These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Stocking strategies as related to animal and pasture productivity of endophyte-free tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a well adapted perennial grass used for pasture across the north-south transition zone in the USA. This 3-yr trial evaluated three stocking strategies to utilize well-fertilized spring (April to July) growth of endophyte-free tall fescue for steer and pas...

2

A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, In the Tall, Tall Grass (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly journey into the "tall, tall grass."

Kaatz, Kathryn

2008-02-01

3

A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

Kaatz, Kathryn

2008-01-01

4

New Approaches to Target T-ALL  

PubMed Central

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. Although it is now curable in 80–90% of cases, patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) experience a higher frequency of induction failure and early relapse. Despite aggressive treatment approaches, including transplantation and new salvage regimens, most children with relapsed T-ALL will not be cured. As such, we are in need of new targeted therapies for the disease. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of T-ALL have uncovered a number of new therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent advancements in the study of inhibiting the NOTCH1, PI3K–AKT, and Cyclin D3:CDK4/6 pathways as therapeutic strategies for T-ALL. We will focus on pre-clinical studies supporting the testing of small-molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins and the rationale of combination therapies. Moreover, epigenetic approaches to modulate T-ALL are rapidly emerging. Here, we will discuss the data supporting the role of bromodomain and extra-terminal bromodomain inhibitors in human T-ALL. PMID:25072021

Roti, Giovanni; Stegmaier, Kimberly

2014-01-01

5

Tall oaks fallen”  

PubMed Central

“As when, upon a tranced summer-night, Those green-robed senators of mighty woods, Tall oaks, branch-charmed by the earnest stars, Dream, and so dream all night without a stir.”                                                      William Butler Yeats       The past 12 months saw the loss of three “tall oaks”—pioneers in the molecular and cell biology of chromosomes:  David Prescott, Paul Doty and Oscar Miller. Here I offer remembrances of each of them, not as definitive memoirs but simply with the goal of informing the next generation about pioneers whose names they may hardly know today. PMID:22555606

Pederson, Thoru

2012-01-01

6

Tall Tower Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the design of tall structures such as skyscrapers and telecommunication towers. Learners work in teams to engineer the tallest tower they can build using just straws, pipe cleaners, and paperclips. The tower must be strong enough to support the weight of a golf ball for two minutes.

2014-05-22

7

ITS-NANO - Prioritising nanosafety research to develop a stakeholder driven intelligent testing strategy  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the risk of all nanomaterials (NMs) on a case-by-case basis is challenging in terms of financial, ethical and time resources. Instead a more intelligent approach to knowledge gain and risk assessment is required. Methods A framework of future research priorities was developed from the accorded opinion of experts covering all major stake holder groups (government, industry, academia, funders and NGOs). It recognises and stresses the major topics of physicochemical characterisation, exposure identification, hazard identification and modelling approaches as key components of the current and future risk assessment of NMs. Results The framework for future research has been developed from the opinions of over 80 stakeholders, that describes the research priorities for effective development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS) to allow risk evaluation of NMs. In this context, an ITS is a process that allows the risks of NMs to be assessed accurately, effectively and efficiently, thereby reducing the need to test NMs on a case-by-case basis. For each of the major topics of physicochemical characterisation, exposure identification, hazard identification and modelling, key-priority research areas are described via a series of stepping stones, or hexagon diagrams structured into a time perspective. Importantly, this framework is flexible, allowing individual stakeholders to identify where their own activities and expertise are positioned within the prioritisation pathway and furthermore to identify how they can effectively contribute and structure their work accordingly. In other words, the prioritisation hexagon diagrams provide a tool that individual stakeholders can adapt to meet their own particular needs and to deliver an ITS for NMs risk assessment. Such an approach would, over time, reduce the need for testing by increasing the reliability and sophistication of in silico approaches. The manuscript includes an appraisal of how this framework relates to the current risk assessment approaches and how future risk assessment could adapt to accommodate these new approaches. A full report is available in electronic format (pdf) at http://www.nano.hw.ac.uk/research-projects/itsnano.html. Conclusion ITS-NANO has delivered a detailed, stakeholder driven and flexible research prioritisation (or strategy) tool, which identifies specific research needs, suggests connections between areas, and frames this in a time-perspective. PMID:24521051

2014-01-01

8

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant cool-season perennial grass in the United States. It is widely used for both forage and turf purposes. This chapter describes a protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calli induced from caryopsis are used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain used is EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker, and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Calli resistant to hygromycin are obtained after 4-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown tall fescue plants can be regenerated 4-5 months after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PMID:25416272

Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

2015-01-01

9

Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

2006-01-01

10

A Nano-Chip-LC\\/MS n Based Strategy for Characterization of Modified Nucleosides Using Reduced Porous Graphitic Carbon as a Stationary Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

LC\\/MS analysis of ribonucleosides is traditionally performed by reverse phase chromatography on silica based C18 type stationary phases using MS compatible buffers and methanol or acetonitrile gradients. Due to the hydrophilic and polar nature of nucleosides, down-scaling C18 analytical methods to a two-column nano-flow setup is inherently difficult. We present a nano-chip LC\\/MS ion-trap strategy for routine characterization of RNA

Anders Michael Bernth Giessing; Lincoln Greyson Scott; Finn Kirpekar

2011-01-01

11

Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

Stephan, E. S.

1984-01-01

12

A Nano-Chip-LC\\/MS n Based Strategy for Characterization of Modified Nucleosides Using Reduced Porous Graphitic Carbon as a Stationary Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

LC\\/MS analysis of ribonucleosides is traditionally performed by reverse phase chromatography on silica based C18 type stationary\\u000a phases using MS compatible buffers and methanol or acetonitrile gradients. Due to the hydrophilic and polar nature of nucleosides,\\u000a down-scaling C18 analytical methods to a two-column nano-flow setup is inherently difficult. We present a nano-chip LC\\/MS\\u000a ion-trap strategy for routine characterization of RNA

Anders Michael Bernth Giessing; Lincoln Greyson Scott; Finn Kirpekar

2011-01-01

13

Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

PubMed Central

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

Meyer, S.L.F.

2010-01-01

14

Tall women's satisfaction with the fit and style of tall women's clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess tall women's satisfaction with the fit and style of apparel for tall women. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 75 US women, who were at least 5 feet 8 inches and between 18 and 54 years old, were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with misses-size and tall-size apparel, in

Michelle R. Jones; Valerie L. Giddings

2010-01-01

15

Internal tide generation by tall ocean ridges  

E-print Network

Internal tides are internal waves of tidal period generated by tidal currents flowing over submarine topography. Tall ridges that are nominally two-dimensional (2-D) are sites of particularly strong generation. The subsequent ...

Echeverri Mondragón, Paula

2009-01-01

16

Tall Timbers Research Station: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tall Timbers Research Station works to foster land stewardship through its research, conservation, and education efforts. Located in Tallahassee, Florida, the Tall Timbers Station conducts research in the areas of Fire Ecology, Resource Management, Vertebrate Ecology, Forestry, and Northern Bobwhite Quail studies. The Station's website contains overviews of its five major research programs and offers information regarding research jobs and internships. Tall Timbers also provides downloadable copies of its _Research Notes_ publication, and lists a variety of staff publications (some of which are downloadable). In addition, Tall Timbers features the E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, January 6, 1999) which contains approximately 15,000 citations, and 6,000 abstracts.

17

Photosynthesis in Tall Fescue 1  

PubMed Central

Previous work in our laboratory (Krueger, Miles 1981 Plant Physiol 68: 1110-1114) indicated that a decaploid genotype (I-16-2) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) which exhibits unusually high net photosynthesis rates also had high potential rates of photosynthetic electron transport through photosystem I (PSI) compared to the typical hexaploid genotype (V6-802). Analysis of electron transport activity revealed that the oxidizing side of PSI as the major site of difference. Examination of the whole thylakoids and subchloroplast particle protein components of the common hexaploid and the decaploid genotypes had major polypeptide differences at 30, 21, and 12.5 kilodaltons. These differences could not be assigned to a specific physiological function in PSI. The decaploid had increased P700 and plastocyanin content on a chlorophyll basis. Antibodies raised against fescue plastocyanin were used to quantitate plastocyanin in crude (Triton X-100) solubilized extracts of plant material. Results showed that the decaploid had 16% and 40% more plastocyanin on a weight and area basis, respectively. The antibodies did not inhibit electron transport (diaminodiurene to methyl viologen) in isolated thylakoids strengthening the hypothesis of plastocyanin as an internal mobile electron shuttle. The trend of inhibition of plastocyanin by KCN was similar in the two genotypes but the decaploid had 15 to 20% higher rates of electron flow under nearly all inhibiting conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663968

Krueger, Roger W.; Randall, Douglas D.; Miles, Donald

1984-01-01

18

Twisters, Tall Tales, and Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Your students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and scientific phenomena. Harness your students' creative engery with this lesson that incorporates tall tales into the classroom, and follows the 5-E model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) for incorporating constructivism into science teaching.

Dawn Renee Wilcox

2006-01-01

19

Analysis of Alongwind Tall Building Response to Transient Nonstationary Winds  

E-print Network

Analysis of Alongwind Tall Building Response to Transient Nonstationary Winds Xinzhong Chen1 Abstract: Transient nonstationary extreme winds such as thunderstorm downbursts are responsible tall building response to transient nonstationary winds based on nonstationary random vibration theory

Chen, Xinzhong

20

Electrochemical Sensor Based on Electrodeposited Graphene-Au Modified Electrode and NanoAu Carrier Amplified Signal Strategy for Attomolar Mercury Detection.  

PubMed

An electrochemical sensor was developed for attomolar Hg(2+) detection. Three single-stranded DNA probes were rationally designed for selective and sensitive detection of the target, which combined T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry and the characteristic of convenient modification of electrochemical signal indicator. Graphene and nanoAu were successively electrodeposited on a glass carbon electrode surface to improve the electrode conductivity and functionalize with the 10-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P1). NanoAu carriers functionalized with 29-mer guanine-rich DNA probe (P3) labeled methyl blue (MB-nanoAu-P 3s) were used to further strengthen signal response. In the presence of Hg(2+), a T-T mismatched dsDNA would occur between P1 and a 22-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P2) on the electrode surface due to T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. Followed by adding the MB-nanoAu-P 3s for hybridization with P2, square wave voltammetry was executed. Under optimal conditions, Hg(2+) could be detected in the range from 1.0 aM to 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.001 aM. Selectivity measurements reveal that the sensor is specific for Hg(2+) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. Three different environmental samples were analyzed by the sensor and the results were compared with that from an atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The developed sensor was demonstrated to achieve excellent detectability. It may be applied to development of ultrasensitive detection strategies. PMID:25440021

Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Guang Ming; Tang, Lin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yuan; He, Xiao Xiao; He, Yan

2015-01-20

21

Tall tower or mountain top measurements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ?500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes at a regional scale in order to achieve a better understanding about CO2 and CH4 fluxes and their response to climate. We will present first direct comparisons of measurements obtained from continuously calibrated laser absorption spectrometers to quantify the atmospheric concentrations of carbon-dioxide and methane, but also from meteorological sensors and turbulence measurements. Data from the sensors at the two stations will be used to address the following question: can a mountain top station provide similar quality of data and spatial representativeness as a tall tower for the investigation of atmospheric patterns of greenhouse gases at diurnal to seasonal scale?

Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

2014-05-01

22

NANO EXPRESS Open Access Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer-  

E-print Network

NANO EXPRESS Open Access Ultrafast nano-oscillators based on interlayer- bridged carbon nanoscrolls nano-oscillators based on carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) using molecular dynamics simulations. Initiated of gigahertz. We demonstrate an effective strategy to reduce the dissipation of the CNS-based nano

Li, Teng

23

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inaugural issue of the journal of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, CTBUH Review, was released online in April 2003 and can be downloaded from the council's homepage. Several technical articles and an in-depth case study of a featured project, the IDX Tower in Seattle, comprise the 64 pages. Special attention is given to post-September 11 building design. The journal is scheduled to be published quarterly, but it is unclear whether future issues will remain available free online. Although it may take a while to download on slow connection, it is well worth the wait.

24

New optimal design strategies and analysis of ultra-low leakage circuits for nano-scale SOI technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes new SOI circuit strategies for simultaneous reduction of standby gate and sub-threshold leakages. Various enhanced MTCMOS design alternatives are analyzed. A new method for assigning the VTH and sizes of header and footer transistors is proposed, and stacking of headers\\/footers is analyzed. The optimum stacking height and tapering\\/sizing ratio under various design constraints are determined. Our strategies

Koushik K. Das; Rajiv V. Joshi; Ching-Te Chuang; Peter W. Cook; Richard B. Brown

2003-01-01

25

Analysis of twist and lean of tall towers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for analytically determining the amount of twist and lean of a tall tower of equilateral triangular cross section is described. This method is also applicable to tall structures of other shapes and cross-sectional areas. A BASIC computer program that determines the angle of twist and amount of lean is provided.

1974-01-01

26

Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

27

A Nano-Chip-LC/MS n Based Strategy for Characterization of Modified Nucleosides Using Reduced Porous Graphitic Carbon as a Stationary Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LC/MS analysis of ribonucleosides is traditionally performed by reverse phase chromatography on silica based C18 type stationary phases using MS compatible buffers and methanol or acetonitrile gradients. Due to the hydrophilic and polar nature of nucleosides, down-scaling C18 analytical methods to a two-column nano-flow setup is inherently difficult. We present a nano-chip LC/MS ion-trap strategy for routine characterization of RNA nucleosides in the fmol range. Nucleosides were analyzed in positive ion mode by reverse phase chromatography using a 75 ? × 150 mm, 5 ? particle porous graphitic carbon (PGC) chip with an integrated 9 mm, 160 nL trapping column. Nucleosides were separated using a formic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The method was able to separate isobaric nucleosides as well as nucleosides with isotopic overlap to allow unambiguous MS n identification on a low resolution ion-trap. Synthesis of 5-hydroxycytidine (oh5C) was achieved from 5-hydroxyuracil in a novel three-step enzymatic process. When operated in its native state using formic acid/acetonitrile, PGC oxidized oh5C to its corresponding glycols and formic acid conjugates. Reduction of the PGC stationary phase was achieved by flushing the chip with 2.5 mM oxalic acid and adding 1 mM oxalic acid to the online solvents. Analyzed under reduced chromatographic conditions oh5C was readily identified by its MH+ m/z 260 and MSn fragmentation pattern. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first instance where oxalic acid has been used as an online reducing agent for LC/MS. The method was subsequently used for complete characterization of nucleosides found in tRNAs using both PGC and C18 chips.

Giessing, Anders Michael Bernth; Scott, Lincoln Greyson; Kirpekar, Finn

2011-07-01

28

A nano-chip-LC/MSn based strategy for characterization of modified nucleosides using reduced porous graphitic carbon as a stationary phase.  

PubMed

LC/MS analysis of ribonucleosides is traditionally performed by reverse phase chromatography on silica based C18 type stationary phases using MS compatible buffers and methanol or acetonitrile gradients. Due to the hydrophilic and polar nature of nucleosides, down-scaling C18 analytical methods to a two-column nano-flow setup is inherently difficult. We present a nano-chip LC/MS ion-trap strategy for routine characterization of RNA nucleosides in the fmol range. Nucleosides were analyzed in positive ion mode by reverse phase chromatography using a 75 ? × 150 mm, 5 ? particle porous graphitic carbon (PGC) chip with an integrated 9 mm, 160 nL trapping column. Nucleosides were separated using a formic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The method was able to separate isobaric nucleosides as well as nucleosides with isotopic overlap to allow unambiguous MS( n ) identification on a low resolution ion-trap. Synthesis of 5-hydroxycytidine (oh(5)C) was achieved from 5-hydroxyuracil in a novel three-step enzymatic process. When operated in its native state using formic acid/acetonitrile, PGC oxidized oh(5)C to its corresponding glycols and formic acid conjugates. Reduction of the PGC stationary phase was achieved by flushing the chip with 2.5 mM oxalic acid and adding 1 mM oxalic acid to the online solvents. Analyzed under reduced chromatographic conditions oh(5)C was readily identified by its MH(+) m/z 260 and MS(n) fragmentation pattern. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first instance where oxalic acid has been used as an online reducing agent for LC/MS. The method was subsequently used for complete characterization of nucleosides found in tRNAs using both PGC and C18 chips. PMID:21953107

Giessing, Anders Michael Bernth; Scott, Lincoln Greyson; Kirpekar, Finn

2011-07-01

29

Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue †  

PubMed Central

The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. PMID:16346751

Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

1985-01-01

30

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester–diesel fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the

Duran Alt?parmak; Ali Keskin; Atilla Koca; Metin Gürü

2007-01-01

31

Targeting nonclassical oncogenes for therapy in T-ALL.  

PubMed

Constitutive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation is common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Although four distinct class I PI3K isoforms (?, ?, ?, ?) could participate in T-ALL pathogenesis, none has been implicated in this process. We report that in the absence of PTEN phosphatase tumor suppressor function, PI3K? or PI3K? alone can support leukemogenesis, whereas inactivation of both isoforms suppressed tumor formation. The reliance of PTEN null T-ALL on the combined activities of PI3K?/? was further demonstrated by the ability of a dual inhibitor to reduce disease burden and prolong survival in mice as well as prevent proliferation and promote activation of proapoptotic pathways in human tumors. These results support combined inhibition of PI3K?/? as therapy for T-ALL. PMID:22516257

Subramaniam, Prem S; Whye, Dosh W; Efimenko, Evgeni; Chen, Jianchung; Tosello, Valeria; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Kashishian, Adam; Thompson, Mary Ann; Castillo, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Davé, Utpal P; Ferrando, Adolfo; Lannutti, Brian J; Diacovo, Thomas G

2012-04-17

32

Contrasting Micro/Nano Architecture on Termite Wings: Two Divergent Strategies for Optimising Success of Colonisation Flights  

PubMed Central

Many termite species typically fly during or shortly after rain periods. Local precipitation will ensure water will be present when establishing a new colony after the initial flight. Here we show how different species of termite utilise two distinct and contrasting strategies for optimising the success of the colonisation flight. Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. fly during rain periods and adopt hydrophobic structuring/‘technologies’ on their wings to contend with a moving canvas of droplets in daylight hours. Schedorhinotermes sp. fly after rain periods (typically at night) and thus do not come into contact with mobile droplets. These termites, in contrast, display hydrophilic structuring on their wings with a small scale roughness which is not dimensionally sufficient to introduce an increase in hydrophobicity. The lack of hydrophobicity allows the termite to be hydrophilicly captured at locations where water may be present in large quantities; sufficient for the initial colonization period. The high wettability of the termite cuticle (Schedorhinotermes sp.) indicates that the membrane has a high surface energy and thus will also have strong attractions with solid particles. To investigate this the termite wings were also interacted with both artificial and natural contaminants in the form of hydrophilic silicon beads of various sizes, 4 µm C18 beads and three differently structured pollens. These were compared to the superhydrophobic surface of the planthopper (Desudaba psittacus) and a native Si wafer surface. The termite cuticle demonstrated higher adhesive interactions with all particles in comparison to those measured on the plant hopper. PMID:21935401

Watson, Gregory S.; Cribb, Bronwen W.; Watson, Jolanta A.

2011-01-01

33

Contrasting micro/nano architecture on termite wings: two divergent strategies for optimising success of colonisation flights.  

PubMed

Many termite species typically fly during or shortly after rain periods. Local precipitation will ensure water will be present when establishing a new colony after the initial flight. Here we show how different species of termite utilise two distinct and contrasting strategies for optimising the success of the colonisation flight. Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. fly during rain periods and adopt hydrophobic structuring/'technologies' on their wings to contend with a moving canvas of droplets in daylight hours. Schedorhinotermes sp. fly after rain periods (typically at night) and thus do not come into contact with mobile droplets. These termites, in contrast, display hydrophilic structuring on their wings with a small scale roughness which is not dimensionally sufficient to introduce an increase in hydrophobicity. The lack of hydrophobicity allows the termite to be hydrophilicly captured at locations where water may be present in large quantities; sufficient for the initial colonization period. The high wettability of the termite cuticle (Schedorhinotermes sp.) indicates that the membrane has a high surface energy and thus will also have strong attractions with solid particles. To investigate this the termite wings were also interacted with both artificial and natural contaminants in the form of hydrophilic silicon beads of various sizes, 4 µm C(18) beads and three differently structured pollens. These were compared to the superhydrophobic surface of the planthopper (Desudaba psittacus) and a native Si wafer surface. The termite cuticle demonstrated higher adhesive interactions with all particles in comparison to those measured on the plant hopper. PMID:21935401

Watson, Gregory S; Cribb, Bronwen W; Watson, Jolanta A

2011-01-01

34

Ch08 oupTall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 Tall tales on intelligence  

E-print Network

Ch08 oup­Tall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 Tall tales on intelligence #12;Ch08 oup­Tall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 #12;Ch08 oup­Tall Tales about Mind and Brain (Typeset by SPi, Delhi) July 12, 2006 18:34 Chapter 8 Is bigger

Aberdeen, University of

35

The ?-gliadin gene content of a derivative from a somatic hybrid between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-based strategy was applied to obtain the DNA sequence of ?-gliadin open reading frames present in line II-12, a derivative\\u000a from a somatic hybrid between bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Jinan177 and tall wheatgrass (Lophopyrum ponticum, 10×). A total 50 analysable sequences were obtained, 18 from II-12 and 16 each from the parents. Amplicon length ranged\\u000a from 720

Fanguo Chen; Feng Zhao; Shuwei Liu; Guangmin Xia

2009-01-01

36

Tall structure lightning induced by sprite-producing discharges.  

SciTech Connect

The large and rapid charge transfer of some +CGs can initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures while simultaneously initiating downward positive streamers below the base of the ionosphere in the form of sprites . Structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders, the presence of which is readily detected later if a dart leader propagates down the channel to ground, generating a -CG return stroke. Such tall structures can be repeatedly struck if, as often happens, sprite-producing +CGs repeatedly occur .

Stanley, M. A. (Mark A.); Heavner, M. J. (Matthew J.)

2003-01-01

37

Chemical characterization of acidic components in a commercial depitching of crude tall oil  

E-print Network

Committee: Dr. Ed J. Soltes Tall oil, a mixture of resin acids, fatty acids, and neutral compounds, is a by-product obtained in the manufacture of wood pulp by the sulfate (kraft) process. Acids purified by fractional distillation are used in various... this depitching oper ation, crude tall oil (CTO ) is fractionated into tall oil distillate (TOD) and tall oil pitch (TOP ). Chemical separation procedures, using saponification-extraction, and anion-exchange resin (DEAE-Sephadex), provided consistent yields...

Tsurumi, Toshio

1982-01-01

38

Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic

H. Motoyama; W. Janischewskyj; A. M. Hussein; W. A. Chisholm; J. S. Chang; R. Rusan

1996-01-01

39

A generalization of the Lucas addition chains Amadou TALL  

E-print Network

) be the nth number of Fibonacci, then {F1, F2, . . . , Fr} is a Lucas addition-subtraction chain for Fr. HereA generalization of the Lucas addition chains Amadou TALL tallamad@hotmail. com Cheikh Anta DIOP, a generalization of Lucas addition chains, where subtrac- tion is allowed, is given. It is called "Lucas addition

40

Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch  

DOEpatents

A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

Radke, C.J.

1983-07-25

41

Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue.  

PubMed

Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs. PMID:23885206

Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

2013-07-01

42

4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

43

Wind pressures on tapered and set-back tall buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent tall buildings tend to have irregular and unconventional shapes as a prevailing but unavoidable trend, which is very effective for suppressing across-wind responses. Suppression of across-wind responses is a major factor in safety and habitability design of tall buildings, and the so-called aerodynamic modification method is comprehensively used. While the effectiveness of aerodynamic modification in reducing wind loads has been widely reported, there have been few detailed investigations of pressure fluctuations. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of pressure fluctuations applied to height-modified tall buildings comprehensively, including differences of vortex formation and shedding mechanism based on the previously reported mechanism of a conventional square tall building. The results show that taper and set-back affect on the bandwidth of power spectra and position of peak frequencies. And through taper and set-back, the height at which the vortex begins to form moves up, and due to the small building dimension, the vortex component formed at that height sheds from the building more frequently before an inverted conical vortex is formed over the whole height.

Kim, Yong Chul; Kanda, Jun

2013-05-01

44

Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

2006-06-05

45

IMPROVING TALL FESCUE SHADE TOLERANCE: IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE GENOTYPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtaine...

46

Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because...

47

Improving Tall Fescue Shade Tolerance: Identifying Candidate Genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

48

Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

49

Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

50

Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

51

78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2013-0192] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration...establish a temporary safety zone around each tall ship participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812...

2013-05-01

52

77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY...Rhode Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. DATES: This rule is effective...Special Local Regulations: Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay,...

2012-07-03

53

78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2013-0192] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration...establishing a temporary safety zone around each tall ship participating in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812...

2013-07-23

54

Seismic Response of Tall and Flexible Structure on Ground Including Contact Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the nonlinear seismic response characteristics of tall and flexible structures without anchorage system. It is very important for designing the tall and flexible structure to estimate the slipping displacement and the rocking characteristics of the tall structure more precisely due to the earthquake excitation. Reaction and friction forces caused in the supports of the structure are

Tetsuya Matsumoto; Nobuyuki Kobayashi; Yajun Zhang; Friedrich Pfeiffer

2007-01-01

55

Understanding Nano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.

56

Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?  

PubMed

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

2013-05-01

57

Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex  

PubMed Central

Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of the Festuca genus to include representatives of each tall fescue morphotype, and to use low copy nuclear gene-derived sequences to identify putative progenitors of the polyploid species. The demonstration of distinct tall fescue lineages has implications for both taxonomy and molecular breeding strategies, and may facilitate the generation of morphotype and/or sub-genome-specific molecular markers. PMID:20937141

2010-01-01

58

FHL1C induces apoptosis in notch1-dependent T-ALL cells through an interaction with RBP-J  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrantly activated Notch signaling has been found in more than 50% of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Current strategies that employ ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) to target Notch activation have not been successful. Many limitations, such as non-Notch specificity, dose-limiting gastrointestinal toxicity and GSI resistance, have prompted an urgent need for more effective Notch signaling inhibitors for T-ALL treatment. Human four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1C (FHL1C) (KyoT2 in mice) has been demonstrated to suppress Notch activation in vitro, suggesting that FHL1C may be new candidate target in T-ALL therapy. However, the role of FHL1C in T-ALL cells remained unclear. Methods Using RT-PCR, we amplified full-length human FHL1C, and constructed full-length and various truncated forms of FHL1C. Using cell transfection, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscope, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blotting, we found that overexpression of FHL1C induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. By using a reporter assay and Annexin-V staining, the minimal functional sequence of FHL1C inhibiting RBP-J-mediated Notch transactivation and inducing cell apoptosis was identified. Using real-time PCR and Western blotting, we explored the possible molecular mechanism of FHL1C-induced apoptosis. All data were statistically analyzed with the SPSS version 12.0 software. Results In Jurkat cells derived from a Notch1-associated T-ALL cell line insensitive to GSI treatment, we observed that overexpression of FHL1C, which is down-regulated in T-ALL patients, strongly induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that FHL1C-induced apoptosis depended on the RBP-J-binding motif at the C-terminus of FHL1C. Using various truncated forms of FHL1C, we found that the RBP-J-binding motif of FHL1C had almost the same effect as full-length FHL1C on the induction of apoptosis, suggesting that the minimal functional sequence in the RBP-J-binding motif of FHL1C might be a new drug candidate for T-ALL treatment. We also explored the molecular mechanism of FHL1C overexpression-induced apoptosis, which suppressed downstream target genes such as Hes1 and c-Myc and key signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT and NF-?B of Notch signaling involved in T-ALL progression. Conclusions Our study has revealed that FHL1C overexpression induces Jurkat cell apoptosis. This finding may provide new insights in designing new Notch inhibitors based on FHL1C to treat T-ALL. PMID:24952875

2014-01-01

59

Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch  

DOEpatents

Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

1985-01-01

60

Nano Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An electronic version of this journal from the American Chemical Society is available for free through June 30, 2001. Nano Letters is ACS's newest journal. It deals with "physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, processes and applications of structures within the nanoscale range."

61

NanoEd Resource Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the National Center for Learning and Teaching in Nanoscale Science and Engineering, this educational site focuses on teaching resources in nanotechnology for high school and undergraduate students. The site is divided by resource type; visitors will find simulations and demonstrations, courses, lessons, and outside resources for integrating and introducing nanoscience into the classroom. The topics here range from carbon nanotubes, to magnetic force microscopes, to electrodeposition. Faculty are also encouraged to participate their own teaching materials to the project, and can find out more information by following the Contribute to NanoEd link.

2012-04-12

62

| Link to Us | or Ads by Google Biomedical Nano Sensor Review Nano Nano Market Car Nano  

E-print Network

| Link to Us | or Ads by Google Biomedical Nano Sensor Review Nano Nano Market Car Nano Printer, Bio & Chemical Analysis Nano Days Online Event Nanotechnology presentations Online of Nanotechnology was to generate a subsequent technology that would allow for electronic wires and circuits to stretch like

Rogers, John A.

63

Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

2007-01-01

64

Lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning detection in the Spanish Basque Country is performed using the LF TOA, VHF interferometer and the VLF lightning detection technologies in which two independent networks are based, providing a better detection quality due to the combination of these different techniques. Total lightning activity related to the tall structure of the weather radar operated by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) is presented. The tall structure is a 50 m tower located on the top of Kapildui Mountain (at about 1169.48 m ASL). Remarkable electrical activity associated to this place has been witnessed in the last two years. Two particular flashes during November 30th 2009 caused damage to the weather radar. Two different lightning detection networks detected five and six cloud-to-ground strokes, respectively. Only nine VHF sources were detected in the first flash without any VLF detection classified as intracloud. But for the second flash non VHF source was detected and two detections were reported by the VLF system. In both cases some intracloud detections were reported before cloud-to-ground strokes and some others during the flash. This paper presents the study of a winter episode with a special impact in the tower, the research carried out for characterizing the lightning events and the measures taken in order to achieve a better protection mechanism for the radar site.

López, J.; Montanyà, J.; Maruri, M.; De la Vega, D.; Aranda, J. A.; Gaztelumendi, S.

2012-11-01

65

Clinical and molecular characterization of early T-cell precursor leukemia: a high-risk subgroup in adult T-ALL with a high frequency of FLT3 mutations  

PubMed Central

A subgroup of pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) was characterized by a gene expression profile comparable to that of early T-cell precursors (ETPs) with a highly unfavorable outcome. We have investigated clinical and molecular characteristics of the ETP-ALL subgroup in adult T-ALL. As ETP-ALL represents a subgroup of early T-ALL we particularly focused on this cohort and identified 178 adult patients enrolled in the German Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Multicenter studies (05/93–07/03). Of these, 32% (57/178) were classified as ETP-ALL based on their characteristic immunophenotype. The outcome of adults with ETP-ALL was poor with an overall survival of only 35% at 10 years, comparable to the inferior outcome of early T-ALL with 38%. The molecular characterization of adult ETP-ALL revealed distinct alterations with overexpression of stem cell-related genes (BAALC, IGFBP7, MN1, WT1). Interestingly, we found a low rate of NOTCH1 mutations and no FBXW7 mutations in adult ETP-ALL. In contrast, FLT3 mutations, rare in the overall cohort of T-ALL, were very frequent and nearly exclusively found in ETP-ALL characterized by a specific immunophenotype. These molecular characteristics provide biologic insights and implications with respect to innovative treatment strategies (for example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors) for this high-risk subgroup of adult ETP-ALL. PMID:22829239

Neumann, M; Heesch, S; Gökbuget, N; Schwartz, S; Schlee, C; Benlasfer, O; Farhadi-Sartangi, N; Thibaut, J; Burmeister, T; Hoelzer, D; Hofmann, W-K; Thiel, E; Baldus, C D

2012-01-01

66

Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model uses an implicit numerical scheme for time integration and employs effective non-uniform grid system allowing very accurate description of non-stationary coronas emitted by sharp points with sub-millimeter dimensions and expanding hundreds of meters in surrounding air. In the talk we will present principal components of the model and its performance under different time dynamics of the applied electric field closely resembling scenarios under thunderstorm conditions, including, in particular, extended periods of time (tens of seconds) when only glow corona is produced, followed by a fast rise in the field (tens of microseconds) describing approach of the downward leader. We will also present comparisons of the numerical model results on time dependent corona radius and current with an analytical corona theory summarized recently by Bazelyan et al. [2008].

Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

2012-12-01

67

Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus directly measured currents  

E-print Network

Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus-field-to-current conversion factors for lightning strikes to tall objects for (1) the initial peak current at the object top by lightning detection networks and are each expressed here as the product of (a) the far

Florida, University of

68

INDIVIDUAL PLANT CONTROL OF TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM BARBEYI) WITH TEBUTHIURON1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Broadcast application of herbicides to control tall larkspur is difficult under aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) and most herbicides kill the desirable tall forbs that are associated with larkspur. The pellet formulation of tebuthiuron allows individual treatment of plants without injury to associ...

69

Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

70

Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

71

Predicted Efficiency of Spaced Plant Selection to Indirectly Improve Tall Fescue Sward Yield and Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The validity of spaced plant evaluation to determine sward performance of forage grasses has oft been questioned. This experiment studied the efficiency of spaced plant evaluation to indirectly improve sward yield and nutritional quality in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). A tall fescue ...

72

Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

73

Chemotais disruption in protylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue...

74

TITLE: Effects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue  

E-print Network

36 TITLE: Effects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of drought on the visual quality and photosynthesis in two hybrid bluegrasses (`Thermal Blue' and `Reveille'), one Kentucky bluegrass (`Apollo'), and one tall

75

USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Of the ergopeptine alkaloids produced by the endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) of tall fescue, ergovaline has been reported as the most abundant in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). As a result much focus has been placed on ergovaline and its impact on grazing animal health (i...

76

Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Aggregate Distribution In Response to Tall Fescue Stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soi...

77

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

2010-04-01

78

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

2013-04-01

79

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

2012-04-01

80

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

2011-04-01

81

Evolutionary Diversification of Fungal Endophytes of Tall Fescue Grass by Hybridization with Epichloddot{e} Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloddot{e} (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among

Huei-Fung Tsai; Jih-Shiou Liu; Chuck Staben; Michael J. Christensen; Garrick C. M. Latch; Malcolm R. Siegel; Christopher L. Schardl

1994-01-01

82

A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

2013-01-01

83

Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

84

Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

85

Steer and tall fescue pasture responses to grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

86

Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

87

Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

2014-01-01

88

A phase transfer assisted solvo-thermal strategy for the synthesis of REF? and Ln³?-doped REF3 nano-/microcrystals.  

PubMed

Monodisperse orthorhombic-phase rare earth fluorides nano-/microcrystals with a special shape of disk-stacked cylinder have been synthesized via a facile phase transfer assisted solvo-thermal route, where an acid-base-coupled extractant has been employed to transfer hydrofluoric acid into an oil phase as a fluoride source. The synthetic parameters have been optimized and a possible formation mechanism has also been proposed. More importantly, the adopted acid-base-coupled extractant in this route can be recycled. Surveying all of the lanthanides from La to Lu, most of the heavy rare earths, such as Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb, can form LnF3 nanocrystals with the similar morphologies. Furthermore, Ln(3+)-doped YF3 (Ln=Tb, Yb/Er) nanocrystals have also been synthesized, and their down-conversion and up-conversion (980 nm) luminescent properties were examined. The current approach could be extended to synthesize other metal fluorides nanoparticles. PMID:25268821

Zhao, Junmei; Zhu, Menghao; Mu, Linqing; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Li; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Huizhou

2014-12-15

89

40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

2013-07-01

90

40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

2014-07-01

91

77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2012-08-09

92

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.  

PubMed

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly. PMID:16524723

Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

2007-01-01

93

caNanoLab  

Cancer.gov

QUICK LINKS NCI caNanoLab Wiki NCI CBIIT Home NCL Home NCL CSN Home NCI Nano Alliance Home NCI Home EXTERNAL  Disclaimer NBI NIOSH NIL InterNano nanoHUB ICON SAFENANO HOME PROTOCOLS SAMPLES PUBLICATIONS HELP GLOSSARY LOGIN Search Protocols Help

94

caNanoLab  

Cancer.gov

QUICK LINKS NCI caNanoLab Wiki NCI CBIIT Home NCL Home NCL CSN Home NCI Nano Alliance Home NCI Home EXTERNAL  Disclaimer NBI NIOSH NIL InterNano nanoHUB ICON SAFENANO HOME PROTOCOLS SAMPLES PUBLICATIONS HELP GLOSSARY LOGIN Basic Sample Search Advanced

95

caNanoLab  

Cancer.gov

QUICK LINKS NCI caNanoLab Wiki NCI CBIIT Home NCL Home NCL CSN Home NCI Nano Alliance Home NCI Home EXTERNAL  Disclaimer NBI NIOSH NIL InterNano nanoHUB ICON SAFENANO HOME PROTOCOLS SAMPLES PUBLICATIONS HELP GLOSSARY LOGIN Search Publications Help

96

Nano-technology and nano-toxicology  

PubMed Central

Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology. PMID:22662021

Maynard, Robert L.

2012-01-01

97

Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils to tall fescue endophyte infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures appear to enhance soil carbon sequestration. A hypothetical mechanism that may account for the enhanced carbon sequestration is that the E+ tall fescue affects the soil microbial community or components of ...

98

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

2012-07-01

99

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

2011-07-01

100

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

2010-07-01

101

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

102

40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454...CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability...manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions of...

2014-07-01

103

The predicted barrier effects in the proximity of tall buildings.  

PubMed

A ray model is developed and validated for the prediction of the insertion loss of barriers that are placed in front of a tall building in high-rise cities. The model is based on the theory of geometrical acoustics for sound diffraction at the edge of a barrier and multiple reflections by the barrier and façade surfaces. It is crucial to include the diffraction and multiple reflection effects in the ray model, as they play important roles in determining the overall sound pressure levels for receivers located between the façade and barrier. Comparisons of the ray model with indoor experimental data and wave-based boundary element formulation show reasonably good agreement over a broad frequency range. Case studies are also presented that highlight the significance of positioning the barrier relative to the noise-sensitive receivers in order to achieve improved shielding efficiency of the barrier. PMID:12942965

Li, Kai Ming; Tang, Siu Hong

2003-08-01

104

Physical Limits to Leaf Size in Tall Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf sizes in angiosperm trees vary by more than 3 orders of magnitude, from a few mm to over 1 m. This large morphological freedom is, however, only expressed in small trees, and the observed leaf size range declines with tree height, forming well-defined upper and lower boundaries. The vascular system of tall trees that distributes the products of photosynthesis connects distal parts of the plant and forms one of the largest known continuous microfluidic distribution networks. In biological systems, intrinsic properties of vascular systems are known to constrain the morphological freedom of the organism. We show that the limits to leaf size can be understood by physical constraints imposed by intrinsic properties of the carbohydrate transport network. The lower boundary is set by a minimum energy flux, and the upper boundary is set by a diminishing gain in transport efficiency.

Jensen, Kaare H.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

2013-01-01

105

Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids  

PubMed Central

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

2014-01-01

106

Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.  

SciTech Connect

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

2003-05-01

107

Chemical composition of tall oil-based cetane enhancer for diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Tall oil is a co-product of the manufacture of kraft softwood pulp. The principal constituents of tall oil are unsaturated C{sub 18} fatty acids, resin acids and unsaponifiables such as diterpenic alcohols/aldehydes. Tall oil has been shown to be an economical feedstock for the manufacture of cetane enhancer for diesel fuels, using the proprietary CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) technology. Under a joint R&D project between Arbokem Inc./BC Chemicals Ltd. and CANMET, pilot plant tests were conducted recently at the CANMET Energy Research Labs. in Ottawa. The results showed that tall oil could by hydroprocessed efficiently to yield a valuable fuel blending agent. When this product was mixed with conventional diesel fuel, the cetane number of the diesel fuel increased linearly with the addition of the product. Chemical analysis including chromatography-mass spectrometry has confirmed high conversion of tall oil components into straight-chain alkanes. A small amount of cyclic hydrocarbons and sulphur components were present in the tall oil-based diesel enhancer. Preliminary results indicate that this type of cetane enhancer would provide additional technical benefits. The low aromatics content of the tall oil-based cetane enhancer would significantly reduce aromatics in the final diesel fuel blend. Diesel engines operating on such fuel blends would have a lower propensity to form particulates and NO{sub x}.

Feng, Y.; Wong, A. [Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Monnier, J. [CANMET Energy Research Labs., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1993-12-31

108

Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

2015-01-01

109

Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.  

PubMed

MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. PMID:25514895

Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

2015-01-22

110

The evolution of malignant and reactive ???+?T cell clones in a relapse T-ALL case after allogeneic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background To improve the outcome of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), characterization of the biological features of T-ALL blast cells and the immune status of patients with T-ALL is needed to identify specific therapeutic strategies. Findings Using a novel approach based on the combination of fine-tiling comparative genomic hybridization (FT-CGH) and ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR), we molecularly identified a malignant ???+?T cell clone with a V?5D?2J?1 rearrangement that was paired with a T cell receptor (TCR) V?I and comprised a V?1V?5 T cell clone in a relapse T-ALL patient. This malignant V?5 T cell clone disappeared after chemotherapy, but the clone was detected again when disease relapsed post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at 100 weeks. Using PCR and GeneScan analyses, the distribution and clonality of the TCR V? and V? subfamilies were examined before and after allo-HSCT in the patient. A reactive T cell clone with a V?4D?3J?1 rearrangement was identified in all samples taken at different time points (i.e., 4, 8, 68, 100 and 108 weeks after allo-HSCT). The expression of this V?4+ T cell clone was higher in the patient during complete remission (CR) post allo-HSCT and at disease relapse. Conclusions This study established a sensitive methodology to detect T cell subclones, which may be used to monitor minimal residual disease and immune reconstitution. PMID:23849082

2013-01-01

111

Passive motion control of super tall buildings : tuned mass and viscous dampers in Taipei 101.  

E-print Network

As tall buildings keep becoming taller, they become more susceptible to dynamic excitations such as wind and seismic excitations. One way to reduce structural vibration under dynamic excitations is by placing damping devices ...

Gong, Zheng Li

2009-01-01

112

A Simple Tall Fescue Seed Extraction and Partial Purification of Ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are several substances present in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Lolium arundinaceum /Neotyphodium coenophialum) that have biological activity. These include the pyrrolizidine and ergot alkaloids plus peramine. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids have significant mammalian to...

113

INHIBITION OF SEEDLINGS BY TALL FESCUE: SEASON PATTERNS, INTERSPECIFIC DIFFERENCES AND EFFECTS OF MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is an important cool-season forage grass typically infected with an endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum). While conferring ecological advantages upon the plant, the association produces toxic alkaloids that restrict animal gains and impair reproductive perf...

114

Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

115

The role of the aerodynamic modifications of the shapes of tall buildings  

E-print Network

With the advances in technology, recent tall building design has undergone a shift to the free-style geometric forms in the exuberant and liberal atmosphere. As a height of the building increases, it is more susceptible ...

Lee, Jooeun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

116

Grazing management and pasture production of tall fescue-legume mixtures in dryland pastures.  

E-print Network

??Pasture production and composition and liveweight gain of sheep grazing tall fescue-clover and perennial ryegrass-clover dryland pastures at Lincoln, Canterbury was examined in four experiments… (more)

Jusoh, Shokri

2013-01-01

117

Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

118

The Effect of Toxic Tall Fescue on Cellobiose-Utilizing Populations in the Bovine Rumen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus Schreb. Dumort), and confers pest resistance through the production of alkaloids. Although, these alkaloids can reach concentrations that are toxic to livestock, their effects on the symbiotic rumen bacteri...

119

Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

120

Nano Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about identifying nanoscale objects and phenomena in today's world. Learners will break into groups and conduct a "NanoBlitz Challenge," spending a set amount of time on a scavenger hunt for all things nano, both natural and man-made, in the world around them. They will then assemble a chart of their findings and discuss. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Where's Nano?

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

121

Tall oil fatty acid mixtures as a new approach to quality alkyds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Tall oil fatty acids may replace up to 50% of linseed or soya fatty acids, using the High Polymer Alkyd Technique, to obtain\\u000a similar dry rates and resistances of conventional all-linseed or soy long-oil vehicles. Tall oil fatty acids also can be substituted\\u000a for 25% of either linseed or soya fatty acids without adverse effects on the drying rates of

George T. Roberts; William M. Kraft; Peter Belsky

1959-01-01

122

Effects of endophytic fungi on some drought tolerance mechanisms of tall fescue in a hydroponics culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotyphodium, a seed-transmissible nonpathogenic fungal endophyte (symbiont) is considered beneficial because endophyte-infected grasses\\u000a are more drought-tolerant, produce more dry matter, utilize soil nitrogen more efficiently, and deter insects. In this study,\\u000a the effects of endophytes on physiological mechanisms of drought tolerance in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in a greenhouse. Two clonally propagated genotypes of tall fescue (F.

F. Bayat; A. Mirlohi; M. Khodambashi

2009-01-01

123

Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?  

PubMed Central

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as “Kentucky-31” (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples. PMID:25408942

Young, Carolyn A.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Takach, Johanna E.; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Trammell, Michael A.; Huhman, David V.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

2014-01-01

124

FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

2010-07-22

125

Characteristics of wind forces and responses of rectangular tall buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of wind tunnel tests on rectangular building models having the same plan area and height but different side ratios of 1, 1.56, 2.25, 3.06 and 4. The models were made from perspex sheet at a geometrical scale of 1:300. The wind pressure coefficients on all the models were evaluated from pressure records measured in a closed circuit wind tunnel under boundary layer flow for wind directions of 0° to 90° at an interval of 15°. The mean responses of rectangular tall buildings having different side ratios were also evaluated from the experimentally obtained wind loads. Effectiveness of side ratio of buildings in changing the surface pressure distribution and mean responses of prototype buildings is assessed for wind directions of 0° to 90° at an interval of 15°. It is observed that the side ratio of buildings significantly affects the wind pressures on leeward and sidewalls, whereas wind pressure on windward wall is almost independent of side ratio. Further, the wind incidence angles and side ratio of the buildings significantly affect its mean displacements as well as torque.

Amin, J. A.; Ahuja, A. K.

2014-09-01

126

The Tata Nano: The People's Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students identify promotion, price, place, segment, targeting, and positioning for marketing "the world’s cheapest car." This case is effective for MBA, undergraduate, and executive learners studying market segmentation, pricing, cannibalization risk, pricing, and break-even sales in the face of different price and cost scenarios. Has Tata chosen the right marketing strategy? Does the Nano represent an evolution or a revolution

Paul Farris; Amy Lemley

127

The effects of endophytes on seed production and seed predation of tall fescue and meadow fescue.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E- grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E- plants, but E- and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions. PMID:20871988

Saari, Susanna; Helander, Marjo; Faeth, Stanley H; Saikkonen, Kari

2010-11-01

128

Pegylated arginase I: a potential therapeutic approach in T-ALL  

PubMed Central

Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic T cell leukemia (T-ALL) have a very poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Therefore, novel therapies that increase the efficacy of the treatments and that prolong T-ALL patient survival are needed. Malignant T cells require high concentrations of nutrients to sustain their increased rate of proliferation. In this study, we determined whether L-Arginine depletion by the pegylated form of the L-Arginine-metabolizing enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) impairs the proliferation of malignant T cells. Our results show that peg-Arg I depleted L-Arginine levels in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment of malignant T-cell lines with peg-Arg I significantly impaired their proliferation, which correlated with a decreased progression into the cell cycle, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, peg-Arg I impaired the expression of cyclin D3, a fundamental protein in T-ALL proliferation, through a global arrest in protein synthesis. Injection of peg-Arg I plus chemotherapy agent Cytarabine prolonged survival in mice bearing T-ALL tumors. This antitumoral effect correlated with an inhibition of T-ALL proliferation in vivo, a decreased expression of cyclin D3, and T-ALL apoptosis. The results suggest the potential benefit of L-Arginine depletion by peg-Arg I in the treatment of T-cell malignancies. PMID:20407034

Hernandez, Claudia P.; Morrow, Kevin; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis A.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Sierra, Rosa; Velasco, Cruz; Cole, John

2010-01-01

129

Nano Research Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nano Research is a peer-reviewed, international and interdisciplinary research journal that focuses on all aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Submissions are solicited in all topical areas, ranging from basic aspects of the science of nanoscale materials to practical applications of such materials. Nano Research is an open-access journal, making all research results freely available online.Nano Research offers readers an attractive mix of authoritative and comprehensive Reviews, original cutting-edge research in Communication and Full Paper formats. Rapid review to ensure quick publication is a key feature of Nano Research.Articles in Nano Research are accessible free of charge in 2008 and 2009.

130

Screening strategy to avoid toxicological hazards of inhaled nanoparticles for drug delivery: The use of a-quartz and nano zinc oxide particles as benchmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is a broad, revolutionary field with promising advantages for new medicine. In this context the rapid development and improvement of so called nanocarriers is of high pharmaceutical interest and some devices are already on the market. In our project we aim to develop well characterized nanoscaled drug delivery systems for an inhalative application. To this end, we focus on the most adverse side-effects within the lung, the cytotoxic and the proinflammatory responses to these nanoparticles (NPs). Before performing any animal experiments, we start with an in vitro screening for analyzing the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of the investigated particles on two murine lung target cell lines, the alveolar epithelial like typ II cell line (LA4) and the alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S). Three different endpoints were estimated, (i) cellular metabolic activity, determined by the WST-1 assay, (ii) membrane integrity, by detection of LDH release and hemolytic activity, and (iii) secretion of inflammatory mediators. To analyze the relative particle toxicity we choose two reference particles as benchmarks, (i) fine a-quartz, and (ii) ultrafine ZnO particles. The investigation of dose-response and kinetics of proinflammatory and toxic effects caused to the named cell lines provide an insight to a close evaluation of our cell based screening strategy. oc-quartz is well known for its inflammatory and toxic potential caused by inhalation, and nanosized ZnO particles - used in a broad field of nanotechnology like electronics, but also cosmetics and pharmaceuticals - is to a high degree cytotoxic and proinflammatory in vitro. Preliminary experiments indicated not only particle and cell specific inflammatory responses, but also different susceptibilities of the cell types being exposed to our benchmark particles regarding their size and surface activities. Exposure to the ?m-sized a-quartz particles affected the viability of epithelia cells less than that of macrophages, pointing to the impact of particle uptake by phagocytosis. In contrast, the nanosized ZnO particles caused much stronger decrease in cell viability and higher levels of LDH in the macrophage cell line compared to epithelial cells, even though the hemolytic activity was much higher for the a-quartz particles than for the nanosized ZnO. For the proinflammatory effects, we observed a clear dose-dependent release of acute phase cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, G-CSF> CXCL10>CCL2) for both alveolar cell lines after Min-U-Sil exposure. After ZnO treatment the cytokine responses were negligible compare to control cells. In conclusion, our data attach value to the use of different cell types to detect different pathways of toxicity generated by different particle properties. Therefore, we will establish both lung target cell lines for an in vitro screening to analyze proinflammatory and cytotoxicity effects of nanocarriers. The implementation of the two reference particles facilitate the validated classification of the cytotoxic responses caused by the NPs investigated.

Beyerle, Andrea; Schulz, Holger; Kissel, Thomas; Stoeger, Tobias

2009-02-01

131

Carbohydrate Metabolism in Leaf Meristems of Tall Fescue 1  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to examine alterations in carbohydrate status of leaf meristems that are associated with nitrogen-induced changes in leaf elongation rates of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Dark respiration rates, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates, and soluble proteins were measured in leaf intercalary meristems and adjacent segments of elongating leaves. The two genotypes used differed by 43% in leaf elongation rate. Application of high nitrogen (336 kilograms per hectare) resulted in 140% higher leaf elongation rate when compared to plants receiving low nitrogen (22 kilograms per hectare). Leaf meristems of plants receiving high and low nitrogen had dark respiration rates of 5.4 and 2.9 microliters O2 consumed per milligram structural dry weight per hour, respectively. Concentrations of soluble proteins were lower while concentrations of fructan tended to be slightly higher in leaf meristems of low-nitrogen plants when compared to high-nitrogen plants. Concentrations of reducing sugars, nonreducing sugars, and takadiastase-soluble carbohydrate of leaf meristems were not affected by nitrogen treatment. Total nonstructural carbohydrates of leaf meristems averaged 44 and 39% of dry weight for low- and high-nitrogen plants, respectively. Within the leaf meristem, approximately 74 and 34% of the pool of total nonstructural carbohydrate could be consumed per day in high- and low-nitrogen plants, respectively, assuming no carbohydrate import to the meristem occurred. Plants were able to maintain high concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in leaf meristems despite a 3-fold range in leaf elongation rates, suggesting that carbohydrate synthesis and transport to leaf intercalary meristems may not limit leaf growth of these genotypes. PMID:16663466

Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

1984-01-01

132

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility  

E-print Network

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

Haviland, David

133

Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility  

E-print Network

1 Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility: Weining Wang Office: Brauer rules and procedures (a) Accidents and spills for chemicals Not containing Nano-Materials Spills of non for chemicals Containing Nano-Materials In a fume hood small spills of nano-materials in a liquid may

Subramanian, Venkat

134

Integrated Micro Nano Systems Integrated Micro Nano Systems  

E-print Network

#12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 2 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 3 Val Jones (Ed.) Symposium on Integrated Micro Nano Systems: Convergence of bio and nanotechnologies, Enschede, The Netherlands, June 2006 Micro Nano Systems 4 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 5 Preface In order to explore the convergence

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

135

The effect of endophyte presence on Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue) establishment varies with grassland community structure.  

PubMed

The endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue) may alter host interactions with specific resident species or shift the host's niche. These effects can be quantified by assessing tall fescue responses to, and effects on, the variation among resident species (selection) and resident species interactions (complementarity). To determine how N. coenophialum affects tall fescue, grassland microcosms containing 16 transplants of two, four, or eight resident species were seeded with endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) Kentucky-31 (KY-31) tall fescue. All resident species were also grown in monoculture. Aboveground biomass was harvested 9 weeks after tall fescue was added (18 weeks' total growth). At harvest, more E+ than E- individuals were present and they represented a larger portion of the aboveground biomass across richness treatments, despite similar germination in concurrent trials. Tall fescue individuals were larger in microcosms dominated by more productive resident species (greater selection). In contrast, fewer E-, but not E+, individuals were present in microcosms with more facilitative interactions among the resident species (greater complementarity). E- and E+ tall fescue also affected resident species differently. High-richness E+ microcosms were more diverse and less dominated by productive species (lower selection) than E- microcosms. Thus, E+ KY-31 may more readily establish in, and affect, species-rich, functionally diverse communities as a result of niche shifts during establishment and negative effects on specific resident species. Although results need to be further tested under field conditions, it appears that endophyte presence may only facilitate KY-31 invasion into a limited suite of community types. PMID:24385086

Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Drystek, Emily; Maherali, Hafiz; Newman, Jonathan A

2014-04-01

136

USC Nano Center Poster Session  

E-print Network

USC Nano Center Poster Session 19 April 2002 Nano-scale VLSI Design: A Significant Paradigm Shift The recent progression of events in nano-technology, from nanotubes to nano- transistors, begs a basic will the changes in underlying device materials theory of nano-scale electronics affect ways in which we currently

Davis, James P.

137

Nano-Power Africa Nano-Power Africa  

E-print Network

Nano-Power Africa i Nano-Power Africa 2 Year Project Implementation Plan Technologies The University of Cape Town, South Africa Haramaya University, Ethiopia Kigali Institute of Technology, Rwanda http://www.eng.uc.edu/~gbeaucag/NanoPowerAfrica

Beaucage, Gregory

138

Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.  

PubMed

Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers. PMID:23079410

Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

2012-12-01

139

Recent progress of seismic research on tall buildings in China Mainland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of rapid economic growth and urbanization in the past two decades, many tall buildings have been constructed in China Mainland, offering researchers and practitioners an excellent opportunity for research and practice in the field of structural engineering. This paper reviews progress by researchers throughout China Mainland on the seismic research of tall buildings, focusing on three major topics that impact the seismic performance of tall buildings. These are: (1) new types of steel-concrete composite structural members such as steel-concrete composite shear walls and columns, (2) earthquake resilient shear wall structures such as shear walls with replaceable structural components, self-centering shear walls and rocking walls, and (3) performance-based seismic design, including seismic performance index, performance level and design method. The paper concludes by presenting future research needs and directions in this field.

Lu, Xilin; Jiang, Huanjun

2014-08-01

140

Comparison of Nitrogen Fixation Activity in Tall and Short Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Soils 1  

PubMed Central

A comparison of the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina alterniflora and short S. alterniflora marsh soils was investigated. Zero-order kinetics and first-order kinetics of acetylene reduction were used to describe the activity of the N2 fixers in marsh soil slurries. It was found that the Vmax values were approximately 10 times greater for the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina than in the short Spartina marsh when raffinose was used as the energy source. In addition, the (Ks + Sn) values were approximately 4 to 15 times lower for the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina than in short Spartina marsh. First-order kinetics of nitrogen fixation for several substrates indicate that the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina marsh were two to seven times more active than those in the short Spartina marsh. Ammonium chloride (25 ?g/ml) did not inhibit nitrogen fixation in the tall Spartina marsh, but there was a 50% inhibition in nitrogen fixation in the short Spartina marsh. On the other hand, sodium nitrate inhibited nitrogen fixation almost 100% at 25 ?g/ml in both soil environments. Amino nitrogen (25 to 100 ?g/ml) had little or no effect on nitrogen fixation. The results indicate that the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina marsh were physiologically more responsive to nutrient addition than those in the short Spartina marsh. This difference in the two populations may be related to the difference in daily tidal influence in the respective areas and thus provide another explanation for the enhanced S. alterniflora production in the creek bank soil system. PMID:16345213

Hanson, Roger B.

1977-01-01

141

Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?  

PubMed

Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e.g., herbivory release) or may not be related to this plant-microbial symbiosis. PMID:24497994

Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

2014-01-01

142

Integrating bermudagrass into tall fescue-based pasture systems for stocker cattle.  

PubMed

The daily BW gain of stocker steers grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.]-based pastures typically declines during summer. To avoid these declines, in part to mitigate the effects of tall fescue toxicosis, it is commonly advised to move cattle to warm-season forage during this period. A 3-yr (2006, 2007, and 2008) grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing 25% of the area of a tall fescue/clover (81% endophyte-infected) pasture system with "Ozark" bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] overseeded with clover (Trifolium spp.) to provide summer grazing for stocker steers (TF+BERM). The TF+BERM treatment was compared with a grazing system in which tall fescue/clover (TF) pastures were the only type of forage available for grazing. Our objective was to determine if replacement of 25% of the land area in a fescue system with bermudagrass would increase annual beef production compared with a system based solely on tall fescue. The study was conducted at the Southwest Research and Education Center of the University of Missouri near Mt. Vernon. Each treatment was rotationally stocked with 5 steers (248 ± 19.3 kg) on 1.7 ha. Fertilizer applications were applied at rates recommended for each respective forage species. Total forage production, BW gain per hectare, and season-long ADG of steers was greater (P < 0.06) for TF+BERM than for TF in 2006, but none of these measures differed (P > 0.19) in 2007 or 2008. In vitro true digestibility of pastures was greater (P = 0.01) for TF (84.4%, SEM = 0.64%) compared with TF+BERM (80.6%, SEM = 0.79%), even in summer. The decreased in vitro true digestibility of the bermudagrass pastures likely negated any benefit that animals in TF+BERM had in avoiding the ergot-like alkaloids associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Renovating 25% of the pasture system to bermudagrass provided some benefit to the system in years when summertime precipitation was limited (2006) but provided no value in wetter years (2007 and 2008). Although renovating endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures to a warm-season forage is a widely used practice to mitigate tall fescue toxicosis, the benefits of this practice are limited if forage quality of the warm season component is poor. PMID:21856893

Kallenbach, R L; Crawford, R J; Massie, M D; Kerley, M S; Bailey, N J

2012-01-01

143

654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 43, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2001 Transient Response of a Tall Object to Lightning  

E-print Network

Response of a Tall Object to Lightning Vladimir A. Rakov Abstract--Experimental data showing the transient behavior of tall objects struck by lightning are reviewed. The influence of this transient behavior, illustrated by simple calculations, on measured lightning current and measured remote electromagnetic fields

Florida, University of

144

Nitrogen isotope tracer acquisition in low and tall birch tundra plant communities: a 2 year test of the snowshrub  

E-print Network

Nitrogen isotope tracer acquisition in low and tall birch tundra plant communities: a 2 year test N tracer (15 N) in late summer to control and snowfenced low birch hummock tundra to test the influence of deepened snow on N cycling. Further- more, tracer was added to tall birch tundra to compare N

Grogan, Paul

145

Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

146

EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED VERTICAL DISPERSION IN THE WAKES OF TALL BUILDINGS IN WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF LOWER MANHATTAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Observations of flow and dispersion in urban areas with tall buildings have revealed a phenomenon whereby contaminants can be transported vertically up the lee sides of tall buildings due to the vertical flow in the wake of the building. This phenomenon, which contributes to w...

147

Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte (HM4) that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids, and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

148

Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. II. Uptake and recycling  

E-print Network

Agronomy Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. II. Uptake and recycling of nitrogen in the sward during winter G. Lemaire N. Culleton2 1 INRA Station d showed that autumn nitrogen supply affected the earliness of spring gowth in tall fes- cue (cv. Clarine

Boyer, Edmond

149

Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

Lichota, Malgorzata

2008-01-01

150

Chemical Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Endohyte-Infested Tall Fescue for Improving Steer Weight Gain and Physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the experiment was to de...

151

Chaparral Herbicide Application for Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Tall Fescue Pastures and Possible Alleviation of Fescue Toxicosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seed head emergence in tall fescue. A two-yr grazing experiment is being conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that are either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the...

152

Cattle and pasture responses to poultry and tall fescue-endophyte association in the Southern Piedmont USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue pastures are an important part of the agricultural landscape in the southeastern USA. Tall fescue seed sources with low-ergot-alkaloid-producing strains of Neotyphodium endophyte have raised a number of questions regarding pasture ecology, animal performance, and nutrient cycling. We e...

153

Sustainable nano-catalysis  

EPA Science Inventory

A novel nano-catalyst system which bridges the homogenous and heterogeneous system is described that is cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and requires no need of catalyst filtration during the work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact between r...

154

Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

155

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

2014-06-16

156

Director, Smalley Nano & Energy  

E-print Network

Wade Adams Director, Smalley Institute Nano & Energy: Be A NanoScientist-- Save the World! February of Dallas Board of Councilors December 7, 1995 #12;#12;Oil will become scarce, and then gas at the May 2002 NNI Regional Meeting, Session on Energy and Petrochemicals ­ Rice University #12;G180-Oil

157

Modelization and Simulation of Nano Devices in nano calculus  

E-print Network

Modelization and Simulation of Nano Devices in nano calculus A. Credi1 , M. Garavelli1 , C. Laneve2, Paris Abstract. We develop a process calculus ­ the nano calculus ­ for modeling, analyzing and predicting the properties of molecular devices. The nano calculus is equipped with a simple stochastic model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

Shade tolerance: when growing tall is not an option.  

PubMed

Two different plant strategies exist to deal with shade: shade avoidance and shade tolerance. All shade-exposed plants optimize photosynthesis to adapt to the decrease in light quality and quantity. When shaded, most species in open habitats express the shade-avoidance syndrome, a growth response to escape shade. Shade-tolerant species from forest understories cannot outgrow surrounding trees and adopt a tolerance response. Unlike shade avoidance, virtually nothing is known about regulation of shade tolerance. In this opinion article, we discuss potential modes of molecular regulation to adopt a shade-tolerance rather than a shade-avoidance strategy. We argue that molecular approaches using model and non-model species should help identify the molecular pathways that underpin shade tolerance, thus providing knowledge for further crop improvement. PMID:23084466

Gommers, Charlotte M M; Visser, Eric J W; St Onge, Kate R; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

2013-02-01

159

Microsystems Micro and Nano Technologies  

E-print Network

Microsystems Micro and Nano Technologies Automatic control Networks Dependable computing Robotics and multifunctional micro and nano systems · Micro and nano technologies integrating new functional organic and AI Interaction with life Pervasive Intelligence #12;MINAS MICRO AND NANO SYSTEMS RESEARCH AREA MICRO

Ingrand, François

160

Therapeutic targeting of c-Myc in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-ALL.  

