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1

Mirror, mirror on the wall, squishy and soggy, 2 Nanos Tall: Strategies, methods and tools for searching homogeneous catalysts – An EPO perspective (Part 1. Introduction and patents)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of various search strategies, methods and tools for searching catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds. These are also commonly referred to as “homogeneous catalysts”, in contradistinction to true heterogeneous metal or metal oxide catalysts, typically on an inorganic support.The characteristic material and search aspects are illustrated by way of exemplary patent applications for

Matthias W. E. Goebel

2010-01-01

2

Mirror, mirror on the wall, squishy and soggy, 2 nanos tall: Strategies, methods and tools for searching homogeneous catalysts – An EPO perspective (Part 2. Non-patent literature and conclusions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of various search strategies, methods and tools for searching catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds. These are also commonly referred to as “homogeneous catalysts”, in contradistinction to true heterogeneous metal or metal oxide catalysts, typically on an inorganic support.The characteristic material and search aspects are illustrated by way of exemplary patent applications for

Matthias W. E. Goebel

2010-01-01

3

A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

Kaatz, Kathryn

2008-01-01

4

"Tall oaks fallen"  

PubMed Central

“As when, upon a tranced summer-night, Those green-robed senators of mighty woods, Tall oaks, branch-charmed by the earnest stars, Dream, and so dream all night without a stir.”                                                      William Butler Yeats       The past 12 months saw the loss of three “tall oaks”—pioneers in the molecular and cell biology of chromosomes:  David Prescott, Paul Doty and Oscar Miller. Here I offer remembrances of each of them, not as definitive memoirs but simply with the goal of informing the next generation about pioneers whose names they may hardly know today.

Pederson, Thoru

2012-01-01

5

Experimental tall fescue population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to determine the stress tolerance, seed productivity and forage productivity of an endophyte free (non toxic), experimental tall fescue population generated by a gamete selection approach. This approach has successfully been applied in breeding of other crop specie...

6

Tall Buildings: Sustainable Design Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall buildings can serve several functions: providing occupiable floor space for rent or sale, providing instant recognition as an impressive architectural monument, and showcasing advanced technologies for building design and construction. This paper describes three major tall buildings focusing on their incorporation of sustainable structural designs. Taipei 101, Taiwan. This tall building stands at 1,667 ft (508 m) making it

Umakant Vadnere; Xiao Xu

7

Agent-Oriented Intelligent Control Strategies for the Nano-satellite Autonomous Thermal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concerns the autonomous thermal control system of Nano-satellite with a study of the combination of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems)-based efficient cooling technique and the agent-oriented intelligent control strategies issue, especially with the issue of autonomy. The particular interest and complexity are the development of the thermal control system that has the intelligent autonomous control capability to maintain

Liu Jia; Li Yunze; Wang Yuying; Wang Jun

2009-01-01

8

Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant cool-season perennial grass in the United States. It is widely used for both forage and turf purposes. This chapter describes a protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calli induced from caryopsis are used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain used is EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Calli resistant to hygromycin are obtained after 4-6 wk of selection. Soil-grown tall fescue plants can be regenerated 4-5 mo after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:17033053

Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

2006-01-01

9

An Experimental Tall Fescue Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue is one of the worlds most productive and highly utilized grass forages. A novel, experimental breeding approach utilizing a gamete selection method has been applied to selected breeding stocks to determine if the development of a productive, highly stress tolerant population can be achi...

10

[Tall stature: some classical syndromes].  

PubMed

We describe the findings of XYY syndrome in the setting of encountering an individual with this particular condition in the endocrinology clinic. XYY syndrome is a relatively frequent if unfamiliar condition, which is characterized by taller than average height. The extra Y chromosome may play a role in determining the height of these individuals. From this case, a differential diagnosis of tall stature is outlined, in addition to a description of the principal syndromes associated with gigantism. These primarily include Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, androgen resistance and growth hormone excess. These various entities are described from the point of view of their symptomatology, biology, pathophysiology and therapeutic characteristics. PMID:17020230

Gusbin, N; Verloes, A; Daly, A; Beckers, A

11

Tall women's satisfaction with the fit and style of tall women's clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess tall women's satisfaction with the fit and style of apparel for tall women. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 75 US women, who were at least 5 feet 8 inches and between 18 and 54 years old, were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with misses-size and tall-size apparel, in

Michelle R. Jones; Valerie L. Giddings

2010-01-01

12

Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

13

Tall Timbers Research Station: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tall Timbers Research Station works to foster land stewardship through its research, conservation, and education efforts. Located in Tallahassee, Florida, the Tall Timbers Station conducts research in the areas of Fire Ecology, Resource Management, Vertebrate Ecology, Forestry, and Northern Bobwhite Quail studies. The Station's website contains overviews of its five major research programs and offers information regarding research jobs and internships. Tall Timbers also provides downloadable copies of its _Research Notes_ publication, and lists a variety of staff publications (some of which are downloadable). In addition, Tall Timbers features the E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, January 6, 1999) which contains approximately 15,000 citations, and 6,000 abstracts.

14

Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

PubMed

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

Nyczepir, A P; Meyer, S L F

2010-06-01

15

Twisters, Tall Tales, and Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Your students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and scientific phenomena. Harness your students' creative engery with this lesson that incorporates tall tales into the classroom, and follows the 5-E model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) for incorporating constructivism into science teaching.

Wilcox, Dawn R.; Sterling, Donna R.

2006-07-01

16

Data-processing strategies for nano-tomography with elemental specification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining the energy tunability provided by synchrotron X-ray sources with transmission X-ray microscopy, the morphology of materials can be resolved in 3D at spatial resolution down to 30 nm with elemental/chemical specification. In order to study the energy dependence of the absorption coefficient over the investigated volume, the tomographic reconstruction and image registration (before and/or after the tomographic reconstruction) are critical. We show in this paper the comparison of two different data processing strategies and conclude that the signal to noise ratio (S/N) in the final result can be improved via performing tomographic reconstruction prior to the evaluation of energy dependence. Our result echoes the dose fractionation theorem, and is particularly helpful when the element of interest has low concentration.

Liu, Yijin; Cats, Korneel H.; Nelson Weker, Johanna; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Pianetta, Piero

2013-10-01

17

A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

Gallagher, Mary Grace

2008-01-01

18

Mapping Drought QTL in Tall Fescue Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinacetum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] growth and persistence are adversely affected by the hot-dry summers in the Southern Great Plains (Hopkins, 2005). Both forage yield and drought tolerance are difficult to select for because of large genotype-by-environment interactions. The ob...

19

Temperature Influences on Endophyte Growth in Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant pe- rennial cool-season grass grown in the USA. Typically, tall fescue is infected with the endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams, which produces alkaloids that are toxic to grazing animals. Nontoxic endophyte-infected cultivars of tall fescue have been developed, but to maximize their utility for profitable livestock production a better understanding

H.-J. Ju; N. S. Hill; T. Abbott; K. T. Ingram

2006-01-01

20

Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise. PMID:15471817

Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

2004-01-01

21

77 FR 6039 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA AGENCY...in Savannah, Georgia during the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge. The Savannah Tall Ships Challenge will take place from Thursday, May...

2012-02-07

22

77 FR 19534 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA AGENCY...in Savannah, Georgia during the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge. The Savannah Tall Ships Challenge will take place from Thursday, May...

2012-04-02

23

75 FR 34936 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL...NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Chicago, IL in the Federal...hazards associated with the Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks display. The Captain of...

2010-06-21

24

Numerical electromagnetic field analysis of lightning current in tall structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC-2) is applied to the electromagnetic analysis of tall structures hit by lightning. The advantage of the analysis using NEC-2 is that it can accurately compute the current distribution along a conductor system by the method of moments. The waveforms of the lightning currents measured on freestanding tall structures are well reproduced, and the computed waveforms

Yoshihiro Baba; Masaru Ishii

2001-01-01

25

Synthesis, structural characterization and selectively catalytic properties of metal-organic frameworks with nano-sized channels: A modular design strategy  

SciTech Connect

Modular design method for designing and synthesizing microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with selective catalytical activity was described. MOFs with both nano-sized channels and potential catalytic activities could be obtained through self-assembly of a framework unit and a catalyst unit. By selecting hexaaquo metal complexes and the ligand BTC (BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) as framework-building blocks and using the metal complex [M(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) as a catalyst unit, a series of supramolecular MOFs 1-7 with three-dimensional nano-sized channels, i.e. [M{sup 1}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].[M{sup 2}(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2}.2(BTC).xH{sub 2}O (M{sup 1}, M{sup 2}=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), or Mn(II), phen=1,10-phenanthroline, BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate, x=22-24), were synthesized through self-assembly, and their structures were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These supramolecular microporous MOFs showed significant size and shape selectivity in the catalyzed oxidation of phenols, which is due to catalytic reactions taking place in the channels of the framework. Design strategy, synthesis, and self-assembly mechanism for the construction of these porous MOFs were discussed. - Grapical abstract: A modular design strategy has been developed to synthesize microporous metal-organic frameworks with potential catalytic activity by self-assembly of the framework-building blocks and the catalyst unit.

Qiu Lingguang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, 3rd, Feixi Road, Hefei 230039 (China)], E-mail: lgqiu@ahu.edu.cn; Gu Lina; Hu Gang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, 3rd, Feixi Road, Hefei 230039 (China); Zhang Lide [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2009-03-15

26

New optimal design strategies and analysis of ultra-low leakage circuits for nano-scale SOI technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes new SOI circuit strategies for simultaneous reduction of standby gate and sub-threshold leakages. Various enhanced MTCMOS design alternatives are analyzed. A new method for assigning the VTH and sizes of header and footer transistors is proposed, and stacking of headers\\/footers is analyzed. The optimum stacking height and tapering\\/sizing ratio under various design constraints are determined. Our strategies

Koushik K. Das; Rajiv V. Joshi; Ching-Te Chuang; Peter W. Cook; Richard B. Brown

2003-01-01

27

A Nano-Chip-LC/MS n Based Strategy for Characterization of Modified Nucleosides Using Reduced Porous Graphitic Carbon as a Stationary Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LC/MS analysis of ribonucleosides is traditionally performed by reverse phase chromatography on silica based C18 type stationary phases using MS compatible buffers and methanol or acetonitrile gradients. Due to the hydrophilic and polar nature of nucleosides, down-scaling C18 analytical methods to a two-column nano-flow setup is inherently difficult. We present a nano-chip LC/MS ion-trap strategy for routine characterization of RNA nucleosides in the fmol range. Nucleosides were analyzed in positive ion mode by reverse phase chromatography using a 75 ? × 150 mm, 5 ? particle porous graphitic carbon (PGC) chip with an integrated 9 mm, 160 nL trapping column. Nucleosides were separated using a formic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The method was able to separate isobaric nucleosides as well as nucleosides with isotopic overlap to allow unambiguous MS n identification on a low resolution ion-trap. Synthesis of 5-hydroxycytidine (oh5C) was achieved from 5-hydroxyuracil in a novel three-step enzymatic process. When operated in its native state using formic acid/acetonitrile, PGC oxidized oh5C to its corresponding glycols and formic acid conjugates. Reduction of the PGC stationary phase was achieved by flushing the chip with 2.5 mM oxalic acid and adding 1 mM oxalic acid to the online solvents. Analyzed under reduced chromatographic conditions oh5C was readily identified by its MH+ m/z 260 and MSn fragmentation pattern. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first instance where oxalic acid has been used as an online reducing agent for LC/MS. The method was subsequently used for complete characterization of nucleosides found in tRNAs using both PGC and C18 chips.

Giessing, Anders Michael Bernth; Scott, Lincoln Greyson; Kirpekar, Finn

2011-07-01

28

Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue †  

PubMed Central

The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts.

Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

1985-01-01

29

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester–diesel fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the

Duran Alt?parmak; Ali Keskin; Atilla Koca; Metin Gürü

2007-01-01

30

7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left to right: elevator C, feed mill, pellet plant, elevator A. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

31

Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and narrow window openings with 10-foot scale near center, looking south. - Bower Building, 409-413 East Weber Avenue, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

32

Intensified heat transfer in pipe with tall baffles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the heat transfer in pipe with tall baffles is proposed, in conditions of intensified heat transfer. The model\\u000a takes account of various factors for a broad range of Prandtl numbers and Reynolds numbers.

I. E. Lobanov

2011-01-01

33

Photosynthesis in Polyploid Tall Fescue 1  

PubMed Central

Net photosynthesis on a leaf area and leaf weight basis increased significantly with ploidy in a 4X, 6X, 8X and 10X allopolyploid series of tail fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Total protein did not increase significantly with ploidy. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to quantitate ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) protein. RuBPCase content, expressed on both a concentration basis and as a percentage of total protein increased significantly with ploidy in both field and greenhouse experiments. The range of RuBPCase content was 16 to 73% of total protein and 2.8 and 6.5 mg/ml of extract. Specific activity of RuBPCase did not increase significantly with ploidy. Chlorophyll concentration increased as a quadratic function of ploidy, with the mean for 8X genotypes representing maximal chlorophyll content. Evidence is presented that increasing concentrations of RuBPCase are associated with higher net photosynthesis rates in tall fescue. This suggests that RuBPCase may represent a marker for increased net photosynthesis. RuBPCase was extracted in a partially active state or inhibited state and must be fully activated by Mg2+ and HCO3? to measure maximal activities. Polyploidization appeared to increase selectively the allocation of total protein for synthesis of RuBPCase; however, there was also a range for carboxylase content among the genotypes within a given ploidy level.

Joseph, M. Cynthia; Randall, Douglas D.; Nelson, Curtis J.

1981-01-01

34

Transient oscillatory conjugate natural convection in a tall water cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the effects of the heat capacity of the heated wall on the transient oscillatory convection in a tall cavity. Results were particularly obtained for water (Pr=6) in a tall cavity (A=6) with constant-heat-flux heating on one side and isothermal cooling on the opposing side. Significant wall heat capacity effects were found. Specifically,

T. L. Lee; T. F. Lin

1993-01-01

35

Monitoring the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings by GPS technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic characteristics of large structures, such as tall buildings, longspan suspension, cable-stayed bridges and tall chimneys,\\u000a are key to assess their drift and stress conditions. The dynamic characteristics of large structures are difficult to measure\\u000a directly under the condition of earthquakes or strong winds using traditional techniques such as laser collimator, total station\\u000a and accelerometers. Therefore there is a great

Luo Zhicai; Chen Yongqi; Liu Yanxiong

2000-01-01

36

Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

Ieee

2013-07-30

37

Control of wind-induced vibration of long-span bridges and tall buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid increase in scales of structures, research on controlling wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,\\u000a such as long-span bridges and super-tall buildings, has been an issue of great concern. For wind-induced vibration of large-scale\\u000a structures, vibration frequencies and damping modes vary with wind speed. Passive, semiactive, and active control strategies\\u000a are developed to improve the wind-resistance performance of the

Ming Gu

2007-01-01

38

Carbon nanotubes: from nano test tube to nano-reactor.  

PubMed

Confinement of molecules and atoms inside carbon nanotubes provides a powerful strategy for studying structures and chemical properties of individual molecules at the nanoscale. In this issue of ACS Nano, Allen et al. explore the nanotube as a template leading to the formation of unusual supramolecular and covalent structures. The potential of carbon nanotubes as reactors for synthesis on the nano- and macroscales is discussed in light of recent studies. PMID:22200191

Khlobystov, Andrei N

2011-12-27

39

Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil  

SciTech Connect

The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

Nogueira, J.M.F. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

1996-11-01

40

Method for tall oil recovery and apparatus therefor  

SciTech Connect

A system and apparatus are disclosed for removing particles from suspension in a liquid, particularly for removing tall oil soap particles from black liquor. The black liquor flows along a fluid flow path which runs between a source of black liquor and a skimming tank. Two electrodes are disposed one downstream of the other within the fluid flow path. A power supply applies an electrical potential between the electrodes. The downstream electrode is connected to earth ground. It has been found that this earth ground connection provides substantial improvements in the quality and quantity of recovered tall oil soap.

Joyce, E.R.; Smith, W.L.

1982-08-31

41

75 FR 33506 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes, Cleveland, OH, Bay City, MI...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes, Cleveland, OH...temporary safety and security zones around each tall ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships Challenge 2010 race series. These safety...

2010-06-14

42

75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH...temporary safety and security zones around each Tall Ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships Challenge 2010 race series. These safety...

2010-04-12

43

40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...substituted. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

2013-07-01

44

Comparative value of fatty acids and resin acids of tall oil in soaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A study has been made of the detergency and foaming power of soaps made from a typical acid-refined American tall oil. Sodium\\u000a soap of tall oil, straight tall oil fatty-acid soap, and straight tall oil resin-acid soap were evaluated. The effect of fatty\\u000a acid-resin acid ratio was determined by using mixtures of those soaps. Sodium rosinate, sodium oleate, and mixtures

Foster Dee Snell; Irving Reich

1950-01-01

45

Sampling the genetic diversity of tall fescue utilizing gamete selection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gamete Selection is a plant breeding selection methodology that has been traditionally shown to be effective in the development of a wide array of plant species. Widely utilized in corn, wheat, rye and legumes, a gamete selection approach has not been applied toward tall fescue germplasm developmen...

46

Driers based on tall oil—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metal soaps of tall oil were introduced as paint driers during World War II. Paint industry experience reveals that these\\u000a oxidation-polymerization catalysts are generally equivalent in performance to naphthenate driers. Physical properties, manufacturing\\u000a procedures and application of tallate driers in typical paint systems are reviewed.

Alfred Fischer; S. E. Hanan

1965-01-01

47

Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this study is to analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites in the Central Plains of the United States. The hub heights of modern turbines used for wind farm projects are now 70 meters (m) to 100 m above ground and some advanced turbines under development for deployment during the second half of this decade are

M. Schwartz; D. Elliott

2006-01-01

48

Economics Planning of Super Tall Buildings in Asia Pacific Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this paper is to study the economics planning of super tall office buildings in Asia Pacific cities. This study is based on the case study of the Asia Pacific's 10 tallest buildings which are distributed over six major cities. All are landmark buildings with similar functions. From the analysis of the collected data, the floor plate

Paul H K HO

49

Tall tales from de Sitter space I: Renormalization group flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a positive cosmological constant and matter which are asymptotically de Sitter and homogeneous. Regarded as perturbations of de Sitter space, a theorem of Gao and Wald implies that generically these solutions are `tall', meaning that the perturbed universe lives through enough conformal time for an entire spherical Cauchy surface to enter any

Frédéric Leblond; Robert C. Myers

2002-01-01

50

Method for tall oil recovery and apparatus therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and apparatus are disclosed for removing particles from suspension in a liquid, particularly for removing tall oil soap particles from black liquor. The black liquor flows along a fluid flow path which runs between a source of black liquor and a skimming tank. Two electrodes are disposed one downstream of the other within the fluid flow path. A

E. R. Joyce; W. L. Smith

1982-01-01

51

Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue  

PubMed Central

Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs.

Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolas Daniel

2013-01-01

52

Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

2006-06-05

53

Improving the design of tall buildings after 9\\/11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Following the terrorist attack on the New York World Trade Center in 2001, this paper seeks to investigate the design features that would enhance the safety of tall buildings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a questionnaire, data have been collected via e-mails and by post from architects and civil engineers (AEs) in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted with public authorities.

Florence Yean Yng Ling; Lay Hong Soh

2005-01-01

54

MECHANICAL RENOVATION OF BERMUDAGRASS FOR INTERSEEDING TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perennial year-round grazing systems require both warm- and cool-season grass components that establish readily and persist in the warm, humid climate of the southeastern USA. The ideal conditions for tall fescue establishment in bermudagrass has not been extensively investigated. Previous attempts ...

55

Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic

H. Motoyama; W. Janischewskyj; A. M. Hussein; W. A. Chisholm; J. S. Chang; R. Rusan

1996-01-01

56

Transient Response of a Tall Object to Lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Experimental data showing the transient behavior of tall objects struck by lightning are reviewed. The influence of this transient behavior, illustrated by simple calculations, on measured lightning current and measured remote electromagnetic fields is discussed. The estimated equivalent impedance of the lightning channel at the time of the initial current peak is appreciably higher than the characteristic impedance,of an ordinary

Vladimir A. Rakov

2001-01-01

57

MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARDS FROM SALINE JOSE TALL WHEATGRASS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum, is a salt resistant crop currently produced in California to help manage saline subsurface drainage water. There is a need to find high value uses for such material. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and water...

58

Fog deposition in tall tussock grassland, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hill cloud microphysics was examined with a forward scattering spectrometer probe over tall tussock grassland at Swampy Summit near Dunedin, New Zealand. In a 4-month period, cloud water drop diameter spectra were obtained for 17 cloud–ground intersection events that varied from 1 to 61 h in duration. Rain fell in most events. Easterly conditions made up 60% of the events

C. S Cameron; D. L Murray; B. D Fahey; R. M Jackson; F. M Kelliher; G. W Fisher

1997-01-01

59

Tall Annual Morningglory Control Studies in Acala Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual morningglories (Ipomoea Spp) are difficult to control with existing cultural and herbicide practices in cotton. In 2002, six studies were conducted in Acala cotton evaluating herbicides for control of tall annual morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea). The first study evaluated Roundup Weather Max (MON78270) with different tank mixes, the second study evaluated CGA 362622 (trifloxysulfuron) with different tank mixes sprayed over-the-top

Shelly Elam; Steve Wright; Lalo Banuelos

60

78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2013-0192] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration...establish a temporary safety zone around each tall ship participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812...

2013-05-01

61

75 FR 23209 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL...from the hazards associated with the Tall Ships Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector...Michigan, has determined that the Tall Ships Fireworks presents significant risks...

2010-05-03

62

78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2013-0192] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration...establishing a temporary safety zone around each tall ship participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812...

2013-07-23

63

77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY...Rhode Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. DATES: This rule is effective...Special Local Regulations: Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay,...

2012-07-03

64

78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI AGENCY...temporary special local regulation for a tall ships parade located in the Captain of the Port...impracticable. The final details for this Tall Ships parade were not known to the Coast...

2013-06-27

65

77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY...Rhode Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. This action is necessary...Rhode Island, during the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival on July 6-9, 2012. These...

2012-03-23

66

Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and individual owners, so that they can make well-informed financial decisions.

Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

2004-12-01

67

Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?  

PubMed

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

2013-01-10

68

Analysis of Rho GTPase expression in T-ALL identifies RhoU as a target for Notch involved in T-ALL cell migration  

PubMed Central

NOTCH1 is frequently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), and can stimulate T-ALL cell survival and proliferation. Here we explore the hypothesis that Notch1 also alters T-ALL cell migration. Rho GTPases are well-known to regulate cell adhesion and migration. We have analysed the expression levels of Rho GTPases in primary T-ALL samples compared to normal T cells by quantitative PCR. We found that 5 of the 20 human Rho genes are highly and consistently upregulated in T-ALL, and 3 further Rho genes are expressed in T-ALL but not detectably in normal T cells. Of these, RHOU expression is highly correlated with the expression of the Notch1 target DELTEX-1. Inhibition of Notch1 signalling with a ?-secretase inhibitor (GSI) or Notch1 RNAi reduces RhoU expression in T-ALL cells, whereas constitutively active Notch1 increased RhoU expression. In addition, Notch1 or RhoU depletion, or GSI treatment, inhibits T-ALL cell adhesion, migration and chemotaxis. These results indicate that NOTCH1 mutation stimulates T-ALL cell migration through RhoU upregulation which could contribute to the leukaemia cell dissemination.

Bhavsar, Parag J.; Infante, Elvira; Khwaja, Asim; Ridley, Anne J.

2012-01-01

69

Nano Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An electronic version of this journal from the American Chemical Society is available for free through June 30, 2001. Nano Letters is ACS's newest journal. It deals with "physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, processes and applications of structures within the nanoscale range."

70

Double diusive instability in a tall thin slot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear stability of doubly diusive convection is considered for a two-dimensional, Boussinesq fluid in a tall thin slot. For a variety of boundary conditions on the slot walls, instability sets in through zero wavenumber over a wide range of physical con- ditions. Long-wave equations governing the nonlinear development of the instability are derived. The form of the long-wave equations

EIL J. B ALMFORTH; JOSEPH A. B IELLO

1998-01-01

71

Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch  

SciTech Connect

Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

Radke, C. J.

1985-07-02

72

High efficiency transformation of tall fescue with Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient genetic transformation system for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA delivery, is described. Seed-derived embryogenic calli were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring plasmids pTOK47 and pCAMBIA1301. Infected calli were selected at 250mgL?1 hyg B and the regenerated plantlets at 50mgL?1. Using the protocol developed, 34% of the calli infected were hyg B resistant,

Shujie Dong; Rongda Qu

2005-01-01

73

High efficiency transformation of tall fescue with Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient genetic transformation system for tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T- DNA delivery, is described. Seed-derived embryogenic calli were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring plasmids pTOK47 and pCAMBIA1301. Infected calli were selected at 250 mg L1 hyg B and the regenerated plantlets at 50 mg L1. Using the protocol developed, 34% of the

Shujie Dong; Rongda Qu

2005-01-01

74

Daily carbohydrate accumulation in eight tall fescue cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight cultivars of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum Schreb., S.J. Darbyshire ¼ Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Barcel, Kenhy, Kentucky-31, Missouri-96, Mozark, Stargrazer, C-1 (an experimental selection), and HiMag, were sampled at 2-h intervals during daylight on four cutting dates. Cultivars varied in concentrations of carbohydrate fractions but accumulation rates were not different. Daily mean total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations for cutting dates

G. E. Shewmaker; H. F. Mayland; C. A. Roberts; P. A. Harrison; N. J. Chatterton; D. A. Sleper

2006-01-01

75

Nano-storage wires.  

PubMed

We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

2013-07-19

76

Alleviation of heat damage to photosystem II by nitric oxide in tall fescue.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to mediate plant responses to heat stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of NO in the recovery process of photosystem II (PSII) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) against heat stress. Treatment of tall fescue leaves with NO donor sodium nitroprusside significantly improved the overall behavior of PSII probed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, while the inhibition of NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO, a NO scavenger) plus N (G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) dramatically disrupted the operation of PSII. Specifically, under heat stress, the exogenous NO reduced the initial fluorescence (F 0), increased the maximal quantum yield (F V/F M), and disappeared the K-step of 0.3 ms. By the analysis of the JIP-test, the exogenous NO improved the quantum yield of the electron transport flux from Q A to Q B (ET0/ABS), and decreased the trapped excitation flux per reaction center (RC) (TR0/RC), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/RC), and electron flux reducing end electron acceptors per RC (RE0/RC). In addition, the exogenous NO reduced the content of H2O2, O 2 (•-) , and malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. These data suggest that exogenous NO could protect plants, increase the amount of activated RC and improve the electron transport from oxygen evolving complex to D1 protein. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, NO induced the gene expression of psbA, psbB, and psbC, which encode proteins belonging to subunits of PSII core reaction center (Psb) complex. These findings indicate that, as an important strategy to protect plants against heat stress, NO could improve the recovery process of PSII by the up regulation of the transcriptions of genes encoding PSII core proteins. PMID:23832593

Chen, Ke; Chen, Liang; Fan, Jibiao; Fu, Jinmin

2013-07-06

77

Development of methodology for alternative testing strategies for the assessment of the toxicological profile of nanoparticles used in medical diagnostics. NanoTEST - EC FP7 project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique, potentially beneficial properties, but their possible impact on human health is still not known. The area of nanomedicine brings humans into direct contact with NPs and it is essential for both public confidence and the nanotech companies that appropriate risk assessments are undertaken in relation to health and safety. There is a pressing need to understand how engineered NPs can interact with the human body following exposure. The FP7 project NanoTEST (www.nanotest-fp7.eu) addresses these requirements in relation to the toxicological profile of NPs used in medical diagnostics.

Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbo, Lise Maria; Heimstad, Eldbjorg; Harju, Mikael; Bartonova, Alena; Tran, Lang; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Halamoda, Blanka; Marano, Francelyne; Boland, Sonja; Saunders, Margaret; Cartwright, Laura; Carreira, Sara; Thawley, Susan; Whelan, Maurice; Klein, Christoph; Housiadas, Christos; Volkovova, Katarina; Tulinska, Jana; Beno, Milan; Sebekova, Katarina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mose, Tina; Castell, José V.; Vilà, Maya R.; Gombau, Lourdes; Jepson, Mark; Pojana, Giulio; Marcomini, Antonio

2009-05-01

78

caNanoLab  

Cancer.gov

QUICK LINKS NCI caNanoLab Wiki NCI CBIIT Home NCL Home NCL CSN Home NCI Nano Alliance Home NCI Home EXTERNAL  Disclaimer NBI NIOSH NIL InterNano nanoHUB ICON SAFENANO HOME PROTOCOLS SAMPLES PUBLICATIONS HELP GLOSSARY LOGIN Basic Sample Search Advanced

79

caNanoLab  

Cancer.gov

QUICK LINKS NCI caNanoLab Wiki NCI CBIIT Home NCL Home NCL CSN Home NCI Nano Alliance Home NCI Home EXTERNAL  Disclaimer NBI NIOSH NIL InterNano nanoHUB ICON SAFENANO HOME PROTOCOLS SAMPLES PUBLICATIONS HELP GLOSSARY LOGIN Search Publications Help

80

Nano-technology and nano-toxicology  

PubMed Central

Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology.

Maynard, Robert L.

2012-01-01

81

Taking on the tall poles of autonomous robot navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holy Grail of autonomous ground robotics has been to make ground vehicles that behave like humans. Over the years, as a community, we have realized the difficulty of this task, and we have back pedaled from the initial Holy Grail and have constrained and narrowed the domains of operation in order to get robotic systems fielded. This has lead to phrases such as "operation in structured environments" and "open-and-rolling terrain" in the context of autonomous robot navigation. Unfortunately, constraining the problem in this way has only put off the inevitable, i.e., solving the myriad of difficult robotics problems that we identified as long ago as the 1980's on the Autonomous Land Vehicle Project and in most cases are still facing today. These "Tall Poles" have included but are not limited to navigation through complex terrain geometry, navigation through thick vegetation, the detection of geometry-less obstacles such as negative obstacles and thin obstacles, the ability to deal with diverse and dynamic environmental conditions, the ability to function in dynamic and cluttered environments alongside other humans, and any combination of the above. This paper is an overview of the progress we have made at Autonomous Systems over the last three years in trying to knock down some of the tall poles remaining in the field of autonomous ground robotics.

Rosenblum, Mark; Rajagopalan, Venkat; Steinbis, John; Haddon, John; Cannon, Paul

2011-05-01

82

Lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning detection in the Spanish Basque Country is performed using the LF TOA, VHF interferometer and the VLF lightning detection technologies in which two independent networks are based, providing a better detection quality due to the combination of these different techniques. Total lightning activity related to the tall structure of the weather radar operated by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) is presented. The tall structure is a 50 m tower located on the top of Kapildui Mountain (at about 1169.48 m ASL). Remarkable electrical activity associated to this place has been witnessed in the last two years. Two particular flashes during November 30th 2009 caused damage to the weather radar. Two different lightning detection networks detected five and six cloud-to-ground strokes, respectively. Only nine VHF sources were detected in the first flash without any VLF detection classified as intracloud. But for the second flash non VHF source was detected and two detections were reported by the VLF system. In both cases some intracloud detections were reported before cloud-to-ground strokes and some others during the flash. This paper presents the study of a winter episode with a special impact in the tower, the research carried out for characterizing the lightning events and the measures taken in order to achieve a better protection mechanism for the radar site.

López, J.; Montanyà, J.; Maruri, M.; De la Vega, D.; Aranda, J. A.; Gaztelumendi, S.

2012-11-01

83

Nano Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as "the magazine for small science," Nano Magazine has an impressive online presence. Published in Britain, the magazine covers all aspects of nanotechnology and its various applications. Along the top of the homepage, visitors will find a "Hot News" area that scrolls important news developments in the field. Visitors can move on to look through the "Latest Issue" area, which contains interviews with experts in nanotechnology, its role in environmental sustainability, and editorial pieces. For professionals working in this area, the site also has a thorough listing of industry and scholarly events and a list of accredited degree programs for those seeking additional formal training. Finally, visitors can browse through the magazine archive, where past thematic issues include "Nanomedicine" and "Cars of the Future".

84

Hypotheses-Based Study for Adapting LEED to a Qatari Green Metric for Tall Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market has identified Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf, as one of the busiest construction areas in the world. In line with this, tall buildings have arisen in Doha city because of economic necessity. Accordingly, government officials have revealed that Qatar will see the rise of about 800 tall buildings by 2016.A hypothesis-based study has been conducted using the Leadership

Hatem Galal A. Ibrahim

2012-01-01

85

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

2013-04-01

86

Dyanmics of Peripheral Bloodflow for Endophyte-Naive Cattle Fed Toxic Tall Fescue Seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blood flow in cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue is constricted to peripheral tissues because certain ergot alkaloids produced by the Neotyphodium endophyte that inhabits most tall fescue plants bind alpha-adrenergic receptors in the vasculature of cattle. Although the adverse effects that ergot al...

87

Application of BP Neural Networks to Choosing style of Transfer Story in Complicated Tall Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, 62 cases of tall buildings with transfer story are collected, a unified expression mode of case information in the building is set up for structure scheme design. In choosing structural style for a tall building with transfer story, main control factors arc drawn, with which a mathematical model is formed on the basis of BP (back-propagation) neural

Huang-bin Lin; Quan-feng Wang; Yun-bo Zhang; Qi-fang Zeng; Shao-feng Chu

2007-01-01

88

Host suitability of an endophyte-friendly tall fescue grass to Mesocriconema xenoplax and Pratylenchus vulnus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Mesocriconema xenoplax and Pratylenchus vulnus in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no ...

89

Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichlo? species.  

PubMed Central

The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among endophytes of tall fescue. Phylogenetic relationships among seven isolates from tall fescue, three from meadow fescue (a probable ancestor of tall fescue), and nine Epichloë isolates from other host species were investigated by comparing sequences of noncoding segments of the beta-tubulin (tub2) and rRNA (rrn) genes. Whereas each Epichloë isolate and meadow fescue endophyte had only a single tub2 gene, most tall fescue endophytes had two or three distinct tub2 copies. Phylogenetic analysis of tub2 sequences indicated that the presence of multiple copies in the tall fescue endophytes was a consequence of hybridization with Epichloë species. At least three hybridization events account for the distribution and relationships of tub2 genes. These results suggest that interspecific hybridization is the major cause of genetic diversification of the tall fescue endophytes. Images

Tsai, H F; Liu, J S; Staben, C; Christensen, M J; Latch, G C; Siegel, M R; Schardl, C L

1994-01-01

90

Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

91

Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Aggregate Distribution In Response to Tall Fescue Stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soi...

92

Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) ...

93

40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

2013-07-01

94

40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

2013-07-01

95

77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2012-08-09

96

Clinical and molecular characterization of early T-cell precursor leukemia: a high-risk subgroup in adult T-ALL with a high frequency of FLT3 mutations  

PubMed Central

A subgroup of pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) was characterized by a gene expression profile comparable to that of early T-cell precursors (ETPs) with a highly unfavorable outcome. We have investigated clinical and molecular characteristics of the ETP-ALL subgroup in adult T-ALL. As ETP-ALL represents a subgroup of early T-ALL we particularly focused on this cohort and identified 178 adult patients enrolled in the German Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Multicenter studies (05/93–07/03). Of these, 32% (57/178) were classified as ETP-ALL based on their characteristic immunophenotype. The outcome of adults with ETP-ALL was poor with an overall survival of only 35% at 10 years, comparable to the inferior outcome of early T-ALL with 38%. The molecular characterization of adult ETP-ALL revealed distinct alterations with overexpression of stem cell-related genes (BAALC, IGFBP7, MN1, WT1). Interestingly, we found a low rate of NOTCH1 mutations and no FBXW7 mutations in adult ETP-ALL. In contrast, FLT3 mutations, rare in the overall cohort of T-ALL, were very frequent and nearly exclusively found in ETP-ALL characterized by a specific immunophenotype. These molecular characteristics provide biologic insights and implications with respect to innovative treatment strategies (for example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors) for this high-risk subgroup of adult ETP-ALL.

