-Orbit Effects in Semiconductors with Reduced Dimensions Thomas Schäpers Institut für Bio- und Nanosysteme (IBN-1) MitgliedderHelmholtz-Gemeinschaft #12;Nano-Spintronic Bad Honnef by a gate (Rashba effect) #12;Nano-Spintronic Bad Honnef, 2010 Institut für Bio- und Nanosysteme (IBN-1