PubMed

T-ALL patients treated with intensive chemotherapy achieve high rates of remission. However, frequent long-term toxicities and relapses into chemotherapy-refractory tumors constitute major clinical challenges which could be met by targeted therapies. c-MYC is a central oncogene in T-ALL, prompting the exploration of the efficacy of MYC inhibitors such as JQ1 (BET-bromodomain inhibitor), and SAHA (HDAC inhibitor). Using a standardized ex vivo drug screening assay, we show here that JQ1 and SAHA show competitive efficiency compared to inhibitors of proteasome, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and NOTCH pathways, and synergize in combination with Vincristine. We also compared for the first time the in vivo relevance of such associations in mice xenografted with human primary T-ALLs. Our data indicate that although treatments combining JQ1 or SAHA with chemotherapeutic regimens might represent promising developments in T-ALL, combinations will need to be tailored to specific subgroups of responsive patients, the profiles of which still remain to be precisely defined. PMID:24930440

Loosveld, Marie; Castellano, Rémy; Gon, Stéphanie; Goubard, Armelle; Crouzet, Thomas; Pouyet, Laurent; Prebet, Thomas; Vey, Norbert; Nadel, Bertrand; Collette, Yves; Payet-Bornet, Dominique

2014-05-30

161

Therapeutic Targeting of c-Myc in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)  

PubMed Central

T-ALL patients treated with intensive chemotherapy achieve high rates of remission. However, frequent long-term toxicities and relapses into chemotherapy-refractory tumors constitute major clinical challenges which could be met by targeted therapies. c-MYC is a central oncogene in T-ALL, prompting the exploration of the efficacy of MYC inhibitors such as JQ1 (BET-bromodomain inhibitor), and SAHA (HDAC inhibitor). Using a standardized ex vivo drug screening assay, we show here that JQ1 and SAHA show competitive efficiency compared to inhibitors of proteasome, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and NOTCH pathways, and synergize in combination with Vincristine. We also compared for the first time the in vivo relevance of such associations in mice xenografted with human primary T-ALLs. Our data indicate that although treatments combining JQ1 or SAHA with chemotherapeutic regimens might represent promising developments in T-ALL, combinations will need to be tailored to specific subgroups of responsive patients, the profiles of which still remain to be precisely defined. PMID:24930440

Goubard, Armelle; Crouzet, Thomas; Pouyet, Laurent; Prebet, Thomas; Vey, Norbert

2014-01-01

162

Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

163

Intake and Digestibility of Improved Selections of Tall Fescue and Orchardgrass Hays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved cool-season grass cultivars may add production potential to ruminant enterprises across the North-South transition zone. Quality among hays of ‘MaxQ’ (‘Jesup’ with novel endophyte), HM4 (‘HiMag’ with novel endophyte number 4) and ‘Cajun’ (without endophyte) tall fescues [Lolium arundinaceum...

164

Current and electromagnetic field associated with lightning-return strokes to tall towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of electric and magnetic fields radiated by lightning first and subsequent return strokes to tall towers is presented. The contributions of the various components of the fields, namely, static, induction, and radiation for the electric field, and induction and radiation for the magnetic field are illustrated and discussed. It is shown in particular that the presence of a

Farhad Rachidi; Wasyl Janischewskyj; Ali M. Hussein; Carlo Alberto Nucci; Silvia Guerrieri; Behzad Kordi; Jen-Shih Chang

2001-01-01

165

Initial stage in lightning initiated from tall objects and in rocket-triggered lightning  

E-print Network

Initial stage in lightning initiated from tall objects and in rocket- triggered lightning M. Miki,1-initiated lightning derived from current measurements on the Gaisberg tower (100 m, Austria), the Peissenberg tower-triggered lightning in Florida. All lightning events analyzed here effectively transported negative charge to ground

Florida, University of

166

Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: The tall Amazon Caatinga forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytomass structure of the evergreen lowland forest vegetation (Tall Amazon Caatinga) supported by tropaquods near San Carlos de Rio Negro, Federal Amazon Territory of Venezuela was studied in 13 10 m× 10 m plots. The plots were laid out subjectively to cover a low topographical gradient along which the forest on tropaquod is grading into a low woodland (Bana,

H. Klinge; R. Herrera

1983-01-01

167

Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of  

E-print Network

SCIENCE INTERNAL SERIES # Ian Jamieson and H. Sydney Easton Published by Department of Conservation P. References 9 #12;4 Jamieson & Easton--Tall fescue-endophytes and takahe reproction on offshore islands Final of Conservation. This paper may be cited as: Jamieson, I.; Sydney Easton, H. 2002: Does a toxic fungal endophyte

Jamieson, Ian

168

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...refined tall oil fatty acids. (b) The additive...Specifications for oleic acid prescribed in the Food...in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...and Drug Administration's Main Library, 10903...html. (2) The resin acid content does not...

2014-04-01

169

75 FR 34936 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard...temporary safety zone on the waters of Lake Michigan within Chicago Harbor, Chicago, Illinois...Grob, U.S. Coast Guard, Sector Lake Michigan, telephone (414)747-7188,...

2010-06-21

170

Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. The objectives of this work were to identify effects from ergot and lolin...

171

NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND RUNOFF FROM ALUM-TREATED BROILER LITTER TALL FESCUE PLOTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land application of poultry litter as fertilizer may lead to impaired surface and ground water quality. An experiment was conducted at Crossville, AL to study the effects of alum [Al2 (SO4)3,14H2O] treatment of broiler litter on the yield and nutrient uptake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) a...

172

Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

173

TALL FESCUE RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES FOLLOWING SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TANNERY WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Field plots were established in 1978 and 1979 on a Willamette sil in western Oregon to evaluate the effects of chrome tannery wastes on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and soil properties. Three rates of waste material were applied each year; N, Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn in so...

174

Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

175

Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Selection Response, and Forage Production of Tall Fescue in Contrasting Environments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) usually correlates with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (water use efficiency) in C3 species, but its heritability and relationship to forage production is less clear. In a four year study of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at Pullman, WA and Ardmo...

176

Reproductive responses to grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue by postpartum beef cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine pregnancy rate and stage of embryonic loss in response to grazing endophyte-free (E-; n = 20) or infected (E+; n = 30) tall fescue in postpartum beef cows with calves. Three weeks before estrus synchronization, cow-calf pairs were introduced to pastures (April 1999). Cows were synchronized and bred by AI after detected estrus for a

J. M. Burke; R. W. Rorie; E. L. Piper; W. G. Jackson

2001-01-01

177

Evaluation of the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vasoconstriction is associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or in concert, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA) and ergovaline (ERV) individua...

178

Soil microbial community function, structure, and glomalin in response to tall fescue endophyte infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and may alter soil microbial communities. A 60-week mesocosm study with a factorial arrangemen...

179

VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 61 CARPENTER SHOP (1911) CENTERBUILDING 43ROPE WAREHOUSE (TALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 61 CARPENTER SHOP (1911) CENTER-BUILDING 43-ROPE WAREHOUSE (TALL BUILDING) (1941) RIGHT-BUILDING 77-HEMP STORAGE (1920) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

180

Grazing evaluation of a novel endophyte tall fescue developed for the upper transition zone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A grazing experiment determined that a late-maturing tall fescue developed by University of Kentucky has potential for grazing in the U.S. upper transition zone. Steers were grazed in a 2-yr experiment using variable stocking rates to compare steer performance and physiology, and forage productivit...

181

Acclimatization of soil respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie  

E-print Network

warming. Indeed, a coupled climate±carbon cycle model by Cox et al. (ref. 2) predicts 8.0 8C of global the interaction of global warming and land-use change. Experimental warming, on average, increased the daily mean respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie Yiqi Luo, Shiqiang Wan, Dafeng Hui & Linda L. Wallace

182

Lightning electromagnetic environment in the presence of a tall grounded strike object  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed and compared distance dependences of electric and magnetic fields due to a lightning strike to a tall object and due to the same lightning strike to flat ground. In both cases, lightning was represented by a transmission line energized by a lumped voltage source connected at the channel attachment point. The resultant total charge transfer to ground

Yoshihiro Baba; Vladimir A. Rakov

2005-01-01

183

Chemotaxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue root extracts against Pratylenchus scribneri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protection against herbivores and insects in the Neotyphodium-tall fescue grass association is provided by toxic secondary metabolites. Root exudates in this relationship contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances released into the soil that are either stimulatory, inhibitory, or inactive...

184

Repressed BMP signaling reactivates NKL homeobox gene MSX1 in a T-ALL subset.  

PubMed

Abstract In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), several members of the NK-like (NKL) homeobox genes are aberrantly expressed. Here, we have analyzed the activity of NKL homeobox gene MSX1 using pediatric T-ALL in silico data, detecting overexpression in 11% of patients. Quantification of MSX1 transcripts in a panel of 24 T-ALL cell lines demonstrated overexpression in two examples. Comparative expression profiling indicated inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, which was shown to inhibit MSX1 transcription. In the LOUCY cell line we identified conspicuous expression of CHRDL1 encoding a BMP inhibitor which mediated activation of MSX1. Promoter analyses demonstrated activation of CHRDL1 by oncogenic PITX1. Furthermore, knockdown and overexpression studies of hematopoietic transcription factors demonstrated that GATA2 and FOXC1 mediate activation and GATA3, LEF1, TAL1 and TOX repression of MSX1 transcription. Collectively, our findings suggest that MSX1 is physiologically restricted to lymphoid progenitors. The identification of deregulated BMP signaling may provide novel therapeutic options for the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:24844359

Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

2015-02-01

185

The effect of flooding on the recruitment of reed marsh and tall forb plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment of plant species in wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis often results in a zonation of two vegetation types. A development of reed marshes takes place in the shallow flooded parts where the dominant P. australis becomes accompanied by interstitial marsh species. The vegetation on higher elevations becomes dominated by tall forbs. We investigated whether this zonation is related to

J. P. M. Lenssen; G. E. ten Dolle; C. W. P. M. Blom

1998-01-01

186

Electromagnetic Fields at the Top of a Tall Building Associated With Nearby Lightning Return Strokes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving Maxwell's equations, the vertical electric field Ez and azimuthal magnetic field Hphi due to lightning return strokes in the presence and in the absence of a building at the field point. Strikes to both flat ground and tall objects of height h = 100, 200, or 500 m are

Yoshihiro Baba; Vladimir A. Rakov

2007-01-01

187

CELL BIOLOGY & MOLECULAR GENETICS Infection of Somatic Embryos of Tall Fescue with Acremonium coenophialum  

E-print Network

coenophialum J. F. Kearney, W. A. Parrott,* and N. S. Hill ABSTRACT The availability of a tall fescue (Festuca in Canada and the southeastern USA (Bacon and Siegel, 1988). It is commonly infected with an endophytic the maternal tissues in the seed and infect the embryo(Bacon and Siegel, 1988). Young seedlings

Parrott, Wayne

188

REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSES AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF RAM LAMBS FED ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of endophyte-infected tall fescue on reproductive development and function and carcass characteristics of ram lambs. Hampshire and Suffolk rams, 214 d of age, were fed individually a diet of endophyte-free (EF; n = 8) or infected (EI; n = 9) ...

189

MILK PRODUCTION IN FOUR DIVERGENT BIOLOGICAL TYPES GRAZING COMMON BERMUDAGRASS OR ENDOPHYTE INFECTED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milk yield and quality were measured on four divergent biological types resulting from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows grazing either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Data were collected over a 4 yr period to evaluate the effect of biological type and forage on milk ...

190

Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

191

Tennessee Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of updates on research projects conducted within Tennessee concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including one with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborations...

192

Member News Nano News Press Releases  

E-print Network

NanoNEWS Member News Nano News Press Releases Nano Global News Nano Reports Nano Conferences", Exploring Matter with Synchrotron Light" and "Exploring Matter with Neutrons" by ordering from here. Nano. Send your Press R Judith.LightFeather@TNTG.org 14 Oct 2006 Researchers develop bistable nano switch

Espinosa, Horacio D.

193

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2010-07-01

194

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2014-07-01

195

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2011-07-01

196

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2013-07-01

197

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2012-07-01

198

Sound of nano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is widely used for imaging, measurement and diagnostics in the MHz region and is perhaps most familiar as a medical or non-destructive imaging or measurement tool. In the MHz frequency range the wavelength is typically measured in microns and is many times longer than the wavelength of visible light, limiting its resolution to objects much larger than the nano-scale. It is possible to perform ultrasonic imaging and measurement at much higher frequencies, in the GHz region. Here the acoustic wavelength is typically less than that of light permitting the higher resolutions than optical microscopy and the ability to probe micro and nano-scale objects. At these high frequencies ultrasonics has much to offer the nano-world as a powerful diagnostic tool: it could be used in circumstances where optical microscopy, electron microscopy and probe microscopy cannot, such as inside living objects. Despite the potential that ultrasonics offers for imaging and measurement at the micro and nano-scale, performing ultrasonics at the nano-scale is hampered by many problems that render the techniques typically used in the MHz region impractical. In this paper we discuss some of the practical problems standing in the way of nano-ultrasonics and some of the solutions, especially the use of pico-second laser ultrasonics and the development of nano-ultrasonic transducers and their application to ultrasonic imaging inside living cells.

Aylott, Jon; Clark, Matt; Marques, Leonel; Perez-Cota, Fernando; Smith, Richard J.; Webb, Kevin F.

2013-12-01

199

Poor Response to Standard Chemotherapy in Early T-precursor (ETP)-ALL: A Subtype of T-ALL Associated with Unfavourable Outcome: A Brief Report.  

PubMed

Early T-precursor (ETP)-ALL, a type of T-ALL, is a new pathobiologic entity with distinct immunophenotype (CD1a(-), CD8(-), CD5(weak/absent) with stem-cell/myeloid markers) and genetic expression, poor response to standard intensive chemotherapy and very high risk of relapse. The genetic mutations typically associated with the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia are seen with increased prevalence in ETP-ALL. No Indian data exists regarding this rare entity. Recently we have seen six cases of ETP-ALL and hereby reporting their clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. All patients were given induction chemotherapy according to standard protocols. Only one out of six patients could achieve remission after induction therapy. Rest five patients died because of their leukemia. This reflects the aggressive biology of this disease and its poor response to standard chemotherapy regimens generally used in T-ALL. The limited experience with ETP-ALL reflects whether rarity of this condition or failure to recognize this is not clear at this time. More studies are required to understand the basic biology of this disease and new therapeutic strategies need to be devised. PMID:25435716

Iqbal, Nida; Sharma, Atul; Raina, Vinod; Kumar, Lalit; Bakhshi, Sameer; Kumar, Rajive; Gajendra, Smeeta

2014-12-01

200

PREFACE: Nano and microfluidics Nano and microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety

Karin Jacobs

2011-01-01

201

Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.  

PubMed

In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P < 0.01) than those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. As allocation of stockpiled tall fescue increased from 2.25 to 4.50% of cow-calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P < 0.01) from 84 +/- 7% to 59 +/- 7%. During phase 1 of both years, cow BW losses increased linearly (P < 0.02) as forage allocations decreased, although the losses in yr 1 were almost double (P < 0.01) those in yr 2. During phases 2 and 3, few differences were noted across treatment groups, such that by the end of phase 3, cow BW in all treatments did not differ either year (P > 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P < 0.01) with forage allocation (y = 0.063x + 0.513; R(2) = 0.91). However, calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as stockpiled tall fescue allocations increased (y = -26.5x + 212; R(2) = 0.97) such that gain per hectare for cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P < 0.01) than for those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. Allocating cow-calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized. PMID:18073276

Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

2008-03-01

202

MR imaging techniques for nano-pathophysiology and theranostics.  

PubMed

The advent of nanoparticle DDSs (drug delivery systems, nano-DDSs) is opening new pathways to understanding physiology and pathophysiology at the nanometer scale. A nano-DDS can be used to deliver higher local concentrations of drugs to a target region and magnify therapeutic effects. However, interstitial cells or fibrosis in intractable tumors, as occurs in pancreatic or scirrhous stomach cancer, tend to impede nanoparticle delivery. Thus, it is critical to optimize the type and size of nanoparticles to reach the target. High-resolution 3D imaging provides a means of "seeing" the nanoparticle distribution and therapeutic effects. We introduce the concept of "nano-pathophysiological imaging" as a strategy for theranostics. The strategy consists of selecting an appropriate nano-DDS and rapidly evaluating drug effects in vivo to guide the next round of therapy. In this article we classify nano-DDSs by component carrier materials and present an overview of the significance of nano-pathophysiological MRI. PMID:24787226

Bennett, Kevin M; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Cabral, Horacio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Aoki, Ichio

2014-07-01

203

Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.  

PubMed

A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41mgkg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45mgkg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. PMID:25534968

Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

2015-03-21

204

Use of Computer Simulation to Reduce the Energy Consumption in a Tall Office Building in Dubai-UAE  

E-print Network

Use of Computer Simulation to Reduce the Energy Consumption in a Tall Office Building in Dubai-UAE Moana Abu-Dakka Bassam Abu-Hijleh Senior Architect, AI Engineering SRL Atkins Chair, Faculty of Engineering Abu Dhabi...

Abu-Hijleh, B.; Abu-Dakka, M.

2010-01-01

205

Simulation of lightning attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of lightning waveforms are important in taking protective measures against it. However, many of these characteristics cannot be measured. This paper employs a mathematical model of lightning currents to write a software package to simulate all manner of lightning flashes. The capabilities available to us through this are demonstrated by extracting the behavior of lightning waveforms following attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft.

Ratnamahilan, P.; Hoole, P. (Univ. of Technology, Lae (Papua New Guinea). Dept. of Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering); Ratnajeevan, S.; Hoole, H. (Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering)

1993-04-01

206

The investigation of growing and using of tall perennial grasses as energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper provides the results of tests on tall-growing perennial grass biomass suitability for use as fuel, as well as findings on the energy potential of swards and energy efficiency of biofuel production from herbaceous plants.The tests were carried out for 3 years. Eight swards differing in species composition were grown. Two of them consisted of pure rhizomatous grasses—reed

Algirdas Jasinskas; Algirdas Zaltauskas; Aldona Kryzeviciene

2008-01-01

207

Seismic isolation technique for extra tall bushing of GIS using a pendulum type counterweight  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the authors` investigation here is to adopt the seismic isolation technique by using a pendulum type counterweight as a new approach for seismic qualification of the extra tall bushing of Gas-Insulated-Substations. It has been definitely shown by the results of numerical simulation of this isolation type bushing that the stress of the lower end of bushing can be effectively reduced to about 50% as compared with non-isolated case.

Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tomisawa, Masao; Murase, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

1995-12-31

208

Estimating daytime CO2 fluxes over a mixed forest from tall tower mixing ratio measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in estimating terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes on regional scales have significantly limited our understanding of the global carbon cycle. This paper presents an effort to estimate daytime CO2 fluxes over a forested region on the scale of 50 km in northern Wisconsin, USA, using the tall-tower-based mixed layer (ML) budget method. Budget calculations were conducted for 2 years under

Weiguo Wang; Kenneth J. Davis; Bruce D. Cook; Chuixiang Yi; Martha P. Butler; Daniel M. Ricciuto; Peter S. Bakwin

2007-01-01

209

Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.  

PubMed

Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental, larch-dominated ecotones of central and eastern Siberia. PMID:24115456

Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

2014-04-01

210

Air and water pollution control in crude tall oil manufacture in the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution preventive measures should be built into the process when a new mill is designed; corrective measures must be taken\\u000a on existing mills. For air pollution control, these measures consist essentially of enclosing all vessels that contain the\\u000a black liquor from which the tall oil is recovered. Hoods are placed over storage tanks, sumps, heat exchangers, and other\\u000a liquor-containing vessels.

J. P. Krumbein; A. B. Adams

1973-01-01

211

Synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched alkyd resins based on tall oil fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperbranched alkyd resins (HBRA) were synthesized from fourth generation hydroxylated hyperbranched polyester (HBP1–4) and tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) using acid catalysis. Different molar ratio of HBP1–4 and TOFA were used. Iodine values increased with the TOFA content. TOFA characteristic –HCCH– bonds were detected in the infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. Average molar mass number (Mn) and weight average

Edwin A. Murillo; Pedro P. Vallejo; Betty L. López

2010-01-01

212

Separation of fatty acid methyl esters from tall oil by selective adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and resin acids (RA) were separated from tall oil by selective adsorption. Commercial nonmodified\\u000a molecular sieve 13X was used as adsorbent. The adsorption isotherms of fatty acids (FA), FAME, and RA on molecular sieve 13X\\u000a at 25°C were determined using various solvents. The solvents were methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, benzene, hexane,\\u000a isooctane, petroleum ether (40–60°C),

Güldem Üstün

1996-01-01

213

Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA–WPT). In addition, fumes from

Hanna K. Lindberg; Virpi Väänänen; Hilkka Järventaus; Satu Suhonen; Jonas Nygren; Mervi Hämeilä; Jarkko Valtonen; Pirjo Heikkilä; Hannu Norppa

2008-01-01

214

Relative roles of different-sized herbivores and plant-plant interactions in tall shrub tundra vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tall shrubs play important roles in the ecology of Arctic tundra ecosystems, including support of high shrub-associated biodiversity and regulation of a range of ecosystem processes. Tall shrub patches and herbaceous vegetation surrounding them often form a two-state vegetation mosaic. Such tall shrub tundra vegetation is an important locus for current vegetation changes in the Arctic. Both abiotic and biotic drivers are known to influence the shrub component. However, although expansion of the shrub state has received much focus lately, relative strengths of the multiple drivers of vegetation state are currently not fully understood. We investigated the role of herbivory relative to temperature and relative to plant-plant interactions, conducting a field survey and experimental studies at large spatial scales in riparian tall shrub tundra in Norway. We found both summer temperatures and summer grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) to affect tall shrub distribution and expansion potential. Furthermore, we found strong and rapid shrub growth change in response to abundance of key arctic herbivores; small rodents. Finally, we quantified the relative importance of neighboring plants and both herbivore types to recruiting tall shrubs. The previously unforeseen rate at which tall shrub tundra responded to altered herbivore pressures further exemplifies its central role in the tundra ecosystems, promoting tall shrub tundra as a bell-whether of change with respect to both abiotic and biotic drivers. While many of the results clearly relate to herbivory, neighboring plants or climate as drivers, some variation remains unexplained warranting future research focus on this highly dynamic part of the tundra ecosystem. Our results suggest that spatially variable biotic interactions are likely to modify forcing by climate, calling for an ecosystem approach when studying change in tundra ecosystems.

Ravolainen, Virve; Ims, Rolf; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Stien, Audun; Kollstrøm, Julie; Lægreid, Eiliv; Bråthen, Kari Anne

2013-04-01

215

Direct Nano-Patterning With Nano-Optic Devices  

E-print Network

In this study nano-patterning was carried out using two different nano-optic devices namely- the NSOM and Fresnel zone plate. In the first study, NSOM was used to generate nano-patterns on selected semiconducting (Si and Ge) and metallic (Cr, Cu...

Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

2011-08-08

216

Notch3/Jagged1 Circuitry Reinforces Notch Signaling and Sustains T-ALL12  

PubMed Central

Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC–overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

2014-01-01

217

Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress  

PubMed Central

Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+?plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+?and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+?than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

2013-01-01

218

Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.  

PubMed

The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils. PMID:24912220

Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

2014-01-01

219

Tall gastrodis tuber combined with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in focal epilepsy  

PubMed Central

One hundred patients with focal epilepsy were recruited for the present study and their seizures controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The patients then orally received a capsule of tall gastrodis tuber powder, a traditional Chinese drug, and underwent single photon emission computed tomography, long-term electroencephalogram, and CT/MRI. Blood drug levels were monitored throughout the study. Before treatment with tall gastrodis tuber, 35 of the 100 cases had abnormal CT/MRI scans; 79 cases had abnormal single photon emission computed tomography images; 86 cases had abnormal electroencephalogram; and a total of 146 abnormal perfusion foci were observed across the 100 subjects. After treatment, the number of patients with normal single photon emission computed tomography images increased by 12; normal electroencephalogram was observed in an additional 27 cases and the number of patients with epileptiform discharge decreased by 29 (34% of 86); the total number of abnormal perfusion foci decreased by 52 (36%) and changes in abnormal foci were visible in 65 patients. These changes indicate that the administration of tall gastrodis tuber in combination with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in patients with focal epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that traditional Chinese drugs can repair abnormal perfusion foci and, as such, are a promising new pathway in the treatment of focal epilepsy. PMID:25206590

Wang, Weimin; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yongqin; Yang, Yuxia; Liu, Yaqing; Dang, Xiaoli; Song, Wenjun; Wu, Yinping; Ye, Jiang

2013-01-01

220

NanoSail-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "NanoSail-D" mission is currently scheduled for launch onboard a Falcon-1 Launch Vehicle in the early June 2008 timeframe. The NanoSail-D spacecraft will consist of a solar sail subsystem stowed in a 2U volume and a 1U spacecraft bus, provided by Ames Research Center. The primary objectives of the NanoSail-D technology demonstration mission are to fabricate, stow and deploy on-orbit a solar sail and perform a de-orbit maneuver to demonstrate a potential orbital debris mitigation technology. The NanoSail-D mission is being developed through a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the NASA Ames Research Center Small Spacecraft Office. Details of the NanoSail-D system will be presented, including: 1) design details of the solar sail reflective membrane quadrants, gossamer booms, deployment system and passive attitude control system, 2) design analysis results including structural, thermal, environmental, orbital debris and safety, and 3) test results including deployment, ascent venting, launch vibration and PPOD integration verification.

Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Adams, Charles L.

2008-01-01

221

Simple analytical strategy for MALDI-TOF-MS and nanoUPLC-MS/MS: Quantitating curcumin in food condiments and dietary supplements and screening of acrylamide-induced ROS protein indicators reduced by curcumin.  

PubMed

Curcumin is the major active ingredient of turmeric and is widely used as a preservative, flavouring and colouring agent. Curcumin is a potent substance with several functions, including antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antimutagenic, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been used to analyse various molecules (including natural antioxidants). This study established an expeditious method that couples MALDI-TOF-MS with a simple dilution method to quantify curcumin in food condiments and dietary supplements. The linear range of curcumin detection ranged from 1 to 100?g/mL. In further experiments, liver cells were treated with curcumin after exposure to acrylamide. Nano ultra performance liquid chromatographic system (nanoUPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to evaluate the potential proteins and protein modifications induced by acrylamide. The results indicate that curcumin reduces the effects of reactive oxygen species induced by acrylamide. PMID:25529721

Huang, Yu-Shu; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Lu, Chi-Yu

2015-05-01

222

What is Nano-Infusion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Nano-Link describes Nano-Infusion. This program "promotes integration and inclusion of nanoscale concepts into high school and college level education." Teachers are encouraged to join the free program to obtain training, support, and nano-related supplies that will aid in introducing nano experiments into their classrooms. To join the program, applicants merely need to create an account on the Nan-Link website and complete and introductory survey.

223

Genome-wide SNP identification in multiple morphotypes of allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb)  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide essential tools for the advancement of research in plant genomics, and the development of SNP resources for many species has been accelerated by the capabilities of second-generation sequencing technologies. The current study aimed to develop and use a novel bioinformatic pipeline to generate a comprehensive collection of SNP markers within the agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue; an outbreeding allopolyploid species displaying three distinct morphotypes: Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous. Results A bioinformatic pipeline was developed that successfully identified SNPs within genotypes from distinct tall fescue morphotypes, following the sequencing of 414 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – generated amplicons using 454 GS FLX technology. Equivalent amplicon sets were derived from representative genotypes of each morphotype, including six Continental, five Mediterranean and one rhizomatous. A total of 8,584 and 2,292 SNPs were identified with high confidence within the Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes respectively. The success of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated through validation (at a rate of 70%) of a subset of 141 SNPs using both SNaPshot™ and GoldenGate™ assay chemistries. Furthermore, the quantitative genotyping capability of the GoldenGate™ assay revealed that approximately 30% of the putative SNPs were accessible to co-dominant scoring, despite the hexaploid genome structure. The sub-genome-specific origin of each SNP validated from Continental tall fescue was predicted using a phylogenetic approach based on comparison with orthologous sequences from predicted progenitor species. Conclusions Using the appropriate bioinformatic approach, amplicon resequencing based on 454 GS FLX technology is an effective method for the identification of polymorphic SNPs within the genomes of Continental and Mediterranean tall fescue. The GoldenGate™ assay is capable of high-throughput co-dominant SNP allele detection, and minimises the problems associated with SNP genotyping in a polyploid by effectively reducing the complexity to a diploid system. This SNP collection may now be refined and used in applications such as cultivar identification, genetic linkage map construction, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in tall fescue. The bioinformatic pipeline described here represents an effective general method for SNP discovery within outbreeding allopolyploid species. PMID:22672128

2012-01-01

224

Highly surfaced polypyrrole nano-networks and nano-fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-networks and nano-fibers were synthesized using interfacial and template polymerization techniques, respectively. The morphology of the PPy nano-networks showed that a homogeneous, three-dimensionally grown nano-fibers were produced. Dodecyl sulfonate was used as surfactant in the interfacial polymerization. Bulk conductivity of PPy nano-networks were in a range of 10?1–10?4 S\\/cm with a surface area of ca. 480 m2\\/g. Template synthesis produced one-directional

Muge Acik; Canan Baristiran; Gursel Sonmez

2006-01-01

225

Using Virtual Tall Tower [CO2] Data in Inverse Models to Reduce Uncertainty in Global and Regional Estimates of Carbon Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies in optimization of carbon observing networks considered any global grid cell as eligible for selection as a measurement site. In reality, measurement of mean CO2 over highly variable terrestrial regions is very impractical and expensive. A global network of eddy covariance flux towers already exists where continuous measurements of CO2 are taken, as well as measurements of sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). If the CO2 measurements were calibrated, these surface layer values could be extrapolated to the mixed-layer using similarity theory providing a means to sample the continental mixed-layer for use in global inversions to further constrain the carbon budget. We show that with this method for estimating the mid-day continental boundary layer [CO2] from calibrated [CO2] and eddy covariance measurements at flux towers, a network of "virtual tall towers" can be readily implemented using existing infrastructure and minimal additional instrumentation. Using the TransCom3 experimental protocol, sites where high-frequency timeseries were saved from the forward runs of 12 transport models were used as eligible sites for possible global networks. The fluxes were optimized to fit the monthly mean of mid-day values by sub-sampling the global fields during the afternoon only, when this method works best. A genetic algorithm was used to determine which existing measurement sites should be grouped together in a network that can most reduce the root mean square uncertainty on estimates of carbon flux. The algorithm evolves the most "fit" population of flux tower sites by comparing and prioritizing them according to their performance in the inversions. A global and North American experiment were performed to determine which ten or five towers should be implemented first as virtual tall towers. In the global selection of ten towers, the algorithm selected four sites in North, Central, and South America in the strong flux areas of the tropics and eastern US. Two towers were selected in southern Europe, even though Europe has a dense network, to constrain the regions of North and South Africa. Two towers were selected in Thailand and two in Japan to constrain Temperate and Boreal Asia, respectively. In the North American experiment, the optimal network selected five sites located in North Carolina, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee, and Maryland. Overall, the strategies of bracketing the main flux areas and making observations through a gradient of fluxes didn't work well in the TransCom3 inversions. The best virtual tall tower networks emphasized placement of measuring sites in and just downwind of strong fluxes.

Skidmore, J.; Denning, A.; Gurney, K. R.; Davis, K. J.; Rayner, P. J.

2003-12-01

226

Nano Ice Cream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity/demo, learners discover how liquid nitrogen cools a creamy mixture at such a rapid rate that it precipitates super fine grained (nano) ice cream. This is a fun (and tasty!) way for learners to discover the nanoworld! Note: this activity should be conducted by adults only.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2014-06-04

227

Nano-Satellite Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

Culver, Harry

1999-01-01

228

Growing tall-grass energy crops on sewage effluent spray field at Tallahassee, FL  

SciTech Connect

Six tall tropical grasses, N-51, PI 300086, and Merkeron elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and US 72-1153, US 56-9 and L 79-1002 energy cane (Saccharum sp.) and Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were planted on the sewage effluent spray field of the city of Tallahassee, FL on January 6, 1993. Effluent with a total N content of 18 mg/1 was applied at the average rate of about 65 mm per week. In 1993, the plants grew well but we had difficulty with irrigation not reaching the experimental area during a drought. Seasonal dry matter biomass from Merkeron, PI 300086 and N-51 elephantgrass was 16.0, 18.2 and 16.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, and for L79-1002, US 72-1153 and US 56-9 energy canes was 22.6, 13.0 and 6.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, respectively. The second season all the grasses had excellent growth during season but, cattle broke in and harvested plots for us. In 1995 plots were split and low and high fertilizer rates applied. The average dry matter biomass production for 1995 season over the surviving five tropical tall grasses remaining was 28.7 Mg ha{sup -1} at low fertilizer rate and 32.2 Mg ha{sup -1} at high fertilizer rate. The annual oven dry biomass yields were 3 5.3, 34.8 and 27.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the elephantgrass entries, Merkeron, N-51 and PI 300086 and 28.7 and 25.8 Mg ha{sup -1} for US 72-1153 and L79-1002 energy canes, respectively. All grass plants suffered N deficiency each winter and spring until N fertilizer was applied. The tall grass energy crops can be successfully grown on sewage effluent fields of cities in Lower South, USA.