Neumann, M; Heesch, S; Gokbuget, N; Schwartz, S; Schlee, C; Benlasfer, O; Farhadi-Sartangi, N; Thibaut, J; Burmeister, T; Hoelzer, D; Hofmann, W-K; Thiel, E; Baldus, C D

2012-01-01

97

Physical Limits to Leaf Size in Tall Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf sizes in angiosperm trees vary by more than 3 orders of magnitude, from a few mm to over 1 m. This large morphological freedom is, however, only expressed in small trees, and the observed leaf size range declines with tree height, forming well-defined upper and lower boundaries. The vascular system of tall trees that distributes the products of photosynthesis connects distal parts of the plant and forms one of the largest known continuous microfluidic distribution networks. In biological systems, intrinsic properties of vascular systems are known to constrain the morphological freedom of the organism. We show that the limits to leaf size can be understood by physical constraints imposed by intrinsic properties of the carbohydrate transport network. The lower boundary is set by a minimum energy flux, and the upper boundary is set by a diminishing gain in transport efficiency.

Jensen, Kaare H.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

2013-01-01

98

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

99

Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils to tall fescue endophyte infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures appear to enhance soil carbon sequestration. A hypothetical mechanism that may account for the enhanced carbon sequestration is that the E+ tall fescue affects the soil microbial community or components of ...

100

VIABILITY AND LONGEVITY OF POLLEN FROM TRANSGENIC AND NONTRANSGENIC TALL FESCUE (FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA )( P OACEAE) PLANTS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen is an important vector of gene flow in plants, particularly for outcrossing species like tall fescue. Several aspects of pollination biology were investigated using pollen from transgenic and nontransgenic plants of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), the most important forage species worldwide of the Festuca genus. To effectively assess in vitro pollen viability in tall fescue, an optimized

ZENG-YU WANG; YAXIN GE; MEGANN SCOTT; GERMAN SPANGENBERG

101

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

102

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40...description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

2009-01-01

103

78 FR 54574 - Safety Zone; Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show, Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2013-0791] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show, Holland Street...portion of Presque Isle Bay during the Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show. This temporary...spectators and vessels during the Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show display....

2013-09-05

104

Nano Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about identifying nanoscale objects and phenomena in today's world. Learners will break into groups and conduct a "NanoBlitz Challenge," spending a set amount of time on a scavenger hunt for all things nano, both natural and man-made, in the world around them. They will then assemble a chart of their findings and discuss. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Where's Nano?

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

105

Does decreased mowing frequency enhance alkaloid production in endophytic tall fescue and perennial ryegrass?  

PubMed

Tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, and perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne. are widely infected with fungal endophytes (Neotyphodium spp.). The symbiosis between plant and fungus leads to synthesis of alkaloids that have been shown to be either toxic or act as feeding deterrents against insect pests. As cultural practices have the potential to regulate production of plant secondary metabolites, we evaluated the influence of mowing frequency on the levels of major alkaloids in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass in the greenhouse. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass maintained in 15-cm-diam. pots were cut to 5-cm height weekly or biweekly. Samples were taken monthly and the alkaloids extracted and analyzed by reverse-phase LC-MS. In tall fescue, ergovaline, ergonovine, and ergocristine were identified, whereas only ergocristine was identified in perennial ryegrass samples. In tall fescue, we observed a trend showing higher levels in samples cut biweekly than in those cut weekly. A similar pattern was seen in some putative alkaloids that were not identified. In perennial ryegrass, ergocristine and two putative alkaloids followed a pattern similar to that of alkaloids in tall fescue. A survey of a few samples of perennial ryegrass using extractions specific to peramine and lolitrem B yielded evidence suggesting their presence as well as several other identified alkaloids. These data support the hypothesis that decreased mowing frequency enhances alkaloid production/accumulation in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. PMID:12049232

Salminen, Seppo O; Grewal, Parwinder S

2002-05-01

106

Toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and range grasses: historic perspectives.  

PubMed

A historic profile of endophyte-induced tall fescue toxicosis is presented. A chronology of events is presented, beginning with the importance of finding Balansia-infected grasses in a tall fescue pasture in north central Georgia. This initial finding was followed by the discovery that another related endophyte was present in tall fescue and other major forage grasses. This species of endophyte was identified as Acremonium coenophialum. After this report was the important discovery that cattle performance was poor on Acremonium-infected tall fescue. Thus, this endophyte and its presence in tall fescue was implicated as the cause of tall fescue toxicosis and fescue foot. It was later established that this endophyte also produced ergot alkaloids. The related endophyte of perennial ryegrass, A. lolii, was subsequently shown to be responsible for the ryegrass staggers syndrome. Several other species of Acremonium have been associated with other important forage and turf grasses. Finally, important papers leading to the revelations that endophytic fungi and their grass hosts are ecologically significant and that most should be considered mutualistic symbioses are reviewed. Symbiotic grasses have enhanced physiological and morphological characteristics that offer biotechnological exploitations on one hand, but on the other solutions to the toxicity of tall fescue are difficult because grasses free of their fungal partner are generally ecological failures. PMID:7608021

Bacon, C W

1995-03-01

107

Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.  

SciTech Connect

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

2003-05-01

108

Nano Research Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nano Research is a peer-reviewed, international and interdisciplinary research journal that focuses on all aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Submissions are solicited in all topical areas, ranging from basic aspects of the science of nanoscale materials to practical applications of such materials. Nano Research is an open-access journal, making all research results freely available online.Nano Research offers readers an attractive mix of authoritative and comprehensive Reviews, original cutting-edge research in Communication and Full Paper formats. Rapid review to ensure quick publication is a key feature of Nano Research.Articles in Nano Research are accessible free of charge in 2008 and 2009.

2010-10-13

109

Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

110

Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

111

Tall fescue alkaloids cause vasoconstriction in equine medial palmar artery and vein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Recent work using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated that consumptio...

112

Chemotaxis Disruption in Pratylenchus Scribneri by Tall Fescue Root Extracts and Alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was\\u000a to determine if root extracts of tall fescue effected chemoreceptor activity of Pratylenchus scribneri by using an in vitro chemoreception bioassay. Another objective was to determine if

Ada A. Bacetty; Maurice E. Snook; Anthony E. Glenn; James P. Noe; Padmaja Nagabhyru; Charles W. Bacon

2009-01-01

113

Calculation of vertical dynamic characteristics of tall buildings with viscous damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of the vertical component of earthquake ground motion is often about one-third of the horizontal component. Thus, it is necessary to calculate vertical dynamic characteristics of tall buildings and high-rise structures in design stage for certain cases. In analysing free vibrations of tall buildings and high-rise structures, it is possible to regard such structures as a cantilever bar

Q. S. Li; J. Q. Fang; A. P. Jeary

1998-01-01

114

Formation of middle-phase microemulsions using surfactants derived from a renewable resource: ethoxylated tall oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of salinities over which a large number of multicomponent systems containing ethoxylated tall oils or tall-oil derivatives form middle-phase microemulsions was determined. n-Octane and n-decane were used as the hydrocarbons; 2 methyl-1-propanol and 2-butanol as the cosurfactants. It is possible, with an appropriate choice of surfactant, to produce systems with optimal salinities from 0 to ca. 17 wt%

L MAGID

1982-01-01

115

Antitumor activity of a human cytotoxic T-cell line (TALL-104) in brain tumor xenografts.  

PubMed

Malignant glioma in adults and primitive neuroectodermal tumors/medulloblastomas in children are the most common malignant primary brain tumors that either respond poorly to current treatment or tend to recur. Adoptive therapy with TALL-104 cells-an IL-2-dependent, major histocompatibility complex nonrestricted, cytotoxic T-cell line-has demonstrated significant antitumor activity against a broad range of implanted or spontaneously arising tumors. This study investigates distribution of systemically and locally administered TALL-104 cells and their efficacy in effecting survival of a rat model of human brain tumor. In vitro, TALL-104 cells showed significant cytotoxic activity when added to human glioblastoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-251 MG, and A1690; the medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY, D283 Med, and D341 Med; and the epidermoid cancer cell line A431. In brain tumor-bearing rats, the amount of fluorescent dye-labeled TALL-104 cells in brain increased after they were given by intracarotid injection as compared with i.v. cell administration. However, TALL-104 cells rapidly decreased to low levels within 1 h after intracarotid injection. This finding suggests that TALL-104 cells given systemically may not invade brain or tumor tissues, but rather may remain in the vascular system, making this approach less efficient for brain tumor treatment. In a model of athymic rats engrafted with human A431 carcinoma brain tumor, repetitive local administration of TALL-104 cells directly into the tumor bed resulted in a significant increase in survival time compared with control animals. Therefore, local therapy with TALL-104 cells may be a novel and highly effective treatment approach for malignant brain tumors. PMID:11303619

Geoerger, B; Tang, C B; Cesano, A; Visonneau, S; Marwaha, S; Judy, K D; Sutton, L N; Santoli, D; Phillips, P C

2000-04-01

116

Antitumor activity of a human cytotoxic T-cell line (TALL-104) in brain tumor xenografts.  

PubMed Central

Malignant glioma in adults and primitive neuroectodermal tumors/medulloblastomas in children are the most common malignant primary brain tumors that either respond poorly to current treatment or tend to recur. Adoptive therapy with TALL-104 cells-an IL-2-dependent, major histocompatibility complex nonrestricted, cytotoxic T-cell line-has demonstrated significant antitumor activity against a broad range of implanted or spontaneously arising tumors. This study investigates distribution of systemically and locally administered TALL-104 cells and their efficacy in effecting survival of a rat model of human brain tumor. In vitro, TALL-104 cells showed significant cytotoxic activity when added to human glioblastoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-251 MG, and A1690; the medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY, D283 Med, and D341 Med; and the epidermoid cancer cell line A431. In brain tumor-bearing rats, the amount of fluorescent dye-labeled TALL-104 cells in brain increased after they were given by intracarotid injection as compared with i.v. cell administration. However, TALL-104 cells rapidly decreased to low levels within 1 h after intracarotid injection. This finding suggests that TALL-104 cells given systemically may not invade brain or tumor tissues, but rather may remain in the vascular system, making this approach less efficient for brain tumor treatment. In a model of athymic rats engrafted with human A431 carcinoma brain tumor, repetitive local administration of TALL-104 cells directly into the tumor bed resulted in a significant increase in survival time compared with control animals. Therefore, local therapy with TALL-104 cells may be a novel and highly effective treatment approach for malignant brain tumors.

Geoerger, B.; Tang, C. B.; Cesano, A.; Visonneau, S.; Marwaha, S.; Judy, K. D.; Sutton, L. N.; Santoli, D.; Phillips, P. C.

2000-01-01

117

Preparation and properties of esters of monohydric alcohols and fatty acids of tall oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esters of pure tall oil fatty acids and commercially available monohydric alcohols were prepared, distilled, and analyzed\\u000a for pertinent values. The tall oil fatty acid fraction used in the esterification contained approximately 0.6% rosin acids\\u000a with essentially equal distribution of fatty acids into oleic and linoleic acids. The use of various techniques, such as fast\\u000a cooling by the addition of

S. T. Bauer; Patricia R. Gill; R. E. Price

1961-01-01

118

Performance-Based Design of Tall Reinforced Concrete Core Wall Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reinforced concrete (RC) walls are commonly used as the primary lateral-force-resisting system for tall buildings, although\\u000a for buildings over 49 m (160 ft), IBC 2006 requires use of a dual system. Use of nonlinear response history analysis (NRHA)\\u000a coupled with peer-review has become a common way to assess the expected performance of tall buildings at various hazard levels\\u000a to avoid

John W. Wallace

119

Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece  

PubMed Central

Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations.

Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

2012-01-01

120

IL7-dependent human leukemia T-cell line as a valuable tool for drug discovery in TALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific targeting of critical signaling molecules may provide efficient thera- pies for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leuke- mia (T-ALL). However, target identifica- tion and drug development are limited by insufficient numbers of primary T-ALL cells and by their high rate of spontane- ous apoptosis. We established a human interleukin-7 (IL-7)-dependent T-ALL cell line, TAIL7, that maintains several bio- logic and

Joao T. Barata; Vassiliki A. Boussiotis; Jose A. Yunes; Adolfo A. Ferrando; Lisa A. Moreau; J. Pedro Veiga; Stephen E. Sallan; A. Thomas Look; Lee M. Nadler; Angelo A. Cardoso

2004-01-01

121

Nano Hive Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NanoHive-1 is a modular simulator used for modeling the physical world at a nanometer scale. The intended purpose of the simulator is to act as a tool for the study, experimentation, and development of nanotech entities. NanoHive-1 is a GPL/LGPL licensed open-source development - you can download and use it for free.

2012-10-25

122

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

123

ZnS nano-architectures: photocatalysis, deactivation and regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ``infinite recycling'' method for enhancing the durable applications of a ZnS nano-photocatalyst is shown. Based on the finding of thermodynamic stable nanophase of ZnS, we designed a strategy in which the deactivated ZnS nano-photocatalyst could be recovered into its original state. This ZnS photocatalyst can be used repeatedly without being released into environment as nano-waste. The strategy uses material highly efficiently and is environmentally friendly.An ``infinite recycling'' method for enhancing the durable applications of a ZnS nano-photocatalyst is shown. Based on the finding of thermodynamic stable nanophase of ZnS, we designed a strategy in which the deactivated ZnS nano-photocatalyst could be recovered into its original state. This ZnS photocatalyst can be used repeatedly without being released into environment as nano-waste. The strategy uses material highly efficiently and is environmentally friendly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experiment details: control experiments for photodegradation of eosin B; BET measurements of ZnS at different states; the thermodynamically stable nanophases of ZnS and CdS. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00171f

Chen, Dagui; Huang, Feng; Ren, Guoqiang; Li, Dongsong; Zheng, Meng; Wang, Yongjing; Lin, Zhang

2010-10-01

124

On the contribution of mean flow and turbulence to city breathability: the case of long streets with tall buildings.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the contribution of mean flow and turbulence to city breathability within urban canopy layers under the hypothesis that winds from rural/marine areas are sources of clean air (inhale effect) and main contributors to local-scale pollutant dilution (exhale effect). Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, several idealized long streets flanked by tall buildings are investigated for wind flow parallel to the street axis. Aspect ratios (building height/street width) ranging from 2 to 4 and street lengths ranging from neighborhood scales (~1km in full scale) to city scales (~10km in full scale) are analyzed. To assess the inhale effect, the age of air concept is applied to quantify the time taken by a parcel of rural/marine air to reach a reference location within the urban canopy layer. To simulate the exhale effect, removal of pollutants released from a ground level source is considered. Numerical results agree with wind tunnel observations showing that a bulk portion of rural/marine air enters the streets through windward entries, a smaller part of it leaves through street roofs and the remaining fraction blows through the street aiding pollutant dilution. Substantial differences between neighborhood-scale and city-scale configurations are found. For neighborhood-scale models, pollutant removal by rural/marine air is mainly associated to mean flow along the streets. Breathability improves in streets flanked by taller buildings since in this case more rural/marine air is captured inside canyons leading to stronger wind along the street. For city-scale models, pollutant removal due to turbulent fluctuations across street roofs competes with that due to mean flows along the street. Breathability improves in streets flanked by lower buildings in which less rural/marine air is driven out and pollutant removal by turbulent fluctuations is more effective. Based on these findings, suggestions for ventilation strategies for urban areas with tall buildings are provided. PMID:22226399

Hang, Jian; Li, Yuguo; Buccolieri, Riccardo; Sandberg, Mats; Di Sabatino, Silvana

2012-01-05

125

Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities  

SciTech Connect

Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

1984-01-01

126

PREFACE: Nano and microfluidics Nano and microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety

Karin Jacobs

2011-01-01

127

46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis: a case with Graves' disease and exceptionally tall stature.  

PubMed

A case of 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis with very tall stature was investigated. The 24-year-old, phenotypically female patient consulted our clinic because of linear growth persisting into adulthood. The patient was found to have no mutation or deletion of a sex-determining region of the Y chromosome, and also was found to have Graves' disease. Growth was arrested with height remaining at 187 cm after normalization of the thyroid function by treatment with an antithyroid agent, although follow-up to monitor growth was limited to 3 months. In some cases of gonadal dysgenesis, then, Graves' disease may contribute to an abnormally tall stature. PMID:11518114

Kawamura, M; Owada, M; Kimura, Y; Fujiwara, T; Sasaki, A; Tajima, T; Fujieda, K; Hiramori, K

2001-08-01

128

40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified...acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

2013-07-01

129

USDA-Kentucky Report: Forage-Animal Production Research Unit (FAPRU) Investigations: Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Toxicosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Forage-Animal Production Research Unit is involved in several research projects addressing the problem of Tall Fescue toxicosis. This is a toxic situation in grazing cattle and other animals as they consume tall fescue grass which is infected with a fungus. Cattle will grow poorly and in sever...

130

Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

Lichota, Malgorzata

2008-01-01

131

Hair Coat and Ear Implant Effects on Physiological Measurements of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has shown cattle grazing toxic tall fescue have reduced weight gain, rough hair coats, and exhibit symptoms of heat stress during the summer. Sixty steers were grazed on toxic tall fescue to determine the effects of hair coats and steroidal ear implants on physiological measurements. Stee...

132

Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

133

Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the N Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4), and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

134

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and...

2009-07-01

135

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and...

2010-07-01

136

Suppression of vortex-excited vibration of tall buildings using tuned liquid dampers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the control effects of rectangular TLDs installed on a tall building that vibrates due to vortex excitation. Optimal design properties of these TLDs and their control performance are first obtained using the characteristic equation of the TLD-building system. Wind tunnel experiments are performed on a scaled-down building model equipped with rectangular TLDs

C. C. Chang; M. Gu

1999-01-01

137

Yield, composition and quality of tall fescue as influenced by N fertility and soil water availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was designed to evaluate yield, quality and composition of tall fescue (Festuaa arundinaaea Schreb.) as influenced by water stress under 0, 100, and 400 kg N·ha during autumn in the southeastern U.S. Four replicates of each treatment were imposed in a completely random design in the field. The experiment was conducted in two successive years with treatments applied

D. P. Belesky; S. R. Wilkinson; F. McHan

1984-01-01

138

An Atmospheric Solitary Gust Observed with a Doppler Radar, a Tall Tower and a Surface Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler radar and a 444 m tall instrumented tower provide a detailed view of the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of a solitary gust. A study of the data fields, and comparison with theoretical and laboratory work leads to the conclusion that the gust is an internal solitary wave of permanent form launched by a thunderstorm outflow onto an inversion layer

Richard J. Doviak; Runsheng Ge

1984-01-01

139

Full-waveform measuring system for lightning current caused by lightning strikes to tall structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to protect electronic devices against the effects of lightning strikes to tall structures, detailed information about the lightning currents are necessary. For this purpose, a full-waveform measuring system was set up on the north towers of Jiangyin Highway Bridge. In this paper, the calibration to this system is introduced and the results of simulating lightning currents are given

Gao Cheng; Shi Lihua; Chen Bin; Zhang Gongcheng; Zhou Bihua; Chen Ziming

2000-01-01

140

MILK PRODUCTION IN FOUR DIVERGENT BIOLOGICAL TYPES GRAZING COMMON BERMUDAGRASS OR ENDOPHYTE INFECTED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milk yield and quality were measured on four divergent biological types resulting from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows grazing either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Data were collected over a 4 yr period to evaluate the effect of biological type and forage on milk ...

141

VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 61 CARPENTER SHOP (1911) CENTERBUILDING 43ROPE WAREHOUSE (TALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 61 CARPENTER SHOP (1911) CENTER-BUILDING 43-ROPE WAREHOUSE (TALL BUILDING) (1941) RIGHT-BUILDING 77-HEMP STORAGE (1920) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

142

Management of tall fescue pastures and nutrients in a Southern Piedmont environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pastures have replaced row-crop agriculture in many parts of the Southern Piedmont in response to soil and water conservation needs where tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a common pasture grass. However, nutrient losses from livestock manure and/or poultry fertilization can contribute to ...

143

Malate, Citrate, and Amino Acids in Tall Fescue Cultivars: Relationship to Animal Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

cues when selecting forage diets. This study determined malate, citrate, and their total concentration is related to maturity and and amino acid concentrations in endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and related those concentrations to cultivar, N nutrition of the plant (Yeoh and Watson, 1988). Bo- harvest time, and grazing-animal preference. 'Barcel', 'Kenhy', 'Ken- land et al. (1977) found large

Henry F. Mayland; Scott A. Martin; Julian Lee; Glenn E. Shewmaker

144

The foliar absorption of urea?N by tall fescue and creeping bentgrass turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and assimilation of N?labeled urea applied to the foliage of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) turf was examined under a controlled environment. Each source of N was dissolved in deionized water to a final concentration of 25 g N liter and spray?applied at a rate of 5 g N m. Absorption of

Daniel C. Bowman; J. L. Paul

1990-01-01

145

Effect of foliar disease on the epiphytic yeast communities of creeping bentgrass and tall fescue.  

PubMed

The effect of mechanical wounding or foliar diseases caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa or Rhizoctonia solani on the epiphytic yeast communities on creeping bentgrass and tall fescue were determined by leaf washing and dilution plating. Total yeast communities on healthy bentgrass and tall fescue leaves ranged from 7.9 x 103 to 1.4 x 105 CFU.cm-2 and from 2.4 x 103 to 1.6 x 104 CFU.cm-2, respectively. Mechanically wounded leaves (1 of 2 trials) and leaves with disease lesions (11 of 12 trials) supported significantly larger communities of phylloplane yeasts. Total yeast communities on S. homoeocarpa infected or R. solani infected bentgrass leaves were 3.6-10.2 times and 6.2-6.4 times larger, respectively, than the communities on healthy leaves. In general, healthy and diseased bentgrass leaves supported larger yeast communities than healthy or diseased tall fescue leaves. We categorized the majority of yeasts as white-pigmented species, including Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus flavus, Pseudozyma antarctica, Pseudozyma aphidis, and Pseudozyma parantarctica. The percentage of pink yeasts in the total yeast community ranged from 2.6% to 9.9% on healthy leaves and increased to 32.0%-44.7% on S. homoeocarpa infected leaves. Pink-pigmented yeasts included Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sakaguchia dacryoidea, and Sporidiobolus pararoseus. Foliar disease significantly affected community size and composition of epiphytic yeasts on bentgrass and tall fescue. PMID:15644900

Allen, Tom W; Quayyum, Habib A; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

2004-10-01

146

Influence of temperature on nutrient concentration and tetany potential of hardinggrass and tall fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass tetany (Hypomagnesemia) potential of TAM Wintergreen Hardinggrass and 16 tall fescue lines and varieties was estimated by determining the K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the herbage and the ratio of K\\/(Ca + Mg) (milliequivalent basis). Data were obtained at four dates during a two?year period to determine the environmental conditions under which selections should be made to achieve

J. C. Read

1980-01-01

147

Technical note: Tall oil fatty acid anhydrides as corrosion inhibitor intermediates  

SciTech Connect

Anhydrides derived from tall oil fatty acids offer enhanced corrosion inhibition properties compared to traditional dimer/trimer acids. The chemistry of this intermediate, its use in corrosion inhibition for downhole applications, and the synthesis of novel oil- and water-soluble derivatives were studied.

Fischer, E.R.; Parker, J.E. III [Westvaco Corp., Charleston, SC (United States). Chemical Div.

1997-01-01

148

High Neotyphodium infection frequencies in tillers and seed of infected tall fescue plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research quantified frequencies of Neotyphodium infected (E+) tillers and mature seed from field-grown E+ plants of two wild tall fescue accessions from Morocco and Sardinia, Italy. Tiller infection rates were 100% (n = 50 from 10 E+ plants/accession) for each accession and over 99% of the seed...

149

REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSES AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF RAM LAMBS FED ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of endophyte-infected tall fescue on reproductive development and function and carcass characteristics of ram lambs. Hampshire and Suffolk rams, 214 d of age, were fed individually a diet of endophyte-free (EF; n = 8) or infected (EI; n = 9) ...

150

Empirical Analysis of Memetic Algorithms for Conceptual Design of Steel Structural Systems in Tall Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of extensive design experiments in which memetic algorithms were applied to optimize topologies of steel structural systems in tall buildings. In these experiments, evolutionary algorithms were employed to determine optimal configurations of structural members (topology optimization) while the optimal cross-sections of members (sizing optimization) were found using continuous\\/discrete optimization algorithm implemented in SODA. The impact

Rafal Kicinger; Tomasz Arciszewski

151

Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

152

Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

153

Variation in Ruminants' Preference for Tall Fescue Hays Cut Either at Sundown or at Sunup1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants vary diurnally in concentra- tions of nonstructural carbohydrates. If ruminants prefer forages with higher total nonstructural carbo- hydrates (TNC), then the preference for hays har- vested within the same 24-h period may vary. An established field of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested six times in the vegetative stage. Harvests were paired such that each cutting at

Dwight S. Fisher; Henry F. Mayland; Joseph C. Burns

154

Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

155

Current and electromagnetic field associated with lightning-return strokes to tall towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of electric and magnetic fields radiated by lightning first and subsequent return strokes to tall towers is presented. The contributions of the various components of the fields, namely, static, induction, and radiation for the electric field, and induction and radiation for the magnetic field are illustrated and discussed. It is shown in particular that the presence of a

Farhad Rachidi; Wasyl Janischewskyj; Ali M. Hussein; Carlo Alberto Nucci; Silvia Guerrieri; Behzad Kordi; Jen-Shih Chang

2001-01-01

156

Morphogenesis and structural design: cellular automata representations of steel structures in tall buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the initial results of a study on the application of generative cellular, automata-based representations in evolutionary structural design. First, recent developments in evolutionary design representations and an overview of cellular automata are presented. Next, a complex problem of topological design of steel structural systems in tall buildings is briefly described. Further, morphogenic evolutionary design is introduced and

Rafal Kicinger; Tomasz Arciszewski; Kenneth De Jong

2004-01-01

157

Technical Note: Tall Oil Fatty Acid Anhydrides as Corrosion Inhibitor Intermediates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anhydrides derived from tall oil fatty acids offer enhanced corrosion inhibition properties compared to traditional dimer\\/trimer acids. The chemistry of this intermediate, its use in corrosion inhibition for downhole applications, and the synthesis of novel oil- and water-soluble derivatives were studied.

E. R. Fischer; J. E. Parker III

1997-01-01

158

Height reduction in 539 tall girls treated with three different dosages of ethinyloestradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1970 to 1985, 539 constitutionally tall girls were treated with ethinyloestradiol in varying dosages to reduce final height. They all had a predicted final height above 181 cm (greater than +2.5 SD). The girls were all healthy and were treated with three different dosages of ethinyloestradiol. Throughout these 15 years recommended treatment regimens changed, and the treatments

E K Normann; O Trygstad; S Larsen; K Dahl-Jørgensen

1991-01-01

159

BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND DRY MATTER CONSUMPTION OF STEERS FOLLOWING GRAZING OF TOXIC TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stocker cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue during the spring and summer can exhibit symptoms of toxicosis resulting in poor weight gains and extended times of adjustment to feedyard rations. A 2-yr experiment (2004 and 2005) monitored body weight (BW) change and dry matter (DM) consumption for 36 be...

160

Evaluation of the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vasoconstriction is associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or in concert, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA) and ergovaline (ERV) individua...

161

USE OF NOVEL ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE FOR COW-CALF PRODUCTION IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to examine pregnancy, calving rates, and calf growth in cow-calf pairs on endophyte-free (EF; Kentucky 31), novel endophyte-infected (NE; Jesup), and endophyte-infected (EI; Kentucky 31) tall fescue. Angus and Angus x Hereford cows grazed EF, NE (n = 20/16 ha), or EI (n = 30/24ha)...

162

Physiological Changes in Heifers Following Grazing of Toxic or Non-Toxic Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rectal temperature and serum prolactin in yearling heifers were monitored for 22-d following a grazing trial that compared BW gains between 'Kentucky-31' and 'MaxQ' tall fescues (Festuca arundinaecea). Response variables were used to compare physiological changes between heifers removed from Kentuck...

163

Micro and Nano Scale Electric Machines and Applications of Power Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses fundamental issues that would bring into effect the power electronic control of micro and nano scale electric machines. The paper takes the step-by-step approach of developing a control strategy that is described in two stages namely the machine stage and the power electronic drive stage. A brief overview of two popular types of micro and nano electric

Sujay S. Irudayaraj; Arindam Chakraborty; Ali Emadi

2005-01-01

164

CALM-AF10+ T-ALL expression profiles are characterized by overexpression of HOXA and BMI1 oncogenes.  

PubMed

The t(10;11)(p13;q14-21) is found in T-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia and fuses CALM (Clathrin-Assembly protein-like Lymphoid-Myeloid leukaemia gene) to AF10. In order to gain insight into the transcriptional consequences of this fusion, microarray-based comparison of CALM-AF10+ vs CALM-AF10- T-ALL was performed. This analysis showed upregulation of HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10 and BMI1 in the CALM-AF10+ cases. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR on an independent group of T-ALL and compared to mixed lineage leukemia-translocated acute leukemias (MLL-t AL). The overexpression of HOXA genes was associated with overexpression of its cofactor MEIS1 in CALM-AF10+ T-ALL, reaching levels of expression similar to those observed in MLL-t AL. Consequently, CALM-AF10+ T-ALL and MLL-t AL share a specific HOXA overexpression, indicating they activate common oncogenic pathways. In addition, BMI1, located close to AF10 breakpoint, was overexpressed only in CALM-AF10+ T-ALL and not in MLL-t AL. BMI1 controls cellular proliferation through suppression of the tumor suppressors encoded by the CDKN2A locus. This locus, often deleted in T-ALL, was conserved in CALM-AF10+ T-ALL. This suggests that decreased CDKN2A activity, as a result of BMI1 overexpression, contributes to leukemogenesis in CALM-AF10+ T-ALL. We propose to define a HOXA+ leukemia group composed of at least MLL-t, CALM-AF10 and HOXA-t AL, which may benefit from adapted management. PMID:16107895

Dik, W A; Brahim, W; Braun, C; Asnafi, V; Dastugue, N; Bernard, O A; van Dongen, J J M; Langerak, A W; Macintyre, E A; Delabesse, E

2005-11-01

165

What is Nano-Infusion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Nano-Link describes Nano-Infusion. This program "promotes integration and inclusion of nanoscale concepts into high school and college level education." Teachers are encouraged to join the free program to obtain training, support, and nano-related supplies that will aid in introducing nano experiments into their classrooms. To join the program, applicants merely need to create an account on the Nan-Link website and complete and introductory survey.

2012-11-08

166

Notch1 signaling is involved in regulating Foxp3 expression in T-ALL  

PubMed Central

Background T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a highly aggressive hematologic malignancy. Immune tolerance induced by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) with high expression of Foxp3 is an important hypothesis for poor therapy response. Notch1 signaling is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Crosstalk between Notch and Foxp3+Tregs induced immune tolerance is unknown in T-ALL. We studied Foxp3 and Notch1 expression in vivo and in vitro, and analyzed the biological characteristics of T-ALL cell line systematically after Notch inhibition and explored the crosstalk between Notch signaling and Foxp3 expression. Methods In vivo, we established T-ALL murine model by Jurkat cells transplantation to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Notch1 and Foxp3 expression was detected. In vitro, we used ?-secretase inhibitor N-S-phenyl-glycine-t-butyl ester (DAPT) to block Notch1 signaling in Jurkat cells. Notch1, Hes-1 and Foxp3 genes and protein expression were detected by PCR and western blotting, respectively. The proliferation pattern, cell cycle and viability of Jurkat cells after DAPT treatment were studied. Protein expression of Notch1 target genes including NF-?B, p-ERK1/2 and STAT1 were determined. Results We show that engraftment of Jurkat cells in SCID mice occurred in 8 of 10 samples (80%), producing disseminated human neoplastic lymphocytes in PB, bone marrow or infiltrated organs. Notch1 and Foxp3 expression were higher in T-ALL mice than normal mice. In vitro, Jurkat cells expressed Notch1 and more Foxp3 than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both mRNA and protein levels. Blocking Notch1 signal by DAPT inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Foxp3 as well as p-ERK1/2, STAT1 and NF-?B expression was down regulated after DAPT treatment. Conclusions These findings indicate that regulation of Foxp3 expression does involve Notch signaling, and they may cooperatively regulate T cell proliferation in T-ALL.

2013-01-01

167

Nano-Carbons as Theranostics  

PubMed Central

Nano-carbons, including fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nano-diamonds, are an important class of nanostructures attracting tremendous interests in the past two decades. In this special issue, seven review articles and research reports are collected, to summarize and present the latest progress in the exploration of various nano-carbons for theranostic applications.

Liu, Zhuang; Liang, Xing-Jie

2012-01-01

168

TryNano.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the portal for TryNano.org, a website for anyone interested in learning about nanoscience and nanotechnology. Users can explore nanomaterials, read about timely discoveries in the field, and learn about how scientists can manipulate objects on the scale of .4 to 10nm. Teachers will find seven standards-aligned lessons on nanotechnology -- 5 for middle school and 2 for high school. Students can play the NanoMission Game Series, Duckboy in Nanoland, and Virtual Microscope. Click on "Meet Professionals" to find out what nanotechnologists do. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2011-12-05

169

Comparative analysis of phytochrome-mediated growth responses in internodes of dwarf and tall pea plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of dark-grown pea seedlings of a dwarf (Progress No. 9) and a tall (Alaska) cultivar to red light have been compared 24 hours after irradiation. Identical percentage inhibition of elongation in 10-mm sub-apical segments of intact third internodes, identical dose-response curves and similar reversal of the inhibition by far-red light were observed. The time courses of the growth inhibition

D. W. Russell; A. W. Galston

1967-01-01

170

Improved gas chromatographic analysis of fatty and resin acid mixtures with special reference to tall oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A gas liquid chromatography system for the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty and resin acids has been developed. On 30–40\\u000a m long, 0.3 mm ID glass capillary columns coated with 1,4-butanediol succinate (BDS) and attaining over 90,000 effective theoretical\\u000a plates, all main fatty and resin acids in wood extractives and various tall oil products can be separated and

B. Holmbom

1977-01-01

171

Genetic Transformation in Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (Tall Fescue) and Festuca pratensis Huds. (Meadow Fescue)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a wind-pollinated, highly self-infertile polyploid perennial cool-season forage, turf, and conservation grass.\\u000a It is indigenous to Europe, also naturally occuring on the Baltic coasts throughout the Caucasus, in western Siberia, and\\u000a extending into China. Introductions have been made into North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and South\\u000a and East Asia (Barnes 1990).