Prine, G.M.; McConnell, W.V. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

229

Invasive and native tall forms of Spartina alterniflora respond differently to nitrogen availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to compare various plant traits of native and invasive conspecifics of the tall form of Spartina alterniflora to test the genetic shift hypothesis, which predicts that due to genetic differences invasive plants may have different performance. We conducted a controlled experiment with six populations of the tall form of S. alterniflora: three transported from its introduced range in Jiangsu Province, China, and three from its native range in Georgia, USA. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and subjected to one of two levels of nitrogen availability for several months. Growth, biomass accumulation, biomass allocation, and photosynthetic and morphological traits, as well as the corresponding trait plasticities, were measured and compared between the populations. Nitrogen addition significantly affected individual traits of both invasive Jiangsu and native Georgia S. alterniflora populations, with invasive populations having stronger responses to nitrogen addition in RGR, total biomass, total leaf number (TLN), total leaf area (TLA) and maximum culm height (MxCH) than native populations according to the results of both reaction norms and the relative distance plasticity index (RDPI). Invasive S. alterniflora was more vigorous than its native conspecific as shown by greater total biomass and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax). Several morphological traits (MxCH, TLN and LAR) and most of the biomass allocation traits of invasive populations were found to differ from native populations. Our results indicated probable genetic shifts in plant traits in the introduced populations relative to the native populations of the tall form of S. alterniflora. Such genetic shifts may play a vital role in their success as invasive plants.

Qing, Hua; Yao, Yihan; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Fengqin; Sun, Yixiang; Zhou, Changfang; An, Shuqing

2011-01-01

230

Feedbacks between tall shrubland development and active layer temperatures in northwest Siberian arctic tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost soils are a globally significant carbon store, but changes in permafrost thermal regime observed in recent decades across much of the Arctic suggest that permafrost carbon balance is likely to change with continued climate warming. Critical to changes in permafrost carbon balance in a warmer world, however, are feedbacks between changes in the composition and density of surface vegetation, and the thermal state of permafrost. Shrub expansion has been widely observed in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, but the magnitude and direction of shrub-induced impacts to permafrost temperature and stability remain poorly understood. Here we evaluate changes to active layer properties and thermal regime that occur during tall shrubland development (shrubs > 1.5 m height) within a northwest Siberian landscape dominated by well-developed, small-scale patterned ground features (e.g., non-sorted circles). We measured the annual time-series of soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm depth, and the structural attributes of vegetation at patterned-ground microsites across four stages of tall shrubland development: low-growing tundra lacking erect shrubs, newly-developed shrublands, mature shrublands, and paludified shrublands. Mean summer soil temperatures declined with increasing shrub cover and moss thickness, but winter soil temperatures increased with shrub development. Shrubland development strongly attenuated cryoturbation, promoting the establishment of complete vegetation cover and the development of a continuous organic mat. Increased vegetation cover, in turn, led to further reduced cryoturbation and an aggrading permafrost table. These observations indicate that tall shrub expansion that is now occurring in patterned-ground landscapes of the northwest Siberian Arctic may buffer permafrost from atmospheric warming, and increase carbon storage in these systems at least in the short term.

Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.

2013-12-01

231

Protein micro- and nano-capsules for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Micro- and nano-scale systems have emerged as important tools for developing clinically useful drug delivery systems. In this tutorial review, we discuss the exploitation of biomacromolecules for this purpose, focusing on proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides and mixtures thereof as potential building blocks for novel drug delivery systems. We focus on the mechanisms of formation of micro- and nano-scale protein-based capsules and shells, as well as on the functionalization of such structures for use in targeted delivery of bioactive materials. We summarise existing methods for protein-based capsule synthesis and functionalization and highlight future challenges and opportunities for delivery strategies based on biomacromolecules. PMID:24336689

Shimanovich, Ulyana; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Knowles, T P J; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2014-03-01

232

Nano-Machines Achieve Huge Mechanical Breakthrough  

E-print Network

NANO TECH Nano-Machines Achieve Huge Mechanical Breakthrough Dublin, Ireland (SPX) Sep 08, 2005 that use molecular 'nano'-machines of this kind to help perform physical tasks. Nano-machines could also owners set to return to battered Orleans l Six dead, two missing after heavy rains hit Page 1 of 3Nano

Leigh, David A.

233

Self-Organization Nano-Computation  

E-print Network

Self-Organization for Nano-Computation and Nano-Assembly Bruce J. MacLennan Dept. of Computer Science University of Tennessee, Knoxville #12;6 March 2007 Self-Organization for Nano- Computation & Nano, or ­ inspired by that occurring in nature formal material #12;6 March 2007 Self-Organization for Nano

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

234

Oncogenic activation of the Notch1 gene by deletion of its promoter in Ikaros-deficient T-ALL  

PubMed Central

The Notch pathway is frequently activated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs). Of the Notch receptors, Notch1 is a recurrent target of gain-of-function mutations and Notch3 is expressed in all T-ALLs, but it is currently unclear how these receptors contribute to T-cell transformation in vivo. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch3 in T-ALL progression by a genetic approach, in mice bearing a knockdown mutation in the Ikaros gene that spontaneously develop Notch-dependent T-ALL. While deletion of Notch3 has little effect, T cell–specific deletion of floxed Notch1 promoter/exon 1 sequences significantly accelerates leukemogenesis. Notch1-deleted tumors lack surface Notch1 but express ?-secretase–cleaved intracellular Notch1 proteins. In addition, these tumors accumulate high levels of truncated Notch1 transcripts that are caused by aberrant transcription from cryptic initiation sites in the 3? part of the gene. Deletion of the floxed sequences directly reprograms the Notch1 locus to begin transcription from these 3? promoters and is accompanied by an epigenetic reorganization of the Notch1 locus that is consistent with transcriptional activation. Further, spontaneous deletion of 5? Notch1 sequences occurs in approximately 75% of Ikaros-deficient T-ALLs. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the oncogenic activation of the Notch1 gene after deletion of its main promoter. PMID:20829372

Jeannet, Robin; Mastio, Jérôme; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Oravecz, Attila; Ashworth, Todd; Geimer Le Lay, Anne-Solen; Jost, Bernard; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Ghysdael, Jacques; Gridley, Thomas; Honjo, Tasuku; Radtke, Freddy; Aster, Jon C.; Kastner, Philippe

2010-01-01

235

Measurement of property relationships of nano-structure micelles and coacervates of asphaltene in a pure solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made some progress in studies towards formation and measurement of the behavior of asphaltene micelles nano-structures that might be formed to serve as elements of nano-materials and also on synthetic strategies for creating such structures. An investigation of the micellization and coacervation measurements of asphaltenes in polar solvents at various concentrations and temperatures are made. The critical micellization

Slamet Priyanto; G. Ali Mansoori; Aryadi Suwono

2001-01-01

236

Building Tall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 2 of PDF), young learners investigate how a wide base can make a building more stable. Learners use blocks or boxes of different sizes to construct stable towers. Learners will compare and contrast different structures, document their observations, experiment with different materials, and conduct stability tests. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Curious George's Home for Pigeons." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

PBS Kids

2006-01-01

237

Nano-Enlightenment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nanotechnology Undergraduate Education (NUE) program entitled, "Nano-Enlightenment," at Drexel University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department will develop thematic groups of multi-week modules to be 'embedded within' Drexel's interdisciplinary set of freshman and sophomore courses. The themes will be nano-oriented, each theme spanning multiple courses within a given academic quarter, to examine an aspect of nanotechnology from a truly multi-disciplinary aspect and imbue the students with a sense of the all-pervasiveness of nanoscience throughout their chosen discipline. On this site, visitors will find more information about the project team, modules and laboratory activities for students to experience nanotechnology first hand, and the ENGR102 Lego Mindstorm Nanobot Project, in which students design a robot to find cancerous cells and deliver targeted drugs to them.

2008-10-30

238

Alkaloid levels in Duncecap (Delphinium occidentale) and Tall larkspur (D. barbeyi) grown in reciprocal gardens: separating genetic from environmental influences.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in toxicity between Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) and Duncecap larkspur (D. occidentale) were genetically inherent within the species, or due to environmental influences unique to the different regions where they grow. There was no difference in the concentration of the toxic alkaloids between the two species when grown in common gardens. However, both species had higher concentration of toxic alkaloids when grown in the southern Rocky Mountain region which is characterized by summer monsoonal thunderstorms, compared to summer drought in the north. In a unique occurrence where Duncecap larkspur grew beside Tall larkspur, toxic alkaloids were very low in Duncecap larkspur, but total alkaloid concentration was often higher than in Tall larkspur. PMID:11106839

Ralphs; Gardner

2001-02-01

239

Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

NONE

1997-03-01

240

Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).  

PubMed

90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil. PMID:24383577

Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

2014-01-21

241

Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

2012-01-01

242

?-Catenin activation synergizes with Pten loss and Myc overexpression in Notch-independent T-ALL.  

PubMed

Wnt signaling is important for T-cell differentiation at the early CD4(-)CD8(-) stage and is subsequently downregulated with maturation. To assess the importance of this downregulation, we generated a mouse line (R26-?cat) in which high levels of active ?-catenin are maintained throughout T-cell development. Young R26-?cat mice show a differentiation block at the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) stage. These DP cells exhibit impaired apoptosis upon irradiation or dexamethasone treatment. All R26-?cat mice develop T-cell leukemias at 5 to 6 months of age. R26-?cat leukemias remain dependent on ?-catenin function but lack Notch pathway activation. They exhibit recurrent secondary genomic rearrangements that lead to Myc overexpression and loss of Pten activity. Because ?-catenin activation and Myc translocations were previously found in murine T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) deficient for Pten, our results suggest that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway is associated with a subtype of Notch-independent T-ALLs that bear Myc gene rearrangements and Pten mutations. PMID:23801632

Kaveri, Deepika; Kastner, Philippe; Dembélé, Doulaye; Nerlov, Claus; Chan, Susan; Kirstetter, Peggy

2013-08-01

243

CALM-AF10+ TALL expression profiles are characterized by overexpression of HOXA and BMI1 oncogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The t(10;11)(p13;q14–21) is found in T-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia and fuses CALM (Clathrin-Assembly protein-like Lymphoid-Myeloid leukaemia gene) to AF10. In order to gain insight into the transcriptional consequences of this fusion, microarray-based comparison of CALM-AF10+ vs CALM-AF10? T-ALL was performed. This analysis showed upregulation of HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10 and BMI1 in the CALM-AF10+ cases. Microarray results were validated by

W A Dik; W Brahim; C Braun; V Asnafi; N Dastugue; O A Bernard; J J M van Dongen; A W Langerak; E A Macintyre; E Delabesse

2005-01-01

244

PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al, Uhlmann et al and articles to be published in a later issue by Bäumchen and Jacobs, Walz et al). Moreover, simulations accounted for these new phenomena (see articles in this issue by Leonforte et al, Hyväaluoma et al, Varnik et al, Chelakkot et al, Litvinov et al and the article to be published in a later issue by Boettcher et al), since commercial software packages typically override these special yet fundamentally new conditions. For future applications, the know-how can be used, for instance, to manipulate particles or molecules in microfluidic systems (see articles in this issue by Nottebrock et al, Straube, Uhlmann et al and the article to be published in a later issue by Boettcher et al). The articles have been divided into four subsections: 'Probing the boundary condition', 'Flow over or in special geometries', 'Soft objects in fluid flow' and 'Manipulating flow'. Many articles, however, cover more than only one aspect and could easily be listed under one of the other subsections. Three articles, two listed in the section 'Probing the boundary condition' and one listed in 'Manipulating flow', could not be included and will be published in a later issue (Bäumchen and Jacobs, Walz et al, Boettcher et al). The collection of studies gives a comprehensive overview of what has been achieved to 'bridge the gap between molecular motion and continuum flow', which was the mission of the programme and which will now form a sound platform for continuative studies. References [1] Bowtell D D 1999 Nature Genet. 21 25 [2] Lion N et al 2003 Electrophoresis 24 3533 [3] Weston A D and Hood L 2004 J. Proteome Res. 3 179 [4] Li D 2004 Microfluidics Nanofluidics 1 1 Nano- and microfluidics contents Impact of slippage on the morphology and stability of a dewetting rim Andreas Münch and Barbara Wagner Nanoscale discontinuities at the boundary of flowing liquids: a look into structure Max Wolff, Philipp Gutfreund, Adrian Rühm, Bulent Akgun and Hartmut Zabel Capillary waves of compressible fluids Kerstin Falk and Klaus Mecke Wetting, roughness and flow boundary conditions O

Jacobs, Karin

2011-05-01

245

Performance and physiology of yearling steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroidal horomones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) adversely affect cattle weight gain and physiology. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) KY-31 tall fescue for 77 days in 2007 and sixty steers were grazed for 86 ...

246

Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a Common Tall Fescue Genotype iN. s. Hill,* W.A. Parrott, and D. D. Pope  

E-print Network

Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a Common Tall Fescue Genotype iN. s. Hill,* W Battista, 1990); however, the endophyte also pro- duces ergopeptine alkaloids, which are responsible consuming tall rescue herbage. Recent investi- .gations in which ergopeptine alkaloids were infused

Parrott, Wayne

247

46 CFR 32.55-20 - Venting of cargo tanks of tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951-T/ALL. 32.55-20 Section 32.55-20 Shipping...tankships constructed on or after July 1, 1951—T/ALL. (a) Venting required. (1) On all tankships, the construction or...

2010-10-01

248

632 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 49, NO. 3, AUGUST 2007 Electromagnetic Fields at the Top of a Tall Building  

E-print Network

than 100 m. In order to optimize lightning protection means of tall buildings in such an area Fields at the Top of a Tall Building Associated With Nearby Lightning Return Strokes Yoshihiro Baba and azimuthal magnetic field H due to lightning return strokes in the presence and in the absence of a building

Florida, University of

249

Magnetic Nano-Materials: Truly Sustainable Green Chemistry Nano Catalysis  

EPA Science Inventory

We envisioned a novel nano-catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system, and simultaneously be cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and possibly does not require elaborate work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact betw...

250

Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures using a nano x-ray shadow mask  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures (HAR-nano structures) using a nano x-ray shadow mask and deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The nano x-ray shadow mask is fabricated by depositing an x-ray absorber layer (Au, 3 µm) onto the back side of a nano shadow mask. The nano shadow mask is produced with nano-sized apertures

Yong Chul Kim; Seung S. Lee

2008-01-01

251

Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader. The results indicate, in particular, that a charge moment change of 390 C km in a +CG can lead to leader initiation from a 457 m tower approximately 15 km from the +CG, in good agreement with observations reported in [Stanley and Heavner, 2003]. We report detailed relationships, including analytical estimates and numerical modeling results, providing information on the charge moment charges versus tower height and radial position with respect to +CG required for initiation of upward leaders.

Pasko, V. P.

2011-12-01

252

Exploring Materials: Nano Gold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that nanoparticles of gold can appear red, orange or even blue. They learn that a material can act differently when it’s nanometer-sized. Use this activity to explain how stained glass gets its different colors. Note: the cost for the materials in this activity is quite high. However, this is a one-time cost, since the nano gold is kept in vials at all time and thus should not be used up. SAFETY: Do not let visitors ingest the contents of the vials. Keep vials sealed shut. Use caution when handling the stained glass samples. Do not remove them from their protective case.

2014-06-10

253

Tall oatgrass mosaic virus (TOgMV): a novel member of the genus Tritimovirus infecting Arrhenatherum elatius.  

PubMed

A novel tritimovirus of the family Potyviridae was isolated from tall oatgrass, Arrhenatherum elatius, exhibiting mosaic symptoms. The virus, for which the name tall oatgrass mosaic virus (TOgMV) is coined, has a filamentous particle of 720 nm and is associated with pinwheel inclusion bodies characteristic of members of the family Potyviridae. The virus was mechanically transmitted to tall oatgrass seedlings, which subsequently exhibited mosaic symptoms. The experimental host range was limited to a few monocot species. The complete genome sequence of TOgMV was determined to be 9359 nucleotides, excluding the 3' polyadenylated tail. The viral RNA encodes one large putative open reading frame of 3029 amino acids with a genome organization typical of monopartite potyvirids. Pairwise comparison of putative mature proteins and proteinase cleavage sites indicated that TOgMV is most closely related to members of the genus Tritimovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete polyprotein and CP sequences of representative members of the family Potyviridae indicate that TOgMV is a distinct tritimovirus naturally infecting tall oatgrass. PMID:24193952

Hassan, Mohamed; Širlová, Lenka; Vacke, Josef

2014-07-01

254

Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

255

Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DM intake without altering the quanti...

256

Post-Graze Performance and Recovery from Heat Stress for Yearling Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) consume ergot alkaloids that can lead to “fescue toxicosis”. The alkaloids can be diluted with concentrates to improve weight gains, but it is uncertain if dilution can affect subsequent feedyard performance. A 2-yr experiment determined if ...

257

Testing for variation in animal preference for Jesup tall fescue hays with wild-type, novel, or no fungal endophyte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important source of forage for herbivores across the North/South transition zone but a fungal endophyte can result in decreased animal performance in response to alkaloids. Removing the endophyte can reduce agronomic performance. An improved cultivar...

258

Interaction of breed-type and endophyte-infected tall fescue on milk production and quality in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milk production of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue (TF) (Festuca arundinacea), an important cool season grass in the southeastern U.S., is often decreased and can impact calf growth. The objective of this study was to determine whether a thermo-tolerant Bos taurus breed of c...

259

Variable Performance of Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid on Neotyphodium-infected Wild Tall Fescue from Tunisia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The extent of Neotyphodium based resistance in wild fescue to bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) was determined by quantifying densities of this aphid on a series of Neotyphodium – infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tall fescue entries. Little or no aphid survival was observed on plants from ...

260

Effects of Selected Combinations of Tall Fescue Alkaloids on the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Fescue-Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot...

261

Synthesis and characterization of tall oil fatty acids-based alkyd resins and alkyd–acrylate copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerization and properties of environmentally friendly waterborne binders for wood coatings were studied. Conjugated and non-conjugated tall oil fatty acids-based alkyd resins were synthesized and further copolymerized via miniemulsion polymerization with acrylates (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate). The ratio between alkyd resin and acrylate monomers was varied and the effect on copolymerization and the copolymer binder properties, such as

Pirita Uschanov; Nina Heiskanen; Pekka Mononen; Sirkka Liisa Maunu; Salme Koskimies

2008-01-01

262

40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429...Chemical Substances § 721.10429 Fatty acids, C18 -unsatd., dimers,...

2013-07-01

263

40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429...Chemical Substances § 721.10429 Fatty acids, C18 -unsatd., dimers,...

2014-07-01

264

Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics oas an index of tall fescue–endophyte association response to light availability and defoliation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is adapted to diverse growing conditions occurring in humid, temperate agro-ecosystems. A mutualistic endophytic symbiont (Neotyphodium coenophialum, [Morgan-Jones et Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) contributes to this resilience, but at t...

265

Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixtures fertilized with combinations of nitrogen fertilizer and poultry litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Year-round forage production is feasible in much of the southeastern USA through utilization of cool- and warm-season forages. This study determined if productivity and nutritive value in binary mixtures of tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort] and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L...

266

Assessment of Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Lateral Saphenous Veins of Crossbreed Heifer Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vasoconstriction is one response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively, the objective of this study was to begin to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA), ergov...

267

Alkaloid levels in Duncecap ( Delphinium occidentale) and Tall larkspur ( D. barbeyi) grown in reciprocal gardens: separating genetic from environmental influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in toxicity between Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) and Duncecap larkspur (D. occidentale) were genetically inherent within the species, or due to environmental influences unique to the different regions where they grow. There was no difference in the concentration of the toxic alkaloids between the two species when grown in common

Michael H Ralphs; Dale R Gardner

2001-01-01

268

EARLY PASTURE RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT SOURCE AND TALL FESCUE-ENDOPHYTE ASSOCIATION IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue pastures are an important part of the agricultural landscape in the southeastern USA. We evaluated various plant and animal responses during the first three years of an experiment on a Typic Kanhapludult. Pastures were grazed with yearling Angus heifers whenever sufficient forage was ava...

269

Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. I. Analysis of morphogenesis  

E-print Network

Agronomie Effects of nitrogen applied after the last cut in autumn on a tall fescue sward. I; The effects of applying nitrogen to grass after the last cut in autumn on growth the following spring the following spring was measured in all trials. Autumn nitrogen resulted in greater grass yields the following

Boyer, Edmond

270

Excitation of tall auroral rays by ohmic heating in field-aligned current filaments at F region heights  

E-print Network

, USA Ã?. Lie-Svendsen Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway M. H. Rees and B. S. Lanchester Physics Department, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom Received 30 March 2002; revised 31 July 2002; accepted 6 December 2002; published 30 April 2003. [1] The formation of tall red

Lummerzheim, Dirk

271

The Effect of Formulation and Amount of Potassium Fertilizer on Macromineral Concentration and Cation-Anion Difference in Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the feasibility of altering the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) in grass by al- tering the grass variety and the amount and formula- tion of K fertilizer application. In experiment 1, treat- ments were combinations of 2 varieties (Barcel and Hi- Mag) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb); 2 rates of K (0 and 250 kg\\/ha), supplied as

M. L. Swift; S. Bittman; D. E. Hunt; C. G. Kowalenko

2007-01-01

272

Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

E-print Network

Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great by symptoms of foliar ozone injury. Abstract The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts

Neufeld, Howard S.

273

Chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue for improving cattle weight gain and physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide to determine if suppression of seedhead emergence and maturity can increase average daily gain (ADG) and alleviate fescue toxicosis....

274

Steer and plant responses to chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chaparral® herbicide (Dow AgroSciences; Indianapolis, IN) has shown to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] and potentially mitigate the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infec...

275

Impact of the 2005-2006 drought on soil water content under a tall grass prairie at Fort Reno, Oklahoma.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined changes in the seasonal pattern of soil water content under a tall grass prairie in central Oklahoma as a result of the 2005-2006 drought. The seasonal pattern of soil water content in the top 50 cm of the soil profile was minimally impacted by the drought, as this portion of the...

276

On cat's eyes and multiple disjoint cells natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural convection fluid flow in air-filled tall tilted cavities is studied numerically with a direct projection method applied on the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in primitive variables. The study is focused on the so called cat's eyes and multiple disjoint cells as the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination ? of the cavity vary. Results have already been reported with primitive and stream function-vorticity variables. The former are validated with the latter ones, which in turn were validated through mesh size and time-step independence studies. The new results complemented with the previous ones lead to find out the fluid motion and heat transfer invariant properties of this thermal phenomenon, which is the novelty here.

Báez, Elsa; Nicolás, Alfredo

2014-10-01

277

Parallel Computations of Natural Convection Flow in a Tall Cavity Using an Explicit Finite Element Method  

SciTech Connect

The Galerkin Finite Element Method was used to predict a natural convection flow in an enclosed cavity. The problem considered was a differentially heated, tall (8:1), rectangular cavity with a Rayleigh number of 3.4 x 10{sup 5} and Prandtl number of 0.71. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a Boussinesq approximation for the buoyancy force. The algorithm was developed for efficient use on massively parallel computer systems. Emphasis was on time-accurate simulations. It was found that the average temperature and velocity values can be captured with a relatively coarse grid, while the oscillation amplitude and period appear to be grid sensitive and require a refined computation.

Dunn, T.A.; McCallen, R.C.

2000-10-17

278

EE 238 Engineering nano-systems EE 238 Engineering nano-systems  

E-print Network

EE 238 Engineering nano-systems Page 1 EE 238 Engineering nano-systems A.F.J. Levi Spring 2009, OHE This course is designed as an introduction to nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

Levi, Anthony F. J.

279

EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems  

E-print Network

EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

Levi, Anthony F. J.

280

Opportunities and Challenges of Nano Satellites  

E-print Network

for space development/utilization Technology development for nano-satellites and hybrid rockets http institute of technology #12;9 Feature of Nano-satellite Nano-satellite "Normal" satellite Mass 1 to 50Opportunities and Challenges of Nano Satellites August, 2010 Rei Kawashima AXELSPACE Corporation

281

The effect of 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type diterpenoid alkaloids on the toxicity of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle.  

PubMed

Delphinium spp. contain numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids which are structurally delineated as 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL) and N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids. The toxicity of many tall larkspur species has been primarily attributed to their increased concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids, such as methyllycaconitine (MLA), which are typically 20 times more toxic than MDL-type alkaloids. However, the less toxic MDL-type alkaloids are often more abundant than MSAL-type alkaloids in most Delphinium barbeyi and Delphinium occidentale populations. Previous research demonstrated that MDL-type alkaloids increase the acute toxicity of MSAL-type alkaloids. In this study, we examined the role of MDL-type alkaloids on the overall toxicity of tall larkspur plants to cattle while controlling for the exact dose of MSAL-type alkaloids. Cattle were dosed with plant material from 2 different populations of tall larkspur containing either almost exclusively MDL- or MSAL-type alkaloids. These 2 plant populations were combined to create mixtures with ratios of 0.3:1, 1:1, 5:1, and 10:1 MDL- to MSAL-type alkaloids. The dose that elicited similar clinical signs of poisoning in mice and cattle was determined for each mixture on the basis of the MSAL-type alkaloid content. As the ratio of MDL- to MSAL-type alkaloids increased, the amount of MSAL-type alkaloids required to elicit clinical signs decreased. These results indicate that the less toxic MDL-type alkaloids in tall larkspur exacerbate the toxicity of the MSAL-type alkaloids. Consequently, both the amount of MSAL-type alkaloids and the amount of total alkaloids should be fully characterized to determine more accurately the relative toxicity of tall larkspur plant material. PMID:22247113

Welch, K D; Green, B T; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E

2012-07-01

282

Nano-diamond film pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond were natural field-emitters. Nano-graphite was mixed in nanocrystalline diamond and cellulose or other organic vehicles to fabricate paste for screen-printed film. The aim of mixed nano-graphite to enhance electric conduction of Nano-diamond film. Through enough ultrasonic disperse the nano-diamond, the paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form Nano- diamond film (NDF). The

Xiuxia Zhang; Wei Shuyi; Erlei Wang; Lixia Zhang; Bingheng Lu

2011-01-01

283

Transcriptional Activation of Prostate Specific Homeobox Gene NKX3-1 in Subsets of T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)  

PubMed Central

Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL. PMID:22848398

Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Schneider, Björn; Geffers, Robert; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

2012-01-01

284

*SINAM NANO SEMINAR * Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) -NSF  

E-print Network

*SINAM NANO SEMINAR * Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) - NSF Nanoscale and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM) Email:xz_asst@me.berkeley.edu Phone: 510.642.0390 Fax: 510.643.2311 #12;

Militzer, Burkhard

285

Nano(Q)SAR: Challenges, pitfalls and perspectives.  

PubMed

Abstract Regulation for nanomaterials is urgently needed, and the drive to adopt an intelligent testing strategy is evident. Such a strategy will not only provide economic benefits but will also reduce moral and ethical concerns arising from animal testing. For regulatory purposes, such an approach is promoted by REACH, particularly the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships [(Q)SAR] as a tool for the categorisation of compounds according to their physicochemical and toxicological properties. In addition to compounds, (Q)SAR has also been applied to nanomaterials in the form of nano(Q)SAR. Although (Q)SAR in chemicals is well established, nano(Q)SAR is still in early stages of development and its successful uptake is far from reality. This article aims to identify some of the pitfalls and challenges associated with nano-(Q)SARs in relation to the categorisation of nanomaterials. Our findings show clear gaps in the research framework that must be addressed if we are to have reliable predictions from such models. Three major barriers were identified: the need to improve quality of experimental data in which the models are developed from, the need to have practical guidelines for the development of the nano(Q)SAR models and the need to standardise and harmonise activities for the purpose of regulation. Of these three, the first, i.e. the need to improve data quality requires immediate attention, as it underpins activities associated with the latter two. It should be noted that the usefulness of data in the context of nano-(Q)SAR modelling is not only about the quantity of data but also about the quality, consistency and accessibility of those data. PMID:25211549

Tantra, Ratna; Oksel, Ceyda; Puzyn, Tomasz; Wang, Jian; Robinson, Kenneth N; Wang, Xue Z; Ma, Cai Y; Wilkins, Terry

2014-09-11

286

Pyroelectric nano-rods grown inside alumina nano-pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the formation and properties of nano-composite pyroelectric thin films. They consist of pyroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS) single-crystal nano-rods grown inside a highly dense array of alumina pores (about 65nm diameter and density of 1011cm?2). The nucleation and growth of the TGS single crystals are obtained by precipitation from a supersaturated aqueous solution. Nucleation is preferred only at

M. Nitzani; S. Berger

2007-01-01

287

Nano-optomechanical transducer  

DOEpatents

A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

2013-12-03

288

Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch.  

PubMed

As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our results indicate that fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT contain direct-acting genotoxic components. PMID:18499510

Lindberg, Hanna K; Väänänen, Virpi; Järventaus, Hilkka; Suhonen, Satu; Nygren, Jonas; Hämeilä, Mervi; Valtonen, Jarkko; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Norppa, Hannu

2008-05-31

289

Preference for tannin-containing supplements by sheep consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue hay.  

PubMed

Tannins may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue and attenuate fescue toxicosis. To test this hypothesis, thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (8 lambs/treatment) in a 2 by 2 factorial design that included a basal diet of tall fescue hay [E+ or endophyte-free (E-)] supplemented with (TS) or without (CS) bioactive Quebracho tannins. The concentration of ergovaline in E+ fed in 2 successive phases was 65 ± 21 µg/kg (Phase 1) and 128 ± 4 µg/kg (Phase 2). After exposure to hays and supplements, all lambs were offered choices between TS and CS and between E+ and E- hays. During Phase 1, lambs offered E+ consumed more hay than lambs offered E- (P = 0.03). Lambs on E+/TS displayed the greatest intake of hay and the least intake of TS (P < 0.05). During Phase 2, when the concentration of ergovaline increased, lambs offered E+ consumed less hay than lambs fed E- (P < 0.0001). Lambs on E+/CS consumed less hay than lambs on E-/CS (P = 0.02), but hay intake by lambs on E-/TS and E+/TS did not differ (P = 0.96). Lambs preferred CS to TS during preference tests (P < 0.0001) and lambs on E+/TS ingested the least amounts of supplement TS and the greatest amounts of supplement CS (P = 0.001). Lambs offered E+ displayed greater body temperatures than lambs offered E- in both phases (P < 0.05). When offered a choice among the 3 hays, lambs previously exposed to E+ preferred E+ (low content of ergovaline) > E- > E+ (greater content of ergovaline; P < 0.001). Thus, decreased concentrations of ergovaline increased rectal temperatures, and affected intake of and preference for tannins and fescue hay. Quebracho tannins did not attenuate the effects of E+ on body temperature and feed intake. Ingestion of E+ reduced intake of quebracho tannins, suggesting that alkaloids in E+ antagonized ingestion of condensed tannins. PMID:23658337

Bernard, M; Maughan, B; Villalba, J J

2013-07-01

290

A novel method for measuring trace gas fluxes from tall vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as greenhouse gases (GHGs) means that accurate measurement of their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is extremely important to our ability to manage climate change. Manual static chambers are commonly used to measure soil fluxes of these trace gases, with landscape values extrapolated from point measurements of typically less than 1m2, at a weekly or monthly frequency. Moreover, due to the reliance upon manual sampling, data are typically biased towards day-time measurements, and use of opaque chambers halts photosynthesis. Automation of chambers, such as the Licor Li-8100 (Lincoln, NE) system, allows for measurement of soil respiration at a near-constant frequency, but does not solve the problem of measuring CH4 and N2O, neither does it allow measurements to be taken from over tall (more than 20 cm) vegetation. Eddy covariance (EC) techniques allow for high frequency measurements of CO2 and CH4 to be made at the landscape scale, and are increasingly available for N2O. However, the inability of EC to resolve to the plot scale hinders its use for manipulative experiments, and replication is rare. Additionally, stratification of the boundary layer creates difficulty in measuring night-time fluxes and it is common to discard large parts of data sets due to unsuitable wind direction or other meteorological conditions. Here we present a new technique for measuring trace gas fluxes from over tall vegetation. The system is capable of simultaneously delivering NEE of CO2, CH4 and N2O, automatically measuring at high temporal resolution (circa hourly) from replicated plots. We show the effect of green compost addition on trace gas fluxes from Miscanthus x giganteus, an important crop for bioenergy production. The ability to quantify NEE of GHGs from such crops forms an essential part of the lifecycle analysis of energy produced from biomass, which may play an important role in future mitigation of climate change.