G. Spangenberg; Z.-Y. Wang; M. P. Vallés; I. Potrykus

172

Some ecophysiological features in sun and shade leaves of tall beech trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ecophysiological features in sun and shade leaves of tall European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) growing in a natural\\u000a forest stand were investigated. Quantitative leaf characteristics were followed in the field and under controlled conditions.\\u000a \\u000a In the sun leaves significantly higher rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration, and also photosynthetic\\u000a CO2 fixation capacity, photosynthetic productivity, and saturating, adaptation

Elena Masarovicová; L. štefan?ík

1990-01-01

173

Comparative Criteria for Models of the Vascular Transport Systems of Tall Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the past decade, several detailed models of plant vascular transport systems (i.e. xylem and phloem) have been presented\\u000a in the literature, and many of them are currently capable of accurately modelling the hydraulic characteristics of trees,\\u000a including tall trees. This marks a departure from earlier modelling exercises in plant water relations, when models were intended\\u000a primarily to promote an

Maurizio Mencuccini; Teemu Hölttä; Jordi Martinez-Vilalta

174

A Two-Dimensional Equivalent Circuit for the Tall Thin Piezoelectric Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equivalent circuit is derived for the tall thin bar based on the piezoelectric constitutive relations. The model has two sections, a z-direction (thickness) and an x-direction (lateral). The z-direction section resembles the equivalent circuit for a thickness mode transducer, while the x-direction section resembles the circuit for a side electroded length expander. The two sections are coupled through capacitors

C. G. Hutchens; S. A. Morris

1985-01-01

175

Induction of Semi-Dwarf, Salt Tolerant Rice Mutants from a Tall Salt Tolerant Indica Landrace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubled haploid production has become an important tool in cereal breeding and has helped in accelerating the development\\u000a of improved cultivars. Genetic variation for salt tolerance is rare in contemporary semi-dwarf (sd-1) rice germplasm (cultivars and breeding lines). Some rice landraces exhibit greater tolerance to salt, but are agronomically\\u000a unacceptable because of their tall stature. One such landrace, Pokalli was

R. Afza; M. Guzmann; F. J. Zapata; E. Tumimbang-Raiz; G. Gregorio; B. P. Forster

176

Production of Transgenic Tall Fescue Plants with Enhanced Stress Tolerances by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve stress tolerances of turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying plasmid pCMD containing stress tolerance-related CBF1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was used to transform mature seeds-derived embryogenic calli of four cultivars. A total of 112 transgenic plants were regenerated from 32 independent lines and verified by histochemical detection of GUS activity, PCR

Guan-ting WU; Jin-qing CHEN; Zhang-hua HU; Chun-xiu LANG; Xiao-yun CHEN; Fu-lin WANG; Wei JIN; Ying-wu XIA

2006-01-01

177

North American acetone sources determined from tall tower measurements and inverse modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a full year of continuous atmospheric acetone measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), with a 0.5° × 0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to develop quantitative new constraints on seasonal acetone sources over North America, and assess the corresponding impacts on atmospheric chemistry. Biogenic acetone emissions in the model are computed based on the MEGANv2.1 inventory. An inverse analysis of the tall tower observations implies a 37% underestimate of emissions from broadleaf trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, and an offsetting 40% overestimate of emissions from needleleaf trees plus secondary production from biogenic precursors. The overall result is a small (16%) model underestimate of the total primary + secondary biogenic acetone source in North America. Our analysis shows that North American primary + secondary anthropogenic acetone sources in the model (based on the EPA NEI 2005 inventory) are accurate to within approximately 20%. An optimized GEOS-Chem simulation incorporating the above findings captures 70% of the variance (R=0.83) in the hourly measurements at the KCMP tall tower, with minimal bias. The resulting North American acetone source is 10.9 Tg a-1, including both primary emissions (5.5 Tg a-1) and secondary production (5.5 Tg a-1), and with roughly equal contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The North American acetone source alone is nearly as large as the total continental volatile organic compound (VOC) source from fossil fuel combustion. Using our optimized source estimates as a baseline, we evaluate the atmospheric impact of some potential future shifts in acetone sources over North America. Increased biogenic acetone emissions due to surface warming are likely to provide a significant offset to any future decrease in anthropogenic acetone emissions, particularly during summer.

Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Kim, S. Y.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Fischer, E. V.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Curtis, A. J.

2012-11-01

178

North American acetone sources determined from tall tower measurements and inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a full year of continuous atmospheric acetone measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), with a 0.5° × 0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to develop quantitative new constraints on seasonal acetone sources over North America. Biogenic acetone emissions in the model are computed based on the MEGANv2.1 inventory. An inverse analysis of the tall tower observations implies a 37% underestimate of emissions from broadleaf trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, and an offsetting 40% overestimate of emissions from needleleaf trees plus secondary production from biogenic precursors. The overall result is a small (16%) model underestimate of the total primary + secondary biogenic acetone source in North America. Our analysis shows that North American primary + secondary anthropogenic acetone sources in the model (based on the EPA NEI 2005 inventory) are accurate to within approximately 20%. An optimized GEOS-Chem simulation incorporating the above findings captures 70% of the variance (R = 0.83) in the hourly measurements at the KCMP tall tower, with minimal bias. The resulting North American acetone source is 11 Tg a-1, including both primary emissions (5.5 Tg a-1) and secondary production (5.5 Tg a-1), and with roughly equal contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The North American acetone source alone is nearly as large as the total continental volatile organic compound (VOC) source from fossil fuel combustion. Using our optimized source estimates as a baseline, we evaluate the sensitivity of atmospheric acetone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) to shifts in natural and anthropogenic acetone sources over North America. Increased biogenic acetone emissions due to surface warming are likely to provide a significant offset to any future decrease in anthropogenic acetone emissions, particularly during summer.

Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Kim, S. Y.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Fischer, E. V.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Curtis, A. J.

2013-03-01

179

Measurements of greenhouse gases and related tracers at Bialystok tall tower station in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-continuous, in-situ measurements of atmospheric CO2, O2\\/N2, CH4, CO, N2O, and SF6 have been performed since August 2005 at the tall tower station near Bialystok, in Eastern Poland, from five heights up to 300 m. Besides the in-situ measurements, flask samples are filled approximately weekly and measured at Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry for the same species and, in addition, for

M. E. Popa; M. Gloor; A. C. Manning; A. Jordan; U. Schultz; F. Haensel; T. Seifert; M. Heimann

2010-01-01

180

Measurements of greenhouse gases and related tracers at Bialystok tall tower station in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-continuous, in-situ measurements of atmospheric CO2, O2\\/N2, CH4, CO, N2O, and SF6 have been performed since August 2005 at the tall tower station near Bialystok, in Eastern Poland, from five heights up to 300 m. Besides the in-situ measurements, flask samples are filled approximately weekly and measured at Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry for the same species and, in addition, for

M. E. Popa; M. Gloor; A. C. Manning; A. Jordan; U. Schultz; F. Haensel; T. Seifert; M. Heimann

2009-01-01

181

Gamma-secretase inhibitors reverse glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL  

PubMed Central

Summary Gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) block the activation of oncogenic NOTCH1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, limited antileukemic cytotoxicity and severe gastrointestinal toxicity have restricted the clinical application of these targeted drugs. Here we show that combination therapy with GSIs plus glucocorticoids can improve the antileukemic effects of GSIs and reduce their gut toxicity in vivo. Inhibition of NOTCH1 signaling in glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL restored glucocorticoid receptor auto-up-regulation and induced apoptotic cell death through induction of BIM expression. GSI treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and accumulation of goblet cells in the gut mediated by upregulation of Klf4, a negative regulator of cell cycle required for goblet cell differentiation. In contrast, glucocorticoid treatment induced transcriptional upregulation of Ccnd2 and protected mice from developing intestinal goblet cell metaplasia typically induced by inhibition of NOTCH signaling with GSIs. These results support a role for glucocorticoids plus GSIs in the treatment of glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL.

Real, Pedro J.; Tosello, Valeria; Palomero, Teresa; Castillo, Mireia; Hernando, Eva; de Stanchina, Elisa; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Barnes, Kelly; Sawai, Catherine; Homminga, Irene; Meijerink, Jules; Aifantis, Iannis; Basso, Giuseppe; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Ai, Walden; Ferrando, Adolfo

2009-01-01

182

Suppression of growth hormone by oral glucose in the evaluation of tall stature.  

PubMed

Excess secretion of growth hormone is a rare diagnosis in children or adolescents with tall stature. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGT) with determination of growth hormone is generally recommended to exclude this disorder. In order to test the validity of this approach in pediatric subjects, OGT tests were performed in 126 tall subjects (age: 12.4 +/- 1.8 years; height: 3.1 +/- 0.8 SDS). Nonsuppression was present in 39 subjects, however, anthropometric analysis and follow-up excluded the diagnosis of eosinophilic pituitary adenoma in all patients. The lowest GH concentration was reached 90 min after ingestion of oral glucose, GH rose above baseline at 180 min. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ between suppressors and nonsuppressors. In conclusion, absent suppression of growth hormone by oral glucose is common in tall children and adolescents. The test is therefore not recommended as a general screening for excess growth hormone. Prolonging the test beyond 120 min does not increase the diagnostic value. PMID:10095165

Holl, R W; Bucher, P; Sorgo, W; Heinze, E; Homoki, J; Debatin, K M

1999-01-01

183

Does mowing height influence alkaloid production in endophytic tall fescue and perennial ryegrass?  

PubMed

The mutualistic symbiosis following infection of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, and perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, by fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium spp.) results in the production of alkaloids that are feeding deterrents or toxic to insects and livestock. If the levels of the alkaloids can be manipulated by cultural practices in the grasses that are used for home lawns and golf courses, this could alleviate the need for pesticide applications in urban environments. We evaluated the influence of mowing height on the levels of some alkaloids in a greenhouse experiment for two consecutive months. In tall fescue, levels of four of the nine alkaloids, including one presumptive alkaloid, showed increased levels with increasing the mowing height from 2.5 to 7.5 cm. The alkaloids were ergonovine, ergocryptine, perloline methyl ether, and an unidentified alkaloid designated as unknown C. In perennial ryegrass, three out of six alkaloids, perloline methyl ether, chanoclavine, and unknown A, showed similar increases. The alkaloid levels in perennial ryegrass showed more variability than those in tall fescue between the two sampling dates. It was clear in both grasses that the relative levels of the alkaloids varied with mowing height, as well as over time. PMID:12918918

Salminen, Seppo O; Grewal, Parwinder S; Quigley, Martin F

2003-06-01

184

Quantification of ergovaline using HPLC and mass spectrometry in Iranian Neotyphodium infected tall fescue  

PubMed Central

Ergovaline, the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in tall fescue (Fescue arundinacea Schreb.) infected with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams), is known to cause tall fescue toxicosis. This study was conducted to examine the presence of fungal endophytes in five populations of tall fescue collected from various regions of Iran. The existence of Neotyphodium mycelia in the tissues of the samples was confirmed by microscopic examination, and the isolation was performed from leaf tissues of the hosts on potato dextrose agar. All isolates were confirmed as the Neotyphodium species by PCR, using specific primers. Mass detection and determination of ergovaline were performed by HPLC at three plant growth stages. Ergovaline was detected in all isolates, with the mean concentrations of 0.24 to 3.48 ?g/g dry matter of different populations for the whole three plant growth stages. The differences in ergovaline content between plant populations and sampling time were statistically significant. This is the first report of ergovaline content in endophyte infected Fescue arundinacea from natural grasslands in Iran.

Najafabadi, A. Sobhani; Mofid, M.R.; Mohammadi, R.; Moghim, S.

2010-01-01

185

Quantification of ergovaline using HPLC and mass spectrometry in Iranian Neotyphodium infected tall fescue.  

PubMed

Ergovaline, the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in tall fescue (Fescue arundinacea Schreb.) infected with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams), is known to cause tall fescue toxicosis. This study was conducted to examine the presence of fungal endophytes in five populations of tall fescue collected from various regions of Iran. The existence of Neotyphodium mycelia in the tissues of the samples was confirmed by microscopic examination, and the isolation was performed from leaf tissues of the hosts on potato dextrose agar. All isolates were confirmed as the Neotyphodium species by PCR, using specific primers. Mass detection and determination of ergovaline were performed by HPLC at three plant growth stages. Ergovaline was detected in all isolates, with the mean concentrations of 0.24 to 3.48 ?g/g dry matter of different populations for the whole three plant growth stages. The differences in ergovaline content between plant populations and sampling time were statistically significant. This is the first report of ergovaline content in endophyte infected Fescue arundinacea from natural grasslands in Iran. PMID:22049272

Najafabadi, A Sobhani; Mofid, M R; Mohammadi, R; Moghim, S

2010-07-01

186

Nano Ice Cream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity/demo, learners discover how liquid nitrogen cools a creamy mixture at such a rapid rate that it precipitates super fine grained (nano) ice cream. This is a fun (and tasty!) way for learners to discover the nanoworld! Note: this activity should be conducted by adults only.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Science, Museum O.

2012-06-11

187

Micro and nano robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents two techniques for controlling of micro\\/nano robots. The first one uses so called visual servoing techniques, where the robot tip position is measured with a camera. The position of the robot tip is extracted from the live video picture, so on-line position feedback control can be established. The experimental results of 2 DOF micro robot neural network

R. Safaric; J. Cas; G. Skorc; S. I. Protsenko

2009-01-01

188

Effects of riser height and total solids inventory on the gas–solids in an ultra-tall CFB riser  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more CFB boilers with large capacity and ultra-tall furnaces are used for power generation. Understanding the fluid dynamics in the ultra-tall furnace is important. However, existing studies on fluid dynamics in the CFB furnace are limited to the risers with rather short height. An experimental study was conducted with a cold CFB test rig of 240mm in I.D.

Nan Hu; Hai Zhang; Hairui Yang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Qing Liu

2009-01-01

189

How Do Changes in Leaf\\/Shoot Morphology and Crown Architecture Affect Growth and Physiological Function of Tall Trees?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With increasing height within the crowns of tall trees, leaves tend to become smaller and thicker and shoots shorter. In tall\\u000a trees, the vertical variation in leaf\\/shoot morphology is largely driven by water status. Morphological changes associated\\u000a with increasing height in the crown present static constraints on photosynthesis, such as decreasing light intercepting area\\u000a relative to leaf mass and decreasing

Hiroaki Ishii

190

Relative roles of different-sized herbivores and plant-plant interactions in tall shrub tundra vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tall shrubs play important roles in the ecology of Arctic tundra ecosystems, including support of high shrub-associated biodiversity and regulation of a range of ecosystem processes. Tall shrub patches and herbaceous vegetation surrounding them often form a two-state vegetation mosaic. Such tall shrub tundra vegetation is an important locus for current vegetation changes in the Arctic. Both abiotic and biotic drivers are known to influence the shrub component. However, although expansion of the shrub state has received much focus lately, relative strengths of the multiple drivers of vegetation state are currently not fully understood. We investigated the role of herbivory relative to temperature and relative to plant-plant interactions, conducting a field survey and experimental studies at large spatial scales in riparian tall shrub tundra in Norway. We found both summer temperatures and summer grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) to affect tall shrub distribution and expansion potential. Furthermore, we found strong and rapid shrub growth change in response to abundance of key arctic herbivores; small rodents. Finally, we quantified the relative importance of neighboring plants and both herbivore types to recruiting tall shrubs. The previously unforeseen rate at which tall shrub tundra responded to altered herbivore pressures further exemplifies its central role in the tundra ecosystems, promoting tall shrub tundra as a bell-whether of change with respect to both abiotic and biotic drivers. While many of the results clearly relate to herbivory, neighboring plants or climate as drivers, some variation remains unexplained warranting future research focus on this highly dynamic part of the tundra ecosystem. Our results suggest that spatially variable biotic interactions are likely to modify forcing by climate, calling for an ecosystem approach when studying change in tundra ecosystems.

Ravolainen, Virve; Ims, Rolf; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Stien, Audun; Kollstrøm, Julie; Lægreid, Eiliv; Bråthen, Kari Anne

2013-04-01

191

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were

Madhavi Z. Martin; Arthur J. Stewart; Kimberley Gwinn; John C. Waller

2010-01-01

192

Composition, digestibility and utilization of endophyte-free tall fescue fed as green-chop or hay to sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lamb digestion trials were conducted using three cultivars of endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) that had been harvested from paddocks as green-chop forage of initial growth or as regrowth hay. The tall fescue cultivars were Johnstone (JOHN), AU Triumph (AUT) and Kentucky 31 (KY-31). All cultivars within each harvesting method contained similar quantities of dry matter (DM) and

J. F. Kabiligi; B. R. Moss; G. M. Davenport; J. L. Holliman; D. I. Bransby; J. C. Lin

1995-01-01

193

Adult height in constitutionally tall stature: accuracy of five different height prediction methods.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of height predictions at various ages based on five different methods (Tanner-Whitehouse mark I; Tanner-Whitehouse mark II; index of potential height; Bayley-Pinneau; Roche-Wainer-Thissen) was compared at yearly intervals with final height achieved in 32 boys (78 predictions) and 100 girls (227 predictions) with constitutionally tall stature. The boys were initially seen at a mean (SD) chronological age of 12.5 (3) years whereas the mean chronological age in girls was 11.8 (2.1) years. In tall boys Tanner-Whitehouse mark II gives a good estimation of final height up to the bone age of 13 years with a mean overestimation of 1 cm. The overestimation of final height is higher in the bone age groups 13-14 years (2.7 cm) and 14-15 years (3.4 cm) mainly due to the tall boys with a height greater than 3 SD scores. Up to the bone age of 12 years the final height is massively overestimated by the Bayley-Pinneau method but this method give relatively accurate estimations thereafter. The estimated confidence limits are large (+/- 8 cm) for the two methods up to a bone age of 15 years. In tall girls the Tanner-Whitehouse mark II method was accurate from bone age nine to 12 years but overestimated final height in the bone age groups 12-13 years and 13-15 years by a mean of 1.8 and 1.4 cm respectively. The Bayley-Pinneau method overestimated final height in the bone age groups 12-14 years whereas the height predictions are accurate thereafter. Up to a bone age of 13 years the estimated confidence limits for the two methods are large, +/- cm, but tend to improve thereafter. It is concluded that there is no best or most accurate method for predicting adult height in tall children. There are methods of first choice differing with respect to sex and bone age. In addition, correcting factors may improve their accuracy and correct their tendency to overestimate or underestimate adult height.

Joss, E E; Temperli, R; Mullis, P E

1992-01-01

194

Genome-wide SNP identification in multiple morphotypes of allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb)  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide essential tools for the advancement of research in plant genomics, and the development of SNP resources for many species has been accelerated by the capabilities of second-generation sequencing technologies. The current study aimed to develop and use a novel bioinformatic pipeline to generate a comprehensive collection of SNP markers within the agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue; an outbreeding allopolyploid species displaying three distinct morphotypes: Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous. Results A bioinformatic pipeline was developed that successfully identified SNPs within genotypes from distinct tall fescue morphotypes, following the sequencing of 414 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – generated amplicons using 454 GS FLX technology. Equivalent amplicon sets were derived from representative genotypes of each morphotype, including six Continental, five Mediterranean and one rhizomatous. A total of 8,584 and 2,292 SNPs were identified with high confidence within the Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes respectively. The success of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated through validation (at a rate of 70%) of a subset of 141 SNPs using both SNaPshot™ and GoldenGate™ assay chemistries. Furthermore, the quantitative genotyping capability of the GoldenGate™ assay revealed that approximately 30% of the putative SNPs were accessible to co-dominant scoring, despite the hexaploid genome structure. The sub-genome-specific origin of each SNP validated from Continental tall fescue was predicted using a phylogenetic approach based on comparison with orthologous sequences from predicted progenitor species. Conclusions Using the appropriate bioinformatic approach, amplicon resequencing based on 454 GS FLX technology is an effective method for the identification of polymorphic SNPs within the genomes of Continental and Mediterranean tall fescue. The GoldenGate™ assay is capable of high-throughput co-dominant SNP allele detection, and minimises the problems associated with SNP genotyping in a polyploid by effectively reducing the complexity to a diploid system. This SNP collection may now be refined and used in applications such as cultivar identification, genetic linkage map construction, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in tall fescue. The bioinformatic pipeline described here represents an effective general method for SNP discovery within outbreeding allopolyploid species.

2012-01-01

195

Nano-delivery in Airway Diseases: Challenges and Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

We discuss here the challenges and therapeutic applications of nano-delivery systems for treatment of airway diseases. Therapeutic applications of nano-delivery in airway diseases involve targeted delivery of DNA, siRNA, drugs or peptides to hematopoietic progenitor cells and pulmonary epithelium to control chronic pathophysiology of obstructive and conformational disorders. The major challenges of nano-delivery involve physiological barriers like mucus and alveolar fluid for intranasal and reticuloendothelial (RES) system for systemic delivery. It is necessary that the nano-particles are biodegradable and capable of providing the sustained drug delivery to the selected cell type. Once inside the cell the nano-particle should be capable of escaping the endocytic degradation machinery. In addition, for effective gene-delivery nuclear entry and chromosomal integration are critical. We have also discussed the strategies to overcome these pathophysiological barriers as an attempt to synchronize the efforts of pulmonary biologists, chemists and clinicians to develop novel nano-delivery therapeutic(s) for airway diseases.

Roy, Indrajit; Vij, Neeraj

2009-01-01

196

Designing current mirror with Nano wire FET  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Nano technology develops more each day and Nano electronic devices come to realization it is obvious that the next step of development would be Nano circuits. Considering the technology difference between the usual 0.1 ?m CMOS and Nano scale transistors it is mandatory to fabricate the whole IC with Nano technology circuits. The need for a current source in

Ehsan Mazidi

2010-01-01

197

Coupled nano-plasmons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of coupled plasmons arising in two neighbouring nano-particles is presented. The coupled oscillations and the corresponding eigenfrequencies are computed. It is shown that the plasmons may be periodically transferred between the two particles. For larger separation distances between the two particles the retardation is included. The oscillation eigenmodes are the polaritons in this case. There are distances for which the particles do not couple to each other, i.e. the polaritonic coupling gets damped. The van der Waals-London-Casimir force is estimated for the two particles; it is shown that for large distances the force is repulsive. We compute also the polarizabilities of the two coupled nano-particles and their cross-section under the action of an external monochromatic plane wave, which exhibit resonances indicative of light trapping and field enhancement. A resonant force is also identified, acting upon the particles both on behalf of the external field and of each other.

Apostol, M.; Ilie, S.; Petrut, A.; Savu, M.; Toba, S.

2013-10-01

198

NanoSense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSF-sponsored NanoSense project was created to address the question of how to teach nanoscale science at the secondary level. This web site contains the materials developed by the NanoSense team, which include four comprehensive curriculum units to introduce teachers and students to nanotechnology. Each unit has been classroom tested and provides extensive content support. Users may download cost-free lesson plans aligned to national standards, Power Point lecture materials, student activity guides, and related assessments. The materials were developed in a modular fashion to enable use for a short classroom introduction or a longer experiential learning project. Topics include 1) introduction to nanotechnology, 2) light and matter interactions, 3) solar energy and nanoscience, and 4) the water crisis.

2009-06-05

199

Mechano-micro\\/nano systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the researches about Micro\\/Nano Systems are down actively in the bio-medical research fields, DNA research fields, chemical analysis systems fields, etc. In the results, a new materials and new functions in the systems are developed. In this invited paper, Mechano-Micro\\/Nano Systems, especially, motion systems are introduced. First, the research activities concerning the Mechano-Micro\\/Nano Systems in the world(MST2003,

Mikio Horie

2004-01-01

200

Nano robots in Bio medical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-robots are the robots that are simply known as that controllable machines at the nano (10?9) meter or molecular scale, composed of nano-components. More specifically, nano robotics refer to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nano robots. Even though the field of nano robotics is fundamentally different from that of the macro robots due to

R. B. Durairaj; M. Sivasankar

2012-01-01

201

Novel approaches to biosensing and nano-biological interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has recently been applied to a wide range of biological systems. In particular, there is a current push to examine the interface between the biological world and micro/nano-scale systems. Our research in this field has led to the development of novel strategies for spatial patterning of biomolecules, electrical and optical biosensing, nanomaterial delivery systems, single-cell manipulation, and the study of cellular interactions with nano-structured surfaces. Current work on these topics will be presented, including work on novel, semiconductor-based DNA detection methods and mechanical, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based characterization of bacterial biofilms in threedimensional microfluidic systems.

Cady, Nathaniel C.; Fahrenkopf, Nicholas; Mosier, Aaron

2009-08-01

202

Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40 % of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10 % during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35 % in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20 % of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12 % later in the summer and 12 % on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

Hu, L.; Mohr, M. J.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.; Millet, D. B.

2011-06-01

203

Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present over one year (January 2010-February 2011) of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40% of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10% during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35% in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20% of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12% later in the summer and 12% on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Mohr, M. J.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.

2011-11-01

204

Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in the atmosphere as a source of carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO), however the magnitude and distribution of methanol emissions remain poorly constrained. Here we present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 185 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40% of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10% during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35% in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of HCHO and CO is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20% of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12% later in the summer and 12% on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

Hu, L.; Mohr, M.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.; Millet, D. B.

2011-12-01

205

Viability and longevity of pollen from transgenic and nontransgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) (Poaceae) plants.  

PubMed

Pollen is an important vector of gene flow in plants, particularly for outcrossing species like tall fescue. Several aspects of pollination biology were investigated using pollen from transgenic and nontransgenic plants of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), the most important forage species worldwide of the Festuca genus. To effectively assess in vitro pollen viability in tall fescue, an optimized germination medium (0.8 mol/L sucrose, 1.28 mmol/L boric acid and 1.27 mmol/L calcium nitrate) was developed. Treatment with relatively high temperatures (36° and 40°C) and high doses of UV-B irradiation (900-1500 ?W/cm(2)) reduced pollen viability, while relative humidity did not significantly influence pollen viability. Viability of pollen from transgenic progenies (T1 and T2) was similar to that from seed-derived control plants. Pollen from primary transgenics (T0) and primary regenerants (R0) had various levels of viability. Hand pollination using the primary regenerants and transgenics revealed that no seed set could be obtained when pollen viability was lower than 5%. Pollen from transgenic progenies and nontransgenic control plants could survive up to 22 h under controlled conditions in growth chamber. However, under sunny atmospheric conditions, viability of transgenic and nontransgenic pollen reduced to 5% in 30 min, with a complete loss of viability in 90 min. Under cloudy atmospheric conditions, pollen remained viable up to 240 min, with about 5% viability after 150 min. This report is the first on pollen viability and longevity in transgenic forage grasses and could be useful for risk assessment of transgenic plants. PMID:21653407

Wang, Zeng-Yu; Ge, Yaxin; Scott, Megann; Spangenberg, German

2004-04-01

206

The medicalisation of 'tall' girls: A discourse analysis of medical literature on the use of synthetic oestrogen to reduce female height.  

PubMed

Endocrine research in the 1930s increased and extended the use of sex hormones as medical therapies in an unprecedented way, especially for female ailments. In the 1950s the therapeutic use of sex hormones extended to the treatment of 'tall' girls. Ambiguity in the definition of the 'tall' girl, the arbitrary nature of the treatment decision, and diversity in the therapeutic regimes highlight the problematic nature of this medical practice. Using linguistic repertoires to study the political and ideological implications found in the patterned use of language, this paper reports on a discourse analysis of the medical literature on treatment of tall girls between the 1950s and 1990s, when this treatment was at its peak. Three linguistic repertoires emerged: the institutional authority of medicine to determine the 'abnormality' of tall stature in females; the clinical knowledge and experience in the diagnosis of medical risk associated with tall stature in women; and using hormones as cosmetic therapy to (re)produce femininity in tall girls. All three related to the maintenance of the cultural representations and social expectations of femininity. With no evidence of psychological harm associated with tall stature in women, and no long-term studies of either effectiveness or benefit, over five decades clinicians persuaded themselves and their patients that tall stature required therapeutic intervention. The treatment of tall girls with high dose oestrogen must be viewed as the medicalisation of a normal physical attribute adversely related to the social construction of gender. PMID:20678835

Rayner, Jo-Anne; Pyett, Priscilla; Astbury, Jill

2010-07-13

207

PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al, Uhlmann et al and articles to be published in a later issue by Bäumchen and Jacobs, Walz et al). Moreover, simulations accounted for these new phenomena (see articles in this issue by Leonforte et al, Hyväaluoma et al, Varnik et al, Chelakkot et al, Litvinov et al and the article to be published in a later issue by Boettcher et al), since commercial software packages typically override these special yet fundamentally new conditions. For future applications, the know-how can be used, for instance, to manipulate particles or molecules in microfluidic systems (see articles in this issue by Nottebrock et al, Straube, Uhlmann et al and the article to be published in a later issue by Boettcher et al). The articles have been divided into four subsections: 'Probing the boundary condition', 'Flow over or in special geometries', 'Soft objects in fluid flow' and 'Manipulating flow'. Many articles, however, cover more than only one aspect and could easily be listed under one of the other subsections. Three articles, two listed in the section 'Probing the boundary condition' and one listed in 'Manipulating flow', could not be included and will be published in a later issue (Bäumchen and Jacobs, Walz et al, Boettcher et al). The collection of studies gives a comprehensive overview of what has been achieved to 'bridge the gap between molecular motion and continuum flow', which was the mission of the programme and which will now form a sound platform for continuative studies. References [1] Bowtell D D 1999 Nature Genet. 21 25 [2] Lion N et al 2003 Electrophoresis 24 3533 [3] Weston A D and Hood L 2004 J. Proteome Res. 3 179 [4] Li D 2004 Microfluidics Nanofluidics 1 1 Nano- and microfluidics contents Impact of slippage on the morphology and stability of a dewetting rim Andreas Münch and Barbara Wagner Nanoscale discontinuities at the boundary of flowing liquids: a look into structure Max Wolff, Philipp Gutfreund, Adrian Rühm, Bulent Akgun and Hartmut Zabel Capillary waves of compressible fluids Kerstin Falk and Klaus Mecke Wetting, roughness and flow boundary conditions O

Jacobs, Karin

2011-05-01

208

Growing tall  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the process of education is about freeing pupils to enable them to take a more positive role in their learning, then the task of teachers becomes concerned with examining the ways in which this can happen.

David Kent; Keith Hedger

1980-01-01

209

Building Tall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 2 of PDF), young learners investigate how a wide base can make a building more stable. Learners use blocks or boxes of different sizes to construct stable towers. Learners will compare and contrast different structures, document their observations, experiment with different materials, and conduct stability tests. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Curious George's Home for Pigeons." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

Kids, Pbs

2006-01-01

210

Intergeneric somatic hybridization in Gramineae: somatic hybrid plants between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) protoplasts, inactivated by iodoacetamide, and non-morphogenic Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) protoplasts, both derived from suspension cultures, were electrofused and putative somatic hybrid plants were recovered. Two different genotypic fusion combinations were carried out and several green plants were regenerated in one of them. With respect to plant habitus, leaf and inflorescence morphology, the regenerants had phenotypes intermediate between those of the parents. Southern hybridization analysis using a rice ribosomal DNA probe revealed that the regenerants contained both tall fescue- and Italian ryegrass-specific-DNA fragments. A cloned Italian ryegrass-specific interspersed DNA probe hybridized to total genomic DNA from Italian ryegrass and from the green regenerated somatic hybrid plants but not to tall fescue. Chromosome counts and zymograms of leaf esterases suggested nuclear genome instability of the somatic hybrid plants analyzed. Four mitochondrial probes and one chloroplast DNA probe were used in Southern hybridization experiments to analyze the organellar composition of the somatic hybrids obtained. The somatic hybrid plants analyzed showed tall fescue, additive or novel mtDNA patterns when hybridized with different mitochondrial gene-specific probes, while corresponding analysis using a chloroplast gene-specific probe revealed in all cases the tall fescue hybridization profile. Independently regenerated F. arundinacea (+) L. multiflorum somatic hybrid plants were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity, representing the first flowering intergeneric somatic hybrids recovered in Gramineae. PMID:1753939

Takamizo, T; Spangenberg, G; Suginobu, K; Potrykus, I

1991-12-01

211

Measurement of property relationships of nano-structure micelles and coacervates of asphaltene in a pure solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made some progress in studies towards formation and measurement of the behavior of asphaltene micelles nano-structures that might be formed to serve as elements of nano-materials and also on synthetic strategies for creating such structures. An investigation of the micellization and coacervation measurements of asphaltenes in polar solvents at various concentrations and temperatures are made. The critical micellization

Slamet Priyanto; G. Ali Mansoori; Aryadi Suwono

2001-01-01

212

Nano-Engineered Thermoelectric Coating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nano-engineering approach has been developed for the synthesis of the thermoelectric composite materials. A possible way for enhancing ZT is to incorporate thermoelectric materials, e.g., Skutterudite, into the nano-sized pores of three-dimensional peri...

M. Toprak Y. Zhang M. Muhammed

2000-01-01

213

Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer-bridged carbon nanoscrolls  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a viable approach to fabricating ultrafast axial nano-oscillators based on carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) using molecular dynamics simulations. Initiated by a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT), a monolayer graphene can continuously scroll into a CNS with the CNT housed inside. The CNT inside the CNS can oscillate along axial direction at a natural frequency of tens of gigahertz. We demonstrate an effective strategy to reduce the dissipation of the CNS-based nano-oscillator by covalently bridging the carbon layers in the CNS. We further demonstrate that such a CNS-based nano-oscillator can be excited and driven by an external AC electric field, and oscillate at more than 100 GHz. The CNS-based nano-oscillators not only offer a feasible pathway toward ultrafast nano-devices but also hold promise to enable nanoscale energy transduction, harnessing, and storage (e.g., from electric to mechanical).

2011-01-01

214

Effects of nano-patterned versus simple flat active layers in upright organic photovoltaic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scalable procedure for nano-patterning the bulk heterojunction layer in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is reported. Nano-patterning is shown to increase light absorption in poly(3-hexylthiophene)?:?[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT?:?PCBM) devices (ITO\\WO3\\P3HT?:?PCBM\\Ca\\Al). Nano-patterning also modifies electric fields in OPV devices, thus affecting charge harvesting. Nano-patterned OPV devices with a power conversion efficiency of 4% are presented. Comparable efficiencies are also obtained by optimization of thicknesses in a flat-layer device. Trade-offs between absorption enhancement and charge harvesting deterioration induced by nano-patterning are discussed as well as possible optimization strategies.

Liu, Yingchi; Kirsch, Christoph; Gadisa, Abay; Aryal, Mukti; Mitran, Sorin; Samulski, Edward T.; Lopez, Rene

2013-01-01

215

Exploring Materials: Nano Gold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that nanoparticles of gold can appear red, orange or even blue. They learn that a material can act differently when itâs nanometer-sized. Use this activity to explain how stained glass gets its different colors. Note: the cost for the materials in this activity is quite high. However, this is a one-time cost, since the nano gold is kept in vials at all time and thus should not be used up. SAFETY: Do not let visitors ingest the contents of the vials. Keep vials sealed shut. Use caution when handling the stained glass samples. Do not remove them from their protective case.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2011-01-01

216

The frequency of chromosome aberrations in tall men with special reference to 47, XYY and 47, XXY.  

PubMed Central

All men born during the years 1944-1947 to mothers who were inhabitants of Copenhagen when they gave birth, were identified. The adult heights of all but 2,552 of these 31,438 men were obtained; a group of 4,591 men at least 184 cm tall were selected for examination. Samples for chromosome studies were obtained from 4,139 (90.2%) of these tall men. A total of 41 (1%) abnormalities were identified (33 sex chromosome abnormalities, including 12 XYYs (0.3%) and 16 XXYs (0.4%), 6 autosomal abnormalities, and two of uncertain origin). The XYY and XXY groups were taller than the selected sample of tall XY men. Images Fig. 1

Philip, J; Lundsteen, C; Owen, D; Hirschhorn, K

1976-01-01

217

Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

NONE

1997-03-01

218

Tallness is associated with risk of testicular cancer: evidence for the nutrition hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) is potentially influenced by high-energy nutrition during infancy. As adult height is a proxy for childhood nutrition, we investigated the role of nutrition in GCT pathogenesis by comparing stature of patients with healthy men. In a matched case–control study, 6415 patients with GCT were compared with healthy army conscripts (1:6 matching modus) with regard to height (cm) and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Statistical analysis involved tabulation of descriptive height measures and BMI. Conditional logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of GCT with height, with odds ratios (OR) adjusted for BMI. The literature was searched for studies on stature in GCT patients. Body size is significantly associated with risk of GCT, very tall men (>195?cm) having a GCT risk of OR=3.35 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.88–3.90; adjusted). Short stature is protective (OR=0.798; 95% CI: 0.68–0.93). Both histologic subgroups are associated with tallness. Of 16 previous reports, 7 were confirmative, 5 had null and 4 equivocal results. The association of stature with GCT risk accords with the nutrition hypothesis of GCT. This study expands the current view of GCT tumorigenesis by suggesting that high-calorie intake in childhood promotes GCT precursors originating in utero.

Dieckmann, K-P; Hartmann, J T; Classen, J; Ludde, R; Diederichs, M; Pichlmeier, U

2008-01-01

219

Highly efficient transformation and plant regeneration of tall fescue mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible system has been developed for the production of transgenic plants in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Two-months-old suspension cultures served as excellent explants for transformation. The explants were inoculated with an A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying a plasmid pDBA121 containing genes for hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar). The commercial herbicide Basta was used as a selective agent. Inclusion of acetosyringone (ACS) 20 mg/L in the co-culture medium led to an increase in transformation efficiency. The efficiency of transformation was highly dependent on the genotype, the explant, the culture medium and selective agent used. Tall fescue transformation efficiency is 2.85-10.9 plants per gram fresh weight (FW) of suspension cultures. This is much higher than the corresponding values reported before (2-5 plants). So far more than 300 transgenic plants have been obtained, the fertility of some transgenic plants had decreased. Stable integration and high expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization or herbicide Basta spraying test. PMID:15840933

Hu, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Jin-Qing; Wu, Guan-Ting; Jin, Wei; Lang, Chun-Xiu; Huang, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun

2005-04-01

220

Nano rolling-circle amplification for enhanced SERS hot spots in protein microarray analysis.  

PubMed

Although "hot spots" have been proved to contribute to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), less attention was paid to increase the number of the "hot spot" to directly enhance the Raman signals in bioanalytical systems. Here we report a new strategy based on nano rolling-circle amplification (nanoRCA) and nano hyperbranched rolling-circle amplification (nanoHRCA) to increase "hot spot" groups for protein microarrays. First, protein and ssDNA are coassembled on gold nanoparticles, making the assembled probe have both binding ability and hybridization ability. Second, the ssDNAs act as primers to initiate in situ RCA reaction to produced long ssDNAs. Third, a large number of SERS probes are loaded on the long ssDNA templetes, allowing thousands of SERS probes involved in each biomolecular recognition event. The strategy offered high-efficiency Raman enhancement and could detect less than 10 zeptomolar protein molecules in protein microarray analysis. PMID:23046056

Yan, Juan; Su, Shao; He, Shijiang; He, Yao; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Dongfang; Zhang, Honglu; Huang, Qing; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai

2012-10-18

221

Performance and physiology of yearling steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroidal horomones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) adversely affect cattle weight gain and physiology. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) KY-31 tall fescue for 77 days in 2007 and sixty steers were grazed for 86 ...

222

The medicalisation of ‘tall’ girls: A discourse analysis of medical literature on the use of synthetic oestrogen to reduce female height  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine research in the 1930s increased and extended the use of sex hormones as medical therapies in an unprecedented way, especially for female ailments. In the 1950s the therapeutic use of sex hormones extended to the treatment of ‘tall’ girls. Ambiguity in the definition of the ‘tall’ girl, the arbitrary nature of the treatment decision, and diversity in the therapeutic

Jo-Anne Rayner; Priscilla Pyett; Jill Astbury

2010-01-01

223

Recent topics of micro and nano mechatronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the recent topics of micro and nano mechatronics. A nano laboratory-a prototype nano manufacturing system based on nanorobotlic manipulation-is presented for enabling nanotube-based micro- and nano- mechatronics, such as microhano sensors and actuators, bio- applications and nano-robotics applications. Deflection of cantilevered individual nanotubes based mass flow sensors, field emission of a cantilevered nanotube based approaching sensor,

Toshio Fukuda; Fumihito Arai; Lixin Dong; Y. Imaizumi

2004-01-01

224

Low Frequency Loss in Regional Scale Flux Observations from a Tall Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of surface fluxes are nowadays often performed with the eddy-correlation technique. The method is well established for observations in the lowest few meters of the atmosphere which gives flux estimates with a footprint of typically 100 m. Models and satellite products often give results on the kilometer scale or larger and benefit for their evaluation from flux estimates with larger horizontal scales. Until now only a limited number of techniques are available for direct flux observation at larger scale, e.g. airborne eddy correlation, tall tower based observations and scintillometers. Elevated observations "see" a larger footprint. We focus on tall tower flux observations. Specific problems arise when estimating surface fluxes from these elevated observations related to storage below the observation level and advection. A third concern and the focus of this presentation is the increase of length scale of the transporting turbulent eddies when going to higher levels in the atmospheric boundary layer and the related issue of low frequency loss. With the Cabauw 200 m meteorological tower in the Netherlands a unique platform is available to perform tall tower flux observations. The tower has been equipped with eddy correlation systems at 5, 60, 100 and 180 m height which measures fluxes of momentum, temperature, humidity and CO2. In addition wind speed, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration are measured at a number of intermediate levels. This set of instruments has been augmented with an extra large aperture scintillometer which operates at the 60 m level over the 10 km path between a TV-tower and the Cabauw meteorological tower. Typically turbulence flux data is calculated on a 10 to 30 minute time basis. For atmospheric surface layer observation well established similarity relations exist to estimate low-frequency flux contributions. Low frequency contributions above the surface layer are less well established. We have analysed a large number of days and determined the flux contribution at timescales beyond the averaging time. On the basis of this analysis the surface layer relations for low frequency flux contributions are then generalized to higher levels in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Bosveld, F. C.; Schalkwijk, J.; Siebesma, A. P.

2010-09-01

225

Silicon-carbon nano-structures to nano-tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been continuing efforts to stabilize silicon cage-type nano-structures or nano-tubes which can be used in similar ways as the carbon-based fullerene structures. This is due to the fact that the current semiconductor industries are based on silicon. Silicon carbide is the focus of scientific research due to its potential use even in extreme conditions, such as extreme high-temperature,

M. N. Huda; Leonard Kleinman; A. K. Ray

2006-01-01

226

NanoKids(TM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NanoKids(TM) is an education and outreach program for intermediate-level (middle-school) students intended to increase their knowledge of nanotechnology and emerging research and technology in this field, which involves working with objects on the molecular and atomic scale (as small as one-billionth of a meter). Site materials include a series of self-contained lessons accompanied by animated videos and an online workbook for students. There is also a sample test and additional resources for teachers (slide presentations, games, and other materials). The site also offers an overview of the project and its participants, biographical "sketches" of the characters used in the animations, and one-page features that explain the nanometer scale, the countries and scientists involved in nanotechnology, and atoms, molecules, and bondng. Some materials on the site are available in Spanish.

227

Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective,

S Wharton; J K Lundquist

2010-01-01

228

Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics oas an index of tall fescue–endophyte association response to light availability and defoliation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is adapted to diverse growing conditions occurring in humid, temperate agro-ecosystems. A mutualistic endophytic symbiont (Neotyphodium coenophialum, [Morgan-Jones et Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) contributes to this resilience, but at t...

229

Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This

Melanie L Hand; Noel OI Cogan; Alan V Stewart; John W Forster

2010-01-01

230

Quantitative effects of soil depth and soil and fertilizer nitrogen on nitrogen uptake by tall fescue and switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semi?arid regions, soil depth influences soil N uptake, but not ferilizer N uptake. How soil depth interacts with soil and fertilzer N to influence N uptake in humid regions is not known. The objective was to determine the relative importance of soil depth and soil and fertilizer N uptake, by forage grasses. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and switchgrass

W. L. Stout; T. E. Staley; J. A. Shaffer; G. A. Jung

1991-01-01

231

NITROGEN METABOLISM OF BEEF STEERS FED ENDOPHYTE-FREE TALL FESCUE HAY: EFFECTS OF RUMINALLY PROTECTED METHIONINE SUPPLEMENTATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Level of nitrogen (N) intake and ruminally protected methionine supplementation were evaluated in 8 Angus growing steers (initial weight 253 21 kg, final weight 296 21 kg) in a replicated, 4X4 Latin square design. The steers were fed two endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hays tha...

232

The Effect of Formulation and Amount of Potassium Fertilizer on Macromineral Concentration and Cation-Anion Difference in Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the feasibility of altering the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) in grass by al- tering the grass variety and the amount and formula- tion of K fertilizer application. In experiment 1, treat- ments were combinations of 2 varieties (Barcel and Hi- Mag) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb); 2 rates of K (0 and 250 kg\\/ha), supplied as

M. L. Swift; S. Bittman; D. E. Hunt; C. G. Kowalenko

2007-01-01

233

Amino acid composition of fractions of ‘Kentucky31’ tall fescue as affected by N fertilization and mild water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Environmental and management factors can influence the protein concentration of forages, significantly altering specific amino acid content. Drought, high rates of fertilizer N and the presence of a fungal endophyte have been associated with significant alterations in plant N metabolites and animal performance problems on tall fescue. A controlled environment study was conducted to examine the influence of N

D. P. Belesky; S. R. Wilkinson; J. J. Evans

1984-01-01

234

Variable Performance of Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid on Neotyphodium-infected Wild Tall Fescue from Tunisia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The extent of Neotyphodium based resistance in wild fescue to bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) was determined by quantifying densities of this aphid on a series of Neotyphodium – infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tall fescue entries. Little or no aphid survival was observed on plants from ...

235

Analysis for the Reflected Waves Transmitted on to the Channel by Tall Grounded Objects Using a Special Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

During lightning strike to a tall grounded object (TGO), reflected current waves from TGO are transmitted on to the channel. With regard to these transmitted waves, there seems to be some uncertainties like: 1) will they get reflected at the main wavefront; and 2) if so, what would be their final status. This study makes an attempt to address these

Rosy Balaram Raysaha; Udaya Kumar; Vernon Cooray

2012-01-01

236

The influence of ‘Tall Man’ lettering on errors of visual perception in the recognition of written drug names  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual errors in the perception of written drug names can reflect orthographic similarity amongst certain names. Drug names are typically printed in lowercase text. ‘Tall Man’ lettering, the capitalisation of the portions that differ amongst orthographically similar drug names, is employed in the field of medication labelling and prescribing to reduce medication errors by highlighting the area most likely to

Iain T. Darker; David Gerret; Ruth Filik; Kevin J. Purdy; Alastair G. Gale

2011-01-01

237

Fire, Grazing and the Dynamics of Tall-Grass Savannas in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed burning is often used to enhance forage availability for herbivores in rangelands worldwide. This study evaluated the utility of such prescribed burning as a management tool to improve herbivore habitat quality in the Mundanthurai plateau region of the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), south India. Currently, large tracts of the plateau are dominated by the unpalatable tall-grass species Cymbopogon flexuosus,

Mahesh Sankaran

238

Effects of Selected Combinations of Tall Fescue Alkaloids on the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Fescue-Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot...

239

Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alters Serotonin Receptor-Induced Contractility of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concurrent with grazing of endophyte-infected tall fescue is the consumption of toxic alkaloids that negatively affect cardiovascular function and result in fescue toxicosis. Vascular effects of ergopeptine alkaloids are mediated by stimulation of various biogenic amine receptors yet to be fully cha...

240

Constraints on regional sources of volatile organic compounds from tall tower measurements in the Upper Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role in the atmosphere as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol. Here we present initial results from our ongoing field campaign at the University of Minnesota Trace Gas Observatory, a 244 m Ameriflux tall tower. We use proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to measure VOC concentrations at a sampling height of 200 m above ground level, providing a high-resolution signal with a regional-scale footprint. The tower location, near the intersection of the main North American ecosystems, allows us to capture signals from eastern deciduous forest, northern coniferous forest, agriculture, and western prairie. Here we will interpret the measurements in terms of their implications for current understanding of VOC emissions from plant functional types and the corresponding chemical impacts in the atmosphere.

Hu, L.; Mohr, M.; Millet, D. B.

2009-12-01

241

Recent Results From the NOAA/ESRL GMD Tall Tower Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present a summary of new results from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory`s Tall Tower greenhouse gas monitoring network. The tower network is operated by the Global Monitoring Division, which also maintains the global Cooperative Air Sampling network and a network of aircraft profiling sites over North America. Tall tower CO2 mixing ratio measurements are sensitive to upwind fluxes over scales of hundreds of kilometers, and the primary objective of the tower network is to obtain regionally representative carbon flux estimates for the North American continent. Mixing ratios of CO2 and CO are measured semi-continuously at the towers, and the KWKT-TV tower site near Moody, TX has recently also been equipped with sensors to measure radon and O3. Daily flask samples are collected at the KWKT tower and analyzed for CO2, CO, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, stable isotopes of CO2 and CH4, COS, and a variety of halocarbon and hydrocarbon species. Daily flask sampling will be implemented at all tower sites within the next few years. We have used the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model to investigate upwind influences on the tower observations. CO measurements provide an indicator of polluted air masses, and we will present a summary of the frequency and origin of pollution events observed at the towers. We will present an analysis of the primary factors contributing to observed CO2 variability along with average seasonal and diurnal cycles of CO2 at the tower sites. Tower measurements are being used to evaluate atmospheric transport models in the context of the Transcom Continuous experiment and are an important constraint for CO2 data assimilation systems that produce regional to global carbon flux estimates with up to weekly resolution.

Andrews, A. E.; Tans, P. P.; Peters, W.; Hirsch, A.; Sweeney, C.; Petron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zhao, C.; Masarie, K.; Wofsy, S. C.; Matross, D. M.; Mahadevan, P.; Longo, M.; Gerbig, C.; Lin, J. C.

2006-12-01

242

Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue  

SciTech Connect

Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of {sup 14}C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH{sub 4}{sup +} reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade.

Lyons, P.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Evans, J.J.; Bacon, C.W. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1990-03-01

243

Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 ± 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22°C (d 1 to 3) and 32°C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32°C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

2011-11-07

244

Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.  

PubMed

Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P < 0.01). Body weight gain per hectare of steers grazing NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than those of KY-31 and WR during 2003 to 2004, whereas in 2004 to 2005, BW gain per hectare of steers grazing NE and RG did not differ (P < or = 0.29) and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of WR, which was greater (P < 0.01) than that of KY-31. During 2005 to 2006, BW gain per hectare was greater (P < 0.01) for steers grazing RG than those of NE and WR, which did not differ (P > or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance. PMID:18310498

Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

2008-02-29

245

Fabricating nano ribbons and nano fibers of semiconductor materials by diamond turning.  

PubMed

Diamond turning tests have been made on single crystalline silicon wafers. It was found that chips removed from the material surface during machining consist of nano needles, nano ribbons and nano fibers, the shape and size of which depend on the undeformed chip thickness and the cutting edge geometry. Electron diffraction studies showed that the needle-type chips are micro-crystalline with slight amorphization; while the nano ribbons and nano fibers have been mostly transformed into the amorphous phase. This work preliminary demonstrated the feasibility of an efficient and inexpensive production method for mechanically flexible nano ribbons and nano fibers for micro-nano mechanical and electronic applications. PMID:19441538

Yan, Jiwang; Gai, Xiaohui; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

2009-02-01

246

Nanodiamond as an effective reinforcing component for nano-copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports for the first time the use of nanodiamond (nD) particles as a reinforcing component for alloying with nano-copper (nCu). Significant rise in Vickers microhardness (HV) was realised for nCu after ball milling together with nD. Thus, mechanical alloying (MA) proved to be an effective strategy for strengthening copper with nD, and perhaps for other metallic alloys as

V. Livramento; J. B. Correia; N. Shohoji; E. ?sawa

2007-01-01

247

Efficient stripping voltammetric detection of organophosphate pesticides using NanoPt intercalated Ni\\/Al layered double hydroxides as solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a simple strategy for designing a sensitive electrochemical stripping voltammetric sensor for organophosphate pesticides (OPs) based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using nanosized Pt intercalated Ni\\/Al layered double hydroxides (labeled as NanoPt-LDHs). By assembling NanoPt with LDHs together, the resulting NanoPt-LDHs are highly efficient to capture OPs. It dramatically facilitates the enrichment of OPs onto their surface and realizes

Jingming Gong; Lianyi Wang; Xingju Miao; Lizhi Zhang

2010-01-01

248

Transcriptional activation of prostate specific homeobox gene NKX3-1 in subsets of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).  

PubMed

Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL. PMID:22848398

Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Schneider, Björn; Geffers, Robert; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

2012-07-27

249

Molecular characterisation and interpretation of genetic diversity within globally distributed germplasm collections of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds.).  

PubMed

Allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) is an agriculturally important grass cultivated for pasture and turf world-wide. Genetic improvement of tall fescue could benefit from the use of non-domesticated germplasm to diversify breeding populations through the incorporation of novel and superior allele content. However, such potential germplasm must first be characterised, as three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) with varying degrees of hybrid interfertility are commonly described within this species. As hexaploid tall fescue is also a member of a polyploid species complex that contains tetraploid, octoploid and decaploid taxa, it is also possible that germplasm collections may have inadvertently sampled some of these sub-species. In this study, 1,040 accessions from the publicly available United States Department of Agriculture tall fescue and meadow fescue germplasm collections were investigated. Sequence of the chloroplast genome-located matK gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) permitted attribution of accessions to the three previously known morphotypes and also revealed the presence of tall fescue sub-species of varying ploidy levels, as well as other closely related species. The majority of accessions were, however, identified as Continental hexaploid tall fescue. Analysis using 34 simple sequence repeat markers was able to further investigate the level of genetic diversity within each hexaploid tall fescue morphotype group. At least two genetically distinct sub-groups of Continental hexaploid tall fescue were identified which are probably associated with palaeogeographic range expansion of this morphotype. This work has comprehensively characterised a large and complex germplasm collection and has identified genetically diverse accessions which may potentially contribute valuable alleles at agronomic loci for tall fescue cultivar improvement programs. PMID:22222441

Hand, Melanie L; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W

2012-01-06

250

Transcriptional Activation of Prostate Specific Homeobox Gene NKX3-1 in Subsets of T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)  

PubMed Central

Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL.

Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jurgen; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Schneider, Bjorn; Geffers, Robert; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

2012-01-01

251

Genetic analysis with nanoPCR.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a standard and important molecular biological technique with numerous applications in genetic analysis, forensics and in vitro diagnostics. Since its invention in the 1980s, there has been dramatic performance improvement arising from long-lasting efforts to optimize amplification conditions in both academic studies and commercial applications. More recently, a range of nanometer-sized materials including metal nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, carbon nanomaterials and polymer nanoparticles, have shown unique effects in tuning amplification processes of PCR. It is proposed that these artificial nanomaterials mimic protein components in the natural DNA replication machinery in vivo. These so-called nanomaterials-assisted PCR (nanoPCR) strategies shed new light on powerful PCR with unprecedented sensitivity, selectivity and extension rate. In this review, we aim to summarize recent progress in this direction and discuss possible mechanisms for such performance improvement and potential applications in genetic analysis (particularly gene typing and haplotyping) and diagnostics. PMID:22907590

Pan, Dun; Mi, Lijuan; Huang, Qing; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

2012-10-01

252

3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation.  

PubMed

The resputtering of gold films from nano-holes defined in a sacrificial PMMA mask, which was made by electron beam lithography, was carried out with a dry plasma etching tool in order to form well-like structures with a high aspect ratio (height/width ? 3-4) at the rims of the nano-holes. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano-wells was investigated experimentally and numerically. By doing numerical simulations of 50-nm and 100-nm diameter polystyrene beads in water and air, we show the potential of such patterns for self-induced back-action (SIBA) trapping. The best trapping conditions were found to be a trapping force of 2 pN/W/?m(2) (numerical result) exerted on a 50-nm diameter bead in water. The simulations were based on the analytical Lorentz force model. PMID:24062979

Seniutinas, Gediminas; Rosa, Lorenzo; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Brasselet, Etienne; Juodkazis, Saulius

2013-09-17

253

3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation  

PubMed Central

Summary The resputtering of gold films from nano-holes defined in a sacrificial PMMA mask, which was made by electron beam lithography, was carried out with a dry plasma etching tool in order to form well-like structures with a high aspect ratio (height/width ? 3–4) at the rims of the nano-holes. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano-wells was investigated experimentally and numerically. By doing numerical simulations of 50-nm and 100-nm diameter polystyrene beads in water and air, we show the potential of such patterns for self-induced back-action (SIBA) trapping. The best trapping conditions were found to be a trapping force of 2 pN/W/?m2 (numerical result) exerted on a 50-nm diameter bead in water. The simulations were based on the analytical Lorentz force model.

Seniutinas, Gediminas; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Brasselet, Etienne; Juodkazis, Saulius

2013-01-01

254

Interactions between supplement energy source and tall fescue hay maturity on forage utilization by beef steers.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tall fescue hay maturity on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation responses to different supplemental energy sources fed to beef steers. Twelve ruminally cannulated, crossbred steers (initial BW = 228 +/- 21 kg) were used in a split-plot experiment with a 3 x 4 factorial treatment arrangement. Steers were assigned randomly to three supplement treatments: 1) no supplement, 2) pelleted soybean hulls, or 3) coarse cracked corn. The second treatment factor was fescue hay maturity: 1) vegetative (VEG), 2) boot-stage (BOOT), 3) heading-stage (HEAD), and 4) mature (MAT). Supplements were fed once daily at 0.67% of BW (OM basis) and tall fescue hay was offered once daily at 150% of average intake. Supplement type x forage maturity interactions were not detected (P > or = 0.25) for forage, total, or digestible OM intake, which generally decreased (P < 0.01) with advancing forage maturity. Supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) forage and increased (P < 0.01) total OM intake. Supplement type had no effect (P = 0.56) on substitution ratio (unit change in forage intake per unit of supplement intake). Digestible OM intake was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.05) with soybean hulls than with corn. Supplement type x forage maturity interactions (P < or = 0.10) were observed for OM and NDF digestibilities and N retention. Increases in digestibility with soybean hulls relative to corn were greater and supplementation elicited greater increases in N retention with more mature forages. Compared with soybean hulls, corn supplementation resulted in greater (P < 0.01) negative associative effects on OM digestibility. Supplementation did not affect (P > or = 0.10) ruminal pH, total VFA concentrations, or acetate:propionate ratio. Corn supplementation decreased (P < or = 0.07) ruminal NH3-N concentrations compared with control and soybean hulls; however, decreases in ruminal NH3-N concentrations were not consistent with the presence of negative associative effects. Thus, mechanisms not involving ruminal pH or NH3-N concentration seem responsible for negative associative effects observed with corn supplementation. Within the range of forage quality in this study, increases in digestible OM intake from starch- or fiber-based supplements were independent of forage maturity. When fed at similar levels of OM, soybean hull supplementation provided an average of 6% greater digestible OM intake than corn supplementation. PMID:14753375

Fieser, B G; Vanzant, E S

2004-01-01

255

Effects of modified tall oil versus a commercial source of conjugated linoleic acid and increasing levels of modified tall oil on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)- enriched feed additives for swine. These additives in- cluded a source of CLA that was commercially available (CLA-60) and modified tall oil (MTO). Experiment 1 used 36 barrows (initially 37.6 ± 2.8 kg) to compare the effects of CLA-60 and MTO on growth performance and carcass characteristics

P. R. O'Quinn; J. L. Nelssen; R. D. Goodband; J. A. Unruh; J. C. Woodworth; J. S. Smith; M. D. Tokach

256

High Throughput Screening at the Nano Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique approach to master sample screening at the nano scale was launched as a joint venture project between Evotec Biosystems AG Germany and Novartis Pharma AG. The application, which provides a fully automated nano-screening platform, is composed of three module units: HPLC Nano-Fraction Collection, Micro to Nano Pipetting, and Screening. Process simulation and 3D design tools were used to

Juerg Gentsch; Oliver Bruttger

2000-01-01

257

Technology foresight on Danish nano-science and nano-technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose is to report on a Danish nano-science and nano-technology foresight project carried out in 2004. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The foresight process had the following key elements: review of international technology foresight projects on nano-technology; mapping of Danish nano-science and nano-technology; broad internet survey among interested parties; expert reports; workshops related to the expert reports; analysis of the

Per Dannemand Andersen; Birgitte Rasmussen; Marianne Strange; Jens Haisler

2005-01-01

258

Nano Science and Technology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nano Science and Technology Institute (NSTI) is chartered with the promotion and integration of nano and other advanced technologies through education, technology and business development. NSTI accomplishes this mission through its offerings of membership services, continuing education programs, scientific and business publishing and community outreach. NSTI produces the annual Nanotech conference and trade show, the most comprehensive international nanotechnology convention in the world. NSTI also produces the semi-annual Nanotech Venture, Nanotech Industrial Impact Workshop, Nano Impact Summit and the Nanotech Course Series in the US and Europe. NSTI was founded in 1997 as a result of the merger between various scientific societies, and is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts with additional offices in California and Switzerland.

2008-12-03

259

Radiation Hard Nano-FET based Biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nano transistor based biosensor has been developed which has the potential to detect pathogens and thus protect crew safety aboard long term manned flight programs. This work outlines structures which compose the biosensor and demonstrates that the nano transistors utilized herein are total dose radiation hard. The Nano Field Effect Transistors (FET) were designed and fabricated with doped

Eric Cameron; Nirankar Mishra; Paul Winterrowd; Ron Nelson; Shiva Rastogi; Wusi Maki

260

Nano copper conductive ink for RFID application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel nano copper conductive ink, composed of anti-oxidation nano copper particles and chemical additives, had been successfully developed and employed for RFID application. A pattern of UHF RFID antenna was chosen to print on polyimide (PI) film by ink-jet printing, and then cured by UV light to form the copper wire. The adhesion of the nano copper ink film

Jian Li; Bing An; Jian Qin; Yiping Wu

2011-01-01

261

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

2010-05-01

262

GROWTH AND METABOLISM OF GROWING BEEF CALVES FED TALL FESCUE HAYLAGE SUPPLEMENTED WITH PROTEIN AND(OR) ENERGY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophyte (Acremonlum coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue was fertilized in mid-August, stockpiled, harvested November 4 to 6 and stored in a concrete stave silo. Ninety-six growing calves (189 kg) were assigned to the following treatments (24 calves\\/treatment): 1) corn silage (CS) plus .4 kg\\/d of soybean meal (SBM); 2) rescue haylage plus .4 kg\\/d of SBM; 3)rescue haylage plus 1.6

W. L. Smith; N. Gay; J. A. Boling; R. B. Muntifering

263

Comparison of strains of Lysobacter enzymogenes and PGPR for induction of resistance against Bipolaris sorokiniana in tall fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysobacter enzymogenes C3, the only biocontrol agent previously known to induce resistance in tall fescue against Bipolaris sorokiniana, was compared in growth chamber experiments with other strains of L. enzymogenes, strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that induce systemic resistance in dicot plants, and the synthetic elicitor 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-S-methyl-ester (BTH). The treatments were evaluated for induction of localized or

Ozlem Kilic-Ekici; Gary Y. Yuen

2004-01-01

264

Expression of a sulphur-rich sunflower albumin gene in transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants have been generated that express foreign genes encoding a rumen-stable protein rich in sulphur-containing\\u000a amino acids. The aim was to improve the protein quality of a forage grass for ruminant nutrition. Chimeric sulphur-rich sunflower\\u000a albumin (SFA8) genes, including an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL), were constructed under the control of constitutive\\u000a (CaMV 35S)

Z. Y. Wang; X. D. Ye; J. Nagel; I. Potrykus; G. Spangenberg

2001-01-01

265

Investigation of a long time series of CO2 from a tall tower using WRF-SPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric observations from tall towers are an important source of information about CO2 exchange at the regional scale. Here, we have used a forward running model, WRF-SPA, to generate a time series of CO2 at a tall tower for comparison with observations from Scotland over multiple years (2006-2008). We use this comparison to infer strength and distribution of sources and sinks of carbon and ecosystem process information at the seasonal scale. The specific aim of this research is to combine a high resolution (6 km) forward running meteorological model (WRF) with a modified version of a mechanistic ecosystem model (SPA). SPA provides surface fluxes calculated from coupled energy, hydrological and carbon cycles. This closely coupled representation of the biosphere provides realistic surface exchanges to drive mixing within the planetary boundary layer. The combined model is used to investigate the sources and sinks of CO2 and to explore which land surfaces contribute to a time series of hourly observations of atmospheric CO2 at a tall tower, Angus, Scotland. In addition to comparing the modelled CO2 time series to observations, modelled ecosystem specific (i.e. forest, cropland, grassland) CO2 tracers (e.g., assimilation and respiration) have been compared to the modelled land surface assimilation to investigate how representative tall tower observations are of land surface processes. WRF-SPA modelled CO2 time series compares well to observations (R2 = 0.67, rmse = 3.4 ppm, bias = 0.58 ppm). Through comparison of model-observation residuals, we have found evidence that non-cropped components of agricultural land (e.g., hedgerows and forest patches) likely contribute a significant and observable impact on regional carbon balance.

Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew; Moncrieff, John B.

2013-04-01

266

Water-use patterns of tall fescue and hybrid bluegrass cultivars subjected to ET-based irrigation scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In turf industry, the ability of a cultivar to use less water is an important consideration, especially where rainfall and\\u000a irrigation water are insufficient. Knowledge of turf grass water-use patterns is therefore important for developing efficient\\u000a water management practices and also for selection of drought-resistant cultivars. We evaluated the soil water?use patterns\\u000a of tall fescue and hybrid bluegrasses cultivars irrigated

Leonard J. M. Githinji; Jacob H. Dane; Robert H. Walker

2009-01-01

267

From cat?s eyes to multiple disjoint natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities: A direct primitive variables approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural convection fluid flow in air-filled tall tilted cavities is studied numerically with a new direct projection method on the Boussinesq approximation in primitive variables. The study deals with "cat's eyes" instabilities and multiple disjoint cells as the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination ? of the cavity vary. The flows are validated with those reported before using the stream function-vorticity variables. New cases, A=12 and 20 varying ?, lead to get more insight on the physical phenomenon.

Báez, Elsa; Nicolás, Alfredo

2013-11-01

268

Responses of MxPPO overexpressing transgenic tall fescue plants to two diphenyl-ether herbicides, oxyfluorfen and acifluorfen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Kentucky-31) plants harboring a synthetic Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase (MxPPO) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Successful integration of the transgene into the genome of transgenic plants confirmed by polymerase\\u000a chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis, and the functional expression of the MxPPO gene at the mRNA level in transgenic lines

Ki-Won Lee; Nagib Ahsan; Sang-Hoon Lee; Dong-Gi Lee; Kyung-Hee Kim; Iftekhar Alam; Suk-Yoon Kwon; Jin-Seog Kim; Kyoungwhan Back; Sung Sil Lee; Byung-Hyun Lee

2008-01-01

269

AU Triumph, Johnstone and Kentucky 31 tall fescue pastures versus maize silage in diets for lactating dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of lactating dairy cattle fed on a maize silage (S) dry?lot scheme was compared with that of lactating dairy cattle switched abruptly from a dry?lot regime to graze endophyte?free Johnstone (J), Kentucky 31 (K), or AU Triumph (T) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as components of dairy diets. Twenty?four mature Holsteins either grazed pasture or received maize silage

J. F. Kabiligi; B. R. Moss; D. I. Bransby; J. L. Holliman; J. C. Lin

1996-01-01

270

Response of Fructan to Water Deficit in Growing Leaves of Tall Fescue.  

PubMed Central

Changes in dry matter and water-soluble carbohydrate components, especially fructan, were examined in the basal 25 mm of expanding leaf blades of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to assess their roles in plant response to water deficit. Water was withheld from vegetative plants grown in soil in controlled-environment chambers. As stress progressed, leaf elongation rate decreased sooner in the light period than it did in the dark period. The decrease in growth rate in the dark period was associated with a decrease in local relative elongation rates and a shortening of the elongation zone from about 25 mm (control) to 15 mm. Dry matter content of the leaf base increased 23% during stress, due mainly to increased water-soluble carbohydrate near the ligule and to increased water-soluble, carbohydrate-free dry matter at distal positions. Sucrose content increased 258% in the leaf base, but especially (over 4-fold) within 10 mm of the ligule. Hexose content increased 187% in the leaf base. Content of total fructan decreased to 69% of control, mostly in regions farther from the ligule. Fructan hydrolysis could account for the hexose accumulated. Stress caused the osmotic potential to decrease throughout the leaf base, but more toward the ligule. With stress there was 70% less direct contribution of low-degree-of-polymerization fructan to osmotic potential in the leaf base, but that for sucrose and hexose increased 96 and 67%, respectively. Thus, fructan metabolism is involved but fructan itself contributes only indirectly to osmotic adjustment.

Spollen, W. G.; Nelson, C. J.

1994-01-01

271

A virtual tall tower network for understanding continental sources and sinks of CO2  

SciTech Connect

Our understanding of the North American terrestrial carbon cycle is limited by both a lack of continental atmospheric CO2 data, and by a need for methods to interpret these and other continental data with confidence. In response to this challenge a rapid expansion of the N. American carbon cycle observational network is underway. This expansion includes a network of continuous, continental CO2 mixing ratio observations being collected at a subset of AmeriFlux towers. Progress in developing this resource includes instrument development, site installation, calibration and intercalibration efforts, and initiation of a uniform data product. Progess in applying these data include proposed methods for interpreting surface layer measurements in atmospheric inversions (the virtual tall towers approach), examination of coherence patterns in continental mixing ratios in response to weather and climate, and application of these mixing ratio measurements in formal atmospheric inversions. Future work will merge these methods with interpretation of flux towers observations of terrestrial carbon fluxes in an effort to create a single coherent diagnosis of North American terrestrial carbon fluxes over a multi-year period.

Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

2007-03-09

272

Wind response of a tall building with full-scale observations  

SciTech Connect

A 22-story hotel is the subject of a full-scale experimental study conducted as the second phase of a project addressing the wind-induced response of tall buildings. The first phase of this study investigated a 16-story office building. The observations of wind loading and building response obtained at the hotel site reflect similar behavior as was observed at the office building. Consequently, the second phase serves to reinforce and generalize the findings of the phase one study. The results illustrate the significance of wind-induced response for buildings of intermediate height. Based on estimated thresholds of human perceptibility combined with predictions of maximum building response from a theoretical analysis, clearly perceptible wind-induced motion is expected to occur annually at the hotel. Yet, motion will not be sufficient intensity to be unpleasant. A similar analysis suggests that building response will also produce some non-structural damage on an annual basis. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Mills, R.S. (California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States))

1991-08-01

273

Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Sheets Dry-Drawn from Tall MWCNT Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly aligned MWCNT forests can by grown by catalytic CVD process in a dry-spinable highly oriented form which allows to draw CNT sheets and twist spin yarns [1,2]. However the sheet resistance of such transparent CNT sheets with average height of 300 um is quite high: 500-700 Ohm/sq. Motivation of our study is to grow taller forests with optimal interbundle connectivity [3] which may result in lower sheet resistance of CNT sheets and higher optical transparency by optimized control of CCVD conditions. We have succeeded to grow tall CNT forest with h=1 ?m and resulting sheet resistance about 200 Ohm/sq. To find the correlation between properties of CNT forests and CNT sheets we conducted SEM analysis combined with Raman, AFM and small-angle X-ray scattering. This study shows how the number, geometry, and mechanical strength of interconnects between bundles are related to the physical properties of CNT sheets. [4pt] [1] M.Zhang, S.Fang et al., Science, V.309 (2005) 1215 [0pt] [2] M.Zhang, K.Atkinson, R.Baughman, Science, V.306 (2004) 1358 [0pt] [3] A.Kuznetsov, A.Fonseca et al., Adv.Mat., (submitted)

Bykova, Julia; Holmes, William; Zakhidov, Anvar

2010-03-01

274

Hydrostatic constraints on morphological exploitation of light in tall Sequoia sempervirens trees.  