Keane, James; Phil, Ineson

2014-05-01

291

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

2010-05-01

292

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Waller, John C [ORNL

2010-01-01

293

A high rise multi-use building for Boston : an investigation into the nature and organization of public space in a tall building  

E-print Network

This thesis is essentially a study of how to organize public space vertically in a tall building. In most cases, high rise buildings tend to be organized in one of two ways, either centrally, with the core elements in the ...

Weiner, David Jay

1984-01-01

294

Does modification of tall fescue leaf texture and forage nutritive value for improved livestock performance increase suitability for a grass-feeding caterpillar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grass breeders are developing new forage-type tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort = Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., formerly known as Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] cultivars with smoother texture, improved nutritive value, and reduced fiber for improved livestock performanc...

295

Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparisons of Tall Fescue Gene Expression in Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In a...

296

Investigation of a long time series of CO2 from a tall tower using WRF-SPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric observations from tall towers are an important source of information about CO2 exchange at the regional scale. Here, we have used a forward running model, WRF-SPA, to generate a time series of CO2 at a tall tower for comparison with observations from Scotland over multiple years (2006-2008). We use this comparison to infer strength and distribution of sources and sinks of carbon and ecosystem process information at the seasonal scale. The specific aim of this research is to combine a high resolution (6 km) forward running meteorological model (WRF) with a modified version of a mechanistic ecosystem model (SPA). SPA provides surface fluxes calculated from coupled energy, hydrological and carbon cycles. This closely coupled representation of the biosphere provides realistic surface exchanges to drive mixing within the planetary boundary layer. The combined model is used to investigate the sources and sinks of CO2 and to explore which land surfaces contribute to a time series of hourly observations of atmospheric CO2 at a tall tower, Angus, Scotland. In addition to comparing the modelled CO2 time series to observations, modelled ecosystem specific (i.e. forest, cropland, grassland) CO2 tracers (e.g., assimilation and respiration) have been compared to the modelled land surface assimilation to investigate how representative tall tower observations are of land surface processes. WRF-SPA modelled CO2 time series compares well to observations (R2 = 0.67, rmse = 3.4 ppm, bias = 0.58 ppm). Through comparison of model-observation residuals, we have found evidence that non-cropped components of agricultural land (e.g., hedgerows and forest patches) likely contribute a significant and observable impact on regional carbon balance.

Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew; Moncrieff, John B.

2013-04-01

297

RT\\/PCR detection of SILTAL-1 fusion mRNA in Chinese T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TAL-1 gene is located on chromosome 1p32. In about 20% of T -cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (TALL), this gene is disrupted in its 5' portion by a site-specific 100-kg deletion and is fused with the 5? part of the SIL gene, to form SIL TAL-1 chimeric gene. In this study, we established a “nested” retrotranscriptase\\/polymerase chain reaction (RT\\/PCR) technique

Wei Huang; Shao-Qin Kuang; Qiu-Hua Huang; Shuo Dong; Tong Zhang; Long-Jun Gu; L. M. Ching; Sai-Juan Chen; L. C. Chang; Zhu Chen

1995-01-01

298

Effects of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate fertilization on nitrogen and sulfur composition of tall fescue and orchardgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments tall fescue (TF) and orchardgrass (OG) were fertilized in split applications on Julian days 107 and 135 with O, 294, or 882 kg NH4NO3\\/ha and O or 833 kg K2SO4\\/ha to determine the effect on TF and OG N and S components. Ammonium nitrate fertilization significantly increased total N, nonprotein N (NPN) and protein N (PN) concentrations

B. P. Glenn; D. G. Ely; S. Glenn; L. W. Douglass; L. P. Bush; R. W. Hemken

1985-01-01

299

Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.  

PubMed

Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue. PMID:9110202

Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

1997-04-01

300

Fabrication process for tall, sharp, hollow, high aspect ratio polymer microneedles on a platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a new lithographic process for fabricating arrays of tall, high aspect ratio (defined as height/wall thickness), hollow, polymer microneedles on a platform. The microneedles feature a high sharpness (down to 3 µm tip radius) and aspect ratio (>65) which is a factor 2 and 4 better than the state of the art, respectively. The maximum achievable needle shaft length is over 1 mm. The improved performance was obtained by using an anisotropically patterned silicon substrate covered with an antireflective layer as mold for the needle tip and an optimized SU-8 lithographic process. Furthermore, a platform containing liquid feedthroughs holding an arbitrary number of needles out of plane can be manufactured with only one additional process step. The high aspect ratio microneedles undergo failure at the critical load of around 230 mN in the case of 1 mm long hollow needles with triangular cross section and a base of 175 µm. Penetration into human skin is demonstrated as well.

Ceyssens, Frederik; Chaudhri, Buddhadev Paul; Van Hoof, Chris; Puers, Robert

2013-07-01

301

Peroxidase Activity in the Leaf Elongation Zone of Tall Fescue 1  

PubMed Central

Cessation of cell expansion has been associated with cell wall cross-linking reactions catalyzed by peroxidase. This study utilized two genotypes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) that differ in length of the leaf elongation zone to investigate the relationship between ionically bound peroxidase activity and the spatial distribution of leaf elongation. Peroxidase activity was also localized histochemically in transverse sections of the leaf blade using 3,3? -diaminobenzidine. Soluble or soluble plus ionically bound peroxidase activities were extracted from homogenized segments of the elongating leaf blade and assayed spectrophotometrically. Activity of the ionically bound fraction, expressed per milligram fresh weight or per microgram protein, increased as cells were displaced through the distal half of the elongation zone, corresponding to the region in which the elongation rate declined. In both genotypes, the initial increase in activity preceded the onset of growth deceleration by about 10 hours. In the basal region where elongation began, histochemical localization showed that peroxidase activity was found only in vascular tissues. As cells were displaced farther through the elongation zone, peroxidase activity appeared in walls of other longitudinally continuous tissues such as the epidermis and bundle sheaths. Increase in ionically bound peroxidase activity and changes in localization of peroxidase activity occurred at comparable developmental stages in the two genotypes. The results indicate that cessation of elongation followed an increase in cell wall peroxidase activity. ImagesFigure 4 PMID:16669014

MacAdam, Jennifer W.; Nelson, Curtis J.; Sharp, Robert E.

1992-01-01

302

Chest pain in a patient with a tall R wave in V1.  

PubMed

An 83-year-old man 2?days postoperative from L3 to L5 laminectomy developed sudden onset of chest pain. Initial ECGs demonstrated a tall R wave in V1 and ST-segment depression in leads V2-V5. A posterior ECG was performed, but failed to demonstrate ST elevations. The patient was initially treated as an non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with weight-based enoxaparin. On further review, the patient's ECG was identified as a STEMI equivalent, and he underwent cardiac catheterisation. He was noted to have a near complete occlusion of the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery (RCA). Bare-metal stents were placed in the proximal and distal RCA, with restored flow distal to the lesions. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for observation, and was noted to develop atrial fibrillation. Rate control was achieved with diltiazem, and the patient was started on dabigatran. Medical therapy including aspirin and clopidogrel was initiated, and the patient was discharged home. PMID:25150241

McManus, Kenneth; Condos, Gregory; Lin, Andrew

2014-01-01

303

Tall fescue is a potential spillover reservoir host for Alternaria species.  

PubMed

The spread of invasive species is complicated and multifaceted. Enemy spillover (i.e. the transfer of a natural enemy from a reservoir host to a novel host) is one mechanism that facilitates the spread of non-native species. The reservoir host is a species that harbors high abundance of the enemy with little cost to fitness. We asked whether Schedonorus arundinaceus (tall fescue), a highly invasive grass species in North America, is a potential reservoir host for the ubiquitous genus of fungi, Alternaria. We also asked whether spillover of Alternaria is possible among grasses that commonly occur with S. arundinaceus in grassland ecosystems. We performed a greenhouse cross inoculation of three isolates of Alternaria and six grass species (three native, three invasive, including S. arundinaceus). We determined that spillover is possible because the fungal isolates infected and caused disease symptoms on all six grasses and decreased biomass in two of the grass species. We also determined that the invasive grass species appear to be more competent hosts than the native species and that S. arundinaceus could be a likely reservoir host for Alternaria spp. because it can harbor the pathogen with no apparent fitness cost. PMID:24603832

Wilson, Hannah E; Carroll, George C; Roy, Bitty A; Blaisdell, G Kai

2014-01-01

304

Characteristics of upward lightning from a 325-m-tall meteorology tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive observations of lightning flashes striking at a 325-m-tall meteorology tower were conducted in Beijing, China, during the summer of 2012. The images from high speed camera and normal video camera and the measurements of electric field changes were examined to investigate the characteristics of upward negative lightning initiated from the tower. Among eight upward lightning flashes documented during two thunderstorms, four were self-initiated events without lightning activity nearby prior to their initiation, two were triggered by the nearby positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+ CG) with the initiation of the upward leaders from the tower lagged 0.4 ms and 5 ms behind, respectively, and the remaining two were triggered by nearby intra-cloud lightning activities. The average 2-D speed of the upward positive leader was 1.0 × 105 m/s within several hundred meters above the tower tip. When the upward lightning occurred, the tower was swept by a radar echo zone with not very strong peak intensity of about 35-45 dBZ, which exhibited as a secondary convective area in the trailing stratiform region of the mesoscale convective system. The vertical cross section revealed a relatively low altitude of the radar echo center, indicative of a low charge center of the cloud which was favorable for initiating tower lightning.

Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Mingyuan; Lu, Gaopeng; Liu, Dongxia

2014-11-01

305

Development of STS and CAPS markers for identification of three tall larkspurs (Delphinium spp.).  

PubMed

One cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and nine sequence tagged site (STS) markers were developed for identifying tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.) plants in three species based on the DNA sequence of known species-specific RAPD markers. Four STS markers were used for identification of Delphinium occidentale, three STS markers for Delphinium barbeyi, and one CAPS and two STS markers for Delphinium glaucum. One hundred sixty-six individual plants collected at 19 locations in the western U.S.A. were tested using the STS and CAPS markers. Over 95% of the D. occidentale plants contained all four D. occidentale specific STS markers, whereas the remaining plants contained three of the four STS markers. Approximately 97% of D. barbeyi plants contained all three D. barbeyi specific STS markers, and the rest had two of the three STS markers. A small percentage of D. barbeyi plants contained one D. occidentale specific STS marker. Hybrid populations were characterized as having more D. occidentale specific than D. barbeyi specific STS markers, suggesting that the three hybrid populations are composed not of F1 hybrid plants of the parental species but of segregating offspring of different generations from original hybrids. This set of STS and CAPS markers for larkspur species should be useful in classification of unknown plant materials and the identification of hybrid populations. PMID:11962619

Li, Xiaomei; Gardner, Dale R; Ralphs, Michael H; Wang, Richard R C

2002-04-01

306

Behavior of trace gas mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 15-month record of mixing ratios of CO, CH4, N2O, and eight halogenated gases (CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHCl3, C2Cl4, and SF6) at a rural site in eastern North Carolina. The data result from hourly gas Chromatographic analyses of air sampled at three heights on a 610-m-tall telecommunications tower during November 1994 through January 1996. At night, most of these gases were more abundant near the ground (51 m) than aloft (496 m) because of the buildup of local and regional surface emissions in the shallow nocturnal stable layer. The abundance and variability of trace gases at this continental site were generally higher than those at similar latitude remote locations. Mixing ratios of most gases were well correlated in polluted air masses occasionally advected to the tower. Frequent, strong enhancements in CHCl3 at the lower sampling level(s) indicate a local point source(s) of this gas that is not associated with combustion. Temporal trends of regional background mixing ratios at this continental site are, for the most part, in good agreement with recent trends of remote background mixing ratios in the northern hemisphere.

Hurst, Dale F.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Myers, Richard C.; Elkins, James W.

1997-04-01

307

Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.  

PubMed

In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively. PMID:21313873

Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

2010-11-01

308

Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2011-01-01

309

Ascorbic Acid Enhances the Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roots of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)  

PubMed Central

Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality. PMID:23185628

Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

2012-01-01

310

Folded Conformation, Cyclic Pentamer, Nano-Structure and PAD4 Binding Mode of YW3-56  

PubMed Central

The physical and chemical mechanisms of small molecules with pharmacological activity forming nano-structures are developing into a new field of nano-medicine. By using ROESY 2D NMR spectroscopy, trandem mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and computer-assisted molecular modeling, this paper demonstrated the contribution of the folded conformation, the intra- and intermolecular ?-? stacking, the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the receptor binding free energy of 6-dimethylaminonaph-2-yl-{N-S-[1-benzylcarba-moyl-4-(2-chloroacetamidobutyl)]-carboxamide (YW3-56) to the rapid formation of nano-rings and the slow formation of nano-capsules. Thus we have developed a strategy that makes it possible to elucidate the physical and chemical mechanisms of bioactive small molecules forming nano-structures. PMID:23795230

Zhu, Haimei; Wang, Yuji; Wang, Yaonan; Zhao, Shurui; Zhao, Ming; Gui, Lin; Xu, Wenyun; Chen, Xiangyun Amy; Wang, Yanming; Peng, Shiqi

2013-01-01

311

Whither `nano' or `bio'? | Rob Ritchie So what's all this hype about `nano' and `bio'?  

E-print Network

OPINION Whither `nano' or `bio'? | Rob Ritchie So what's all this hype about `nano' and `bio of these words. Indeed, I've heard numerous people glibly state that, unless the title of your proposal has `nano! The nano revolution has certainly taken our field by storm. One constantly hears of the new paradigm ­ we

Ritchie, Robert

312

Nano Letters 8, 4477-4482 (2008) NANO-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-print Network

Nano Letters 8, 4477- 4482 (2008) 1 NANO-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON NANOTUBES N. Bozovi 1 meV energy resolution and 1 nm spatial resolution.1 The later should enable nano-crystallography ­ XRD study of individual nano-particles. The commissioning of NSLS II will take some time -- the plan

Homes, Christopher C.

313

3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes  

E-print Network

3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes Amrinder S) nano-scale manufacturing tools in this paper. Commercially available Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) systems are mainly limited to 1-D or 2-D manipulation tasks, and advanced 3-D nano

Sitti, Metin

314

Nano-Tera.CH: Nano-technologies for Tera-scale Problems Giovanni De Micheli  

E-print Network

Nano-Tera.CH: Nano-technologies for Tera-scale Problems Giovanni De Micheli EPF Lausanne 1015, Switzerland ABSTRACT -- The Nano-Tera.CH initiative is a broad engineering program in Switzerland for health is rooted in advances in engineering nano-scale materials and their exploitation in a variety of systems

De Micheli, Giovanni

315

Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time that a regular array of sharp nano-textured conical microstructures are formed on the titanium metal surface by irradiation with ultrafast laser pulses of 130 fs duration, 800 nm wavelength in vacuum (˜1 mbar) or in 100 mbar He. The microstructures are up to 25 ?m tall, and taper to about 500 nm diameters at the tip. Irradiation in the presence of SF6, air or HCl creates a textured surface but does not create sharp conical microstructures. The surfaces of these microstructures exhibit periodic nano-texture of feature size comparable to the wavelength of light consistent with ripple formation. Contrary to pillar formation by femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon where the initial ripples evolve into the pillars and the ripples disappear, the ripples on titanium pillars have a much smaller periodicity than the pillars and remain on the surface of the pillars. The textured surface is pitch black compared to its original silver-grayish color, i.e, it exhibits greatly reduced reflectivity throughout the measured visible spectrum.

Nayak, B. K.; Gupta, M. C.; Kolasinski, K. W.

2008-03-01

316

Nano-engineered optical fibers and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a technology for making nano-engineered optical fibers. Key features and advantages of nano-enginneered glass fibers are discussed. Fiber designs and their applications are presented.

M.-J. Li; P. Tandon; D. Bookbinder; D. Nolan; S. Bickham; M. McDermott; R. Desorcie; J. Englebert; S. Logunov; V. Kozlov

2010-01-01

317

Constraints on the sources and impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over North America from tall tower measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents the first-ever in-situ tall tower measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. The data span August 2009 through July 2012, and provide new constraints on seasonal and long-term controls on VOC sources and their atmospheric effects. The 200 m sampling height provides a large-scale footprint, while the tall tower location, near the intersection of the main North American ecosystems and at times downwind of the Twin Cities, affords information on natural emissions from some of the most important US landscapes as well as on anthropogenic sources. I interpret the dataset using an atmospheric chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM), with a focus on several key atmospheric VOCs. This dissertation finds that current models underestimate methanol emission rates for younger versus older leaves. This biased seasonality means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated. A Bayesian inverse analysis of the tall tower observations reveals that the prior estimate of North American anthropogenic acetone sources (based on the US EPA's NEI05 inventory) is accurate to within 20%. However, biogenic acetone emissions from broadleaf trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are presently underestimated (˜37%), while emissions from needleleaf trees plus secondary production from biogenic precursors are overestimated by a similar amount (˜40%). Model-measurement comparisons imply that isoprene emissions in the immediate vicinity of the tall tower are accurately captured by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic inventory, but that larger-scale regional emissions are underestimated, reflecting the heterogeneous land cover in this transitional landscape. Isoprene emissions play a key role in seasonal shifts between VOC-limited chemistry in the spring and fall and NOx-limited or transitional chemistry in the summer. A Bayesian inverse analysis based on the tall tower measurements suggests that: i) the RETRO global emission inventory significantly overestimates (> two-fold) US C6-C8 aromatic emissions; ii) the US EPA's NEI08 inventory likewise overestimates the toluene flux by a factor of 3, partly reflecting a bias in the estimated non-road emissions; and iii) total annual emissions of benzene and C8 aromatics in the EPA's NEI08 are accurate to within the analysis uncertainty, but with some seasonal biases for on-road emissions.

Hu, Lu

318

Graduate School of Engineering, NAGOYA UNIVERSITY Center for Micro-Nano MechatronicsCenter for Micro-Nano Mechatronics  

E-print Network

Graduate School of Engineering, NAGOYA UNIVERSITY Center for Micro-Nano MechatronicsCenter for Micro-Nano Mechatronics Nano measurement engineering Nano design and manufacturing Nano materials science Nano control engineering Bio/Medical applications #12;Micro and nanotechnology has become very

Takahashi, Ryo

319

Vacuum nano-hole array embedded organic light emitting diodes.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics. PMID:24336917

Jeon, Sohee; Jeong, Jun-ho; Song, Young Seok; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

2014-03-01

320

Nano Science and Technology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nano Science and Technology Institute (NSTI) is chartered with the promotion and integration of nano and other advanced technologies through education, technology and business development. NSTI accomplishes this mission through its offerings of membership services, continuing education programs, scientific and business publishing and community outreach. NSTI produces the annual Nanotech conference and trade show, the most comprehensive international nanotechnology convention in the world. NSTI also produces the semi-annual Nanotech Venture, Nanotech Industrial Impact Workshop, Nano Impact Summit and the Nanotech Course Series in the US and Europe. NSTI was founded in 1997 as a result of the merger between various scientific societies, and is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts with additional offices in California and Switzerland.

321

Technology foresight on Danish nano-science and nano-technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose is to report on a Danish nano-science and nano-technology foresight project carried out in 2004. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The foresight process had the following key elements: review of international technology foresight projects on nano-technology; mapping of Danish nano-science and nano-technology; broad internet survey among interested parties; expert reports; workshops related to the expert reports; analysis of the

Per Dannemand Andersen; Birgitte Rasmussen; Marianne Strange; Jens Haisler

2005-01-01

322

EE 337 Engineering nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems  

E-print Network

EE 337 Engineering nano-systems Page 1 EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi Spring.edu/dept/engineering/eleceng/Adv_Network_Tech/Html/ee337.html This course is designed as an introduction to nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of nano-technology into systems

Levi, Anthony F. J.

323

EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems  

E-print Network

EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems Page 1 EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.edu/dept/engineering/eleceng/Adv_Network_Tech/Html/ee337.html This course is designed as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano

Levi, Anthony F. J.

324

From nano-hype to nano-nonsense, this issue in the  

E-print Network

BigPicture on From nano-hype to nano- nonsense, this issue in the Big Picture series sifts sense­13 What does the future hold for four nano-products? 14­15 The big picture 16 FIND OUT MORE ISSUE 2 JUNE and revolutionise medicine. They are the future, say the nano-enthusiasts. Hang on, say nano-sceptics, didn't you

Rambaut, Andrew

325

nanoHUB-UNEED IMPACT STATEMENT  

E-print Network

nanoHUB-UNEED IMPACT STATEMENT INITIATIVE With support from NSF, Purdue, and Intel, a team of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The nanoHUB-U team includes faculty in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering and Physics. nanoHUB-U courses are 5

Ginzel, Matthew

326

Continuous CO2/CH4 measurement at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change has particular impact on Siberia, where one tenth of global vegetation and soil carbon is stored. The increase in temperature lengthens the vegetation period and consequently enlarges the carbon sink. On the other hand, a warming climate will enhance thawing of permafrost which contains organic carbon that can be released either as carbon dioxide or methane depending on the local hydrological conditions. Long-term biogeochemical trace gas measurements on tall towers (> 250 m) over continents help to improve the knowledge about surface source/sink processes at regional to continental scales. Without the usage of aircrafts, the height of the tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is - unlike the surface layer - only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus representative for a larger region (~1000km). The recently established Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, 304 m, www.zottoproject.org) is located near the village of Zotino at the Yenisei River in central Siberia (60° N, 89° E). The ZOTTO facility was built in the perspective to monitor and determine variability and trends in the carbon balance of central Siberian forests. Since April 2009 we measure CO2 and CH4 from 6 height levels reaching from 4 to 301 m with an analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique (Picarro Inc., CA, USA, model G1301). Experiments have shown that reliable accurate measurements can be obtained even without drying the sample gas. To obtain dry air mixing ratios for CO2 and CH4, the simultaneous water vapor measurements are used to correct dilution and pressure broadening effects, resulting in a precision and accuracy that is better than WMO recommendations. Furthermore, the system requires only a very low amount of calibration gases, because calibration takes place only every 100 hrs. These two aspects allow keeping maintenance low, which is an important requirement for this remote station. In each sampling line buffer volumes integrate the atmospheric signal over a typical time period of 40 minutes. With these the periodic switching from line to line every three minutes with only one single analyzer provides a quasi continuous, concurrent measurement from each height level. As a consequence of the averaging as well as the precision of the analyzer, the data show a low noise level and still moderately high temporal resolution, and gradients between different levels can be determined to a very high accuracy. The new data from 2009 and 2010 will be presented and interpreted in the context of regional sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 in central Siberia. As the nocturnal boundary develops during night, it locally traps respired CO2 and CH4 and builds up vertical gradients. The analysis of the gradients allows estimating the trapped carbon amount in this layer which can be assigned to a certain region by using the Lagrangian transport model STILT.

Winderlich, Jan; Chen, Huilin; Höfer, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

2010-05-01

327

An Ethical Argument in Favor of Nano-enabled Diagnostics in Livestock Disease Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock production has been confronted with several epidemics over the last decades. The morality of common animal disease\\u000a strategies—stamping out and vaccination—is being debated and provokes controversies among farmers, authorities and the broader\\u000a public. Given the complexity and controversy of choosing an appropriate control strategy, this article explores the potential\\u000a of nano-enabled diagnostics in future livestock production. At first glance,

Johan Evers; Stefan Aerts; Johan De Tavernier

2008-01-01

328

Measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the Trainou tall tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 2 yr (October 2008 to September 2010) of in situ measurements of molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) sampled at the tall tower of Trainou, France (47.96°N, 02.11°E, 131 masl, sampling height: 50, 100 and 180 m). Radon-222 (222Rn) measurements were added in May 2009. Background seasonal cycles, based on afternoon values, exhibit an amplitude of 45 and 60 ppb for H2 and CO, respectively, for the three different heights (50, 100 and 180 m above ground). The vertical gradient also shows seasonal variations with a maximum (during the night) of 20 and 45 ppb for H2 and CO, respectively. We also observe diurnal cycles for H2 and CO for the three different heights. In the afternoon, the mixing ratios at the three different heights are similar and are comparable with maritime background stations, such as Mace Head (Ireland). The diurnal cycle of 222Rn follows the boundary layer height variations, with maximum values in the morning. Throughout the year but especially in summer and autumn, the H2 mixing ratio shows nighttime depletion, with the lowest values at 06:00 UTC, due to soil uptake and the low boundary layer height. Using a simple box approach and the Radon-Tracer-Method, the H2 deposition velocity is calculated for the catchment area of Trainou. We find a mean value for the H2 deposition velocity of 2.6 ± 0.9 10-2 cm s-1. During wintertime, H2 and CO are sometimes strongly correlated leading to a H2/CO ratio around 0.25. This ratio is lower than the ratio from traffic emissions, thus highlighting the mixing of sources in this area.

Yver, Camille; Schmidt, Martina; Bousquet, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel

2011-02-01

329

Ion uptake in tall fescue as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salinity.  

PubMed

Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. 'Tar Heel II' and 'Wolfpack' cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. 'Tar Heel II' had higher shoot Ca content than 'Wolfpack', which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg(-1), respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

2014-01-01

330

Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential.  

PubMed

Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a novel endophyte cultivar lacking ergot alkaloids (E-) were evaluated. Angus bulls were allotted to treatment (Day 0) and grazed E+ or E- for 155 days. Treatment-by-day interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for serum PRL concentrations with E+treated bulls exhibiting reduced PRL values compared with E- control bulls, but no differences were observed for serum testosterone concentrations (P > 0.05). Further, bulls on the E+ treatment exhibited decreased total gain, average daily gain, and body weight by Day 140 (P < 0.05) compared with the E- bulls. Rump muscle depth was lower because the treatment in bulls grazing E+ compared with E- (P < 0.05) and intramuscular fat in the E- bulls compared with the E+ group was higher by Day 155 (P < 0.05). Analysis of ejaculates showed significant treatment × day effects for sperm concentration with lower values observed for bulls on the E+ treatment (P < 0.05). The percent normal morphology was reduced in ejaculates from E+ bulls compared with E- bulls (P < 0.05), and the difference was due to an increase in abnormal sperm present in the E+ ejaculates from Day 84 to 140 (P < 0.05). In addition, spermatozoa motility and progressive motility were decreased on thawing in semen samples from E+ bulls compared with E- bulls (P < 0.05). PMID:25459421

Pratt, S L; Stowe, H M; Whitlock, B K; Strickland, L; Miller, M; Calcatera, S M; Dimmick, M D; Aiken, G E; Schrick, F N; Long, N M; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

2015-02-01

331

Ion Uptake in Tall Fescue as Affected by Carbonate, Chloride, and Sulfate Salinity  

PubMed Central

Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. ‘Tar Heel II’ and ‘Wolfpack’ cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. ‘Tar Heel II’ had higher shoot Ca content than ‘Wolfpack’, which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg?1, respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

2014-01-01

332

Nano-JASMINE Data Analysis and Publication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A collaboration between the Gaia AGIS and Nano-JASMINE teams on the Nano-JASMINE data reduction started in 2007. The Nano-JASMINE team writes codes to generate AGIS input, and this is called Initial Data Treament (IDT). Identification of observed stars and their observed field of view, getting color index, are different from those of Gaia because Nano-JASMINE is ultra small satellite. For converting centroiding results on detector to the celestial sphere, orbit and attitude data of the satellite are used. In Nano-JASMINE, orbit information is derived from on board GPS data and attitude is processed from on-board star sensor data and on-ground Kalman filtering. We also show the Nano-JASMINE goals, status of the data publications and utilizations, and introduce the next Japanese space astrometric mission.

Yamada, Y.; Hara, T.; Yoshioka, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Miyashita, H.; Hatsutori, Y.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.

2012-09-01

333

Dimensional Micro and Nano Metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as

H. N. Hansen; K. Carneiro; H. Haitjema; L. De Chiffre

2006-01-01

334

Use of tall fescue EST-SSR markers in phylogenetic analysis of cool-season forage grasses.  

PubMed

Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly useful molecular markers for plant improvement. Expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR markers have a higher rate of transferability across species than genomic SSR markers and are thus well suited for application in cross-species phylogenetic studies. Our objectives were to examine the amplification of tall fescue EST-SSR markers in 12 grass species representing 8 genera of 4 tribes from 2 subfamilies of Poaceae and the applicability of these markers for phylogenetic analysis of grass species. About 43% of the 145 EST-SSR primer pairs produced PCR bands in all 12 grass species and had high levels of polymorphism in all forage grasses studied. Thus, these markers will be useful in a variety of forage grass species, including the ones tested in this study. SSR marker data were useful in grouping genotypes within each species. Lolium temulentum, a potential model species for cool-season forage grasses, showed a close relation with the major Festuca-Lolium species in the study. Tall wheat grass was found to be closely related to hexaploid wheat, thereby confirming the known taxonomic relations between these species. While clustering of closely related species was found, the effectiveness of such data in evaluating distantly related species needs further investigations. The phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of selected SSR bands were in agreement with the phylogenetic relations based on length polymorphism of SSRs markers. Tall fescue EST-SSR markers depicted phylogenetic relations among a wide range of cool-season forage grass species and thus are an important resource for researchers working with such grass species. PMID:16094432

Mian, M A Rouf; Saha, Malay C; Hopkins, Andrew A; Wang, Zeng-Yu

2005-08-01

335

Modification of esterified cell wall phenolics increases vulnerability of tall fescue to herbivory by the fall armyworm.  

PubMed

Feruloylation of arabinoxylan in grass cell walls leads to cross-linked xylans. Such cross-linking appears to play a role in plant resistance to pathogens and insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated the effect of ferulate cross-linking on resistance to herbivory by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) making use of genetically modified tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Festuca arundinacea)] expressing a ferulic acid esterase gene. Mature leaves of these plants have significant reduced levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates but no change in acid detergent lignin. These reduced levels of esterified cell wall ferulates in transgenic plants had a positive effect on all measures of armyworm larval performance examined. More larvae survived (89 vs. 57 %) and grew faster (pupated 2.1 days sooner) when fed transgenic leaves with reduced levels of cell wall ferulates, than when fed control tall fescue leaves where levels of cell wall ferulates were not altered. Overall, mortality, growth and food utilization were negatively associated with level of esterified cell wall ferulates and diferulates in leaves they were fed. This study is the first to use transgenic plants with modified level of cell wall esterified ferulates to test the role of feruloylation in plant resistance to insects. It is concluded that the accumulation of ferulates and the cross-linking of arabinoxylans via diferulate esters in the leaves of tall fescue underlies the physical barrier to insect herbivory. Reducing ferulate cross-linking in grass cell walls could increase susceptibility of these plants to insect folivores. PMID:22434315

de O Buanafina, Marcia M; Fescemyer, Howard W

2012-08-01

336

How well do tall tower measurements characterize the CO2 mole fraction distribution in the planetary boundary layer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary boundary layer (PBL) CO2 mole fraction data are needed by transport models and carbon budget models as both input and reference for validation. The height of in situ CO2 mole fraction measurements is usually different from that of the model levels where the data are needed; data from short towers, in particular, are difficult to utilize in atmospheric models that do not simulate the surface layer well. Tall tower CO2 mole fraction measurements observed at heights ranging from 10 to 115 m a.g.l. at a rural site in Hungary and regular airborne vertical mole fraction profile measurements (136 vertical profiles) above the tower allowed us to estimate how well a tower of a given height could estimate the CO2 mole fraction above the tower in the PBL. The statistical evaluation of the height-dependent bias between the real PBL CO2 mole fraction profile (measured by the aircraft) and the measurement at a given elevation above the ground was performed separately for the summer and winter half years to take into account the different dynamics of the lower troposphere and the different surface CO2 flux in the different seasons. The paper presents: (1) how accurately the vertical distribution of CO2 in the PBL can be estimated from the measurements on the top of a tower of height H, (2) how tall a tower would be needed for the satisfaction of different requirements on the accuracy of the estimation of the CO2 vertical distribution, (3) how accurate a CO2 vertical distribution estimation can be expected from the existing towers; and (4) how much improvement can be achieved in the accuracy of the estimation of CO2 vertical distribution applying the virtual tall tower concept.

Haszpra, L.; Barcza, Z.; Haszpra, T.; Pátkai, Z.; Davis, K. J.