PubMed

We studied changes in morphological and physiological characteristics of leaves and shoots along a height gradient in Sequoia sempervirens, the tallest tree species on Earth, to investigate whether morphological and physiological acclimation to the vertical light gradient was constrained by hydrostatic limitation in the upper crown. Bulk leaf water potential (Psi) decreased linearly and light availability increased exponentially with increasing height in the crown. During the wet season, Psi was lower in the outer than inner crown. C isotope composition of leaves (delta(13)C) increased with increasing height indicating greater photosynthetic water use efficiency in the upper crown. Leaf and shoot morphology changed continuously with height. In contrast, their relationships with light availability were discontinuous: morphological characteristics did not correspond to increasing light availability above 55-85 m. Mass-based chlorophyll concentration (chl) decreased with increasing height and increasing light availability. In contrast, area-based chl remained constant or increased with increasing height. Mass-based maximum rate of net photosynthesis (P (max)) decreased with increasing height, whereas area-based P (max) reached maximum at 78.4 m and decreased with increasing height thereafter. Mass-based P (max) increased with increasing shoot mass per area (SMA), whereas area-based P (max) was not correlated with SMA in the upper crown. Our results suggest that hydrostatic limitation of morphological development constrains exploitation of light in the upper crown and contributes to reduced photosynthetic rates and, ultimately, reduced height growth at the tops of tall S. sempervirens trees. PMID:18392856

Ishii, Hiroaki T; Jennings, Gregory M; Sillett, Stephen C; Koch, George W

2008-04-08

275

High-Speed Video Observations of Upward Leaders from Tall Towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed (7,200 frames per sec) video observations of upward leaders from several tall towers, of heights greater than 150 m in Rapid City, South Dakota, revealed a variety of processes associated with the development of these upward leaders which were previously unknown from studies of rocket-triggered lightning. Confirmed by the NLDN data, and also by immediately preceding video images, all upward leaders were triggered either by the approaching negative leaders of intracloud or negative cloud-to-ground flashes, or by the return strokes of positive cloud-to-ground flashes. This indicates the positive polarity of the upward leaders. Following the progression of the branched upward positive leaders, recoil leaders retraced parts of the decayed channels of the forked structure toward the stems of the positive leaders. Some of these recoil leaders were extremely powerful, based on saturating bright channel luminosity. A few upward leaders developed as single channels without visible branches. In those cases recoil leaders manifested themselves as pulsing channel luminosities. On a few occasions, the positive upward leaders were followed, after the visible current cut-off from the ground, by a series of dart leader-return strokes of a negative cloud-to-ground flash, which is a development well established by the studies of rocket-triggered lightning.

Warner, T. A.; Mazur, V.; Ruhnke, L.

2008-12-01

276

Biosolids applications to tall fescue have long-term influence on soil nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.  

PubMed

Repeated applications of biosolids provide long-term benefits by increasing soil organic matter and N supply but can cause excess accumulation of P. Our objective was to determine the residual effects of repeated surface applications of biosolids on N availability and fate, tall fescue ( Schreb.) response, soil C, and P. A field experiment was started in 1993 to compare two biosolids products, each applied at three rates (6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 Mg ha yr), with synthetic N fertilizer (0 and 403 kg N ha yr as ammonium nitrate). Treatments were surface applied for 10 yr, followed by a 9-yr residual period where all plots received a reduced rate of inorganic N (202 kg N ha yr). Annual measurements included forage yield, N uptake, and soil nitrate N. Soil samples collected in 2002 and 2011 were analyzed for total C and N and Bray-1 P. Cumulative apparent N recoveries in harvested grass (1993-2010) were 51% for biosolids N and 72% for ammonium nitrate. Net fall soil nitrate N summed for the period 1993-2002 ranged from <1 to 3% of N applied. The N applied that was accounted for in forage and soil averaged 74% for biosolids and 73% for ammonium nitrate. Soil C increased in the biosolids treatments, and the increase was equivalent to 27% of biosolids C. Bray-1 P remained at excessive levels (338-629 mg P kg soil) 9 yr after the last biosolids application. PMID:23673844

Cogger, Craig G; Bary, Andy I; Myhre, Elizabeth A; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

277

Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 15-month record of mixing ratios of CO, CH4, N2O, and eight halogenated gases (CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHCl3, C2Cl4, and SF6) at a rural site in eastern North Carolina. The data result from hourly gas Chromatographic analyses of air sampled at three heights on a 610-m-tall telecommunications tower during November 1994 through January 1996. At night, most of these gases were more abundant near the ground (51 m) than aloft (496 m) because of the buildup of local and regional surface emissions in the shallow nocturnal stable layer. The abundance and variability of trace gases at this continental site were generally higher than those at similar latitude remote locations. Mixing ratios of most gases were well correlated in polluted air masses occasionally advected to the tower. Frequent, strong enhancements in CHCl3 at the lower sampling level(s) indicate a local point source(s) of this gas that is not associated with combustion. Temporal trends of regional background mixing ratios at this continental site are, for the most part, in good agreement with recent trends of remote background mixing ratios in the northern hemisphere.

Hurst, Dale F.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Myers, Richard C.; Elkins, James W.

1997-04-01

278

Impacts of experimental trampling on tall alpine herbfields and subalpine grasslands in the Australian Alps.  

PubMed

The Australian Alps, which are of high conservation value, are popular summer bushwalking destinations. Experimental trampling trials using a standardized methodology were conducted to determine the resistance and resilience of the two common vegetation types: tall alpine herbfield and subalpine grasslands. Vegetation parameters were measured in lanes subject to control (no trampling), 30, 100, 200, 500 and 700 passes at five sites prior to trampling, immediately post trampling, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 1 year post trampling. Vegetation height, cover of graminoids and herbs, as well as net species richness all declined with trampling, while litter cover increased. Thresholds for damage varied between the two communities and among the different vegetation parameters. The resistance indices for the two communities (number of passes resulting in 50% reduction in vegetation cover), however, were similar at around 440-450 passes indicating that these two communities are among the most resistant of the 19 alpine-subalpine communities that have been tested around the world, but only of moderate resistance compared to non-alpine communities. The two communities showed limited recovery with damage still evident 1 year post trampling. This indicates that they have only moderate tolerance to damage due to moderate resistance, but low resilience. PMID:19854561

Pickering, Catherine Marina; Growcock, Andrew J

2009-10-24

279

Plasmasynthesized nano-aluminum powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma electro-condensation\\u000a process was used to synthesize nano-sized aluminum powders. Adding different\\u000a chemicals modified the physical and chemical properties of these powders.\\u000a To characterize the nano-sized powders, X-ray diffraction, TEM, BET analyses,\\u000a and simultaneous TG\\/DSC analyses were performed. TG\\/DSC analyses revealed\\u000a a dramatic degradation of the aluminum oxide layer after storage of the aluminum\\u000a powder in air for a

Alla Pivkina; D. Ivanov; Yu. Frolov; Svetlana Mudretsova; Anna Nickolskaya; J. Schoonman

2006-01-01

280

Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2011-01-01

281

Ascorbic Acid Enhances the Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roots of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)  

PubMed Central

Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

2012-01-01

282

Coaxial metal nano-/microcables with isolating sheath: synthetic methodology and their application as interconnects.  

PubMed

Synthesis of coaxial nano-/microcables has been an intensive research subject due to their heterogeneous structures, tuneable properties, and important applications in nano-/micrometer-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Research on the fabrication of nanocables via solution strategies has made great progress in the past few years. In this Research News article, rapidly emerging new solution strategies such as hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and synergistic soft-hard templates (SSHTs) are highlighted. Unique and flexible coaxial nano-/microcables synthesized by those methods have obvious advantages such as long-term stability and their electrical transport properties, compared with bare counterparts, suggesting that they are potential candidates as interconnects in the future. PMID:20225184

Gao, Min-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Luo, Lin-Bao; Zhan, Yong-Jie; Yu, Shu-Hong

2010-05-01

283

Nano-JASMINE Data Analysis and Publication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A collaboration between the Gaia AGIS and Nano-JASMINE teams on the Nano-JASMINE data reduction started in 2007. The Nano-JASMINE team writes codes to generate AGIS input, and this is called Initial Data Treament (IDT). Identification of observed stars and their observed field of view, getting color index, are different from those of Gaia because Nano-JASMINE is ultra small satellite. For converting centroiding results on detector to the celestial sphere, orbit and attitude data of the satellite are used. In Nano-JASMINE, orbit information is derived from on board GPS data and attitude is processed from on-board star sensor data and on-ground Kalman filtering. We also show the Nano-JASMINE goals, status of the data publications and utilizations, and introduce the next Japanese space astrometric mission.

Yamada, Y.; Hara, T.; Yoshioka, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Miyashita, H.; Hatsutori, Y.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.

2012-09-01

284

Dimensional Micro and Nano Metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as

H. N. Hansen; K. Carneiro; H. Haitjema; L. De Chiffre

2006-01-01

285

Mechano-micro/nano systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the researches about Micro/Nano Systems are down actively in the bio-medical research fields, DNA research fields, chemical analysis systems fields, etc. In the results, a new materials and new functions in the systems are developed. In this invited paper, Mechano-Micro/Nano Systems, especially, motion systems are introduced. First, the research activities concerning the Mechano-Micro/Nano Systems in the world(MST2003, MEMS2003 and MEMS2004) and in Japan(Researech Projects on Nanotechnology and Materials in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) are shown. Secondary, my research activities are introduced. As my research activities, (1) a comb-drive static actuator for the motion convert mechanisms, (2) a micro-nano fabrication method by use of FAB(Fast Atom Beam) machines, (3) a micro optical mirror manipulator for inputs-outputs optical switches, (4) a miniature pantograph mechanism with large-deflective hinges and links made of plastics are discussed and their performances are explained.

Horie, Mikio

2004-10-01

286

Nano Engineered Energetic Materials (NEEM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ARO Nano Engineered Energetic Materials (NEEM) MURI program has been exploring new methodologies for developing energetic material formulations with control of all constituents over a wide range of length scales from 1 nm to 1 mm and larger and employ...

D. Allara D. Dlott G. Girolami R. Kalia T. Eden

2011-01-01

287

Continuous CO2/CH4 measurement at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change has particular impact on Siberia, where one tenth of global vegetation and soil carbon is stored. The increase in temperature lengthens the vegetation period and consequently enlarges the carbon sink. On the other hand, a warming climate will enhance thawing of permafrost which contains organic carbon that can be released either as carbon dioxide or methane depending on the local hydrological conditions. Long-term biogeochemical trace gas measurements on tall towers (> 250 m) over continents help to improve the knowledge about surface source/sink processes at regional to continental scales. Without the usage of aircrafts, the height of the tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is - unlike the surface layer - only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus representative for a larger region (~1000km). The recently established Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, 304 m, www.zottoproject.org) is located near the village of Zotino at the Yenisei River in central Siberia (60° N, 89° E). The ZOTTO facility was built in the perspective to monitor and determine variability and trends in the carbon balance of central Siberian forests. Since April 2009 we measure CO2 and CH4 from 6 height levels reaching from 4 to 301 m with an analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique (Picarro Inc., CA, USA, model G1301). Experiments have shown that reliable accurate measurements can be obtained even without drying the sample gas. To obtain dry air mixing ratios for CO2 and CH4, the simultaneous water vapor measurements are used to correct dilution and pressure broadening effects, resulting in a precision and accuracy that is better than WMO recommendations. Furthermore, the system requires only a very low amount of calibration gases, because calibration takes place only every 100 hrs. These two aspects allow keeping maintenance low, which is an important requirement for this remote station. In each sampling line buffer volumes integrate the atmospheric signal over a typical time period of 40 minutes. With these the periodic switching from line to line every three minutes with only one single analyzer provides a quasi continuous, concurrent measurement from each height level. As a consequence of the averaging as well as the precision of the analyzer, the data show a low noise level and still moderately high temporal resolution, and gradients between different levels can be determined to a very high accuracy. The new data from 2009 and 2010 will be presented and interpreted in the context of regional sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 in central Siberia. As the nocturnal boundary develops during night, it locally traps respired CO2 and CH4 and builds up vertical gradients. The analysis of the gradients allows estimating the trapped carbon amount in this layer which can be assigned to a certain region by using the Lagrangian transport model STILT.

Winderlich, Jan; Chen, Huilin; Höfer, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

2010-05-01

288

Critical analysis of height reduction in oestrogen-treated tall girls.  

PubMed

Twenty-one girls with familial tall stature were reevaluated at 18 years of age. Fourteen of them had been treated with high-dose oestrogens (I), while seven girls had not been treated (II). The untreated group is comparable but not a strict control group. Recordings on initiation of the study were: Chronologic age: 12.0 +/- 1.4 (I) versus 13.5 +/- 1.5 years (II; means +/- SD), Bone age: (1) Greulich-Pyle: 11.8 +/- 1.4 (I) versus 13.1 +/- 1.1 years (II), (2) Tanner-Whitehouse II: 12.7 +/- 1.0 (I) versus 13.6 +/- 1.1 years (II). Mean height predictions according to (1) Bayley-Pinneau, (2) Roche-Wainer-Thissen and Tanner (3) with, and (4) without allowance for mid-parent height ranged from 179.4-184 (I) to 175.7-179.5 cm (II). In the treated group there was an average reduction of predicted height of between 2.3 and 6.5 cm, depending on which of the four methods was used. In the untreated group the average differences between calculated and observed mature height varied from 0.2-3.4 cm. The difference in the reduction of predicted height between the treated and untreated groups was significant (P less than 0.05) only with the Bayley-Pinneau method and not with the others. In the treated group highly significant correlations were found between height reduction and the initial chronologic age, bone age and duration of therapy. PMID:6092088

Sorgo, W; Scholler, K; Heinze, F; Heinze, E; Teller, W M

1984-09-01

289

Polyphenol oxidase activity in subcellular fractions of tall fescue contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Understanding enzyme responses to contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a key step in the elucidation of POP metabolic mechanisms in plants. However, there is little information available on enzyme activity in subcellular fractions of POP-contaminated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cell fractions of plants under contamination stress from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a greenhouse batch technique. Three parameters, E(cell), E(cell-n), and P(cell), denoting the amount of PPO activity, cell fraction content-normalized PPO activity, and proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction, respectively, were used in this study. Contamination with phenanthrene, as a representative PAH, at a relatively high level (>0.23 mg L?¹) in culture solution generally stimulated PPO activity in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) roots and shoots and their cellular fractions. The amount and distribution proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction of phenanthrene-contaminated roots and shoots were (in descending order): cell solution > > cell wall > cell organelles. Cell solution was the dominant storage domain of PPO activity and contributed 84.0 and 82.8% of PPO activity in roots and shoots, respectively. The cell wall had the highest density of PPO activity in roots and shoots, based on the highest cell fraction content normalized PPO activity in this cell fraction. Our results provide new information on enzyme responses in plant intracellular fractions to xenobiotic POPs and fundamental information on within-plant POP metabolic mechanisms. PMID:22565262

Ling, Wanting; Lu, Xiaodan; Gao, Yanzheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yandi

290

Atmosphere-surface water exchanges from measurements of isotopic composition at a tall tower in Boulder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of water and carbon between the atmosphere and land remains poorly understood, particularly in regions of complex terrain and in the case of stable nighttime boundary layers. Profile measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapor were made at the 300 meter NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tall tower facility in Erie in February of 2010 to establish how well moisture budgets can be constrained with isotopic information. Measurements were made by placing instruments on the tower elevator and manually controlling the ascent and decent every 15 minutes for a total of 311 profiles. The four-day experiment followed a snow storm that produced 25-50 mm of snow. Temporal variations in the measured isotopic composition are dominated by the synoptic meteorology rather than local processes. Although both the “Keeling plot” approach applied to time series and the mixing lines applied to vertical profiles emerge algebraically from simple turbulence theory, only the latter is successful in estimating end members in good agreement with the known isotopic composition of the source water. However, mixing lines are only formed when conditions are stationary, and the approach generally fails during times of changes in the profile associated with regional advection. Rapid ventilation of the boundary layer during the day is found from the isotopic data because evaporation of the snow melt tags the gas transport. Weak transport at night is determined using CO2 profiles because respiration contrasts with the tropospheric baseline. We find that transport at night is characterized by slow mixing interrupted by fast mixing events. The intermittent exchange appears important for the net exchange and it is not clear that they are captured in turbulence schemes in climate models. Because the mixing line method is not uniformly successful, our results suggest a more complete framework based on boundary layer dynamics is needed for isotopic profiles to be meaningful.

Noone, D. C.; Risi, C.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Brown, D. P.; Buenning, N. H.; Gregory, S. A.; Nusbaumer, J.; Sykes, J.; Schneider, D. P.; Vanderwende, B. J.; Wong, J.; Wolfe, D. E.

2010-12-01

291

Metallic nano-particles for trapping light.  

PubMed

We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS: 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj. PMID:23391493

Tang, Yongan; Vlahovic, Branislav

2013-02-07

292

Metallic nano-particles for trapping light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping.

Tang, Yongan; Vlahovic, Branislav

2013-02-01

293

Metallic nano-particles for trapping light  

PubMed Central

We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj

2013-01-01

294

A novel application of carbon nano coils for intracellular nano-robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel application of carbon nano-coils (CNCs) as intracellular nano-robots is described. Nano-robots made of CNCs were successfully fabricated and dispersed in water by coating them with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer. The CNCs had a diameter of 700 nm, thickness of 250 nm, and pitch of 350 nm. The nano- robots were made to swim in a

Takumi Matsumoto; Takayuki Hoshino; Yoshitake Akiyama; Keisuke Morishima

2011-01-01

295

Modification of esterified cell wall phenolics increases vulnerability of tall fescue to herbivory by the fall armyworm.  

PubMed

Feruloylation of arabinoxylan in grass cell walls leads to cross-linked xylans. Such cross-linking appears to play a role in plant resistance to pathogens and insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated the effect of ferulate cross-linking on resistance to herbivory by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) making use of genetically modified tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Festuca arundinacea)] expressing a ferulic acid esterase gene. Mature leaves of these plants have significant reduced levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates but no change in acid detergent lignin. These reduced levels of esterified cell wall ferulates in transgenic plants had a positive effect on all measures of armyworm larval performance examined. More larvae survived (89 vs. 57 %) and grew faster (pupated 2.1 days sooner) when fed transgenic leaves with reduced levels of cell wall ferulates, than when fed control tall fescue leaves where levels of cell wall ferulates were not altered. Overall, mortality, growth and food utilization were negatively associated with level of esterified cell wall ferulates and diferulates in leaves they were fed. This study is the first to use transgenic plants with modified level of cell wall esterified ferulates to test the role of feruloylation in plant resistance to insects. It is concluded that the accumulation of ferulates and the cross-linking of arabinoxylans via diferulate esters in the leaves of tall fescue underlies the physical barrier to insect herbivory. Reducing ferulate cross-linking in grass cell walls could increase susceptibility of these plants to insect folivores. PMID:22434315

de O Buanafina, Marcia M; Fescemyer, Howard W

2012-03-21

296

Principles of Nano-Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Theoretical foundations; 3. Propagation and focusing of optical fields; 4. Resolution and localization; 5. Nanoscale optical microscopy; 6. Near-field optical probes; 7. Probe-sample distance control; 8. Optical interactions; 9. Quantum emitters; 10. Dipole emission near planar interfaces; 11. Photonic crystals, resonators, and cavity optomechanics; 12. Surface plasmons; 13. Optical antennas; 14. Forces in confined fields; 15. Fluctuation-induced interactions; 16. Theoretical methods in nano-optics; Appendices; Index.

Novotny, Lukas; Hecht, Bert

2012-09-01

297

InterNano: Nanomanufacturing Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN) is an open network for collaboration and information exchange among the nanomanufacturing research, development, and education community. The NNN is an alliance of academic, government and industry partners that cooperate to advance nanomanufacturing strength in the U.S. The NNN conducts strategic workshops and other activities to build communities of practice in nanomanufacturing. The NNN hosts InterNano, the open source information clearinghouse, to provide vital information to nanomanufacturing community.

2011-06-06

298

Nanogenerator and nano-piezotronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Developing wireless nanodevices and nanosystems is of critical importance for sensing, medical science, environmental\\/infrastructure monitoring, defense technology and even personal electronics. It is highly desirable for wireless devices to be self-powered without using battery. This is a new initiative in today's energy research for mico\\/nano-systems in searching for sustainable self-sufficient power sources. It is essential to

Zhong Lin Wang

2010-01-01

299

Future of Nano CMOS Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

CMOS technology has been developed into the sub-100 nm range. It is expected that the nano-CMOS technology will governed the IC manufacturing for at least another couple of decades. Though there are many challenges ahead, further down-sizing the device to a few nanometers is still on the schedule of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Several technological options for manufacturing

Hiroshi Iwai

2007-01-01

300

Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel two types of Carbon Nano Tube (CNT)-based multiplexers are introduced. The first device is a solid- state transmission gate (t-gate) multiplexer that uses CNT as a channel in the Field Effect Transistors (FET) of both n-FET and p-FET types that are used. Because of its very small size, it has been shown that a CNT-based FET switches reliably using

Anas N. Al-Rabadi

301

Solid State Nano Gears Manipulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed fabrication and manipulations of solid state nano gears up to 350 nm in diameter is reported. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultra high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are used to maneuver the gears. The aim is to bridge the gap between the current solid state gears and the now available nanoscale gears. As in many technology integrations, miniaturization is a way to boost efficiency and an opening to new applications.

Troadec, Cedric; Deng, Jie; Ample, Francisco; Thamankar, Ramesh; Joachim, Christian

302

Carbon nano partitions for heat dissipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated carbon nano-partitions (CNPs) which vertically standing on the metal substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering for dissipating heat applications. Considerable enhancement of the conductive heat transfer has been confirmed and the enhancement depends on the spacing density of nano partitions. The optimum nano-porous density could enhanced the heat transfer when the lower density CNP was made. In our experiments,

Leon C. J. Kuo; Jeff T. H. Tsai

2011-01-01

303

SYNTHESIS OF NANO-CRYSTALLINE? ? ? ?-TIAL MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the principal problems with nano-crystalline materials is producing them in quantities and sizes large enough for valid mechanical property evaluation. The purpose of this study was to explore an innovative method for producing nano-crystalline ? ? ? ?-TiAl bulk materials using high energy ball milling and brief secondary processes. Nano-crystalline powder feedstock was produced using a Fritsch P4TM

Stephen J. Hales; Peter Vasquez

2003-01-01

304

Nano-Bio Developments in Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-biotechnology (nanobio) is one of the great technological fusions from various different fields. Analysis of biological functions significantly improved because of the recent nanotechnology development. We study this field based on neuroscience. Here we introduce our approach to this field, starting from neural analysis to receptor analysis in order to establish a nano-bio interface. Nano-gap electrode is one of the

Keiichi Torimitsu

2007-01-01

305

Nano-Bio Developments in Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-biotechnology (nanobio) is one of the great technological fusions from various different fields. Analysis of biological functions significantly improved because of the recent nanotechnology development. We study this field based on neuroscience. Here we introduce our approach to this field, starting from neural analysis to receptor analysis in order to establish a nano-bio interface. Nano-gap electrode is one of the possible devices for this purpose. Combination of the electrode with receptor protein is investigated.

Torimitsu, Keiichi

306

From Nanotechnology to Nano-Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the novel area of nano-planning---the study of automatedplanning in a eutactic environment. We begin by describing theevolution of present technology towards nanotechnology and the rationalefor engineering nano-robots. The various established fields of researchthat will contribute to the creation of the first nano-robot are reviewed.The discussion then focuses on the role of artificial intelligence (AI) innanotechnology. We argue

Andrew Czarn; Cara Macnish

307

Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties at a very remote, continental site. The instrumentation at the observatory comprises a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until May 2008, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of CO was observed with summer minima around 80 ppb and winter maxima of about 180 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were comparable to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N. Periods of elevated CO concentrations, typically lasting for one to three days, interrupted the mean annual cycle. Backward trajectories computed with the NOAA HYSPLIT model indicated changes of air mass origin associated with the CO peaks. It was found, that for several peaks air masses have passed over the region of Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During summer, very sharp peaks of CO concentration with no change of air mass origin were observed. In this case, local wild fires are most likely the cause of the increase of CO concentrations. This general picture was confirmed by the output of the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model that predicted CO concentrations in good agreement with the measured CO concentration at the ZOTTO site, resembling the typical annual cycle of CO concentrations. Furthermore, some of the peaks related to changes of the air mass origin were also predicted by the model, while the peaks presumably caused by wild fires were not found. The optical properties of the aerosol showed intense variations over the observation period. Episodes with strongly elevated absorption coefficients and particle concentrations occurred between periods of typical background readings. Using gaseous tracers, especially CO, and back-trajectories, these episodes could be traced to anthropogenic emission regions. The combination of CO concentration and aerosol properties with the determination of the air mass origin enables us to distinguish between continental background air and air masses being influenced by anthropogenic activities. Long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

Mayer, J. C.; Birmili, W.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Juergens, N.; Kisilyakhov, Y.; Panov, A.; Andreae, M. O.

2009-12-01

308

Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption coefficients with SSA values reaching 0.97. These aerosols were present in airmasses from northern Siberia with low CO mixing ratios, which suggests that they are predominantly of biogenic origin. The lowest particle number concentrations (averaging ~430 cm-3) were present in northern Siberian and Arctic airmasses, with similar values in summer and winter. Chemical analysis shows that sulfates and "black" carbon are elevated in the winter aerosol, while organic carbon from biomass burning and terpenoid oxidation dominate in summer. The measurements at ZOTTO are being continued, in the expectation that long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

2012-04-01

309

Tall shrub expansion facilitated by patterned ground in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We integrated field observations with a time-series of satellite imagery to identify key biophysical attributes associated with tall shrub expansion and increased vegetation productivity within a forest-tundra ecotone near Kharp, northwest Siberia. Comparison of high-resolution Corona and QuickBird satellite photography indicates that alder (Alnus fruticosa) cover increased by ~10% since 1968. Additionally, areas of sharply increasing productivity detected using a Landsat TM/ETM+ time-series for 1985-2009 are consistently co-located with expanding shrub stands. Field observations made in 2011 revealed that most of the shrub expansion has occurred in areas of patterned ground in which abundant mineral-dominated microsites ("circles") have been maintained by cryogenic disturbance. In order to test whether shrub expansion was facilitated by circles, we established a series of transects according to categories of alder stand age and circle density. Along the transects, we mapped the location of alders and circles, measured soil organic depth and leaf area index (LAI), and characterized plant communities. In recent expansion areas, young alders occur almost exclusively on silt-rich circles that lack vegetation and surface organic matter. Alder abundance and LAI increased with the total area occupied by exposed circles. Analyses using spatial statistics indicate that young alders tend to occur in evenly-spaced groups that mirror the spacing of circles. This distribution pattern persists in older alder stands, especially where circles are large and widely-spaced. Stands on closely-spaced circles quickly develop dense canopies and low species-diversity. Based on ground- and satellite-based observations, we conclude that the abundance of mineral-dominated circles at Kharp has facilitated rapid alder expansion and associated alterations in plant community structure, composition, and productivity. Physical processes in areas of patterned ground promote continuous, rather than episodic, disturbance that can maintain a mosaic of exposed circles which may be exploited by fast-growing, minerotrophic species such as alder in warmer areas of the Low Arctic. We suggest that alder proliferation in areas of patterned ground has probably occurred in many other parts of the Low Arctic, such as in open alder shrublands in which alders and patterned ground features are distributed at similar scales.

Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.; Ermokhina, K.

2011-12-01

310

Detection of a tall ridge at the core-mantle boundary from scattered PKP energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic wavefield mainly contains reflected, refracted and direct waves but energy related to elastic scattering can also be identified at frequencies of 1 Hz and higher. The scattered, high-frequency seismic wavefield contains information on the small-scale structure of the Earth's crust, mantle and core. Due to the high thermal conductivity of mantle materials causing rapid dissipation of thermal anomalies, the Earth's small-scale structure most likely reveals details of the composition of the interior, and, is therefore essential for our understanding of the dynamics and evolution of the Earth. Using specific ray configurations we can identify scattered energy originating in the lower mantle and under certain circumstances locate its point of origin in the Earth allowing further insight into the structure of the lowermost mantle. Here we present evidence, from scattered PKP waves, for a heterogeneous structure at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath southern Africa. The structure rises approximately 80 km above the CMB and is located at the eastern edge of the African LLSVP. Mining-related and tectonic seismic events in South Africa, with mb from 3.2 to 6.0 recorded at epicentral distances of 119.3° to 138.8° from Yellowknife Array (YKA) (Canada), show large amplitude precursors to PKPdf arriving 3-15 s prior to the main phase. We use array processing to measure slowness and backazimuth of the scattered energy and determine the scatterer location in the deep Earth. To improve the resolution of the slowness vector at the medium aperture YKA we present a new application of the F-statistic. The high-resolution slowness and backazimuth measurements indicate scattering from a structure up to 80 km tall at the CMB with lateral dimensions of at least 1200 km by 300 km, at the edge of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province. The forward scattering nature of the PKP probe indicates that this is velocity-type scattering resulting primarily from changes in elastic parameters. The PKP scattering data are in agreement with dynamically supported dense material related to the Large Low Shear Velocity Province.

Frost, Daniel A.; Rost, Sebastian; Selby, Neil D.; Stuart, Graham W.

2013-10-01

311

A surface modification strategy on silicon nitride for developing biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface modification strategy for the use of giant magnetoresistive materials in the detection of protein–protein interactions is developed. This modification strategy is based on silanization of semiconductive materials. A native silicon nitride surface was treated with concentrated hydrofluoric acid to improve surface homogeneity. Nano-strip was used to oxidize silicon nitride to form a hydrophilic layer. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane was subsequently used

Jinpian Diao; Dacheng Ren; James R. Engstrom; Kelvin H. Lee

2005-01-01

312

Electrochemical determination of tartaric acid at nano gold/nano carbon modified glassy carbon electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano gold/nano carbon coating the surface of glassy carbon electrode is prepared. Electrochemical behavior of tartaric acid at nano gold/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode is investigated. A simple, sensitive, and inexpensive method for determination of tartaric acid in drinks is proposed.

Song, Yang; Song, Yuanzhi; Xu, Jiang

2012-09-01

313

Plenary lecture 4: “Nano robotic manipulation and assembly for manufacturing nano sensors and devices”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology will allow us to build devices enormously smaller than before and will bring fundamental changes to the disciplines such as engineering, chemistry, medicine, biology, and physics. The research in nano manipulation and nano assembly is tremendously important because most physical magnitudes characterizing nano scale systems significantly differ from those familiar in macro, meso, and micro systems. In this presentation,

Ning Xi

2009-01-01

314

High-level IGF1R expression is required for leukemia-initiating cell activity in T-ALL and is supported by Notch signaling  

PubMed Central

T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer of immature T cells that often shows aberrant activation of Notch1 and PI3K–Akt pathways. Although mutations that activate PI3K–Akt signaling have previously been identified, the relative contribution of growth factor-dependent activation is unclear. We show here that pharmacologic inhibition or genetic deletion of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) blocks the growth and viability of T-ALL cells, whereas moderate diminution of IGF1R signaling compromises leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) activity as defined by transplantability in syngeneic/congenic secondary recipients. Furthermore, IGF1R is a Notch1 target, and Notch1 signaling is required to maintain IGF1R expression at high levels in T-ALL cells. These findings suggest effects of Notch on LIC activity may be mediated in part by enhancing the responsiveness of T-ALL cells to ambient growth factors, and provide strong rationale for use of IGF1R inhibitors to improve initial response to therapy and to achieve long-term cure of patients with T-ALL.

Gusscott, Samuel; Wang, Hongfang; Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Wai, Carol; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Trumpp, Andreas; Pflumio, Francoise; Carboni, Joan; Gottardis, Marco; Pollak, Michael; Kung, Andrew L.; Aster, Jon C.; Holzenberger, Martin

2011-01-01

315

Nano-scanner for scanning probe microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-axes nano-scanner for a scanning probe microscope (SPMs) was developed. The flexure-guided nano-scanner can move SPM samples or the probe itself along the x and y axes. The theoretical stiffness and resonant frequency of the flexure guide were obtained by using Castigliano's theorem. An optimal nano-scanner that maximize the scanning speed under appropriate constraints was designed. The optimal results were compared with the results of a finite element analysis. The scanner performance was evaluated by using various experiments and was compared with the optimal design results. Finally, atomic force microscope images obtained by using the proposed nano-scanner are presented.

Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Dong-Yeon

2012-11-01

316

Cellular-level surgery using nano robots.  

PubMed

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a popular instrument for studying the nano world. AFM is naturally suitable for imaging living samples and measuring mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a new concept of an AFM-based nano robot that can be applied for cellular-level surgery on living samples. The nano robot has multiple functions of imaging, manipulation, characterizing mechanical properties, and tracking. In addition, the technique of tip functionalization allows the nano robot the ability for precisely delivering a drug locally. Therefore, the nano robot can be used for conducting complicated nano surgery on living samples, such as cells and bacteria. Moreover, to provide a user-friendly interface, the software in this nano robot provides a "videolized" visual feedback for monitoring the dynamic changes on the sample surface. Both the operation of nano surgery and observation of the surgery results can be simultaneously achieved. This nano robot can be easily integrated with extra modules that have the potential applications of characterizing other properties of samples such as local conductance and capacitance. PMID:23015517

Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Patterson, Kevin Charles; Qu, Chengeng; Lai, King Wai Chiu

2012-09-26

317

Nano photo scouring and nano photo bleaching of raw cellulosic fabric using nano TiO2.  

PubMed

Photo catalytic action of nano TiO(2) for decomposing of some organic compounds is a well known phenomenon. This can be extended to the application on nano TiO(2) on the desized cotton fabric to decompose the hydrophobic impurities and coloring matters of the fabric. This can be nominating as a replacement for the conventional scouring and bleaching processes on cotton fabric producing the hydrophilic white cotton fabric. The photo activities of the nano TiO(2) on the desized cotton through decomposition of the cotton impurities compared for two different light exposures: UV rays and daylight. The desized cotton fabrics treated in the ultrasonic bath containing a colloidal aqueous solution of nano TiO(2)/citric acid (CA)/sodium hypophosphite (SHP). Incorporating CA in the treatment bath enhanced the treatment durability against washing, created a durable hydrophilic white cotton fabric even after several successive washings. Increasing the nano TiO(2) content enhanced the fabric hydrophilicity and whiteness features. Overall, the nano photo scouring and nano photo bleaching on the cotton fabric introduced and thoroughly discussed. This gains the application of nano TiO(2) on textile materials besides the other well known characteristics obtained on the textiles including self-cleaning, antibacterial and UV protection. PMID:22390850

Montazer, M; Morshedi, S

2012-02-25

318

Responses of 2 epiphytic yeasts to foliar infection by Rhizoctonia solani or mechanical wounding on the phylloplane of tall fescue.  

PubMed

A growth-chamber experiment was conducted to determine how foliar disease or wounding affects the ability of 2 phylloplane yeasts (Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus laurentii) to colonize leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Yeasts were applied separately and together onto healthy leaves, leaves infected with Rhizoctonia solani (diseased), and mechanically bruised (wounded) leaves. In all 3 trials, the leaf disturbance treatment significantly affected the abundance of yeast on the phylloplane of tall fescue. Yeast abundance on the diseased or wounded leaves was significantly greater than on the nontreated, healthy leaves. In 2 of the 3 trials, the yeast species applied also had a significant affect on yeast abundance. Typically, R. glutinis was significantly more abundant than C. laurentii when applied individually, but not significantly greater than the total yeast colony-forming units of the co-inoculated treatment. When the 2 yeasts were co-inoculated onto the leaves, R. glutinis comprised 89.7%, 75.4%, and 67.6% of the recovered yeast colony-forming units on healthy, diseased, and wounded leaves, respectfully. Our data suggest that these 2 species of yeasts will differentially colonize compromised leaf tissue with disease or wounds favoring populations of R. glutinis over C. laurentii. PMID:19935888

Nix, Shannon; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

2009-10-01

319

Constraints on sources of CO and H2 from tall tower measurements in the Upper Midwest, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO), molecular hydrogen (H2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured continuously at the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower, 44.689N, 93.073W, 244 m height) since 2009. Here we apply the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model to interpret the observations in terms of the constraints they can provide on regional emission sources of CO and H2. Simulated mixing ratios are combined with summer and winter observations to evaluate the impact of various model parameters and uncertainties on the comparisons (PBL height, meteorological fields, etc.). CO mixing ratios are mainly determined by fossil fuel emissions (plus regional background) in the winter. In the summer, biomass burning, biofuel, and chemical production are also important. H2 mixing ratios are mainly determined by fossil fuel emissions (plus regional background) in both winter and summer. STILT, when combined with a CO emission grid, is able to capture observed variability in CO to a much greater extent than in the case of H2, indicating major gaps in current understanding of H2 source and sink processes.