2014-12-01

337

High-level IGF1R expression is required for leukemia-initiating cell activity in T-ALL and is supported by Notch signaling  

PubMed Central

T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer of immature T cells that often shows aberrant activation of Notch1 and PI3K–Akt pathways. Although mutations that activate PI3K–Akt signaling have previously been identified, the relative contribution of growth factor-dependent activation is unclear. We show here that pharmacologic inhibition or genetic deletion of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) blocks the growth and viability of T-ALL cells, whereas moderate diminution of IGF1R signaling compromises leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) activity as defined by transplantability in syngeneic/congenic secondary recipients. Furthermore, IGF1R is a Notch1 target, and Notch1 signaling is required to maintain IGF1R expression at high levels in T-ALL cells. These findings suggest effects of Notch on LIC activity may be mediated in part by enhancing the responsiveness of T-ALL cells to ambient growth factors, and provide strong rationale for use of IGF1R inhibitors to improve initial response to therapy and to achieve long-term cure of patients with T-ALL. PMID:21807868

Gusscott, Samuel; Wang, Hongfang; Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Wai, Carol; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Trumpp, Andreas; Pflumio, Francoise; Carboni, Joan; Gottardis, Marco; Pollak, Michael; Kung, Andrew L.; Aster, Jon C.; Holzenberger, Martin

2011-01-01

338

Evaluation of archaeological site potential on the Tall al-Kharrar area (Jordan) using magnetic and resistivity methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic and resistivity geophysical surveys were conducted over the Tall al-Kharrar archaeological site, at Wadi al-Kharrar, east of Jordan River, Jordan. The objective of the survey was to (1) map buried structures; (2) locate buried artifacts; (3) identify target zones quickly, thereby reducing the required amount of costly excavations; and (4) evaluate the applicability of geophysics to the archaeological study of historic sites in Jordan. Measurements of the total magnetic field and pole-dipole resistivity surveys yielded anomalies, which are associated with walls, floors, mosaic floors with ornaments, iron construction tools, channels, and a church abattoir.

Batayneh, Awni; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Tobasi, Ula; Haddadin, George

2001-11-01

339

Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.  

PubMed

Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids. PMID:16395464

Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

2006-01-01

340

Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting future terrestrial methane fluxes for constraining future atmospheric methane growth rates, a clear need exists to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties. In 2010, an Ameriflux tower (US-PFa) near Park Falls, WI, USA, was instrumented with closed-path methane flux measurements at 122 m above ground in a mixed wetland–upland landscape representative of the Great Lakes region. Two years of flux observations revealed an average annual methane (CH4) efflux of 785 ± 75 mg CCH4 m?2 yr?1, compared to a mean CO2 sink of ?80 g CCO2 m?2 yr?1, a ratio of 1% in magnitude on a mole basis. Interannual variability in methane flux was 30% of the mean flux and driven by suppression of methane emissions during dry conditions in late summer 2012. Though relatively small, the magnitude of the methane source from the very tall tower measurements was mostly within the range previously measured using static chambers at nearby wetlands, but larger than a simple scaling of those fluxes to the tower footprint. Seasonal patterns in methane fluxes were similar to those simulated in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), but magnitude depends on model parameterization and input data, especially regarding wetland extent. The model was unable to simulate short-term (sub-weekly) variability. Temperature was found to be a stronger driver of regional CH4flux than moisture availability or net ecosystem production at the daily to monthly scale. Taken together, these results emphasize the multi-timescale dependence of drivers of regional methane flux and the importance of long, continuous time series for their characterization.

Desai, Ankur R.; Xu, Ke; Tian, Hanqin; Weishampel, Peter; Thom, Jonthan; Baumann, Daniel D.; Andrews, Arlyn E; Cook, Bruce D.; King, Jennifer Y; Kolka, Randall

2015-01-01

341

RI&E Nano particles*) Carried out by  

E-print Network

1 RI&E Nano particles*) Carried out by: Faculty: CTW/EWI/TNW Department: 1. Information Nano characteristics of nano material (or parent material) **) Carcinogenic Mutagenic Reprotoxic Density (kg/dm3 ) kg/dm3 State of aggregation of the nano material Liquid Solid 2. Health hazard nano material Danger

Twente, Universiteit

342

The Nano-Micro Interface Bridging the Micro  

E-print Network

The Nano-Micro Interface Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds. Edited by Hans-Jörg Fecht and Matthias- tion among researchers. The book The Nano-Micro Interface: Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds fills one of these gaps. More specifically, this book, as its subtitle indicates, bridges the micro and nano worlds

Cao, Guozhong

343

Pyroelectric nano-rods grown inside alumina nano-pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the formation and properties of nano-composite pyroelectric thin films. They consist of pyroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS) single-crystal nano-rods grown inside a highly dense array of alumina pores (about 65 nm diameter and density of 1011 cm -2). The nucleation and growth of the TGS single crystals are obtained by precipitation from a supersaturated aqueous solution. Nucleation is preferred only at the bottom of the pores due to a tight control of temperature, composition and pore diameter. Growth of single crystals with preferred crystallographic orientation is obtained with the aid of an applied electric field. Various crystallographic orientations (1 0 0) (-1 1 0) (-1 2 0) are obtained separately as a single preferred orientation by changing the amplitude of the electric field during crystal growth. The films exhibit ferroelectric behavior.

Nitzani, M.; Berger, S.

2007-03-01

344

Modified consecutive modal pushover procedure for seismic investigation of one-way asymmetric-plan tall buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of higher modes and torsion have a significant impact on the seismic responses of asymmetric-plan tall buildings. A consecutive modal pushover (CMP) procedure is one of the pushover methods that have been developed to consider these effects. The aim of this paper is to modify the (CMP) analysis procedure to estimate the seismic demands of one-way asymmetric-plan tall buildings with dual systems. An analysis of 10-, 15- and 20-story asymmetric-plan buildings is carried out, and the results from the modified consecutive modal pushover (MCMP) procedure are compared with those obtained from the modal pushover analysis (MPA) procedure and the nonlinear time history analysis (NLTHA). The MCMP estimates of the seismic demands of one-way asymmetric-plan buildings demonstrate a reasonable accuracy, compared to the results obtained from the NLTHA. Furthermore, the accuracy of the MCMP procedure in the prediction of plastic hinge rotations is better than the MPA procedure. The new pushover procedure is also more accurate than the FEMA load distribution and the MPA procedure.

Khoshnoudian, Faramarz; Kiani, Mahdi

2012-03-01

345

Co-expression of the Arabidopsis SOS genes enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).  

PubMed

Crop productivity is greatly affected by soil salinity; therefore, improvement in salinity tolerance of crops is a major goal in salt-tolerant breeding. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signal-transduction pathway plays a key role in ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Here, we report that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced salt tolerance in tall fescue. The transgenic plants displayed superior growth and accumulated less Na+ and more K+ in roots after 350 mM NaCl treatment. Moreover, Na+ enflux, K+ influx, and Ca2+ influx were higher in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type plants. The activities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and proline content in the transgenic plants were significantly increased; however, the malondialdehyde content decreased in transgenic plants compared to the controls. These results suggested that co-expression of A. thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced the salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue. PMID:24022678

Ma, Dong-Mei; W Xu, Wei-Rong; Li, Hui-Wen; Jin, Feng-Xia; Guo, Ling-Na; Wang, Jing; Da, Hong-Jun; Xu, Xing

2014-01-01

346

Micro/Nano Processing Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course introduces the theory and technology of micro/nano fabrication. Lectures and laboratory sessions focus on basic processing techniques such as diffusion, oxidation, photolithography, chemical vapor deposition, and more. Through team lab assignments, students are expected to gain an understanding of these processing techniques, and how they are applied in concert to device fabrication. Students enrolled in this course have a unique opportunity to fashion and test micro/nano-devices, using modern techniques and technology.This course features detailed lecture slides in the lecture notes section, along with other lab materials used by students in the course in the labs section. In addition, problem sets with solutions are also provided in the assignments section.

Ruff, Susan

347

Electrical nano-imprint lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel technique called electrical nano-imprint lithography (e-NIL) for topographic and electrostatic patterning of thermoplastic electret films at the nanometer scale. This versatile parallel process consists of simultaneously transferring micro- or nano-patterns from a conductive mold into a thermoplastic electret film and injecting positive or negative electrical charges into the bottom of the imprinted patterns. As proof of concept, we used this e-NIL process to fabricate arrays of 5 ?m and 300 nm wide topographic charged patterns into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films coated on silicon wafers. We demonstrated that these patterned PMMA films, exhibiting thousands of topographically confined and electrostatically active sites, can be used for high-throughput directed assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

Ressier, L.; Palleau, E.; Behar, S.

2012-06-01

348

Synthesis and Characterisation of Nano Lanthana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano sized oxide materials have gained an immense importance due to their unque electrical and magnetic properties. Nano Lanthana has various applications in solide oxide fuel cells, catalytic exhaust gas converters, magnetic data storage, water treatment and also as a nano catalyst. The performance of the nano Lanthana depends on the particle size, morphology, crystalline nature etc which in tern depends on the method of preparation and pre-treatment conditions. In this study nano Lanthana was prepared by using the natural polymer Starch as the template. The effect of reaction condition and concentration of starch on the formation, particle size, crystalline nature, and morphology of nano lanthana was also investigated. The phase composition, crystallinine character and particle size were obtained from XRD. The surface morphology of the prepared sample was investigated by SEM. Elemental analysis using SEM-EDAX confirmed the stochiometry of the sample..

Moothedan, Marymol; Sherly, K. B.

2011-10-01

349

Nano-gel containing thermo-responsive microspheres with fast response rate owing to hierarchical phase-transition mechanism.  

PubMed

A new strategy is developed in this study to achieve thermo-responsive microspheres with fast response rates by designing a hierarchical phase-transition mechanism. The proposed thermo-responsive microspheres are composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNA) microsphere matrixes and embedded poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nano-gels, which have different volume phase-transition temperatures (VPTTs). The VPTT of PNIPAM nano-gels (VPTT(1)) is lower than that of PNA microsphere matrixes (VPTT(2)). Upon heating-up, the temperature increases across the VPTT(1) first and then the VPTT(2), as a result the PNIPAM nano-gels shrink earlier than the PNA microsphere matrixes. Upon cooling-down, the temperature decreases across the VPTT(2) first and then the VPTT(1), as a result the PNA microsphere matrixes swell earlier than the PNIPAM nano-gels. Consequently, large amounts of voids and channels form around the nano-gels inside the microsphere matrixes when the temperature changes across the range between VPTT(1) and VPTT(2), which are beneficial to the enhancement of water transport rate inside the microsphere matrixes. The experimental results show that, compared with normal homogeneous PNA (N-PNA) microspheres, the nano-gel containing PNA (C-PNA) microspheres exhibit remarkably fast response rate due to the hierarchical phase-transition mechanism attributed to different VPTT values of the embedded nano-gels and the microsphere matrixes. PMID:22542479

Yue, Li-Li; Xie, Rui; Wei, Jie; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Wei; Chu, Liang-Yin

2012-07-01

350

Graphene nano-ribbon electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated graphene nano-ribbon field-effect transistor devices and investigated their electrical properties as a function of ribbon width. Our experiments show that the resistivity of a ribbon increases as its width decreases, indicating the impact of edge states. Analysis of temperature-dependent measurements suggests a finite quantum confinement gap opening in narrow ribbons. The electrical current noise of the graphene

Zhihong Chen; Yu-Ming Lin; Michael J. Rooks; Phaedon Avouris

2007-01-01

351

3-D nano-fiber manufacturing by controlled pulling of liquid polymers using nano-probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-addition to the applications of imaging and characterization, proximal probes are proposed to be used three-dimensional (3-D) nano-scale manufacturing tools in this paper. Commercially available Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) systems are mainly limited to 1-D or 2-D manipulation tasks, and advanced 3-D nano-manufacturing applications are not possible. Therefore, this paper proposes 3-D nano-scale manipulation of liquid polymer nano-fibers by using

Amrinder S. Naint; Metin Sittit

2003-01-01

352

Nano-Bio Developments in Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-biotechnology (nanobio) is one of the great technological fusions from various different fields. Analysis of biological functions significantly improved because of the recent nanotechnology development. We study this field based on neuroscience. Here we introduce our approach to this field, starting from neural analysis to receptor analysis in order to establish a nano-bio interface. Nano-gap electrode is one of the possible devices for this purpose. Combination of the electrode with receptor protein is investigated.

Torimitsu, Keiichi

353

Nano Lect 1 Questions and Keypoints Key Points  

E-print Network

Nano Lect 1 ­ Questions and Keypoints Key Points 1. What is nano technology: a. Very small technology with device in the 1nm to 100nm lots of useful properties Questions 1. Define nanotechnology. Is an nano

Smy, Tom

354

“Doing” strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most of today's conversations around crafting business strategy center on which strategic framework is most appropriate for a firm, its strategist, or CEO to use. This opinion piece seeks to argue that the focus on frameworks is inappropriate and distracts businesses from crafting holistic and adaptive strategies. To rectify the situation, it aims to offer a more inclusive

Jonathan Pugh; L. Jay Bourgeois III

2011-01-01

355

Fabrication of silica nano/micro-fibers doped with one-dimensional assembly of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nano/micro fibers doped with metal nanocrystals are of great interest both theorectically and practically. Nevertheless, the ordered assembly of metal nanocrystals with desired patterns in nano/micro fibers still remains a big challenge, which constrains the further development of the performance of the material. In this investigation, we propose a facile strategy based on the sol-gel and coaxial electrospinning technique to fabricate silica submicron fibers incorporating ordered 1D array of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles align strictly in a head-to-tail manner in silica fibers, and their size, shape and population are conveniently controlled through tailoring the properties of the precursor solutions and the electrospinning parameters. Therefore, the plasmon property of the obtained fibers is tuned with great freedom. The fabrication method applied here holds great potential for low-cost preparation of metal/glass composite fibers for nano/micro optical applications in general. PMID:23646733

Ma, Zhijun; Dong, Guoping; Peng, Mingying; Tan, Dezhi; Zhang, Liaolin; Qiu, Jianrong

2013-01-01

356

Poly-cyclodextrin and poly-paclitaxel nano-assembly for anticancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective anticancer therapy can be achieved by designing a targeted drug-delivery system with high stability during circulation and efficient uptake by the target tumour cancer cells. We report here a novel nano-assembled drug-delivery system, formed by multivalent host-guest interactions between a polymer-cyclodextrin conjugate and a polymer-paclitaxel conjugate. The multivalent inclusion complexes confer high stability to the nano-assembly, which efficiently delivers paclitaxel into the targeted cancer cells via both passive and active targeting mechanisms. The ester linkages between paclitaxel and the polymer backbone permit efficient release of paclitaxel within the cell by degradation. This novel targeted nano-assembly exhibits significant antitumour activity in a mouse tumour model. The strategy established in this study also provides knowledge for the development of advanced anticancer drug delivery.

Namgung, Ran; Mi Lee, Yeong; Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Yuna; Lee, Byung-Heon; Kim, In-San; Sokkar, Pandian; Rhee, Young Min; Hoffman, Allan S.; Kim, Won Jong

2014-05-01

357

Gibberellins in dark- and red-light-grown shoots of dwarf and tall cultivars of Pisum sativum : The quantification, metabolism and biological activity of gibberellins in Progress no. 9 and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem growth in darkness or in continuous red light of two pea cultivars, Alaska (Le Le, tall) and Progress No. 9 (le le, dwarf), was measured for 13 d. The lengths of the first three internodes in dark-grown seedlings of the two cultivars were similar, substantiating previous literature reports that Progress No. 9 has a tall phenotype in the

V. M. Sponsel

1986-01-01

358

Nano-curcumin inhibits proliferation of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the T cell mediated immune response.  

PubMed

In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it's free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

2013-01-01

359

Nano-Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells and Enhances the T Cell Mediated Immune Response  

PubMed Central

In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it’s free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

2013-01-01

360

Evolution of ZnO nano-crystals grown on a profiled sapphire(0001) substrate with Au nano-crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the structural evolution of ZnO nano-crystals deposited on profiled Au\\/sapphire(0001) substrates by radio frequency sputtering. In contrast to the typical catalytic growth of ZnO nano-crystals with Au seeds, ZnO was initially formed as nano-discs on top of the Au nano-crystals, and their eventual shape became a replica of the cuboctahedral Au nano-crystals. The ZnO nano-discs transformed into

S. H. Seo; Hyon Chol Kang

361

Convergence of goals: phylogenetical, morphological, and physiological characterization of tolerance to drought stress in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to find Iranian tall fescue accessions that tolerate drought stress and investigation on phylogenetical, morphological, and physiological characterization of them. For this propose, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to examine the genetic variability of accessions from different provinces of Iran. Of 21 primers, 20 primers generated highly reproducible fragments. Using these primers, 390 discernible DNA fragments were produced with 367 (93.95 %) being polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.948 to 0.976, with a mean PIC value of 0.969. Probability identity (PI) and discriminating power (D = 1-PI) among the primers ranged from 0.001 to 0.004 and 0.998 to 0.995, respectively. A binary qualitative data matrix was constructed. Data analyses were performed using the NTSYS software and the similarity values were used to generate a dendrogram via UPGMA. To study the drought stress, plants were irrigated at 25 % FC condition for three times. Fresh leaves were collected to measure physiological characters including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities and proline and total chlorophyll content at two times, before and after stress application. Relative water content, fresh and dry weight ratio, survival percentage, and visual quality were evaluated after stress. Morphological and physiological characters were assessed in order to classify accessions as either tolerant or sensitive using Ward's method of Hierarchical cluster analysis in SPSS software. The results of present study demonstrated that the ISSR markers are useful for studying tall fescue genetic diversity. Convergence of morphological and physiological characterizations during drought stress and phylogenetic relationship results showed that accessions can be grouped into four clusters; drought-tolerant accessions that collected from west of Iran, drought-tolerant accessions collected from northwest of Iran, drought semi-tolerant accessions collected from center of Iran, and drought-sensitive accessions collected from north of Iran. Data presented could be used to classify the tall fescue accessions based on suitability of cultivation in the regions studied or the regions with the similar environmental condition. PMID:24078217

Salehi, Mohammadreza; Salehi, Hassan; xNiazi, Hassan; Ghobadi, Cyrus

2014-03-01

362

Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

2010-02-22

363

Growth responses of Kentucky31, Kenhy, and Kenwell tall fescues established under differing rates of wood fiber and hardwood bark mulches on eastern Kentucky surface mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August, 1977 Kentucky-31, Kenwell, and the newly released Kenhy variety of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.) were planted on Falcon Coal Company land in eastern Kentucky to evaluate their establishment and vegetative responses to wood fiber mulch (WFM) and hardwood tree bark. Each of the one-half acre plots were fertilized at a constant rate of four hundred (400)

D. L. Koon; D. H. Graves

1980-01-01

364

Do logging, followed by burning, and wildfire differ in their decadal scale effects on tall open-forest bryophytes and vascular plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been only one time-controlled study, in Canada, comparing the occurrence of bryophyte species in forests regenerating after wildfire with that in those regenerating after logging and regeneration burning. Previous work on vascular plants in Tasmanian tall open-forest dominated by Eucalyptus showed that filmy ferns were less common in areas that had been logged and regeneration burned than in

Perpetua A. M. Turner; J. B. Kirkpatrick

2009-01-01

365

Influence of 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type Alkaloids on the Toxic Effects Associated with Ingestion of Tall Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)in Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current management recommendations for grazing cattle on larkspur-infested ranges are based primarily on the concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids. Delphinium barbeyi is one of the more problematic species of tall larkspur plants due to its high concentration of MLA. However, the most abundant nord...

366

Weaning and Post-Weaning Performance by Fall-Born Beef Calves Weaned on Different Dates in the Spring from Neotyphodium Coenophialum-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] should benefit from early weaning because of reduced exposure to fungal toxins. However, fall-born calves that grazed E+ and were weaned in mid-April had reduced post-weaning perform...

367

Post-weaning performance of fall-born beef steers weaned from endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on different dates in the spring.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weaning fall-born calves grazing tall fescue infected with the toxic wild-type endophyte (E+) prior to early May should reduce exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. Gelbvieh × Angus crossb...

368

A sensitive PCR-based assay to detect Neotyphodium fungi in seed and plant tissue of tall fescue and ryegrass spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Neotyphodium endophytes in seed and plant tissue from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses was developed. Based on DNA mixture tests and bulk seed anal...

369

Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

370

Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS. PMID:23826953

Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

2013-07-01

371

ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Problem 6 Answers How tall must a column of water be in order to balance a column of atmosphere of  

E-print Network

of a column of water = (mass) x (gravity) = (density) x (Area) x (height) x (gravity) = Ahg where is densityATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 ­ Problem 6 Answers How tall must a column of water be in order to balance a column of atmosphere of pressure 1013 mbar? Assume that there is a vacuum above the column of water

Toohey, Darin W.

372

Steer Weight Gain and Physiological Responses to Feeding Soybean Hulls on Toxic Tall Fescue: Dilution of Ergot Alkaloids or Additive Effect on Weight Gain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stocker cattle grazing toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) consume ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte that can lead to the “fescue toxicosis” malady. One approach to alleviating fescue toxicosis is to dilute the alkaloids by interseeding clovers or by feeding concentrates; however...

373

Compositionality and Statistics in Adjective Acquisition: 4-Year-Olds Interpret "Tall" and "Short" Based on the Size Distributions of Novel Noun Referents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments investigated 4-year-olds' understanding of adjective-noun compositionality and their sensitivity to statistics when interpreting scalar adjectives. In Experiments 1 and 2, children selected "tall" and "short" items from 9 novel objects called "pimwits" (1-9 in. in height) or from this array plus 4 taller or shorter distractor…

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2008-01-01

374

Performance and Physiology of Steers Following Grazing of Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls on Pasture and Post-Graze Steroid Implantation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A grazing experiment was conducted for 2 yr using a pasture phase to evaluate effect of feeding soybean hulls (SBH) on weight gain by steers grazing toxic tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)]. To evaluate carryover effects of feeding SBH on pasture and effect of post-graze steroid impla...

375

Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

1985-03-12

376

The Future Can Differ From The Past This is a book of tall claims about evolution: That it can become uncontroversial;  

E-print Network

the study of evolution to biology and a few human-related subjects such as human genetics, physical of evolution when it comes to human affairs. A 1997 article in The Nation titled "The New Creationism: BiologyChapter 1 The Future Can Differ From The Past This is a book of tall claims about evolution

Wilson, David. S.

377

Are tall people at higher risk of low back pain surgery? Discussion on results of the Gazel Authors : Coeuret-Pellicer M, Descatha A, Leclerc A, Zins M.  

E-print Network

1 Title: Are tall people at higher risk of low back pain surgery? Discussion on results : 10.1002/acr.20023 #12;2 Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is a major public health problem because company (EDF-GDF). Data on low back pain and surgery interventions in the whole life were collected

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

MEMS and nano\\/bio technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides rapid commercialization, MEMS is contributing to expand scientific frontiers in nano-scale and bio technology. A pair of probes with 10-50 nm tip radius were micromachined with integrated microactuators. Field emission, tunneling current and atomic transport were investigated in the gap between probes facing each other. The configuration was also applied to obtain nano tweezers that handle DNA molecules. For

Hiroyuki Fujita

2005-01-01

379

Multifunctional carbon nano-paper composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon Nanotube (CNT), for its excellent mechanical, electrical properties and nano size, large special surface physical property, become the most promising material. But carbon nanotube can still fabricated in micro dimension, and can't be made into macro size, so to the carbon nanotube filled composite can't explore the properties of the CNT. Carbon nano-paper is made of pure CNT, with micro pore, and it turn micro sized CNT into macro shaped membrane. Based on the piezo-resistivity and electrical conductivity of the carbon nano-paper, we used the carbon nano-paper as functional layers fabricate functional composite, and studies its strain sensing, composite material deicing and shape memory polymer (SMP) material electric actuation performance. The results shown that the resin can pregnant the nano paper, and there was good bond for nano paper and composite. The functional composite can monitoring the strain with high sensitivity comparing to foil strain gauge. The functional composite can be heated via the carbon nano paper with low power supply and high heating rate. The composite has good deicing and heat actuation performance to composite material. For the good strain sensing, electric conductivity and self-heating character of the carbon nano-paper composite, it can be used for self sensing, anti lightning strike and deicing of composite materials in aircrafts and wind turbine blades.

Zhang, Zhichun; Chu, Hetao; Wang, Kuiwen; Liu, Yanjv; Leng, Jinsong

2013-08-01

380

Nano-fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ability to form nano-fibrous structures, a drive to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and form scaffolds that are an artificial extracellular matrix suitable for tissue formation has begun. These nano-fibrous scaffolds attempt to mimic collagen, a natural extracellular matrix component, and could potentially provide a better environment for tissue formation in tissue engineering systems. Three different approaches toward

L. A. Smith; P. X. Ma

2004-01-01

381

Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

Ghannam, T., E-mail: gtalal@hotmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nano-Technology, King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2014-03-31

382

Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

2002-01-01

383

Nano-Particles in Cosmic Plasma Environments  

SciTech Connect

Astronomical observations and in-situ measurements point to the existence of cosmic nano-particles, but in most cases their material composition and structure are not known. Nano-dust interacts differently than larger dust with the cosmic radiation and plasma environment. Its dynamics and behavior upon collision is not well studied.

Mann, Ingrid [School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

2008-09-07

384

Evaluation and comparison of dominant backscattering sources at 10 GHz in two treatments of tall-grass prairie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very-fine-range resolution Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave radar, operating at X-band, was used to evaluate the primary backscattering contributors to the radar signal from a tall-grass prairie. Defoliation was used to help measure relative backscatter from various components of the canopy with both linear polarizations and at 30 deg and 50 deg incidence angles. Variation of the average returned power with incidence angle was greatest for the natural prairie at horizontal polarization and was the least for vertical polarization. Vertical polarization seemed to be more sensitive to the upper portions of the plants, whereas horizontal polarization was to the lower portions. Attenuation for horizontal polarization was only half that for vertical polarization. Dielectric measurements of the grass and some of the canopy components were conducted as well.

Zoughi, Reza; Bredow, J.; Moore, R. K.

1987-01-01

385

Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

1990-01-01

386

A novel homozygous mutation in FGFR3 causes tall stature, severe lateral tibial deviation, scoliosis, hearing impairment, camptodactyly, and arachnodactyly.  

PubMed

Most reported mutations in the FGFR3 gene are dominant activating mutations that cause a variety of short-limbed bone dysplasias including achondroplasia and syndromic craniosynostosis. We report the phenotype and underlying molecular abnormality in two brothers, born to first cousin parents. The clinical picture is characterized by tall stature and severe skeletal abnormalities leading to inability to walk, with camptodactyly, arachnodactyly, and scoliosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous novel missense mutation in the FGFR3 gene in exon 12 (NM_000142.4:c.1637C>A: p.(Thr546Lys)). The variant is found in the kinase domain of the protein and is predicted to be pathogenic. It is located near a known hotspot for hypochondroplasia. This is the first report of a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in FGFR3 in human that results in a skeletal overgrowth syndrome. PMID:24864036

Makrythanasis, Periklis; Temtamy, Samia; Aglan, Mona S; Otaify, Ghada A; Hamamy, Hanan; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

2014-08-01

387

Can seasonal and interannual variation in landscape CO2 fluxes be detected by atmospheric observations of CO2 concentrations made at a tall tower?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model has been coupled to the Soil Plant Atmosphere (SPA) terrestrial ecosystem model, hereafter known as WRF-SPA. SPA generates realistic land-atmosphere exchanges through fully coupled hydrological, carbon and energy cycles. Here we have used WRF-SPA to investigate regional scale observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations made over a multi-annual period from a tall tower in Scotland. WRF-SPA realistically models both seasonal and daily cycles, predicting CO2 at the tall tower (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 3.5 ppm, bias = 0.58 ppm), indicating realistic transport, and appropriate source sink distribution and magnitude of CO2 exchange. We have highlighted a consistent post harvest increase in model-observation residuals in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This increase in model-observation residuals post harvest is likely related to a lack of an appropriate representation of uncultivated components (~ 36% of agricultural holding in Scotland) of agricultural land (e.g., hedgerows and forest patches) which continue to photosynthesise after the crop has been harvested. Through the use of ecosystem specific CO2 tracers we have shown that tall tower observations here do not detect a representative fraction of Scotland's ecosystem CO2 uptake. Cropland CO2 uptake is the dominant ecosystem signal detected at the tall tower, consistent with the dominance of cropland in the area surrounding the tower. However cropland is over-represented in the atmospheric CO2 concentrations simulated to be at the tall tower, relative to the simulated surface cropland CO2 uptake. Observations made at the tall tower were able to detect seasonal variation in ecosystem CO2 uptake, however a majority of variation was only detected for croplands. We have found evidence that interannual variation in weather has a greater impact than interannual variation of the simulated land surface CO2 exchange on tall tower observations for the simulated years. This highlights the importance of accurately representing atmospheric transport used within atmospheric inversion models used to estimate terrestrial source/sink distribution and magnitude.

Smallman, T. L.; Williams, M.; Moncrieff, J. B.

2013-08-01

388

NanoSense: Nanoscience Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on concepts from physics, chemistry, and biology, NanoSense units reflect the interdisciplinary nature of nanoscience, emphasize fundamental nanoscience concepts such as size and scale and surface dominance of reactions, and explore applications of nanoscience and how they could affect society and policy.Each unit includes background materials and directions for the teacher, activities and instructional materials for students, and embedded assessments. Available units include:- Size Matters: Introduction to Nanoscience -- Clear Sunscreen: How Light Interacts with Matter -- Clean Energy: Converting Light into Electricity -- Fine Filters: Filtering Solutions for Clean Water.

2014-01-29

389

Removing traffic emissions from CO2 time series measured at a tall tower using mobile measurements and transport modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO/CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values ranging from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

Schmidt, Andres; Rella, Chris W.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Law, Beverly E.

2014-11-01

390

Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

2009-08-24

391

Vacuum nano-hole array embedded organic light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics.We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The contents include details about the FDTD modeling, PL specimen fabrication, OLED device fabrication, and PL/EL measurement set-up. Further information is provided relating to the NHA substrate as well. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05331h

Jeon, Sohee; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Song, Young Seok; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

2014-02-01

392

Low PKC? expression within the MRD-HR stratum defines a new subgroup of childhood T-ALL with very poor outcome.  

PubMed

Pediatric T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) outcome has improved in the last decades, yet one patient in every four still relapses. Except treatment response and immunophenotype, few markers are reliably prognostic in pediatric T-ALL patients. Aiming to improve T-ALL risk stratification, we investigated a new candidate biomarker with potential prognostic relevance. A phosphoproteomic screening of 98 pediatric T-ALL samples at diagnosis had been performed using the high-throughput Reverse Phase Protein Arrays technique, which led to the identification of PKC?S657 as an activated protein with a broad variation among T-ALL samples. To evaluate PKC? potential as a prognostic biomarker, PKC? expression was analyzed using RQ-PCR in a cohort of 173 patients, representative of ALL2000-ALLR2006 AIEOP study. A threshold of PKC? expression with the highest discrimination for incidence of relapse was identified. Patients with PKC? down-regulation, compared to patients with PKC? levels above the threshold, presented a markedly increased cumulative incidence of relapse (43.8% vs. 10.9%, P<0.001), as well as a worse 4-year overall survival (66% vs. 87.9%, P=0.002) and event-free survival (53.1% vs. 85.2%, P=0.002). In particular, low PKC? expression identified cases with extremely poor outcome within the high-risk minimal residual disease (MRD) stratum, their incidence of relapse being of 69% vs. 15% in the high PKC? levels group. In a multivariate analysis adjusting for main prognostic features, PKC? proved to be an independent prognostic factor related to incidence of relapse. Very high risk patients within the high-risk MRD stratum, identified by PKC? expression, could be proposed for experimental therapeutic protocols. PMID:25026300

Milani, Gloria; Rebora, Paola; Accordi, Benedetta; Galla, Luisa; Bresolin, Silvia; Cazzaniga, Gianni; Buldini, Barbara; Mura, Rossella; Ladogana, Saverio; Giraldi, Eugenia; Conter, Valentino; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

2014-07-30

393

TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-07-27

394

Conserved Role of nanos Proteins in Germ Cell Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, maternally supplied Nanos functions in the migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) into the gonad; in mice, zygotic genes are involved instead. We report the cloning and the functional analyses of nanos2 and nanos3 in mice. These genes are differentially expressed in mouse PGCs. nanos2 is predominantly expressed in male germ cells, and the elimination of this gene

Masayuki Tsuda; Yumiko Sasaoka; Makoto Kiso; Kuniya Abe; Seiki Haraguchi; Satoru Kobayashi; Yumiko Saga

2003-01-01

395

Recent Advances in Nano and Macroscale Control of Hexagonal, Mesoporous Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano- and macroscale control of siliceous MCM-41 type, hexagonal, mesoporous materials are discussed with reference to proposed mechanisms of formation and morphological manipulation. The complex interplay of surfactant silicate chemistry in the numerous synthetic strategies of MCM-41 type materials reported to date are examined. Recent advances in the growth of thin film mesoporous silicates from solid-liquid, air-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces

Mika Lindén; Stefan Schacht; Ferdi Schüth; Allan Steel; Klaus K. Unger

1998-01-01

396

Murine Pten(-/-) T-ALL requires non-redundant PI3K/mTOR and DLL4/Notch1 signals for maintenance and ?c/TCR signals for thymic exit.  