Kim, S.; Hu, L.; Mohr, M.; Lin, J. C.; Wen, D.; Millet, D. B.

2011-12-01

320

[Frontier and prospect of micro/nano biofabrication based on microbes].  

PubMed

Microbe is extremely abundant in nature, and its size has a very wide coverage from nano- to micro-scale making it suitable to be processed at multi-scale level as natural "building blocks" and "chassis cells". Biofabrication based on microbes is an artificial manipulation on microbes to assemble functional materials and devices by using the specific structures and various biological functions of microbes. In the meantime, the novel strategies of biofarication enables us to study the behavioral details of microbes, which will provide new platforms for uncovering the unsolved basic scientific problems of microbes. In this paper, we reviewed the frontier and progress in biofabrication from nano- and micro-scale in microbes that were manipulated as structured "building blocks" or functional "micro/nano robots". PMID:23697158

Shi, Zhijun; Shi, Xudian; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Guang

2013-02-01

321

MEMS and nano\\/bio technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides rapid commercialization, MEMS is contributing to expand scientific frontiers in nano-scale and bio technology. A pair of probes with 10-50 nm tip radius were micromachined with integrated microactuators. Field emission, tunneling current and atomic transport were investigated in the gap between probes facing each other. The configuration was also applied to obtain nano tweezers that handle DNA molecules. For

Hiroyuki Fujita

2005-01-01

322

Lipid Bilayers on Nano-Templates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or na...

A. Noy A. B. Artyukhin O. Bakajin P. Stroeve

2006-01-01

323

Multifunctional carbon nano-paper composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon Nanotube (CNT), for its excellent mechanical, electrical properties and nano size, large special surface physical property, become the most promising material. But carbon nanotube can still fabricated in micro dimension, and can't be made into macro size, so to the carbon nanotube filled composite can't explore the properties of the CNT. Carbon nano-paper is made of pure CNT, with micro pore, and it turn micro sized CNT into macro shaped membrane. Based on the piezo-resistivity and electrical conductivity of the carbon nano-paper, we used the carbon nano-paper as functional layers fabricate functional composite, and studies its strain sensing, composite material deicing and shape memory polymer (SMP) material electric actuation performance. The results shown that the resin can pregnant the nano paper, and there was good bond for nano paper and composite. The functional composite can monitoring the strain with high sensitivity comparing to foil strain gauge. The functional composite can be heated via the carbon nano paper with low power supply and high heating rate. The composite has good deicing and heat actuation performance to composite material. For the good strain sensing, electric conductivity and self-heating character of the carbon nano-paper composite, it can be used for self sensing, anti lightning strike and deicing of composite materials in aircrafts and wind turbine blades.

Zhang, Zhichun; Chu, Hetao; Wang, Kuiwen; Liu, Yanjv; Leng, Jinsong

2013-08-01

324

Male-sterile and cleistogamous phenotypes in tall fescue induced by chimeric repressors of SUPERWOMAN1 and OsMADS58.  

PubMed

Since tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an anemophilous (wind-pollinated) grass species, male sterility is strongly desired for transgenic tall fescue to prevent pollen dispersal. To create male-sterile tall fescue, we applied Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) based on rice APETALA3 (AP3) and AGAMOUS (AG) orthologues that specify the formation of stamens. We fused the coding regions of rice AP3 orthologue SUPERWOMAN1 (SPW1), and rice AG orthologues, Os12g0207000, Os01g0886200 and OsMADS58, respectively with the artificial sequence encoding the modified EAR-like motif repression domain (SRDX). We first introduced Os12g0207000SRDX, Os01g0886200SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into rice for evaluation of their abilities to induce male sterility. The transgenic rice expressing OsMADS58SRDX had reiterated formation of lodicule-like organs instead of stamens and carpel, a typical phenotype of ag mutant. Thus, we found that OsMADS58SRDX was most suitable for our purpose. Next, we introduced SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into tall fescue. Although the transgenic tall fescue did not have the stamen alterations seen in SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX rice, they either produced no pollen or produced immature pollen; thus, the anthers were not dehiscent and the plants were male-sterile. In addition to the male sterility, SPW1SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous (closed) phenotype in which anthers were not observed outside the glumes, with thin, abnormally elongated lodicules. Some lines of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous phenotype in which the lodicules were homeotically transformed into lemma-like organs. In both cases, cleistogamous phenotype was associated with morphological changes to the lodicules. We also obtained a mild phenotype of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue, which exhibited only the male sterility. In this study, we produced novel male-sterile phenotypes using chimeric repressors and thus suggest CRES-T as a tool for transgenic improvement of forage and turf grasses. PMID:22195592

Sato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kouki; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Takamizo, Tadashi

2011-08-31

325

Increasing Proteome Coverage with Offline RP HPLC Coupled to Online RP NanoLC-MS  

PubMed Central

Fractionation prior to mass spectrometry is an indispensable step in proteomics. In this paper we report the success of performing offline reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation on a C18 2.0 mm × 150 mm column at the peptide level with microliter per minute flow rates prior to online nano-flow reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) using the well-studied fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A C18 75 µm × 150 mm column was used online and the online elution gradients for each fraction were adjusted in order to obtain well resolved separation. Comparing this method directly to only performing nanoLC-MS we observed a 61.6% increase in the number of identified proteins. At a 1% false discovery rate 1028 proteins were identified using two dimensions of RPLC versus 636 proteins identified in a single nano-flow separation. The majority of proteins identified by one dimension of nano-LC were present in the proteins identified in our two dimensional strategy. Although increasing analysis time, this non-orthogonal and facile pre-fractionation method affords a more comprehensive examination of the proteome.

Gokce, Emine; Andrews, Genna L.; Dean, Ralph A.; Muddiman, David C.

2013-01-01

326

Nano-curcumin inhibits proliferation of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the T cell mediated immune response.  

PubMed

In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it's free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

2013-05-29

327

TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

328

Regenerative semi-active control of tall building vibration with series TMDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the semi-active control of a novel configuration of tuned mass damper (TMD) using a modified clipped optimal control strategy, with the intention to harvest the vibration energy and control the vibration at the same time. One of the authors recently proposed and optimized the so called series TMD, in which multiple auxiliary masses and absorbers are connected

Xiudong Tang; Lei Zuo

2010-01-01

329

Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d < 3 nm) can make the localized states into band gap. The emission energy of nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

2011-04-01

330

ASSOCIATION OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS WITH FESCUE TOXICITY IN STEERS FED KENTUCKY 31 TALL FESCUE SEED OR HAY 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Previous research has implicated an endo- phytic fungus as being associated with fescue toxicity (summer syndrome) in cattle grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures. Hay and seed were harvested from Kentucky 31 pastures known to be either fungus-free or heavily infested with an endo- phytic fungus identified as Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gains. Four diets containing

Stephen P. Schmidt; Carl S. Hoveland; Edward M. Clark; Norman D. Davis; L. Aubrey Smith; Harold W. Grimes; Jimmy L. Holliman

2010-01-01

331

Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

332

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur...acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...amino]ethyl], reaction products with...

2013-07-01

333

INFLUENECE OF FUNGAL ENDOPHYTE INFECTION IN TALL FESCUE AND PERENNIAL RYEGRASS ON SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN LOW INPUT TURFGRASS SYESTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turf type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are commonly used for lawns and golf courses in the Northeast and Midwestern United States. These species differ in growth habits, drought tolerance, resistance to herbivory, and form mutualistic associations with Neotyphodium endophytes (Clavicipitaceae). Therefore, we hypothesized that the grass species will differ in the amount of

Mamta Singh; Parwinder S. Grewal

334

Stocking Rate and Implantation Effects on Weight Gain and Recovery from Heat Stress for Yearling Steers Grazed on Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Implantation with anabolic steroids can improve weight gain of beef cattle on endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea), but the effect has not been determined over a range of stocking rates. A 2-yr grazing experiment evaluated combinations of four stocking rates (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and...

335

Herodotus on Diet and Longevity: How the Persians Fed on Dung and Lived to 80, While the Tall, Handsome Ethiopians Ate Boiled Meat and Lived Beyond 120  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herodotus' Histories tell of diet and longevity: the Persians, who ate bread from grain fertilized with dung lived but 80 years, while the tall handsome Ethiopeans ate boiled meat and lived more than 120. These and other ancient texts anticipate current biomedical understanding of aging. However, there little evidence for supracentenarians in the ancient world as noted in Herodotus, Genesis,

Caleb E. Finch

2009-01-01

336

Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

337

Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

338

Case Study: Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroid Implants on the Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue in the Summer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-two steers were assigned to six, 3.0-ha pastures of toxic tall fescue to study the effects that implant progesterone and winter hair coat retention during the summer, a symptom of fescue toxicosis, has on weight gain and body heat dissapation. Either ten clipped or ten unclipped steers were ra...

339

Looking back in time: conducting a cohort study of the long-term effects of treatment of adolescent tall girls with synthetic hormones  

PubMed Central

Objective Public health research is an endeavour that often involves multiple relationships, far-reaching collaborations, divergent expectations and various outcomes. Using the Tall Girls Study as a case study, this paper will present and discuss a number of methodological, ethical and legal challenges that have implications for other public health research. Approach The Tall Girls Study was the first study to examine the long-term health and psychosocial effects of oestrogen treatment for tall stature. Results In undertaking this study the research team overcame many hurdles: in maintaining collaboration with treating clinicians and with the women they had treated as girls - groups with opposing points of view and different expectations; using private practice medical records to trace women who had been patients up to forty years earlier; and exploring potential legal issues arising from the collection of data related to treatment. Conclusion While faced with complex challenges, the Tall Girls Study demonstrated that forward planning, ongoing dialogue between all stakeholders, transparency of processes, and the strict adherence to group-developed protocols were keys to maintaining rigour while undertaking pragmatic research. Implications Public health research often occurs within political and social contexts that need to be considered in the planning and conduct of studies. The quality and acceptability of research findings is enhanced when stakeholders are engaged in all aspects of the research process.

2011-01-01

340

Antagonism of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Results in Decreased Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Tall Fescue Alkaloids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

341

Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

342

Steer Weight Gain and Physiological Responses to Feeding Soybean Hulls on Toxic Tall Fescue: Dilution of Ergot Alkaloids or Additive Effect on Weight Gain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stocker cattle grazing toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) consume ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte that can lead to the “fescue toxicosis” malady. One approach to alleviating fescue toxicosis is to dilute the alkaloids by interseeding clovers or by feeding concentrates; however...

343

Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

344

Accumulation of Ergopeptide Alkaloids in Symbiotic Tall Fescue Grown under Deficits of Soil Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer  

PubMed Central

The fungus Acremonium coenophialum is endophytically associated with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber). Within this symbiotum the fungus produces ergopeptide alkaloids, which are associated with livestock toxicoses. Environmental effects on the production of ergot alkaloids within the symbiotum are unknown. We conducted a greenhouse study of the effects of flooding, nitrogen rate during fertilization (11, 73, and 220 mg of N per pot weekly), nitrogen form (3.4 and 34 mg of N as NH4+ or NO3- per pot), and drought stress (-0.03, -0.05, and -0.50 MPa) on ergopeptide alkaloid concentrations in one genotype of nonsymbiotic and symbiotic tall fescue grown in plastic pots. It was determined that the concentration of ergovaline, the major type of ergopeptide alkaloid, was increased but was not as high as that in nonflooded controls. Total ergopeptide and ergovaline concentrations in plants receiving high (220 mg of N per pot) and low (11 mg of N per pot) levels of NH4NO3 fertilization were not affected by flooding. The form of nitrogen was important since all concentrations of NO3--N increased ergopeptide alkaloid content, as opposed to the effects of NH4+-N, which was effective only at high concentrations (34 mg of N per pot). Ergopeptide concentrations were highest in drought-stressed plants grown at -0.50 MPa and fertilized at the moderate or high N rate. The results suggest that within this genotype, ergopeptide alkaloid biosynthesis by the fungus is not appreciably affected by flooding but is greatly increased by high rates of N fertilization and moderate water deficit.

Arechavaleta, M.; Bacon, C. W.; Plattner, R. D.; Hoveland, C. S.; Radcliffe, D. E.

1992-01-01

345

Upscaling Carbon Fluxes from Stand-Level Towers to the Footprint of a Very Tall Tower in a Heterogeneous Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy covariance fluxes measured from a very tall tower (~400 m, WLEF near Park Falls, WI) have indicated that the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the WLEF tower has been a weak CO2 source. Carbon fluxes derived from stand-level towers, however, have indicated that mature hardwood forest, willow-alder wetland, and old- growth mixed forest were CO2 sinks. We hypothesized that potential CO2 sources from wetlands and clearcuts could be prevalent within WLEF footprint, thus making it a weak CO2 source. We tested this hypothesis by deploying two roving eddy covariance systems to measure carbon fluxes in two clearcuts (~ 1 and 4 years old in 2005) and two wetlands (ericaceous bog and sedge fen) during the 2005-06 growing seasons. We modeled ecosystem respiration (Re) with night-time NEE (net ecosystem exchange for CO2) versus temperature relationships. Daytime gross ecosystem production (GEP), calculated as Re minus observed NEE, was modeled as a function of photosynthetically active radiation. We observed a wide range of carbon fluxes (e.g., NEE ranged from -548 to 152 g C m-2) for the entire growing season (150 days in May to October 2005) among the six stand-level ecosystems. Measurements from stand-level towers are used to upscale carbon fluxes to the landscape level, i.e., footprint around the very tall tower (WLEF). Remotely sensed data at various spatial resolutions (e.g., MODIS and QuickBird) are used to classify forest ecosystems. Upscaling of carbon fluxes is achieved through integration of flux tower data with forest classification. We expect that carbon fluxes measured from clearcuts and wetlands will substantially improve our ability to upscale local observations to the region.

Saliendra, N.; Kubiske, M.; Teclaw, R.; Kolka, R.; Davis, K.; Cherrey, K.; Desai, A.; Ricciuto, D.; Bolstad, P.; Cook, B.; Anderson, R.; Heinsch, F.

2007-12-01

346

Effect of Temperature on Gibberellin (GA) Responsiveness and on Endogenous GA1 Content of Tall and Dwarf Wheat Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in height-reducing (Rht) alleles were used to investigate the effects of temperature on endogenous gibberellin (GA) levels and seedling growth response to applied GA3. Sheath and lamina lengths of the first leaf were measured in GA treated and control seedlings, grown at 11, 18, and 25°C, of six Rht genotypes in each of two varietal backgrounds, cv Maris Huntsman and cv April Bearded. Endogenous GA1 levels in the leaf extension zone of untreated seedlings were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard in the six Maris Huntsman Rht lines grown at 10 and 25°C. Higher temperature increased leaf length considerably in the tall genotype, less so in the Rht1 and Rht2 genotypes, and had no consistent effect on the Rht1+2, Rht3 and Rht2+3 genotypes. In all genotypes, endogenous GA1 was higher at 25°C than at 10°C. At 10°C the endogenous GA1 was at a similar level in all the genotypes (except Rht2+3). At 25°C it increased 1.6-fold in the tall genotype, 3-fold in Rht1 and Rht2, 6-fold in Rht3, and 9-fold in Rht1+2. Likewise, the genotypic differences in leaf length were very conspicuous at 25°C, but were only slight and often unsignificant at 11°C. The response of leaf length to applied GA3 in the Rht1, Rht2, and Rht1+2 genotypes increased significantly with lowering of temperature. These results suggest the possibility that the temperature effect on leaf elongation is mediated through its effect on the level of endogenous GA1 and that leaf elongation response to endogenous or applied GAs is restricted by the upper limits set by the different Rht alleles.

Pinthus, Moshe J.; Gale, Michael D.; Appleford, Nigel E. J.; Lenton, John R.

1989-01-01

347

Secondary cell wall deposition causes radial growth of fibre cells in the maturation zone of elongating tall fescue leaf blades.  

PubMed

A gradient of development consisting of successive zones of cell division, cell elongation and cell maturation occurs along the longitudinal axis of elongating leaf blades of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), a C3 grass. An increase in specific leaf weight (SLW; dry weight per unit leaf area) in the maturation region has been hypothesized to result from deposition of secondary cell walls in structural tissues. Our objective was to measure the transverse cell wall area (CWA) associated with the increase in SLW, which occurs following the cessation of leaf blade elongation at about 25 mm distal to the ligule. Digital image analysis of transverse sections at 5, 15, 45, 75 and 105 mm distal to the ligule was used to determine cell number, cell area and protoplast area of structural tissues, namely fibre bundles, mestome sheaths and xylem vessel elements, along the developmental gradient. Cell diameter, protoplast diameter and area, and cell wall thickness and area of fibre bundle cells were calculated from these data. CWA of structural tissues increased in sections up to 75 mm distal to the ligule, confirming the role of cell wall deposition in the increase in SLW (r2 = 0.924; P < or = 0.01). However, protoplast diameter of fibre cells did not decrease significantly as CWA increased, although mean thickness of fibre cell walls increased by 95 % between 15 and 105 mm distal to the ligule. Therefore, secondary cell wall deposition in fibre bundles of tall fescue leaf blades resulted in continued radial expansion of fibre cells rather than in a decrease in protoplast diameter. PMID:12096823

Macadam, Jennifer W; Nelson, Curtis J

2002-01-01

348

Nano-welding by scanning probe microscope.  

PubMed

A novel method, nano-welding, analogous to spot welding at the nanoscale level using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is presented. Using SPM oxidation of the underlying silicon, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been immobilized to the surface at point sites along their lengths by the nano-welding. It is shown that this nano-welding process nearly has no structural damage to the SWNTs. This immobilization makes the SPM manipulation of SWNTs controllable and desirable, which is helpful for the construction of SWNT-based nanodevices. PMID:15941244

Duan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Jin; Ling, Xing; Liu, Zhongfan

2005-06-15

349

Nano patterning with a single high-transmission nano-metal aperture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design a C-shaped aperture which overcomes the diffraction limit of light to produce a high-brightness nano-size light spot. For optical nano lithography, we construct a nano patterning system using an optical probe which adopts a solid immersion lens (SIL), the 120 nm thickness aluminum film on the bottom surface of the SIL and the C-shaped aperture engraved in the

Yongwoo Kim; Eungman Lee; Jae W. Hahn

2008-01-01

350

Development of NanoCAP (nano composite advanced particles) technology for high density recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, nanosized spherical magnetite particles, with the coercivity force of about 3000 Oe was developed. This material was named NanoCAP (nano composite advanced particles). This study described both magnetic and structural properties of NanoCAP. The crystal structure and the microstructure of the particles were examined using an X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope, respectively. The obtained

Y. Sasaki; N. Usuki; K. Matsuo; M. Kishimoto

2005-01-01

351

Mechanical properties and rolling behaviors of nano-grained copper with embedded nano-twin bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT), bulk nano-grained copper samples with embedded nano-twin bundles were prepared. Subsequent cold rolling (CR) of the LNT-DPD Cu led to a reduction in quantity of nano-twin bundles and a slight grain coarsening, accompanied by a decrease in grain boundary (GB) energy from 0.34 to 0.22Jm?2. An increasing CR

Y. Zhang; N. R. Tao; K. Lu

2008-01-01

352

Characterization of Vapor Deposited Nano Structured Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The vapor deposition methods of planar magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation are used to synthesize materials with nano structured morphological features that have ultra-high surface areas with continuous open porosity at the nano scale. These nano structured membranes are used in a variety of fuel cells to provide electrode and catalytic functions. Specifically, stand alone and composite nickel electrodes for use in thin film solid-oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cells are formed by sputter deposition and electron bean evaporation, respectively. Also, a potentially high-performance catalyst material for the direct reformation of hydrocarbon fuels at low temperatures is deposited as a nano structure by the reactive sputtering of a copper-zinc alloy using a partial pressure of oxygen at an elevated substrate temperature.

Jankowski, A; Cherepy, N; Ferreira, J; Hayes, J

2004-03-25

353

Advanced fabrication technologies for nano-electronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three novel fabrication technologies are presented which greatly increase the tools available for the realization of nano-electronic devices. First, a sub-micron area post structure descending from a metallic airbridge allows gating of regions as small as...

J. A. Simmons M. V. Weckwerth W. E. Baca

1996-01-01

354

Enabling Technologies for Nano Air Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project investigated several areas with the aim of improving performance and operational use of nano air vehicles (NAVs) by understanding fundamental operating principles and developing key technologies. The project developed plasma actuators for thr...

J. D. Jacob

2009-01-01

355

Functionalized Nano and Micro Structured Composite Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current methods of decontaminating Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) contaminated equipment need significant improvement. To this end, the major objective of this work was to conduct research on development of effective nano and micro structured composite coa...

I. Luzinov K. Kornev

2011-01-01

356

DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction  

ScienceCinema

Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

357

A Nano-Introduction to Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very small and generic introduction to the subject of nanotechnology. What makes nanoscience special? What is the history of nano? What can nanotechnology be used for by scientist and industry? What are the ethical and enviromental challenges?

Liang, Barbara

2010-10-29

358

Excimer laser processing in nano-technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the emerging field of microelectronics, microrobotics and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) it is often desirable to fabricate sub um order structure of solid surfaces in various materials. Recently with the established technique of laser in science and industry, its application have become diversified in the nano- and micro-processing areas. Excimer laser operating in the u.v. region have been employed in

Y. P. Kathuria

1999-01-01

359

Automated nanomanipulation for nano device construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanowire field-effect transistors (nano-FETs) are nano devices capable of highly sensitive, label-free sensing of molecules. However, significant variations in sensitivity across devices can result from poor control over device parameters, such as nanowire diameter and the number of electrode-bridging nanowires. This paper presents a fabrication approach that uses wafer-scale nanowire contact printing for throughput and uses automated nanomanipulation for precision

Yan Liang Zhang; Jason Li; Steve To; Yong Zhang; Xutao Ye; Yu Sun

2012-01-01

360

Ion bombardment of nano-particle coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to outline a new coating technology suitable for surface modification with ion beams. The aim is to develop well-adherent, cohesive coatings from nano-particles deposited on metal surfaces. Previously, ion-beam burnishing of graphite deposited from colloidal suspensions has been reported. Today, nano-particles of diamond, as well as of a number of chemical compounds used for

H. Jensen; G. Sorensen

1996-01-01

361

Nano-Sized Carriers for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery is an important issue, especially with a new generation of therapeutics, which are either unstable in the biological\\u000a environment, have poor transport properties across biological membranes, are insoluble in water, or have very low bioavailability.\\u000a Nano-sized drug carriers can address some of the above issues and enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Different types of nano-sized\\u000a carriers, such as nanoparticles,

Sanjeeb K. Sahoo; Tapan K. Jain; Maram K. Reddy; Vinod Labhasetwar

362

Development of Quantitative electron nano-diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is a step towards development of quantitative parallel beam electron nano-diffraction (PBED). It is focused on the superstructure determination of zig-zag and zig-zig NaxCoO2 and analysis of charge distribution in the two polymorphs Nb12O29 using PBED. It has been shown that quantitative electron nano-diffraction (parallel beam) has the potential of solving superstructures as well as charge distribution by

V. Kumar

2009-01-01

363

Micro and nano-scale robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro- and nano-scale robotics has become a new emerging area of systems and controls area. These miniature robots have unique advantages such as accessing to unprecedented and small areas, increased flexibility, functionality and robustness, and being low cost, many (swarms), adaptive and distributed. The locomotion and manipulation dynamics of these robots are dominated by micro\\/nano-scale forces and the scaling effects.

Metin Sitti

2004-01-01

364

Recent Advances in Nano and Macroscale Control of Hexagonal, Mesoporous Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano- and macroscale control of siliceous MCM-41 type, hexagonal, mesoporous materials are discussed with reference to proposed mechanisms of formation and morphological manipulation. The complex interplay of surfactant silicate chemistry in the numerous synthetic strategies of MCM-41 type materials reported to date are examined. Recent advances in the growth of thin film mesoporous silicates from solid-liquid, air-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces

Mika Lindén; Stefan Schacht; Ferdi Schüth; Allan Steel; Klaus K. Unger

1998-01-01

365

Mechanisms of ciprofloxacin removal by nano-sized magnetite.  

PubMed

An understanding of the interaction mechanisms of antibiotics with environmentally relevant sorbents is important to determine the environmental fate of antibiotics and to develop wastewater treatment strategies. Magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)(s)) is ubiquitous in the environment and occurs as a secondary corrosion product of iron nanoparticles that are commonly used as a remediation material. In this study, we aimed to assess the sorption mechanisms of ciprofloxacin (CIP), an important class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, with magnetite nanoparticles using a combination of wet chemical and in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Ciprofloxacin sorption was characterized as a function of pH (3.4-8.0), CIP concentration (1-500 ?M), ionic strength (0.5, 0.1, and 0.01 M NaCl), and competing anion such as phosphate (0.1mM) to cover a broad range of environmentally relevant geochemical conditions. Results indicated a bell-shaped sorption envelop where sorption of CIP on nano-Fe(3)O(4)(s) increased from 45% to 80% at pH 3.44-5.97; beyond that sorption gradually decreased to a value of 25% at pH 8.39. Phosphate had negligible effect on CIP sorption. In situ ATR-FTIR results indicated inner-sphere coordination of CIP at the magnetite surface mediated by carboxylic acid groups. Results suggest that nano-Fe(3)O(4)(s) has the potential to remove CIP from wastewater effectively. PMID:23313895

Rakshit, Sudipta; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Elzinga, Evert J; Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali

2012-12-26

366

Injectable nano-network for glucose-mediated insulin delivery.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus, a disorder of glucose regulation, is a global burden affecting 366 million people across the world. An artificial "closed-loop" system able to mimic pancreas activity and release insulin in response to glucose level changes has the potential to improve patient compliance and health. Herein we develop a glucose-mediated release strategy for the self-regulated delivery of insulin using an injectable and acid-degradable polymeric network. Formed by electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged dextran nanoparticles loaded with insulin and glucose-specific enzymes, the nanocomposite-based porous architecture can be dissociated and subsequently release insulin in a hyperglycemic state through the catalytic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid. In vitro insulin release can be modulated in a pulsatile profile in response to glucose concentrations. In vivo studies validated that these formulations provided improved glucose control in type 1 diabetic mice subcutaneously administered with a degradable nano-network. A single injection of the developed nano-network facilitated stabilization of the blood glucose levels in the normoglycemic state (<200 mg/dL) for up to 10 days. PMID:23638642

Gu, Zhen; Aimetti, Alex A; Wang, Qun; Dang, Tram T; Zhang, Yunlong; Veiseh, Omid; Cheng, Hao; Langer, Robert S; Anderson, Daniel G

2013-05-02

367

ENGINEERING NANO- AND MICRO-PARTICLES TO TUNE IMMUNITY  

PubMed Central

The immune system can be a cure or cause of disease, fulfilling a protective role in attacking cancer or pathogenic microbes but also causing tissue destruction in autoimmune disorders. Thus, therapies aimed to amplify or suppress immune reactions are of great interest. However, the complex regulation of the immune system, coupled with the potential systemic side effects associated with traditional systemic drug therapies, has presented a major hurdle for the development of successful immunotherapies,. Recent progress in the design of synthetic micro- and nano-particles that can target drugs, deliver imaging agents, or stimulate immune cells directly through their physical and chemical properties is leading to new approaches to deliver vaccines, promote immune responses against tumors, and suppress autoimmunity. In addition, novel strategies, such as the use of particle-laden immune cells as living targeting agents for drugs, are providing exciting new approaches for immunotherapy. This progress report describes recent advances in the design of micro- and nano-particles in immunotherapies and diagnostics.

Moon, James J.; Irvine, Darrell J.; Huang, Bonnie

2013-01-01

368

Nano-magnetic non-volatile CMOS circuits for nano-scale FPGAs (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology promises to open up new ways of scaling CMOS circuits by introducing new materials. For example, a hybrid circuit of CMOS gates and carbon nano-tubes (CNT), NEMS relay logic and emerging memory devices have been proposed for future nano-scale Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Hybrid circuits for use as FPGA configurable logic blocks (CLBs) are often proposed in the

Larkhoon Leem; James A. Weaver; Metha Jeeradit; James S. Harris

2010-01-01

369

Reducing the emissions from the automobiles by using carbon nano tubes (Nano Technology)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is a science of controlling individual atoms and molecules. This technology has got great future and is considered to be the manufacturing technology of 21st technology. Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nano meters in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long. Carbon nano tubes is not implemented in mechanical

A. Durairajan; S. Ananthakumar; M. Mohamed Yusuf

2011-01-01

370

A newly defined envelope function for nano particles - carbon nano tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dangling bonds on CNT (Carbon NanoTube) surface induce the spurious surface states. These dangling bonds can be bonded by incoming nano particles which is associated wave function with different characters (localization at the surface) in respect to real quantized states. When the translational symmetry is broken, we can limit the calculation to an area like a ring or a super

F. M. Nakhaei; A. Bahari

2009-01-01

371

Nano Surface Generation in Grinding Process using Carbon Nano Tube with Lubricant Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nano tubes have been of great interest, both from a fundamental point of view and for future application. The most eye catching features of these structures are their mechanical, optical and chemical characteristics, which open a way to future application. For commercial applications large quantities of purified nanotubes are needed. Carbon nano tubes of different types can be produced

S. Prabhu; B. K. Vinayagam

372

Magnetically control of nano-structures for intracellular nano-robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, localized mechanical stimulation method was proposed to investigate a single organelle functions. Intracellular nano-machine for a organelle and a cell function control were designed to stimulate a single organelle on mathematical model. The nano-structures for fundamental research were fabricated. It was measured that the width as 30 ?m, the length as 150 ?m, the height as 500

Takumi MATSUMOTO; Takayuki HOSHINO; Yoshitake AKIYAMA; Keisuke MORISHIMA

2010-01-01

373

Recent patents on nano flavor preparation and its application.  

PubMed

Nano flavor preparation and its application have been reviewed in this paper. Nano flavor could be prepared by physical methods such as spray drying with microfluidization and ultrasonication, physical adsorption and so on, chemical methods such as complex formation, nano-sized self-structured liquid, and nano emulsification and so on. Different preparation technology could produce nano particles with different physical properties, thus they could be used in different occasions such as food, drug, cosmetics and so on. The article presents some promising patents on nano flavor preparation and its application. PMID:20858190

Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

2010-11-01

374

Validation of routine continuous airborne CO2 observations near the Bialystok Tall Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios have been performed regularly aboard a rental aircraft near Bialystok (53°08´ N, 23°09´ E), a city in northeastern Poland. Since August 2008, the in situ CO2 measurements have been made by a modified commercially available and fully automated non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer system. The response of the analyzer has been characterized and the CO2 mixing ratio stability of the associated calibration system has been fully tested, which results in an optimal calibration strategy and allows for an accuracy of the CO2 measurements within 0.2 ppm. Besides the in situ measurements, air samples have been collected in glass flasks and analyzed in the laboratory for CO2 and other trace gases. To validate the in situ CO2 measurements against reliable discrete flask measurements, we developed weighting functions that mimic the temporal averaging of the flask sampling process. Comparisons between in situ and flask CO2 measurements demonstrate that these weighting functions can compensate for atmospheric variability, and provide an effective method for validating airborne in situ CO2 measurements. In addition, we show the nine-year records of flask CO2 measurements. The new system, automated since August 2008, has eliminated the need for manual in-flight calibrations, and thus enables an additional vertical profile, 20 km away, to be sampled at no additional cost in terms of flight hours. This sampling strategy provides an opportunity to investigate both temporal and spatial variability on a regular basis.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Katrynski, K.; Jordan, A.; Heimann, M.

2012-04-01

375

Validation of routine continuous airborne CO2 observations near the Bialystok Tall Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios have been performed regularly aboard a rental aircraft near Bialystok (53°08' N, 23°09' E), a city in northeastern Poland. Since August 2008, the in situ CO2 measurements have been made by a modified commercially available and fully automated non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer system. The response of the analyzer has been characterized and the CO2 mixing ratio stability of the associated calibration system has been fully tested, which results in an optimal calibration strategy and allows for an accuracy of the CO2 measurements within 0.2 ppm. Besides the in situ measurements, air samples have been collected in glass flasks and analyzed in the laboratory for mixing ratios of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, SF6 and for isotopic ratios of ?13C and ?18O in CO2. To validate the in situ CO2 measurements against reliable discrete flask measurements, we developed weighting functions that mimic the temporal averaging of the flask sampling process. Comparisons between in situ and flask CO2 measurements demonstrate that these weighting functions can compensate for atmospheric variability, and provide an effective method for validating airborne in situ CO2 measurements. In addition, we show the nine-year records of flask CO2 measurements, from which the CO2 increase rates are computed for the 300 m level (1.59 ± 0.21 ppm yr-1) and for the 2500 m level (1.77 ± 0.08 ppm yr-1). The new system, automated since August 2008, has eliminated the need for manual in-flight calibrations, and thus enables an additional vertical profile, 20 km away, to be sampled at no additional cost in terms of flight hours. This sampling strategy provides an opportunity to investigate both temporal and spatial variability on a regular basis.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Katrynski, K.; Jordan, A.; Heimann, M.

2011-11-01

376

Strategy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce strategy logic, a logic that treats strategies in two-player games as explicit first-order objects. The explicit treatment of strategies allows us to specify properties of nonzero-sum games in a simple and natural way. We show that the one-alternation fragment of strategy logic is strong enough to express the existence of Nash equilibria and secure equilibria, and subsumes other

Krishnendu Chatterjee; Thomas A. Henzinger; Nir Piterman

2010-01-01

377

Strategy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce strategy logic, a logic that treats strategies in two-player games as explicit first-order objects. The explicit treatment of strategies allows us to specify properties of nonzero-sum games in a simple and natural way. We show that the one-alternation fragment of strategy logic is strong enough to express the existence of Nash equilibria and secure equilibria, and subsumes other

Krishnendu Chatterjee; Thomas A. Henzinger; Nir Piterman

2007-01-01

378

Employing Carbon Nano-Tubes in New Nano-Structured Radiation Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, electronics has growth up together with the possibility of designing electronic circuits based on the semi conductive properties of silicon. However, the last two decades has been characterized by the explosion of techniques allowing the observation and manipulation of materials at the nanometric length scale. For many applications, the role of silicon is thus turning towards that of a well known substrate whose surface is modified and decorated, at the nano-scale, with other materials. This configuration often represents a nano-structured material. Among all the materials involved in nano-science and nano-technology, Carbon Nano-Tubes (CNTs) have already been employed into a huge number of applications. Here we report the last results in designing a new radiation detector based on CNTs that appears promising for the aim of broadening the detection range of solid state radiation detectors.

Ambrosio, A.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Carillo, V.; Guarino, F.; Maddalena, P.; Grossi, V.; Passacantando, M.; Santucci, S.; Valentini, A.