PubMed

T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) commonly display constitutively active PI3K/mTOR and Notch signaling. However, controversy surrounds whether these pathways have independent functions and whether Pten loss is sufficient to generate resistance to Notch inhibition. Here we report that Pten(-/-) T-ALL is sensitive to either PI3K/mTOR or Notch inhibition alone, each pathway controlling distinct downstream signaling events that cannot be rescued by activation of the other pathway, consistent with independent, non-redundant functions. Although many human T-ALLs display constitutively activating Notch1 mutations, primary Pten(-/-) T-ALLs expressed wild-type Notch1 and depended on the Notch ligand DLL4 in vivo. Pten(-/-) T-ALLs with or without ?c/TCR signaling responded similarly to PI3K/mTOR and Notch inhibition, although extended culture in vitro occasionally induced Notch-independent growth. However, unlike the T-ALLs lacking only Pten, eight of 23 Pten(-/-) T-ALLs that also lacked ?c/TCR signaling accumulated Notch1 mutations, suggesting crosstalk between ?c/TCR and Notch signaling. Importantly, we concluded that loss of ?c/TCR signaling also inhibited thymic exit of Pten(-/-) T-ALLs. Our results may be clinically relevant in revealing that Pten loss is not sufficient to engender resistance to Notch inhibition, uncovering a role in T-ALL for ligand-dependent induction of wild-type Notch1, and suggesting that ?c/TCR signaling could be targeted for preventing metastasis. PMID:24384093

Hagenbeek, Thijs J; Wu, Xiumin; Choy, Lisa; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Stinson, Jeremy; Siebel, Christian W; Spits, Hergen

2014-05-01

397

Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased.

Beyler-Çi?il, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Vezir Kahraman, Memet

2014-08-01

398

Nano-Scale Effects in Cylindrical Contacts Sari et al. NANO-SCALE EFFECTS IN THE ADHERENCE, SLIDING  

E-print Network

@coe.neu.edu Abstract The behavior of a nano-scale cylindrical body (e.g. a fiber), lying on a substrate and acted uponNano-Scale Effects in Cylindrical Contacts Sari et al. 1 NANO-SCALE EFFECTS IN THE ADHERENCE to the nano level, adhesion becomes an important issue in this contact problem. Thus this investigation treats

Müftü, Sinan

399

Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems  

E-print Network

1 Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems Patrick James McCluskey, and Joost J. Vlassak Division of Engineering is presented for the combinatorial analysis of complex nano-scale material systems. The parallel nano

400

Validation of routine continuous airborne CO2 observations near the Bialystok Tall Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios have been performed regularly aboard a rental aircraft near Bialystok (53°08' N, 23°09' E), a city in northeastern Poland. Since August 2008, the in situ CO2 measurements have been made by a modified commercially available and fully automated non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer system. The response of the analyzer has been characterized and the CO2 mixing ratio stability of the associated calibration system has been fully tested, which results in an optimal calibration strategy and allows for an accuracy of the CO2 measurements within 0.2 ppm. Besides the in situ measurements, air samples have been collected in glass flasks and analyzed in the laboratory for mixing ratios of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, SF6 and for isotopic ratios of ?13C and ?18O in CO2. To validate the in situ CO2 measurements against reliable discrete flask measurements, we developed weighting functions that mimic the temporal averaging of the flask sampling process. Comparisons between in situ and flask CO2 measurements demonstrate that these weighting functions can compensate for atmospheric variability, and provide an effective method for validating airborne in situ CO2 measurements. In addition, we show the nine-year records of flask CO2 measurements, from which the CO2 increase rates are computed for the 300 m level (1.59 ± 0.21 ppm yr-1) and for the 2500 m level (1.77 ± 0.08 ppm yr-1). The new system, automated since August 2008, has eliminated the need for manual in-flight calibrations, and thus enables an additional vertical profile, 20 km away, to be sampled at no additional cost in terms of flight hours. This sampling strategy provides an opportunity to investigate both temporal and spatial variability on a regular basis.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Katrynski, K.; Jordan, A.; Heimann, M.

2011-11-01

401

Validation of routine continuous airborne CO2 observations near the Bialystok Tall Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios have been performed regularly aboard a rental aircraft near Bialystok (53°08´ N, 23°09´ E), a city in northeastern Poland. Since August 2008, the in situ CO2 measurements have been made by a modified commercially available and fully automated non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer system. The response of the analyzer has been characterized and the CO2 mixing ratio stability of the associated calibration system has been fully tested, which results in an optimal calibration strategy and allows for an accuracy of the CO2 measurements within 0.2 ppm. Besides the in situ measurements, air samples have been collected in glass flasks and analyzed in the laboratory for CO2 and other trace gases. To validate the in situ CO2 measurements against reliable discrete flask measurements, we developed weighting functions that mimic the temporal averaging of the flask sampling process. Comparisons between in situ and flask CO2 measurements demonstrate that these weighting functions can compensate for atmospheric variability, and provide an effective method for validating airborne in situ CO2 measurements. In addition, we show the nine-year records of flask CO2 measurements. The new system, automated since August 2008, has eliminated the need for manual in-flight calibrations, and thus enables an additional vertical profile, 20 km away, to be sampled at no additional cost in terms of flight hours. This sampling strategy provides an opportunity to investigate both temporal and spatial variability on a regular basis.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Katrynski, K.; Jordan, A.; Heimann, M.

2012-04-01

402

Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (<100 C) is also a key to generating these ceramic coatings on the plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (< 90 C) is to take advantage of in-situ precipitated nanoparticles and nanostructures grown from aqueous solution. These nanostructures can be tailored to ceramic film formation and the subsequent microstructure development. In addition, the process provides environment- friendly processing because of the aqueous solution. Low-temperature processing has also shown versatility to generate various nanostructures. The growth of low-dimensional nanostructures (0-D, 1-D) provides a means of enhancing the crystallinity of the solution-prepared films that is of importance for photocatalytic performance. This technology can generate durable, fully functional nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

Cho, Junghyun

2013-01-01

403

NanoSpace - Virtual Amusement Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NanoSpace, a free website developed by the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, was created to increase science literacy utilizing an amusement park. NanoSpace is designed to teach science to elementary and middle school students through more than 25 games and animations that entice kids to learn more about atoms and molecules in NanoSpace. Visitors can try to beat the clock in the Periodic Memory and click-and-drag atoms to construct molecules in "Build `Em." Answer multiple-choice questions in "Who wants to be a Quidecillionaire?," and hope the answer is correct before you fall down to the bottom rung again.

The Molecularium Project

404

Questioning Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief article from the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin the best practices of questioning strategies are explained. The author illustrates the difference between an open and a closed question and provides examples of the five categories of questions that teachers should be asking. A bibliography of additional resources is included for further study.

2012-01-01

405

Effect of nano-structured bioceramic surface on osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering strategies to construct vascularized bone grafts potentially revolutionize the treatment of massive bone loss. The surface topography of the grafts plays critical roles on bone regeneration, while adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) are known for their capability to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis when applied to bone defects. In the present study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramic scaffolds with nanosheet, nanorod, and micro-nano-hybrid (the hybrid of nanorod and microrod) surface topographies on attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors of rat ASCs were systematically investigated. The results showed that the HAp bioceramic scaffolds with the micro-/nano-topography surfaces significantly enhanced cell attachment and viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression levels of osteogenic markers and angiogenic factors of ASCs. More importantly, the biomimetic feature of the hierarchical micro-nano-hybrid surface topography showed the highest stimulatory effect. The activation in Akt signaling pathway was observed in ASCs cultured on HAp bioceramics with nanorod, and micro-nano-hybrid surface topographies. Moreover, these induction effects could be repressed by Akt signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002. Finally, the in vivo bone regeneration results of rat critical-sized calvarial defect models confirmed that the combination of the micro-nano-hybrid surface and ASCs could significantly enhance both osteogenesis and angiogenesis as compared with the control HAp bioceramic scaffold with traditional smooth surface. Our results suggest that HAp bioceramic scaffolds with micro-nano-hybrid surface can act as cell carrier for ASCs, and consequently combine with ASCs to construct vascularized tissue-engineered bone. PMID:25002263

Xia, Lunguo; Lin, Kaili; Jiang, Xinquan; Fang, Bing; Xu, Yuanjin; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zeng, Deliang; Zhang, Maolin; Zhang, Xiuli; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Zhiyuan

2014-10-01

406

Nano-extrusion: A promising tool for continuous manufacturing of solid nano-formulations.  

PubMed

Since more than 40% of today's drugs have low stability, poor solubility and/or limited ability to cross certain biological barriers, new platform technologies are required to address these challenges. This paper describes a novel continuous process that converts a stabilized aqueous nano-suspension into a solid oral formulation in a single step (i.e., the NANEX process) in order to improve the solubility of a model drug (phenytoin). Phenytoin nano-suspensions were prepared via media milling using different stabilizers. A stable nano-suspension was obtained using Tween(®) 80 as a stabilizer. The matrix material (Soluplus(®)) was gravimetrically fed into the hot melt extruder. The suspension was introduced through a side feeding device and mixed with the molten polymer to immediately devolatilize the water in the nano-suspension. Phenytoin nano-crystals were dispersed and embedded in the molten polymer. Investigation of the nano-extrudates via transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the nano-crystals were embedded de-aggregated in the extrudates. Furthermore, no changes in the crystallinity (due to the mechanical and thermal stress) occurred. The dissolution studies confirmed that the prepared nano-extrudates increased the solubility of nano-crystalline phenytoin, regardless of the polymer. Our work demonstrates that NANEX represents a promising new platform technology in the design of novel drug delivery systems to improve drug performance. PMID:25304093

Baumgartner, Ramona; Eitzlmayr, Andreas; Matsko, Nadejda; Tetyczka, Carolin; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

2014-12-30

407

Injectable Nano-Network for Glucose-Mediated Insulin Delivery  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus, a disorder of glucose regulation, is a global burden affecting 366 million people across the world. An artificial “closed-loop” system able to mimic pancreas activity and release insulin in response to glucose level changes has the potential to improve patient compliance and health. Herein we develop a glucose-mediated release strategy for the self-regulated delivery of insulin using an injectable and acid-degradable polymeric network. Formed by electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged dextran nanoparticles loaded with insulin and glucose-specific enzymes, the nanocomposite-based porous architecture can be dissociated and subsequently release insulin in a hyperglycemic state through the catalytic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid. In vitro insulin release can be modulated in a pulsatile profile in response to glucose concentrations. In vivo studies validated that these formulations provided improved glucose control in type 1 diabetic mice subcutaneously administered with a degradable nano-network. A single injection of the developed nano-network facilitated stabilization of the blood glucose levels in the normoglycemic state (<200 mg/dL) for up to 10 days. PMID:23638642

Gu, Zhen; Aimetti, Alex A.; Wang, Qun; Dang, Tram T.; Zhang, Yunlong; Veiseh, Omid; Cheng, Hao; Langer, Robert S.; Anderson, Daniel G.

2014-01-01

408

ENGINEERING NANO- AND MICRO-PARTICLES TO TUNE IMMUNITY  

PubMed Central

The immune system can be a cure or cause of disease, fulfilling a protective role in attacking cancer or pathogenic microbes but also causing tissue destruction in autoimmune disorders. Thus, therapies aimed to amplify or suppress immune reactions are of great interest. However, the complex regulation of the immune system, coupled with the potential systemic side effects associated with traditional systemic drug therapies, has presented a major hurdle for the development of successful immunotherapies,. Recent progress in the design of synthetic micro- and nano-particles that can target drugs, deliver imaging agents, or stimulate immune cells directly through their physical and chemical properties is leading to new approaches to deliver vaccines, promote immune responses against tumors, and suppress autoimmunity. In addition, novel strategies, such as the use of particle-laden immune cells as living targeting agents for drugs, are providing exciting new approaches for immunotherapy. This progress report describes recent advances in the design of micro- and nano-particles in immunotherapies and diagnostics. PMID:22641380

Moon, James J.; Irvine, Darrell J.; Huang, Bonnie

2013-01-01

409

Nano Delivers Big: Designing Molecular Missiles for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Current first-line treatments for most cancers feature a short-list of highly potent and often target-blind interventions, including chemotherapy, radiation, and surgical excision. These treatments wreak considerable havoc upon non-cancerous tissue and organs, resulting in deleterious and sometimes fatal side effects for the patient. In response, this past decade has witnessed the robust emergence of nanoparticles and, more relevantly, nanoparticle drug delivery systems (DDS), widely touted as the panacea of cancer therapeutics. While not a cure, nanoparticle DDS can successfully negotiate the clinical payoff between drug dosage and side effects by encompassing target-specific drug delivery strategies. The expanding library of nanoparticles includes lipoproteins, liposomes, dendrimers, polymers, metal and metal oxide nano-spheres and -rods, and carbon nanotubes, so do the modes of delivery. Importantly, however, the pharmaco-dynamics and –kinetics of these nano-complexes remain an urgent issue and a serious bottleneck in the transition from bench to bedside. This review addresses the rise of nanoparticle DDS platforms for cancer and explores concepts of gene/drug delivery and cytotoxicity in pre-clinical and clinical contexts. PMID:21949900

Patel, Sachin; Bhirde, Ashwin A.; Rusling, James F.; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Patel, Vyomesh

2011-01-01

410

A nano-graphite-DNA hybrid sensor for magnified fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this communication, we present a nano-graphite-DNA hybrid sensor for fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution for the first time. Furthermore, an amplification strategy based on nano-graphite for Hg(2+) detection by using DNase I was demonstrated. The proposed amplified assay was simple and cost-effective with a limit of detection (LOD) for Hg(2+) of 0.5 nM, which was about 20-fold lower than that of traditional unamplified homogeneous assays. We further demonstrated its practical application to detect Hg(2+) in a real sample. PMID:24555179

Wei, Yin; Li, Bianmiao; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

2014-04-01

411

A case study of elementary teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy in relationship to a tall grass prairie restoration project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe seven elementary teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy in relationship to a tall grass prairie restoration project and to explore ways in which the tall grass prairie restoration project for third grade contributed to enhancing educational learning experiences. The research questions were: 1. What are teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy for third grade students? 2. How does the prairie restoration trip contribute to teachers' capacity to teach for environmental literacy of third grade students? 3. What is the pedagogical value of the prairie restoration project? The theoretical frameworks underpinning this study were David Sobel's (1996) model for developmental progression in children's relationships with nature, and the North American Environmental Education Association's (2011) framework for environmental literacy. The first assertion derived from thematic data analysis of interviews, field trip observations, classroom observations, and artifacts was, The participating teachers' visions of environmental literacy for third grade students included components that spanned across a developmentally appropriate progression from cultivating empathy for living things, to fueling discovery of nature, to fostering a sense of responsibility toward the natural world . Components of environmental literacy described by teachers included being at ease in the natural environment, appreciation and respect, wonder and curiosity, awareness and interdependence, sense of agency, responsibility and service, and environmental knowledge. The second assertion stemming from thematic data analysis was, The prairie restoration project and related curriculum have pedagogical value that included and exceeded addressing state science standards. In addition to addressing state science standards identified by teachers, the curriculum related to the prairie restoration project served as an agent of curricular cohesion to integrate a variety of subject areas, developed scientific ways of thinking, provided life experience for children, and fostered authentic learning experiences through concrete connections. It also provided a means to enhance the presence of science and social studies in elementary curriculum. Themes emerging from qualitative data analysis resonated with Sobel's model of progressive stages in children's relationships with nature, and resulted in a tool potentially useful for design of elementary curriculum aimed at developing environmental literacy.

Shume, Teresa Jayne

412

DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction  

SciTech Connect

Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

Oleg Gang

2009-03-25

413

Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

414

DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction  

ScienceCinema

Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

Oleg Gang

2010-01-08

415

Supramolecular nano-stamping : analyzing market potential  

E-print Network

An analysis was carried out on the process of Supramolecular Nano-Stamping (SuNS) in order to determine whether or not the science involved has market potential in the DNA microarray industry. This industry is rapidly ...

DePalma, Christina Maria

2005-01-01

416

University Of Minnesota Minnesota NanoCenter  

E-print Network

.4 Other lab safety procedures .........................................................11 2.5 Lab specific of Lab Safety Plan .........University Of Minnesota Minnesota NanoCenter Laboratory Safety Plan Last Updated: Feb 2013 Table

Weiblen, George D

417

Characterization of Vapor Deposited Nano Structured Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The vapor deposition methods of planar magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation are used to synthesize materials with nano structured morphological features that have ultra-high surface areas with continuous open porosity at the nano scale. These nano structured membranes are used in a variety of fuel cells to provide electrode and catalytic functions. Specifically, stand alone and composite nickel electrodes for use in thin film solid-oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cells are formed by sputter deposition and electron bean evaporation, respectively. Also, a potentially high-performance catalyst material for the direct reformation of hydrocarbon fuels at low temperatures is deposited as a nano structure by the reactive sputtering of a copper-zinc alloy using a partial pressure of oxygen at an elevated substrate temperature.

Jankowski, A; Cherepy, N; Ferreira, J; Hayes, J

2004-03-25

418

Unsaturated polyester nanocomposites filled with nano alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina nanoparticles (60–70 nm) were prepared by the sol–gel technique using citric acid and aluminum nitrate. Casting technique\\u000a was used to make nanocomposites of unsaturated polyester (UPR) and nano alumina. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study\\u000a demonstrated that nano alumina particles were dispersed uniformly in the UPR matrix and agglomeration of particles was found\\u000a at higher filler loading (>5 wt%). The nanocomposites show

R. Baskaran; M. Sarojadevi; C. T. Vijayakumar

2011-01-01

419

Excimer laser processing in nano-technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the emerging field of microelectronics, microrobotics and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) it is often desirable to fabricate sub um order structure of solid surfaces in various materials. Recently with the established technique of laser in science and industry, its application have become diversified in the nano- and micro-processing areas. Excimer laser operating in the u.v. region have been employed in

Y. P. Kathuria

1999-01-01

420

Lipid bilayers on nano-templates  

DOEpatents

A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA); Artyukhin, Alexander B. (Menlo Park, CA); Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Stoeve, Pieter (Davis, CA)

2009-08-04

421

Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

2002-01-01

422

Natural convection of nano-fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Fluids with nano size solid particles suspended in them have been given the name nano-fluid which in recent studies have shown\\u000a tremendous promise as heat transfer fluids. However, before suggesting such fluids for applications a thorough knowledge of\\u000a physical mechanism of heat transfer in such fluids is wanted. The present study deals with one such aspect of natural

Nandy Putra; Wilfried Roetzel; Sarit K. Das

2003-01-01

423

Design methodologies for robust nano-positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a systematic control design and analysis for a two-dimensional nano-positioner. The primary emphasis of the paper is on the robustness of the closed-loop device as these flexure-stage-based, piezoactuated nano-positioners are nonlinear and operate in diverse conditions. To this end, we have used many tools from modern control theory to model devices and to quantify device

Abu Sebastian; Srinivasa M. Salapaka

2005-01-01

424

‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

425

Self-assembly of hybrid structures on nano templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the investigation on the synthesis of hybrid structures on nano-templates. Fabrication of molecular nano-patterns of organic amphiphiles (e.g. fatty acids) by self-assembly has been discussed here, and their application as templates for two-dimensional in situ synthesis of metal soap molecular pattern has been demonstrated. The synthesis of nanoparticle---nanorod hybrid structure represents another effort to achieve hybrid materials. Therefore, methods to create complex inorganic---organic nano---hybrid are provided by this work. AFM disclosed the pattern structures of the self-assembled monolayers as designed nanoscaled patterns. It is observed two pattern periodicities reflecting the head-to-head and head-to-tail molecular assembly tendencies of the fatty acids and their dependence on the molecular structure and chain length, which exhibits a linear increase in the periodicity with an increasing molecular chain length. The investigation on molecular patterns of self-assembled monolayers of metal arachidates on graphite by AFM and FTIR is described. Metal arachidate self-assemblies show similar stripe pattern and periodicities as those of arachidic acid. The monolayer structure is mainly dictated by graphite, while the type of metal ions mainly affects the domain size, shape and regularity. The results of AFM and FTIR are correlated to the Irving-Williams Series, which predicts bond strength of the metal ions to ligands. The spin coated films from binary solutions of nanoparticles and fatty acids with different chain lengths (Even number of carbon, C18--C26), have been used to study the effect of nanoparticles on self-assemble pattern of fatty acids. C18--C22 acids formed uniform nanorods attached and induced by nanoparticles, while the self-assembled stripe patterns of C24 and C26 were unaffected by the presence of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were aligned on C26 monolayer. The seeded nucleation mechanism has been studied by AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and in situ EDS and it is disclosed the confinement effect of nanoparticles and the competition between template effects from nanoparticle and from graphite. This strategy is proven to be universal, and nano-hybrids have been fabricated using different nanoparticle seeds, fatty acids, and solvents.

Wang, Ruomiao

426

The influence of a mulching rotary mower on nutrient cycling, turfgrass quality, thatch, and temperature of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) turf  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF A MULCHING ROTARY MOWER ON NUTRIENT CYCLING' TURFGRASS QUALITY' THATCH& AND TEMPERATURE OF A TALL FESCUE (FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA SCHREB ~ ) TURF A Thesis BY STEVEN DAVID GRIGGS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A... (FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA SCHREB. ) TURF A Thesis BY STEVEN DAVID GRIGGS Approved as to style and content by: James B. Beard C -Chairman of Committee) Garald L. Horst (Co-chairman of Committee) Ronald . ewton (M er) E. C. A. R ead of Department) May...

Griggs, Steven David

1987-01-01

427

Radiated Fields From Lightning Strikes to Tall Structures: Effect of Upward-Connecting Leader and Reflections at the Return Stroke Wavefront  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extension of the engineering return-stroke models for lightning strikes to tall structures that takes into account the presence of possible reflections at the return-stroke wavefront and the presence of an upward-connecting leader is presented. Based on the approach proposed by Shostak et al., closed-form, itera- tive solutions for the current distribution along the channel, and the strike object are

Abbas Mosaddeghi; Farhad Rachidi; Marcos Rubinstein; Fabio Napolitano; Davide Pavanello; Volodymyr O. Shostak; Wasyl Janischewskyj; Markus Nyffeler

2011-01-01

428

Facilitation of plant species richness and endangered species by a tussock grass in a moist tall grassland revealed using hierarchical Bayesian analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we tested the hypothesis that a perennial tussock grass, Ischaemum aristatum var. glaucum, facilitates the species diversity of vegetation and the regeneration of individual native vascular plants in Ukishima Marsh,\\u000a a moist tall grassland of eastern Japan. We analyzed microscale distribution patterns of sympatric plant species in response\\u000a to ground height. Both the species richness of

Zhe WangJun; Jun Nishihiro; Izumi Washitani

429

Determination of gastrodin, p -hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, p -hydroxylbenzaldehyde and vanillin in tall gastrodia tuber by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the separation and determination of gastrodin,p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol,p-hydroxylbenzaldehyde and vanillin in extract of Chinese herbal medicine tall gastrodia tuber (Chinese name: Tianma) was established.\\u000a The chromatographic conditions were optimized by means of computer-assisted method development technique. Dry-Lab software\\u000a was used to model the retention behavior of the compounds as a function of gradient

C. L. Liu; M. C. Liu; P. L. Zhu

2002-01-01

430

DEVELOPMENT OF HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GASTRODIN AND PARA-HYDROXYBENZYL ALCOHOL IN TALL GASTRODIA TUBER ON THE POLYGLYCOL-C8 COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the C8 and C18 reversed phases the polyglycol-C8 bonded phase synthesized in this laboratory exhibits strong retention and different selectivity to hydrophilic solutes. Their characteristic advantages were used to develop a HPLC method for the analysis of the active components, gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, in tall gastrodia tuber. The chromatographic conditions were optimized by means of computer-assisted method

H. Deng; C.-L. Liu; H.-X. Zhang; M.-C. Liu; P.-L. Zhu

2001-01-01

431

Micro/nano-computed tomography technology for quantitative dynamic, multi-scale imaging of morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Tissue morphogenesis and embryonic development are dynamic events challenging to quantify, especially considering the intricate events that happen simultaneously in different locations and time. Micro- and more recently nano-computed tomography (micro/nanoCT) has been used for the past 15 years to characterize large 3D fields of tortuous geometries at high spatial resolution. We and others have advanced micro/nanoCT imaging strategies for quantifying tissue- and organ-level fate changes throughout morphogenesis. Exogenous soft tissue contrast media enables visualization of vascular lumens and tissues via extravasation. Furthermore, the emergence of antigen-specific tissue contrast enables direct quantitative visualization of protein and mRNA expression. Micro-CT X-ray doses appear to be non-embryotoxic, enabling longitudinal imaging studies in live embryos. In this chapter we present established soft tissue contrast protocols for obtaining high-quality micro/nanoCT images and the image processing techniques useful for quantifying anatomical and physiological information from the data sets. PMID:25245686

Gregg, Chelsea L; Recknagel, Andrew K; Butcher, Jonathan T

2015-01-01

432

Key Drivers for the Nano FieldKey Drivers for the Nano Field Imaging is a key enabling technology for the nano field  

E-print Network

Key Drivers for the Nano FieldKey Drivers for the Nano Field · Imaging is a key enabling technology for the nano field: ­ Transmission electron microscope (TEM) 1931 ­ Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 1981 of matter Laboratory for Intelligent Structural Technology University of Michigan Slide #31 8

433

Impacts of waterlogging and salinity on puccinellia ( Puccinellia ciliata ) and tall wheatgrass ( Thinopyrum ponticum ): zonation on saltland with a shallow water-table, plant growth, and Na + and K + concentrations in the leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the causes of zonation on agricultural land affected by secondary salinity between two halophytic grasses,\\u000a puccinellia (Puccinellia ciliata Bor. cv. Menemen) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Z.-W. Liu & R.R.-C. Wang cv. Tyrrell). We hypothesized that the differences in zonation of puccinellia and tall wheatgrass\\u000a were caused primarily by differences in the tolerance of these

Sommer Jenkins; Edward G. Barrett-Lennard; Zed Rengel

2010-01-01

434

Structure of the Notch1-negative regulatory region: implications for normal activation and pathogenic signaling in T-ALL.  

PubMed

Proteolytic resistance of Notch prior to ligand binding depends on the structural integrity of a negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor that immediately precedes the transmembrane segment. The NRR includes the 3 Lin12/Notch repeats and the juxtamembrane heterodimerization domain, the region of Notch1 most frequently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lymphoma (T-ALL). Here, we report the x-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR in its autoinhibited conformation. A key feature of the Notch1 structure that maintains its closed conformation is a conserved hydrophobic plug that sterically occludes the metalloprotease cleavage site. Crystal packing interactions involving a highly conserved, exposed face on the third Lin12/Notch repeat suggest that this site may normally be engaged in intermolecular or intramolecular protein-protein interactions. The majority of known T-ALL-associated point mutations map to residues in the hydrophobic interior of the Notch1 NRR. A novel mutation (H1545P), which alters a residue at the crystal-packing interface, leads to ligand-independent increases in signaling in reporter gene assays despite only mild destabilization of the NRR, suggesting that it releases the autoinhibitory clamp on the heterodimerization domain imposed by the Lin12/Notch repeats. The Notch1 NRR structure should facilitate a search for antibodies or compounds that stabilize the autoinhibited conformation. PMID:19075186

Gordon, Wendy R; Roy, Monideepa; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; Garfinkel, Megan; Mansour, Marc R; Aster, Jon C; Blacklow, Stephen C

2009-04-30

435

Earthquake Resilient Tall Reinforced Concrete Buildings at Near-Fault Sites Using Base Isolation and Rocking Core Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to investigate the seismic response of tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings, designed following current building codes, subjected to pulse type near-fault ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of the ground motion and the higher-modes of response; (2) to determine the characteristics of a base isolation system that results in nominally elastic response of the superstructure of a tall reinforced concrete core wall building at the maximum considered earthquake level of shaking; and (3) to demonstrate that the seismic performance, cost, and constructability of a base-isolated tall reinforced concrete core wall building can be significantly improved by incorporating a rocking core-wall in the design. First, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of tall cantilever wall buildings subjected to pulse type ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the higher-modes of response. Buildings 10, 20, and 40 stories high were designed such that inelastic deformation was concentrated at a single flexural plastic hinge at their base. Using nonlinear response history analysis, the buildings were subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions as well as simple close-form pulses, which represented distinct pulses within the ground motions. Euler-Bernoulli beam models with lumped mass and lumped plasticity were used to model the buildings. Next, this dissertation investigates numerically the seismic response of six seismically base-isolated (BI) 20-story reinforced concrete buildings and compares their response to that of a fixed-base (FB) building with a similar structural system above ground. Located in Berkeley, California, 2 km from the Hayward fault, the buildings are designed with a core wall that provides most of the lateral force resistance above ground. For the BI buildings, the following are investigated: two isolation systems (both implemented below a three-story basement), isolation periods equal to 4, 5, and 6 s, and two levels of flexural strength of the wall. The first isolation system combines tension-resistant friction pendulum bearings and nonlinear fluid viscous dampers (NFVDs); the second combines low-friction tension-resistant cross-linear bearings, lead-rubber bearings, and NFVDs. Finally, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of four 20-story buildings hypothetically located in the San Francisco Bay Area, 0.5 km from the San Andreas fault. One of the four studied buildings is fixed-base (FB), two are base-isolated (BI), and one uses a combination of base isolation and a rocking core wall (BIRW). Above the ground level, a reinforced concrete core wall provides the majority of the lateral force resistance in all four buildings. The FB and BI buildings satisfy requirements of ASCE 7-10. The BI and BIRW buildings use the same isolation system, which combines tension-resistant friction pendulum bearings and nonlinear fluid viscous dampers. The rocking core-wall includes post-tensioning steel, buckling-restrained devices, and at its base is encased in a steel shell to maximize confinement of the concrete core. The total amount of longitudinal steel in the wall of the BIRW building is 0.71 to 0.87 times that used in the BI buildings. Response history two-dimensional analysis is performed, including the vertical components of excitation, for a set of ground motions scaled to the design earthquake and to the maximum considered earthquake (MCE). While the FB building at MCE level of shaking develops inelastic deformations and shear stresses in the wall that may correspond to irreparable damage, the BI and the BIRW buildings experience nominally elastic response of the wall, with floor accelerations and shear forces which are 0.36 to 0.55 times those experienced by the FB building. The response of the four buildings to two historical and two simulated near-fault ground motions is also studied, demonstrating that the BIRW building has the largest de

Calugaru, Vladimir

436

Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue  

PubMed Central

Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH?-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil. PMID:19262862

Forge, T. A.; Bittman, S.; Kowalenko, C. G.

2005-01-01

437

Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)  

SciTech Connect

Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

1993-03-01

438

Cloning and Characterization of a Phragmites australis Phytochelatin Synthase (PaPCS) and Achieving Cd Tolerance in Tall Fescue  

PubMed Central

The production of phytochelatins (PCs) provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS) was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed) on their own (single transformants), or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant). The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation. PMID:25133575

Zhao, Cuizhu; Xu, Jin; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuo; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Fengning

2014-01-01

439

c-Myc inhibition prevents leukemia initiation in mice and impairs the growth of relapsed and induction failure pediatric T-ALL cells.  

PubMed

Although prognosis has improved for children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), 20% to 30% of patients undergo induction failure (IF) or relapse. Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) are hypothesized to be resistant to chemotherapy and to mediate relapse. We and others have shown that Notch1 directly regulates c-Myc, a known regulator of quiescence in stem and progenitor populations, leading us to examine whether c-Myc inhibition results in efficient targeting of T-ALL-initiating cells. We demonstrate that c-Myc suppression by small hairpin RNA or pharmacologic approaches prevents leukemia initiation in mice by eliminating LIC activity. Consistent with its anti-LIC activity in mice, treatment with the BET bromodomain BRD4 inhibitor JQ1 reduces C-MYC expression and inhibits the growth of relapsed and IF pediatric T-ALL samples in vitro. These findings demonstrate a critical role for c-Myc in LIC maintenance and provide evidence that MYC inhibition may be an effective therapy for relapsed/IF T-ALL patients. PMID:24394663

Roderick, Justine E; Tesell, Jessica; Shultz, Leonard D; Brehm, Michael A; Greiner, Dale L; Harris, Marian H; Silverman, Lewis B; Sallan, Stephen E; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Look, A Thomas; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E; Kelliher, Michelle A

2014-02-13

440

Preliminary evaluation of precise inclination sensor and GPS for monitoring full-scale dynamic response of a tall reinforced concrete building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to use different sensors in an integrated manner - GPS, accelerometer, inclination sensor and so on - in order to monitor and identify static, quasi-static and resonant response of tall buildings subjected to wind loading. There are some differences among these sensors with respect to data sampling rate, data quality, and their measurement accuracy. Therefore, using different sensors together for a monitoring project is important because of the complementary nature of each sensor. In this study, the behaviour of a tall reinforced concrete building (30 stories high) under wind load has been monitored using GPS and inclination sensors. This paper assesses the dynamic measurement quality and reliability of inclinometers for building monitoring applications, and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of GPS vis-a-vis the use of inclination sensors for monitoring the dynamic response of tall buildings under wind load. Data collected by these sensors have been analysed in the time and frequency domains. It was found that GPS observations were distorted by multipath caused by a reflecting surface on top of the building. From the analyses in the frequency domain, the 1st mode natural frequencies of the building determined from both sensors agree very well with each other. The discrepancy of this measured 1st mode natural frequency compared to that derived from FEM (Finite Element Model) prediction is 7%.

Yigit, Cemal Ozer; Li, Xiaojing; Inal, Cevat; Ge, Linlin; Yetkin, Mevlut

2010-09-01

441

c-Myc inhibition prevents leukemia initiation in mice and impairs the growth of relapsed and induction failure pediatric T-ALL cells  

PubMed Central

Although prognosis has improved for children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), 20% to 30% of patients undergo induction failure (IF) or relapse. Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) are hypothesized to be resistant to chemotherapy and to mediate relapse. We and others have shown that Notch1 directly regulates c-Myc, a known regulator of quiescence in stem and progenitor populations, leading us to examine whether c-Myc inhibition results in efficient targeting of T-ALL–initiating cells. We demonstrate that c-Myc suppression by small hairpin RNA or pharmacologic approaches prevents leukemia initiation in mice by eliminating LIC activity. Consistent with its anti-LIC activity in mice, treatment with the BET bromodomain BRD4 inhibitor JQ1 reduces C-MYC expression and inhibits the growth of relapsed and IF pediatric T-ALL samples in vitro. These findings demonstrate a critical role for c-Myc in LIC maintenance and provide evidence that MYC inhibition may be an effective therapy for relapsed/IF T-ALL patients. PMID:24394663

Roderick, Justine E.; Tesell, Jessica; Shultz, Leonard D.; Brehm, Michael A.; Greiner, Dale L.; Harris, Marian H.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Look, A. Thomas; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E.

2014-01-01

442

Dynamics and Kinematics of Viral Protein Linear Nano-Actuators for Bio-Nano Robotic Systems  

E-print Network

-373-4121, 617-373-2921, Email: mavro@coe.neu.edu Abstract- Dynamic and kinematic analysis is performed Mechanics). The results of dynamics are fur- ther verified by performing a set of kinematic simulationsDynamics and Kinematics of Viral Protein Linear Nano- Actuators for Bio-Nano Robotic Systems A

Mavroidis, Constantinos

443

Bioinspired synthesis of hierarchically micro/nano-structured CuI tetrahedron and its potential application as adsorbent for Cd(II) with high removal capacity.  

PubMed

An environment friendly bioinspired strategy for synthesizing hierarchically micro/nano-structured CuI tetrahedron has been developed by combining the stabilization and the reduction performances of l-tryptophan together. A possible growth mechanism of such hierarchical tetrahedron is tentatively proposed. Remarkably, such CuI tetrahedron is found to possess high removal capacity for poisonous Cd(II) ions, 136.3mg/g, and ideal reusability. This is ascribed to the hierarchical micro/nano-structure and chemical adsorption mechanism, which shows great advantages over the traditional nano-scaled adsorbents. These interesting results stand out the promising applications of such hierarchically micro/nano-structured materials in environment. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and nanotechnologies for the treatment of contaminated water. PMID:22305599

Gao, Shuyan; Yang, Jianmao; Li, Zhengdao; Jia, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yanli

2012-04-15

444

The Petrography of Meteoritic Nano-Diamonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At least some meteoritic nanodiamonds are likely of presolar origin because of their association with anomalous Xe-HL and Te isotopic components indicative of a supernova (SN) origin. But the abundance of Xe is such that only approx. 1 in 10(exp 6) nano-diamonds contains a Xe atom, and the bulk C-13/C-12 composition of nano-diamond acid residues is chondritic (solar). Therefore, it is possible that a significant fraction of meteoritic nano-diamonds formed within the solar nebula. Nano-diamonds have recently been detected for the first time within the accretion discs of young stars by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). No comparable evidence of nanodiamonds in the interstellar medium has yet been found. We have identified nano-diamonds in acid etched thin-sections of meteorites, polar micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with the goal of determining their distribution as a function of heliocentric distance. (It is assumed the meteorites and the polar micrometeorites are from asteroids at 2-4 AU and at least some of the IDPs are from comets at >50AU). We found that nano-diamonds are heterogeneously distributed throughout carbon-rich meteoritic materials (we identified them in some IDPs and not in others), and that their abundance may actually decrease with heliocentric distance, consistent with the hypothesis that some of them formed within the inner solar system and not in a presolar (SN) environment. In order to gain further insight about the origins of meteoritic nano-diamonds we are currently investigating their distribution in unetched thin-sections. We have examined a chondritic cluster IDP (U220GCA), fragments of the Tagish Lake (CM1) meteorite, and a SN graphite spherule (KE3d8) isolated from the Murchison (CM) meteorite. We selected U220GCA because its nano-diamond abundance (in acid etched thin-sections) appears to be as much as approx. 10X higher than in Murchison matrix, Tagish Lake because it has a higher reported nano-diamond abundance than other carbonaceous chondrites (approx. 3650-4330 ppm), and KE3d8 because it is a carbon spherule with an isotopic composition suggesting that it is a bone fide presolar SN grain.

Dai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.

2003-01-01

445

Rotation Motion of Designed Nano-Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of nano-devices that can generate controllable unidirectional rotation is an important part of nanotechnology. Here, we design a nano-turbine composed of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoblades, which can be driven by fluid flow. Rotation motion of nano-turbine is quantitatively studied by molecular dynamics simulations on this model system. A robust linear relationship is achieved with this nano-turbine between its rotation rate and the fluid flow velocity spanning two orders of magnitude, and this linear relationship remains intact at various temperatures. More interestingly, a striking difference from its macroscopic counterpart is identified: the rotation rate is much smaller (by a factor of ~15) than that of the macroscopic turbine with the same driving flow. This discrepancy is shown to be related to the disruption of water flow at nanoscale, together with the water slippage at graphene surface and the so-called ``dragging effect''. Moreover, counterintuitively, the ratio of ``effective'' driving flow velocity increases as the flow velocity increases, suggesting that the linear dependence on the flow velocity can be more complicated in nature. These findings may serve as a foundation for the further development of rotary nano-devices and should also be helpful for a better understanding of the biological molecular motors.

Li, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Xingfa; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhou, Ruhong

2014-07-01

446

Preparation of nano fluids by mechanical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids are conventional heat transfer fluids that contain nano particles of metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or nanotubes. Nanofluids exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficients compared to the base fluids. This paper presents the procedure for preparing nanofluids consisting of Copper and Aluminium nano powders in base fluids. Copper and Aluminium nano powders were produced by planetary ball wet milling at 300rpm for 50hrs. Toluene was added to ensure wet milling. These powders were characterized in XRD and SEM for their purity, particle size and shape. The XRD results confirmed the final particle sizes of Copper and Aluminium in the nano range. Then the 0.01 gm of nano metal powders was added in 150 ml of double distilled water and magnetic stirring was done at 1500 rpm for 15 minutes. Sodium lauryl sulphate (0.05%) was added in water as surfactant to ensure the stability of the dispersion. Ultrasonication in the 3000 watts bath was done for 10 minutes to enhance the uniform dispersion of metal powders in water. The pH, dynamic viscosity, ionic conductivity and the stability of the fluids were determined for further usage of synthesized nanofluids as coolant during grinding operation.

Boopathy, J.; Pari, R.; Kavitha, M.; Angelo, P. C.

2012-07-01

447

SYLLABUS FINDING NANO 2014 DISCOVERING NANOTECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE IN GERMANY  

E-print Network

SYLLABUS FINDING NANO 2014 DISCOVERING NANOTECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE IN GERMANY 1. Syllabus Nano: Introduction to Nanoelectronics: Science, Nanotechnology, Engineering, and Applications, Cambridge University: Nanophysics and Nanotechnology: An Introduction to Modern Concepts in Nanoscience, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, 2006

448

Carbon nano-relays for low power switching  

E-print Network

In this thesis two unique carbon based nanoelectromechanical switches or carbon nano-relays are demonstrated as a toolkit for investigating NEMs based low power switching. The first is a vertical carbon nano-relay, consisting ...

Milaninia, Kaveh Mehdi

2009-01-01

449

Micro- and nano- scale experimental approach to surface engineer metals  

E-print Network

metals for enhanced surface properties. A micro- and nano- scale experimental approach has been used to achieve these objectives. Novel principles of nano technology are incorporated into the experiments. Friction has the potential to generate sufficient...

Asthana, Pranay

2007-09-17

450

Water adsorption on aggregates of spherical aerosol nano particles  

E-print Network

graphite planer substrate; the result corresponds well with previous simulation work. Adsorption of both noble gas and water onto a single spherical nano particle and aggregates of spherical nano particles has been computed with the developed equation...

Nie, Chu

2005-11-01

451

Peter J. Hesketh Title: Professor, Micro and Nano Engineering  

E-print Network

of Interest Micro and nano engineering and manufacturing Micromachining Sensors Actuators BiosensorsPeter J. Hesketh Title: Professor, Micro and Nano Engineering University Affiliation Georgia at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Professor Hesketh's research interests involve Sensors and Micro

Garmestani, Hamid

452

Integrating Security Solutions to Support nanoCMOS Electronics Research .  

E-print Network

??The UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funded Meeting the Design Challenges of nanoCMOS Electronics (nanoCMOS) is developing a research infrastructure for collaborative… (more)

SINNOTT, RICHARD

2008-01-01

453

Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films  

SciTech Connect

The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

2014-04-24

454

Theranostic Au Cubic Nano-aggregates as Potential Photoacoustic Contrast and Photothermal Therapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

Multifunctional nanostructures combining diagnosis and therapy modalities into one entity have drawn much attention in the biomedical applications. Herein, we report a simple and cost-effective method to synthesize a novel cubic Au nano-aggregates structure with edge-length of 80 nm (Au-80 CNAs), which display strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, excellent water-solubility, good photothermal stability, and high biocompatibility. Under 808 nm laser irradiation for 5 min, the temperature of the solution containing Au-80 CNAs (100 ?g/mL) increased by ~38 °C. The in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that Au-80 CNAs could act as both photothermal therapeutic (PTT) agents and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) contrast agents, indicating that the only one nano-entity of Au-80 CNAs shows great potentials for theranostic applications. Moreover, this facile and cost-effective synthetic method provides a new strategy to prepare stable Au nanomaterials with excellent optical properties for biomedical applications. PMID:24672584

Hu, Juan; Zhu, Xianglong; Li, Hui; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Chi, Xiaoqin; Huang, Guoming; Huang, Dengtong; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaomin; Gao, Jinhao

2014-01-01

455

Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue & PVDF polymer thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

Sankar, M. S. Ravi; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu

2014-04-01

456

Aerosol particle number size distributions and particulate light absorption at the ZOTTO tall tower (Siberia), 2006-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyses aerosol particle number size distributions, particulate absorption at 570 nm wavelength and carbon monoxide (CO) measured between September 2006 and January 2010 at heights of 50 and 300 m at the Zotino Tall Tower Facility (ZOTTO) in Siberia (60.8° N; 89.35° E). Average number, surface and volume concentrations are broadly comparable to former studies covering shorter observation periods. Fits of multiple lognormal distributions yielded three maxima in probability distribution of geometric mean diameters in the Aitken and accumulation size range and a possible secondary maximum in the nucleation size range below 25 nm. The seasonal cycle of particulate absorption shows maximum concentrations in high winter (December) and minimum concentrations in mid-summer (July). The 90th percentile, however, indicates a secondary maximum in July/August that is likely related to forest fires. The strongly combustion derived CO shows a single winter maximum and a late summer minimum, albeit with a considerably smaller seasonal swing than the particle data due to its longer atmospheric lifetime. Total volume and even more so total number show a more complex seasonal variation with maxima in winter, spring, and summer. A cluster analysis of back trajectories and vertical profiles of the pseudo-potential temperature yielded ten clusters with three levels of particle number concentration: Low concentrations in Arctic air masses (400-500 cm-3), mid-level concentrations for zonally advected air masses from westerly directions between 55° and 65° N (600-800 cm-3), and high concentrations for air masses advected from the belt of industrial and population centers in Siberia and Kazakhstan (1200 cm-3). The observational data is representative for large parts of the troposphere over Siberia and might be particularly useful for the validation of global aerosol transport models.

Heintzenberg, J.; Birmili, W.; Otto, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Mayer, J.-C.; Chi, X.; Panov, A.

2011-08-01

457

Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was, therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r = 0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r = 0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I. D.; Su, H.

1992-01-01

458

Three-dimensional propagation characteristics of the upward connecting leaders in six negative tall-object flashes in Guangzhou  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six downward negative flashes terminated on tall structures in Guangzhou are analyzed. The three-dimensional (3-D) lightning channels are reconstructed from dual-station optical observations. For each reconstructed 3-D upward connecting leader (UCL) channel, its 3-D length and speed are calculated. The 3-D length values of the six positive UCLs range from 180 to 818 m. There are 38 3-D speed values which are calculated combining the 3-D UCL channel and the high-speed images for the six UCLs. The 3-D speed values range from 0.8 to 14.3 × 105 m s- 1 and four of them (11%, 4/38) are on the order of 106 m s- 1. For comparison, the corresponding two-dimensional (2-D) parameters are calculated using the single-station high-speed images. The values of the 2-D length and 2-D speed range from 147 to 610 m and 0.3 to 10.6 × 105 m s- 1, respectively. From the statistical analysis, we determine that the average value of the 3-D speed is 1.3 times that of the 2-D speed. When the time is approaching the return stroke (RS), the propagation speed of the UCL is increasing. All of the four 3-D speed values on the order of 106 m s- 1 occur less than 0.2 ms prior to the RS. When the 3-D length is shorter than 300 m, 77% (20/26) of the corresponding 3-D speed values are smaller than 5 × 105 m s- 1. When the 3-D length is longer than 300 m or the UCL tip height is higher than 650 m, all of the corresponding 3-D speed values are faster than 5 × 105 m s- 1.

Gao, Yan; Lu, Weitao; Ma, Ying; Chen, Luwen; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Xu; Zhang, Yijun

2014-11-01

459

Measurement of NOx Fluxes from a Tall Tower in Central London, UK and Comparison with Emissions Inventories.  

PubMed

Direct measurements of NOx concentration and flux were made from a tall tower in central London, UK as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Fast time resolution (10 Hz) NO and NO2 concentrations were measured and combined with fast vertical wind measurements to provide top-down flux estimates using the eddy covariance technique. Measured NOx fluxes were usually positive and ranged from close to zero at night to 2000-8000 ng m(-2) s(-1) during the day. Peak fluxes were usually observed in the morning, coincident with the maximum traffic flow. Measurements of the NOx flux have been scaled and compared to the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) estimate of NOx emission for the measurement footprint. The measurements are on average 80% higher than the NAEI emission inventory for all of London. Observations made in westerly airflow (from parts of London where traffic is a smaller fraction of the NOx source) showed a better agreement on average with the inventory. The observations suggest that the emissions inventory is poorest at estimating NOx when traffic is the dominant source, in this case from an easterly direction from the BT Tower. Agreement between the measurements and the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) are better, due to the more explicit treatment of traffic flow by this more detailed inventory. The flux observations support previous tailpipe observations of higher NOx emitted from the London vehicle diesel fleet than is represented in the NAEI or predicted for several EURO emission control technologies. Higher-than-anticipated vehicle NOx is likely responsible for the significant discrepancies that exist in London between observed NOx and long-term NOx projections. PMID:25494849

Lee, James D; Helfter, Carole; Purvis, Ruth M; Beevers, Sean D; Carslaw, David C; Lewis, Alastair C; Møller, Sarah J; Tremper, Anja; Vaughan, Adam; Nemitz, Eiko G

2015-01-20

460

Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was; therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r=0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r=0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

1991-01-01

461

Improved extraordinary optical transmission though single nano-slit by nano-defocusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have numerically studied the transmission properties of a composite structure consisting of a de-focusing tapered slit and nano-strip. For a fixed wavelength, the dependence of transmission efficiency of light on the structure parameters is demonstrated in detail. we have found that the extraordinary optical transmission through a single tapered metallic nano-slit is enhanced by placing a metallic nano-strip over it, in which tapered slit with large taper angle is used for de-focusing of light and be avoid of Fabry-Perot resonance in straight metallic nano-slit. It is shown that a suitable tapered slit assisted by nano-cavity-antenna can enhance the transmission by about 50% (compared with that in straight slit case). Furthermore, the parameters of the tapered slit (the taper angle and the taper length) hardly change the resonance in the horizontal nano-cavity. The transmission spectrum of the tapered slit can also be tuned by adjusting the taper angle. Such striking characteristic tapered slit has promising applications in designing optical nano-scale device.

Sun, Bin; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Liu; Zhai, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Qiang

2013-12-01

462

Formation of Au nano-patterns on various substrates using simplified nano-transfer printing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For future device applications, fabrication of the metal nano-patterns on various substrates, such as Si wafer, non-planar glass lens and flexible plastic films become important. Among various nano-patterning technologies, nano-transfer print method is one of the simplest techniques to fabricate metal nano-patterns. In nano-transfer printing process, thin Au layer is deposited on flexible PDMS mold, containing surface protrusion patterns, and the Au layer is transferred from PDMS mold to various substrates due to the difference of bonding strength of Au layer to PDMS mold and to the substrate. For effective transfer of Au layer, self-assembled monolayer, which has strong bonding to Au, is deposited on the substrate as a glue layer. In this study, complicated SAM layer coating process was replaced to simple UV/ozone treatment, which can activates the surface and form the -OH radicals. Using simple UV/ozone treatments on both Au and substrate, Au nano-pattern can be successfully transferred to as large as 6 in. diameter Si wafer, without SAM coating process. High fidelity transfer of Au nano-patterns to non-planar glass lens and flexible PET film was also demonstrated.

Kim, Jong-Woo; Yang, Ki-Yeon; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Heon

2008-06-01

463

Microstructure of cement mortar with nano-particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 cement mortars were experimentally studied. The experimental results showed that the compressive and flexural strengths measured at the 7th day and 28th day of the cement mortars mixed with the nano-particles were higher than that of a plain cement mortar. Therefore, it is feasible to add nano-particles to improve the mechanical properties of

Hui Li; Hui-gang Xiao; Jie Yuan; Jinping Ou

2004-01-01

464

Abrasion resistance of concrete containing nano-particles for pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abrasion resistance of concrete containing nano-particles for pavement is experimentally studied. Both nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2 are, respectively, employed to be as the additives. For comparison, the abrasion resistance of plain concrete and the concrete containing polypropylene (PP) fibers is also experimentally studied in this work. The test results indicate that the abrasion resistance of concretes containing nano-particles and PP

Hui Li; Mao-hua Zhang; Jin-ping Ou

2006-01-01

465

Energetic nano-materials: Opportunities for enhanced performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the contribution of nano-materials to the contemporary pyrotechnics science. The breakthroughs in this domain are illustrated by several examples of energetic nano-materials recently studied in our laboratory.The solidification of energetic phases in a porous matrix (Cr2O3) was used to prepare and to stabilize at nano-scale explosive particles. The thermo-chemical behaviour of RDX nano-particles strongly differs from

Denis Spitzer; Marc Comet; Christian Baras; Vincent Pichot; Nelly Piazzon

2010-01-01

466

Marine Strategy 20142019 1 Marine Strategy 20142019  

E-print Network

Marine Strategy 2014­2019 1 Marine Strategy 2014­2019 Providing Australians with marine environmental intelligence for their safety, sustainability, well-being and prosperity. #12;2 Marine Strategy 2014­2019 #12;Marine Strategy 2014­2019 3 Foreword I am pleased to present the Bureau of Meteorology

Greenslade, Diana

467

3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation Gediminas Seniutinas1,2, Lorenzo Rosa*1,2, Gediminas Gervinskas1,2,  

E-print Network

534 3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation Gediminas Seniutinas1,2, Lorenzo Rosa*1-Institut. License and terms: see end of document. Abstract The resputtering of gold films from nano-holes defined of the nano-holes. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano-wells was investigated

Boyer, Edmond

468

Hardness of Electrodeposited Nano-Nickel Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, hardness measurements on nanocrystalline metals were limited to Vickers microhardness and nano-indentation tests, mainly due to sample size/thickness limitations. On the other hand, most industries require hardness values on the Rockwell scale and make extensive use of hardness conversion relationships for various hardness scales. However, hardness conversions currently do not exist for nanocrystalline metals. With recent advances in electrodeposition technology, thicker specimens with a wide range of grain sizes can now be produced. In this study, the relationships between Vickers and Rockwell hardness scales have been developed for such materials. In addition, hardness indentations were used to gain further insight into the work hardening of nanocrystalline and polycrystalline nickel. Vickers microhardness and nano-indentation profiles below large Rockwell indentations showed that polycrystalline nickel exhibited considerable strain hardening, as expected. On the other hand, for nanocrystalline nickel the micro-Vickers and nano-indentations hardness profile showed low strain hardening capacity.

Tang, Bill Tsz Fai

469

K. K. Likharev, IEEE NANO Portland, OR, August 2011  

E-print Network

'll see. -KKL #12;K. K. Likharev, IEEE NANO Portland, OR, August 2011 5 CMOS TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHTS Intel; stopped to be the IC technology driver Still: no good replacement #12;K. K. Likharev, IEEE NANO PortlandK. K. Likharev, IEEE NANO Portland, OR, August 2011 1 NANOELECTRONICS: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

470

Interactive Nano-visualization in Science & Engineering Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project has developed learning resources that include nano-scale science and technology into the high school and introductory college curricula. Resources include an online scanning-probe microscope, a wide range of images and animations illustrating material and chemical properties on the nano-scale, and online learning modules on material science and nano-scale biological science.

Ramakrishna, B. L.

2005-03-16

471

Formation of Nano Wires by Laser Ablation of Graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on preparation of carbon Nano wires by laser ablation of graphite targets using confined geometry in air. Nitrogen laser has been used to provide UV laser beam of wavelength 337 ± 2nm, pulses of duration 15± 1ns and power 1 MW per pulse. Using scanning electron microscopy, reveled that nano dots and nano wires were formed on stainless

Lotfia El Nadi; Magdy M. Omar; Hussein A. Moniem

2007-01-01

472

Formation of Nano Wires by Laser Ablation of Graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on preparation of carbon Nano wires by laser ablation of graphite targets using confined geometry in air. Nitrogen laser has been used to provide UV laser beam of wavelength 337 +\\/- 2nm, pulses of duration 15+\\/- 1ns and power 1 MW per pulse. Using scanning electron microscopy, reveled that nano dots and nano wires were formed on stainless

Lotfia El Nadi; Magdy M. Omar; Hussein A. Moniem

2007-01-01

473

Haptic Simulation for Micro/Nano-Scale Optical Fiber Assembly  

E-print Network

Haptic Simulation for Micro/Nano-Scale Optical Fiber Assembly Qi Luo and Jing Xiao IMI Lab on the modeling and simulation of the optical fiber assembly. In this paper, the interaction forces in the micro/nano for designing leaning- based controller for automated micro/nano-scale optical fiber assembly. I. INTRODUCTION

Xiao, Jing

474

Micro et Nano Physique Cours 1 : les principes de la  

E-print Network

Micro et Nano Physique (MNP) Cours 1 : les principes de la mécanique quantique (approche conceptuelle) #12;Micro et nano physique (MNP)page 1 Pourquoi un cours sur la physique microscopique ? · Une fondamentaux à la base des technologies du numérique #12;Micro et nano physique (MNP)page 2 Organisation de l

Rioul, Olivier

475

Fibers from polypropylene\\/nano carbon fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibers from polypropylene and polypropylene\\/vapor grown nano carbon fiber composite have been spun using conventional melt spinning equipment. At 5wt% nano carbon fiber loading, modulus and compressive strength of polypropylene increased by 50 and 100%, respectively, and the nano carbon fibers exhibited good dispersion in the polypropylene matrix as observed by scanning electron microscopy.

Satish Kumar; Harit Doshi; Mohan Srinivasarao; Jung O Park; David A Schiraldi

2002-01-01

476

Understanding nano-materials from first principles Leeor Kronik  

E-print Network

Understanding nano-materials from first principles Leeor Kronik Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of science, Rehovoth 76100 Nano-sized materials often exhibit exciting new traditional solid-state physics models are applicable to the intermediate nano- size range. As a result, first

Adler, Joan

477

Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Eisa Zarepour1  

E-print Network

Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Catalysis Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub Hassan1 Chun Tung Chou1- searchers are now investigating the viability of nano-scale sensor networks (NSNs), which are formed natural gas to liquid fuel. Given that reliable wireless communi- cation at nano-scale is at very early

New South Wales, University of

478

Defects and Faults in Quantum Cellular Automata at Nano Scale  

E-print Network

Defects and Faults in Quantum Cellular Automata at Nano Scale Mehdi Baradaran Tahoori, Mariam considerable research on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) as a new computing scheme in the nano, quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) not only gives a solution at nano scale, but also it offers a new

479

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES  

E-print Network

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES S. Suresh1 , T.-G. Nieh2 and B.W. Choi2: Mechanical properties; Nano-indentation; Thin films; Copper; Dislocations Introduction Indentation methods films on substrates (e.g., [2,3]) using instrumented indentation. Nano-indentation studies of thin films

Suresh, Subra

480

Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle  

E-print Network

Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle Self-Assembly Chinmay Soman1 the streptavidin-biotin interaction [9] 0078 Nano Res (2009) 2: 78 84 DOI 10.1007/s12274-009-9005-z Research Article #12;79Nano Res (2009) 2: 78 84 are incubated with specific antigens in a physiological buffer

481

Center for Nano and Micro Manufacturing Chemical Hygiene Plan  

E-print Network

Center for Nano and Micro Manufacturing Chemical Hygiene Plan Vers. 12/13 Page 1 Chemical Hygiene and safety information for all members of the Center for Nano-MicroManufacturing (CNM2) laboratory chase) 1268 (Service chase) 1274 Lab work room 1276 (Service chase) #12;Center for Nano and Micro

Woodall, Jerry M.

482

Nano-Spintronics 2010 Spin-Orbit Effects  

E-print Network

Nano-Spintronics 2010 Spin-Orbit Effects in Semiconductors with Reduced Dimensions Thomas Schäpers Institut für Bio- und Nanosysteme (IBN-1) MitgliedderHelmholtz-Gemeinschaft #12;Nano-Spintronic Bad Honnef by a gate (Rashba effect) #12;Nano-Spintronic Bad Honnef, 2010 Institut für Bio- und Nanosysteme (IBN-1

Duisburg-Essen, Universität

483

Self-aligned periodic Ni nano dots embedded in nano-oxide layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ni nano constriction dots embedded in the Ta-nano-oxide layer (NOL) was prepared by the ion beam sputtering (IBS) method. After the various conditions of the oxidations, the structural analyses of the NOL were performed by RHEED, AES and in situ STM/AFM observations. From the current image of the conductive AFM for NOL, the periodically aligned metallic dots with the size around 5-10 nm were successfully observed. The mechanism of the formation of the self-organized aligned Ni nano constriction dots is discussed from the standpoint of the grain size, the crystal orientation, the preferred oxidation of Ta at the diffused interface.

Doi, M.; Izumi, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Miyake, K.; Sahashi, M.

484

Self Assembly of Nano Metric Metallic Particles for Realization of Photonic and Electronic Nano Transistors  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present the self assembly procedure as well as experimental results of a novel method for constructing well defined arrangements of self assembly metallic nano particles into sophisticated nano structures. The self assembly concept is based on focused ion beam (FIB) technology, where metallic nano particles are self assembled due to implantation of positive gallium ions into the insulating material (e.g., silica as in silicon on insulator wafers) that acts as intermediary layer between the substrate and the negatively charge metallic nanoparticles. PMID:20559513

Shahmoon, Asaf; Limon, Ofer; Girshevitz, Olga; Zalevsky, Zeev

2010-01-01

485

Measurement and estimation for density of NaNO2-KNO3NaNO3 ternary molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densities of NaNO2-KNO3-NaNO3 ternary molten salts system were measured by Archimedean law. A method of density estimation was introduced. The result shows that the molar volume is additive in NaNO2-KNO3-NaNO3 ternary molten salts mixtures. According to that, an estimating equation for its density was obtained and it showed good agreement with the experimental data.

Fengguo Liu; Bingliang Gao; Shixing Wang; Zhaowen Wang; Zhongning Shi

2009-01-01

486

Dielectric study of strontium pyrophosphate nano particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrophosphates are essential in all living organisms for normal cellular functioning. Strontium pyrophosphate (Sr2P2O7) nano-particles were synthesize by surfactant mediated approach. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study confirmed the nano-size, the dimensions in the range from 22 nm to 50 nm. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 102 -107 Hz. The variations in dielectric constant (K), dielectric loss (tan?), and a.c. conductivity (?) with frequency of applied field were studied.

Solanki, P. D.; Vasant, S. R.; Tank, K. P.; Joshi, M. J.

2013-06-01

487

Aligning carbon nano fibers using magnetic nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oleic acid coated magnetic nano particles and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) coated carbon nano fibers are suspended in an aqueous medium. Under the application of very low magnetic field (˜500 Oe), the physically adsorbed magnetic nanoparticles with carbon nanofibers are spatially aligned. The external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moment of the particles and consequent body forces align the carbon nanofibers. This alignment is studied using a microscope attached with computer and using a capillary viscometry. This form of orientation may be very useful for various nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

Parmar, Mayur A.; Virpura, Hiral A.; Dave, Vishaka; Patel, Rajesh J.

2014-04-01

488

Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two lectures are aimed to give a practical guide to the use of a general device simulator (PROPHET) available on nanoHUB. PROPHET is a partial differential equation (PDE) solver that offers users the flexibility of integrating new models and equations for their nano-device simulations. The first lecture covers the basics of PROPHET, including the set-up of simulation structures and parameters based on pre-defined PDE systems. The second lecture uses examples to illustrate how to build user-defined PDE systems in PROPHET.

Dutton, Robert

489

Wafer-scale aluminum nano-plasmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, characterization, and optical modeling of aluminum nano-hole arrays are discussed for potential applications in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and surface-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SEFS). In addition, recently-commercialized work on narrow-band, cloaked wire grid polarizers composed of nano-stacked metal and dielectric layers patterned over 200 mm diameter wafers for projection display applications is reviewed. The stacked sub-wavelength nanowire grid results in a narrow-band reduction in reflectance by 1-2 orders of magnitude, which can be tuned throughout the visible spectrum for stray light control.

George, Matthew C.; Nielson, Stew; Petrova, Rumyana; Frasier, James; Gardner, Eric

2014-09-01

490

Nanodevices for studying nano-pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Nano-scaled devices are a promising platform for specific detection of pathological targets, facilitating the analysis of biological tissues in real-time, while improving the diagnostic approaches and the efficacy of therapies. Herein, we review nanodevice approaches, including liposomes, nanoparticles and polymeric nanoassemblies, such as polymeric micelles and vesicles, which can precisely control their structure and functions for specifically interacting with cells and tissues. These systems have been successfully used for the selective delivery of reporter and therapeutic agents to specific tissues with controlled cellular and subcellular targeting of biomolecules and programmed operation inside the body, suggesting a high potential for developing the analysis for nano-pathophysiology. PMID:24993612

Cabral, Horacio; Miyata, Kanjiro; Kishimura, Akihiro

2014-07-01

491

Light transport via nano apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Ebbesen et al. first reported in a now famous paper that a thin metal film perforated with an array of subwavelength-sized holes can transmit much more lig