2010-04-01

379

Nano-zirconium oxide and nano-silver oxide\\/cotton gauze fabrics for antimicrobial and wound healing acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-zirconium-oxide (nano-Zr-oxide) and nano-silver-oxide (nano-Ag-oxide) were in situ synthesized and deposited into cotton gauze fabrics by reduction of zirconium oxychloride or silver nitrate solutions, in the presence of fabric samples using sodium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide mixture solution at pH 9.5. The resulted homogenous distribution of nano-Zr-oxide and nano-Ag-oxide inside the fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive

Mohamed Gouda

2012-01-01

380

Nano-based theranostics for chronic obstructive lung diseases: challenges and therapeutic potential.  

PubMed

The major challenges in the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of nano-delivery systems in chronic obstructive airway conditions are airway defense, severe inflammation and mucous hypersecretion. Chronic airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion are hallmarks of chronic obstructive airway diseases, including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and CF (cystic fibrosis). Distinct etiologies drive inflammation and mucous hypersecretion in these diseases, which are further induced by infection or components of cigarette smoke. Controlling chronic inflammation is at the root of treatments such as corticosteroids, antibiotics or other available drugs, which pose the challenge of sustained delivery of drugs to target cells or tissues. In spite of the wide application of nano-based drug delivery systems, very few are tested to date. Targeted nanoparticle-mediated sustained drug delivery is required to control inflammatory cell chemotaxis, fibrosis, protease-mediated chronic emphysema and/or chronic lung obstruction in COPD. Moreover, targeted epithelial delivery is indispensable for correcting the underlying defects in CF and targeted inflammatory cell delivery for controlling other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We propose that the design and development of nano-based targeted theranostic vehicles with therapeutic, imaging and airway-defense penetrating capability, will be invaluable for treating chronic obstructive lung diseases. This paper discusses a novel nano-theranostic strategy that we are currently evaluating to treat the underlying cause of CF and COPD lung disease. PMID:21711085

Vij, Neeraj

2011-06-28

381

Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.  

PubMed

We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form. PMID:22572872

Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

2012-05-10

382

Multifunctional anti-cancer nano-platforms are moving to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Cancer management needs rapid, non-invasive diagnosis and tumour-specific therapeutics which is unfortunately lacking for most cancer types. Novel approaches for cancer management aim at providing customized therapy according to individual diagnoses, determined by gene expression profiling, in particular, targeting highly selective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to single cancer cell antigens, in combination with highly cytotoxic drugs, thereby avoiding the unwanted side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Multifunctional nano-vectors that combine new and more powerful drugs and/or probes for diagnostic imaging with tumour surface-specific ligands/antibodies have been developed. These nano-vectors have displayed superior selective anti-tumour activity compared to antibodies or standard anti-cancer drugs/agents alone both in-vitro, and in preclinical and clinical models. Anti-cancer nano-platforms can significantly improve early cancer detection and ameliorate therapeutic strategies. In the immediate future nano-technology may enable the simultaneous early detection and selective inactivation of cancer cells before they develop into full blown tumours. PMID:23687926

Esposito, Claudio; Crema, Annalisa; Ponzetto, Antonio; Murtas, Giovanni; Carloni, Guido

2013-06-01

383

Overexpression of a chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein OsHSP26 confers enhanced tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses in tall fescue.  

PubMed

Small heat shock proteins are involved in stress tolerance. We previously isolated and characterized a rice cDNA clone, Oshsp26, encoding a chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein that is expressed following oxidative or heat stress. In this study, we transferred this gene to tall fescue plants by an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. The integration and expression of the transgene was confirmed by PCR, Southern, northern, and immunoblot analyzes. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic plants had significantly lower electrolyte leakage and accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances when exposed to heat or methyl viologen. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm) in the transgenic tall fescue plants was higher than that in the control plants during heat stress (42°C). These results suggest that the OsHSP26 protein plays an important role in the protection of PSII during heat and oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:21984008

Kim, Kyung-Hee; Alam, Iftekhar; Kim, Yong-Goo; Sharmin, Shamima Akhtar; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Hyun

2011-10-09

384

Advances in nano drugs for cancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

In spite of some medications, millions of peoples are dying every year due to cancer. Additionally, the survival patients suffer from various serious side effects due to the use of available anti-neoplastic medicines. The development of nanoparticles based drugs is seems to be effective providing low side effects and targeted action on cancer cells. The present article describes the state-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemotherapy. The nano drugs are targeted selective and specific towards tumors only resulting into better treatment. The important molecules used for preparation nano drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nanoparticles carriers are dendrimers, polymer, liposome, micelles, inorganic, organic nanoparticles etc. A survey was carried out on the drugs available in the market and given in tabular form. However, the commonly used nano drugs till date are liposome dendrimer and some other materials based nanoparticles. Attempts have been made to explain mechanism of action of nano drugs. The future perspectives have also been highlighted in to the conclusion part. PMID:21158724

Ali, Imran; Rahis-Uddin; Salim, K; Rather, Mohmad A; Wani, Waseem A; Haque, Ashanul

2011-02-01

385

Nano-graphene in biomedicine: theranostic applications.  

PubMed

Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and GO-nanocomposites have attracted tremendous interest in many different fields including biomedicine in recent years. With every atom exposed on its surface, single-layered graphene shows ultra-high surface area available for efficient molecular loading and bioconjugation, and has been widely explored as novel nano-carriers for drug and gene delivery. Utilizing the intrinsic near-infrared (NIR) optical absorbance, in vivo graphene-based photothermal therapy has been realized, achieving excellent anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy in animal experiments. A variety of inorganic nanoparticles can be grown on the surface of nano-graphene, obtaining functional graphene-based nanocomposites with interesting optical and magnetic properties useful for multi-modal imaging and imaging-guided cancer therapy. Moreover, significant efforts have also been devoted to study the behaviors and toxicology of functionalized nano-graphene in animals. It has been uncovered that both surface chemistry and sizes play key roles in controlling the biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity of nano-graphene. Biocompatibly coated nano-graphene with ultra-small sizes can be cleared out from body after systemic administration, without rendering noticeable toxicity to the treated mice. In this review article, we will summarize the latest progress in this rapidly growing field, and discuss future prospects and challenges of using graphene-based materials for theranostic applications. PMID:23059655

Yang, Kai; Feng, Liangzhu; Shi, Xiaoze; Liu, Zhuang

2013-01-21

386

Preparation of nano fluids by mechanical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids are conventional heat transfer fluids that contain nano particles of metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or nanotubes. Nanofluids exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficients compared to the base fluids. This paper presents the procedure for preparing nanofluids consisting of Copper and Aluminium nano powders in base fluids. Copper and Aluminium nano powders were produced by planetary ball wet milling at 300rpm for 50hrs. Toluene was added to ensure wet milling. These powders were characterized in XRD and SEM for their purity, particle size and shape. The XRD results confirmed the final particle sizes of Copper and Aluminium in the nano range. Then the 0.01 gm of nano metal powders was added in 150 ml of double distilled water and magnetic stirring was done at 1500 rpm for 15 minutes. Sodium lauryl sulphate (0.05%) was added in water as surfactant to ensure the stability of the dispersion. Ultrasonication in the 3000 watts bath was done for 10 minutes to enhance the uniform dispersion of metal powders in water. The pH, dynamic viscosity, ionic conductivity and the stability of the fluids were determined for further usage of synthesized nanofluids as coolant during grinding operation.

Boopathy, J.; Pari, R.; Kavitha, M.; Angelo, P. C.

2012-07-01

387

Nano, Quantum, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics: Educational Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of links provides access to web sites associated with nano, quantum, and statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The links are arranged by type: basic principles (including classical thermodynamics), nano, quantum, and statistical mechanics, mathematical techniques, applications, and references.

388

Inappropriate tall stature and renal ectopy in a male patient with X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to a novel missense mutation in the DAX-1 gene.  

PubMed

Mutations in DAX-1 gene cause congenital adrenal hypoplasia (AHC). We present a male patient affected by X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita due to a novel DAX-1 missense mutation. The mutation V287G affects the C-terminal end of the DAX-1 protein which plays an important role in functioning of the receptor. In addition, our patient presented an inappropriate tall stature and renal ectopy, which have not been described in AHC so far. PMID:15800903

Franzese, Adriana; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Spagnuolo, Maria Immacolata; Spadaro, Raffaella; Giugliano, Michela; Mukai, Tokuo; Valerio, Giuliana

2005-05-15

389

Estimates of net CO2 flux by application of equilibrium boundary layer concepts to CO2 and water vapor measurements from a tall tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective turbulence within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and movement of the ABL over the surface results in a large spatial (104–105 km2) integration of surface fluxes that affects the CO2 and water vapor mixing ratios. We apply quasi-equilibrium concepts for the terrestrial ABL to measurements of CO2 and water vapor made within the ABL from a tall tower (396

Brent R. Helliker; Joseph A. Berry; Alan K. Betts; Peter S. Bakwin; Kenneth J. Davis; A. Scott Denning; James R. Ehleringer; John B. Miller; Martha P. Butler; Daniel M. Ricciuto

2004-01-01

390

Characterization of the FaVRT-2 gene encoding a MADS-box transcription factor responsive to vernalization in tall fescue (Festucaarundinacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay of floral transition is a valuable trait in commercially important turfgrass species. It has been reported that short vegetative phase (SVP)-like proteins, potential repressors of the floral inductive pathway, control the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase. A homolog of SVP-like genes was isolated from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and 3?-RACE and

X.-L. Wang; X.-X. Liu; W. Chen; W.-C. Li; J. H. Wu; S.-Y. Wang; Y.-C. Yang; L.-Q. Xi

2012-01-01

391

A Model-Data Integration Framework for Interpreting Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements on Complex Terrain Covered by a Tall Canopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eddy Covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used to determine turbulent fluxes above plant canopies, yet linking EC fluxes to ecosystem scalar sources and sinks remains an active research topic. Over complex terrain, advective fluxes become large thereby disturbing the constant turbulent flux assumption. Because the genesis of these advective terms is the interaction between the pressure field and topography, a framework that links the modes of topographic variability to scalar flux gradients above the canopy is required to further progress on this topic. Here, a new EC flux tower in the mountainous terrain of the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory is used to test a novel approach for quantifying the magnitude of horizontal and vertical advective fluxes within the tower footprint. The approach is based on a two dimensional numerical model for wind flow over complex terrain covered by a tall canopy. Model runs are compared to vertical flux gradients and mean concentration profiles of CO2, H2O, air temperature, and mean velocity measured at the tower. These model runs are then used to explore what modes of variability in topography impact the generation of flux gradients above the canopy and how these modes may shift due to thermal stratification.

Banerjee, T.; Novick, K. A.; Katul, G. G.; Land Atmosphere Interaction Group-(Katul Group)

2011-12-01

392

Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)  

SciTech Connect

Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

1993-03-01

393

Structure of the Notch1-negative regulatory region: implications for normal activation and pathogenic signaling in T-ALL.  

PubMed

Proteolytic resistance of Notch prior to ligand binding depends on the structural integrity of a negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor that immediately precedes the transmembrane segment. The NRR includes the 3 Lin12/Notch repeats and the juxtamembrane heterodimerization domain, the region of Notch1 most frequently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lymphoma (T-ALL). Here, we report the x-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR in its autoinhibited conformation. A key feature of the Notch1 structure that maintains its closed conformation is a conserved hydrophobic plug that sterically occludes the metalloprotease cleavage site. Crystal packing interactions involving a highly conserved, exposed face on the third Lin12/Notch repeat suggest that this site may normally be engaged in intermolecular or intramolecular protein-protein interactions. The majority of known T-ALL-associated point mutations map to residues in the hydrophobic interior of the Notch1 NRR. A novel mutation (H1545P), which alters a residue at the crystal-packing interface, leads to ligand-independent increases in signaling in reporter gene assays despite only mild destabilization of the NRR, suggesting that it releases the autoinhibitory clamp on the heterodimerization domain imposed by the Lin12/Notch repeats. The Notch1 NRR structure should facilitate a search for antibodies or compounds that stabilize the autoinhibited conformation. PMID:19075186

Gordon, Wendy R; Roy, Monideepa; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; Garfinkel, Megan; Mansour, Marc R; Aster, Jon C; Blacklow, Stephen C

2008-12-15

394

Bioinspired synthesis of hierarchically micro/nano-structured CuI tetrahedron and its potential application as adsorbent for Cd(II) with high removal capacity.  

PubMed

An environment friendly bioinspired strategy for synthesizing hierarchically micro/nano-structured CuI tetrahedron has been developed by combining the stabilization and the reduction performances of l-tryptophan together. A possible growth mechanism of such hierarchical tetrahedron is tentatively proposed. Remarkably, such CuI tetrahedron is found to possess high removal capacity for poisonous Cd(II) ions, 136.3mg/g, and ideal reusability. This is ascribed to the hierarchical micro/nano-structure and chemical adsorption mechanism, which shows great advantages over the traditional nano-scaled adsorbents. These interesting results stand out the promising applications of such hierarchically micro/nano-structured materials in environment. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and nanotechnologies for the treatment of contaminated water. PMID:22305599

Gao, Shuyan; Yang, Jianmao; Li, Zhengdao; Jia, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yanli

2012-01-11

395

Experimental evidence of a single nano-graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single nano-sized graphene sheet is prepared by a combination of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and heat-treatment of diamond nano-particles on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. Heat-treatment at 1600 °C converts diamond nano-particles to single nano-graphenes, where the mean in-plane size and the inter-layer distance from the substrate are estimated at 10–15 and 0.35–0.37 nm, respectively. The considerably large

A. M Affoune; B. L. V Prasad; Hirohiko Sato; Toshiaki Enoki; Yutaka Kaburagi; Yoshihiro Hishiyama

2001-01-01

396

Applications of MEMS actuators in micro\\/nano robotic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro\\/nano robotic manipulators have the ability to position and orient objects at the micro\\/nano scales and are capable of performing very small motion with high resolution. The performances of micro\\/nano robotic manipulators greatly influence on the reliability and efficiency of the entire system. Furtherly, the positioning and orientation of micro\\/nano robotic manipulators depend largely on their actuators. So the miniaturized

Liwei Li

2010-01-01

397

Nano-Porous Silicon antireflection coatings for microlens application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-porous silicon is investigated as antireflection coating for silicon microlenses. The effect of non-planar silicon surfaces on nano-porous silicon thin film uniformity is examined. V-groves were micromachined in [100] orientated silicon and subsequently anodised in a HF solution to produce nano-porous silicon. The results show for nano-porous silicon fabricated on heavily doped p-type material the electric field has a negligible

T. D. James; J. S. Milne; A. J. Keating; G. Parish; C. A. Musca; J. M. Dell; L. Faraone

2006-01-01

398

Micro\\/nano-particle electrostatic accelerator for electric propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given: The nanoparticle field extraction thruster (NanoFET) is an electrostatic micro\\/nano-particle accelerator technology that is being developed for use as an electric propulsion system. Conceptually, NanoFET employs micro\\/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS\\/NEMS) to transport, charge, and accelerate conductive particles. The propellant, via piezoelectric actuations, is fed from a storage reservoir through a charging grid that breaks up particle agglomerates.

T. M. Liu; A. D. Gallimore; B. E. Gilchrist; P. Y. Peterson

2009-01-01

399

Nano-Cutting Fluid for Enhancement of Metal Cutting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-cutting fluids are the mixtures of conventional cutting fluid and nanoparticles. Addition of the nanoparticles can alter wettability, lubricating properties, and convective heat transfer coefficient (cooling properties) of nano-cutting fluids. In the present work, nano-cutting fluid is made by adding 1% Al2O3 nanoparticles to conventional cutting fluid. The wettability characteristic of this nano-cutting fluid on a carbide tool tip is

S. Khandekar; M. Ravi Sankar; V. Agnihotri; J. Ramkumar

2012-01-01

400

Research on the possibility of nano-tube antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of a nano-tube antenna is discussed. Based on the intrinsic ballistic transportation of electrons in a nano-tube, a novel design of antenna with a nano-tube is proposed and its radiation efficiency and radiation directivity have been researched. It can be seen from the numerical results that nano-tube antennas or arrays possess lower loss and better radiation directivity and

Zhu Qi; Wang Rui

2004-01-01

401

Improved extraordinary optical transmission though single nano-slit by nano-defocusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have numerically studied the transmission properties of a composite structure consisting of a de-focusing tapered slit and nano-strip. For a fixed wavelength, the dependence of transmission efficiency of light on the structure parameters is demonstrated in detail. we have found that the extraordinary optical transmission through a single tapered metallic nano-slit is enhanced by placing a metallic nano-strip over it, in which tapered slit with large taper angle is used for de-focusing of light and be avoid of Fabry-Perot resonance in straight metallic nano-slit. It is shown that a suitable tapered slit assisted by nano-cavity-antenna can enhance the transmission by about 50% (compared with that in straight slit case). Furthermore, the parameters of the tapered slit (the taper angle and the taper length) hardly change the resonance in the horizontal nano-cavity. The transmission spectrum of the tapered slit can also be tuned by adjusting the taper angle. Such striking characteristic tapered slit has promising applications in designing optical nano-scale device.

Sun, Bin; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Liu; Zhai, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Qiang

2013-12-01

402

Seasonal controls on regional methane and carbon dioxide exchange observed from a very tall eddy covariance tower in a wetland-rich landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of future burdens of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) requires better understanding of environmental controls on regional sources and sinks of these greenhouse gases. Very tall eddy covariance towers, such as the 447-m tall Park Falls, WI WLEF Ameriflux site, provide an avenue to directly observe exchanges at scales larger than typical flux tower sites. The first continuous tall-tower eddy covariance observations of methane exchange were added to this tower at the 122m height in fall 2010. Comparisons of one year of CH4 fluxes from the tower reveal a number of features in contrast to the 14-year record of CO2 fluxes. Winter time emissions of CH4 are positive, significant, and weakly correlated to temperature. After canopy leaf expansion, CH4 emissions increase, and track more closely to temperature. Evaluation of these fluxes against inventory and inverse methods are promising. These results suggest possible synergistic interactions between forests and wetlands that make up the landscape. Several hypotheses about possible mechanistic explanations for the observed seasonal patterns will be discussed.

Desai, A. R.

2011-12-01

403

Extensive molecular mapping of TCR?/?- and TCR?-involved chromosomal translocations reveals distinct mechanisms of oncogene activation in T-ALL.  

PubMed

Chromosomal translocations involving the TCR loci represent one of the most recurrent oncogenic hallmarks of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and are generally believed to result from illegitimate V(D)J recombination events. However, molecular characterization and evaluation of the extent of recombinase involvement at the TCR-oncogene junction has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, screening for TCR? and TCR?/? translocations by FISH and ligation-mediated PCR in 280 T-ALLs allowed the identification of 4 previously unreported TCR-translocated oncogene partners: GNAG, LEF1, NKX2-4, and IL2RB. Molecular mapping of genomic junctions from TCR translocations showed that the majority of oncogenic partner breakpoints are not recombinase mediated and that the regulatory elements predominantly used to drive oncogene expression differ markedly in TCR? (which are exclusively enhancer driven) and TCR?/? (which use an enhancer-independent cryptic internal promoter) translocations. Our data also imply that oncogene activation takes place at a very immature stage of thymic development, when D?2-D?3/D?3-J?1 and D?-J? rearrangements occur, whereas the bulk leukemic maturation arrest occurs at a much later (cortical) stage. These observations have implications for T-ALL therapy, because the preleukemic early thymic clonogenic population needs to be eradicated and its disappearance monitored. PMID:22948044

Le Noir, Sandrine; Ben Abdelali, Raouf; Lelorch, Marc; Bergeron, Julie; Sungalee, Stephanie; Payet-Bornet, Dominique; Villarèse, Patrick; Petit, Arnaud; Callens, Céline; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Baranger, Laurence; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Grégoire, Marie-José; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert; Spicuglia, Salvatore; Romana, Serge; Soulier, Jean; Nadel, Bertrand; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Asnafi, Vahid

2012-09-04

404

Architecture in NanoSpace  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Chemistry and Physics at one borderline and Chemistry and Biology at the other begin to become indistinguishable, multidisciplinary research is leading to the fascinating ``new'' overarching field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (N&N - not to be confused with M&M). Ingenious strategies for the creation of molecules with complex exactly-specified structures as well as function are being developed - basically

Harold Kroto

2007-01-01

405

Impacts of waterlogging and salinity on puccinellia ( Puccinellia ciliata ) and tall wheatgrass ( Thinopyrum ponticum ): zonation on saltland with a shallow water-table, plant growth, and Na + and K + concentrations in the leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the causes of zonation on agricultural land affected by secondary salinity between two halophytic grasses,\\u000a puccinellia (Puccinellia ciliata Bor. cv. Menemen) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Z.-W. Liu & R.R.-C. Wang cv. Tyrrell). We hypothesized that the differences in zonation of puccinellia and tall wheatgrass\\u000a were caused primarily by differences in the tolerance of these

Sommer Jenkins; Edward G. Barrett-Lennard; Zed Rengel

2010-01-01

406

Endohedral Metallofullerenes and Nano-Peapods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review article, we deal with the structures and properties of novel hybrid nanocarbon materials, which are created by the incorporation of atoms and molecules in hollow spaces of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs); these hybrid materials are called endohedral metallofullerenes (in the case of metal atom incorporated fullerenes) and nano-peapods, respectively. Synthesis procedures, structural characterizations by synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, electronic structures, and magnetic properties of endohedral metallofullerenes are discussed. The structure and properties of nano-peapods by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and field effect transistor (FET) transport measurements together with their synthesis procedures are described. The utilization of the low-dimensional nanosized spaces of CNTs to produce novel low-dimensional nanocluster, nanowire and nano-tube materials is also discussed.

Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori

2007-03-01

407

Nano-intercalated rhodanese in cyanide antagonism.  

PubMed

Present studies have focused on nano-intercalated rhodanese in combination with sulfur donors to prevent cyanide lethality in a prophylactic mice model for future development of an effective cyanide antidotal system. Our approach is based on the idea of converting cyanide to the less toxic thiocyanate before it reaches the target organs by utilizing sulfurtransferases (e.g., rhodanese) and sulfur donors in a close proximity by injecting them directly into the blood stream. The inorganic thiosulfate (TS) and the garlic component diallydisulfide (DADS) were compared as sulfur donors with the nano-intercalated rhodanese in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that DADS is not a more efficient sulfur donor than TS. However, the utilization of external rhodanese significantly enhanced the in vivo efficacy of both sulfur donor-nitrite combinations, indicating the potential usefulness of enzyme nano-delivery systems in developing antidotal therapeutic agents. PMID:20795898

Petrikovics, Ilona; Baskin, Steven I; Beigel, Keith M; Schapiro, Benjamin J; Rockwood, Gary A; Manage, Ananda B W; Budai, Marianna; Szilasi, Maria

2010-06-01

408

Interactive Nano-visualization in Science & Engineering Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project has developed learning resources that include nano-scale science and technology into the high school and introductory college curricula. Resources include an online scanning-probe microscope, a wide range of images and animations illustrating material and chemical properties on the nano-scale, and online learning modules on material science and nano-scale biological science.

Ramakrishna, B. L.

2005-03-16

409

Development and Performance of Charged Nano Particle Collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleation events have been observed at many sites worldwide, but the mechanism of the nucleation process is not clear - several hypotheses have been posed to explain these events. To obtain further insight into the chemical composition of these nano particles, a Nano Particle Collector (Nano PC) has been developed based the size dependence of particle mobility. We constructed a

Y. Zhao; A. S. Wexler

2005-01-01

410

In situ engineering of NanoBud geometries.  

PubMed

NanoBuds exist in a variety of stable structures. Our studies show that engineering NanoBud geometries is indeed possible and we visualise the transformation of one Nanobud geometry to another using in situ aberration corrected imaging techniques. Such NanoBuds are precursors for generating nanotube junctions which could be used in composite and electronic applications. PMID:24135864

Nicholls, Rebecca J; Britton, Jude; Meysami, Seyyed Shayan; Koós, Antal A; Grobert, Nicole

2013-10-29

411

Catalytic Nano-mobile Robot with finely designed geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop the Catalytic Nano-mobile Robot (CNMR) with finely designed geometry swimming in hydrogen peroxide solution as a novel type of nano machine. First we use Focus Ion Beam (FIB) etching to fabricate the nano- mobile robot into the geometry or shape as we desire freely with little constrain. And then an effective and stable manipulation method

Jingjing Baoi; Masahiro Nakajima; Zhan Yang; Masaru Kojima; Toshio Fukuda

2012-01-01

412

Application of nano powdered rubber in friction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene butadiene nano powdered rubber and nitrile-butadiene nano powdered rubber were used for manufacturing clutch facings, disc brake pads and brake linings to replace conventional styrene butadiene rubber and nitrile-butadiene rubber. The results of constant speed friction test and dynamometer test showed that nano powdered rubber can substantially improve properties of friction materials. The friction coefficient of friction materials modified

Yiqun Liu; Zhongqing Fan; Hengyi Ma; Yigang Tan; Jinliang Qiao

2006-01-01

413

Nano-ultrasonic based on GaN nano-layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our current development on nano-ultrasonic by using piezoelectric nano-layers based on the GaN material system. Our study indicated that piezoelectric semiconductor nanostructures can serve as optical piezoelectric transducers to generate and detect nanoacoustic waves through the piezoelectric effect. The nanoacoustic waves, with a wavelength on the order of or shorter than 10 nm, can be used for high accuracy THz electron control, noninvasive subnanometer interface probing, and nano-ultrasonic imaging. Detailed design principles and the applications to the study of lattice/molecular dynamics in condense matters are discussed.

Sun, Chi-Kuang; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Kung-Hsuan

2010-02-01

414

InAs Nano-Dot Array Formation Using Nano-Jet Probe for Photonics Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose herein a new nano-probe-assisted technique that enables the formation of site-controlled InAs quantum dots. High-density two-dimensional indium (In) nano-dot arrays on a GaAs substrate were fabricated using a specially designed atomic-force-microscope probe, referred to as the Nano-Jet Probe. This probe has a hollow pyramidal tip with a submicron-sized aperture at the apex and an In-reservoir tank within the

Shunsuke Ohkouchi; Yusui Nakamura; Hitoshi Nakamura; Kiyoshi Asakawa

2005-01-01

415

Nano-grains form carbonate "fault mirrors"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many faults are characterized by naturally polished glossy surfaces, termed fault mirrors (FMs), which form during slip. Recent experiments also find that FMs form during rapid (but not slow) sliding between rock surfaces, and that FM formation coincides with pronounced friction reduction. The structure of FMs and the mechanism of their formation are thus important for understanding the mechanics of frictional sliding in general, and during earthquakes in particular. Here we characterize the small-scale structure of natural carbonate FMs from 3 different faults along a tectonically active region of the Dead Sea Transform. Atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that the FMs possess extremely smooth surface topography, accounting for their mirror-like appearance. Electron microscope characterization tools revealed a thin (< 1 µm) layer, composed of tightly packed nano-scaled grains, coating a rougher layer composed of micron-size calcite crystals. The crystals contain closely-spaced, plastically-formed, mechanical twins, which define new sub-grain boundaries. The narrow sub-grains are observed to break into sub-micron pieces near the sheared surface. This observation suggests a new brittle-ductile mechanism for nano-grain formation. Our observations further suggest that FMs require two main ingredients: (i) Nano grains and (ii) a hard and very smooth surface, probably formed by nano-grain sintering, a plastic process requiring high temperatures that arise only during rapid enough sliding. Both nano-grains and nano-scale-smooth surfaces were previously suggested to induce frictional weakening. We discuss possible physical processes that may control the observed connection between FM formation and frictional weakening.

Siman-Tov, Shalev; Aharonov, Einat; Sagy, Amir; Emmanuel, Simon

2013-04-01

416

Epigenetic effects of nano-sized materials.  

PubMed

The term epigenetics includes several phenomena such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and microRNA mediated mechanisms, which are able to mold the chromatin structure and/or gene expression levels, without altering the primary DNA sequence. Environmental agents can exert epigenetic properties and there is increasing evidence of epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in several human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autism spectrum disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegeneration, among others. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, this article summarizes the studies performed so far to evaluate their potential epigenetic properties. Those studies highlight the ability of certain nano-sized compounds to induce an impaired expression of genes involved in DNA methylation reactions leading to global DNA methylation changes, as well as changes of gene specific methylation of tumor suppressor genes, inflammatory genes, and DNA repair genes, all potentially involved in cancer development. Moreover, some nano-sized compounds are able to induce changes in the acetylation and methylation of histone tails, as well as microRNA deregulated expression. We also provided a detailed description of currently available methodologies to evaluate epigenetic modifications. Standard protocols are currently available to evaluate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nano-sized materials. By contrast, there are at present no available standard protocols to evaluate the epigenetic potential of any given compound. The currently available methodologies offer different, but often complementary information to characterize potential epigenetic changes induced by exposure to nano-sized compounds. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, at present and foreseeable in the near future, and in light of the indication of potential epigenetic properties here reviewed, more attention should be paid to unravel the consequences of such effects in future studies. PMID:23238276

Stoccoro, Andrea; Karlsson, Hanna L; Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

2012-12-10

417

Synthetic nano-scale fibrous extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Biodegradable polymers have been widely used as scaffolding materials to regenerate new tissues. To mimic natural extracellular matrix architecture, a novel highly porous structure, which is a three-dimensional interconnected fibrous network with a fiber diameter ranging from 50 to 500 nm, has been created from biodegradable aliphatic polyesters in this work. A porosity as high as 98.5% has been achieved. These nano-fibrous matrices were prepared from the polymer solutions by a procedure involving thermally induced gelation, solvent exchange, and freeze-drying. The effects of polymer concentration, thermal annealing, solvent exchange, and freezing temperature before freeze-drying on the nano-scale structures were studied. In general, at a high gelation temperature, a platelet-like structure was formed. At a low gelation temperature, the nano-fibrous structure was formed. Under the conditions for nano-fibrous matrix formation, the average fiber diameter (160-170 nm) did not change statistically with polymer concentration or gelation temperature. The porosity decreased with polymer concentration. The mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) increased with polymer concentration. A surface-to-volume ratio of the nano-fibrous matrices was two to three orders of magnitude higher than those of fibrous nonwoven fabrics fabricated with the textile technology or foams fabricated with a particulate-leaching technique. This synthetic analogue of natural extracellular matrix combined the advantages of synthetic biodegradable polymers and the nano-scale architecture of extracellular matrix, and may provide a better environment for cell attachment and function. PMID:10357136

Ma, P X; Zhang, R

1999-07-01

418

Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two lectures are aimed to give a practical guide to the use of a general device simulator (PROPHET) available on nanoHUB. PROPHET is a partial differential equation (PDE) solver that offers users the flexibility of integrating new models and equations for their nano-device simulations. The first lecture covers the basics of PROPHET, including the set-up of simulation structures and parameters based on pre-defined PDE systems. The second lecture uses examples to illustrate how to build user-defined PDE systems in PROPHET.

Liu, Yang; Dutton, Robert

2010-11-26

419

A new approach to synthesize nano WC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten carbide (WC) is extensively used in cutting and mining tools, dies and in wear resistance parts. The recent application of WC as electrocatalyst in fuel cells to replace costly nobel metal platinum (Pt) has further increased its demand. Its catalytic and mechanical properties are improved with the reduction of particle size in a nanometric range. The nano WC is synthesized from the pure precursor(s) which makes its production costly. In this work, we report a new process to get nano WC directly from the scheelite (CaWO4) ore. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and HRTEM.

Singh, Harjinder; Pandey, O. P.

2013-06-01

420

Preparation of nano-copper as lubrication oil additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-copper used as lubrication oil additive has good tribological property and active self-repairing effect for friction\\u000a pairs. The reduction in liquid phase for preparing nano-additive is one of the most common method. Nano-copper was prepared\\u000a by reduction in liquid phase. The different project and routine practice for preparing nano-copper were researched. The dispersion\\u000a problem of nano-copper was investigated by surface

Xiao-li Wang; Bin-shi Xu; Yi Xu; He-long Yu; Pei-jing Shi; Qian Liu

2005-01-01

421

Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources.  

PubMed

The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a approximately 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate. PMID:19582042

Ampem-Lassen, E; Simpson, D A; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S

2009-07-01

422

Shock wave interactions with nano-structured materials: a molecular dynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous materials have long been known to be effective in blast mitigation strategies. Nano-structured materials appear to have an even greater potential for blast mitigation because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, a geometric factor which substantially attenuates shock wave propagation. A molecular dynamics approach was used to explore the effects of this remarkable property on the behavior of traveling shocks impacting on solid materials. The computational setup included a moving piston, a gas region, and a target solid wall with and without a porous structure. The materials involved were represented by realistic interaction potentials. The results indicate that the presence of a nano-porous material layer in front of the target wall reduced the stress magnitude and the energy deposited inside the solid by about 30 %, while at the same time substantially decreasing the loading rate.

Al-Qananwah, A. K.; Koplik, J.; Andreopoulos, Y.

2013-02-01

423

Swarm intelligence for cooperation of bio-nano robots using quorum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-nano robots are nano-scaled robots made from biological components like proteins and DNA structures. Their nano-scaled size, ready availability (in nature), and high efficiency make them perfect tools for diagnosis and therapeutic treatments in nano-medicine. Due to their nano-scaled size, the intelligence of each individual nano robot is small when compared to that of the collection of nano robots acting

S. Chandrasekaran; D. F. Hougen

2006-01-01

424

Swarm intelligence for cooperation of bio-nano robots using quorum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-nano robots are nano-scaled robots made from biological components like proteins and DNA structures. Their nano-scaled size, ready availability (in nature), and high effi- ciency make them perfect tools for diagnosis and therapeutic treatments in nano-medicine. Due to their nano-scaled size, the intelligence of each individual nano robot is small when compared to that of the collection of nano robots

Sreedevi Chandrasekaran; Dean F. Hougen

2006-01-01

425

Nano-ultrasonic based on GaN nano-layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review our current development on nano-ultrasonic by using piezoelectric nano-layers based on the GaN material system. Our study indicated that piezoelectric semiconductor nanostructures can serve as optical piezoelectric transducers to generate and detect nanoacoustic waves through the piezoelectric effect. The nanoacoustic waves, with a wavelength on the order of or shorter than 10 nm, can be used for high

Chi-Kuang Sun; Yu-Chieh Wen; Yi-Hsin Chen; Kung-Hsuan Lin

2010-01-01

426

Flame Retardation of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer Using Nano Magnesium Hydroxide and Nano Hydrotalcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flame-retardant effects of nano magnesium hydroxide (NMH) and nano hydrotalcite (NLDH) in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) are studied by using the limited oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 test, cone calorimeter test (CCT), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LOI values of both EVA-NMH and EVA-NLDH blends increase gradually on increasing the NMH and

C. M. Jiao; Z. Z. Wang; Z. Ye; Y. Hu; W. C. Fan

2006-01-01

427

A tall-tower study of carbon exchange from developed land use in the U.S. Upper Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central goal of the North American Carbon Program is to reconcile differences in regional carbon exchange predictions from atmospheric and ground-based approaches. Within any large region there are embedded areas where land cover and land use have been strongly modified by development. However, studies involving continuous measurement of CO2 exchange in developed land have begun only recently. These areas represent a significant percentage of the Upper Midwest region. U.S. Census housing density data show that while high-density urban areas occupy 3% of the land area, low-density residential land uses (generally suburbs) occupy >11% of the land area. We established a new tall-tower site to study CO2, water vapor, and energy exchange from developed land use in the in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area. The objectives of the study are: 1. To quantify the components of the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) of developed land use and their variation over diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. 2. To determine the specific ecosystem controls on the net exchanges of CO2, water vapor, and energy by analyzing the relationships between the fluxes and a suite of biophysical properties measured within the footprint of the flux tower. 3. To evaluate the relationship of the MODIS vegetation index, land surface temperature, and snow cover products to temporal dynamics of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and water vapor at a range scales from the flux tower to the metropolitan area. The design, implementation, and first results of the site will be presented. The long-term goal of this research is to understand how developed land use affects regional- to continental-scale carbon dynamics, how these effects may change with urban growth and development, and ultimately, how they could be managed to mitigate carbon sources and maximize sinks.

McFadden, J. P.; Widboom, A. A.; Bauer, M. E.; Yuan, F.

2004-12-01

428

Structure and dynamics of auroral electron precipitation: sounding rocket and groundbased observations of tall rays at the nightside poleward boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cascades2 auroral sounding rocket provides a case study for comparing multipoint in situ ionospheric observations of a nightside auroral poleward boundary intensification (PBI) event with groundbased optical studies of the same event. Cascades2 was launched northward from Poker Flat Alaska on 20 Mar 2009 at 11:04 UT. The 12 minute 43 second flight reached an apogee of 564 km over the northern coast of Alaska. The experiment array included a 5-payload suite of in situ instrumentation, ground cameras with various fields of view at three different points under the trajectory, multiple ground magnetometers, the PFISR radar at the launch site, and the THEMIS spacecraft in the magnetotail. We present parameterization of the PBI Alfvenic auroral signature as seen by the ground optics, the in situ electron data, and the in situ electric field data. Tall rayed structures in the visible PBI curtain have an along-arc spacing of 16 km and an along-arc velocity of 8 km/s in both directions along the arc. The structures are seen in the in situ data as field-aligned bursts of accelerated thermal ionospheric electrons with energies up to a few keV. The electron bursts have modulated peak electron energies (and therefore modulated energy fluxes) corresponding to the spatial structure of the visible rays. The electron precipitation is additionally modulated at a higher frequency, and velocity dispersion analysis of these 8Hz signatures shows the Alfvenic wave-particle acceleration occurring only a few hundred km above the observation point. These observations are used to construct a model of the curtain of Alfvenic activity above the PBI event, both in the dispersive ionosphere and in the presumed magnetotail driver region. We are investigating the plausibility that magnetospheric drivers in the tail reconnection region control the parameterization of this along-arc PBI Alvenic auroral structure and dynamics.

Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Mella, M. R.; Lundberg, E. T.; Dahlgren, H.; Kintner, P. M.; Lessard, M.

2011-12-01

429

Nano photonic sensors for microdamage detection : an exploratory simulation.  

SciTech Connect

Nano photonic materials are synthetically manufactured crystals at the nano scale with the target of creating a microstructure with a special electro-magnetic periodicity. Such nano photonic materials have the ability to control light propagation and thus are capable of creating photonic bandgaps in the frequency domain. We propose using nano photonic crystals as sensors to detect microdamage in composite materials. We demonstrate using a simulation model that a nano photonic sensor attached to a composite bar experiences a significant change in its bandgap profile when damage is induced in the composite bar. The model predicts the frequency response of the nano photonic sensor using the transfer matrix method. A damage metric to evaluate the change in the frequency response is developed. Successful developments of nano photonic sensors allow damage identification at scales not attainable using current sensing technologies.

El-Kady, Ihab Fathy (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Reda Taha, Mahmoud M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

2005-04-01

430

Nano-liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical and biomedical research.  

PubMed

Miniaturized separation techniques have emerged as environmentally friendly alternatives to available separation methods. Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC), microchip devices and nano-capillary electrophoresis are miniaturized methods that minimize reagent consumption and waste generation. Furthermore, the low levels of analytes, especially in biological samples, promote the search for more highly sensitive techniques; coupled to mass spectrometry, nano-LC has great potential to become an indispensable tool for routine analysis of biomolecules. This short review presents the fundamental aspects of nano-LC analytical instrumentation, discussing practical considerations and the primary differences between miniaturized and conventional instrumentation. Some theoretical aspects are discussed to better explain both the potential and the principal limitations of nano-LC. Recent pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of this separation technique are also presented to indicate the satisfactory performance for complex matrices, especially for proteomic analysis, that is obtained with nano-LC. PMID:23585638

Gama, Mariana Roberto; Collins, Carol H; Bottoli, Carla B G

2013-04-12

431

Modeling of Nano-Tungsten Sintering Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small metal samples have been made from nano-crystalline tungsten powder by sintering with the goal of producing high density parts. The parameters associated with sintering runs have been examined to see if there is an empirical relationship between them...

W. S. De Rosset

2011-01-01

432

Coupling mechanisms in nano-U dimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of split-ring metamaterials are governed by inter-element interactions. These interactions lead to slow eigenmodes of coupling, which, due to their short wavelengths, are ideal candidates for the design of near-field manipulating devices. In this paper we explore the electric and magnetic coupling mechanisms in nano-U and nano-SRR dimers comprising of two identical nano-resonators arranged axially and twisted relative to each other by an arbitrary angle. We study theoretically the couplings in a periodic chain of nano-dimers for the frequencies from 100 to 300 THz. In our analytical model, the electric and magnetic couplings can be expressed through the self and mutual terms for the magnetic and electric field energy. In addition, we incorporate the effect of kinetic inductance due to the inertia of the electrons (noticeable as element dimensions approach 100nm or smaller). The resulting dependence of the electric, magnetic and the total coupling constants on the twist angle within the dimer obtained analytically is shown to agree with numerical simulations (CST Microwave Studio). Our approach should enable an effective design of metamaterial structures with desired properties and would be a useful tool in developing THz range manipulating devices based on propagation of slow waves by virtue of coupling.

Gneiding, N.; Krutkova, E.; Tatartschuk, E.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Shamonina, E.

2011-09-01

433

Biophysical Dynamics Laboratories Nano-Biophotonics Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biophysical Dynamics Laboratories Nano-Biophotonics Group, of the Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences at Osaka University, addresses its applications of nanotechnology and non-linear spectroscopy to the biology field. Visitors can find synopses of its four main research projects and a list of publications.

1969-12-31

434

Organic Solvent Dispersed Nano-Talc Slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides high surface area talc compositions by a novel hybrid milling method or soaking method. The hybrid milling method comprises dry milling talc powder followed by mixing with water and wet milling to provide a nano-talc slurry with hig...

J. He Q. Zhong

2004-01-01

435

Green Chemistry by Nano-Catalysis  

EPA Science Inventory

The approach of using MW technique with nano-catalysis and benign aqueous reaction medium can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three individual components in isolation. To illustrate the ??proof-of-concept?? of this ?Green and Sustainabl...

436

Dynamics of magnetic nano-particle assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferromagnetically coupled nano-particle assembly is analyzed accounting for inter- and intra- particle electronic structures within the randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations due to the discrete levels and disorder. At the magnetic jump anomalies caused by quantization the magnetic state equation and phase diagram are found to indicate an existence of spinodal regions and critical points. Arrays of

V. N. Kondratyev

2010-01-01

437

We Scream for Nano Ice Cream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture,…

Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

2011-01-01

438

Novel nano-organisms from Australian sandstones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the detection of living colonies of nano-organisms (nanobes) on Triassic and Jurassic sandstones and other substrates. Nanobes have cellular structures that are strikingly similar in morphology to Actinomycetes and fungi (spores, filaments, and fruiting bodies) with the exception that they are up to 10 times smaller in diameter (20 nm to 1.0 mm). Nanobes are noncrystalline structures that

PHILIPPA J. R. UWINS; RICHARD I. WEBB; ANTHONY P. TAYLOR

1998-01-01

439

Endohedral Metallofullerenes and Nano-Peapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article, we deal with the structures and properties of novel hybrid nanocarbon materials, which are created by the incorporation of atoms and molecules in hollow spaces of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs); these hybrid materials are called endohedral metallofullerenes (in the case of metal atom incorporated fullerenes) and nano-peapods, respectively. Synthesis procedures, structural characterizations by synchrotron powder

Ryo Kitaura; Hisanori Shinohara

2007-01-01

440

Growth of decorated carbon nano-tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition of methane in a nitrogen atmosphere using bias-enhanced hot filament chemical vapour deposition results in the growth of nitrogenated carbon tubes. Different shapes were formed ranging from spherical aggregates to twisted nano-tubes. All these structures were grown direct onto pure Si wafer. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy reveals the presence of tungsten carbide impurities at the interface. Graphitic sheets

Ralph Kurt; Ayatollah Karimi; Volker Hoffmann

2001-01-01

441

Design of micro- and nano-robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is a key issue in today's and tomorrow's development of advanced products. Soon, new tools will be needed to automatically handle and assemble micro sized objects with nanometer resolution, or simply to give humans being the capability of operating in those tiny dimensions. The development of micro and nano robots appears in that sense as one of the most

A. Codourey; Roland Buechi; Wolfgang Zesch; Roland Siegwart

1994-01-01

442

Optical piezoelectric transducer for nano-ultrasonics.  

PubMed

Piezoelectric semiconductor strained layers can be treated as piezoelectric transducers to generate nanometer-wavelength and THz-frequency acoustic waves. The mechanism of nano-acoustic wave (NAW) generation in strained piezoelectric layers, induced by femtosecond optical pulses, can be modeled by a macroscopic elastic continuum theory. The optical absorption change of the strained layers modulated by NAW through quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effects allows optical detection of the propagating NAW. Based on these piezoelectric-based optical principles, we have designed an optical piezoelectric transducer (OPT) to generate NAW. The optically generated NAW is then applied to one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasonic scan for thickness measurement, which is the first step toward multidimensional nano-ultrasonic imaging. By launching a NAW pulse and resolving the returned acoustic echo signal with femtosecond optical pulses, the thickness of the studied layer can be measured with <1 nm resolution. This nano-structured OPT technique will provide the key toward the realization of nano-ultrasonics, which is analogous to the typical ultrasonic techniques but in a nanometer scale. PMID:16245610

Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Chern, Gia-Wei; Yu, Cheng-Ta; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Pan, Chang-Chi; Chen, Guan-Ting; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Li, Pai-Chi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2005-08-01

443

Reference nano-dimensional metrology by scanning transmission electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traceable and accurate reference dimensional metrology of nano-structures by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is introduced in the paper. Two methods, one based on the crystal lattice constant and the other based on the pitch of a feature pair, were applied to calibrate the TEM magnification. The threshold value, which was defined as the half-intensity of boundary materials, is suggested to extract the boundary position of features from the TEM image. Experimental investigations have demonstrated the high potential of the proposed methods. For instance, the standard deviation from ten repeated measurements of a line structure with a nominal 100 nm critical dimension (CD) reaches 1? = 0.023 nm, about 0.02%. By intentionally introduced defocus and larger sample alignment errors, the investigation shows that these influences may reach 0.20 and 1.3 nm, respectively, indicating the importance of high-quality TEM measurements. Finally, a strategy for disseminating the destructive TEM results is introduced. Using this strategy, the CD of a reference material has been accurately determined. Its agreement over five independent TEM measurements is below 1.2 nm.

Dai, Gaoliang; Heidelmann, Markus; Kübel, Christian; Prang, Robby; Fluegge, Jens; Bosse, Harald

2013-08-01

444

Resonant frequency of gold/polycarbonate hybrid nano resonators fabricated on plastics via nano-transfer printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication of gold/polycarbonate (Au/PC) hybrid nano resonators on plastic substrates through a nano-transfer printing (nTP) technique, and the parametric studies of the resonant frequency of the resulting hybrid nano resonators. nTP is a nanofabrication technique that involves an assembly process by which a printable layer can be transferred from a transfer substrate to a device substrate. In this article, we applied nTP to fabricate Au/PC hybrid nano resonators on a PC substrate. When an AC voltage is applied, the nano resonator can be mechanically excited when the AC frequency reaches the resonant frequency of the nano resonator. We then performed systematic parametric studies to identify the parameters that govern the resonant frequency of the nano resonators, using finite element method. The quantitative results for a wide range of materials and geometries offer vital guidance to design hybrid nano resonators with a tunable resonant frequency in a range of more than three orders of magnitude (e.g., 10 KHz-100 MHz). Such nano resonators could find their potential applications in nano electromechanical devices. Fabricating hybrid nano resonators via nTP further demonstrates nTP as a potential fabrication technique to enable a low-cost and scalable roll-to-roll printing process of nanodevices.

Dechaumphai, Edward; Zhang, Zhao; Siwak, Nathan P.; Ghodssi, Reza; Li, Teng

2011-12-01

445

Cetacean Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggested are activities about whales for children in schools not near the ocean. Activities designed to pique students' interest in whales and to investigate the size, breathing, buoyancy, and feeding strategies of whales are discussed. (CW)|

Gilliland, Denise DelGrosso

1991-01-01

446

Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30° and 70° incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles ( ?). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the ? angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths (<450 nm) is observed in the s-polarization spectra, while in addition to this peak a broad peak at longer wavelengths (i.e., LM) observed in the p-polarization spectra, which is more dominant for 70° incidence angle.

Savaloni, Hadi; Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam

2011-08-01

447

Micromachined tools for nano technology. Twin nano-probes and nano-scale gap control by integrated microactuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the fabrication and actuation of a novel device composed of twin nano probes. The size of the probes are 200 nm-high, 280 nm-wide and 5 ?m-long, which are formed by silicon anisotropic etching. The initial gap of about 400 nm between the probes become 84 nm when 101 mW input power was given to the thermal expansion

K. Kakushima; M. Mita; D. Kobayashi; G. Hashiguchi; J. Endo; Y. Wada; H. Fujita

2001-01-01

448

Interaction of breed type and endophyte-infected tall fescue on milk production and quality in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Decreased milk production of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue (TF), an important cool season grass in the southeastern United States, can affect calf growth. The objective was to determine whether a thermal or heat-tolerant Bos taurus breed of cattle, Romosinuano (RO), would tolerate EI TF toxins relative to Angus (AN) cattle. Milk production and quality were examined on AN and RO cows grazing endophyte-free (EF; variety K-31; n = 36) or EI TF (variety K-31; n = 37) along with growth of their Charolais-sired calves in 2007 and 2008 in west central Arkansas. Cows calved between early February and late March (spring). Milk yield and quality, BW, rectal temperature, and serum prolactin were determined at 57.1 +/- 2.6 d postpartum and every 28 d thereafter between April and August. Milk yield was greater in AN compared with RO cows (P < 0.001), but not influenced by forage type (P > 0.88). Percent milk fat was greater in cows grazing EF TF in April, but greater for cows grazing EI TF in July (forage x month, P < 0.001). Percent milk fat was greater for RO than AN cows (P < 0.001). Percent milk protein (P < 0.001) was greater and somatic cell counts (log-transformed; P < 0.001) were less in RO than AN cows. Milk lactose was greater for RO compared with AN cows in June through August (breed x month, P = 0.004). Adjusted weaning BW of calves was similar between EF and EI TF in 2007, but greater for calves from EF than EI TF in 2008 (forage x year, P = 0.03). Rectal temperature was similar between RO cows grazing EF and EI TF, but greater in AN cows grazing EI compared with EF TF in most months (forage x breed x month x year, P < 0.001). Serum prolactin was reduced in both breeds of cows grazing EI TF between April and July of both years and greatest in RO cows grazing EF TF (breed, P < 0.001; forage x month, P < 0.001). These data suggest that RO cows were more thermal-tolerant, but still susceptible to toxins in EI TF as shown by a reduction in serum concentrations of prolactin. However, milk production was not influenced by EI TF as previously observed, but milk fat percent was decreased in early lactation in this group of cows. Milk yield and quality were different between AN and RO cows during the period of lactation observed. PMID:20418449

Burke, J M; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Looper, M L; Brown, M A

2010-04-23

449

Broiler litter application method and runoff timing effects on nutrient and Escherichia coli losses from tall fescue pasture.  

PubMed

The inability to incorporate manure into permanent pasture leads to the concentration of nutrients near the soil surface with the potential to be transported off site by runoff water. In this study, we used rainfall simulations to examine the effect of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter application method and the runoff timing on nutrient and E. coli losses from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pasture on a Hartsells sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults)) in Crossville, AL. Treatments included two methods of litter application (surface broadcast and subsurface banding), commercial fertilizer, and control. Litter was applied at a rate of 8.97 Mg ha(-1). Treatments were assigned to 48 plots with four blocks (12 plots each) arranged in a randomized complete block design to include three replications in each block. Simulated rainfall was applied to treatments as follows: Day 1, block 1 (runoff 1); Day 8, block 2 (runoff 2); Day 15, block 3 (runoff 3); and Day 22, block 4 (runoff 4). Total phosphorus (TP), inorganic N, and Escherichia coli concentrations in runoff from broadcast litter application were all significantly greater than from subsurface litter banding. The TP losses from broadcast litter applications averaged 6.8 times greater than those from subsurface litter applications. About 81% of the runoff TP was in the form of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) for both litter-application methods. The average losses of NO(3)-N and total suspended solids (TSS) from subsurface banding plots were 160 g ha(-1) and 22 kg ha(-1) compared to 445 g ha(-1) and 69 kg ha(-1) for the broadcast method, respectively. Increasing the time between litter application and the first runoff event helped decrease nutrient and E. coli losses from surface broadcast litter, but those losses generally remained significantly greater than controls and subsurface banded, regardless of runoff timing. This study shows that subsurface litter banding into perennial grassland can substantially reduce nutrient and pathogen losses in runoff compared to the traditional surface-broadcast practice. PMID:19398519

Sistani, K R; Torbert, H A; Way, T R; Bolster, C H; Pote, D H; Warren, J G

2009-04-27

450

How Tall Are We?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students measure each other's height using large building blocks, then visit a 2nd and a 4th grade class to measure those students. They can also measure adults in the school community. Measurement data is tallied and may be displayed, in an extended activity, on age-appropriate bar graphs (paper cut-outs of miniature building blocks glued on paper to form a bar graph), comparing the different age groups. The activities that comprise this lesson help students develop the concepts and vocabulary to describe, in a non-ambiguous way, how height changes as children get older. The extended introduction to graphing provides an important foundation for measurement, as well as for creating and interpreting graphs in future years.

Hebrank, Mary R.

2004-01-01

451

How Tall Are We?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kindergartners measure each other's height using large building blocks, then visit a second- and a fourth-grade class to measure those students' heights. They also measure adults in the school community. Students display the collected data in bar graphs made from paper cut-outs of miniature building blocks glued on paper, comparing the different age groups. The associated activities for this lesson help students develop the concepts and vocabulary to describe, in a non-ambiguous way, how height changes as children age. The introduction to graphing provides an important foundation for both creating and interpreting graphs in future years.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

452

Effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate on cure kinetics and properties of polyester\\/epoxy blend powder coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's strict environmental laws pose significant challenges for coating's formulators to look for eco-friendly products. Powder coatings, particularly polyester\\/epoxy blends have demonstrated their ability as alternatives to traditional solvent-borne coatings. Recently, the use of nanoparticles such as nano-CaCO3 (nCaCO3) has been suggested as a beneficial strategy towards powder coating application with improved properties. Here, we study the effect of nCaCO3

Mohammadreza Kalaee; Shahin Akhlaghi; Ali Nouri; Saeedeh Mazinani; Mehrzad Mortezaei; Mehdi Afshari; Dariush Mostafanezhad; Ahmad Allahbakhsh; Hamidreza Aliasgari Dehaghi; Ali Amirsadri; Donya Pakdaman Gohari

2011-01-01

453

A study of nano-mechanical properties and nano-scratch behavior of boron carbonitride films.  

PubMed

Boron carbonitride (BCN) films were deposited by d.c. unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition where a substrate bias ranging from -50 V to -300 V was applied to the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the composition and bonding structure of the BCN films. Surface morphology and roughness were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The nano-mechanical properties and nano-scratch behavior of the prepared films were determined by a nano-indentation system equipped with continuous stiffness measurement and lateral-force measurement attachments. The results indicate that there is little change in the content of B, C, and N. The films deposited are compounds with hybridized B-C-N bonds and the disordered degree of the structure increases with increasing the substrate bias. The substrate biasing can enhance the nanohardness, elastic modulus, nano-scratch resistance, and cohesion strength of the deposited films. During the nano-scratch test, plastic deformation and ploughing wear appears for the BCN films deposited at lower bias. Elastic deformation becomes the dominant deformation mechanism for the films deposited at higher bias. The coefficient of friction between the deposited BCN films and the diamond tip depends on the loading critical load. The increasing of the substrate bias leads to the improvement of the critical load and the elastic deformation proportion. PMID:16792378

Xu, Shuyan; Ma, Xinxin; Tang, Guangze

2006-05-01

454

Nano-sized CT contrast agents.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most widely used clinical imaging modalities. In order to increase the sensitivity of CT, small iodinated compounds are used as injectable contrast agents. However, the iodinated contrast agents are excreted through the kidney and have short circulation times. This rapid renal clearance not only restricts in vivo applications that require long circulation times but also sometimes induces serious adverse effects related to the excretion pathway. In addition, the X-ray attenuation of iodine is not efficient for clinical CT that uses high-energy X-ray. Due to these limitations, nano-sized iodinated CT contrast agents have been developed that can increase the circulation time and decrease the adverse effects. In addition to iodine, nanoparticles based on heavy atoms such as gold, lanthanides, and tantalum are used as more efficient CT contrast agents. In this review, we summarize the recent progresses made in nano-sized CT contrast agents. PMID:23553799

Lee, Nohyun; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan

2013-04-04

455

Treatment of Scattering in Nano-Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication we implemented a rigorous treatment of scattering in nano films within the NEGF simulation platform. Results obtained by applying the rigorous scattering model to simulate the devices, were used as a benchmark to validate a simple, computationally efficient, phenomenological treatment of scattering. The NEGF method is used to study the effect of electron confinement on silicon nano films and wires. Electron confinement results in almost a factor of 3 decreases in the electrical conductivity of the 5 nm silicon film compared to the 10 nm film. Increase in the amount of confinement also leads to a 35% decrease in the conductivity of a 5 nm×5 nm wire compared to the 5 nm film.

Lamba, V. K.; Sawhney, R. S.; Engles, D.

2011-07-01

456

Atomic Precision in Nano-Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest challenges in developing molecular-scale devices is to fabricate and monitor their formation with atomic precision. Recently, we have developed an electromigration technique that employs feedback for controllably electromigrating a nano-scale electrode with atomic precision at room temperature [1]. We will discuss our recent progress advancing this technique towards atomically precise nano-electronics. This will include in-situ transmission electron microscopy which shows evidence for highly crystalline electrode formation and the parallel fabrication of nanogaps for scaling-up to very large-scale integrated-circuits. Our results have implications on the development of a wide range of novel molecular-scale devices. Funding provided by: NSF-NSEC/NBIC DMR-0425780, NSF-NIRT Grant No. 0304531, and MRSEC award No. DMR05-20020. [1] D. R. Strachan, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 043109 (2005).

Strachan, Douglas; Johnston, Danvers; Guiton, Beth; Lu, Ye; Datta, Sujit; Davies, Peter; Bonnell, Dawn; Johnson, Charlie

2008-03-01

457

Nano-photonics: past and present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotech is at the scale of 10-9 meters, located at the mesocopic transition phase, which can take both classical mechanics (CM) and quantum mechanics (QM) descriptions bridging ten orders of magnitude phenomena, between the microscopic world of a single atom at 10-10 meters with the macroscopic world at meters. However, QM principles aid the understanding of any unusual property at the nanotech level. The other major difference between nano-photonics and other forms of optics is that the nano-scale is not very 'hands on'. For the most part, we will not be able to see the components with our naked eyes, but will be required to use some nanotech imaging tools, as follows:

Szu, Harold

2010-04-01

458

A Compendium of Nano-/Microfabrication Facilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a collection of nano/micro- fabrication facilities in the United States. The site's creator writes: "As part of the planning process for Harvard's new physical sciences building (NPSB), I thought I should familiarize myself with nano-/microfacilities that have been designed and built recently at other academic institutions. I have found that it has been most useful for me to record my browsings in html format and, for what it's worth, I herein share my findings with you. As a metric, I have included, where possible, an estimate of the cleanroom size of each facility (see table of comparisons). Unfortunately, comparisons are somewhat unreliable since it is not always clear whether gross or net square footages are being quoted and whether "gray" space is included in some tallies."

Jones, R. V.

2010-06-02

459

Metastability of a gold nano ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties, it is believed that gold nano-structures can have important applications in catalysis, molecular electronics, sensors, bioconjugate probes, gene mapping, and in the treatment of cancer and tumours. First principles calculations based on gradient corrected density functional theory show that a cluster of as few as 90 gold atoms can be stabilized in a ring structure having FCC(111) motif with the binding energy/atom and inter-atomic distance approaching 91% and 96% of the bulk values respectively. Although the ring structure lies 0.139eV/atom higher in energy than a poly-icosahedral structure, the calculated frequencies are real. Thus under appropriate experimental conditions it may still be possible to synthesize a metastable form of gold nano ring, as found in the recent experiment.

Wang, Qian

2005-03-01

460

Levitated Quantum Nano-Magneto-Mechanical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum nanomechanical sysems have attracted much attention as they provide new macroscopic platforms for the study of quantum mechanics but may also have applications in ultra-sensitive sensing, high precision measurements and in quantum computing. In this work we study the control and cooling of a quantum nanomechanical system which is magnetically levitated via the Meissner effect. Supercurrents in nano-sized superconducting loops give rise to a motional restoring force (trap), when placed in an highly inhomogenous magnetic field and can yield complete trapping of all translational and rotational motions of the levitated nano-object with motional oscillation frequencies ?˜10-100MHz. As the supercurrents experience little damping this system will possess unprecendented motional quality factors, with Qmotion˜10^9-10^13, and motional superposition states may remain coherent for days. We describe how to execute sideband cooling through inductive coupling to a nearby flux qubit, cooling the mechanical motion close to the ground state.

Cirio, Mauro; Twamley, Jason; Brennen, Gavin K.; Milburn, Gerard J.

2011-03-01

461

Nano-Raman Spectroscopy is Reaching Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated that scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy (SNRS), also known as tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), with side illumination optics can be effectively used for analysis of silicon-based structures at the nanoscale. Despite the disadvantages of side illumination optics, such as difficulties in optical alignment and shadowing by the tip, it has the critical advantage that it may be used for the analysis of non-transparent samples. A key criterion for making SNRS effective for imaging Si samples is the optimization of the contrast between near-field and far-field (background) Raman signals, which improves by an order of magnitude by optimizing the incident and scattering polarization scheme. The resulting nano-Raman images of semiconducting structures yield a spatial resolution ~20 nm.

Hartschuh, R. D.; Lee, N.; Kisliuk, A.; Maguire, J. F.; Green, M.; Foster, M. D.; Sokolov, A. P.

2007-09-01

462

Light energy harvesting with nano-dipoles.  

PubMed

We propose a new approach for converting light energy into electrical energy, based on the photogeneration of nano-dipoles at donor-acceptor interfaces. The nano-dipoles are oriented in space so as to contribute to a collective polarization that induces a potential difference across the material, sandwiched between electrodes. A current is detected in the external circuit upon illumination. Such a device would exploit many advantages of organic semiconductors and get rid of the main limitation, namely transport. We provide a proof of concept and we discuss the ideal limit of the device based on numerical simulations. This provides design guidelines to the achievement of best performances. Simulations show that the proposed device can be an appealing opportunity with giant conversion efficiency provided some technological issues are overcome. PMID:22297323

Garbugli, Michele; Porro, Matteo; Roiati, Vittoria; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe; Petrozza, Annamaria; Lanzani, Guglielmo

2012-02-01

463

Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology  

PubMed Central

Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities.

Qian, Tongcheng

2012-01-01

464

Molecular Simulations of Polymer Crystallization under Nano-Confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization offers polymers under nano-scale-space confinement not only the stability of sizes and properties, but also the anisotropy of electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and optical dichroism, etc. We make an overview on recent dynamic Monte Carlo simulations of lattice polymers performing crystallization under nano-confinement. The confined geometries include ultrathin films, nano-pores and nano- droplets of homopolymers, as well as lamellar,cylindrical and spherical self-assembled microdomains of diblock copolymers. The effects of nano-confinement on polymer crystallization can be summarized into three categories, i.e. the interface (both on enthalpy and entropy), the anisotropy of geometries and the block junction (both in its restriction and orientation). Such knowledge will facilitate our better understanding on the fabrication of nano-crystals of polymers.

Hu, Wenbing

2010-03-01

465

Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOEpatents

A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

2013-09-03

466

[Biomimetic mineralization of rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers and spectrum analysis].  

PubMed

Cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was prepared with biomimetic mineralization using rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers as template. The cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM-EDXA). Variation and distribution of carbon, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in the composites were studied. The morphologies and growth mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite were analyzed. The results showed that nano-hydroxyapatite was formed on the surface of cellulose nano-whiskers; the carbon-oxygen ratio of cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was 1.81 and 1.54, respectively; the calcium-phosphorus ratio of the composite was 1.70. The nucleation of nano-hydroxyapatite was around the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers. It is suggested that there is coordination between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers and calcium ions of nano-hydroxyapatite. The nano-hydroxyapatite can distribute in the matrix of cellulose nano-whiskers. From the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, we can see that the diameter of the spherical nano-hydroxyapatite particles was about 20 nm. PMID:22827104

Qu, Ping; Wang, Xuan; Cui, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Li-ping

2012-05-01

467

Carbon dioxide adsorbent based on rich amines loaded nano-silica.  

PubMed

An easy strategy to obtain an effective carbon dioxide adsorbent based on rich amines functionalized nano-silica was proposed. Polyacrylic acid (PAA), acted as a multi-functional bridge, was firstly immobilized onto the surface of silica nanoparticles. Each carboxylic acid group was subsequently reacted with an amine group of alkylamines, and plenty of remained amines groups could be coated onto silica nanoparticles. As a result, the rich amines loaded nano-silica was fabricated and applied as CO2 adsorbent. The structures and morphologies of amines modified nano-silica were characterized by FTIR, TGA, TEM, and CHNS elemental analysis. Moreover, the effect of molecular weight of PAA and that of alkylamine on CO2 absorption capacity was discussed. As expected, SiO2-PAA(3000)-PEI(10000) adsorbent possessed remarkably high CO2 uptake of approximately 3.8mmol/g-adsorbent at 100KPa CO2, 40°C. Moreover, it was found that the adsorbent exhibited a high CO2 adsorption rate, a good selectivity for CO2-N2 separation, and could be easily regenerated. PMID:23993785

Du, Yanhui; Du, Zhongjie; Zou, Wei; Li, Hangquan; Mi, Jianguo; Zhang, Chen

2013-08-13

468

Bioinspired micro/nano fabrication on dental implant-bone interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pioneering research suggests fabricating a biomimetic interface with multiscaled surfacial architecture can greatly improve biomaterials' function and property. According to this inspiration, we chiefly single out and analyze the natural hierarchical micro/nano structure in rat's alveolar bone. Then, a combined hierarchical structure, i.e. micro-pits interlaced self-assemble TiO2 nanotubes of several tens of nanometers on dental implant's surface is developed. The as-prepared surface showed that hundreds of self-assembled TiO2 nanotubes were tightly arrayed with a diameter range of 30-50 nm, similar to collagen fibers within rat's mandible (60-80 nm). Meanwhile, this hierarchical micro/nano surface can provide a larger surface energy and roughness, a preferable hydrophilicity, a more adaptive mechanical property and adhesion work, a better bioactivity and biocompatibity, a superior attachment and growth of osteoblasts as compared to the smooth and purely micro-treated counterparts. The results indicated that this bioinspired micro/nano fabrication on dental implant-bone interface can be potentially applied in the update of dental implant in patients' clinical therapy and provide a new strategy for fabricating other osteocompatible materials.

Wang, Feng; Shi, Liang; He, Wen-Xi; Han, Dong; Yan, Yan; Niu, Zhong-Ying; Shi, Sheng-Gen

2013-01-01

469

Latent heat nano composite building materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat storage for heating and cooling of buildings reduces the conventional energy consumption with a direct impact on CO2 emissions. The goal of this study was to find the physico-chemical fundamentals for tailoring phase change material (PCM)-epoxy composites as building materials depending on phase change temperature and latent heat using the optimal geometry for each application. Thus, some nano-composite materials

M. Constantinescu; L. Dumitrache; D. Constantinescu; E. M. Anghel; V. T. Popa; A. Stoica; M. Olteanu

2010-01-01

470

Technician Degree Program: AAS Nano Scientific Instrumentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists are creating new and amazing materials by manipulating molecules at the ultra-small scale of 0.1 to 100 nanometers. Nanosized super-particles demonstrate powerful and unprecedented electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. This study examined how nanotechnology, as the multidisciplinary engineering driver of atomically precise products, is expected to disrupt industries and establish the next frontier in educating a nano technologist workforce. Past industrial revolutions, driven by water power, internal combustion power, electrical power, and computer power, have greatly impacted the economy and forever changed our society. Nanotechnology represents more potential power than all previous technologies combined. The primary methodology of this study involved comparing the current literature on developments in nanotechnology to the historical development of electricity to assess if the nanotech revolution is reaching a critical mass based on the acceleration of technological change today and at other times in history. While nanotechnology is growing in academic intensity, gathering public recognition, and based on patentable science, nanotech undergraduate education in southern states is in its infancy. This study surveyed business and academic attitudes and current best practices to design a community college associate degree program based upon targeted industry needs. OSU-Okmulgee technical university has launched an A.A.S. in engineering technologies with an emphasis in nano scientific instrumentation approved by the State Regents for Higher Education. The recommended degree will prepare graduates to enter a broad range of technical jobs in nano scientific industries or microtechnology industries that will be forced to migrate to nano in the coming revolution.

Holley, Steven E.

2010-02-23

471

Ultimate computing. Biomolecular consciousness and nano Technology  

SciTech Connect

The book advances the premise that the cytoskeleton is the cell's nervous system, the biological controller/computer. If indeed cytoskeletal dynamics in the nanoscale (billionth meter, billionth second) are the texture of intracellular information processing, emerging ''NanoTechnologies'' (scanning tunneling microscopy, Feynman machines, von Neumann replicators, etc.) should enable direct monitoring, decoding and interfacing between biological and technological information devices. This in turn could result in important biomedical applications and perhaps a merger of mind and machine: Ultimate Computing.

Hameroff, S.R.

1987-01-01

472

Nano composite from coal modified novolac resin  

SciTech Connect

Coal-modified novolac/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using clay as reinforcing materials. It was found that coal-modified novolac resin based silica nano-composites showed improved tensile strength compared to that of neat novolac resin. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have also been undertaken to see the morphology of the nanocomposites prepared. The results obtained are being reported.

Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Industrial Technology Institute, Delhi (India)

2007-07-01

473

Electrodepositing nickel silica nano-composites coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nano SiO2 ceramic particles were dispersed within the Ni-base solution by the high energy mechanical chemistry method (a patent method) to form the Ni\\/SiO2 solution and then the Ni\\/SiO2 co-electrodeposition coating was prepared. The co-electrodeposition coating possessed finer crystal grains. The SiO2 particles were dispersed evenly within the coating, and the bonding between the matrix metal Ni and the

Bin-shi Xu; Hai-dou Wang; Shi-yun Dong; Bin Jiang; Wei-yi Tu

2005-01-01

474

Magnetic nano- and microparticles in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both synthetic and biologically produced magnetic nano- and microparticles exhibit several types of responses to external\\u000a magnetic field which have been already employed in various areas of biosciences, biotechnology, medicine, environmental technology,\\u000a etc. This short review shows selected important biotechnological applications of magnetic particles, and the biological processes\\u000a leading to biogenic magnetic particles formation.

Ivo Safarik; Mirka Safarikova

2009-01-01

475

Nano-Size Effects in Lithium Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apart from the reduced scale of transport lengths, enhanced surface-to-volume ratio in nano-crystals lead to a variety of exciting phenomena in the field of nano-ionics. We consider here some of those with special emphasis in the context of lithium batteries, addressing anomalies in thermodynamic, transport and storage properties: (a) Nanocrystallinity does not only lead to modifications in the cell voltage typically ? 100 mV due to Gibbs-Kelvin term in the chemical potential, it also affects the shape (no longer necessarily plateau) of the discharge curves in a lithium battery. (b) Nanocrysta